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2000

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. : - , 2000. 20 .: .

,
, .
, .

, 2000
.., 2000
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.

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.................................................................. 12
6.1. ............. 12
6.2. ........................................... 14
- ....................... 15
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1.

, . , , , , , (trunking).
.
: , (cell). .
, .
.
- ,
. . .
20- ():
;
;
.
1981 .
NMT-450 (Nordic Mobile Telephone) 450 .
- , , , . . , 1985 .,
NMT-450 NMT 900 NMT-900, .
1983 . AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone
Service) 800 . , ,
,
.
1985 . TACS (Total
Access Communications System), AMPS.
ETACS (Enhanced TACS). -
AMPS.
, 80- .:
-450 450 ;
RTMS (Radio Telephone Mobile System)
450 ;
Radiocom-2000 170, 200, 400 ;
NTT 900 .

1-
.
().
(FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access).
()
:
- ;
;

.
:
.
(, ,
) , . .
1982 . (CEPT)
, 26
Group Special Mobile 900 . GSM . GSM 1990 ., 1992 . . ,
, GSM Global System for Mobile Communications.
AMPS , . - ,
. 1988 ., 1990 .
TIA (Telecommunications
Industry Association) IS-54 (IS Interim Standard,
.. ) ,
D-AMPS.
D-AMPS
, IS-54
AMPS, .
, IS-136,
1994 . 1996 . AMPS IS-54, .
GSM, ,
1800 .
.

(), .
GSM-900 1991 . DCS-1800 (Digital Cellular System). 1993 ., 1996 .
GSM-1800.
1800 ,
1900 . D-AMPS ( IS-136). GSM ( GSM-1900 IS-661).
JDC (Japan
Digital Cellular), D-AMPS.
1991 . .
(Time Division Multiple Access TDMA). 1993 .
(Code Division Multiple Access CDMA).
.
D-AMPS
AMPS, CDMA 10 .
TIA CDMA IS-95. 1996 .
, , 1900 .
,
20022005 .

NMT-450, GS AMPS. - NMT-450 GSM, . AMPS D-AMPS .
1991 . ()
NMT-450. ,
NMT-450 .
1994 .
-, AMPS (800 ).
-
D-AMPS.
1996 .
GSM (900 ). GSM
().

GSM ,
, . GSM GSM
, , , .

2.

, ( ) (. 1).

. 1.

, ,
. , , . (), .
.

(), ()
.

.
,

..
. 2. ,
(. 2). ,
, ( ). , .
,
.

( GSM)
(), () (), . 3.

. 3. ()


: ; ; , , . , , 120- ,
60- .

3.
. .
, .
() .
- . 4.

. 4. -

. , .

, (/, ) . ,
,
(software). ,
,
() . , , , .
, :
, , (
).
( Home Location Register, HLR) , , , ,
. .
( Visitor Location Register,
VLR) -, .. ,
, .
(Authentication Center) ( ) .
( Equipment Identity Register)
. ,
, ,
, . , ,
, .
,
. , -.
, , .

4.

, .
.
. .
(. 5).

. 5. -

, .
N
. N
N . N
N .


. -,
.
,
,
.
. (). ,
.

10

5.
(. 6):
;
;
- .

. 6. -

, , .
, , .
- . / . :
- ()
;
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, ;
, , () ,
; , ,
;
.
:
, ;

11

; , ;

, , ,
;
- () ;

; ,
, ; .
.
. , .

6.
6.1.
( multiple access) . :
;
;
;
;
.
.

, ,
,
.
( FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access)
, .
f , (. 7).
FDMA (
) f 10...30 .
FDMA .
TDMA, .

12

( TDMA Time
Division Multiple Access) ,
, FDMA. TDMA , , ..
.
(. 8) ,
.
. 7. (FDMA)
, , . , FDMA TDMA.

TDMA.
TDMA .
TDMA D-AMPS,
GSM . ,
D-AMPS

f = 30 , AMPS,

.
. 8. (TDMA)

(FDMA)
, ( )
( TDD Time Division Duplex).
DECT. ( FDD
Frequency Division Duplex), ..
, .
TDMA . . CDMA.

13

6.2.
( CDMA Code Division Multiple Access) , .
1 (. 9).

. 9. (CDMA)

CDMA , .
, .

.
, .
. 10.
1

+1

-1
+1

-1

+1

-1

+1

-1
+1

-1

2T

. 10. CDMA

14

, CDMA,
( spread spectrum). () . 1 1 .
CDMA, , , .

7.
-
, , () . ,
(. 11). , .
,
, . .
. 120-
(. 12).

. 11.

. 12.

15

, ,
Motorola () ,
. ( . 13), , .
2

7
2

10

5
11

10

8
12

5
12

8
11

. 13.

, GSM 7,2 (36 ),


18
( 12).

,
.
. , , GSM,
/ /I = 9 ,
1718 ,
, , .
D ,
, N
()

D = 3N R ,
R ( , ).
N, , ,
N=

16

F
,
kf

F ;
f =

Fk
, ;
n

Fk ;
n TDMA ;
F
;
f
k .


. 510
. , , (PCS).
. , ,
(, , ..).
.
, . . 14.

. 14.


(PCN), GSM-1900.
1060 .
(, , , ..).

17

8.
, ,
, .
, - . , :
;
;
;
.
()
. , .
.
, , , . (
) , ..
, - .
,
. .
,
, (. 15).
,
,
.

. 15.

18

.
,
.
, ,
.
.
, GSM, DECT ..

9.

- ,
. , .
GSM-900 GSM-1800.

,
, . , ,
XXI .
ISDN (B-ISDN)

, , , ..
, UMTS
( ). . 16.
4:

3:

2:
1:

. 16. UMTS

19

(, , ..).
, (, , ..) 2 / .
UMTS , ,
, , . UMTS 2000 .

(). 13 . 2002 .,
19802010 21702200 2010 .

1. .., .. . .-.: BHV-, 1998. 256 .
2. .., .., .. . .-.:
.- , 1999. 330 .
3. .., .., .., .. . .-.: .- , 1999. 120 .
4. .. 3- . .: , 1998. 164 .
5. .. . .: , 1997. 239 .
6. .., .., .., .. / . .. .: , 1986. 328 .
7. .. / . .. .:
, 1998. 248 .


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