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Reactors in power system

M.G.Morshad / ACM ( Elect.)


Transformer Mtce. Division / TS II

References
1. REPORT

- SYSTEM PLANNING & PROJECT APPRAISAL DIVISION CEA

2. LOAD GENERATION BALANCE REPORT 2010-11 CEA 3. INSTALLED CAPACITY - CEA 4. JOURNAL - TECH NEWS AREVA 5. HV SHUNT REACTOR SECRETS FOR PROTECTION ENGINEERS Zoran Gaji , Birger Hillstrm, Fahrudin Meki ABB Sweden, Vsters, Sweden 6. IEEE Guide for the Protection of Shunt Reactors 7. APPLICATION OF NUMERICAL RELAYS FOR HV SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION Z. Gaji, B. Hillstrm, M. Kockott , ABB Automation Technologies ,Sweden 8. TRANSIENTS DUE TO SWITCHING OF 400 KV SHUNT REACTOR Ivo Uglei, Sandra Hutter University of Zagreb Miroslav Krepela Siemens Boidar Filipovi- Gri Croatian National Electricity Franc Jakl University of Maribor 9. IS 5553 ( Part 2) 1990 10. IS 2026 ( Part 1 & 3) 11. Installation & commissioning of shunt reactor - BHEL

Reactors in power system


REACTORS

Series
REACTOR

Shunt
REACTOR

PURPOSE To reduce short circuit current

PURPOSE To reduce over voltage AREA OF APPLICATION Bus , Lines, Tertiary winging of ICT

AREA OF APPLICATION Tie Lines

Z Z
Acts as inductance and opposes the flow of short circuit current.

Acts as inductive load and reduce high voltage by absorbing MVAR.

Classification of shunt reactors

Shunt Reactors

Dry Type (system voltage Below 72.5 KV)


Delta connected Range below 30 MVAR Connected at the tertiary winding of transformer

Oil immersed Type (system voltage 72.5 KV & above)


Star connected with neutral grounding Range 30 to 300 MVAR Connected at the terminals of transmission line

Air Core Core less Gapped Core

Switch on / off type

Permanently connected type with thyristor controlled

Back ground for installing shunt reactor

Reason for high grid voltage in Southern grid during off peak period As per CEA report

Installed Capacity 44220 MW Peak Load demand 34224 MW Grid voltage lower than rated (Max 0.95PU or 399 KV)

Availability 28450 MW

Grid voltage higher than rated (Max 1.05PU or 441KV)

Off Peak Load demand 13000 MW

11Hrs

15Hrs

22 Hrs

03 Hrs

Effect of high grid voltage

High over voltage cause


Difficulty in regulating load flow through HVDC line Difficulty in synchronization inter grid transmission line instability in generator due to operation of generator in under excitation zone near the pole slip region. Increase in line loss

Present practice to overcome overvoltage situation


Keeping all 64 Nos Reactors (56 Nos Line &8 Nos Bus) are in service during off peak period Switching off all lightly loaded lines

Extract of PGCIL report (2006)


With existing reactors and opening of the lines as per existing practice , the study reports indicate high voltage profile throughout the grid (the voltage ranges between 416 kV and 445 kV). Addition of 15 numbers of reactors of 63 MVAR each is not adequate to control the voltages under acceptable limits even with some of the transmission lines switched off. Even large generating stations like Ramagundam, Neyveli, Vijayawada, Raichur TPS are not able to hold their voltages as these are crossing reactive power absorption limit. As such these stations may also be considered for installation of bus reactors. With 10 more reactors (making it 25 ), the results indicate that when lightly loaded transmission lines are out of service, the voltages at various buses are generally controlled and are less than 420 kV and with the above lines in, the voltages are higher going up to 431 kV. Therefore, it is concluded that provision of large number of reactors are required to control the high voltages situation in the grid.

Calculation of grid reactive power

Formula System Voltage Fault Current level Short Ckt MVA Max Bus voltage Acceptable Bus voltage Skv FkA

Data 420 KV 40 KA

Scc= 1.732 X Skv X FkA 29097 MVA V1 = 441 KV or (441/420) PU V2 = 416 KV or (416/420)PU 1.05 PU 0.99 PU

Total reactive power Sr = Scc{ ( V2 V1)/V1} 1763 MVAR Standard capacity

About 27 numbers of 63 MVAR shunt Nos of reactor required in southern grid to Sr / Sst 27 Nos reactor are required absorb reactive power for bringing down grid voltage from 441 KV to 416 KV during off peak period

Sst

63 MVAR

Recommended location for additional 25 Nos reactors

Advantages of installing reactor


Technical 1. Limited voltage rise on transmission lines at the time of light loads or after load shedding 2. Prevention of self excitation on generator on leading PF load. 3. Reduction of over voltage on sound phases during a line to ground fault. 4. Reduction of switching over voltage due to initial charging of lines.

Commercial 1. Being a capital item, investment on this equipment will be adjusted in the fixed cost portion of tariff so that entire amount ( capital + interest ) will return within the operating period of the reactors.

Basic operating principle

Basic operating principle


1. 2. 3. Initial charging current (i) produces pulsating flux in the coil Induced voltage (e) = L (di / dt) is produced in opposite direction of the coil due to pulsating flux As a result of two opposite voltages current equal to (V-e) / R passes through the coil
Initial charging current.

System Voltage, (V)

Induced Voltage, (e)

Operating current (V-e) / R.

Shunt Reactor acts as inductive load when it is connected to Bus/Line and draws current for active & reactive load. The reactive portion of current creates pulsating flux in the core and the power required for this purpose is known as reactive power (KVAR).
KVAR = Current X system voltage X Sin
Active current (I x Cos ) to active load (KW)

System Voltage
Reactive current (I x Sin ) to reactive load (KVAR)

Op e

ra tin g

The active portion of current causes I2R loss and the power loss due to heating is known as active power (KW).
KW = Current X system voltage X Cos

cu rre

nt (I)

Operating function of shunt reactors

Ir

Iy

Ib

1. Current drawn by each phase =

(System voltage Induced voltage) (Resistance per phase winding)

2. Induced voltage (e) depends upon the construction and magnetization characteristic of the core 3. Shunt reactor is a device with the fixed impedance value. Therefore the individual phase current is directly proportional to the applied phase voltage (i.e. I=U/Z). 4. For balance three phase current (Ir + Iy + Ib = 0), no current flows through the neutral. 5.Only during fault when phase current becomes un balance (Ir + Iy + Ib 0), current less than 1 PU passes through the neutral. It is due to the fact that positive sequence reactance(X1) is more or less equal to zero sequence reactance (x0) in five limbs core configuration (Normally X1/Xo = 0.9). 6. During operation heat is produced as a result of copper loss ( due top I2R) and core Loss ( due to Hysteresis and eddy current) 7. Typical total core & copper loss (KW)= rating of reactor (MVAR) x 0.2% 8. Typical core loss & copper loss = 75% & 25% of total loss respectively

Induced voltage and Magnetizing characteristic of the core

Characteristics of the induced voltage


The magnitude of the inductive voltage (e) developed in the reactor coil due to pulsating flux depends upon 1. Flux density in the core ( Concentration of flux in the core ) 2. Magnetization characteristic of the core ( Ability of the core to produce flux)

1. Flux density in the core


The coil provided with iron core always have higher flux concentration than the coil without core (Air core). As higher concentration of pulsating flux creates higher induced voltage (e) in the coil, iron core is used for higher voltage (> 72.5KV ) Reactor and air core is used for lower voltage (< 72.5KV ) Reactor

Reactor - 72.5 KV and above Star connected with solid / reactor grounding Oil cooled , gapped core Rating 30 to 300 MVAR Directly connected to bus / transmission line

Reactor - Below 72.5 KV Delta connected Air cooled , Air core Rating below 30 MVAR Directly connected to tertiary winding of transformer

2. Magnetization characteristic

VI linearity range

The flux produced by the core remains proportional to the current passes through the coil till the core gets saturated. After saturation of core it can not produce flux further with the increase of current. Because of this magnetic saturation of the core, reactor coil can not develop inductive voltage (e) further. In such condition impedance of the coil becomes lower with respect to the applied voltage and higher current drawn by the winding causing high I2R loss ( heat generation) or earth fault.

Components of Reactor

WTI OTI

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

400KV,1250 Amps OIP HV bushings (3 Nos) 145 KV ,1250 amps neutral bushing (1No) Air cell type conservator tank with silica gel breather Radiator banks (8 Nos) with ONAN type cooling Buchholtz relay, Pressure relief valve and sudden pressure valve for protection Floor mounted marshalling box for providing WTI,OTI and required control circuit for protection Provision of line side and neutral side CT terminals in each phase Two numbers treated earth pit for earthing neutral through steel flat Two number earth grid terminals for earthing reactor tank and other metal structure.

Components of reactor

Five limbed core construction is adopted to achieve high zero


sequence impedance. In addition to the three gapped core limbs with windings, there are two continuous outer return limbs. The two unwound side limbs help in achieving zero sequence impedance approximately equal to the positive sequence impedance

Gapped core construction is preferred for high system voltages over


coreless construction due to the high energy density that can be achieved in gapped core construction

The core sections between consecutive air gaps are moulded in epoxy
resin to prevent movement between individual laminations. The spacers forming the air gaps are blocks of ceramics with a high modules of elasticity and the whole stacking of core modules is cemented together during the assembly to form a solid column without possibility of rocking , or rubbing between individual parts.

The core segments are of radial laminated configuration. The radial


laminations prevent fringing flux from entering flat surfaces of core steel which would result in eddy current overheating and hot spots.

Grading of core according to loss


Loss in Watt / Kg
1.11 0.97 0.89 0.74 0.66 0.57 ZDKH 23 M0H 27 M0H

M4

M5

M6

Hi-B grade

CRGO Steel Strip

Thickness 0.3- 0.5 mm , Flux Density 1.6 Tesla Frequency 50 Hz, Gray colour ,E Carlite insulating laminated core

Interleaved disc winding has been used for rated voltages 220 KV
and above. This type of winding configuration provides better impulse voltage distribution. For lower voltage classes a continuous disc winding or a multi layer helical winding are used.

Vibration in reactor
1. As a result of magnetization of core, a magnetic attraction force (F=107xB2)/8 N / m2) approximately equal to (107x1.62)/8 N/m2 or 104 Ton / m2 is produced in the air gap between the core sections. This force pulsates at double frequency (2 X 50 Hz = 100 Hz) due to sinusoidal flux of frequency 50 Hz. Because of this double frequency pulsating force in the core sections, high vibration and noise is observed in reactor during operation.

2.

3.

To reduce the vibration within the limit ( 200 micron) following measures are taken during construction 1. Air gap are filled with ceramic materials 2.

Earthing of Reactor

To earthing grid

LA

LA

LA

To earthing grid

Treated earth pit

1. Neutral earthing To provide return path for the fault / unbalance


current, the neutral of the reactor is grounded to two separately treated earth pit

2. Tank earthing To avoid heating of tank due to circulation of


eddy current as result of voltage build up on tank due to continuous passing of fractional portion of main flux through it, the potential of the tank is made zero by connecting with earth grid.

3. Steel structure earthing To avoid damaging of steel structure


from lighting strike, entire steel structure is grounded through earth grid.

Cooling of reactor
Approximate heat generation during operation of reactor due to core and copper loss = 0.2% x MVAR rating = 120 KW
Copper loss due to I2R loss is about 25% of total loss i.e. 0.25X120 = 30 KW Core loss due to hysteresis & eddy current is about 75% of total loss i.e. 0.75X120 = 90 KW

The loss of 120 KW is converted to heat

50000 Litre of oil absorb the heat and rise the top oil temperature to maximum 45 Deg C

8 nos radiator banks reduces oil temperature to 15 Deg C by ONAN cooling process.

Significance of parameters
1. Capacity (S) As reactor is used as inductive load which only absorb reactive power, it capacity is given in MVAR .

Rated Voltage Rated Capacity Current ( MVARx100)/ (1.732xKV)

1 PU ( 420 KV) 63 MVAR 86.6 Amps

1.05 PU (441KV) 69.45 MVAR 90.92 Amps

2. Impedance / Positive sequence Impedance (X1) It is the per phase AC resistance of the winding which decides the magnitude of per phase current. X1 = U / I = {420000/(1.732X86.6)} =2800 Ohms 3. Zero sequence Impedance (X0) It is the AC resistance of the neutral path which decides the magnitude of earth fault current through neutral. The value of X0 depends on the construction of core. For five limbs core, the value of X0 lays between 90% and 100% of positive sequence impedance (X1). Therefore X0 = 0.9 . X1 = 0.9 X 2800 =2520 Ohms. Because of high zero sequence impedance earth fault current is restricted within 1 PU 4. Winding resistance (R) It is the per phase DC resistance of the winding which decides copper loss (I2R). Measured winding resistance per phase = ---------------Ohms 5. Total loss It is the total active power consumed by the reactor and converted in to heat. Total loss (core and copper loss) = 110KW 6. Power Factor Cos = 110 / 63000 =
0.17%
A KV 000 630

630000KVAR

110KW

Operation

Position of Bus reactors in ts ii


Tie Line to TS II Expn 400KV Bus Reactor II 400KV Extension Bus

TS II Expansion Gen (2 X 250MW)

Reactor I Power Grid Feeder Tie Line

Stage II Gen (4 X 210MW)

400KV Bus

Power Grid Feeder Power Grid Feeder

ICT

Stage I Gen (3 X 210MW)

230KV Bus

Mines Feeder

State Grid Feeder Tie Line to TS I

voltage compensation methods in power system


Over excitation
to deliver reactive power for increasing terminal voltage

Under excitation
to absorb reactive power for decreasing terminal voltage

Increasing tap
to deliver reactive power for increasing bus voltage Switchyard Bus 395 415KV Delivers reactive power to boost up voltage C A P

Decreasing tap
to absorb reactive power for decreasing terminal voltage

R E C

Absorb reactive power to reduce bus voltage

Capacitive loading 105% Grid Voltage (445KV)

t ren r Cu

Leading MVAR Lagging MVAR

1. Reduce excitation 2. Reduce GT tap 3. Switch on reactor 4. Disconnect lines 5. Reduce Gen load 100% Grid Voltage (420KV)

Cur ren t
Inductive loading

1. Increasing excitation 2. Increase GT tap 3. Switch on Capacitor 4. Reduce gen load 95% Grid Voltage (380KV)

WHENEVER THE BUS VOLTAGE RAISES TO 4%TO 5% MORE THAN THE RATED VOLTAGE, SHUNT REACTOR IS TO BE KEPT IN SERVICE AND 2% TO 3% LESS THAN THE RATED VOLTAGE THIS MAY BE KEPT OUT OF SERVICE.

Behavior of shunt reactor during operation

Switching on of shunt reactor


Typical inrush current 3 to 5.5 times of rated current.

Closing point of BRK for Lowest inrush current . Closing point of BRK for Highest inrush current .

Due to closing of breaker poles in three phases at different point of cycle, unsymmetrical current is developed in three phases which persist for approximately 1 sec As a result of unsymmetrical current, 3rd harmonic current passes through the neutral that may cause spurious tripping on earth fault.

Due to unsymmetrical current, DC off set current is produced which decrease slowly because of low loss in reactor and may cause saturation of CT

waveform of inrush current with dc off set current during switching in

DC Off set current

Wave form of 3rd harmonic current through neutral during Switching in

Typical problem during switching in


One of the principal difficulties with shunt reactor protection scheme is false tripping during reactor energizing. This false tripping typically occurs within some hundreds of millisecond or even 1 to 2 seconds after closing of circuit breaker. It also happens randomly and not with every reactor switching attempt Most of the time, it trips on Restricted Ground Fault protection / Differential Protection / Ground fault protection during switching in

Cause for tripping during switching in


It should be noted that HV shunt reactors are typically switched in and out at least once per day or even more often depending on the power system loading patterns. During switching in of shunt reactor relatively high and long lasting dc current component appears in one or more phases. This current waveform moves the operating point of CT magnetic core on the hysteresis curve in one direction and when the dc component diminish it leaves the main CT with certain level of residual (i.e. remnant) flux. During normal operation reactor current is always around 1pu and therefore of a relatively low magnitude, which is never big enough to move the operating point towards the origin. Therefore when next switching attempt comes, depending on the moment of switching, residual flux in the CT core can increase or decrease. Thus this mechanism will sooner or later cause CT saturation during reactor switch in operation. This CT saturation then causes problems for protective relays, which lose the correct information about the primary current and therefore cause false operation of protective relays.

Switching off
During switching off operation of reactor high transient over voltage is developed due to breaking of inductive current. This switching transients are inversely proportional to the shunt reactor rated power

Typical over voltage in 400 KV reactors * ( Sav Steepness of voltage)

Switching transients overvoltage can be reduced considerably by installing surge reactor and control switching operation i.e switching off during zero crossing. Frequent transients overvoltage due to switching off operation always have the impact on the dielectric life of reactor and breakers.

Electrical faults in shunt reactors

Faults in shunt reactor

Internal fault
Phase to ground fault at line side

External fault

Phase to ground fault

Phase to ground fault at neutral side

Phase to phase short circuit fault

Inter turn short circuit fault Over load due to over voltage and harmonics

Phase to earth fault - out side the reactor

Un balance in phase current

N
Zero seq current (<1 PU)

Shunt reactor is a device with the fixed impedance value. Therefore the individual phase current is directly proportional to the applied phase voltage (i.e. I=U/Z). During external fault voltage of the faulty phase becomes lower than other phases and a result of that unbalance is created in the phase current. Because of unbalance phase current , zero seq. current less than 1 PU passes through the neutral.

Unbalance in phase current due to external earth fault

Low zero sequence current through neutral due to unbalance in the phase current

Phase to earth fault - at the line side

Un balance in phase current N R Y B

Zero seq current

1. Short circuit current flow through the line side faulty phase and causes unbalance in the phase current 2. Zero sequence current typically 1 PU flow through the neutral due to unbalance phase current

Phase to earth fault at the neutral side

Rated current in the line side

Rated current passes through the line side phase

High current passes through neutral side due to transformer action

Turn to turn short

Shunt reactor winding impedance is approximately proportional to the square of the number of active turns. Short circuit between some number of turns will cause the decrease of the winding impedance only in the faulty phase and corresponding small raise of the shunt reactor neutral point current. Currents during turn-to-turn fault are of the small magnitude and they will not produce any sufficient unbalance voltage. Sufficient unbalance voltage is produced only when number of turn-to-turn short is high. In such condition it is possible to detect turn to turn fault with the help of sensitive directional zero seq relay connected on the HV side of the reactor.

Summary protection
CAUSES EFFECTS RESULTS IN PROTECTION ACTUATES

Switching ON

Zero sequence 3rd Restricted Earth fault with time delay Unsymmetrical harmonic current through the neutral inrush current Diff protection Saturation of CT due to slow decaying of DC offset current Transient over High voltage stress on No protection is voltage the dielectric of the recommended for this reactor & circuit purpose. breaker. Lower than rated current through the faulty phase Unbalance in three Line side residual phase line current current protection Low zero sequence Differential protection current ( 1PU) passes through the neutral Line side residual current protection line side over current protection Differential protection

Switching OFF

External phase to ground fault

Internal High current at Unbalance in three phase to line side in the phase line current ground faulty phase Low zero sequence fault at line current ( 1PU) side passes through the neutral

Internal High current at Rated current at line Neutral side over phase to line neutral side phases current protection ground side High current at Differential protection fault at neutral side neutral side Internal As the chance of this fault is very remote due constructional Phase to feature of the reactor , protection for this fault is not phase short recommended. circuit Inter turn fault Low magnitude voltage unbalance Small rise in neutral No protection is side current recommended since the magnitude of fault

Electrical Protection& relay scheme

Reactor protection
PURPOSE OF SHUNT REACTOR PROTECTION The purpose of the protection relaying is to disconnect the reactor and limit damage in case of internal short circuits, earth faults, inter turn faults and over voltage or over load. The reactor forms certain impedance for rated frequency, and as it is shunt connected, as over load may be caused by over voltage or harmonics in voltage and current. PROTECTION DEVICES INBUILT OR MOUNTED ON REACTOR a) Oil immersed reactor usually have a gas detector and oil surge detector (Buchholz alarm & trip devices), which are excellent for detecting internal faults. b) Temperature monitors for oil & winding provide good over load protection. c) Pressure relief device is provided to safe guard the reactor from high pressures.

REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION It is widely used as instantaneous protection for short circuit faults with in the differential zone. this is treated as main-1 protection for reactor. It can be of high impedance type or of a sensitive current stabilized type. High impedance differential protection relays require an equal CT turns ratio on the phase and neutral side. Sensitivity is 5% of nominal reactor CT current. BACK-UP PROTECTION A variety of relays are available a) Over current & earth fault protection. ( 50, 50N, 51, 51N, 67, 67N any combination of these) b. Under impedance / distance ( z<)(21r). c. Neutral displacement protection (un>) RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION If, for some reason, a sensitive differential protection not chosen, a restricted earth fault protection can be utilized.

LINE PROTECTION I, LINE PROTECTION II

CBIP Guidelines on shunt reactor Protection


Reactor Differential protection I) Shall be Triple Pole Type. ii) Have an operating current sensitivity at least 10% of nominal current. iii) Shall be tuned with system frequency. iv) Have an operating time not grater than 30 m sec at 5 times of setting. v) Have a suitable non-linear resistor to limit the peak voltage during in-zone faults in case of high impedance type. vi) Shall be high or low impedance Principle type.

Reactor REF Protection. I) shall be single Pole. ii) Have an operating current sensitivity at least 10% of nominal current. iii) Shall be tuned with system frequency. iv) Have a suitable non-linear resistor to limit the peak voltage during in-zone faults in case of high impedance type. v) Shall be high or low impedance Principle type. vi) Connection of restricted earth fault protection on the neutral side shall be from residually connected Bushing CTs or from the ground side CT.

Reactor Backup Protection (Impedance type) I) Shall be Triple pole type. ii) Shall be single step Polarized MHO or Impedance Distance relay suitable for Measuring Phase to Ground and Phase to Phase to faults. iii) Shall grounds a Characteristic angle between 60-80 deg. iv) Shall have adjustable definite time delay with setting range of 0.2 to 2.0 sec. v) Shall have a suitable range for covering 60% of Reactor impedance. vi) Typical setting : Reach - 60% of Reactor Impedance, Time setting - 1 sec OR Reactor Backup Protection (Definite Time O/L & E/F). i) Shall be single stage Definite Time 3 Pole, Over Current relay with adjustable current and Time. ii) Shall be connected for 2 O/C and 1 E/F connection and shall be non-directional with reset ratio and low Transient Overreach. iii) Typical settings of o/c relays are: Current Setting- 1.3 x Rated current , Time setting - 1 sec

Protection of bus reactor for double bus & transfer bus scheme
Bus I

Bus II

Transfer bus

R E A C T O R I

51N 21 87BB1

87BB2

87U

R E A C T O R II

51N 21 87BB1

87BB2

87U

1. Differential protection
Purpose :Internal / external phase to ground fault.
U1 1s1 V1 1s1 1s2 W1 1s1 1s2 N

Line side CT 1

1s2

DP 87

Neutral side CT 1

1s1 1s2 U2 V2

1s1 1s2 W2

1s1 1s2

CT Specification 1. Ratio: 200/1A 2. Class: PS 3. Knee point voltage: 200V 4. Magnetizing current: 40 mA 5. Secondary resistance: 1 Ohms

Typical Relay connection for Differential protection

Type of relay : High impedance differential relay Setting : operating current sensitivity at least 10% of nominal current. operating time not grater than 30 m sec at 5 times of setting.

2.

Residual earth fault protection Assigned Protection

1. External phase to ground fault.( Unbalance phase current) 2. Internal phase to ground fault at line side .( Unbalance phase current) 3. Circuit breaker pole discrepancy.( Unbalance phase current)
N U1 V1 W1

1s1 1s2

1s1 1s2

1s1 1s2

Instantaneous Residual over Current Relay (50N) Or AC Time residual Over Current relay (51N)

CT Specification 1. Ratio: 200/1A 2. Class: PS 3. Knee point voltage: 200V 4. Magnetizing current: 40 mA 5. Secondary resistance: 1 Ohms U2 V2 W2

Typical relay setting Set low set to 20% with time delay in between0.6s and 1s or even longer. Use 2nd harmonic blocking. Set high set to 175% with time delay of 0.1s.

4. Back up impedance protection


Assigned Protection

Internal phase to ground fault at line side

U1

V1

W1

1s1 1s2

1s1 1s2

1s1 1s2

21R 3Ph, REACTOR BACKUP IMPEDANCE RELAY OF SUITABLY SHAPED CHARECRESTICS EITHER SINGLE / DOUBLE ZONE TYPE

CT Specification 1. Ratio: 200/1A 2. Class: PS 3. Knee point voltage: 200V 4. Magnetizing current: 40 mA 5. Secondary resistance: 1 Ohms U2 V2 W2

Typical relay setting

Set low set to 130% with time delay in between 0.6s and 1s. Set high set to 250% with time delay of 0.1s.

Typical Relay connection for back up impedance protection

5. Line protection main & backup


Assigned Protection

Internal phase to ground fault at Neutral side

U1

V1

W1

Line Side

1s1 500/1A 1s2 1000/1A 1s3 2000/1A 1s4

1s1 500/1A 1s2 1000/1A 1s3 2000/1A 1s4

1s1 500/1A 1s2 1000/1A 1s3 2000/1A 1s4

Instantaneous Over Current Relay (50) Or AC time over current relay (51) Over current protection

U2

V2

W2

Neutral Side

Typical relay setting Set low set to 130% with time delay in between 0.6s and 1s. Set high set to 200% with time delay of 0.1s.

Electrical Test on reactor

Electrical test as per IS 5553


Routine Test ( To confirm the operating criteria)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Measurement of WR Measurement of IR & PI Measurement of impedance by bridge methods Measurement of loss and current at rated voltage and ambient temperature Isolation test

Type Test ( To confirm the design criteria)


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Temperature rise test along with DGA before and after test Full wave lighting impulse voltage withstanding test at 550 KVp on neutral terminal Measurement of zero sequence reactance Measurement of acoustic noise level Magnetizing curve test / knee voltage measurement Measurement of capacitance and tan delta between winding and tank

Dielectric Test ( To confirm the dielectric strength of the insulation)


1. 2. 3. 4. Separate source voltage withstand test at 230 KV for one minute Induced over voltage withstand test with PD indication at 364 KV AC (1.5/3 PU ) for 30 minutes during which the PD level shall not exceed 500pc Full wave lighting impulse voltage withstand test at 1300 KVp on line terminal Switching impulse voltage withstand test at 1050 KVp on line terminal

Special Test ( To confirm design and operating criteria )


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. FRA test DGA test before and after electrical test Jacking test on reactor tank Vacuum test on reactor tank Oil leak test Snap back test on HV bushing

Measurement of WR
Purpose - To measure DC resistance per phase of coil for calculating I2R loss in the coil, which in turns decides the temperature rise. The measurement also shows whether the winding joints are in order and the windings are correctly connected.

Voltage lead Current lead

Resistance measuring Kit

Measuring methods 1. 2. 3. 4. Only at the stable value of current (I), corresponding voltage (V) value is taken for measuring the value of resistance ( R = V/I). Applied current must not be higher than 15% of the rated current % error in measurement increases with increases of applied current due to increases in I2R loss at higher current. Value to be measured between (R N) , (Y-N), and (B-N), and all the measured value must be equal.

Measurement of IR
Purpose - To ascertain minimum insulation strength (IR Value) and dryness level (PI Value) of the winding required to charge the reactor.

5 KV IR measuring Kit (Megger) Procedure Measure IR and PI value between (R-E),(Y-E),(B-E) and (R+Y+B) (Tank + E) with 5 KV Megger and confirm the minimum IR and PI value as per the table given below.
Minimum Below 6.6 KV 6.6 - 11KV IR value K = 1.00 30 Deg C 200 M 400 M 22 33 KV Above 66 KV

500 M

600 M

K = 1.65 40 Deg C

121 M

242 M

303 M

363 M

K = 2.60 50 Deg C

77 M

153 M

192 M

230M

K = 4.20 60 Deg C

47 M

95M

119 M

142 M

K = 6.6 70 Deg C K = 10.5 80 Deg C

30 M 19 M

60 M 38 M

75 M 47 M

90 M 57M

Isolation test
Purpose - To ascertain that the reactor core is insulated from the tank and core frame.

CL connected to core lamination CC Connected to core clamp G Connected to tank ( Earth )

CC CL
Core clamp Core Bolt Core Tank

Procedure :
1.Disconnect the closing link that connects the two terminals CL-G. 2.Connect the tank with earth 3. Use a Megger and measure IR value between CL and CC + G by applying 3.5 KV for 1 minute 4. The measured IR value shall be minimum 1000 kohms ( 1 M Ohms) 5. There is no general requirement on the insulation level CC-G .

Measurement of impedance by bridge methods


Purpose : To measure the per phase impedance ( AC resistance) of the winding which controls the flow of current through the windings. Impedance (Z) = [(Resistance) 2 + ( Reactance)2] = 420KV / 86Amps

Reactor windings

U1 CT Ratio M3 Mutual Inductance CN standard Capacitor C4 Bridge capacitance R4 Bridge Resistance

100/5A 1.0032mH

Lx Inductance (H) of (M3/U1)X(C4/CN ) the winding Z Impedance ( Ohms) of the winding


2 fLx

8.92 H

2800 Ohms

Measurement of loss and current at rated voltage and ambient temperature Purpose: To measure the loss ( core & copper loss) in reactor at rated operating condition.

Reactors windings

U1 M3 CN C4 R4

CT Ratio Mutual Inductance standard Capacitor Bridge capacitance Bridge Resistance

100/5A 1.0032mH

Inductance (Lx) Impedance (Z) Tan delta ( D) Loss at rated voltage (P) Loss at rated Current

(M3/U1)X(C4/CN) 2 fLX 1 / ( C4 R4) (U2/Z) x D x 10-3 (Rated Amp / Test Amp)2 x P

8.92 H 2800 Ohms kW kW

Purpose of dielectric test


Normally reactors are operated at the rated operating voltage. During its operation it is exposed to various transient over voltages like power frequency over voltage (1.5 x BIL, due to system over voltage), Lighting impulse (due to lighting), switching impulse (due to switching off). To avoid abrupt failure of insulation due to these transients, insulation is designed considering all the aspect. Dielectric test confirms the capability of the insulation to withstand these transient overvoltage which is subjected to the reactor during its service life.

Voltage level as per IS 2072


Operating Highest system Power frequency voltage voltage (BIL) voltage KV rms KV rms (KV rms) 0.415 3.3 6.6 11 15 33 66 1.1 3.6 7.2 12 17.5 24 36 52 72.6 123 145 170 230 245 300 362 400 420 3 10 20 28 38 50 70 95 140 185/230 230/275 230/275/325 325/370/395 395/460 460/510 570/360 Switching Impulse (KV Peak ) 750/850 850/950 950/1050 Lighting impulse (KV Peak ) 20/40 40/60 60/75 75/95 95/125 145/170 250 325 450/550 550/650 550/650/750 750/850/950 950/1050 1050/1175 1300/1425

Separate source voltage withstand test at 230 KV for one minute


PURPOSE : To verify the operating voltage withstanding capacity of the minor insulation ( paper ) used in line terminals and windings.

KV
50 Hz, AC Generator

Method

Test voltage from a 50 Hz, sinusoidal source is applied at neutral terminal through a step up transformer keeping the phase under test open and other two phases & tank grounded. ( 400 KV /1.732) or 230 KV rms 60 sec

Maximum test voltage Duration of test

Measurement Direct reading for RMS type voltmeter or of test (Reading / 2) for Peak type voltmeter voltage (KV) Confirmation The test is declared to be successful if the test voltage does not collapse during the test.

Induced over voltage withstand test with PD indication at 364 KV AC (1.5/3 PU ) for 30 minutes during which the PD level shall not exceed 500pc ( Method 2)
PURPOSE : To verify the power frequency voltage withstanding capacity of the minor
insulation (Paper ) used in line terminals & windings and the maximum level of PD observed during the test.

KV
50 Hz, AC Generator

Method

Test voltage from a 100Hz ( to avoid saturation of core), sinusoidal source is applied at line terminals through a step up transformer keeping neutral terminal open and tank grounded.. ( 1.5 x 420KV /1.732) or 364 KV rms 30 minutes in steps at various voltages level as shown below Direct reading for RMS type voltmeter or (Reading / 2) for Peak type voltmeter (V)

Maximum test voltage Duration of test Measurement of test voltage Confirmation

The test is declared to be successful if the test voltage does 5 during the test. and the PD level is observed not collapseSec within 500pC 30 Minutes 5 Minutes 420KV 364KV

364KV

Full wave lighting impulse voltage withstand test at 1300 KVp on line terminal
PURPOSE : To verify the impulse voltage withstanding capacity of the major
insulation ( pressboard) used between the windings, line terminals caused by lighting strike.

Impulse Generator

+
5 0 0

Recorder Method Test voltage from an impulse generator is applied at line terminals keeping neutral grounded through 500 resister and other terminals directly grounded. The sequence for applying impulse is - one impulse of a voltage between 50% and 75 % of the full test voltage, and three subsequent impulses at full voltage 1300 KV peak with Front time T1 = 1,2s 30% and Time to half-value T2 = 50 s 20% The test is successful if the test voltage does not collapse during the test.

Test voltage Duration of test Confirmation

Switching impulse voltage withstand test at 1050 KVp on line terminal


PURPOSE : To verify the impulse voltage withstanding capacity of the major
insulation (Pressboard) between the winding ,line terminals caused by switching operation.

Impulse Generator

+
5 0 0

Recorder Method Test voltage from an impulse generator is applied at line terminals keeping neutral grounded through 500 resister and other terminals directly grounded. The sequence for applying impulse is - one impulse of a voltage between 50% and 75 % of the full test voltage, and three subsequent impulses at full voltage

Test voltage 1050 KV peak Duration of test Front time Tp> 100s , Time above 90% Td> 200s and Time to the first zero passage T0> 500s ( preferably 1000 s )

Confirmation The test is successful if the test voltage does not collapse during the test.

Type Test
1. Temperature rise test along with DGA before and after test 2. Full wave lighting impulse voltage withstanding test at 550 KVp on neutral terminal 3. Measurement of zero sequence reactance 4. Measurement of acoustic noise level 5. Magnetizing curve test / knee voltage measurement 6. Measurement of capacitance and tan delta between winding and tank

Temperature rise test


The purpose of the measurement is to check that the temperature rises of the oil and the windings do not exceed the limits agreed on or specified by the standards.
Temp rise Steady state temp

(T1)Hot / top oil temp


Time

Cold winding resistance at T deg C Hot winding resistance after switched off (to be derived from graph) Ambient temperature after switched off Calculated winding temp Average steady state hot oil temp Hot oil temp after switch off Drop in average oil temp Corrected winding temperature Winding temperature rise

R1 R2

Ta Tw = {R2(235+T)R1} 235 T1 T2 Td = (T1 - T2) Tc = (Tw + Td) (Tc Ta)

Full wave lighting impulse voltage withstanding test at 550 KVp on neutral terminal
PURPOSE : To verify the impulse voltage withstanding capacity of the major and
minor insulation (Pressboard and paper) used in neutral terminals and side of the winding caused by switching operation.

Impulse Generator

+
5 0 0

Recorder Method Test voltage from an impulse generator is applied at neutral terminals keeping other terminals grounded through 500 resister and tank directly grounded. The sequence for applying impulse is - one impulse of a voltage between 50% and 75 % of the full test voltage, and three subsequent impulses at full voltage

Test voltage 550 KV peak Duration of test T1 = 1,2s 30% and Time to half-value T2 = 50 s 20%

Confirmation The test is successful if the test voltage does not collapse during the test.

Measurement of zero sequence reactance


Purpose : To measure the AC resistance (Impedance) of neutral path which controls the earth fault current (zero sequence current) through neutral during internal or external earth fault.

A N R Y B
50 Hz, AC Generator

Method

Two phase AC supply is applied between line terminals and neutral through a step up transformer which is fed by a generator. Applied voltage is increased till rated current flow through the line terminals. At this voltage current through the neutral is measure. (3 x Applied voltage) / Neutral current.

Zero seq impedance

Measurement of acoustic noise level and vibration


The purpose of the sound level measurement is to check that the sound level of the reactor meets the specification requirements given in relevant standards .

1 Meter

Microphone for picking up noise

2 Meter

A sound spectrum analyses is used for measuring sound level. The sound spectrum indicates the magnitude of sound components as a function of frequency. The sound pressure level is the measured at various points around at a distance (D) of 30 cm for ONAN or 2 m for ONAF cooling system spaced at an interval (X) of 1 meter.

Limit Sound level Vibration level Within 81db Within 200 microns

Magnetizing curve test / knee voltage measurement

Test procedure
Each phase of the reactor is charged one by one with direct current. When the maximum test current reached, supply is switched off and the reactor winding is short-circuited simultaneously by DC current breaker. The decaying current in the circuit is registered by a computer assisted data acquisition system. The saturation curve Flux () / Flux () nom. versus I/Inom is then determined using the formula.

Maximum value of decaying current Minimum value of decaying current Measured value

Imax Imin I(t)

Measurement of capacitance and tan delta between winding and tank


Purpose : To ascertain the condition of the solid insulation of the windings.

I
N R Y B 10 KV Tan Delta Kit

+ + + Ir +

Ic

I = total current drawn by the capacitor formed between winding and tank and the value of capacitance is [(I/2 f V ) x Cos ] (pF) Ic = Capacitor charging current Ir = Current flow through the capacitor due to impurities / disintegration of the insulation between winding and tank. As this current is in phase with applied voltage, it is dissipated in heat. Tan = Sin =Cos (PF) 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.007 0.008 1.0 Condition of the insulation Pure capacitor Very good Good Fairly good Acceptable Not acceptable Pure resistance

Ir
Angle 0.0 Deg 0.5 Deg 0.5 Deg 0.5 Deg 0.5 Deg 0.5 Deg 90.0 Deg

Capacitance (pF) [(I/2 f V ) x Cos ] (I / 3140) x 1.000 (I / 3140) x 0.999 (I / 3140) x 0.999 (I / 3140) x 0.999 (I / 3140) x 0.999 (I / 3140) x 0.999 0

Special Test

1. FRA test 2. DGA test before and after electrical test 3. Vacuum test on reactor tank 4. Oil leak test 5. Snap back test on HV bushing

FRA test
Purpose- Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) is carried out to detect displacement (or movement) of the windings. Usually the first measurement in the factory is used as a fingerprint. Results of later measurements are compared with the first one in the factory.

The software controlled sine wave generator produces output voltage of max. 4 Vrms with frequency range of 50 Hz to 1 MHz. It has 75 output impedance. Input impedance is 75 . Voltage from the generator is applied to the one transformer terminal (one winding end) and response voltage is measured on another terminal (the other winding end).

FRA test report


Impedance value Z in k versus frequency is plotted on the diagram with indication of terminals with applied and response voltage.

Or attenuation A (or damping) in dB (20 log (Uoutput / Uinput ) versus frequency is plotted on the diagram with indication of terminals with applied and response voltage.

The reactor is said to be healthy if no deviation is observed between the results taken in factory and field

DGA test
Chemical analysis of gas : The gas analyser loaded with these solution is connected to the top pet cock. Small quantities of gas collected in the gas relay (Bucholtz relay) is allowed to pass through the two solutions.

5 gms of silver nitrate (AgNO3) dissolved in 100 ml distilled water

A week solution of ammonia in water is slowly added to 100 ml of solution 1, until a white curdled precipitate which forms first disappears in the mixture.

Vacuum test on reactor tank

Oil leak test

Snap back test on HV bushing


Purpose : Snap back test was carried out on the above bushing to determine the natural frequency and damping factor. Following equipment were used to conduct this test. 1: Piezoelectric accelerometer B & K 4371. 2: PL 202 Real Time FFT Analyzer

FFT

Methods : Two nos. Piezoelectric accelerometer were mounted 90 degree apart at the bottom of the bushing, one in the direction of applied force (X) and other 90 degree to the applied force (Y). A force of 250 Kg was applied at the top and then it was cut-off. The resulting vibrations were recorded on the FFT. The recorded signals were analyzed on FFT Analyzer to determine the natural frequency and damping factor of the bushing.
X direction Natural From FFT reading frequency 3.25 Y direction 3.25

Damping [(100 / 2 n) * log (Y 1 / Yn+1)] Where: n = No. 1.421% 2.03% factor of cycle Y n+1 = Amplitude of (n+1) cycle peak Y1 = Amplitude of The test is successful if no evidence of physical damage is observed on 1st after peak the bushing cycle the test

Final Observations

Though oil immersed, shunt reactor and power transformer are viewed alike, there are distinct differences between construction and operating characteristics of these two devices. As NLC is going to install two numbers 63 MVAR bus reactor for the first time in TS II and the operating and maintenance staffs are not properly exposed to its operating data, following information need to be collected from any southern grid thermal power plant ( not from substation) presently operating with similar capacity bus reactors for successful and trouble free operation of reactor in TS II Average number of switching operation of the reactor per day Numbers of operating hours achieved since commissioning Numbers of forced / planned shutdown taken after commissioning Protection co-ordinations and its settings Number of false/actual tripping, if any, since commissioning and its reasons Maximum & minimum bus voltage for switching in and out of reactors Reduction in leading MVAR and bus voltage after switching in of the reactor Any abnormalities observed in generator excitation during switching in/out Average reactor current, winding and oil temperature Any failure of parts like bushings, LA, gaskets etc since commissioning Remarks of the operating staff on the performance of the reactors

Thank you