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Osama Hasan

Intern Engineer URUT 3 (Plant 2) Engro Fertilizers

NUST School of Chemical and Materials Engineering

Mentor : Amer Ahmed


Cooling Tower Water Quality Water Borne Problems Improvement Areas Case Studies Conclusion

Cooling Tower
Industrial utility Provides Cooling water stream at ambient temperatures Insights CW air evaporative heat transfer interactions Discharge of unwanted process heat to the atmosphere Challenges Qualitative and quantitative maintenance Minimizing energy and water consumptions

Water flow


CT4 Design Specs

Flow Rate No of Cells CWR T CWS T Wet Bulb Heat Load 48000 m3/hr 13 + 1 44 C 34 C 29 C 4836 MM k cal/h

Counter flow / Induced draught

Make up Blow down Drift Losses Evaporative Losses Filling Nozzle 1500 m3/hr 150 m3/hr 0.01% 1.60% Splash polypropylene

Cooling Tower Chemistry

Cooling Tower Challenges


CT chemistry includes:


Microbial Growth

Identifying sources Controlling phenomena Preventive measures Minimizing effects


pH Conductivity Total hardness Ca hardness Max 600 Mg hardness P-alkalinity 0 M-alkalinity 50 120 Chloride < 120 Ortho Phosphate 3.0 4.8 Total phosphate Organic Phosphate 1.0 1.5 Zinc 0.6 1.5 Dissolved Fe <2 Total Fe Silica TDS < 1200 -1500 Suspended solids Max 25 Turbidity Max 30 Ammonia < 10 Nitrites Nil Nitrates Nil Sulphate Max 600 Free Chlorine 0.5 1.0

min max 7.5 8.2 < 2000 - 2500

Water Quality
Units microS/cm ppm CaCO3 ppm CaCO3 ppm CaCO3 ppm CaCO3 ppm CaCO3 ppm Clppm PO43ppm PO43ppm PO43ppm as Zn ppm Fe2+ ppm Fe2+ ppm SiO22ppm ppm NTU ppm ppm NO3ppm NO2ppm SO42ppm Cl2 Make up 7.80 416 175 120 55 0 166 16 0.07 CWR 8.10 1503 520 350 170 0 88 107 3.56 4.96 1.40 0.73 0.41

250 1 3 48

902 14 16 4 0.22 5.60 458 0

Salt concentrations should remain within given ranges for: Inhibiting corrosion, microbial growth & scaling Efficient heat transfer Optimum COC and operation

NEQS limits the disposal of effluents above the permissible ranges without treatment Required chemical treatment before disposal is done
Parameters Permissible Range

pH 69 Ammonia 40 ppm TSS 200 ppm TDS 3500 ppm COD 150 ppm Grease & Oil 10 ppm Chloride 1000 ppm BOD 80 ppm Iron 8.0 ppm Zinc 5.0 ppm Sulphate 600 ppm Chromium 1.0 ppm Conductivity 2500 micro S/cm2 Temperature increase 3C

Water Borne Problems


Chemistry Return of metal to its original state due to an electrochemical potential between cathode and anode sites Metal ions e.g. Fe

Reduction of ions or oxygen

Ionic migration


Electron migration


Control: Inhibitors passivation film prevents O2 diffusion to metal site Chemisorption; protective filming; reaction

Dosing Zinc and inorganic phosphate (BULAB 9063)
Both anodic and cathodic corrosion protection
Chromates, Orthophosphates Zinc, Polyphosphates,

Zinc (BULAB 9050)

Protection of mild steel piping and equipment in cooling water systems

Synergic Blends: zinc-chromates chromate-polyphosphates chromate-orthophosphate


Chemistry Microorganisms : Algae, Fungi, Bacteria

Microbiological Induced Corrosion (MIC) Deposit Problems

Metabolic poisons; acts rapidly against active cells Surfactants; rupture the cell walls Oxidizing agents; oxidize cell components (Cl, Br)


times in a tower but bacterial concentrations may increase by six

million times during an equal time span

Microbial Growth
Mineral salts may concentrate six

Dosing Bromine oxidizing biocide (BULAB 6041)

Used pH above 7.2

Surfactant (BULAB 3847 )

Prevents growth of Bacteria, Fungi, Algae and Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) Proven effectiveness in ammonia containing cooling waters


will number 281500,000,000 within 2 days. In 3

days the weight of

this progeny would amount to 7000 tons

Microbial Growth

Descendants from a single bacterium

Chemistry Deposits
Mineral scales Corrosion products Particular matter Microbiological mass

Waterborne salts Waterborne foulants Airborne foulants

Dosing Biodispersant (BULAB 8006)
Designed to inhibit slime build up; enhances the effectiveness of microorganism control

Polymer (BLS 9067 )

Controls the precipitation of calcium phosphate & stabilize the Zinc

Phosphonate and Polymer (BULAB 7024)

Controls the precipitation of calcium carbonate and deposition due to silt or other particulate material

Improving Performance


Performance Improvement

Water consumption Chemical dosage

Eco efficient Cost effective Easy operation

Water Conservation


Water Consumption
Reducing blow down Increasing COC Reusing blow down Avoiding water losses
Leaks Splashes Drift losses


Water Consumption


Option 1 Condensate Recycle in Makeup

For deviated condensate recycle from (PCT of Ammonia-3, PCT of Urea-3) conductivities; the effluent must be routed to CT-4 basin rather than in effluent network Any steam condensate must be recovered in tower basin rather than in effluent system


Option 2 Leakages in CT-4

Civil repair at CT-4 is required on immediate basis. About 35 m3 /h of Water is being lost due to losses from the leakages Water loss causes:
Dosing wastage More chemical dosing


Chemicals Conservation


Chemicals Conservation
Chemical free platforms saves money Alternatives:
1. UV radiation 2. Hydrocavitation 3. Radio frequencies


Option 1 Using UV Radiation

Installing UV lights at different headers of CW Network UV will kill most of the microbial entities and substantially reduce the quantity of Hypo dosing in the system Reduced hypo dosing will assist in
Lesser chlorides Less blow down Lesser chemical consumption Reduced load on effluent treatment

Option 2 Using Hydrocavitation

Golden Circle saves water and dollars per year through technology switch. The project has ensured:
Reduced chemical consumption Reduced waste water treatment requirements Water savings more that

8 7 6 5 4 3

8 ML / year

The Golden Circle hydrocavitation system

2 1 0

COC Before After 27

Alternate no. 3: Using Radio Frequency

Nasa Marshal Space Flight Center utilizes radio frequencies to alter the waters scaling tendencies

Cooling System Project Goals:

Increase cycles of concentration to improve water efficiency. Eliminate scale and bio-fouling in the cooling system. Eliminate condenser-side chemicals to reduce operating costs and environmental impacts.


COC = 2 5.7 Water savings: 420,808 gal / 8 month


Reducing Tower Leakages Reducing chemical dosing and moving to chemical free platforms is profitable and environment friendly Project study and technology switch analysis should be initiated for improved performance Potential Outcome Reduced operational cost Eco efficiency Regional leadership in emerging CT technologies


NUST School of Chemical and Materials Engineering
A school of excellence acting as a precursor for research and development within public and private sector. Offers undergraduate programmes in twin disciplines of chemical and materials engineering. Graduate and post graduate programmes in energetics materials and materials and surface engineering. Key research areas include alternate energy, propulsion systems, smart materials, bio materials, polymers and composites.

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