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Urinary Tract Infection

Anatomy and Physiology

Front view of urinary tract. Your body takes nutrients from food and uses them to maintain all bodily functions including energy and self-repair. After your body has taken what it needs from the food, waste products are left behind in the blood and in the bowel. The urinary system works with the lungs, skin, and intestinesall of which also excrete wastesto keep the chemicals and water in your body balanced. Adults eliminate about a quart and a half of urine each day. The amount depends on many factors, especially the amounts of fluid and food a person consumes and how much fluid is lost through sweat and breathing. Certain types of medications can also affect the amount of urine eliminated. The urinary system removes a type of waste called urea from your blood. Urea is produced when foods containing protein, such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables, are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys. The kidneys are bean-shaped organs about the size of your fists. They are near the middle of the back, just below the rib cage. The kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small blood capillaries, called a glomerulus, and a small tube called a renal tubule. Urea, together with water and other waste substances, forms the urine as it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney. From the kidneys, urine travels down two thin tubes called ureters to the bladder. The ureters are about 8 to 10 inches long. Muscles in the ureter walls constantly tighten and relax to force

urine downward away from the kidneys. If urine is allowed to stand still, or back up, a kidney infection can develop. Small amounts of urine are emptied into the bladder from the ureters about every 10 to 15 seconds. The bladder is a hollow muscular organ shaped like a balloon. It sits in your pelvis and is held in place by ligaments attached to other organs and the pelvic bones. The bladder stores urine until you are ready to go to the bathroom to empty it. It swells into a round shape when it is full and gets smaller when empty. If the urinary system is healthy, the bladder can hold up to 16 ounces (2 cups) of urine comfortably for 2 to 5 hours. Circular muscles called sphincters help keep urine from leaking. The sphincter muscles close tightly like a rubber band around the opening of the bladder into the urethra, the tube that allows urine to pass outside the body. Nerves in the bladder tell you when it is time to urinate, or empty your bladder. As the bladder first fills with urine, you may notice a feeling that you need to urinate. The sensation to urinate becomes stronger as the bladder continues to fill and reaches its limit. At that point, nerves from the bladder send a message to the brain that the bladder is full, and your urge to empty your bladder intensifies. When you urinate, the brain signals the bladder muscles to tighten, squeezing urine out of the bladder. At the same time, the brain signals the sphincter muscles to relax. As these muscles relax, urine exits the bladder through the urethra. When all the signals occur in the correct order, normal urination occurs.

Pathophysiology

Age

Bacteria

Immunocompromise/ bladder dysfunction

E.coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus

Prevents complete emptying of the bladder

Invades the urinary tract

Bacteria stay in the urinary tract

Triggers an Inflammatory response in the lining of the urinary tract

Frequent Voiding, Pain

Irritation in the lining

URINARY TRACT INFECTION

Acute Upper Respiratory Infection


Anatomy and Physiology

The upper respiratory tract is located in the head and neck and consists of the:
y

Nose, Pharynx, Larynx

Nose: Regions of the nose include the external nose and the nasal cavity. Air moves from the nostrils to the back of the nasal cavity where it exits through the posterior nares. The function of the nasal cavity is to clean, warm and dampen the air that enters so that it can travel throughout the body. Regions of the Pharynx: Air moves into the nasal cavity through the nostrils (nasopharynx). The oropharynx opens into the oral cavity which encloses the lips, teeth, cheek, hard and soft palates, tongue and tonsils. Extending from the tip of the epiglottis to the glottis and the esophagus is the laryngopharynx and positioned in the anterior neck is the larynx. Larynx: The larynx is a passageway between the pharynx and the lower airway structures. It is a short tube made up of supportive cartilage, ligaments, muscle and mucosal lining. The supportive cartilage prevents food and drink from entering the larynx while swallowing

Pathophysiology
Age

Lifestyle Hygiene Environment

Bacteria and Viruses

Droplet

Direct hand to hand contact

Aerosol

Enters to the nose by inhaling

Immune Defenses

Hair lining filters and trap some pathogens

Potential invaders

Traps in upper respiratory tract which coats by mucus Junction of the posterior nose to pharynx Impinge to the back of the throat Transport pathogens up to the pharynx

Inflammatory response to immune system

Swelling

Erythema

Increase mucus

Fever

cough

colds

Adenoids and tonsils contain immune cell that respond to pathogens Humoral Immunity and cellular immunity acts to reduce infections throughout the entire respiratory tract

Suboptimal humoral and phagocytic immune

Pathogens resist destruction by a variety of mechanism

Production of toxins proteases

Initial nasopharyngeal infection may spread to adjacent

Sinusitis

Rhinitis

Laryngitis

Pharyngitis

ACUTE RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION

Acute Gastroenteritis

Anatomy and Physiology

Oesophagus The oesophagus is a muscular tube of approximately 25cm in length and 2cm in diameter. It extends from the pharynx to the stomach after passing through an opening in the diaphragm. The wall of the oesophagus is made up of inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of muscle that are supplied by the oesophageal nerve plexus. This nerve plexus surrounds the lower portion of the oesophagus. The oesophagus functions primarily as a transport medium between compartments. Stomach The stomach is a J shaped expanded bag, located just left of the midline between the oesophagus and small intestine. It is divided into four main regions and has two borders called the greater and lesser curvatures. The first section is the cardia which surrounds the cardial orifice where the oesophagus enters the stomach. The fundus is the superior, dilated portion of

the stomach that has contact with the left dome of the diaphragm. The body is the largest section between the fundus and the curved portion of the J. This is where most gastric glands are located and where most mixing of the food occurs. Finally the pylorus is the curved base of the stomach. Gastric contents are expelled into the proximal duodenum via the pyloric sphincter. The inner surface of the stomach is contracted into numerous longitudinal folds called rugae. These allow the stomach to stretch and expand when food enters. The stomach can hold up to 1.5 litres of material. The functions of the stomach include: 1. The short-term storage of ingested food. 2. Mechanical breakdown of food by churning and mixing motions. 3. Chemical digestion of proteins by acids and enzymes. 4. Stomach acid kills bugs and germs. 5. Some absorption of substances such as alcohol. Most of these functions are achieved by the secretion of stomach juices by gastric glands in the body and fundus. Some cells are responsible for secreting acid and others secrete enzymes to break down proteins. Small intestine The small intestine is composed of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. It averages approximately 6m in length, extending from the pyloric sphincter of the stomach to the ileocaecal valve separating the ileum from the caecum. The small intestine is compressed into numerous folds and occupies a large proportion of the abdominal cavity. The duodenum is the proximal C-shaped section that curves around the head of the pancreas. The duodenum serves a mixing function as it combines digestive secretions from the pancreas and liver with the contents expelled from the stomach. The start of the jejunum is marked by a sharp bend, the duodenojejunal flexure. It is in the jejunum where the majority of digestion and absorption occurs. The final portion, the ileum, is the longest segment and empties into the caecum at the ileocaecal junction.

The small intestine performs the majority of digestion and absorption of nutrients. Partly digested food from the stomach is further broken down by enzymes from the pancreas and bile salts from the liver and gallbladder. These secretions enter the duodenum at the Ampulla of Vater. After further digestion, food constituents such as proteins, fats, and carbohydrates are broken down to small building blocks and absorbed into the body's blood stream. The lining of the small intestine is made up of numerous permanent folds called plicae circulares. Each plica has numerous villi (folds of mucosa) and each villus is covered by epithelium with projecting microvilli (brush border). This increases the surface area for absorption by a factor of several hundred. The mucosa of the small intestine contains several specialised cells. Some are responsible for absorption, whilst others secrete digestive enzymes and mucous to protect the intestinal lining from digestive actions. Large intestine The large intestine is horse-shoe shaped and extends around the small intestine like a frame. It consists of the appendix, caecum, ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colon, and the rectum. It has a length of approximately 1.5m and a width of 7.5cm. The caecum is the expanded pouch that receives material from the ileum and starts to compress food products into faecal material. Food then travels along the colon. The wall of the colon is made up of several pouches (haustra) that are held under tension by three thick bands of muscle (taenia coli). The rectum is the final 15cm of the large intestine. It expands to hold faecal matter before it passes through the anorectal canal to the anus. Thick bands of muscle, known as sphincters, control the passage of faeces.

The mucosa of the large intestine lacks villi seen in the small intestine. The mucosal surface is flat with several deep intestinal glands. Numerous goblet cells line the glands that secrete mucous to lubricate faecal matter as it solidifies. The functions of the large intestine can be summarised as:

1. The accumulation of unabsorbed material to form faeces. 2. Some digestion by bacteria. The bacteria are responsible for the formation of intestinal gas. 3. Reabsorption of water, salts, sugar and vitamins. Liver The liver is a large, reddish-brown organ situated in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. It is surrounded by a strong capsule and divided into four lobes namely the right, left, caudate and quadrate lobes. The liver has several important functions. It acts as a mechanical filter by filtering blood that travels from the intestinal system. It detoxifies several metabolites including the breakdown of bilirubin and oestrogen. In addition, the liver has synthetic functions, producing albumin and blood clotting factors. However, its main roles in digestion are in the production of bile and metabolism of nutrients. All nutrients absorbed by the intestines pass through the liver and are processed before traveling to the rest of the body. The bile produced by cells of the liver, enters the intestines at the duodenum. Here, bile salts break down lipids into smaller particles so there is a greater surface area for digestive enzymes to act. Gall bladder The gallbladder is a hollow, pear shaped organ that sits in a depression on the posterior surface of the liver's right lobe. It consists of a fundus, body and neck. It empties via the cystic duct into the biliary duct system. The main functions of the gall bladder are storage and concentration of bile. Bile is a thick fluid that contains enzymes to help dissolve fat in the intestines. Bile is produced by the liver but stored in the gallbladder until it is needed. Bile is released from the gall bladder by contraction of its muscular walls in response to hormone signals from the duodenum in the presence of food.

Pancreas Finally, the pancreas is a lobular, pinkish-grey organ that lies behind the stomach. Its head communicates with the duodenum and its tail extends to the spleen. The organ is approximately

15cm in length with a long, slender body connecting the head and tail segments. The pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions. Endocrine refers to production of hormones which occurs in the Islets of Langerhans. The Islets produce insulin, glucagon and other substances and these are the areas damaged in diabetes mellitus. The exocrine (secretory) portion makes up 80-85% of the pancreas and is the area relevant to the gastrointestinal tract. It is made up of numerous acini (small glands) that secrete contents into ducts which eventually lead to the duodenum. The pancreas secretes fluid rich in carbohydrates and inactive enzymes. Secretion is triggered by the hormones released by the duodenum in the presence of food. Pancreatic enzymes include carbohydrases, lipases, nucleases and proteolytic enzymes that can break down different components of food. These are secreted in an inactive form to prevent digestion of the pancreas itself. The enzymes become active once they reach the duodenum