You are on page 1of 525

eblue-dist 2007

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 SAFETY

INTRODUCTION CLEANING, WAXING, AND POLISHING CONTROLLING CORROSION PROPELLERS FUEL SYSTEM LOADING HORSEPOWER FLOTATION EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT COMPASS STEERING ANCHORS MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT BOATING ACCIDENT REPORTS NAVIGATION

HEAD SERVICE REED SERVICE Description Cleaning and Service Reed Assembling Installation EXHAUST COVER Cleaning TOP SEAL Removal -- V4 Engine Removal -- 3-Cylinder Engine BOTTOM SEAL Inspec tion CENTERING PINS MAIN BEARING BOLTS AND CRANKCASE SIDE BOLTS CRANKCASE COVER CONNECTING RODS AND PISTONS Removal Disassembling Rod Inspection and Service Piston and Ring Inspection and Service Cleaning and Inspecting Assembling CRANKSHAFT Removal Cleaning and Inspecting Assembling CYLINDER BLOCK SERVICE Honing Procedures POWERHEAD ASSEMBLING PISTON AND ROD ASSEMBLY INSTALLATION CRANKSHAFT INSTALLATION NEEDLE MAIN AND ROD BEARINGS CRANKCASE COVER BOTTOM SEAL INSTALLATION TYPE ATTACHED TO LOWER 3-43 END OF CRANKCASE

2 N NING
INTRODUCTION TUNE-UP SEQUENCE COMPRESSION CHECK SPARK PLUG INSPECTION IGNITION SYSTEM SYNCHRONIZING BATTERY SERVICE CARBURETOR ADJUSTMENTS FUEL PUMPS STARTER AND SOLENOID INTERNAL WIRING HARNESS WATER PUMP CHECK PROPELLER LOWER UNIT BOAT TESTING

3 POWERHEAD
INTRODUCTION Theory of Operation CHAPTER ORGANIZATION POWERHEAD DISASSEMBLING

eblue-dist 2007

EXHAUST COVER AND BYPASS COVER INSTALLATION REED BOX INSTALLATION HEAP INSTALLATION BREAK-IN PR.OCEDURES

3-44 3-44 3-45 3-46

CEOKE SYSTEF"SEFV1CE P e a t / E l e c t r i c Choke I? ernoval Installation All Electric Choke F emovall & Pisassembling Assembling

4-3$
4-35 4-37
It-?.?

4 FUEL
INTPODUCTICPN GENERAL CARBIJR ETIPN INFORMATION FUEL SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING Fuel Pump Tests Fuel Line Test Rough Engine Idle Excessive Fuel Consumption Engine Surge JOHNSCaW/EVINW UTPE CAFBURETQPS TYPE IA CARPURETOR HBOWNCPRAFT, CaOUBLE BRL. WITH HIGFJ- APJD LOWSPEED NEEDLE VALVES 50 HP -- 1958 AP'D IF39 1 60 HP -- 1964 A N C 1965 ) 75 HP -- 1960 1 TYPE IB CARBURETQR SAME AS TYPE IA EXCEPT WITH FIGF-SPEED FIXED ORIFICE 60 WP -- 1366 ANP 1367 65 HP -- 196% 75 HP -- -1961 TVRU 1965 80 IIP -- 1966 ANP 1967 85 MI? -- 196% DESCRIPT1C)N REMOVAL CARBURETOR PISASSEMBLIP.'G CLEANING AND IblSPECTIPJG ASSEMBLING TYPE I1 CARBURETOR 30 HP -- 1964 AND 1965 100 I-?P -- 1966 TMRU 1968 DESCRIPTION Choke System REEK OVAL DISASSEMBLING 4-1 1 4-14 4-17
) 4-22

4-1 4- 1 4-3 4-3 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-7 4-8 4-8 Water Choke Pescriptim P ernoval Installation

4-9

1 1 1 4-9 1 1

ASSEhWPWG IVYFALLATION Fl E L PUVP SERVICE Trsubleshaot ing Removal a n 8 Repair Cleaninp and Inspecting Assernbline, and Installation FUEL TAWK SERVICE

eblue-dist 2007

5 IGNITION

INTRODUCTION Ignition Systems SPARK PLUG EVALUATION Removal EXAMINATI@N OTHER IGNITION PARTS Description TYPE I IGNITION DISTRIRlJTOF VAGNETO 50 HP -- 1958 AND 1959 60 HP -- 1964 TVRIJ 1?66 75 HP -- 196Q TI4RtI 1965 80 HP -- 1966 Description TRCPUALESHOOTI1\?G SERVICING General Information Removal Servicing Cleaning: and Inspecting Installation BELT REPLACEMENT Engine M istimed TYPE I1 IGNITIQN DISTRIBUTOR BATTEP Y 75 HI? -- 1961 THRU 1965 80 HP -- 1966 AND 1967 90 HP -- 1964 AND 1965 108 HP -- 1966 Description TROUBLESHOOTING SERVICING Removal Cleaning and Inspecting Installation BELT REPLACEMENT Engine Mistimed Installation TYPE I11 IGNITION CAPACITOR lXSCHARGE (CLd) WITM SENSOR 100 MP -- 1967, 1968, AND 1972 ) 115 HP -- 1969 AND 1970 125 HP -- 1971 AND 1972 ) TROUBLESHOQTING 100 HP -- 1967 AND 1968 TROUBLESHOOTING 115 HP -- 1969 AND 1370

5- 1 5- 2 5- 3 5- 3 5-3 5- 5 5-5

) )

TROLJBLESHQOTHNG 108 HP -- 1972 125 HP -- 1971 AN@ 1972 COVPONENT REPLACEMENT Rotor Replacement 100 hp -- 1967 Sensor Replacement 100 hp -- 1967 Powerpack Replacement 100 hp -- 1967 COMPONENT REPLACEArENT IGNITION PARTS UNPEF FLY WHEEL: STATOR, CISTRIBUTOR CAP, EIST WIBUTOR ROTCW, SENSOR ROTOR, APE? SEE1% 100 MP -- 8968 ANC 1972 115 HP -- 8969 A N P 1970 125 HP -- 1971 A N E 1972 W emoval Cleaning and Inspecting Assembling CAPACITOR DISCWAR GE ( C G ) WITM BREAKER P(3IbT5 55 HP 3-CYL. -- 1968 AND 1969 60 HP 3-CYL. -- 1 978 AND 1971 65 MP V4 -- 19653 $5 E P V4 -- 1968 TEIRU 1972 100 MP V 4 -- 197 1 Cescription Safety General Troubleshootiwe All CD Wodels Troubles hooting 55 hp -- 1968 and 1969 65 hp -- 1968 85 hp -- 1968 Troubles hooting 85 h~ -- 1969 thru 6972 100 hp -- 1971 Troubles hooting 40 hp -- 1970 and 197 1
CL) IGNITION SYSTEV

PARTS REPLACEWENT AND AEJUSTMENT 55 HP 3-CYL -- 1968 eC 1969 60 HP 3-CYL -- 1570 & 1571 65 HP V4 -- 1968 85 flP V 4 -- 1968 THRU 1972 100 HP V4 -- 1971 Removal Cleaning and Inspecting

eblue-dist 2007

5 IGNITION (CONT) SYWCFRCNIZING C"ISTRIBUT0R ANC CARBURETOR hvP,Gh'FTQIGNITION MGPELS 50 tiP 1958 ANL" 1959 5-92 SYNCH-'RCNIZING CISTRIBUTOR AND CARBURETOR BATTERY IGNITION NAGNETQ IGNITION 60 HP -- 1964 THRU 1966 75 PI? -- 1960 THRU 6963 $0 HI' -- 1906 ANI3 1967 90 IF? -- 3964 A N E 1965 100 E? -- 1966 ANC 1967

6 ELECTRICAL INTROIPUCTICPJ 6-1 BATTEPIES 6-1 Jumper Cables 6-5 P u a l B a t t e r y Installatic\n 6-5 6-7 GAUGES A N D F O R P S FUEL SYSTEbb Fuel Gauge 6-8 Fuel Gauge P o s k u p 6-8 Fuel Gauge Troubleshooting 6-9 TACFOPJETER 6-10 KOWNS 6-10 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM GENERAL IPIF(?Ri?4ATI@N 6-1 1 GENER ATCF C P A R G I F G CIRCIJIT Troubleshooting 6-12 G e n e r a t o r Service 6-10 6-18 Cleaning and Inspecting Assemhli ng 6-20 ALTER NATPR CpAP G I P G CIRCUIT Pperation 6-22 Troubleshooting 6-24 ALTERblATOFs W I W PATTER Y IGb'.'ITI[ON WC9PEkS 1901 THR tJ 1967 6-25 ALTER PIPTOP VJITF" C P IGWITION 100 F P -- 1907 A N D ALL cp IGPIITIC\P.I 1968 TPFelir 1972 6-27 Troubleshootinp 6-27 C Y P K E CIRCUIT SERVICE 6-31 STAP TEP F V T C P CIPCIJIT SEPVICE Circuit Pescription 6-31 6-32 S t a r t e r P'otor Description Tr~ubleshssting 6-34 Testim 6-34 STAP T E PCTCP, r m v E G E A R ~ S t a r t e r Removal 6-37 All \'hts 1958 Thru 1958 6-37 S t a r t e r Crive Removal Cleanine and Inspecting 6-38 6-38 Installation STARTEFF, PRIVE GEAR SEW VICE E 55 H ' 3-CYLIIWPEP 1968 A F T 1965 1 60 WP 3-CXLIP.!@ER 1970 AND l Q 7 1 1 85 HP W -- lQ49 T F R U 1972 ) 4 115 HP V 4 -- 1969 ANT31 1870 ) 125 VP Yk -- 1971 AND 1972 ) R ernoval Pisassemblinp Cleaning and Inspecting Assembling

6-39
6-39 6-40 6-41 6-41

eblue-dist 2007

PELCO-W EF4Y SERVICE R ernoval Disassembling Armature Testing Cleaning and Inspecting Assembling AUTOLITE SERVICE Removal Disassembling Armature Testing Cleaning and Inspecting PR ESTOLITE SER VICE Removal from Starboard Installation with Separate Drive Gear Removal from P o r t Side Installation with Drive Gear on Armature Shaft Disassembling Armature Testing Cleaning and Inspecting Assembling

6 41 6-k2

6-43 6-44 6-45 6-47 6-48 6-48 6-50 Troubleshooting Disassembling clean in^ and inspect in^ Assembling CABLE E N P FITTIPIG IPJSTALEPTION AT EWGIF'E EFT" 6-52 7-26 7-29 7-31 7-32

7-34

8 LOWER UNIT
DESCRIPTICN CPAPTER COVERAGE ILLUSTRATIONS PROPELLER SERVICE Propeller with Shear Pin Removal Installation Exhaust Propeller Removal Installation

811 8-1
8-2 8-2

6-52 6-53 6-53 6-55 6-56

STARTER MOTOR TESTIP'G 6-57 STARTER MOTOR INSTALLATION 6-57

8-2 8-3 8-3


8-4

8-4

7 ACCESSORIES
DESCRIPTION 7-1 SHIFT BOXES 7- 1 OLD-STYLE DOUBLE LEVER Troubleshooting 7- 3 h)isassembling 7-4 7-5 Cleaning and Inspecting Assembling 7-5 NEW-STYLE SWIFT LEI'EF. Troubleshooting 7- 6 Removal 7- 8 Disassembling 7-8 Cleaning and Inspecting 7-0 Assembling 7- 10 ELECTRIC GEAR BOXES AbJD SINGLE LEVER CONTROL 7-12 JOHNSON I JNITS Troubleshooting 7-12 Disassembling 7-15 Cleaning and Inspecting 7-16 Assembling 7-17 PUSHBUTTON SHIFT BOX EVINRUDE UNITS Ob'LY 7-1" Troubleshooting 7-20 Disassembling 7-22 Cleaning and Inspecting 7-24 7-74 Assembling

WATER PUMP REMOVAL Lower Unit Pisassemblinp Cleaning and Inspectinn Lower Unit Assembling:

8-1 8 8-1 E

$-I& 8-16

WATER PUMP INSTALLATIQN 8- 19 Lower Unit %nstallation 8-20

eblue-dist 2007

8 LOWER UNIT (CONTI


TYPE H L@lVJEPhThTITSEPVICE I VAPJUAL S F W T SIPfGEE ENCLOSEI" RQLJSIIPJG 48 P P -- 1964 TERU BQR7 1 65 I-'P -- 1068 75 PF -- 1968 T F R U 1965 ) 8-22 80 PP -- 1066 A N P 1967 'B 85 EP -- l"68 ) Description Troubleshooting Lower Unit Removal

WATER PUMP REMOVAL Lower 1Jnit P i s a s s e m b l i w clean in^ and Inspecting kewer (Init Assemhline

8-24
p-sk

8-3" 8-31

WATER PUMP REMOVAL Lower Unit Pisassembling "Frozen'Tropeller Shaft Cleaning and Inspecting Lower Unit Assembling

8-86 8-87 8-83 8-93 8-95

WATER PUMP INSTALLATION P-36 Lower [!nit I n s t a l l a t i o ~ P- ?P

WATER PUMP INSTALLATION 8-105 Lower Unit Ynstallation 8-108


'FFFOZEf."T!?OPEkkER Description P emaval
8-1 18 8-1 10

9 HAND STARTER

Pescription Type I11 and Type IV Units Troubles hooting Type I11 and Type IV Units Removal Type III Units

8-40 8-48
8-43
8-Sg

WATER PUMP REMOVAL Pisassembling Cleaninp a n 8 Inspectinp Assembling

8-44

$-50 8-52

WATER PUMP INSTALLATION 8-60 Lower l l n i t lInstallaticm 8-6 1


TYPE 1IV LCYUER UP1.'IT EkECTROKATIlr BOO F B -- 1906 TPR P_I 11968 Troubleshooti~e

10 MAINTENANCE

8-62 8-63
8-64 8-h@ 8-Go 8-7 1

WATER PUMP REMOVAL Lower Unit Pisassembling CBeanin~ and Inspecting Lower i f n i t A s s e ~ b l i n p ,

WATER PUMP INSTALLATICN 8-80 Lower Unit Installation 8-8 1

eblue-dist 2007

APPENDIX

A-4 A-8 A- 10

A-IC A-P B

75 hp V 4 with P a p n e t s , Generator, and Standard Shift -- 1O 6 1 75 hp t h r u 90 hp V 4 with Electric Shift 1961 thru 1965 80 hrz V4 with Generator -- 1966 88 hp V 4 -- 1367 80 hp V4 with Electric Shift -- 1?67 85 hp V 4 -- 15568 85 h p V 4 with Electric Shift -- 1?68 $5 hp V 4 with PJternator %?69and 1970 85 hp Y 4 with Alternator -- 1972 $5 hp and 100 hp Vk with Alternator -- 1.971 100 hp V4 with CD Ignition I967 and 1968 100 hp V4 and 125 h p V 4 with Alternator -- 1972 1 15 hp V 4 -- 1969 and 1970 125 hp Y 4 -- 1971

eblue-dist 2007

SAFETY
1-1 INTRODUCTION
Your boat probably represents a sizeable investment f o r you. In order t o protect this investment and to receive t h e maximum amount of enjoyment from your boat i t must b e cared for properly while being used and when i t is o u t of t h e water. Always s t o r e your boat with t h e bow higher than t h e s t e r n and be sure t o remove t h e transom drain plug and t h e inner hull drain plugs. If you use any t y p e of cover t o protect your boat, plastic, canvas, whatever, b e sure t o allow f o r some movement of a i r through t h e hull. Proper ventilation will assure evaporation of any condensation t h a t may form due t o changes in t e m p e r a t u r e and humidity. will be required t o remove stubborn dirt, oil, and other unsightly deposits. Stay away from harsh abrasives or strong chemical cleaners. A white buffing compound can b e used t o restore t h e original gloss t o a scratched, dull, or faded area. The finish of your boat should b e thoroughly cleaned, buffed, and polished at least once each season. Take c a r e when buffing o r polishing with a marine cleaner not t o overheat t h e surface you a r e working, because you will burn it. A small outboard engine mounted on an aluminum boat should b e removed from t h e boat and stored separately. Under all circumstances, any outboard engine must ALWAYS b e stored with t h e powerhead higher t h a n t h e lower unit and exhaust system. This position will prevent water trapped in t h e lower unit from draining back through t h e exhaust ports into t h e powerhead.

1-2 CLEANING, WAXING, AND POLISHING


An outboard boat should b e washed with clear water a f t e r each use t o remove surface dirt and any s a l t deposits from use in s a l t water. Regular rinsing will extend t h e t i m e between waxing and polishing. It will also give you "pride of ownership", by having a sharp looking piece of equipment. Elbow grease, a mild detergent, and a brush

Whenever the boat is stored, for long or short periods, the bow should be slightly higher than the stern and the drain plug in the transom removed to ensure proper drainage of rain water.

Lower unit badly corroded because the zinc was not replaced. Once the zinc is destroyed, more costly parts will be damaged. Attention to the zinc condition is extremely important during boat operation in salt water.

eblue-dist 2007

I--2

SAFETY
small a zinc plate will c a u s e m o r e rapid deterioration of t h e m e t a l you. a r e trying t o protect. If in doubt, consider t h e f a c t t h a t is is f a r b e t t e r t o replace t h e zincs t h a n t o replace planking o r o t h e r expensive m e t a l p a r t s from having an excess of zinc. When installing z i n c plates, t h e r e a r e t w o routes available. O n e is t o install many d i f f e r e n t zincs on all m e t a l p a r t s and t h u s run t h e risk of wood burning. Another route, is t o use one large zinc on t h e trans o m of t h e boat and then connect this z i n c t o e v e r y underwater m e t a l p a r t through internal bonding. Of t h e t w o choices, t h e one zinc on t h e transom is t h e b e t t e r way t o goSmall outboard engines have a z i n c p l a t e a t t a c h e d t o t h e cavitation plate. Therefore, t h e zinc remains with t h e engine at all times.
1-4 PROPELLERS

A new zinc prior to installation. This inexpensive item will save corrosion on more valuable parts.

Most outboard engines have a f l a t a r e a on t h e back side of t h e powerhead. When t h e engine is placed with t h e f l a t a r e a on t h e powerhead and t h e lower unit resting on t h e floor, t h e engine will be in t h e proper altitude with t h e powerhead higher than t h e lower unit.

1-3 CONTROLLING CORROSION


Since man f i r s t s t a r t e d out on t h e w a t e r , corrosion on his c r a f t has been his enemy. The first form was merely rot in t h e wood and then i t was rust, followed by other forms of destructive corrosion in t h e m o r e modern materials. One defense against corrosion is t o use similar m e t a l s throughout t h e boat. Even though this is difficult t o do in designing a new boat, particularily t h e undersides, similar m e t a l s should be used whenever and wherever possible. A second defense against corrosion is t o insulate dissimilar metals. This can be done by using an exterior coating of S e a Skin or by insulating t h e m with plastic or rubber gaskets.

A s you know, t h e propeller is actually what moves t h e b o a t through t h e water. This is how i t is done. The propeller opera t e s in w a t e r in much t h e manner as a wood screw does in wood. The propeller "bites" into t h e w a t e r a s i t rotates. Water passes between the blades and o u t t o t h e r e a r in t h e shape of a cone. The propeller "biting" through t h e w a t e r in much t h e s a m e manner a s a wood auger is what propels t h e boat.

Using Zinc The proper amount of z i n c a t t a c h e d t o a b o a t is e x t r e m e l y important. The use of t o o much zinc can cause wood burning by placing t h e metals close together and t h e y bec o m e "hot". On t h e other hand, using t o o

Diameter and pitch are the two basic dimensions of a propeller. The diameter is measured across the circumference of a circle scribed by the propeller blades, as shown.

Propeller and associated parts in order, snear-pin, and nut, ready for installation.

washer,

eblue-dist 2007

PROPELLERS

13

Arrangement of propeller and associated parts, in order, for a small horsepower engine.

D i a m e t e r and P i t c h Only two dimensions of t h e propeller a r e of real interest t o t h e boat owner: the diameter and t h e pitch. These two dimensions are stamped on t h e propeller hub and always appear in t h e s a m e order: t h e diame t e r first and then t h e pitch. For instance, t h e number 15-19 stamped on t h e hub, would mean t h e propeller had a diameter of 15 inches with a pitch of 19. The diameter is t h e measured distance from t h e tip of one blade t o t h e t i p of t h e other as shown in t h e accompanying illustration. The pitch of a propeller is t h e angle at which t h e blades a r e a t t a c h e d t o t h e hub. This figure is expressed in inches of water travel for each revolution of t h e propeller. In our example of a 15-19 propeller, t h e propeller should travel 1 9 inches through t h e water each t i m e i t revolves. If t h e propeller action was p e r f e c t and t h e r e was no slippage, then the pitch multiplied by t h e propeller rpms would be t h e boat speed. Most outboard manufacturers equip their units with a standard propeller with a diame t e r and pitch they consider t o be best suited t o t h e engine and t h e boat. Such a propeller allows t h e engine t o run as near t o t h e rated rpm and horsepower (at full throttle) as possible for t h e boat design. The blade a r e a of t h e propeller determines its load-carrying capacity. A twoblade propeller is used for high-speed running under very light loads.

Shear-pin installed behind the propeller instead of in front of the propeller.

A four-blade propeller is installed in boats intended to o p e r a t e at low speeds under very heavy loads such as tugs, barges, or large houseboats. The three- blade propeller is t h e happy medium covering t h e wide range between t h e high performdnce units and t h e load carrying work horses. Propeller Selection There is no standard propeller t h a t will do t h e proper job in very many cases. T h e list of sizes and weights of boats is almost endless. This f a c t coupled with t h e many boat-engine combinations makes t h e propeller selection for a specific purpose a diffic u l t job. In f a c t , in many cases t h e propeller is changed a f t e r a few test runs. Proper selection is aided through t h e use of c h a r t s set up for various engines and boats. These charts should b e studied and understood when buying a propeller. However, bear in mind, t h e c h a r t s a r e based on average boats

1 -21" 1
Diagram to explain the pitch dimension of a propeller. The pitch is the theoretical distance a propeller would travel through the water if there was no slippage.

eblue-dist 2007

1-4

SAFETY
f r o m your boat and engine. Therefore, t a k e t i m e t o m a k e t h e proper propeller selection f o r t h e rated rprn of your engine at full t h r o t t l e with what you consider t o b e a n a v e r a g e load. Your boat will t h e n be correctly balanced between engine and propeller throughout t h e e n t i r e speed range. A reliable t a c h o m e t e r must b e used t o measure engine speed at full t h r o t t l e t o ensure t h e engine will achieve full horsepower and o p e r a t e efficiently and safely. T o test for t h e c o r r e c t propeller, m a k e your run in a body of smooth w a t e r with t h e lower unit in forward gear at full t h r o t t l e . throttle. Observe t h e t a c h o m e t e r at full NEVER run t h e engine at a high rprn when a flush a t t a c h m e n t is installed. If t h e reading is above t h e manufacturer's recommended operating range, you must t r y propellers of g r e a t e r pitch, until you find t h e one t h a t allows t h e engine t o o p e r a t e continually within t h e recommended full t h r o t t l e range. If t h e engine is unable t o deliver t o p performance and you f e e l i t is properly tuned, then t h e propeller may n o t b e t o blame. Operating conditions have a marked e f f e c t on performance. For instance, an engine will lose rprn when run in very cold water. I t will also lose rprn when run in s a l t water a s compared with f r e s h water. A hot, low- barometer day will also c a u s e your engine t o lose power.

with average loads, t h e r e f o r e , i t may b e necessary t o make a change in s i z e or pitch, in order t o obtain t h e desired results f o r t h e hull design or load condition. A wide range of pitch is available f o r e a c h of t h e larger horsepower engines. The choice available f o r t h e smaller engines, up t o about 25 hp, is restricted t o o n e or t w o sizes. Remember, a low pitch t a k e s a smaller bite of t h e water t h a n t h e high pitch propeller. This means t h e low pitch propeller will travel less distance through t h e w a t e r per revolution. The low pitch will require less horsepower and will allow t h e engine t o run f a s t e r and m o r e efficiently. I t stands t o reason, and it's t r u e , t h a t t h e high pitch propeller will require m o r e horsepower, but will give f a s t e r boat speed if t h e engine is allowed t o t u r n t o its rated rpm. If a higher- pitched propeller is installed on a boat, in an e f f o r t t o g e t m o r e speed, e x t r a horsepower will b e required. If t h e e x t r a power is not available, t h e rpms will b e reduced t o a less efficient level and t h e a c t u a l boat speed will be less t h a n if t h e lower - pitched propeller had been l e f t installed. All engine manufacturers design t h e i r units t o o p e r a t e with full t h r o t t l e at, o r slightly above, t h e rated rpm. If you run your engine at t h e r a t e d rpm, you will increase spark plug life, receive b e t t e r fuel economy, and obtain t h e best p e r f o r m a n c e
CAVITATION BURN

EDGE

Cavitation (air bubbles) formed at the propeller. Manufacturers are constantly fighting this problem, as . explained in the text.

Example of a damaged propeller. This unit should have been replaced long before this amount of damage was sustained.

eblue-dist 2007

PROPELLERS
Ventilation Ventilation is t h e forming of voids in t h e w a t e r just ahead of t h e propeller blades. Marine propulsion designers a r e constantly fighting t h e b a t t l e against t h e formation of t h e s e voids due t o excessive blade t i p speed and engine wear. The voids may be filled with air or w a t e r vapor, o r t h e y may actually be a partial vacuum. Ventilation may b e caused by installing a piece of equipment too close t o t h e lower unit, such a s t h e k n o t indicator pickup, d e p t h sounder, o r b a i t tank pickup. Vibration Your propeller should be checked regularly t o be sure all blades a r e in good condition. If any of t h e blades become bent or nicked, this condition will set up vibrations in t h e drive unit and t h e motor. If t h e vibration becomes very serious i t will c a u s e a loss of power, efficiency, and boat performance. If t h e vibration is allowed t o continue over a period of t i m e i t can have a damaging effect on many of t h e operating parts. Vibration in boats c a n never b e completely eliminated, but i t c a n be reduced by keeping all parts in good working condition and through proper maintenance and lubrication. Vibration can also be reduced in s o m e cases by increasing t h e number of blades. For this reason, many r a c e r s use

1-5

two- blade props and luxury cruisers have four- and five- blade props installed. Shock Absorbers T h e shock absorber in t h e propeller plays a very important role in protecting t h e shafting, gears, and engine against t h e shock of a blow, should t h e propeller s t r i k e a n underwater object. The shock absorber allows t h e propeller t o s t o p rotating at t h e instant of i m p a c t while t h e power t r a i n continues turning. How much i m p a c t t h e propeller is able t o withstand before causing t h e clutch hub t o slip is calculated t o be more than t h e f o r c e needed t o propel t h e boat, but less t h a n t h e amount t h a t could d a m a g e a n y part of t h e power train. Under normal propulsion loads of moving t h e boat through t h e w a t e r , t h e hub will not slip. However, i t will slip if t h e propeller s t r i k e s a n o b j e c t with a f o r c e t h a t would b e g r e a t enough t o s t o p any p a r t of t h e power train.

Rubber hub removed from a propeller. This hub was removed because the hub was slipping in the propeller.

Illustration depicting the rake of a propeller, as explained in the text.

eblue-dist 2007

16

SAFETY

If t h e power train was t o absorb an impact g r e a t enough t o stop rotation, even for an instant, something would have t o give and be damaged. If a propeller is subjected t o repeated striking of underwater objects, i t would eventually slip on its clutch hub under normal loads. If t h e propeller would s t a r t t o slip, a new hub and shock absorber would have t o be installed.

Propeller Rake If a propeller blade is examined on a c u t extending directly through t h e c e n t e r of t h e hub, and if t h e blade is set vertical t o t h e propeller hub, as shown in t h e accompanying illustration, t h e propeller is said t o have a zero degree (0') rake. As t h e blade slants back, t h e r a k e increases. Skandardo propellers have a rake angle from 0 t o 15 A higher rake angle generally improves propeller performance in a cavitating o r ventilating situation. On lighter, f a s t e r boats, higher rake o f t e n will increase perf o r m a n c e by holding t h e bow of the boat higher.

Propeller with a "cupped" leading edge. "Cupping" gives the propeller a better "hold" in the water.

Progressive Pitch Progressive pitch is a blade design innovation t h a t improves performance when forward and rotational speed is high and/or t h e propeller breaks t h e surface of t h e water. Progressive pitch s t a r t s low at t h e leading edge and progressively increases t o t h e trailing edge, as shown in t h e accompanying illustration. The average pitch over t h e entire blade is t h e number assigned t o t h a t propeller. In t h e illustration of t h e progressive pitch, t h e average pitch assigned t o t h e propeller would b e 21.

cupping If the propeller is cast with a edge curl inward on t h e trailing edge, t h e blade is said t o have a cup. In most cases, cupped blades improve performance. The cup helps t h e blades to "HOLD" and not break loose, when operating in a cavitating or ventilating situation. This action permits t h e engine t o be trimmed o u t further, or t o b e mounted highe r on t h e transom. This is especially t r u e on Either of t h e s e high-perf ormance boats. t w o adjustments will usually add to higher speed.

CONSTANT PITCH

PROGRESSIVE PITCH

Comparison of a constant and progressive pitch propeller. Notice how the pitch of the progressive pitch propeller, right, changes to give the blade more thrust and therefore, the boat more speed.

eblue-dist 2007

PROPELLERS
The cup has the e f f e c t of adding t o the propeller pitch. Cupping usually will reduce full-throttle engine speed about 150 t o 300 rpm below t h e s a m e pitch propeller without a cup t o the blade. A propeller repair shop is able t o increase or decrease t h e cup on the blades. This change, a s explained, will a l t e r engine rpm t o m e e t specific operating demands. Cups a r e rapidly becoming standard on propellers. In order t o r a cup t o be t h e most effective, t h e cup should be completely concave (hollowed) and finished with a s h a r p corner. If t h e cup has any convex rounding, t h e effectiveness of t h e cup will b e reduced.

17

Rotation Propellers a r e manufactured as righthand rotation (RH), and a s left- hand rotation (LH). The standard propeller for outboards is RH rotation. A right-hand propeller c a n easily b e identified by observing i t as shown in t h e accompanying illustration. Observe how t h e blade slants f r o m t h e lower l e f t toward t h e upper right. The left- hand propeller s l a n t s in t h e opposite direction, f r o m upper l e f t t o lower right, as shown. When t h e propeller is observed r o t a t i n g f r o m a s t e r n t h e boat, i t will b e rotating clockwise when t h e engine is in forward gear. The left-hand propeller will r o t a t e counterclockwise.

1-5 FUEL SYSTEM


With Built-in Fuel Tank All p a r t s of t h e fuel s y s t e m should be selected and installed t o provide maximum

s e r v i c e and protection against leakage. Reinf orced flexible sections should be installed in fuel lines where t h e r e is a l o t of motion, such as at t h e engine connection. The flaring of copper tubing should be annealed a f t e r i t is f o r m e d as a protection against hardening. CAUTION: Compression f i t t i n g s should NOT be used because t h e y a r e s o easily overtightened, which places t h e m under a strain and subjects t h e m t o fatigue. Such conditions will c a u s e t h e f i t t i n g t o l e a k a f t e r i t is connected a second time. The capacity of t h e fuel f i l t e r must be large enough t o handle t h e demands of t h e engine as specified by t h e engine manufacturer. A manually- operated valve should be installed if anti-siphon protection is not provided. This valve should b e installed in t h e fuel line as close t o t h e gas tank as possible. Such a valve will maintain anti-siphon prot e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e tank and t h e engine. Fuel tanks should be mounted in dry, well ventilated places. Ideally, t h e fuel tanks should be installed above t h e cockpit floors, where a n y leakage will b e quickly detected. In order t o obtain maximum circulation of air around fuel tanks, t h e t a n k should not c o m e in c o n t a c t with t h e boat hull e x c e p t through t h e necessary supports. The supporting surfaces and hold-downs must f a s t e n t h e t a n k firmly and t h e y should b e insulated f r o m t h e tank surfaces. This insulation m a t e r i a l should be non-abrasive Fuel tanks and non-absorbent material. installed in t h e forward portion of t h e boat should b e especially well secured and prot e c t e d because shock loads in this a r e a c a n b e as high as 20 t o 25 g's.

COU NTERCLOCW I SE

LEFT HAND

CLOCKW I SE OR R l GHT HAND

I
A three-position valve permits fuel to be drawn from either tank or to be shut off completely. Such an arrangement prevents accidental siphoning of fuel from the tank.

Right- and left-hand propellers showing how the angle of the blades is reversed. Right-hand propellers are by far the most popular.

eblue-dist 2007

1-8

SAFETY

Taking On Fuel The fuel t a n k of your boat should b e kept full t o prevent w a t e r f r o m entering t h e s y s t e m thraugh condensation caused by t e m p e r a t u r e changes. Water droplets forming is o n e of t h e g r e a t e s t enemies of t h e fuel system. By keeping t h e t a n k full, t h e a i r s p a c e in t h e tank is k e p t t o an absolute minimum and t h e r e is no room f o r m o i s t u r e t o form. I t is a good p r a c t i c e not t o s t o r e fuel in t h e t a n k over an extended period, s a y f o r six months. Today, fuels contain ingredients t h a t change i n t o gums when s t o r e d f o r any length of time. T h e s e gums and varnish products will cause c a r b u r e t o r probl e m s and poor spark plug performance. An additive (Sta-Bil) is available and can b e used t o prevent gums and varnish f r o m forming. Static Electricity In very simple t e r m s , s t a t i c e l e c t r i c i t y is called frictional electricity. I t is g e n e r a t e d by two dissimilar m a t e r i a l s moving over e a c h other. O n e f o r m is gasoline flowing through a pipe or into t h e air. Another f o r m is when you brush your hair or walk across a s y n t h e t i c c a r p e t and then touch a m e t a l object. All of t h e s e actions c a u s e a n elect r i c a l charge. In most cases, s t a t i c electric i t y is g e n e r a t e d during very d r y w e a t h e r conditions, but when you a r e filling t h e fuel tank on your boat i t can happen at a n y time. Fuel Tank Grounding O n e a r e a of protection against t h e buildup of s t a t i c e l e c t r i c i t y is t o have t h e f u e l

Old style pressure-type tank showing the fuel line to the engine and quick-disconnect fitting.

t a n k properly grounded (also known as bonding). A d i r e c t m e t a l - t o - m e t a l c o n t a c t f r o m t h e fuel hose nozzle t o t h e w a t e r in which t h e boat is floating. If t h e fill pipe is m a d e of metal, and t h e fuel nozzle makes a good c o n t a c t with t h e deck plate, t h e n a good ground is made. As an economy measure, s o m e boats use rubber or plastic filler pipes because of compound bends in t h e pipe. Such a fill line does not give any kind of ground and if your b o a t has this t y p e of installation and you do

An OMC fuel tank equipped with a quick-disconnect fitting. This type of arrangement is handy when the tank must be removed from the boat to obtain fuel.

Adding fuel to a six-gallon OMC fuel tank. Some fuel must be in the tank before oil is added to prevent the oil from accumulating on the tank bottom.

eblue-dist 2007

LOADING
not want t o replace t h e filler pipe with a metal one, then i t is possible t o connect t h e ,deck fitting t o t h e tank with a copper wire. The wire should b e 8 gauge or larger. The fuel line f r o m t h e t a n k t o t h e engine should provide a continuous metal- to- metal c o n t a c t for proper grounding. If any p a r t of this line is plastic or other non-metallic material, then a copper wire must b e connected to bridge t h e non-metal material. The power train provides a ground through t h e engine and drive shaft, t o t h e propeller in the water. Fiberglass fuel tanks pose problems of their own. O n e method of grounding is t o run a copper wire around t h e tank from t h e fill pipe t o t h e fuel line. However, such a wire does not ground the fuel in t h e tank. Manufacturers should imbed a wire in t h e fiberglass and i t should be connected t o t h e intake and t h e outlet fittings. This wire would avoid corrosion which could occur if a wire passed through t h e fuel. CAUTION: I t is not advisable to use a fiberglass f u e l tank if a grounding w i r e w a s n o t installed.. Anything you can feel as a "shock" is enough t o set off an explosion. Did you know t h a t under certain atmospheric conditions you can cause a s t a t i c explosion yourself, particularly if you a r e wearing synthetic clothing. It is almost a c e r t a i n t y you could cause a s t a t i c spark if you a r e NOT wearing insulated rubber-soled shoes. As soon a s the deck fitting is opened, fumes a r e released t o t h e air. Therefore, t o b e safe you should ground yourself before

1-9

opening t h e fill pipe deck fitting. O n e way t o ground yourself is t o dip your hand in t h e water overside t o discharge t h e electricity in your body before opening t h e filler cap. Another method is t o touch t h e engine block or any metal fitting on t h e dock which goes down into t h e water.

1-6 LOADING
In order t o receive maximum enjoyment, with s a f e t y and performance, from your boat, t a k e c a r e not to exceed the load A capacity given by t h e manufacturer. plate a t t a c h e d to the hull indicates the U.S. Coast Guard capacity information in pounds for persons and gear. If the plate s t a t e s t h e maximum person capacity to b e 750 pounds and you assume each person to weigh an average of 150 lbs., then t h e boat could c a r r y five persons safely. If you add anothe r 250 lbs. for motor and gear, and t h e maximum weight capacity for persons and gear is 1,000 lbs. or more, then t h e f i v e persons and gear would b e within the limit. Try to load t h e boat evenly port and starboard. If you place more weight on one side than on t h e other, t h e boat will list t o t h e heavy side and make steering difficult. You will also g e t b e t t e r performance by placing heavy supplies a f t of t h e center to keep t h e bow light for more efficient planing.

U S . COAST GUARD

MAXIMUM CAPACITIES PERSONS OR LBS


LBS PERSONS,MOTOR,GEAR H.P. MOTOR

A fuel tank properly grounded to prevent static electricity. Static electricity could be extremely dangerous when talcing on fuel.

U.S. Coast Guard plate affixed to all new boats. When the blanks are filled in, the plate will indicate the Coast Guard's recommendations for persons, gear, and horsepower to ensure safe operation of the boat. These recommendations should not be exceeded, as explained in the text.

eblue-dist 2007

1-10

SAFETY 5- C o a s t G u a r d Approved e q u i p m e n t is e q u i p m e n t which h a s b e e n a p p r o v e d by t h e C o m m a n d a n t of t h e U.S. C o a s t Guard and h a s b e e n d e t e r m i n e d t o be in c o m p l i a n c e w i t h C o a s t Guard s p e c i f i c a t i o n s a n d regulations r e l a t i n g t o t h e m a t e r i a l s , c o n s t r u c t i o n , a n d p e r f o r m a n c e o f such equipment.
1-7 HORSEPOWER

Clarification
Much confusion a r i s e s f r o m t h e t e r m s , c e r t i f i c a t i o n , r e q u i r e m e n t s , a p p r o v a l , regulations, etc. P e r h a p s t h e following m a y clarify a couple of t h e s e points.
1- T h e C o a s t G u a r d d o e s n o t a p p r o v e b o a t s in t h e s a m e m a n n e r as t h e y "Approve" l i f e jackets. T h e C o a s t Guard a p p l i e s a f o r m u l a t o inform t h e public of w h a t is s a f e for a particular craft. 2- If a b o a t h a s to m e e t a p a r t i c u l a r regulation, i t m u s t h a v e a C o a s t G u a r d c e r t i f i c a t i o n plate. T h e public h a s b e e n led t o believe t h i s i n d i c a t e s a p p r o v a l of t h e C o a s t Guard. Not so. 3- The c e r t i f i c a t i o n p l a t e m e a n s a willingness of t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r t o m e e t t h e C o a s t Guard regulations f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c r a f t . The manufacturer m a y recall a boat if i t fails t o m e e t t h e C o a s t G u a r d requirements. 4- T h e C o a s t Guard c e r t i f i c a t i o n p l a t e , see a c c o m p a n y i n g illustration, m a y o r m a y n o t b e metal. T h e p l a t e is a r e g u l a t i o n f o r t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r . I t is only a warning p l a t e a n d t h e public d o e s n o t h a v e t o a d h e r e t o t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s set f o r t h on it. Again, t h e p l a t e sets f o r t h i n f o r m a t i o n as t o t h e C o a s t Guard's opinion f o r s a f e t y on t h a t p a r t i c u l a r boat.

T h e m a x i m u m horsepower e n g i n e f o r e a c h individual b o a t should n o t b e i n c r e a s e d by a n y g r e a t a m o u n t w i t h o u t c h e c k i n g req u i r e m e n t s f r o m t h e C o a s t G u a r d in your a r e a . T h e C o a s t Guard d e t e r m i n e s horsepower r e q u i r e m e n t s b a s e d on t h e length, b e a m , a n d d e p t h of t h e hull. TAKE CARE NOT t o e x c e e d t h e m a x i m u m horsepower l i s t e d on t h e p l a t e or t h e w a r r a n t y a n d possibly t h e i n s u r a n c e on t h e b o a t m a y bec o m e void.
1-8 FLOTATION

If the boat is less than 20 ft. overall, U.S. Coast Guard and the National Marine Manufacturers Association (formerly BIA) requires the craft to have adequate buoyant material built into the hull (usually foam) to keep it from sinking if the craft should become swamped. "Kept from sinking" is defined as the ability of the floatation material to keep the boat from sinking when filled with water and with passengers in the water clinging to the hull. A serious

Type I P F D Coast Guard Approved life jacket. This type flotation device provides the greatest amount of buoyancy. NEVER use them for cushions or other purposes.

A Type N P F D cushion device intended to be thrown to a person in the water. If air can be squeezed out of the cushion it is no longer fit for service as a PFD.

eblue-dist 2007

FLOTATION
restriction is: t h e total w e i g h t o f t h e m o t o r , passengers, a n d e q u i p m e n t on board MUST not exceed t h e m a x i m u m l o a d capacity listed o n t h e plate.

I- I I

Life P r e s e r v e r s - Personal F l o t a t i o n D e v i c e s (PFDs) T h e C o a s t Guard requires at l e a s t o n e C o a s t G u a r d approved life- saving d e v i c e b e c a r r i e d on board a l l m o t o r b o a t s f o r e a c h person on board. Devices a p p r o v e d a r e i d e n t i f i e d by a t a g indicating C o a s t Guard approval. Such d e v i c e s m a y b e life preserve r s , buoyant vests, ring buoys, o r buoyant cushions. Cushions used f o r s e a t i n g a r e s e r v i c e a b l e if a i r c a n n o t b e s q u e e z e d o u t of it. O n c e a i r is r e l e a s e d when t h e cushion i s squeezed, i t is no longer f i t as a f l o t a t i o n device. New f o a m cushions dipped in a rubberized material a r e almost indestructible.
Life preservers h a v e been classified by t h e U.S. Coast G u a r d into five distinct categories. All PFD's presently acceptable on recreational b o a t s fall i n t o o n e of t h e s e f i v e designations. All P F D s MUST b e U.S. C o a s t Guard approved, in good and s e r v i c e a b l e condition, a n d of an a p p r o p r i a t e s i z e f o r t h e persons who i n t e n d t o w e a r them. Wearable P F D s MUST b e readily a c c e s s i b l e and throwable d e v i c e s MUST b e i m m e d i a t e l y available f o r use. T y p e I P F D h a s t h e g r e a t e s t required buoyancy and is desi g ned t o t u r n - m o s t UNCONSCIOUS persons in t h e w a t e r f r o m a f a c e down position t o a v e r t i c a l o r slightly b a c k w a r d position. - T h e a d u l t s i z e d e v i c e provides a minimum buoyancy of 22 pounds a n d t h e child s i z e provides a minimum buoya n c y of 11 pounds. T h e T y p e I P F D provides t h e g r e a t e s t p r o t e c t i o n t o i t s w e a r e r a n d is m o s t e f f e c t i v e f o r all w a t e r s and conditions.
[ T y p e I P F D is designed t o t u r n i t s weare r in a v e r t i c a l o r slightly b a c k w a r d position in t h e w a t e r . T h e turning a c t i o n is n o t as pronounced as with a T y p e I. T h e d e v i c e will n o t t u r n as m a n y d i f f e r e n t t y p e persons under t h e s a m e conditions a s t h e T y p e I. An a d u l t s i z e d e v i c e provides a minimum buoya n c y o f 15% pounds, t h e medium child s i z e provides a minimum of 11 pounds, a n d t h e i n f a n t and s m a l l child s i z e s provide a mini m u m buoyancy of 7 pounds.

Type III P F D is designed t o p e r m i t t h e w e a r e r t o plac? himself (herself) in a v e r t i c a l or slightly b a c k w a r d position. T h e T y p e 111 d e v i c e h a s t h e s a m e buoyancy as t h e T y p e I1 P F D b u t i t has l i t t l e or n o t u r n i n g ability. Many of t h e T y p e 111 P F D a r e designed t o b e particularly useful when w a t e r skiing, sailing, hunting, fishing, o r e n gaging in o t h e r w a t e r sports. S e v e r a l of t h i s t y p e will also provide increased h y p o t h e r m i a protection.
T y p e IV P F D is designed t o b e thrown t o a person in t h e w a t e r and grasped and held by t h e user until rescued. I t is NOT designe d t o b e worn. T h e m o s t c o m m o n T y p e IV P F D is a ring buoy or a buoyant cushion. T y p e V P F D is a n y P F D a p p r o v e d f o r r e s t r i c t e d use. C o a s t Guard r e g u l a t i o n s state, in g e n e r a l t e r m s , t h a t on a l l b o a t s less t h a n -16 f t . overall, o n e T y p e I, 11, 111, o r IV d e v i c e shall b e c a r r i e d on board f o r e a c h person in t h e boat. O n b o a t s o v e r 26 f t., o n e T y p e I, 11, o r 111 d e v i c e s h a l l b e c a r r i e d on board f o r e a c h person in t h e b o a t plus o n e T y p e IV device. I t is a n a c c e p t e d f a c t t h a t m o s t b o a t i n g people own l i f e p r e s e r v e r s , b u t too f e w a c t u a l l y w e a r t h e m . T h e r e is l i t t l e or n o excuse for not wearing one because the m o d e r n c o m f o r t a b l e designs a v a i l a b l e t o d a y d o n o t s u b t r a c t f r o m an individual's b o a t i n g pleasure. Make a l i f e j a c k e t a v a i l a b l e t i

Type N PFD ring buoy designed to be thrown. On ocean cruisers, this type device usually has a weighted pole with flag, attached to the buoy.

eblue-dist 2007

1- 12

SAFETY
The only exceptions a r e during daytime (sunrise t o sunset) for: Recreational boats less than 16 f t . (5 m e t e r s ) in length. Boats participating in organized events such a s races, r e g a t t a s or marine parades. Open sailboats n o t equipped with propulsion machinery and less than 26 ft. (8 m e t e r s ) in length. Manually propelled boats. The above listed boats need t o c a r r y night signals when used on these w a t e r s at night. Pyrotechnic visual distress signaling devices MUST b e C o a s t Guard Approved, in serviceable condition and stowed t o be readily accessible. If they a r e marked with a d a t e showing t h e serviceable life, this d a t e must not have passed. Launchers, produced before Jan. 1, 1981, intended for use with approved signals a r e not required t o be C o a s t Guard Approved. USCG Approved pyrotechnic visual distress signals and associated devices include: Pyrotechnic red flares, hand held or a e r ial. Pyrotechnic orange smoke, hand held or floating. Launchers for aerial red m e t e o r s o r para c h u t e flares.

your crew and advise e a c h member t o wear it. If you a r e a crew member ask your skipper to issue you one, especially when boating in rough weather, cold w a t e r , o r when running a t high speed. Naturally, a life jacket should be a must f o r non-swimmers any t i m e they a r e o u t on t h e w a t e r in a boat.

1-9 EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT Visual Distress Signals The Regulation


Since J a n u a r y 1, 1981, C o a s t Guard Regulations require all recreation boats when used on coastal waters, which includes the G r e a t Lakes, t h e territorial seas and t h o s e w a t e r s directly connected t o the G r e a t Lakes and t h e territorial seas, up t o a point where the w a t e r s a r e less than two miles wide, and boats owned in t h e United S t a t e s when operating on t h e high s e a s t o be equipped with visual distress signals.

Internationally accepted distress signals.

Moisture-protected flares should be carried on board for use as a distress signal.

eblue-dist 2007

COMPASS
None-pyrotechnic visual distress signaling devices must c a r r y t h e manufacturer's certification t h a t they m e e t C o a s t Guard requirements. They must be in serviceable condition and stowed so a s t o be readily accessible. This group includes: Orange distress flag at l e a s t 3 x 3 f e e t with a black square and ball on an orange background. E l e c t r i c distress light -- n o t a flashlight but an approved e l e c t r i c distress light which MUST automatically flash t h e international SOS distress signal (. --.) four t o six t i m e s e a c h minute.

1-13

m a n u f a c t u r e and at such t i m e t h e device can no longer be counted toward t h e minimum requiremen ts.

SPECIAL WORDS In s o m e states t h e launchers f o r m e t e o r s and parachute f l a r e s may b e considered a firearm. Therefore, check with your s t a t e authorities before acquiring such a launcher.

First Aid Kits


The first- aid k i t is similar t o an insura n c e policy or life jacket. You hope you don't have t o use it b u t if needed, you want i t there. It is only natural t o overlook this essential i t e m because, let's f a c e it, who likes t o think of unpleasantness when planning to have only a good time. However, t h e prudent skipper is prepared ahead of time, a n d is thus able to handle the emergency without a lot of fuss. Good commercial first- aid kits a r e available such a s t h e Johnson and Johnson "Marine First- Aid Kit". With a very modest expenditure, a well-stocked and a d e q u a t e k i t can be prepared a t home. Any kit should include instruments, supplies, and a s e t of instructions for their use. Instruments should be p r o t e c t e d in a watert i g h t c a s e and should include: scissors, tweezers, tourniquet, t h e r m o m e t e r , s a f e t y

..

..

Types and Quantities The following variety a n d combination of devices may be carried in order t o m e e t t h e requirements. 1- Three hand-held red f l a r e s (day and night). 2- One e l e c t r i c distress light (night only). 3- One hand-held red f l a r e and two para c h u t e flares (day and night). 4- One hand-held orange smoke signal, two floating orange smoke signals (day) and one e l e c t r i c distress light (day and night).
If young children a r e frequently aboard your boat, c a r e f u l selection and proper stowage of visual distress signals becomes especially important. If you e l e c t t o c a r r y pyrotechnic devices, you should s e l e c t those in tough packaging and not easy t o ignite should t h e devices fall i n t o t h e hands of children. C o a s t Guard Approved pyrotechnic devices carry an expiration date. 'This d a t e can NOT exceed 42 months from t h e d a t e of

An adequately stocked first-aid kit should be on board for the safety of crew and guests.

A sounding device should mounted close to the helmsman for use in sounding an emergency alarm.

eblue-dist 2007

1- 14

SAFETY
1- Inboard e n g i n e or engines. 2- Closed c o m p a r t m e n ts under t h w a r t s a n d seats wherein p o r t a b l e fuel t a n k s m a y b e stored. 3- Double b o t t o m s n o t s e a l e d t o t h e hull o r which a r e n o t c o m p l e t e l y filled w i t h f l o t a t i o n materials. 4- Closed living spaces. 5- Closed s t o w a g e c o m p a r t m e n t s in which combustible or f l a m m a b l e m a t e r i a l i s stored. 6- P e r m a n e n t l y installed f u e l tanks.

pins, eye- washing cup, a n d a h o t w a t e r bottle. T h e supplies in t h e k i t should include: a s s o r t e d bandages in addition t o t h e various s i z e s of "band-aids", adhesive t a p e , absorbe n t c o t t o n , a p p l i c a t o r s , p e t r o l e u m jelly, a n t i s e p t i c (liquid and o i n t m e n t ) , local ointm e n t , aspirin, e y e o i n t m e n t , a n t i h i s t a m i n e , a m m o n i a inhalent, sea- sickness pills, a n t a c i d pills, a n d a laxative. You m a y w a n t t o consult your family physician a b o u t including antibiotics. B e s u r e your k i t c o n t a i n s a first- aid m a n u a l b e c a u s e e v e n though you h a v e taken t h e R e d C r o s s course, you m a y b e t h e p a t i e n t and h a v e t o rely on a n u n t r a i n e d c r e w f o r care.

Fire Extinguishers All f i r e extinguishers m u s t b e a r Underw r i t e r s L a b o r a t o r y (UL) " Marine Type" approved labels. With t h e UL c e r t i f i c a t i o n , t h e extinguisher does n o t have t o h a v e a C o a s t Guard approval number. T h e C o a s t Guard classifies f i r e e x t i n g u i s h e r s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s i z e and type. Type B-I or B-I1 Designed for extinguishing flammable liquids. This type extinguisher is required on all motorboats. T h e C o a s t Guard considers a b o a t having one or m o r e of t h e following conditions as a " b o a t of closed construction" s u b j e c t t o f i r e extinguisher regulations.

Detailed classificationofthe fire extinguisher is by agent and size: B-I contains 1-114 gallons foam, or 4 pounds carbon dioxide, or 2 pounds dry chemical agent, or 2-112 pounds Halon. B-I1 contains 2-112 gallons foam, or 15 pounds carbon dioxide, or 10 pounds dry chemical agent, or 10 pounds Halon. T h e class of m o t o r b o a t d i c t a t e s how many fire extinguishers a r e required on board. O n e B-I1 u n i t c a n b e s u b s t i t u t e d f o r When t h e e n g i n e t w o B-I extinguishers. c o m p a r t m e n t of a m o t o r b o a t is equipped with a fixed (built-in) extinguishing s y s t e m , o n e less p o r t a b l e B-I u n i t is required. Dry c h e m i c a l f i r e e x t i n g u i s h e r s w i t h o u t

A suitable fire extinguisher should be mounted close to the helmsman for emergency use.

At least one gallon of emergency fuel should be kept on board in an approved container.

eblue-dist 2007

MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT
g a u g e s or indicating d e v i c e s m u s t b e weighe d and t a g g e d e v e r y 6 months. If t h e g r o s s w e i g h t of a c a r b o n dioxide (CO ) f i r e extinguisher is reduced by m o r e thar? 10% of t h e n e t weight, t h e extinguisher is n o t a c c e p t a b l e a n d m u s t b e recharged. READ labels on f i r e extinguishers. If t h e extinguisher is U.L. listed, i t i s approved f o r m a r i n e use. DOUBLE t h e number of f i r e extinguishe r s r e c o m m e n d e d by t h e C o a s t Guard, bec a u s e t h e i r r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e a b a r e MINIMUM f o r s a f e operation. Your b o a t , family, and crew, must certainly be worth much m o r e t h a n " bare minimum".

I- I S

1-10 COMPASS
Selection T h e s a f e t y of t h e b o a t a n d h e r c r e w m a y depend on her compass. In m a n y a r e a s w e a t h e r conditions c a n c h a n g e so rapidly t h a t within m i n u t e s a skipper m a y find himself "socked-in" by a f o g bank, a r a i n squall, or just poor visibility. Under t h e s e conditions, h e m a y have no o t h e r m e a n s of keepi n g t o his desired c o u r s e e x c e p t w i t h t h e compass. When crossing a n open body of w a t e r , his c o m p a s s m a y b e t h e only m e a n s of making a n a c c u r a t e landfall. During t h i c k w e a t h e r when you c a n neit h e r see nor hear t h e e x p e c t e d a i d s t o navigation, a t t e m p t i n g t o run o u t t h e t i m e on a given c o u r s e c a n d i s r u p t t h e p l e a s u r e of t h e cruise. T h e skipper gains l i t t l e c o m f o r t i n a c h a i n of soundings t h a t d o e s n o t m a t c h t h o s e given on t h e c h a r t f o r t h e e x p e c t e d a r e a . Any stranding, e v e n f o r a s h o r t t i m e , c a n b e a n unnerving e x p e r i e n c e . A pilot will n o t knowingly a c c e p t a c h e a p parachute. A good b o a t e r should n o t a c c e p t a bargain in l i f e j a c k e t s , f i r e extinguishers, o r compass. T a k e t h e t i m e a n d spend t h e f e w e x t r a dollars t o purchase a c o m p a s s t o f i t your e x p e c t e d needs. R e gardless of w h a t t h e s a l e s m a n m a y t e l l you, postpone buying until you h a v e had t h e c h a n c e t o c h e c k m o r e than o n e m a k e and model. L i f t e a c h compass, t i l t a n d t u r n it, simulating e x p e c t e d motions of t h e boat. T h e c o m p a s s c a r d should h a v e a s m o o t h a n d s t a b l e reaction. T h e c a r d of a good q u a l i t y c o m p a s s will c o m e t o r e s t w i t h o u t oscillations a b o u t t h e lubber's line. R e a s o n a b l e m o v e m e n t i n your hand, c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e rolling and pitching
The compass is a delicate instrument and deserves respect. I t should be mounted securely and in position where it can be easily observed by the helmsman.

o f t h e boat, should n o t m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t t h e reading. Installation P r o p e r installation of t h e c o m p a s s d o e s n o t happen by a c c i d e n t . Make a c r i t i c a l c h e c k of t h e proposed l o c a t i o n t o b e s u r e c o m p a s s p l a c e m e n t will p e r m i t t h e helmsm a n t o use i t w i t h c o m f o r t and a c c u r a c y . F i r s t , t h e c o m p a s s should b e p l a c e d d i r e c t l y i n f r o n t of t h e h e l m s m a n and in such a position t h a t i t c a n b e viewed w i t h o u t body s t r e s s as h e s i t s or s t a n d s in a p o s t u r e of r e l a x e d a l e r t n e s s . T h e c o m p a s s should b e i n t h e helmsman's z o n e of c o m f o r t . If t h e c o m p a s s is t o o f a r a w a y , h e m a y h a v e t o bend f o r w a r d t o w a t c h it; t o o c l o s e a n d h e m u s t r e a r b a c k w a r d f o r relief.

Do not hesitate to spend a few extra dollars for a good reliable compass. If in doubt, seek advice from fellow boaters.

eblue-dist 2007

1-16

SAFETY
or iron objects. If t h e compass c a n n o t be placed at l e a s t two f e e t (six f e e t would b e b e t t e r ) from one of these influences, then e i t h e r t h e compass or t h e o t h e r o b j e c t m u s t b e moved, if f i r s t order accuracy is t o b e expected. Once t h e compass location appears t o be satisfactory, give t h e compass a t e s t b e f o r e installation. Hidden influences may be concealed under t h e cabin top, forward of t h e cabin a f t bulkhead, withi; t h e cockpit ceiling, o r in a wood-covered stanchion. Move t h e compass around in t h e a r e a of t h e proposed location. Keep an e y e on t h e card. A magnetic influence is t h e only thing You can t h a t will m a k e t h e c a r d turn. quickly find any such influence with t h e compass. If t h e influence can not be moved a w a y or replaced by one of non-magnetic material, t e s t to d e t e r m i n e whether i t i s merely magnetic, a small piece of iron or s t e e l , or some magnetized steel. Bring t h e north pole of the compass near t h e object, t h e n shift and bring t h e south pole near it. Both t h e north and south poles will be a t t r a c t e d if t h e compass is demagnetized. If t h e o b j e c t a t t r a c t s one pole a i d repels t h e other, t h e n t h e compass is magnetized. If your compass needs t o be demagnetized, t a k e i t t o a shop equipped t o do t h e job

Second, give s o m e thought t o c o m f o r t in heavy weather and poor visibilty conditions during the day and night. In s o m e cases, t h e compass position may be partially d e t e rmined by the location of the wheel, s h i f t lever, and t h r o t t l e handle. Third, inspect t h e compass s i t e t o be s u r e t h e instrument will be a t l e a s t two f e e t f r o m any engine indicators, bilge vapor detec tors, m a g n e t i c instruments, o r any s tee1

PROPERLY.
A f t e r you have moved t h e compass around in the proposed mounting a r e a , hold i t down or t a p e i t in position. T e s t everything you f e e l might a f f e c t the compass and c a u s e a deviation from a true reading. R o t a t e t h e wheel from hard over t o hard over. Switch on and off all t h e lights, radios, radio direction finder. radio telephone. d e p t h finder and t h e shibboard intercom, if one is installed. Sound t h e e l e c t r i c whistle, turn on the windshield wipers, s t a r t t h e engine (with w a t e r circulating through t h e engine), work t h e t h r o t t l e , and move t h e gear s h i f t lever. If t h e boat has an auxiliary generator, s t a r t it. If the card m o v e s during any one of t h e s e tests, t h e compass should be relocated. Naturally, if something like the windshield wipers cause a slight deviation, i t may be necessary f o r you t o m a k e a differe n t deviation table t o use only when c e r t a i n pieces of equipment is operating. Bear in mind, follov.hg a course 'that is-only off a degree or two for several hours can make considerable d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e end, putting you on a reef, rock, o r shoal.

ffIrtnocent" objects close to the compass, such as diet coke in an aluminum can, may cause serious problems and lead to disaster, as these three photos and the accompanying text illustrate.

eblue-dist 2007

NAVIGATION
Check t o be sure t h e intended compass s i t e is solid. Vibration will i n c r e a s e pivot wear. Now, you a r e r e a d y t o m o u n t t h e compass. To p r e v e n t an e r r o r on a l l courses, t h e l i n e through t h e lubber line a n d t h e c o m p a s s c a r d pivot m u s t b e e x a c t l y parallel t o t h e k e e l of t h e boat. You c a n establish t h e fore- and- aft line of t h e b o a t with a s t o u t c o r d or string. Use c a r e t o t r a n s f e r this line t o t h e c o m p a s s site. If n e c e s s a r y , shim t h e b a s e of t h e compass until t h e stile- type lubber line ( t h e one a f f i x e d t o t h e case a n d n o t gimbaled) is v e r t i c a l when t h e b o a t is on an even keel. Drill t h e holes a n d m o u n t t h e compass.

1- 17

2- K e e p even "innocent" things c l e a r of t h e c o m p a s s t o avoid a n y possible e r r o r i n t h e boat's heading. REMEMBER, a b o a t moving through t h e w a t e r at 10 k n o t s on a c o m p a s s e r r o r of just 5 d e g r e e s will b e a l m o s t 1.5 m i l e s off c o u r s e in only ONE hour. A t night, o r i n t h i c k w e a t h e r , t h i s could v e r y possibly p u t t h e b o a t on a r e e f , rock, o r shoal, w i t h d i s a s t r o u s results.

1-1 1 STEERING
USCG o r BIA c e r t i f i c a t i o n of a s t e e r i n g system means t h a t all materials, equipment, a n d installation of t h e s t e e r i n g p a r t s m e e t o r exceed specific standards for strength, t y p e , a n d maneuverability. Avoid s h a r p bends when r o u t i n g t h e cable. C h e c k t o b e s u r e t h e pulleys t u r n f r e e l y and a l l f i t t i n g s a r e secure.

Magnetic Items After Installation Many t i m e s a n o w n e r will install a n expensive s t e r e o s y s t e m in t h e c a b i n of his boat. I t is n o t uncommon f o r t h e s p e a k e r s t o b e mounted on t h e a f t bulkhead up a g a i n s t t h e o v e r h e a d (ceiling). In a l m o s t e v e r y case, t h i s position places o n e of t h e s p e a k e r s in very close proximity t o t h e c o m p a s s , mounted a b o v e t h e ceiling.
A s w e a l l know, a m a g n e t is used in t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e speaker. T h e r e f o r e , i t is v e r y likely t h a t t h e s p e a k e r , m o u n t e d alm o s t under t h e c o m p a s s in t h e c a b i n will have a very pronounced a f f e c t on t h e c o m pass a c c u r a c y . Consider t h e following test a n d t h e accompanying photographs as p r o v e of t h e s t a t e m e n t s made. F i r s t , t h e c o m p a s s w a s r e a d as 190 deg r e e s while t h e b o a t w a s s e c u r e in her slip. N e x t a full c a n of d i e t c o k e i n a n aluminum c a n w a s placed on o n e s i d e and t h e c o m p a s s r e a d as 204 d e g r e e s , a good I 4 d e g r e e s off. N e x t , t h e full c a n w a s moved t o t h e opposite side of t h e c o m p a s s a n d again a r e a d i n g w a s observed. This t i m e as 189 degrees, 11 d e g r e e s off f r o m t h e original reading. Finally t h e c o n t e n t s of t h e c a n w e r e consumed, t h e c a n placed on both sides of t h e c o m p a s s w i t h NO a f f e c t % o n h e c o m p a s s t reading. T w o v e r y i m p o r t a n t conclusions c a n b e drawn f r o m t h e s e tests. 1- S o m e t h i n g m u s t h a v e been in t h e cont e n t s of t h e c a n t o a f f e c t t h e c o m p a s s s o drastically.

1-12 ANCHORS
O n e of t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t pieces of e q u i p m e n t in t h e b o a t n e x t t o t h e p o w e r p l a n t is the ground t a c k l e carried. The engine makes the boat go and t h e anchor a n d i t s line a r e w h a t hold i t in p l a c e when t h e b o a t is n o t s e c u r e d t o a dock or on t h e beach.

The weight of the anchor MUST be adequate to secure the boat without dragging.

eblue-dist 2007

1-18

SAFETY
hook, f e n d e r s , s p a r e propeller, s p a r e e n g i n e p a r t s , tools, a n auxiliary m e a n s of propulsion (paddle or oars), s p a r e c a n of gasoline, flashlight, a n d e x t r a w a r m clothing. T h e a r e a of your boating a c t i v i t y , w e a t h e r conditions, l e n g t h of s t a y a b o a r d your b o a t , a n d t h e s p e c i f i c purpose will a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e kind a n d a m o u n t of s t o r e s you p u t aboard. When i t c o m e s t o personal g e a r , heed t h e a d v i c e o f v e t e r a n b o a t e r s who say, " Decide on how l i t t l e you think you c a n g e t by with, t h e n c u t i t in half".

T h e anchor m u s t be of s u i t a b l e size, t y p e , and weight t o give t h e skipper p e a c e of mind when his b o a t is a t anchor. Under c e r t a i n conditions, a second, s m a l l e r , l i g h t e r a n c h o r m a y help t o k e e p t h e b o a t in a f a v o r a b l e position during a non- emergency d a y t i m e situation. In order for t h e a n c h o r t o hold properly, a piece of chain m u s t b e a t t a c h e d t o t h e a n c h o r and then t h e nylon a n c h o r line att a c h e d t o t h e chain. T h e a m o u n t of c h a i n should equal or e x c e e d t h e l e n g t h of t h e boat. Such a piece o f chain will e n s u r e t h a t t h e anchor s t o c k will l a y in a n a p p r o x i m a t e horizontal position and p e r m i t t h e f l u t e s t o dig i n t o t h e b o t t o m and hold.

Bilge Pumps
A u t o m a t i c bilge pumps should b e equipp e d with a n overriding m a n u a l switch. T h e y should also h a v e a n i n d i c a t o r in t h e o p e r ator's position t o advise t h e h e l m s m a n when t h e p u m p i s operating. S e l e c t a pump t h a t will s t a b i l i z e i t s t e m p e r a t u r e within t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s s p e c i f i e d l i m i t s when i t is o p e r a t e d continuously. The pump motor should b e a s e a l e d or a r c l e s s t y p e , s u i t a b l e f o r a m a r i n e a t m o s p h e r e . P l a c e t h e bilge p u m p i n l e t s s o e x c e s s bilge w a t e r c a n be The r e m o v e d at a l l n o r m a l b o a t trims. i n t a k e s should b e properly s c r e e n e d t o prev e n t t h e p u m p f r o m sucking up debris f r o m t h e bilge. I n t a k e tubing should b e of a high q u a l i t y a n d stiff enough t o r e s i s t kinking a n d n o t c o l l a p s e under maximum p u m p s u c t i o n condition if t h e i n t a k e b e c o m e s blocked. T o test o p e r a t i o n of t h e bilge pump, o p e r a t e t h e p u m p switch. If t h e m o t o r d o e s n o t run, d i s c o n n e c t t h e l e a d s t o t h e motor. C o n n e c t a v o l t m e t e r t o t h e leads and see if v o l t a g e is indicated. If v o l t a g e is n o t indic a t e d , t h e n t h e problem m u s t b e in a blown fuse, d e f e c t i v e switch, o r s o m e o t h e r a r e a of t h e e l e c t r i c a l s y s t e m . If t h e m e t e r i n d i c a t e s v o l t a g e i s p r e s e n t at t h e leads, t h e n r e m o v e , disassemble, a n d i n s p e c t t h e bilge pump. C l e a n i t , r e a s s e m ble, c o n n e c t t h e leads, a n d o p e r a t e t h e s w i t c h again. If t h e m o t o r s t i l l f a i l s t o run, t h e p u m p m u s t b e replaced. T o test t h e bilge p u m p s w i t c h , f i r s t d i s c o n n e c t t h e l e a d s f r o m t h e p u m p and c o n n e c t t h e m t o a test light or o h m m e t e r . N e x t , hold t h e s w i t c h f i r m l y a g a i n s t t h e m o u n t i n g l o c a t i o n in o r d e r t o m a k e a good ground. Now, t i l t t h e opposite end of t h e s w i t c h upward until i t is a c t i v a t e d as indicat e d by the test light c o m i n g on o r t h e o h m m e t e r showing continuity. Finally, lowe r t h e s w i t c h slowly t o w a r d t h e mounting

1-1 3 MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT


In addition t o t h e e q u i p m e n t you a r e legally required t o c a r r y in t h e b o a t a n d t h o s e previously mentioned, s o m e e x t r a i t e m s will add t o your b o a t i n g pleasure a n d s a f e t y . P r a c t i c a l suggestions would include: a bailing d e v i c e (bucket, pump, etc.), b o a t

The bilge pump line must be cleaned frequently to ensure the entire bilge pump system will function properly in an emergency.

eblue-dist 2007

NAVIGATION
position until i t is d e a c t i v a t e d . Measure t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e point t h e s w i t c h w a s a c t i v a t e d a n d t h e point i t was d e a c t i v a t e d . F o r proper s e r v i c e , t h e s w i t c h should d e a c t i v a t e b e t w e e n 112-inch a n d 114-inch f r o m t h e planned mounting position. CAUTION: The switch must never be mounted lower than the bilge pump pickup.
1-14 BOATING ACCIDENT REPORTS

1- 19

In the United States, new federal and state regulations require an accident report be filed with the nearest State boating authority within 48 hours if a person is lost, disappears, or is injured to the degree of needing medical treatment beyond first aid. Accidents involving only property or equipment damage MUST be reported within 10days if the damage is in excess of $500.00. Some states require reporting of accidents with property damage less than $500.00 or a total boat loss. A $1,000.00 PENALTY may be assessed for failure to submit the report.

be able to avoid reefs, rocks, shoals, and other hazards. Several years ago the Coast Guard began making modifications to the U.S. aids to navigation in support of an agreement sponsored by the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) and signed by representatives from most of the maritime nations around the world. The primary purpose of the modification is to improve safety by making buoy systems around the world more alike and less confusing. The navigational buoys shown in the accompanying illustration depict aids .marking sides of channels, as seen when entering from seaward. Lights T h e following i n f o r m a t i o n regarding lights required on b o a t s b e t w e e n s u n s e t a n d sunrise or during r e s t r i c t e d visibility i s taken d i r e c t l y f r o m a U.S. C o a s t Guard public a t i o n d a t e d 1984. T h e t e r m s "PORT" a n d "STARBOARD" a r e used t o r e f e r to t h e l e f t and r i g h t s i d e of t h e b o a t , when looking forward. One e a s y way t o r e m e m b e r this basic f u n d a m e n t a l is t o consider t h e words "port" a n d " left" both have f o u r l e t t e r s a n d g o t o g e t h e r .

WORD OF ADVICE
T a k e t i m e t o m a k e a copy of t h e r e p o r t t o k e e p f o r your records or f o r t h e i n s u r a n c e company. O n c e t h e r e p o r t is filed, t h e C o a s t Guard will not give o u t a copy, e v e n t o t h e person who filled t h e r e p o r t . T h e r e p o r t m u s t give d e t a i l s of t h e a c c i d e n t a n d include: 1- T h e d a t e , t i m e , a n d e x a c t location of t h e occurrence. 2- T h e n a m e of e a c h person who died, w a s lost, o r injured.

3- T h e number a i d n a m e of t h e vessel. 4- T h e n a m e s and a d d r e s s e s of t h e owne r and operator. If t h e o p e r a t o r c a n n o t f i l e t h e r e p o r t f o r a n y reason, e a c h person on a b o a r d MUST notify the authorities, o r determine t h a t the r e p o r t h a s been filed. 1-15 NAVIGATION

Buoys In the United States, a buoy system is used as an assist to all boaters of all size craft to navigate coastal waterways and navigable rivers in safety. When properly read and understood, these buoys and markers will permit the boater to cruise with comparative confidence they will

Hookup for testing an automatic bilge pump switch.

eblue-dist 2007

1-20

SAFETY
a l m o s t a synopsis o f t h e r u l e s and should n o t b e considered in a n y way as c o v e r i n g t h e e n t i r e subject. P o w e r e d boats m u s t yield t h e right- ofway t o a l l b o a t s w i t h o u t m o t o r s , e x c e p t when being overtaken. When m e e t i n g ano t h e r b o a t head-on, k e e p t o s t a r b o a r d , unless you are t o o f a r t o p o r t t o m a k e this p r a c t i c a l . When o v e r t a k i n g a n o t h e r b o a t , t h e right- of- way belongs t o t h e b o a t being o v e r t a k e n . If your b o a t i s being passed, you m u s t m a i n t a i n c o u r s e and speed. When t w o b o a t s a p p r o a c h at a n a n g l e a n d t h e r e is danger of collision, t h e b o a t t o p o r t m u s t give way t o t h e b o a t t o s t a r b o a r d . Always k e e p t o s t a r b o a r d in a n a r r o w channel o r canal. B o a t s underway m u s t s t a y c l e a r of v e s s e l s fishing w i t h n e t s , lines, o r trawls. (Fishing b o a t s a r e n o t allowed t o f i s h in c h a n n e l s or t o o b s t r u c t navigation.) Preferred Channel to Starboard Light Rhythm \I/ 1 1 - 1 1 1 Preferred Channel t o Port

Waterway Rules O n t h e w a t e r , c e r t a i n basic safe-operating p r a c t i c e s m u s t b e followed. You should l e a r n and p r a c t i c e t h e m , f o r t o know, is t o b e a b l e t o handle your b o a t with c o n f i d e n c e a n d s a f e t y . Knowledge of w h a t t o do, a n d n o t do, will add a g r e a t d e a l t o t h e enjoym e n t you will r e c e i v e f r o m your boating investment.

Rules o f the Road


T h e best a d v i c e possible and a C o a s t Guard r e q u i r e m e n t f o r b o a t s o v e r 39' 4" (12 m e t e r s ) s i n c e 1981, is t o o b t a i n a n o f f i c i a l copy of t h e " Rules of t h e Road", which includes Inland Waterways, Western R i v e r s , and t h e G r e a t L a k e s f o r s t u d y a n d r e a d y reference. T h e following t w o p a r a g r a p h s give a VERY brief condensed and a b b r e v i a t e d -Port Side Odd Numbers Starboard Side Even Numbers Light Rhythms

\I/

FIXED FLASHING OCCULTING QUICK FUSHINGEQ INT

G "9" FI G 4sec

Lighted Buoy (Red Light Only)

Composite Group Flashing (2+ 1)

RG "DM CGpFl R

Lighted Buoy (Green Light Only)

Lighted Buoy (Green Light Only)

Lighted Buoy (Red Light Only)

GR C "F"

RG N "L"

Can Buoy (Unlighted)

Nun Buoy (Unlighted)

Can Buoy (Unlighted)

Nun Buoy (Unlighted)

Daymark

Daymark

Day mark

Daymark

MODIFICATIONS: Port hand aids will be green with green lights. All starboard hand aids will have red lights.

MODIFICATIONS: Green will replace black. Light rhythm will be changed t o Composite Gp FI (2 + 1).

eblue-dist 2007

TUNING
2-1 INTRODUCTION

The e f f i c i e n c y , reliability, fuel e c o n o m y and enjoyment available f r o m engine perf orm a n c e a r e all d i r e c t l y d e p e n d e n t on having i t t u n e d properly. T h e i m p o r t a n c e of perf o r m i n g s e r v i c e work i n t h e s e q u e n c e detaile d in t h i s c h a p t e r c a n n o t b e o v e r e m p h a s i z ed. B e f o r e making a n y a d j u s t m e n t s , c h e c k t h e Specifications in t h e Appendix. NEVER r e l y on m e m o r y when m a k i n g c r i t i c a l adjustments. B e f o r e beginning t o t u n e a n y engine, c h e c k t o b e s u r e t h e engine has s a t i s f a c t o r y compression. An e n g i n e w i t h worn o r brok e n piston rings, burned pistons, or badly s c o r e d cylinder walls, c a n n o t b e m a d e t o p e r f o r m properly no m a t t e r how m u c h t i m e a n d e x p e n s e is s p e n t on t h e tune- up. Poor compression m u s t b e c o r r e c t e d o r t h e t u n e up will not give t h e desired results.

T h e o p p o s i t e of poor compression would b e t o consider good compression as e v i d e n c e of a s a t i s f a c t o r y cylinder. However, t h i s i s n o t necessarily t h e case, when working on a n o u t b o a r d engine. As t h e professional m e c h a n i c h a s discovered, m a n y t i m e s t h e compression c h e c k will i n d i c a t e a s a t i s f a c t o r y cylinder, b u t a f t e r t h e h e a d s a r e pulled and a n i n s p e c t i o n m a d e , t h e cylinder will r e q u i r e service. A practical maintenance program t h a t is followed t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r , is o n e of t h e best m e t hods of ensuring t h e e n g i n e will give s a t i s f a c t o r y p e r f o r m a n c e at a n y time. T h e e x t e n t of t h e engine tune- up i s usually d e p e n d e n t on t h e t i m e l a p s e s i n c e t h e l a s t service. A c o m p l e t e tune- up of t h e e n t i r e e n g i n e would e n t a i l a l m o s t all of t h e work outlined i n this manual. A logical s e q u e n c e of s t e p s will b e p r e s e n t e d in general terms. If additional i n f o r m a t i o n o r

Damaged piston, probably caused by inaccurate fuel mixture, or improper point setting.

Operating the engine in a test tank with the cowling removed in preparation to making adjustments.

eblue-dist 2007

2-2

TUNING
Major Tune-up

detailed s e r v i c e work is required, t h e chapt e r containing t h e instructions will b e referenced. Each year higher compression ratios a r e built into modern outboard engines and t h e electrical systems b e c o m e m o r e complex, especially with e l e c t r o n i c (capacitor discharge) units. Therefore, t h e need f o r reliable, a u t h o r i t a t i v e , a n d detailed instructions becomes m o r e critical. T h e information in t h i s chapter and t h e referenced c h a p t e r s fulfill t h a t requirement.

R e m o v e heads. Clean carbon from pistons and cylinders. Clean and overhaul carburetor. Clean and overhaul fuel pump. Rebuild and adjust ignition system. L u b r i c a t e engine. Drain and replace gear oil. Clean exterior s u r f a c e of engine. Tank t e s t engine f o r fine adjustments. During a major tune-up, a definite seq u e n c e of s e r v i c e work should b e followed t o return t h e engine t o t h e maximum perf o r m a n c e desired. This t y p e of work should not b e confused with a t t e m p t i n g t o l o c a t e problem a r e a s of "why" t h e engine is not performing satisfactorily. This work is classified a s "troubleshooting". In many cases, t h e s e t w o a r e a s will overlap, b e c a u s e many t i m e s a minor o r major tune- up will c o r r e c t t h e malfunction and return t h e system t o normal operation. T h e foIlowing list is a suggested sequence of tasks t o perform during t h e tuneup s e r v i c e work. The tasks a r e merely listed here. Generally procedures a r e given in subsequent sections of t h i s chapter. F o r m o r e detailed instructions, s e e t h e referenced chapter. 1- P e r f o r m a compression c h e c k of e a c h cylinder. S e e C h a p t e r 3.

2-2 TUNE-UP SEQUENCE


If twenty d i f f e r e n t mechanics w e r e asked t h e question, "What c o n s t i t u t e s a major and minor tune-up?", i t is entirely possible t w e n t y different answers would b e given. As t h e t e r m s a r e used in t h i s manual and o t h e r outboard books, t h e following work is normally performed for a minor and major tune-up. Minor Turne-up Lubricate engine. Drain and replace gear oil. Adjust points. Adjust carburetor. Clean exterior s u r f a c e of engine. Tank test engine f o r fine adjustments.

The time, e f f o r t , and expense o f a tune-up will not restore an engine to satisfactory performance, if the pistons are damaged.

A boat and lower unit covered with marine growth. Such a condition is a serious hinderance t o satisfactory performance.

eblue-dist 2007

COMPRESSION CHECK
2- Inspect t h e spark plugs t o d e t e r m i n e their condition. T e s t for a d e q u a t e spark at t h e plug. See C h a p t e r 5. 3- S t a r t t h e engine in a body of w a t e r and check t h e water flow through t h e engine. S e e C h a p t e r 8. 4- Check t h e gear oil in t h e lower unit. S e e C h a p t e r 8. 5- Check t h e carburetor adjustments and t h e need for an overhaul. S e e Chapt e r 4. 6- Check t h e fuel pump for a d e q u a t e performance and delivery. S e e C h a p t e r 4. 7- Make a general inspection of t h e ignition system. S e e C h a p t e r 5. 8- Test t h e s t a r t e r motor and t h e solenoid. S e e C h a p t e r 6. 9- Check t h e internal wiring. 10- Check t h e synchronization. See Chapter 5.

2-3

2-3 COMPRESSION CHECK


A compression check is e x t r e m e l y important, because an engine with low or uneven compression between cylinders CANNOT b e tuned t o o p e r a t e satisfactorily. Therefore, i t is essential t h a t any compression problem be c o r r e c t e d before proceeding with t h e tune-up procedure. S e e C h a p t e r 3. If t h e powerhead shows any indication of overheating, such a s discolored or scorched paint, especially in t h e a r e a of t h e No. 1 cylinder (top on 3-cylinder units and t o p

starboard bank on V4's), inspect t h e cylinders visually t h r u t h e transfer p o r t s f o r possible scoring. A m o r e thorough inspection can b e m a d e if t h e heads a r e removed. I t is possible for a cylinder with s a t i s f a c t o r y compression t o b e scored slightly. Also, c h e c k t h e w a t e r pump. The overheating condition may be caused by a faulty w a t e r Pump An overheating condition m a y also b e caused by running t h e engine o u t of t h e water. For unknown reasons, many operat o r s have t h e misconception t h a t running an engine f o r a s h o r t period of t i m e without t h e lower unit submerged in w a t e r , can be done without harm. FALSE! Such a p r a c t i c e will result in an overheated condition in a m a t t e r of SECONDS. Water must circulate through $he lower unit to the engine any t h e the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump and an o v e r heating condition. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump andl cause tk engine to overheat. t

Checking Compression Remove t h e spark plug wires. ALWAYS grasp t h e molded c a p and pull i t loose with a

Removing the spark plugs for inspection. Worn plugs are one of the major contributing factors to poor engine performance.

A compression check should be taken in each cylinder before spending time and money on tune-up work. Without adequate compression, efforts in other areas to regain engine performance will be wasted.

eblue-dist 2007

2-4

TUNING
h e a d s on a n o u t b o a r d e n g i n e is n o t t h a t big a deal and m a y s a v e m a n y hours of f r u s t r a t i o n a n d t h e c o s t of purchasing u n n e c e s s a r y p a r t s t o c o r r e c t a f a u l t y condition.

BROKEN

2-4 SPARK PLUG INSPECTION


Inspect e a c h s p a r k plug f o r badly worn e l e c t r o d e s , g l a z e d , broken, b l i s t e r e d , o r l e a d fouled insulators. R e p l a c e all of t h e plugs, if o n e shows signs of e x c e s s i v e wear. M a k e an evaluation of t h e cylinder perf o r m a n c e by c o m p a r i n g t h e s p a r k condition w i t h t h o s e shown i n C h a p t e r 5. C h e c k e a c h s p a r k plug t o b e s u r e t h e y a r e all of t h e s a m e m a n u f a c t u r e r and have t h e s a m e h e a t r a n g e rating. I n s p e c t t h e t h r e a d s i n t h e s p a r k plug opening of t h e heads and c l e a n t h e t h r e a d s b e f o r e installing t h e plug. If t h e t h r e a d s a r e d a m a g e d , t h e heads should b e r e m o v e d a n d a n d a Heli-coil i n s e r t installed. If an att e m p t is m a d e t o drill o u t t h e opening w i t h t h e h e a d s i n place, s o m e of t h e filings m a y fall i n t o t h e cylinder and c a u s e d a m a g e t o t h e cylinder wall during operation. B e c a u s e t h e heads a r e m a d e of aluminum, t h e filings cannot b e removed with a magnet. When purchasing n e w s p a r k plugs, ALWAYS ask t h e m a r i n e d e a l e r if t h e r e h a s b e e n a s p a r k plug c h a n g e f o r t h e e n g i n e being serviced. C r a n k t h e engine through s e v e r a l revol u t i o n s t o blow o u t a n y m a t e r i a l which m i g h t h a v e b e c o m e dislodged during cleaning. Install t h e s p a r k plugs and t i g h t e n t h e m t o t h e t o r q u e value given i n t h e Appendix. ALWAYS u s e a new g a s k e t and w i p e t h e seats i n t h e block clean. T h e g a s k e t m u s t

Damaged spark plugs, Notice the broken electrode on the l e f t plug. The broken part must be found and removed before returning the engine t o service.

t w i s t i n g motion t o p r e v e n t d a m a g e t o t h e connection. R e m o v e t h e s p a r k plugs a n d k e e p t h e m in ORDER by cylinder f o r evaluation l a t e r . Ground t h e s p a r k plug l e a d s t o t h e engine t o render t h e ignition s y s t e m i n o p e r a t i v e while p e r f o r m i n g t h e c o m p r e s sion check. Insert a compression g a u g e i n t o t h e No. 1 ( t o p s t a r b o a r d bank) s p a r k plug opening. C r a n k t h e e n g i n e w i t h t h e s t a r t e r , o r pull on t h e s t a r t e r c o r d , t h r u at l e a s t 4 c o m p l e t e s t r o k e s w i t h t h e t h r o t t l e at t h e t h e highest wide-open position, or until possible reading is observed on t h e gauge. R e c o r d t h e reading. R e p e a t t h e test and r e c o r d t h e compression f o r e a c h cylinder. A variation b e t w e e n cylinders is f a r m o r e imp o r t a n t t h a n t h e a c t u a l readings. A variation of m o r e t h a n 5 psi b e t w e e n c y l i n d e r s i n d i c a t e s t h e lower compression cylinder m a y b e defective. T h e problem m a y b e worn, broken, or s t i c k i n g piston rings, scored pistons or worn cylinders. T h e s e probl e m s m a y only b e d e t e r m i n e d a f t e r t h e heads have b e e n removed. R e m o v i n g t h e

A foul spark plug. The condition o f this plug indicates problems in the cylinder that should be correc ted.

Today, numerous type spark plugs are available for service. ALWAYS check with your local marine dealer to be sure you are purchasing the proper plugs for the engine being serviced.

eblue-dist 2007

SYNCHRONIZING

2-5

Worn ignition points are a common problem area contributing to poor engine performance.

b e fully compressed on clean s e a t s t o comp l e t e t h e heat transfer process and t o provide a gas tight seal in t h e cylinder. If t h e torque value is too high, t h e h e a t will dissip a t e t o o rapidly. Conversely, if t h e t o r q u e value is too low, h e a t will not dissipate f a s t enough.

Breaker Points Rough or discolored c o n t a c t surfaces is sufficient reason f o r replacement. The c a m follower will usually have worn away by t h e t i m e t h e points have become unsatisfactory f o r e f f i c i e n t service. C h e c k t h e resistance across t h e contacts. If t h e test i n d i c a t e s ZERO resist a n c e , t h e points a r e serviceable. A slight resistance across t h e points will a f f e c t idle operation. X high resistance may c a u s e t h e ignition sysaem t o malfunction and loss of spark. T h e r e f o r e , if any resistance across t h e points is indicated, t h e point s e t should b e replaced.
2-6 SYNCHRONIZING
The timing on l a r g e OMC (Johnson and Evinr ude) outboard engines is controlled by adjustment of t h e points and through proper belt positioning, as outlined in C h a p t e r 5. If t h e points a r e adjusted t o o closely, t h e spark plugs will f i r e early; if adjusted with excessive gap, t h e plugs will f i r e too l a t e , f o r efficient operation. Therefore, c o r r e c t point adjustment and synchronization a r e essential f o r proper engine operation. An engine may be in apparent excellent mechanical condition, but perform poorly, unl e s s t h e points and synchronization have been adjusted precisely, according t o t h e Specifications i n t h e Appendix. To synchron i z e t h e engine, s e e C h a p t e r 5.

2-5 IGNITION SYSTEM


T h r e e ignition systems a r e used on t h e outboard engines covered i n t h i s manual: a be1 t-dr iven magneto system, a be1 t-dr iven b a t t e r y ignition s y s t e m , and a c a p a c i t o r If engine perfordischarge (CD) system. m a n c e is less t h a n e x p e c t e d , and t h e ignition is diagnosed as t h e problem a r e a , r e f e r t o C h a p t e r 5 f o r detailed s e r v i c e procedures. To synchronize t h e ignition s y s t e m with t h e fuel s y s t e m , s e e C h a p t e r 5.

2-7 BATTERY SERVICE


A b a t t e r y m a y or f o r engine operation running. To clarify: tion system, a b a t t e r y m a y not b e required o n c e t h e engine is With a m a g n e t o igniis only used t o crank

The fuel and ignition systems on any engine MUST be properly synchronized before maximum performance can be obtained from the unit.

The battery MUST be located near the engine in a well-ventilated area. It must be secured in such a manner that absolutely no movement is possible in any direction under the most violent action of the boat.

eblue-dist 2007

2-6

TUNING

t h e engine for s t a r t i n g purposes. Once t h e engine is running properly, t h e b a t t e r y could very well be removed without a f f e c t i n g engine operation. Therefore, if t h e b a t t e r y i s completely dead, t h e engine may be hand s t a r t e d with a pull cord and o p e r a t e efficiently. If the engine is equipped with either a b a t t e r y ignition system or t h e c a p a c i t o r discharge (CD) system, t h e b a t t e r y is necess a r y t o keep t h e engine running. These engines a r e a1so equipped with an a1ternator charging system t o maintain t h e b a t t e r y at a s a t i s f a c t o r y c h a r g e for proper engine perform ance. If a b a t t e r y is used f o r s t a r t i n g , inspect and service t h e b a t t e r y , cables and connections. C h e c k f o r signs of corrosion. Inspect t h e b a t t e r y case for cracks or bulges, d i r t , acid, and e l e c t r o l y t e leakage. Check t h e e l e c t r o l y t e level in each cell. Fill each cell t o t h e proper level with distilled water or water passed t h r u a demineralizer. Clean t h e t o p of the battery. The t o p of a 12-volt b a t t e r y should be kept especially clean of acid film and dirt, because of t h e

An inexpensive brush should be plrchased and used to c l e m the battery terminals. Clean terminals will ensure a proper connection.

high voltage b e t w e e n t h e b a t t e r y terminals. For best results, f i r s t wash t h e b a t t e r y with a diluted ammonia or baking soda solution t o n e u t r a l i z e any acid present. Flush t h e solution off t h e b a t t e r y with clean water. K e e p t h e vent plugs tight t o prevent t h e neutralizing solution or w a t e r from entering t h e cells. C h e c k t o be sure t h e b a t t e r y is fastened securely in position. The hold-down device should b e t i g h t enough t o prevent a n y movement of t h e b a t t e r y in t h e holder, but not s o t i g h t as t o place a s t r a i n on t h e b a t t e r y case.

A check of the electrolyte in the battery should be a regular task on the maintenance schedule on any boat.

Common set of jumper cables for using a second battery to crank and start the engine. EXTREME care should be exercised when using a second battery, as explained in the text.

eblue-dist 2007

BATTERY SERVICE
If the b a t t e r y posts or cable terminals a r e corroded, t h e cables should be cleaned s e p a r a t e l y with a baking soda solution and a wire brush. Apply a thin coating of A4ultipurpose Lubricant t o t h e posts and c a b l e clamps before making t h e connections. T h e lubricant will help t o prevent corrosion. If t h e b a t t e r y has remained under-charged, check for high resistance in t h e charging circuit. If t h e b a t t e r y appears t o be using t o o much w a t e r , t h e b a t t e r y may be defective, or i t may b e t o o small f o r t h e job.

2-7

and causing serious personal injury. If i t is necessary t o use a fast- charger on a dead b a t t e r y , ALWAYS disconnect one of t h e boat cables f r o m t h e b a t t e r y f i r s t , t o prevent burning o u t t h e diodes in t h e alternator. NEVER use a f a s t charger a s a booster t o s t a r t t h e engine because t h e diodes in t h e generator will b e DAMAGED.

Jumper Cables If booster b a t t e r i e s a r e used for s t a r t i n g an engine t h e jumper cables must be conn e c t e d correctly and in t h e proper sequence t o prevent damage t o either b a t t e r y , or t h e al ternator diodes. . ALWAYS connect a cable from t h e posit i v e terminals of t h e dead b a t t e r y t o t h e positive terminal of t h e good b a t t e r y FIRST. NEXT, connect one end of t h e other cable t o t h e negative terminals of t h e good b a t t e r y and t h e other end of t h e ENGINE for a good ground. By making t h e ground connection on t h e engine, if t h e r e is an a r c when you m a k e t h e connection i t will not b e near t h e battery. An a r c near t h e b a t t e r y could c a u s e an explosion, destroying t h e b a t t e r y
RECT I F I ER

Generator Charging A generator is installed on t h e 50 hp, 60 hp, and 75 hp models equipped with a distributor magneto system. If t h e unit is equipped with a b a t t e r y ignition o r C D syst e m , an a l t e r n a t o r is installed. When t h e b a t t e r y is partially discharged, t h e a m m e t e r should change from discharge to charge between 1500 t o 1 SO0 rpm f o r all models. If t h e b a t t e r y is fully-charged, t h e rpm will be a l i t t l e higher. With t h e engine running, in gear, in t h e w a t e r , increase t h e t h r o t t l e until t h e rpm i s approximately 5200 rpm. The a m m e t e r reading should m e e t t h e A1 t e r n a t o r Specifications in t h e Appendix. With a fullycharged b a t t e r y t h e a m m e t e r reading will

W LTAGE REGULATOR

AMMETER

SWITCH
Wiring diagram for an alternator charging circuit.

Emergency ignition s a f e t y device. One end o f the cord is secured t o the ignition key and the other end attached to the helmsman's clothing. Should the man at the wheel be accidentally thrown overboard, the key will be ejected from the ignition and the engine immediately shut down.

eblue-dist 2007

2-8

TUNING
If t h e condition of t h e fuel i s in doubt, drain, clean, and fill t h e tank with f r e s h fuel Fuel pressure at t h e carburetor should b e checked whenever a l a c k of fuel volume at t h e car buretor is suspected.

b e a bit lower because of t h e self- regulating characteristics of t h e generating systems. Before disconnecting t h e a m m e t e r , r e m o v e t h e red harness lead connected t o t h e posit i v e b a t t e r y terminal. For generating service, s e e C h a p t e r 6.

A1ternator Charging When t h e b a t t e r y is partial1 y discharged, t h e a m m e t e r should change from discharge t o charge between 800 t o 1000 rpm for all models. If t h e b a t t e r y is fully-charged, t h e rpm will b e a l i t t l e higher. With t h e engine running, i n c r e a s e t h e t h r o t t l e t o approximately 5200 rpm. The a m m e t e r reading should be approximately equal t o t h e a m p e r a g e rating of t h e al ternator installed. With a fully-charged b a t t e r y , t h e a m m e t e r reading will be a bit lower due t o t h e self-regulating characteristics of t h e generating systems. Before disconnecting t h e a m m e t e r , reconnect t h e red harness l e a d t o t h e positive b a t t e r y terminal a n d install the wing nut. 2-8 CARBURETOR ADJUSTMENTS Fuel and Fuel Tanks T a k e t i m e t o check t h e fuel t a n k and all of t h e fuel lines, fittings, c o u p h g s , valves, flexible t a n k fill and vent. If t h e fuel was not drained at t h e end of t h e previous season, m a k e a careful inspection for gum formation. When gasoline is allowed t o stand for long periods of time, particularly in t h e presence of copper, gummy deposits form. This gum can clog t h e filters, lines, and passageway in t h e carburetor.

High-speed Adjustment The high-speed needle valve is adjustable on m o s t models covered in this manual through 1965. A f t e r 1965, t h e high-speed orifice is fixed at t h e f a c t o r y and i s NOT adjustable. However, larger or smaller orif i c e s may b e installed for different elevations. On all Johnson/Evinrude engines, t h e high-speed needle valve is t h e upper valve on t h e carburetor. The upper needle is always t h e idle adjustment. The 3-cylinder units do have a high speed adjustment. A beginning "rough" adjustment f o r t h e bighspeed needle valve is 314 turn o u t (counterclockwise) f r o m t h e lightly s e a t e d (closed) position. TAKE CARE not t o seat t h e valve firmly t o prevent damage t o t h e valve or t h e carburetor. To m a k e t h e high-speed adjustment: a- Mount t h e engine in a body of water. NEVER, AGAIN NEVER, o p e r a t e t h e eng i ~ e high speed with a flush device atat tached. The engine, operating at high speed with such a device a t t a c h e d , would RUN-AWAY from l a c k of a load on t h e propeller, causing extensive damage. b- Connect a t a c h o m e t e r t o t h e engine. CAUTION: Water must circulate through t h e lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in t h e lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump.

An OMC sixgallon fuel tank with the fuel line connected through a quickdisconnect fitting. Such a fitting is handy when the tank is removed from the boat for filling.

Low- and high-speed carburetor adjustments on some V 4 engines. The text lists specific models.

eblue-dist 2007

CARBURETOR ADJUSTMENTS

2-9

c- S t a r t t h e engine and allow i t t o warm t o operating temperature. d- Shift t h e engine i n t o forward gear. e- With t h e engine running in forward g e a r , advance t h e t h r o t t l e t o t h e wide open position, and then very SLOWLY turn t h e high-speed needle valve inward (CLOCKWISE) until t h e engine begins t o loose rpm. Now, SLOWLY r o t a t e t h e needle valve outward (COUNTE R CLOCKWISE) until t h e engine peaks o u t at t h e highest rpm. If t h e high-speed needle valve adjustm e n t is too lean, t h e low-speed a d j u s t m e n t will be affected. Under c e r t a i n conditions i t may be necessary t o adjust t h e high-speed needle valve just a bit richer in order t o obtain a s a t i s f a c t o r y idle adjustment. A f t e r t h e high-speed needle adjustment has been obtained, proceed with t h e idle adjustm e n t as outlined in t h e next paragraphs.
Idle Adjustment Due t o local conditions, i t may be necessary t o adjust t h e carburetor while t h e engine is running in a t e s t t a n k or with t h e boat in a body of water. F o r maximum performance, t h e idle mixture and t h e idle rpm should be adjusted under actual o p e r a ting conditions. Set t h e idle mixture screw at t h e specified number of turns open f r o m a lightly s e a t e d position. In most cases this i s f r o m 1 t o 1% turns open f r o m close. R e f e r t o t h e Specifications in t h e Appendix. S t a r t t h e engine and allow i t t o warm t o operating temperature.

CAUTION: Water must c i r c u l a t e through the lower unit to t h e engine any t i m e the engine is r u n to prevent d a m a g e to t h e w a t e r pump i n t h e lower unit. J u s t f i v e seconds without w a t e r will d a m a g e t h e w a t e r pump. NEVER, AGAIN NEVER, o p e r a t e t h e engine at high speed with a flush device attached. The engine, operating at high speed with such a device a t t a c h e d , would RUN-AWAY from l a c k of a load on t h e propeller, causing extensive damage. With t h e engine running i n forward gear, slowly t u r n t h e idle mixture s c r e w COUNTERCLOCKWISE until t h e a f f e c t e d cylinders s t a r t t o load up or f i r e unevenly, due t o a n over-rich mixture. Slowly turn t h e idle mixture s c r e w CLOCKWISE until t h e cylinders f i r e evenly and engine rpm increases. Continue t o slowly t u r n t h e s c r e w CLOCKWISE until too lean a mixture is obtained and t h e rpms fall off and t h e engine begins t o misfire. Now, s e t t h e idle mixture screw one- quarter (1/4) t u r n o u t (counterclockwise) f r o m t h e lean- out position. This adjustment will result in an approximate t r u e setting. A too-lean s e t t i n g i s a major c a u s e of hard s t a r t i n g a cold engine. I t is b e t t e r t o have t h e adjustment on t h e rich side

A V 4 engine with the low-speed carburetor adjustm ents identified.

Carhretor from a 90 hp or 100 hp engine with the four low-speed adjusting knobs identified.

eblue-dist 2007

2-10

TUNING

rather t h a n on t h e lean side. Stating i t another way, d o not m a k e t h e adjustment any leaner t h a n necessary t o obtain a smooth idle. If the engine hesitates during acceleration a f t e r adjusting t h e idle mixture, t h e mixture is too lean. Enrich t h e mixture slightly, by turning t h e adjustment s c r e w inward until t h e engine a c c e l e r a t e s correctly. With t h e engine running in forward gear, r o t a t e t h e nylon idle adjustment screw, loc a t e d on t h e portside of t h e engine, until t h e engine idles at t h e recommended rpm, as given in t h e Specifications in t h e Appendix. This idle adjustment s c r e w is always exposed on t h e outside of t h e shroud.

Repairs and Adjustments For detailed procedures t o disassemble, clean, assemble, and adjust t h e carburetor, s e e t h e appropriate section in C h a p t e r 4 f o r t h e carburetor t y p e on t h e engine being serviced.
2-9 FUEL PUMPS

A late model fuel pump installed on 3-cylinder engine. The only service possible on this particular pump is t o change the filter.

Many times, a defective fuel pump diaphragm is mistakenly diagnosed as a probl e m in t h e ignition system. The most common problem is a tiny pin-hole in t h e diaphragm. Such a small hole will p e r m i t g a s t o e n t e r t h e crankcase and w e t foul t h e spark plug of t h e cylinder t o which t h e fuel pump is a t t a c h e d on F c y l i n d e r units. This On V 4 fouling will occur at idle-speed.

units, t h e duel pump is a t t a c h e d t o t h e No. 4 (bottom port bank) cylinder. During highspeed operation, gas quantity is limited, t h e plug i s not foul a n 8 wid1 t h e r e f o r e f i r e in a -satisfactory Fanner.

A V 4 engine being operated in an adequate size test tank for making high-speed carburetor adjustments.

A fuel pump installed on a V 4 engine. This pump may be rebuilt. Replacement parts are available through the local OMC dealer.

eblue-dist 2007

STARTER MOTOR
If t h e fuel pump f a i l s t o perform properl y , an insufficient fuel supply will be delivered t o t h e carburetor. This l a c k of fuel will c a u s e t h e engine t o run lean, l o s e rgm o r c a u s e piston scoring. When a fuel pressure gauge is added t o t h e system, i t should b e installed at t h e end of t h e fuel l i n e leading t o t h e upper carburetor. To ensure maximum perf ormance, t h e fuel pressure must b e 2 psi or m o r e at f d l throttle.

2- 1 1

Functional diagram of a typical cranking circuit.

2-10 STARTER AND SOLENOID

Tune-up Task Most fuel pumps a r e equipped with a fuel filter. The f i l t e r m a y be cleaned by f i r s t removing t h e a p , then t h e filter d e m e n t , cleaning t h e p a r t s and drying t h e w with compressed air, and finally installinp, t h e m in their original position. A fuel pump pressure t e s t should be m a d e m y t i m e t h e enaine fails t o perform satisfactoril y at high speed. NEVER use liquid Neoprene on fuel Ijpie fittings. Always use P e r m a t e x when making fuel line connections. Perrnatex is available at almost a91 marine and hardware stores. Only o n e Johnson/Evinr ude fuel pump may b e rebuilt, s e e accompanying illustration. A11 other pumps must be replaced a s a unit. F Q fuel pump service, see C h a p t e r 4. ~

Starter Motor Test Check t o be s u r e t h e b a t t e r y has a 70a m p e r e rating and is fully charged. Would you believe, many s t a r t e r motors a r e needlessly disassembled, when t h e b a t t e r y i s actually t h e culprit. Lubricate t h e pinion gear and screw s h a f t with No. 10 oil. C o n n e c t one l e a d of a voltmeter t o t h e positive terminal s f t h e s t a r t e r motor. C o n n e c t t h e o t h e r m e t e r l e a d t o a good ground on t h e engine. Check t h e b a t t e r y voltage under load by turning t h e ignition switch t o t h e START position and observing t h e v o l t m e t e r reading.

Comm ercial additives, such as Sta-bil, may be used to keep the gasoline in the fuel tank fresh. Under favorable conditions, such additives will prevent the fuel from llsouring" for up to twelve months.

Typical starter motor installation for all V 4 engines for the model years covered by this manual.

eblue-dist 2007

2-12

TUNING

If t h e reading i s 9-112 volts or g r e a t e r , and t h e s t a r t e r motor fails t o o p e r a t e , repair or replace t h e s t a r t e r motor. See C h a p t e r 6.

Solenoid Test An ohmmeter is t h e only instrument required t o effectively test a solenoid. T e s t t h e o h m m e t e r by connecting t h e red and black leads together. Adjust t h e pointer t o t h e right side of t h e scale. On all Jshnson/Evinrude engines t h e case of t h e solenoid does NOT provide a suitable ground t o t h e engine. Hundreds of solenoids have been discar&d because of t h e erroweo w belief t h e case is providing a nround and t h e unit should function when 12-volts is applied. Not so! O n e terminal of t h e solenoid is connected t o a 12-volt source. The other t e r r n i n d is connected via a w h i t e wire t o a cutout switch on t o p af t h e engine. This c u t o u t switch provides a s a f e t y t o break t h e ground t o t h e solenoid in t h e e v e n t t h e engine s t a r t s at a high rpm. Therefore, t h e solenoid ground is made a d b r o k m by t h e c u t o u t switch.

NEVER c o n n e c t t h e b a t t e r y l e a d s t o t h e l a r g e terminals of t h e solenoid, o r t h e test m e t e r will b e damaged. C o n n e c t e a c h l e a d of t h e test m e t e r t o e a c h of t h e l a r g e t e r m i n a l s on t h e solenoid. Using b a t t e r y jumper leads, connect t h e p s i t i v e l e a d f rorn t h e positive terminal of t h e b a t t e r y t o t h e small "S"" terminal of t h e solenoid. C o n n e c t t h e negative l e a d t o t h e negative b a t t e r y terminal and t h e '1'' terminal of t h e solenoid. If t h e m e t e r pointer hand moves i n t o t h e OK block, t h e solenoid is serviceable. If t h e pointer fails t o reach t h e OK block, t h e solenoid must b e replaced. 2-11 INTERNAL WIRING HARNESS
An internal wiring harness is only used on t h e larger horsepower engines covered in t h i s manual. If t h e engine is equipped with a wiring harness, t h e following checks and test will apply. Check t h e internal wiring harness if problems have been encountered with any of t h e electrical components. Check f o r frayed or chafed insulation and/or loose connections between wires and terminal connections. Check t h e harness connector for signs of corrosion. Inspect t h e electrical "prongs" t o

3TEST
Starter motor installed on all 3-cylinder engines covered in this manual.

LEAD

Proper hook-up of an ohmmeter in preparation t o testing a starter solenoid.

eblue-dist 2007

WATER PUMP
b e s u r e t h e y a r e not bent or broken. If t h e harness shows any evidence of t h e f o r e ~ ~ i n g problems, t h e problem must be c o r r e c t e d before proceeding with a n y harness testinn. Verify t h a t t h e "prongs" of t h e harness connector a r e clean and f r e e s f corrosion. Convince yourself t h a t a good electrical connection is being m a d e between t h e harness connector and t h e r e m o t e control harness.

2-13

wire for resistance between t h e harness connection and t h e terminal ends. If resist a n c e exists (meter reading outside t h e "OKw block) t h e b r n e s s MUST b e repaired or replaced.
2-12 WATER PUMP CHECK

Short Test (See Wiring Ciagram in t h e Appendix) 50 hp - 1959 Models 75 hp - 1960 Models Disconnect t h e internal wiring harness from t h e electrical components. Use a magneto analyzer, set on Scale No. 3 a n d check for continuity between any of t h e wires in t h e harness. Use Scale No. 3 a n d check for continuity between any wire and a good ground. If continuity exists, t h e harness MUST be repaired o r replaced.

FIRST A GOOD WORD: The w a t e r pump MUST b e in very good c o n d i t i ~ nfor t h e engine t o deliver s a t i s f a c t o r y service. The pump performs an e x t r e m e l y iwpcartawt function by supplying enough w a t e r t o properly cool t h e engine. Therefore, i n most cases, i t is advisable t o r e p l a c e t h e comp l e t e w a t e r pump assewbly at l e a s t once a year, or a n y t i m e t h e lower unit is disassembled f o r service. Sometimes dlarinsz adjustment procedures, i t is necessary ts run t h e m q i n e with a flush device a t t a c h e $ to t h e lower unit. NEVER o p e r a t e t h e engine over lOOQ rpm with a flush device a t t a c h e d , because t h e

Resistance Test (See t h e V1iring Diagram in t h e Appendix.) Use a magneto analyzer, set on S c a l e No. 2. Clip t h e small red and black l e a d s together. Turn t h e p e t e r adjustment knob f o r Scale No. 2 until t h e m e t e r pointer aligns with t h e set position on t h e l e f t side of tne "OK" block on Scale No. 2. S e p a r a t e t h e small red and Mack leads. U s e t h e Wiring Diagram in t h e Appendix, and check e a c h

The terminals of a side-mounted electrical connector should be inspected and cleaned each season. This connector is exposed and wlnerable to dampness and corrosion.

Check-ing water circulation and discharge, using a flush attachment connected to a garden hose. This is NOT a conclusive verification that the water is circulating properly. The garden hose water pressure could give a false impression all is well, when in reality under operating conditions the circulation may not be s a t i s factory.

eblue-dist 2007

2-14

TUNING

WATER

Considerable amount of fish line entangled around the propeller shaft. Some of the fish line actually melted, giving it the appearance of a washer.

Water pimp housing on a V 4 engine. Notice how the pump is installed on top of the lower unit.

engine may "RUN-A-WAY" due t o t h e noload condition on t h e propeller. A "run-away" engine could b e severely damaged. As t h e n a m e implies, t h e flush device is primarily used t o flush t h e engine a f t e r use in s a l t water or contaminated fresh water. Regular use of t h e flush device will prevent s a l t or silt deposits from accumulating in t h e water passageway. During and irnmediately a f t e r flushing, keep t h e motor in an upright position until all of t h e water has drained from t h e drive shaft housing. This will prevent water from entering t h e power heads by way of t h e drive shaft housing and t h e exhaust ports, during t h e flush. It will also prevent residual water from being trap-

ped in t h e driveshaft housing and other passageways. To test t h e water pump, t h e lower unit MUST be placed in a test tank or t h e boat moved into a body of water. The pump must now work t o supply a volume to t h e engine. Lack of adequate water supply from t h e water pump t h r u t h e engine will cause any number of power head failures, such a s stuck rings, scored cylinder walls, burned pistons, etc.

2-13 PROPELLER
Check t h e propeller Mades for nicks, cracks, or bent condition. If t h e propeller is damaged, t h e local marine dealer can make repairs or send i t o u t t o a shop specializing in such work. Remove t h e c o t t e r key, propeller nut, shear pin, and t h e propeller f ram t h e shaft. Check t h e propeller s h a f t seal t o be sure i t is not leaking. Check t h e a r e a just forward of t h e seal t o be sure a fish line is not wrapped around t h e shaft.

Checking water circulation with the engine operating in an adequate size test tank. Notice the water discharge, indicating the water pimp and passages are in satisfactory condition.

Ski rope entangeled around the propeller shaft. Some of the rope has actually melted and fused together. In this case, the rope cut through the lower unit oil seal, allowing the lubricant to escape.

eblue-dist 2007

LOWER UNIT

2-15

Operation A t Recommended RPM Check with t h e local O Y C dealer, o r a propeller shop f o r t h e recommended size a n d pitch for a particular size engine, boat, and intended operation. The correct p r o p d l e r should be installed on t h e engine t o enable operation at recommended rpm. Two rpm ranges a r e usual1 y given. The lower rpm is recommended for large, heavy slow boats, o r for commercial applications. The higher rpm is recommended f o r light, f a s t boats. The wide rpm range will result in g r e a t e r satisfaction because of maximum performance a d greater fuel economy. If t h e engine speed is above t h e recommended rpm, t r y a higher pitch propeller or t h e s a m e pitch cupped. S e e Chapter 1 f o r explanation of propeller terms, pitch, diame t e r , cupped, etc. For a dual engine installation, t h e next higher pitch propeller may prove t h e m o s t satisfactory condition for water skiing. 2-14 LOWER UNIT NEVER remove t h e vent or filler plugs when t h e lower unit is hot. Expanded lubric a n t would be released through t h e plug hole. Check t h e lubricant level a f t e r t h e unit has been allowed t o cool. Add only OMC approved gear lubricant. NEVER use regular automotive- type grease in t h e lower unit, because i t expands and f o a m t o o

much. Outboard lower units cb not have provisions t o accommodate such expansion. H t h e lubricant appears milky brown, f indicating t h e presence of water, a check should be made t o determine how t h e w a t e r entered. If large amounts of lubricant must b e added t o bring t h e lubricant up t o t h e full mark, a thorough inspection should b e m a d e t o find t h e cause of t h e lubricant loss.

Draining Lower Unit The fill/drain plug on Johnson/Evinrude lower units may b e located towards t h e bottom of t h e unit on t h e port side, starboard side, or on t h e leading edge of t h e lower unit. On many models a Phillips s c r e w will b e found very close t o t h e fill & drain plug. NEVER remove this Phillips screw because t h e lower unit would t h e n have t o be disassembled in order t o return t h e cradle for t h e shift dog back in place. Remove t h e drain plug and then remove t h e vent plug located just above t h e m t i cavitation plate. Filling Lower Unit Position t h e drive unit approximately vertical and without a list t o either port or starboard. Insert t h e lubricant t u b e into t h e FILLIDRAN hole at t h e bottom plug hole,

Example of a damaged propeller. This unit should have been replaced long before this amount o f damage was sustained.

New propeller ready for installation. A damaged propeller can cause excessive vibration, resulting in failure of more Bxpensive parts. The cost o f rebuilding a propeller must be carefully weighed against the price of a new unit. New propeller costs continually rise, but the labor rate involved in rebuilding is also rising.

eblue-dist 2007

and inject lubricant until t h e excess begins t o c o m e o u t t h e VENT hole. Install t h e VENT plug f i r s t then replace t h e FILL plug with NEW gaskets. Check t o b e s u r e t h e gaskets a r e proper1 y positioned t o prevent w a t e r f r o m entering t h e housing. Many t i m e s s o m e of t h e gear lubricant is l o s t during installation of t h e plugs. Therefore, if t h e vent plug i s removed again, and m o r e lubricant added very SLOWLY using a srrallspout oil can t o allow a i r t o pass o u t t h e opening, t h e r e is no doubt but what t h e unit will be filled t o capacity. For detailed lower unit s e r v i c e procedures, s e e C h a p t e r 8. For lower unit lubrication capacities, s e e t h e Appendix.

Repairs and Adjustments For detailed procedures t o disassemble, clean, assemble, and adjust t h e c a r b u r e t o r , see t h e appropriate section in C h a p t e r 4 f o r t h e carburetor t y p e on t h e engine being serviced.

2-15 BOAT TESTING


Hook and Rocker Before testing the boat, c h e c k t h e boat bottom carefully f o r marine growth or evid e n c e of a "hook" or a "rocker" in t h e bottom. Either one of t h e s e conditions will g r e a t l y reduce perforrnmce.

r e m o t e control cables and check for proper adjustment. Wake an e f f o r t t o t e s t t h e boat with w h a t might be considered an a v e r a g e gross load. The boat should ride on an even keel, Adjust without a list t o port o r starboard. t h e motor t i l t angle, if necessary, t o permit t h e boat t o ride slightly higher thaw t h e stern. If heavy supplies a r e stowed a f t of t h e c e n t e r , t h e bow will b e light and t h e boat will "plane" more efficiently. For this test t h e boat must be o p e r a t e d in a body of water. Check t h e engine r p n at full t h r o t t l e . T h e rpm should b e within t h e Specifications All Oh'C engine model in t h e Appendix. s e r i d n u v b e r identification plates indicate t h e horsepower rating and rpw range f o r t h e engine. If t k rram is not within specified r a g e , a propeller change may be in order. A higher s i t c h p r a p d l e r will d e c r e a s e rpm, and a lower pitch propeller will increase rpm. For maximum low speed engine performance, t h e i d e mixture and t h e idle rpm should be readjusted under actual operating conditions.

Perf o m ance
Mount t h e motor on t h e boat. I n s t d l t h e

Draining lubricant from the lower unit. The gear oil in the lower unit should be checked on a daily basis during the season of operation. The oil should be drained and replenished with new oil every 100 hours.

Filling the lower unit with new gear oil. Notice the unit filled through the lower plug, but the upper plug MUST be removed to allow trapped air to escape.

eblue-dist 2007

POWERHEAD
3-1 INTRODUCTION
The carburetion and ignition principles of two- cycle engine operation MUST b e understood in order t o perform a proper tuneup on a n outboard motor. Therefore, i t would b e well worth t h e time, t o study t h e principles of two- cycle engines, a s outlined in this section. A Polaroid, o r equivalent instant- type c a m e r a is an e x t r e m e l y useful i t e m providing t h e means of a c c u r a t e l y recording t h e a r r a n g e m e n t of p a r t s and wire connections BEFORE t h e disassembly work begins. Such a record is most valuable during t h e assembly work. T a g s a r e handy t o identify wires a f t e r t h e y a r e disconnected t o ensure t h e y will b e connected t o t h e s a m e terminal f r o m which t h e y w e r e removed. These t a g s may also b e used for p a r t s where marks or o t h e r means of identification is not possible. p a t t e r n in order f o r t h e m t o b e open a n d closed off a t an e x a c t m o m e n t by t h e piston a s i t moves up and down in t h e cylinder. The exhaust port is located slightly higher t h a n t h e fuel i n t a k e port. This a r r a n g e m e n t opens t h e exhaust port f i r s t a s t h e piston s t a r t s downward and t h e r e f o r e , t h e e x h a u s t phase begins a f r a c t i o n of a second b e f o r e t h e i n t a k e phase. Actually, t h e i n t a k e and exhaust ports a r e spaced s o closely t o g e t h e r t h a t both open almost simultaneously. F o r this reason, t h e pistons of most two- cycle engines have a deflector- type top. This design of t h e piston t o p serves two purposes very e f f e c tively.
DEFLECTOR I n EXHAUST PORT

r\ EXHAUST

THEORY OF OPERATION
T h e two- cycle engine differs in s e v e r a l ways from a conventional four- cycle (automobile) engine. 1- The method by which t h e fuel- air mixture is delivered t o t h e combustion chamber. 2- The c o m p l e t e lubrication system. 3- In most cases, t h e ignition system. 4- The frequency of t h e power stroke. These differences will b e discussed briefly and compared with four- cycle engine operation.

A \

7u -

PORT

KttV

VALVE

Intake/Exhaust Two- cycle engines utilize an arrangem e n t of p o r t openings t o a d m i t fuel t o t h e combustion chamber and t o purge t h e exhaust gases a f t e r burning has been completed. The ports a r e located in a precise

INTAKE

' <NTAKE l
EXHAUST

lNTAKE

Drawing to depict the intake and exhaust cycles of a two-cycle engine.

eblue-dist 2007

3-2

POWERHEAD
with e a c h revolution of t h e crankshaft. C o m p a r e this s y s t e m with a four- cycle engine. A s t r o k e of t h e piston is required t o accomplish e a c h phase of t h e c y c l e and t h e power s t r o k e o c c u r s on e v e r y o t h e r revolution of t h e crankshaft. S t a t e d another way, t w o revolutions of t h e four- cycle engine c r a n k s h a f t a r e required t o c o m p l e t e o n e full cycle, t h e four phases.

First, i t c r e a t e s turbulence when t h e incoming c h a r g e of fuel e n t e r s t h e combustion chamber. This turbulence results in m o r e c o m p l e t e burning of t h e fuel t h a n if t h e piston t o p w e r e flat. The second e f f e c t of t h e deflector- type piston crown is t o f o r c e t h e exhaust gases from t h e cylinder m o r e rapidly. This system of intake and exhaust is in marked c o n t r a s t t o individual valve arrangem e n t employed on four- cycle engines.

Lubrication A two- cycle engine is lubricated by mixing oil with t h e fuel. Therefore, various p a r t s a r e lubricated a s t h e fuel mixture passes through t h e c r a n k c a s e and t h e cylinder. Four- cycle engines have a c r a n k c a s e containing oil. This oil is pumped through a circulating system and returned t o t h e c r a n k c a s e t o begin t h e routing again. Power Stroke The combustion c y c l e of a two- cycle engine has four distinct phases. 1 Intake 2- Compression 3- Power 4- Exhaust T h r e e phases of t h e c y c l e a r e accomplished with e a c h s t r o k e of t h e piston, and t h e fourth phase, t h e power s t r o k e occurs
lNDUCED LOW A I R PRESSURE

Physical Laws The two- cycle engine is a b l e t o function b e c a u s e of two very simple physical laws. One: Gases will flow f r o m a n a r e a of high pressure t o an a r e a of lower pressure. A t i r e blowout is a n example of this principle. The high-pressure a i r escapes rapidly if t h e t u b e is punctured. Two: If a gas is compressed into a smaller a r e a , t h e pressure increases, and if a g a s expands into a larger a r e a , t h e pressure is decreased. If t h e s e two laws a r e kept in mind, t h e operation of t h e two- cycle engine will b e easier understood. Actual Operation Beginning with t h e piston approaching t o p dead c e n t e r on t h e compression stroke: The i n t a k e and exhaust ports a r e closed by t h e piston; t h e reed valve is open; t h e spark plug fires; t h e compressed fuel- air m i x t u r e

VENTUR l ,

ATMOSPHER I C A I R PRESSURE Air flow principle for a modern carburetor.

Adding OMC approved oil into the fuel tank.

eblue-dist 2007

INTRODUCTION
is ignited; and t h e power stroke begins. T h e reed valve was open because a s t h e piston moved upward, t h e crankcase volume increased, which reduced t h e crankcase pressure t o less than t h e outside atmosphere. As t h e piston moves downward on t h e power stroke, t h e combustion cflamber is filled with burning gases. As t h e exhaust port is uncovered, t h e gases, which a r e under g r e a t pressure, e s c a p e rapidly through t h e exhaust ports. The piston continues i t s downward movement. Pressure within t h e crankcase increases, closing t h e reed valves against t h e i r seats. The c r a n k c a s e t h e n becomes a sealed chamber. The air-fuel mixture is compressed ready for deiivery t o As t h e piston t h e combustion chamber. continues t o move downward, t h e i n t a k e port is uncovered. Fresh fuel rushes through t h e intake p o r t i n t o t h e combustion c h a m b e r striking t h e t o p of t h e piston where i t is deflected along t h e cylinder wall. The reed valve remains closed until t h e piston moves up ward again. When t h e piston begins t o move upward on t h e compression stroke, t h e reed valve opens because t h e crankcase volume has been increased, reducing crankcase pressure t o less than t h e outside atmosphere. The intake and exhaust ports a r e closed and t h e f r e s h fuel c h a r g e is compressed inside t h e combustion chamber.

3-3

Pressure in t h e crankcase decreases as t h e piston moves upward and a fresh c h a r g e of a i r flows through t h e carburetor picking up fuel. As t h e piston approaches t o p dead c e n t e r , t h e spark plug ignites t h e air-fuel mixture, t h e power s t r o k e begins and one c o m p l e t e c y c l e h a s been completed.

Cross Fuel Flow Principle OMC pistons a r e a deflector d o m e type. The design is necessary t o d e f l e c t t h e fuel c h a r g e up and around t h e combustion chamber. The f r e s h fuel mixture e n t e r s t h e combustion chamber through t h e intake ports and flows across t h e t o p of t h e piston. The piston design contributes t o clearing t h e combustion chamber, because t h e incomin g f u e l pushes t h e burned gases o u t t h e exhaust ports.

Loop Scavenging
All three-cylinder engine powerheads have what is commonly known as a loop scavenging system. The piston d o m e is relatively f l a t on t o p with just a small amount of crown. Pressurized fuel in t h e crankcase is f o r c e d up through t h e skirt of t h e piston and o u t through irregular shaped openings c u t in t h e skirt. A f t e r t h e fuel i s f o r c e d o u t t h e piston skirt openings i t is transferred upward through long deep grooves molded into t h e cylinder wall. The
PLUG FUEL VAPOR BYPASS

fi

EXHAUST PORT

PISTON

ii

EXHAUST

REED CLOSED

l NTAKE

'
l NTAKE

u' l
,
,

INTAKE PORT

CRANKCASE

CONNECT lNG ROD

IGN lT ION POWER STROKE EXHAUST COMPRESS ION Complete piston cycle of a two-cycle engine, depicting intake, power, and exhaust.

eblue-dist 2007

3-4

POWERHEAD
t h e piston, f r e s h air-fuel mixture is compressed in t h e crankcase. On t h e upward stroke, exhaust and int a k e continue a s long as t h e ports a r e open. Compression begins when t h e ports a r e closed and continues until t h e spark plug ignites t h e air-fuel mixture. Below t h e piston, a fresh air- fuel mixture is drawn i n t o t h e crankcase ready t o be compressed during t h e next cycle.

fuel then e n t e r s t h e combustion portion of t h e cylinder and is compressed, a s t h e piston moves upward. This particular powerhead does not have intake cover plates, because t h e i n t a k e passage is molded into t h e cylinder wall as described in t h e previous paragraph. Therefore, if these engines a r e being serviced, disregerd t h e sections covering intake cover plates.

Timing The e x a c t t i m e of spark plug firing depends on engine speed. At low speed t h e spark is retarded -- f i r e s l a t e r than when t h e piston is a t or beyond t o p dead c e n t e r . Therefore, t h e timing is advanced a s t h e magneto a r m a t u r e plate advances. At high speed, t h e spark is advanced -fires earlier than when t h e piston is a t t o p dead c e n t e r . Procedures for making t h e timing and synchronization adjustment will be found in Chapter 5.

3-2 CHAPTER ORGANIZATION


This c h a p t e r is divided into 23 main s e r v i c e sections. Each section covers a particular a r e a of service and outlines comp l e t e instructions f o r t h e work t o b e performed. Because of t h e many countless number of outboard units in t h e field, i t would b e impractical and almost impossible t o give detailed procedures f o r removal and installation of e a c h bolt, c a r b u r e t o r , s t a r t e r , and o t h e r "buildup" t y p e units. Therefore, t h e sections, for t h e particular powerhead work t o be performed, begin with t h e preliminary access tasks completed. As an example, disassembly of t h e powerhead begins with t h e necessary hood, cowling, and accessories, removed. The information is presented in a logical

Sum m ary Y o r e than one ~ h a s e t h e cycle occurs of simultaneously during operation of a twoc y c l e engine. C n t h e downward stroke, power occurs above t h e piston while t h e ports a r e closed. When t h e ports open, exhaust begins and i n t a k e follows. Below

Drawing to depict fuel flow of the "loop charge" while the piston is on the down stroke.

Drawing to depict the exhaust leaving the cylinder and fuel entering through the three ports in the piston.

eblue-dist 2007

DISASSEMBLING
s e q u e n c e f o r c o m p l e t e p o w e r h e a d overhaul. T h e i n s t r u c t i o n s c a n b e followed g e n e r a l l y f o r a l m o s t a n y s i z e horsepower engine. In r a r e cases, w h e r e t h e p r o c e d u r e s d i f f e r depending o n t h e m o d e l being s e r v i c e d , s e p a r ate s t e p s a r e included. O n e e x a m p l e i s t h e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of c r a n k s h a f t installations. T h e illustrations a c c o m p a n y i n g t h e t e x t a r e f r o m d i f f e r e n t s i z e units a n d t h e c a p t i o n s c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y which model i s covered. Exploded drawings, showing principle parts, f o r t h e various s i z e powerheads a r e included at t h e e n d of t h e c h a p t e r . Special tools may b e c a l l e d o u t in c e r t a i n instances. T h e s e t o o l s ALWAYS m a k e t h e job e a s i e r a n d w i t h l e s s risk of d a m a g i n g expensive parts. Tools m a y be p u r c h a s e d froin l o c a l Johnson/Evinrude d e a l e r s o r directly from Custoiner Services Department, O u t b o a r d Marine C o r p o r a t i o n (OMC), Waukegan, IL, 60085. If n o t posssible t o o r d e r , special make- shift i t e m s m a y b e necessary. T h e c h a p t e r e n d s w i t h Break-in P r o c e dures, S e c t i o n 3-25, t o b e p e r f o r m e d a f t e r t h e p o v ~ e r h e a d h a s been assembled, a l l accessories installed, and t h e p o w e r h e a d m o u n t e d on t h e e x h a u s t housing. T o r q u e Values All t o r q u e values m u s t b e m e t when t h e y a r e specified. Wany of t h e o u t b o a r d casti n T and Q t h e r p a r t s a r e m a l e of aluminum. T h e t o r q u e values a r e ~ i v e n t o p r e v e n t s t r e t c h i n s t h e bolts, h u t m o r e i m p o r t a n t l y t o p r o t e c t t h e t h r e a d s in t h e aluminum. I t i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t t o t i p h t e n t h e connecting rods t o t h e proper torqr-le value t o e n s u r e proper service. T h e h e a d bolts a r e prohably t h e n e x t p o s t i a r p o r t a n t t o r q u e value. Powerhead Components S e r v i c e ps&pcedtares f o r t h e c a r b u r e t o r s , fuel pumps, s t a r t e r , and o t h e r p o w e r h e a d c o m n o n e n t s a r e piven in t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c t a p t e r s of this manual. See t b e Table of tnontents.

3-5

Cleanliness Make a determined e f f o r t t o keep parts a n d t h e work a r e a as c l e a n as possible. P a r t s MUST b e c l e a n e d a n d thoroughly ins p e c t e d b e f o r e t h e y a r e assembled, installed, o r adjusted. U s e proper l u b r i c a n t s , o r t h e i r equivalent, w h e n e v e r t h e y a r e r e c o m mended. K e e p rods and rod c a p s t o g e t h e r as a set t o e n s u r e t h e y will b e installed as a pair a n d i n t h e proper sequence. N e e d l e b e a r i n g s MUST r e m a i n as a comp l e t e set. NEVER mix n e e d l e s f r o m o n e set w i t h a n o t h e r . If only o n e n e e d l e is damage d , t h e c o m p l e t e set MUST b e replaced.
3-3 POW ERHEAD DISASSEMBLING P r e l i m i n a r y Work You m a y e l e c t t o follow t h e p r a c t i c e of m a n y professional m e c h a n i c s by t a k i n g a s e r i e s s photographs of t h e e n g i n e w i t h t h e f flywheel removed: o n e f r o m t h e top, a n d a c o u p l e f r o m t h e s i d e s showing t h e wiring a n d a r r a n g e m e n t of parts. ~ e f o r te e p o w e r h e a d c a n b e disassemblh e d , t h e b a t t e r y m u s t b e disconnected; f u e l lines d i s c o n n e c t e d ; a n d t h e c a r b u r e t o r , gene r a t o r , a l t e r n a t o r , s t a r t e r , flywheel, a n d ignition c o m p o n e n t s , a l l removed. If in d o u b t as t o how t h e s e i t e m s a r e t o b e r e m o v e d , refer t o the appropriate chapter. After t h e accessories have been removed, remove t h e b o l t s in t h e f r o n t a n d r e a r of t h e powerhead s e c u r i n g t h e p o w e r h e a d t o t h e e x h a u s t housing. L i f t t h e p o w e r h e a d f r e e .

Reed Installation
All r e e d s on 3nbnson/F vinrude e n g i n e s coverecl in t h i s mmrral a r e installed just behind t h e carburetcar behind t h e i n t z k e !--?!-if old.
Cleaning the piston while they remain in the powerhead. The pistons should be carefully inspected for burned areas and the cylinder walls checked for scoring.

eblue-dist 2007

3-6

POWERHEAD

Cylinder block water passages corroded,preventing proper circulation o f coolant water.

V 4 engine thermostat housing with the relief valve under the light spring ( l e f t ) and thermostat under the heavy spring (right). If the springs should accidently be reversed, the relief valve would fail to open.

BAD NEWS I i the unit is several years old, o r if i t has been operated in s a l t w a t e r , o r has not had proper maintenance, o r shelter, o r any number of o t h e r f a c t o r s , then separating t h e powerhead f r o m t h e exhaust housing may not be a simple task. An a i r h a m m e r m a y be required on t h e studs t o shake t h e corrosion loose; h e a t may have t o be applied t o t h e casting t o expand i t slightly; o r o t h e r devices employed in order t o remove t h e One very serious condition powerhead. would be t h e driveshaft "frozen11 with t h e crankshaft. In this case, a circular plugt y p e hole must be drilled and a torch used t o c u t t h e driveshaft. Let's assume t h e powerhead will c o m e f r e e on t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t .
The following procedures pickup t h e work a f t e r t h e s e preliminary tasks have been completed.

t h e open position. An engine operating at too low a t e m p e r a t u r e is almost as much a problem a s an engine running t o o hot. Therefore, during a major overhaul, good shop practice d i c t a t e s t o replace t h e thermo s t a t and eliminate this a r e a a s a possible problem at a l a t e r d a t e . Lay a piece of f i n e sandpaper or e m o r y paper on a f l a t s u r f a c e (such a s a piece of glass) with t h e abrasive side facing up. With t h e machined f a c e of t h e head on t h e sandpaper, move t h e head in a circular motion t o dress t h e surface. This procedure will also indicate a n y "high" or "low" spots. Check t h e spark plug opening/s t o b e s u r e t h e t h r e a d s a r e not damaged. Most marine dealers can insert a heli-coil into a spark plug opening if t h e t h r e a d s have been damaged. On many engines, a sending unit is installed in t h e head t o warn t h e operator if

3-4 HEAD SERVICE


Usually t h e headis is removed and an examination of t h e cylinders m a d e t o determine t h e e x t e n t of overhaul required. Wowe v e r , if t h e headis has not been removed, back o u t all of t h e head bolts and l i f t t h e head/s f r e e of t h e powerhead. A therinostat is installed in t h e head of a l l 3-cylinder engines. On V 4 engines, t h e therinostat i s installed in a Bakelite housing between t h e two heads just below t h e exhaust housing plate. The t h e r m o s t a t has t h r e e parts, a top, middle, and bottom. A hose connects t h e t h e r m o s t a t with e a c h head. In addition t o t h e t h e r m o s t a t , t h e engine has a t h e r m o s t a t bypass valve. These i t e m s a r e easily removed, inspected and cleaned. Normally, if a t h e r m o s t a t is not functioning properly, i t is almost always s t u c k in

Thermostat installation on a three-cylinder engine. Both springs are the same weight and control the relief valves.

eblue-dist 2007

REED SERVICE

3-7

A three-cylinder engine block with the labyrinth s e d s to hold pressure and vacuum within each cylinder.

The head on the l e f t is used on the 50 hp 1958 and 1959 engines. The head on the right is used on the 75 hp and later engines. The head on the right has a built-in water jacket, the head on the l e f t does not.

single carburetor with double barrels was used, each barrel serving two cylinders. On l a t e r model V 4 engines, t w o carburetors, each with double barrels, were installed, each barrel serving a single cylinder.

t h e engine begins t o run too hot. The light on t h e dash can be checked by turning t h e ignition switch t o t h e O N position, and t h e n ground t h e wire t o t h e sending unit. The light should come on. If i t does not, replace t h e bulb and repeat the test. On l a t e r model engines t h e light was replaced with a horn mounted in t h e shift box. This horn sounds if t h e engine overheats. Head installation procedures a r e given in Section 3-24, Head Installation.

Cylinder Sealing The three-cylinder engines covered in this manual a r e equipped with an upper seal and bearing, a lower seal and bearing, and t w o main bearings between. A labyrinth seal is used at t h e t w o c e n t e r main bearings and just above t h e bottom seal, t o provide a n e f f e c t i v e seal between t h e cylinders.
On t h e V4 engines covered in this manual, a t o p and bottom seal is used with sealing rings around t h e crankshaft in t h e c e n t e r between e a c h cylinder, in each bank, t o seal f o r pressure and vacuum. The early model V4 engines had a "two-ring n crankshaft. L a t e r models incorporated a "threering" crankshaft. Still l a t e r models have a "six-ring" arrangement, which eliminates t h e necessity of having t h e labyrinth seals. I t is not possible t o exchange a two-ring crankshaft for a three- ring crankshaft or t h e o t h e r way around. The s a m e type crankshaft must ALWAYS be installed as a replacement.

3-5 REED SERVICE


DESCRIPTION

Fuel Delivery The fuel delivery may b e one of several types. All three-cylinder engines a r e equipped with t h r e e carburetors, one for each cylinder. On early model V 4 engines a

A three-cylinder head ( l e f t ) and a V 4 head (right). The water temperature sending unit wire is identified.

V 4 engine block with sealing rings to hold pressure and vacuum within each cylinder.

eblue-dist 2007

3-8

PO WERHEAD

Reed Arrangement On a four-cylinder powerhead, f o u r s e t s of reeds a r e installed, o n e for e a c h cylinder. On a three-cylinder engine, t h r e e s e t s of reeds a r e used. These reeds a r e t o b e installed on a reed plate with a reed box. Fuel is delivered t o t h e reeds a s described in t h e paragraph above, Fuel Delivery. The reed arrangement o p e r a t e s in much t h e s a m e manner a s t h e reed in a saxophone o r other wind instrument. At rest, t h e reed is closed and seals t h e opening t o which i t is attached. In t h e c a s e of an outboard engine, this opening is between t h e crankcase and t h e carburetor. The reeds a r e mounted in t h e intake manifold, just behind t h e carburetor.

Actual Operation
The piston c r e a t e s vacuum and pressure in t h e crankcase a s i t moves up and down in t h e cylinder. As t h e piston moves upward, a vacuum is c r e a t e d in t h e crankcase. This vacuum "lifts" t h e reed off i t s seat, allowing fuel t o pass. On t h e compression s t r o k e , when t h e piston moves downward, pressure is c r e a t e d and t h e reed is f o r c e d closed.
Reed box assembly mounted on the reed plate showing the four reeds used on the 75 hp and later model engines.

GOOD WORDS - A TIP When servicing a 50 h p -- 1958 or 1959 engine, reed boxes sold f o r t h e 75 hp powerhead may be purchased and used. These new reeds will help conserve a considerable amount of fuel. The corners of t h e reed box must b e rounded slightly t o permit i t t o seat properly in t h e block, a s shown in t h e accompanying illustration.

Reed Designs A wide range of r e e d boxes m a y b e found on an outboard unit, due t o t h e varying designs of t h e engines. All installations employ t h e s a m e principle and t h e r e is no difference in t h e i r operation. Broken Reed A broken reed is usually caused by m e t a l f a t i g u e over a long period of time. T h e failure m a y al-so be due t o t h e reed flexing t o o f a r because t h e reed stop has not been adjusted properly or t h e s t o p has become distorted. If t h e r e e d is broken, t h e loose

'INTAKE

PORT ABOUT TO OPEN

EXHAUST PORT

FUEL I N CRANKCASE

I N CRANKCASE

EXHAUST
Diagram to illustrate operation of a two-cycle outboard engine.
-

engines.

eblue-dist 2007

REED SERjrlCE
piece MUST b e l o c a t e d and removed, before t h e engine is returned t o service. The piece of reed may have found i t s way i n t o t h e crankcase, i n t o t h e passage leading t o t h e cylinder, or in t h e cylinder. If t h e broken piece cannot b e located, t h e powerhead must be completely disassembled until i t is located and removed. An excellent check for a broken reed on an operating engine is t o hold an ordinary business card approximately 2" (9.08 c m ) in f r o n t of t h e carburetor. Under normal operating conditions, a very small amount of f i n e mist will be noticeable, but if fuel begins t o appear rapidly on t h e card f r o m t h e carburetor, one of t h e reeds is broken and causing t h e backflow through t h e carburetor and onto t h e card. A broken reed will c a u s e t h e engine t o o p e r a t e roughly and with a "pop" back through t h e carburetor.

3-9

!\

1-

BROKEN REED VALVE


i

Reed Stops If t h e reed stops have become distorted, t h e most e f f e c t i v e c o r r e c t i v e action is t o replace t h e complete reed box a s an assembly, Illustration 81 and f 2. Reed to Reed Box Check The specified clearance of t h e r e e d f r o m t h e base plate, when t h e reed is at rest, i s 0.010" (0.254 m m ) at t h e tip of t h e reed, Illustration #3. An a l t e r n a t e method of checking t h e reed clearance is t o hold t h e reed up t o t h e sunlight and look through t h e back side. Some a i r space should be visible, but not a g r e a t amount. If in doubt, check t h e r e e d at t h e t i p with a f e e l e r gauge. The maximum clearance should not exceed 0.010" (0.254 mm). If t h e clearance is excessive, t h e reed box must be replaced a s a c o m p l e t e assembly

The r e e d s must NEVER b e turned over in an a t t e m p t t o c o r r e c t a problem. Such action would cause t h e reed t o f l e x in t h e opposite direction and t h e reed would break in a very short time.

V-Type Reed Boxes


As t h e name implies, t h e s e reed boxes a r e shaped in a "\I" with a set of reeds and stops on both a r m s of t h e "V". If a problem develops with this t y p e reed box, t h e comp l e t e assembly MUST b e replaced -- reeds, box, and stops. The assembly m a y be purchased a s a c o m p l e t e unit and t h e cost will usually not e x c e e d t h e t i m e , e f f o r t , and problems encountered in an a t t e m p t t o replace only one part.

eblue-dist 2007

3- 1 0

POWERHEAD
covers protect the a r e a the fuel travels f r o m t h e c r a n k c a s e up t h e s i d e of t h e powe r h e a d a n d i n t o t h e cylinder. Seldom d o e s a bypass c o v e r c a u s e a n y problem. During a normal overhaul, t h e bypass c o v e r s should b e r e m o v e d , c l e a n e d , a n d n e w g a s k e t s installed, Illustration 55. Identify t h e covers t o ensure installation in t h e s a m e l o c a t i o n f r o m which t h e y a r e removed. This i d e n t i f i c a t i o n is i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e t h e f u e l pump or s t a r t e r solenoid m a y b e a t t a c h e d t o t h e bypass c o v e r

CLEANING AND SERVICE


Always handle t h e r e e d s w i t h t h e u t m o s t c a r e . Rough t r e a t m e n t will r e s u l t i n t h e r e e d s becoming d i s t o r t e d a n d will a f f e c t t h e i r performance. Wash t h e r e e d s in solvent, a n d blow t h e m dry with c o m p r e s s e d a i r f r o m t h e BACK SIDE ONLY. Do not blow a i r through t h e r e e d f r o m t h e f r o n t side. Such a c t i o n would c a u s e t h e r e e d t o open a n d f l y up a g a i n s t t h e r e e d stop. Wipe t h e f r o n t of t h e r e e d d r y w i t h a l i n t f r e e cloth. C l e a n t h e r e e d box thoroughly by removing a n y old g a s k e t m a t e r i a l . S e c u r e t h e r e e d blocks t o t h e r e e d p l a t e with the screws tightened t o t h e torque value given in t h e Appendix. C h e c k f o r chipped o r broken reeds. Obs e r v e t h a t t h e r e e d s a r e not preloaded o r s t a n d i n g open. S a t i s f a c t o r y r e e d s will not a d h e r e t o t h e r e e d block s u r f a c e , but s t i l l t h e r e is not m o r e t h a n 0.010" (0.254 m m ) c l e a r a n c e b e t w e e n t h e r e e d a n d t h e block surface. C h e c k t h e r e e d l o c a t i o n over t h e r e e d block, or p l a t e openings, t o b e s u r e t h e r e e d is centered. The reed assemblies a r e then ready for installation.

INSTALLATION
P r o c e d u r e s t o install t h e bypass c o v e r s t o t h e p o w e r h e a d will b e found i n S e c t i o n 322, Exhaust C o v e r and Bypass C o v e r Installation.

3-7 EXHAUST COVER


T h e e x h a u s t c o v e r s a r e o n e of t h e m o s t n e g l e c t e d i t e m s on a n y o u t b o a r d engine. Seldom a r e t h e y c h e c k e d a n d serviced. Many t i m e s a n e n g i n e m a y b e o v e r h a u l e d and returned t o service without t h e exhaust c o v e r s e v e r having b e e n removed. T h e e x h a u s t manifold is l o c a t e d on t h e p o r t s i d e of three- cylinder engines, Illustrat i o n 376. O n V4 engines, t h e e x h a u s t manif o l d is l o c a t e d at t h e r e a r of t h e p o w e r h e a d b e t w e e n t h e t w o cylinder heads, Illustration

REED ASSEMBLING
Position a NEW g a s k e t i n p l a c e on t h e r e e d p l a t e , Illustration /14. Install t h e r e e d box t o t h e r e e d p l a t e by t h r e a d i n g t h e s c r e w s through t h e r e e d p l a t e f r o m t h e b a c k s i d e a n d i n t o t h e r e e d box. F o r i n s t a l l a t i o n of t h e r e e d box t o t h e powerhead, see S e c t i o n 3-23.

87.

3-6 BYPASS COVERS


On three- cylinder e n g i n e s t h e p o w e r h e a d d o e s n o t c o n t a i n bypass covers. T h e bypass

eblue-dist 2007

EXHAUST COVER

3- 1 1

One reason t h e exhaust covers a r e not removed is because t h e attaching bolts usually become corroded in place. This means they a r e very difficult t o remove, but t h e work should be done. H e a t applied t o t h e bolt head and around t h e exhaust cover will help in removal. However, some bolts may still be broken. If t h e bolt is broken i t must b e drilled o u t and t h e hole tapped with new threads. The exhaust covers a r e installed over t h e exhaust ports t o allow t h e exhaust t o leave t h e powerhead and be transferred t o t h e exhaust housing. If t h e cover was t h e only i t e m over t h e exhaust ports, they would become so hot from t h e exhaust gases t h e y might cause a f i r e or a person would be severely burned if t h e y c a m e in c o n t a c t with t h e cover. Therefore, an inner plate is installed t o help dissipate t h e exhaust heat, Illustration 8 . Two gaskets a r e installed -- one on either side of the inner plate. Water is channeled to circulate between t h e exhaust cover and t h e inner plate. This circulating water cools t h e exhaust cover and prevents i t from becoming a hazard. A thorough cleaning of t h e inner plate behind the exhaust covers should b e - performed during a major engine overhaul. If t h e integrity of t h e exhaust cover assembly is in doubt, replace t h e inner plate. On powerheads equipped with t h e heat/e l e c t r i c choke, a baffle is installed on t h e inside surface of t h e inner plate. This b a f f l e is heated from t h e engine exhaust

gases. Air passing through t h e baffle heats t h e choke and allows t h e choke t o open as engine t e m p e r a t u r e rises.

eblue-dist 2007

3- 12

POWERHEAD
c a p up and f r e e of t h e block. Drive t h e seal from t h e bearing c a p using a punch and hammer. Remove t h e O-rings from t h e outside edge of t h e bearing cap.

CLEANING Clean any gasket material from t h e cove r and inner plate surfaces. Check t o b e sure the water passages in t h e cover and plate a r e clean t o permit adequate passage of cooling water. Inspect the inlet and o u t l e t holes in t h e powerhead t o b e sure they a r e clean and f r e e of corrosion. The openings in t h e powerhead may be cleaned with a small size screwdriver. Clean t h e a r e a around t h e exhaust ports and in t h e webs running up t o t h e exhaust ports. Carbon has a habit of forming in this area. INSTALLATION Procedures t o install t h e exhaust covers will be found in Section 3-22, Exhaust Cover and Bypass Cover Installation. 3-8 T O P SEAL On early model engines, t h e t o p seal maintains vacuum and pressure in t h e crankcase at the t o p cylinder. Engineering changes installed e x t r a rings around t h e crankshaft t o seal t h e crankcase. On these engines t h e t o p seal simply prevents oil from escaping around t h e bearing. REMOVAL V4 ENGINE Remove t h e bolts securing t h e upper c a p in place. CAREFULLY work t h e bearing

REMOVAL THREE-CYLINDER ENGINE In order t o replace t h e t o p seal on t h e three-cylinder engine, t h e crankcase cover must be removed, t h e crankshaft raised, and t h e t o p bearing removed, before t h e seal can b e removed. See section 3-18 t o accomplish this task.

ASSEMBLING V4 ENGINES Install a NEW seal into t h e bearing cap, 7. with t h e hard side facing UP, Illustration 3 9 Position a NEW O-ring in place around t h e bearing cap, Illustration #lo. C o a t t h e 0ring with oil. Set t h e assembly aside for l a t e r installation, s e e Section 3- 18.

3-9 BOTTOM SEAL


The bottom seal has equal importance a s t h e t o p seal. This seal is installed t o maintain vacuum and pressure in t h e lower half of t h e crankcase f o r t h e lower cylinder. Two types of lower seals a r e used on t h e engines covered in this manual. One type, used on t h e V 4 engines, has a quadrant ring, O-ring, spring, and a n E-clip. The other t y p e is installed on three-cylinder engines and l a t e model V 4 engines. This type seal is mounted in t h e lower bearing cap.

eblue-dist 2007

BOTTOM SEAL

3- 13

Seal M o u n t e d on t h e C r a n k s h a f t V4 Engines, 1958 t h r u 1968


This b o t t o m seal prevents exhaust f u m e s f r o m e n t e r i n g t h e c r a n k c a s e , a n d h o l d s press u r e a n d v a c u u m inside. T h e s e a l c o n s i s t s of a q u a d r a n t ring, O - r i n g , r e t a i n e r w a s h e r , s p r i n g , a n o t h e r w a s h e r , a n d a s n a p ring. Removal T o remove this seal f r o m t h e lower end of t h e c r a n k s h a f t , u s e a pair of T r u a r c p l i e r s a n d C A R E F U L L Y r e m o v e t h e s n a p ring. T A K E C A R E not t o l o s e a n y of t h e p a r t s due t o t h e spring pressure against t h e s n a p ring. N o t i c e how t h e q u a d r a n t O - r i n g f i t s i n s i d e t h e s e a l , I l l u s t r a t i o n /ill. This r i n g i s a l s o r e m o v a b l e . O b s e r v e how t h e q u a d r a n t r i n g h a s a r a i s e d e d g e on o n e s i d e , Illustrat i o n 1712. This r a i s e d e d g e M U S T f a c e u p w a r d when t h e s e a l is i n s t a l l e d .

IN S P E C T I O N
C h e c k t o b e s u r e t h e s p r i n g h a s good tension. C h e c k t o b e s u r e t h e w a s h e r s a r e n o t d i s t o r t e d . T h e q u a d r a n t O- ring s h o u l d b e DISCARDED and a new o n e installed. Good shop p r a c t i c e d i c t a t e s t h e quadrant O- ring s e a l b e r e p l a c e d e a c h t i m e t h e l o w e r seal is serviced. C h e c k t h e g r o o v e in t h e l o w e r e n d of t h e c r a n k s h a f t w h e r e t h e T r u a r c r i n g f i t s . If t h e g r o o v e is not c l e a n , t h e r i n g will s n a p

o u t a n d t h e l o w e r s e a l i n g q u a l i t i e s will b e l o s t . If t h e g r o o v e is b a d l y c o r r o d e d , t h e c r a n k s h a f t must b e replaced. For installat i o n p r o c e d u r e s , see S e c t i o n 3-21.

Seal I n s t a l l e d i n B e a r i n g C a p V4 E n g i n e s 1969 t h r u 1971 T h e s e a l on t h e s e e n g i n e s is i n s t a l l e d inside t h e lower bearing cap. Its function i s t h e s a m e a s t h e s e a l on t h e o t h e r V 4 e n g i n e s just c o v e r e d . The seal prevents exhaust fumes from entering the crankcase, and holds p r e s s u r e a n d v a c u u m inside.
Removal If t h e s e a l is t o b e r e p l a c e d w i t h o u t o v e r h a u l i n g t h e p o u 3 e r h e a d , p r o c e e d a s f ol1ows:

eblue-dist 2007

3- 14

POWERHEAD
must be removed before t h e crankcase cover can b e removed. The s e a l can be punched o u t and new ones installed without difficulty. Remove t h e O-rings from t h e cap. If t h e powerhead is not t o be overhauled, install t h e seal with t h e hard side DOWN. Drive t h e seal and O-ring into place using t h e c o r r e c t size socket and hammer, Illust r a t i o n #15. Align t h e holes in t h e c a p with t h e holes in t h e powerhead. Secure t h e c a p in place with t h e a t t a c h i n g bolts. If t h e powerhead is t o b e overhauled, s e e Section 3-21 t o install t h e bottom seal and cap.

Remove t h e outside perimeter bolts on t h e bearing cap. Remove t h e four bolts closer t o t h e crankshaft. Use a pair of screwdrivers and work t h e bearing c a p f r e e of t h e lower bearing. Remove t h e O-rings f r o m t h e outside edge of t h e bearing cap. Use a punch and drive t h e seal o u t of t h e bearing cap. Install t h e new seal with t h e hard side

3-10 CEI\FTERING PINS

DOWN, Illustration 1/13. Drive t h e seal i n t o


place using t h e c o r r e c t s i z e socket and a hammer. Install t h e outside O-rings around t h e cap, Illustration f14. If t h e powerhead is t o b e overhauled, s e t t h e assembly aside for l a t e r installation. If t h e powerhead is not t o be overhauled, see installation procedures in Section 3-18.

Seal in a Cap All Three-cylinder Engines


The s e a l on t h e s e engines is installed in a cap. The c a p is bolted t o t h e bottom of t h e powerhead. The four bolts securing t h e c a p

All Johnson/Evinr ude outboard engines have at least one, and in most cases two, centering pins installed through t h e crankcase cover. These pins index i n t o matching holes in t h e powerhead block when t h e crankcase cover is installed. These pins c e n t e r t h e crankcase cover on t h e powerhead block. The centering pins a r e tapered. The pins m u s t be carefully checked t o determine how t h e y a r e t o be removed from t h e cover, Illustration f 16 In most cases t h e pin is removed by using a c e n t e r punch and tapping t h e pin towards t h e carburetor o r i n t a k e manif old side of t h e crankcase.

eblue-dist 2007

CRANKCASE BOLTS
When removing a centering ;:Q. hold t h e punch securely o n t o t h e pin head, then s t r i k e t h e punch a good hard forceful blow. DO NOT k e e p beating on t h e end of t h e pin, because such action would round t h e pin head until i t would not be possible t o drive i t o u t of t h e cover. Centering pins a r e t h e f i r s t i t e m t o be installed in t h e cover when replacing t h e crankcase cover.

3- 15

3-11 MAIN BEARING BOLTS AND CRANKCASE SIDE BOLTS


The main bearing bolts a r e installed through t h e crankcase cover i n t o t h e powerhead block. Most engines have t w o bolts installed f o r t h e t o p main bearing, t w o f o r t h e c e n t e r main bearing, and t w o for t h e lower main bearing. In many cases t h e upper and lower main bearing bolts a r e DIFFERENT lengths. Therefore, t a k e t i m e t o t a g and identify t h e bolts t o ensure t h e y will be installed in t h e s a m e location from which t h e y w e r e removed. The crankcase side bolts a r e installed along t h e edge of t h e crankcase cover t o s e c u r e t h e cover t o t h e cylinder block. These bolts usually have a 7/16" head and all must be removed before t h e c r a n k c a s e cover can be removed. Remove t h e c r a n k c a s e side bolts, Illustration f17. Remove t h e main bearing bolts. Two bolts installed in t h e c e n t e r a r e behind t h e reeds. Normally t h e s e two a r e not a c t u a l l y bolts, but Allen head screws. All six main bearing bolts must b e removed b e f o r e t h e c r a n k c a s e cover can be removed, Illustra-

INSTALLATION
Main bearing bolt and t h e crankcase side bolt installation is given in Section 3-20, Cylinder Block Assembling, under Main Bearing and Crankcase Side Bolt Installation.

eblue-dist 2007

3- 16

POWERHEAD

3-12 CRANKCASE COVER ALL ENGINES REMOVAL


Remove all bolts securing t h e upper bearing c a p and all bolts securing t h e lower bearing c a p in place, if this has not been done. If t h e engine being serviced is a n older V 4 model, t h e T r u a r c snap ring and lower seal must also b e removed. A f t e r all side bolts and main bearing bolts have been removed, use a soft- headed mallet and t a p on t h e bottom side of t h e crankshaft. A s o f t , hollow sound should b e heard indicating t h e cover has broken loose from t h e crankcase. If t h i s sound is not heard, check t o be sure all t h e side bolts and main bearing bolts have been removed. NEVER pry between t h e cover and t h e crankcase o r t h e cover will surely b e distorted. If t h e cover is distorted, i t will fail t o m a k e a proper seal when i t is installed. Such an installation would d a m a g e both crankcase halves and render t h e m unfit f o r service -- a n expensive replacement. Once t h e crankshaft has been tapped, a s described, and t h e proper sound heard, t h e cover will be jarred loose and may be removed.

Rod and rod cap with the two alignment dimples shown.

Inspect t h e sealing ring grooves at t h e c e n t e r main bearing a r e a t o be sure t h e y a r e clean and not damaged in a n y manner, Illust r a t i o n #20.

INSTALLATION
Installation procedures f o r t h e crankcase cover a r e given in Section 3-19, C r a n k c a s e Cover Installation.

CLEANING AND INSPECTING


Wash t h e cover with solvent, and t h e n d r y i t thoroughly. Check t h e mating s u r f a c e t o t h e cylinder block for d a m a g e t h a t m a y a f f e c t t h e seal.

3-13 CONNECTING RODS AND PISTONS The connecting rods and t h e i r rod c a p s a r e a MATCHED set. They absolutely MUST be identified, kept, a n d installed as a set. Under no circumstances should t h e connecting rod and c a p s b e interchanged. Theref o r e , on a multiple piston engine, TAKE TIME AND CARE t o t a g e a c h rod and rod cap; t o k e e p t h e m t o g e t h e r a s a s e t while t h e y a r e on t h e bench; and t o install t h e m i n t o t h e s a m e cylinder f r o m which t h e y w e r e removed as a set. The connecting rod and i t s c a p a r e manufactured a s a set --as a single unit. A f t e r t h e complete rod and c a p have been made, t w o holes a r e drilled through t h e side of t h e c a p a n d rod, a n d t h e c a p i s then f r a c t u r e d from t h e rod. Therefore, t h e c a p m u s t always b e installed with i t s original rod. The c a p half of t h e break c a n ONLY b e m a t c h e d with t h e o t h e r half of t h e break on t h e ORIGINAL rod, Illustration #21.

eblue-dist 2007

RODS AND PISTONS


Inspect t h e rod and t h e rod c a p before removing t h e c a p f r o m t h e crankshaft. Under normal conditions, a line or a dot is visible on t h e side of t h e rod and t h e cap. This identification is an assist t o assemble t h e parts together and in t h e proper location. Observe into t h e block and notice how t h e rods have a "trough". Also notice t h e hole in t h e rod near where t h e wrist pin passes through t h e piston. T h e r e is a rem o t e possibility t h e rod may have a hole in t h e rod at t h e crank end. These t w o holes MUST ALWAYS f a c e toward t h e UPPER end of t h e powerhead during installation.

3- 17

REMOVAL
T o remove t h e rod bolts f r o m t h e c a p , i t is recommended t o loosen e a c h bolt just a l i t t l e at- a- time and a l t e r n a t e l y , Illustration #22. This procedure will prevent one bolt f r o m being completely removed while t h e o t h e r is still tightened t o i t s recommended torque value. Such action may very likely warp t h e cap. Remove t h e bolts as described in t h e previous paragraph, and t h e n CAREFULLY remove t h e rod cap. Remove t h e needle bearings and c a g e s f r o m around t h e crankshaft, Illustration #23. Count t h e needle bearings and insert t h e m into a s e p a r a t e container -- one container f o r e a c h rod, with t h e container clearly identified t o ensure t h e y will b e installed with t h e proper rod at t h e crankshaft journal from which t h e y w e r e removed.

Tap t h e piston o u t of t h e cylinder f r o m t h e crankshaft side. Immediately a t t a c h t h e proper rod c a p t o t h e rod and hold i t in place with t h e rod bolts, Illustration #24. The f e w minutes involved in securing t h e c a p with t h e rod will ensure t h e matched c a p remains with i t s mating rod during t h e cleaning and assembling work. Fill t h e piston s k i r t with a rag, towel, shop cloths, o r o t h e r suitable material, Illust r a t i o n #25. The rag will prevent t h e rod from coming in c o n t a c t with the piston skirt while t h e piston is laying on t h e bench or being handled. T h e rod striking t h e skirt could cause damage. Identify t h e rod t o ensure i t will b e installed i n t o t h e cylinder f r o m which i t was removed. Remove and identify t h e o t h e r rod caps, needle bearings and cages, and rods with pistons, in t h e s a m e manner.

eblue-dist 2007

3 18

PO WERHEAD

Remove t h e rings from t h e pistons. This is accomplished by placing t h e rod in a vise with t h e piston skirt resting on t h e t o p surface of t h e vise. Expand each ring with your fingers or a pair of reverse pliers enough t o slip t h e ring f r e e of t h e piston, Illustration f 26.

DISASSEMBLY
Before separating t h e piston from t h e rod, notice t h e location of t h e piston in relation t o t h e rod. Observe t h e hole in t h e rod trough on one side of t h e rod near t h e wrist pin opening. Some piston assemblies have another hole at t h e lower end. These holes must f a c e toward t h e TOP of t h e engine during installation.

Slanted Piston V4 Engines Only Observe t h e slanted edge and t h e s h a r p edge of t h e dome-type piston. The slanted edge MUST f a c e toward t h e exhaust side of t h e cylinder and- t h e sharp edge toward t h e intake side during installation, Illustration

Loop-Charged Pistons Three-Cylinder Engines Only If servicing a t hree-cylinder loop-charge d powerhead, carefully observe t h e hole in t h e rod near t h e wrist pin and t h e relationship of t h e irregular cutouts in t h e piston skirt, Illustration f28. Only in this position will this relationship exist. The rod and piston MUST be assembled in this manner o r t h e engine will run VERY poorly. When t h e rod is installed t o t h e piston, t h e relationship of t h e rod can only be one way. The rod holes must f a c e upward and t h e piston must f a c e a s described in t h e previous paragraph.

127.

eblue-dist 2007

RODS AND PISTONS

3-19

HOLE

@
All Engines

Observe into t h e piston skirt. On most model pistons, notice t h e "Ln stamped on t h e boss through which t h e wrist pin passes. The l e t t e r mark identifies t h e "loose" side of t h e piston and indicates t h e side of t h e piston from which t h e wrist pin must b e driven out without damaging t h e piston. Some pistons may have t h e full word "LOOSE" stamped on t h e inside of t h e piston skirt, Illustration 1/29. If t h e piston does not have t h e "L" or t h e word "LOOSE" stamped, t h e wrist pin m a y b e driven o u t in either direction. Remove t h e retaining clips from each end of t h e wrist pin. Some clips a r e spring wire type and may b e worked f r e e of t h e piston using a screwdriver, Illustration #30. Other model pistons have a Truarc snap ring. This type of ring can only b e successfully removed using a pair of Truarc pliers, Illustration #31. I t may be necessary t o h e a t t h e piston in a container of boiling water, Illustration #32, in order t o press t h e wrist pin free. Place t h e piston- in an arbor press using t h e PROPER size cradle for t h e piston being serviced, and with t h e LOOSE side of t h e piston facing UPWARD.

The wrist pin must b e driven out FROM t h e loose side. This m a y not seem reasonable, but t h e r e is a very simple explanation. By placing t h e piston in t h e arbor press cradle with t h e tight side down, and t h e arbor ram pushing from t h e loose side, t h e piston has good support and will not b e distorted. If t h e piston is placed in t h e arbor press with t h e loose side down, t h e piston would be distorted and unfit f o r f u r t h e r service. Many rods have a wrist pin bearing. Some a r e caged bearings and others a r e not. TAKE CARE not t o lose any of t h e bearings when the wrist pin is driven f r e e of the piston.

eblue-dist 2007

3-20

POWERHEAD
through t h e wrist pin and t h e shoulder will ride on t h e edge of t h e wrist pin. Use sharp hard blows with a hammer. Your legs will absorb t h e shock without damaging t h e piston. If this method is used on a regular basis during t h e busy season, your legs will develop black-and-blue areas, but no problem, t h e marks will disappear in a f e w days.

Alternate Removal Method If t h e piston does not have t h e "Ln or t h e word "LOOSE" stamped, t h e wrist pin may be driven o u t in either direction. Remove t h e retaining clips from each end of t h e wrist pin. Some clips a r e spring wire type and may be worked f r e e of t h e piston using a screwdriver. O t h e r model pistons have a Truarc snap ring. This t y p e of ring can only b e successfully removed using a pair of Truarc pliers. It may be necessary t o heat t h e piston in a container of boiling water in order t o press t h e wrist pin f r e e . If an arbor press or cradle is not available, proceed as follows: heat t h e piston in a container of very hot water for about t e n minutes (heating t h e piston will cause t h e metal t o expand ever so slightly, but ease t h e task of driving t h e pin out); assume a sitting position in a chair, on a box, whatever. Next, lay a couple towels over your legs. Hold your legs tightly together t o form a cradle f o r t h e piston above your knees. Set the piston between your legs with t h e LOOSE side of t h e piston facing upward, Illustration 833. Now, drive t h e wrist pin f r e e using a drift pin with a shoulder. The drift pin will f i t into t h e hole

ROD INSPECTION AND SERVICE


All rods for engines covered in this manual have needle bearings. The needles should be replaced anytime a major overhaul is performed. I t is not necessary t o replace t h e cages, but a complete NEW s e t of needles should be purchased and installed. Place each connecting rod on a surface plate and check t h e alignment. If light can b e seen under any portion of t h e machined surfaces, or if t h e rod has a slight wobble on t h e plate, or if a 0.002" (.05 m m ) feeler gauge can be inserted between t h e machined surface and t h e surface plate, t h e rod is bent and unfit f o r further service. Inspect t h e connecting rod bearings for rust or signs of bearing failure. NEVER intermix new and used bearings. If even one bearing in a s e t needs t o b e replaced, all bearings at t h a t location MUST b e replaced. Inspect t h e bearing surface of t h e rod and t h e rod c a p for rust and pitting. Inspect t h e bearing surface of t h e rod and t h e rod c a p f o r water marks. Water marks a r e caused by t h e bearing surface being subjected t o water contamination, which causes "etching". The etching resembles t h e size of t h e bearing as shown in t h e accompanying illustration. Inspect t h e bearing surface of t h e rod and rod c a p f o r signs of spalling. Spalling is t h e loss of bearing surface, and resembles flaking or chinping. The spalling condition will b e most evident on t h e thrust portion of t h e connecting rod in line with t h e I-beam. Bearing surface damage is usually caused by improper lubrication. Check t h e bearing surface of t h e rod and rod c a p f o r signs of c h a t t e r marks. This condition is identified by a rough bearing surface resembling a tiny washboard. The condition is caused by a combination of lowspeed low-load operation in cold water, and is aggravated by inadequate lubrication and improper fuel. Under these conditions, t h e crankshaft journal is hammered by t h e connecting rod. As ignition occurs In t h e

eblue-dist 2007

RODS AND PISTONS

3-21

Testing two rods at the wrist pin end for warpage.

Needle bearings and cages unfit for further service.

cylinder, t h e piston pushes t h e connecting rod with tremendous f o r c e , and t h i s f o r c e i s transferred t o t h e connecting rod journal. Since t h e r e is l i t t l e or no load on t h e crankshaft, i t bounces away f r o m t h e connecting rod. The crankshaft t h e n remains immobile for a split second, until t h e piston travel causes t h e connecting rod t o c a t c h up t o t h e waiting crankshaft journal, t h e n hamm e r s it. In s o m e instances, t h e connecting rod crankpin bore becomes highly polished. While t h e engine is running, a "wrhirr" and/or "chirp" sound may be heard when t h e engine is a c c e l e r a t e d rapidly f r o m idle speed t o about 1500 rpm, t h e n quickly returned t o idle. If c h a t t e r marks a r e discovered, t h e crankshaft and t h e connecting rods should b e replaced. Inspect t h e bearing s u r f a c e of t h e rod and rod c a p f o r signs of uneven wear and possible overheating. Uneven wear is usually caused by a bent connecting rod. Overheating is identified a s a bluish bearing s u r f a c e color and is caused by inadequate lubrication or operating t h e engine at excessively high rpm. Inspect t h e needle bearings. A bluish color indicates t h e bearing b e c a m e very hot a n d t h e complete s e t for t h e rod MUST b e

replaced, no question. Service t h e connecting rod bearing surf a c e s according t o t h e following procedures and precautions: a- Align t h e e t c h e d marks on t h e knob side of t h e connecting rod with t h e e t c h e d marks on t h e connecting rod cap. b- Tighten t h e connecting rod c a p a t taching bolts securely. c- Use ONLY crocus cloth t o clean bearing s u r f a c e at t h e crankshaft end of t h e connecting rod. NEVER use any o t h e r t y p e of abrasive cloth. d- Insert t h e crocus cloth in a s l o t t e d 3/8" d i a m e t e r shaft. Chuck t h e s h a f t in a drill press and o p e r a t e t h e press at high speed and a t t h e s a m e time, keep t h e connecting rod at a 90' angle t o t h e slotted shaft. e- Clean t h e connecting rod ONLY enough t o remove marks. DO NOT continue once t h e marks have disappeared. f- Clean t h e piston pin end of t h e connecting rod using t h e method described in Steps dl and e, but using 320 g r i t Carborundum cloth instead of crocus cloth. g- Thoroughly wash t h e connecting rods t o remove abrasive grit. A f t e r washing, check t h e bearing surfaces a second time. h- If t h e connecting rod c a n n o t be cleaned properly, i t should b e replaced. i- Lubricate t h e bearing s u r f a c e s of t h e connecting rods with light- weight oil t o prevent corrosion.

Rod, rod cap, wrist pin, and wrist pin bearing, after removal.

Testing two rods at the rod cap end for warpage.

eblue-dist 2007

3-22

PO WERHEAD

PISTON AND RING INSPECTION AND SERVICE


Inspect each piston for evidence of scoring, cracks, metal damage, cracked piston pin boss, or worn pin boss, Illustration f34. Be especially critical during inspection if t h e engine has been submerged, Illustration #35. The powerheads for t h e three-cylinder engines covered in this manual were equippe d with three- ring pistons on t h e early models, and then a two-ring piston on l a t e r models. When t h e change was made f r o m t h e three-ring t o t h e two-ring type, t h e a r e a f r o m t o p groove and t h e piston dome was too small, causing failure of t h e piston. Therefore, when new pistons a r e purchased, check t h e first ring "land" t o b e sure i t is a reasonable distance from the dome. Illustration f 36 shows an old piston (left) and a new piston (right) with t h e wider distance from t h e top groove t o t h e dome. When installing f l a t dome pistons, t h e t o p ring is tapered and f i t s into a tapered groove in t h e piston. C a r e must b e exercised when installing rings t o t h e pistons t o ensure t h e proper ring is used with t h e proper piston in t h e proper ring groove.

Carefully check each wrist pin t o be sure i t is not t h e least bit bent. If a wrist pin i s bent, t h e pin and piston MUST b e replaced as a s e t , because t h e pin will have damaged t h e boss when i t was removed. Check t h e wrist pin needle bearings. If any one of t h e needles is damaged, has a f l a t spot, or is unfit for f u r t h e r service f o r any reason, t h e complete s e t MUST b e replaced. Grasp each end of t h e ring with either a ring expander or your thumbnails; open t h e ring and remove i t from t h e piston, Illustration f37. Many times, t h e ring may b e difficult t o remove because i t is Iffrozen" in t h e piston ring groove. In such a case, use a screwdriver and pry t h e ring free. The ring may break, but if i t is difficult t o remove, i t MUST b e replaced.

OBSERW t h e pin in each ring groove of t h e piston. The ends of t h e ring MUST straddle this pin. The pin prevents t h e ring from rotating while t h e engine is operating. This f a c t is t h e direct opposite of a fourcycle engine where t h e ring must rotate. In a two-cycle engine, if t h e ring is permitted t o rotate, a t one point, t h e opening between t h e ring ends would align with e i t h e r t h e intake or exhaust port in t h e cylinder. A t t h a t time, t h e ring would expand very slightly, c a t c h on t h e edge of t h e port, and BREAK.

eblue-dist 2007

RODS AND PISTONS

3-23

Cleaning the piston ring grooves. An automotive type ring groove cleaner should NEVER be used.

Therefore, when checking t h e condition of t h e piston, ALWAYS check t h e pin in each groove t o b e sure i t is tight, Illustration #38. If one pin is t h e least bit loose, t h e piston MUST b e replaced, without question. Never a t t e m p t t o replace t h e pin, i t is NEVER successful. CLEANING AND INSPECTING Check t h e piston ring grooves f o r wear, burns, distortion, or loose locating pins. During an overhaul, t h e rings should be replaced to ensure lasting repair and proper engine performance a f t e r t h e work has been completed.

Clean t h e piston dome, ring grooves, and t h e piston skirt. Clean t h e piston skirt with a crocus cloth. Clean carbon deposits from t h e t o p of t h e piston using a soft wire brush, carbon removal solution, or by sand blasting. If a wire brush is used, TAKE CARE not t o burr or round machined edges. Wear a pair of good gloves f o r protection against sharp edges, and clean t h e piston ring grooves using t h e recessed end of t h e proper broken ring a s a tool. NEVER use a rectangular ring t o clean t h e groove for a tapered ring, or use a tapered ring t o clean t h e groove for a rectangular ring. NEVER use an automotive- type ring groove cleaner t o clean piston ring grooves, because this type of tool could loosen t h e piston ring locating pins. TAKE CARE not t o burr or round t h e machined edges. Inspect t h e piston ring locating pins t o b e sure they a r e tight.

Oversize Pistons and Rings Scored cylinder blocks can be saved for further service by reboring and installing

Using a micrometer to check the roundness of the piston.

Heat and vibration caused this pin to work itself into the piston until the head became flush with the surface of the ring groove. This condition will allow the ring to rotate during engine operation. The ring end would soon catch on one of the cylinder ports and break.

eblue-dist 2007

3-24

POWERHEAD

oversize pistons and piston rings. ONE MORE WORD: Oversize pistons and rings a r e not available for all engines. A t t h e t i m e of this printing, t h e sizes listed in t h e Appendix were available. Check with t h e parts department at your local dealer f o r t h e model engine you a r e servicing, and t o be sure t h e factory has not deleted a size from their stock. The pistons should always be ordered and received BEFORE t h e block is rebored, t o ensure a proper piston f i t for each cylinder, a f t e r t h e work is accomplished.

ASSEMBLING CRITICAL WORDS Two conditions absolutely MUST exist when t h e piston and rod assembly a r e installed into t h e cylinder block. For V4 engine installation, t h e slanted side of the piston must f a c e toward t h e exhaust side of t h e cylinder, Illustration #39. For three- cylinder engine installation, make sure t h e openings in t h e pistons a r e aligned with t h e cutaways in t h e cylinder wall, Illustration f 40. The hole in t h e rod near t h e wrist pin opening and at t h e lower end of t h e rod must f a c e UPWARD. Therefore, t h e rod and piston MUST b e assembled correctly in order f o r t h e assembly t o be properly installed into t h e cylinder. Soak t h e piston in a container of very hot water for about t e n minutes, Illustration f41. Heating t h e piston will cause i t t o expand ever so slightly, but enough t o allow t h e wrist -pin t o be pressed through without difficulty. Before pressing t h e wrist pin into place, hold t h e piston and rod near t h e cylinder block and check t o be sure both will b e facing in t h e right direction when they a r e installed.

Pack t h e wrist pin needle bearing c a g e with needle bearing grease, or a good grade of petroleum jelly. Load t h e bearing c a g e with needles and insert i t into t h e end of t h e rod, Illustration #42. Slide t h e rod into t h e piston boss. On V 4 engine installation, check a second t i m e t o b e sure t h e slanted side of t h e piston is facing toward t h e exhaust side of t h e cylinder and t h e hole in t h e rod is facing upward. For a three-cylinder engine installation, check a second t i m e t o b e sure t h e hole in t h e piston aligns with t h e cutaway in t h e cylinder wall. Place t h e piston and rod in t h e arbor press with t h e LOOSE or stamped llL" side of

eblue-dist 2007

RODS AND PISTONS

3-25

HOLD l NG BLOCK

t h e piston facing UPWARD, Illustration 843. Press t h e wrist pin through t h e piston and rod. Continue to press t h e wrist pin through until t h e groove in t h e wrist pin for t h e lock ring is visible on both ends of t h e pin, Illustration f44. Remove t h e assembly from t h e arbor press. Install t h e retaining ring onto each end of t h e wrist pin. Some models have a wire ring, and others have a Truarc ring. Use a pair of Truarc pliers t o install t h e Truarc ring. Fill t h e piston skirt with a rag, towel, shop cloths, or other suitable material, Illustration f46, next page. The rag will prevent t h e rod from coming in c o n t a c t with t h e piston skirt while i t is laying on t h e bench. If t h e rod is allowed t o strike t h e piston skirt, t h e skirt may become distorted. Assemble t h e other pistons, rods, and wrist pins in t h e s a m e manner. Fill t h e skirt with rags as protection until t h e assembly is installed.

Alternate Assembling Method If an arbor press is not available, t h e piston may be assembled t o t h e rod in much

WORD

t h e s a m e manner as described f o r disassembling. First, soak t h e piston in a container of very hot water f o r about t e n minutes, Illustration #4l, previous page. For a V4 engine installation, before pressing t h e wrist pin into place, hold t h e piston and rod near t h e cylinder block and check t o b e sure both will b e facing in t h e right direction when t h e y a r e installed. For a three-cylinder installation, check t o be sure t h e hole in t h e piston will align with t h e cutaway in t h e cylinder wall. Pack t h e wrist pin needle bearing c a g e with needle bearing grease, or a good grade of petroleum jelly. Load t h e bearing c a g e with needles and insert i t i n t o t h e end of t h e rod, Illustration #42. Slide t h e rod into t h e piston boss and check a second t i m e t o be sure t h e slanted side of t h e piston is facing toward t h e exhaust side of t h e cylinder and t h e hole in t h e rod is facing upward. Now, assume a sitting position and l a y a couple towels over your lap. Hold your legs tightly together t o form a cradle f o r t h e piston above your knees. S e t t h e is ton between your legs with t h e LOOSE side of t h e piston facing upward. Now, drive t h e wrist pin through t h e piston using a drift pin with a shoulder. The d r i f t pin will f i t i n t o t h e hole through the- wrist pin and t h e shoulder will ride on t h e end of t h e wrist pin. Use sharp hard blows with a hammer. Your legs will absorb t h e shock without damaging t h e piston. If this method is used on a regular basis during t h e busy season, your legs will develop black-and-blue areas, but no problem, t h e marks will disappear in a f e w days. Continue t o drive t h e wrist pin through t h e piston, Illustration #45, until t h e groove

eblue-dist 2007

3-26

POWERHEAD seal is used at t h e t w o c e n t e r main bearings and just above t h e bottom seal, t o provide a n e f f e c t i v e seal between t h e cylinders. On t h e V 4 engines covered in this manual, a t o p and bottom seal is used with sealing rings around t h e crankshaft in t h e center between each cylinder in each bank to seal f o r pressure and vacuum. The early model V 4 engines had a "two-ring" crankshaft. Later models incorporated a "threering" crankshaft. Still l a t e r models have a "six-ring" arrangement, which eliminates t h e necessity of having t h e labyrinth seals. I t is not possible t o exchange a two-ring crankshaft for a three- ring crankshaft or t h e other way around. The s a m e t y p e crankshaft must ALWAYS b e installed a s a replacement. The rings on t h e V 4 engines a r e brittle and break easily if twisted during removal of t h e crankshaft. Theref ore, EXERCISE CARE when removing t h e crankshaft t o prevent damaging t h e rings. Check t o be sure t h e bolts have been removed securing t h e upper and lower bearing caps. Lift t h e crankshaft assembly from the block, Illustration #47. On some models, i t may b e necessary t o use a soft-headed mall e t and t a p on t h e bottom side of t h e crankshaft t o jar i t loose. As t h e crankshaft is lifted, TAKE CARE t o work t h e c e n t e r main bearingls loose, and t h e sealing rings, if servicing a V 4 engine. The center bearingjs a r e a split bearing held together with a snap wire ring. The bottom half of t h e bearing may b e stuck in t h e cylinder block. Therefore, t h e crankshaft and t h e center main bearing must be worked f r e e of the block together.

in t h e wrist pin for t h e lockring is visible at both ends. Install t h e retaining spring wire or Truarc ring onto each end of t h e wrist pin. Fill t h e piston skirt with a rag, towel, shop cloths, or other suitable material, Illustration 1 4 . The rag will prevent t h e rod 76 from coming in c o n t a c t with t h e piston skirt while i t is laying on t h e bench. If t h e rod is allowed t o strike t h e piston skirt, t h e skirt may become distorted. Assemble t h e other pistons, rods, and wrist pins in t h e s a m e manner. Fill t h e skirt with rags a s protection until t h e assembly is installed.

INSTALLATION
Piston and rod assembly installation procedures will b e found in Section 3-17, Piston a n d Rod Assembly Installation.

3-14 CRANKSHAFT
REMOVAL FIRST, THESE WORDS The three- cylinder engines covered in this manual a r e equipped with an upper seal and bearing, a lower seal and bearing, and A labyrinth two main bearings between.

eblue-dist 2007

CRANKSHAFT

3-27

Crankshaft Bearings On t h e V4 engines, observe how t h e center main bearing/s have a hole in t h e outside circumference. On three-cylinder engines, t h e two c e n t e r main bearings and t h e t o p main bearing a r e also held in place in t h e s a m e manner. Notice t h e locating pin in t h e cylinder block, Illustration f48. The purpose of this arrangement is t o prevent t h e bearing shell from rotating. During assembling, t h e holes in t h e bearings MUST index with t h e pins in t h e block. Notice t h a t t h e hole is not in t h e center of t h e bearing. If the bearing is t o be removed from t h e crankshaft, make a suitable m a r k or identification t o ENSURE t h e bearing is installed in t h e s a m e position from which i t was removed. ONLY in this manner can t h e hole b e properly indexed with t h e pin.

fuel creating a seal between t h e cylinders. Also notice t h a t t h e t o p bearing and t h e t w o center main bearings all have a locating pin. Lower Bearing The powerheads of engines covered in this manual have a lower roller bearing t h a t is pressed onto t h e crankshaft. If this bearing requires replacement, i t is removed by f i r s t removing t h e snap ring, Illustration 3749, and then "pulling" t h e bearing from t h e crankshaft. A clamp- type puller is required t o remove this bearing, Illustration #50. The bearing need not b e removed for cleaning and inspection. Remove this bearing ONLY if t h e determination has been made t h a t i t is unfit f o r further service. CLEANING AND INSPECTION

Labyrinth Seal If servicing a three-cylinder engine, or a very early model V4, notice t h e grooves in t h e block on one side sf t h e center main bearing. Observe t5e grooves in t h e crankcase cover. This arrangement of grooves forrrs what is commonly known as a "labyrinth" seal. The grooves fill with oil and/or
LOCAT lNG

Inspect t h e splines for signs of abnormal wear. Check t h e crankshaft f o r straightness. Inspect t h e crankshaft oil seal surf a c e s t o b e sure t h e y a r e not grooved, pitted or scratched. Replace t h e crankshaft if i t is severely damaged or worn. Check all cranks h a f t bearing surfaces for rust, water marks, c h a t t e r marks, uneven wear or overheating. Clean t h e crankshaft surfaces with

eblue-dist 2007

328

POWERHEAD

End ot a crankshaft from a submerged V 4 engine. The unit was not serviced immediately and the resulting corrosion has rendered the shaft unfit for further service.

crocus cloth. Carefully check t h e grooves around t h e crankshaft for t h e sealing rings. Check t h e surfaces of block halves t o b e sure t h e sealing rings will a f f e c t an effective seal. Clean t h e crankshaft and crankshaft bearing with solvent. Dry t h e parts, but NOT t h e bearing, with compressed air. Check t h e crankshaft surf aces a second time. Replace the crankshaft if t h e surfaces cannot be cleaned properly f o r satisf a c t o r y service. If t h e crankshaft is t o b e installed f o r service, lubricate t h e surfaces with light oil. On t h e V 4 engine, t h e center main bearing has a spring steel wire securing t h e t w o halves together. The three- cylinder engine has two c e n t e r main bearings. Remove t h e wire, and then--the outer sleeve, then t h e needle bearings, Illustration b5l. TAKE CARE not t o lose any of t h e needles. The outer shell is a fractured break type unit. Therefore, t h e t w o halves of t h e shell MUST absolutely be kept as a set. Check t h e crankshaft bearing surfaces t o b e sure they a r e not pitted or show any signs

of rust or corrosion. If t h e bearing surfaces a r e pitted or rusted, t h e crankshaft and bearings must b e replaced. During an engine overhaul t o this degree, i t is a good practice t o remove the seal from t h e t o p main bearing. If t h e s a m e t y p e of seal is used in t h e bottom main bearing, remove t h a t seal also.

MSEMBLING REMINDER WORDS The V 4 engines have a single c e n t e r main bearing and t h e three- cylinder engines have t w o c e n t e r main bearings.
Insert t h e proper number of needle bearings into t h e center main bearing cage, Illustration #52. Install t h e o u t e r sleeve over t h e bearing cage. Check t o be sure t h e t w o halves of t h e o u t e r sleeve a r e matched. Again, these two halves a r e manufactured a s a single unit and then broken. Theref ore, t h e hills and valleys of t h e break absolutely MUST m a t c h during installation. Double check t o be sure t h e marks made during bearing removal m a t c h t o ensure t h e hole in t h e bearing will index with t h e pin in t h e block. Remember, t h e hole in t h e bearing is NOT in t h e center, therefore t h e bearing

eblue-dist 2007

CYLINDER BLOCK

3-29

can only be installed properly ONE WAY, Illustration #53, previous page. Snap t h e retaining ring into place around t h e bearing. To install a new lower bearing, place t h e bearing onto t h e shaft and press i t i n t o place using an arbor press. If an arbor press is not available a socket large enough t o f i t over t h e crankshaft could be used t o drive t h e bearing into place, Illustration f54. Install the Truarc ring t o secure t h e bearing in place, Illustration #55. On V4 engines, t h e upper bearing is pressed into t h e upper bearing cap, Illustration f56. On t h e three-cylinder ennines. t h e upper bearing is simply a-"snug" fitvontd t h e crankshaft, Illustration 1757. R o t a t e t h e installed bearings t o b e sure t h e r e is no evidence of binding or rough spots. The crankshaft is now ready f o r installation. INSTALLATION Installation procedures a r e given in Section 3-18, Crankshaft Installation.

3-15 CYLINDER BLOCK SERVICE


Inspect t h e cylinder block and cylinder bores for cracks or other damage. Remove carbon with a fine wire brush on a shaft attached t o an electric drill or use a carbon remover solution. Use an inside micrometer or t e l e s c o ~ i c gauge and micrometer t o check t h e cvlinderi for wear. Check t h e bore for out-ofround and/or oversize bore. If t h e bore is tapered, out-of-round or worn more than 0.003" - 0.004" (0.076 mm - 0.102 mm) t h e cylinders should be rebored and oversize pistons and rings installed.

eblue-dist 2007

3-30

POWERHEAD practical, use a n oil can. Apply t h e oil generously and frequently on both t h e stones and work surface.

GOOD WORDS Oversize piston weight is approximately t h e s a m e a s a standard size piston. Therefore, i t is NOT necessary t o rebore all cylinders in a block just because one cylinder requires reboring. Hone t h e cylinder walls lightly t o seat t h e new piston rings, as outlined in t h e Honing Procedures Section in this chapter. If t h e cylinders have been scored, but a r e not out-of-round or t h e sleeve is rough, clean t h e surface of t h e cylinder wlth a cylinder hone as described in Honing Procedures, next section. SPECIAL WORD If only one cylinder is damaged, a cylinder sleeve may b e installed on some models, but t h e cost is very high. Installation of t h e sleeve will bring t h e powerhead back t o standard and permit reboring of t h a t cylinder at a l a t e r date. HONING PROCEDURES
To ensure satisfactory engine performance and long life following t h e overhaul work, t h e honing work should b e performed with patience, skill, and in t h e following sequence: a- Follow t h e hone manufacturer's recommendations f or use of t h e hone and f o r cleaning and lubricating during t h e honing operation, Illustration #5S. b- Pump a continuous flow of honing oil into the work area. If pumping is not

SPECIAL WORDS If honing a three-cylinder powerhead block, use a long-size hone as a precaution against t h e hone becoming stuck in one of t h e oblong openings intake ports, in t h e cylinder wall, Illustration 859, and breaking. If t h e special long hone is not available, t h e block should b e taken t o a commercial shop equipped t o do t h e job properly. c- Begin t h e stroking at t h e t o p of t h e cylinder. Maintain a firm stone pressure against t h e cylinder wall t o assure f a s t stock removal and a c c u r a t e results. d- Expand t h e stones as necessary t o compensate f o r stock removal and stone wear. The best cross-hatch pattern is obtained using a stroke r a t e of 30 complete cycles per minute. Again, use t h e honing oil generously. e- Hone t h e cylinder walls ONLY enough t o de-glaze t h e walls. f- After t h e honing operation has been completed, clean t h e cylinder bores with hot water and detergent. Scrub t h e walls with a stiff bristle brush and rinse thoroughly with hot water. The cylinders MUST b e cleaned well a s a prevention against any abrasive material remaining in t h e cylinder bore. Such material will cause rapid wear of new piston rings, t h e cylinder bore, and t h e bearings. g- After cleaning, swab t h e bores several times with engine oil and a clean cloth, and then wipe them dry with a clean cloth. NEVER use kerosene or gasoline t o clean t h e cylinders. h- Clean t h e remainder of t h e cylinder block to remove any excess material spread during t h e honing operation.

eblue-dist 2007

CYLINDER BLOCK

3-31

8 "

Exploded drawing of the powerhead for a 75 hp engine, 1958 t o about 1965.

eblue-dist 2007

3-32

POWERHEAD

PISTON

PISTON RINGS

SEALING RING

a
LOWER SEAL ASSEMBLY LOWER SEAL CAP
-. . -*.
---A
1

'

Exploded drawing of the crankshaft, rod, and piston assemblies for a 75 h p engine, 1958 to about 1965.

eblue-dist 2007

CYLINDER BLOCK

3-33

OUTER EXHAUST COVER

INNER

CONNECTING

SPARK SPARK

SAFETY SWITCH

CAM YOKE

Exploded drawing of the complete powerhead for a late model V 4 engine.

eblue-dist 2007

3-34

POWERHEAD

UPPER

GASKETS THERMOSTAT

DEFLECTOR
G

CRANKCASE ASSEMBLY

IDLE ADJUSTMENT SCREW COMPONENTS

ROD ' ' v COMPONENTS

Exploded drawing of the complete powerhead for a three-cylinder engine.

eblue-dist 2007

PISTON AND ROD ASSEMBLING


3-16 POWERHEAD ASSEMBLING SPECIAL WORD The cylinder block assembling work should proceed quickly and without i nterruptions. If t h e work is partially completed and then l e f t for any period of time, sealant may become hard, parts may be moved and their identity for a particular cylinder lost, or an important s t e p may b e bypassed, overlooked, or forgotten. The following sections pickup t h e work of assembling t h e cylinder block AFTER t h e various parts have been serviced and assembled. Procedures for each a r e a a r e found in this chapter under s e p a r a t e headings.

3-35

3-17 PISTON AND ROD ASSEMBLY INSTALLATION


WORDS OF ADVICE If new rings a r e t o be installed, each ring from t h e package MUST be checked in t h e cylinder. Errors happen. Men and machines can make mistakes. The wrong size ring can b e included in a package with t h e proper part number. Therefore, check EACH ring, one at-at i m e a s follows: Turn t h e ring sideways and lower i t a couple inches into t h e cylinder

bore. Now, turn t h e ring horizontal in t h e cylinder. I t is now in its normal operating position, but without t h e piston, Illustration 1 Next, use a feeler gauge and measure t h e distance (the gap) between t h e ends of t h e ring. The maximum and minimum allowable ring g a p is listed in t h e specifications in t h e Appendix. Turn t h e piston upside down and slide i t in and o u t of t h e cylinder, Illustration #2. The piston should slide without any evidence of binding. Several different methods a r e possible t o install t h e piston and rod assembly i n t o t h e cvlinder. The followinn ~ r o c e d u r e s r e outa 1;ned f o r t h e d ~ - i t - ~ & ; s e l fe r , working at home without t h e advantage of special tools. First, purchase a special hose clamp with a s t r i p of metal inside t h e clamp, Illustration #3. This piece of m e t a l on t h e inside allows t h e outside portion of t h e clamp t o

eblue-dist 2007

3-36

POWERHEAD

slide on t h e inner s t r i p without causing t h e ring t o rotate. Actually, t o our knowledge a Mercruiser dealer is t h e only place such a clamp may b e purchased. A t t h e Mercruiser marine deale r , ask for an exhaust bellows hose clamp. The design of this hose clamp prevents t h e clamp and t h e piston ring from turning a s t h e clamp is tightened. DO NOT a t t e m p t t o use an ordinary hose clamp from an automot i v e parts house because such a clamp will cause t h e piston ring t o r o t a t e a s t h e clamp is tightened. The ring MUST NOT rotate, because t h e ring ends must remain on e i t h e r side of t h e dowel pin in t h e ring groove. Next, coat t h e inside surface of t h e cylinder with a film of light- weight oil. Coat t h e exterior surface of t h e piston with t h e oil. The powerhead of early model engines, covered in this manual, were equipped with Later three-cylinder three- ring pistons. When t h e models used two-ring pistons. change was made from t h e three- ring t o t h e two-ring type, t h e a r e a from t h e t o p groove and t h e piston dome was too small, causing failure of t h e piston. Therefore, when new pistons a r e purchased, check t h e first ring "land" t o be sure i t is a reasonable distance from the dome. Illustration #4 shows an old piston (left) and a new piston (right) with t h e wider distance from the t o p groove t o t h e dome. When installing f l a t dome pistons, t h e t o p ring is tapered and f i t s into a tapered groove in t h e piston. C a r e must b e exercised when installing rings t o t h e pistons to ensure t h e proper ring is used with t h e proper piston in t h e proper ring groove. TAKE TIME Take just a minute t o notice how t h e piston rings a r e manufactured. Each end of t h e ring has a small cutout on t h e inside circumference, Illustration 85. Now, visual i z e t h e ring Installed in t h e piston groove. The ring ends must straddle t h e pin installed in each piston groove. As t h e ring is tightened around t h e piston, t h e ends will begin

t o c o m e together. When t h e piston is installed into t h e cylinder bore, t h e two ends of the ring will c o m e together and t h e cutout edge will be up against t h e pin. For this reason, CARE must be exercised when installing t h e rings onto t h e piston and when t h e piston is installed into t h e cylinder. Install only t h e bottom ring i n t o t h e bottom piston groove. Do not expand t h e ring any further than necessary, a s a precaution against breaking it. Install t h e ring i n t o t h e piston groove with t h e ends of t h e ring straddling t h e pin in t h e groove. Notice how t h e ring pins a r e s t a e r e d from one groove t o t h e next, by gF: The ring ends MUST straddle t h e pin 180 t o prevent t h e ring from rotating during engine operation. In a two-cycle engine, if t h e ring is permitted t o r o t a t e , at one point t h e opening between t h e ring ends would align with either t h e intake or exhaust port in t h e cylinder, t h e ring would expand very slightly, c a t c h on t h e edge of t h e port, and BREAK. Install t h e hose clamp over t h e piston and bottom ring, Illustration #6. Tighten t h e hose clamp with one hand and at t h e s a m e t i m e r o t a t e t h e clamp back-and-forth

eblue-dist 2007

CRANKSHAFT INSTALLATION
slightly with t h e o t h e r hand. This "rocking" motion of t h e clamp a s i t is tightened will convince you t h e ring ends a r e properly positioned on e i t h e r side of t h e pin. Continu e t o tighten t h e clamp, and "rocking" t h e clamp until t h e c l a m p is against t h e piston skirt. A t this point, t h e ring ends will be together and t h e c u t o u t on e a c h ring end will b e against t h e pin. CAREFULLY insert t h e rod and t h e piston skirt down i n t o t h e cylinder. Push t h e piston into t h e cylinder until t h e bottom ring clamp, just installed, touches t h e t o p of t h e cylinder, Illustration #7. Watch t o be s u r e t h e rod does not hang-up on one of t h e cylinder ports.

3-37

GOOD WORDS The following four a r e a s must be checke d at t h i s point in t h e assembling work: a- The piston and rod a r e being installed i n t o t h e s a m e cylinder f r o m which t h e y were removed. b- The hole in t h e rod is facing UPWARD. c- The slanted side of t h e piston is TOWARD t h e exhaust side of t h e cylinder. d- The ends of t h e bottom ring straddle t h e pin in t h e piston groove.

Tap t h e piston with t h e end of a wooden tool handle, or plastic mallet, Illustration #8, until t h e ring e n t e r s t h e cylinder. Remove t h e hose clamp. Install t h e remaining rings in t h e s a m e manner, one at- a- time, making s u r e t h e ends of e a c h ring straddle t h e pin in t h e piston groove. A f t e r t h e l a s t ring has been installed and t h e clamp removed, t a p t h e piston i n t o t h e bore until t h e crown is about even with t h e cylinder block surface. Install t h e o t h e r pistons in e x a c t l y t h e s a m e manner. Turn t h e cylinder block upside down with t h e t o p of t h e block t o your LEFT. R e m o v e t h e bolts and rod caps f r o m e a c h rod. S e t e a c h rod c a p in a definite position t o ensure e a c h will b e installed onto t h e rod from which i t was removed.

V 4 Engines Only Pull on t h e rod t o move t h e piston all t h e way i n t o t h e cylinder. Install one of t h e rod bolts t o e a c h rod. Wrap one end of a rubber band around e a c h rod bolt and t h e other end around something on t h e block t o hold t h e rods o u t of t h e way during crankshaft installation. Three-C ylinder Engines Leave t h e pistons towards t h e t o p of t h e cylinders t o allow room f o r crankshaft installation, Illustration f9. 3-18 CRANKSHAFT INSTALLATION NEEDLE MAIN AND ROD BEARINGS
The following procedures outline s t e p s t o install a crankshaft with a single main bearing; t h e lower bearings pressed o n t o t h e

eblue-dist 2007

3-38

POWERHEAD

crankshaft; and t h e upper bearing pressed i n t o t h e upper bearing cap, as f o r t h e V 4 engine. The section also contains procedures f o r installation of t h e three- cylinder crankshaft with two center main bearings; t h e lower bearing pressed onto t h e crankshaft; and t h e upper bearing simply pushed onto t h e crankshaft. A sub-heading clearly identifies t h e procedures for t h e t y p e of crankshaft being serviced. If t h e procedure applies t o both type of crankshafts, this f a c t will also b e indicated in t h e heading. Three-Cylinder Crankshaft Observe t h e pin installed in each main bearing recess. Notice t h e hole in e a c h main bearing outer shell. During installation, t h e hole in each bearing shell MUST index over t h e pin in t h e cylinder block. Hold t h e crankshaft over t h e cylinder block with t h e upper end t o your LEFT. Now, lower t h e crankshaft into t h e block, Illustration f10, and a t t h e s a m e time, align t h e hole in each bearing t o enable t h e pin in t h e block t o index with t h e hole. R o t a t e each bearing slightly until all pins a r e properly indexed with t h e matching bearing hole. Once all pins a r e indexed, t h e crankshaft lv will be ~ r o ~ e rseated.

Bearing C a p Installation Slide t h e lower bearing c a p into place and just s t a r t t h e mounting bolts, Illustration f l l . DO NOT tighten them a t this time. Starting t h e bolts will hold t h e cranks h a f t in place in t h e block while t h e work continues.
GOOD WORDS The reason for installing t h e bearing caps at this t i m e is t o prevent t h e cranks h a f t from lifting as i t is turned during rod bearing and rod c a p installation. If servicing a three-cylinder engine, drill two 7/16" holes in a small piece of wood. Now, slide t h e block of wood down t h e t w o studs at t h e upper bearing. Secure t h e block of wood in place with t h e nuts, Illustration f12. This block of wood will prevent t h e crankshaft from lifting as i t is turned during rod c a p installation.

eblue-dist 2007

CRANKSHAFT INSTALLATION

3-39

V4 Cranksha.t
Lower t h e crankshaft into place in t h e block with t h e c e n t e r main bearing pin indexed into t h e hole in t h e block. A t t h e s a m e t i m e a s t h e crankshaft is being lowered, work t h e sealing rings around t h e cranks h a f t into t h e recesses in t h e block, Illustration #13. R o t a t e t h e rings until t h e openings a r e staggered across t h e crankshaft. USE CARE because t h e rings a r e b r i t t l e and will break if twisted or distorted. A f t e r t h e crankshaft is in place, i t is not possible t o r o t a t e t h e rings. Slide t h e lower and upper bearing c a p s into place and just s t a r t t h e mounting bolts.

GOOD WORDS On V4 engines, t h e bearing c a p at both ends of t h e crankshaft can only align with t h e bolt hole p a t t e r n in t h e powerhead ONE WAY. Continue t o r o t a t e t h e c a p s until all eight bolt holes a r e properly aligned. DO NOT tighten t h e bolts at this time. Starting t h e bolts will hold t h e cranks h a f t in place in t h e block while t h e work continues. The lower bearing retainer p l a t e has t w o e a r s which index i n t o t w o recesses in t h e lower bearing cap. Therefore, r o t a t e t h e retainer until t h e e a r s on t h e retainer p l a t e index with t h e t w o recesses in t h e bearing cap, t h e n install t w o 114x28 guide pins through t h e lower bearing c a p and i n t o t h e retainer plate, Illustration 1/14, These guide pins will hold t h e bearing c a p and r e t a i n e r p l a t e in place while t h e work continues and until t h e retaining bolts a r e installed.

All Engines
Apply needle bearing g r e a s e t o each bearing cage. C o a t t h e rod half of t h e bearing a r e a with needle bearing grease. Needle bearing g r e a s e MUST be used bec a u s e o t h e r t y p e s of g r e a s e will not thin o u t and dissipate. The g r e a s e must dissipate t o allow t h e gasoline and oil mixture t o e n t e r and l u b r i c a t e t h e bearing. If needle bearing g r e a s e is not available, use a good grade of petroleum jelly (Vaseline). Insert t h e proper number of needle bearings into each cage, Illustration # 15. S e t t h e bearing c a g e into t h e bottom half of t h e rod, Illustration #16, next page. With your fingers on each side of t h e rod, pull up on

eblue-dist 2007

3-40

POWERHEAD

t h e rod and bring t h e rod up t o t h e bottom side of t h e crankshaft. Place one needle bearing on each side of the crankshaft, 7 Using needle bearing Illustration f 1 . grease, load t h e other c a g e and install t h e needle bearings i n t o t h e cage. Lower t h e c a g e onto t h e crankshaft journal. Install t h e proper rod c a p t o t h e rod with t h e identifying mark or dimple properly aligned to ensure t h e c a p is being installed i n t h e s a m e position from which i t was removed, Illustration 818. Tighten t h e rod bolts fingertight, and then just a bit more, Illustration f 19. Use a tlscratchal!", pick, or simiiar tool and move i t back-and-forth on t h e outside surface of t h e rod and cap, Illustration f20, next page. Make t h e movement across t h e mating line of .- e rod and cap. The tool th

should not c a t c h on t h e rod or on t h e cap. The rod c a p must s e a t squarely with t h e rod. If not, t a p t h e c a p until t h e "scratchall" will move back-and-forth on the rod and c a p across t h e mating line without any feeling of catching. Any s t e p on t h e outside will mean a s t e p on t h e inside of t h e rod and cap. J u s t a whisker of a lip will c a u s e one of t h e needle bearings t o c a t c h and fail t o rotate. The needle will quickly f l a t t e n and t h e rod will begin t o "knock". Needle bearings MUST r o t a t e or t h e function of t h e bearing is lost. Tighten t h e rod c a p bolts a1ternately and evenly in t h r e e rounds t o t h e torque value given in t h e Torque Table in t h e Appendix.

eblue-dist 2007

CRANKCASE COVER Tighten t h e bolts t o 112 t h e torque value on t h e first round, t o 314 t h e torque value on t h e second round, and t o t h e full torque value on t h e third and final round. On each round, check with t h e pick t o b e sure t h e c a p remains seated squarely. Install t h e other rod caps in t h e s a m e manner. A f t e r t h e rods have been connected t o t h e crankshaft, r o t a t e t h e crankshaf i until t h e rings on one cylinder a r e visible through t h e exhaust port. Use a screwdriver and push on each ring t o be sure i t has spring tension, Illustration 021. I t will b e necessary t o move t h e piston slightly, because all of t h e rings will not be visible at one time. If t h e r e is no spring tension, t h e ring was broken during installation. The piston must be removed and a new ring installed. Rep e a t the tension t e s t at the intake port. Check t h e other cylinders in t h e s a m e manner. 3-19 CRANKCASE COVER INSTALLATION First, check t o be sure t h e mating surf a c e s of the crankcase cover and t h e cylinder block a r e clean. Pay particular a t t e n tion t o the labyrinth seal grooves in t h e bearing area, when t h e s e seals a r e used. The mating surfaces and t h e seal grooves MUST be f r e e of any old sealing compound or other foreign material.

3-4 1

V4 Engines Only Check t o b e sure t h e sealing rings a r e all down in place and t h a t t h e ring openings a r e NOT close t o t h e split between t h e t w o crankcase halves. Three-Cylinder Engines Only Check t o b e sure t h e main bearings a r e fully seated into t h e powerhead. The bearings can be checked by attempting t o "rock" t h e bearing in place. The a t t e m p t should fail. The bearing should be locked in place with t h e pin indexed into t h e hole in t h e block. Remove t h e wooden block from the studs at t h e upper bearing area. A f t e r t h e woode n block has been removed, DO NOT r o t a t e t h e crankshaft. Rotating t h e crankshaft will cause i t t o "lifttt and t h e bearings indexed over t h e pins in t h e block wiJl become misaligned. CRITICAL WORDS The remainder of t h e cylinder block installation work should be performed WITHOUT interruption. Do not begin t h e work if a break in t h e sequence is expected, coffee, lunch, whatever. The sealer will begin t o set almost immediately, therefore, t h e crankcase cover installation, main bearing bolt installation and tightening, and t h e side bolt installation and tightening, must move along rapidly. Apply just a small amount of 1000 Sealer i n t o t h e groove in t h e cylinder block t o hold t h e seal in place. Install a new "spaghetti" seal i n t o t h e groove.

eblue-dist 2007

3-42

POWERHEAD

SPECIAL NOTE A f t e r t h e seal on both sides of t h e cylinder block have been installed, apply a light coating of 1000 Sealer t o t h e outside edge of t h e I1spaghetti" seal, Illustration f22. Next, lower t h e crankcase cover into place on t h e cylinder block. Install t h e t w o guide centering pins through t h e cover and i n t o t h e block, Illustration W23. The centering pins a r e tapered, therefore, check t h e crankcase and notice which side has t h e l a r g e hole and which has t h e small hole. The pin must b e inserted i n t o t h e large hole first: If t h e pin is installed into t h e small hole first, t h e crankcase cover or t h e cylind e r block will break.

3-20 MAIN BEARING BOLT AND CRANKCASE SIDE BOLT INSTALLATION


Apply a coating of 1000 Sealer t o t h e t h r e a d s of t h e main bearing bolts. Install and tighten t h e main bearing bolts fingert i g h t and then just a bit more, Illustration f 24 and #25. Tighten t h e main bearing bolts alternately and evenly in t h r e e rounds t o t h e torque value given in t h e Torque Table in

eblue-dist 2007

M,AIN BEARING BOLTS


t h e Appendix. Be sure t o check t h e Specifications in t h e Appendix for t h e engine being serviced. Tighten t h e bolts t o 112 t h e t o t a l torque value on t h e f i r s t round, t o 3/4 t h e t o t a l torque value on t h e second round, and t o t h e full torque value on t h e third and final round. As an example: If t h e t o t a l torque value specified is 200 ft-lbs, t h e bolts should b e tightened t o 100 ft-lbs on t h e f i r s t goaround; t o 150 f t-lbs on t h e second round; and t o t h e full 200 f t-lbs on t h e third round. Install and tighten t h e c r a n k c a s e side bolts, Illustration #26, t o t h e torque value given in t h e Appendix.

3-43

Three-Cylinder Engine Install t h e o t h e r t w o a t t a c h i n g bolts through t h e lower bearing c a p and tighten them securely. V4 Engine Install t h e a t t a c h i n g bolts t o s e c u r e t h e lower and upper bearing caps. Tighten t h e bolts EVENLY and SECURELY. Install two bolts through t h e lower bearing c a p into t h e retainer plate. These a r e special bolts with sealing qualities built in,

Illustration #27. Theref ore, NEVER use t h e bolts a second time. P i s c a r d t h e old bolts t h a t w e r e removed and install NEW bolts. Remove t h e t w o 114x28 guide pins and install t h e o t h e r t w o sealing bolts, Illustration #28. Tighten t h e bolts EVENLY and ALTERNATELY. Install t h e Woodruff key in t h e crankshaft. Slide t h e flywheel onto t h e crankshaft. R o t a t e t h e flywheel through several revolutions and check t o b e sure all moving parts indicate smooth operation without evidence of binding o r "rough" spots. Remove t h e flywheel. 3-21 BOTTOM SEAL INSTALLATION TYPE ATTACHED T O LOWER END OF CRANKSHAFT This t y p e of seal is a t t a c h e d t o t h e lower end sf t h e cranksbaf t. Install t h e quadrant 0- seal into t h e quadr a n t seal holder with t h e lip of t h e s e a l facing toward t h e BOTTOM of t h e cylinder block.

eblue-dist 2007

3-44

POWERHEAD

Apply a small amount of light- weight oil o n t o t h e quadrant O-ring, and t h e n slide t h e ring o n t o t h e crankshaft, with t h e raised a r e a of ring towards t h e lower bearing c a p , Illustration 829. Slide t h e l a r g e washer, spring, and small washer, o n t o t h e cranks h a f t , and secure t h e m in place with t h e Truarc snap ring, Illustration #30.
3-22 EXHAUST COVER AND BYPASS COVER INSTALLATION

block, on t h e three- cylinder engines a n d Install t h e between t h e heads on t h e V4. inner plate. C o a t both sides of another NEW gasket with sealer, and then install t h e gasket and exhaust cover. Secure t h e exhaust cover in place with t h e attachinn hardware. C o a t borh sides of a NEW gasket with s e a l e r , and t h e n place i t in position on t h e cylinder block, Illustration 631. Install t h e bypass covers and s e c u r e t h e m in place with t h e a t t a c h i n g hardware, Illustration #32. If a fuel pump is used, be s u r e t h e s a m e bypass cover is installed in t h e position f r o m which i t was removed, Illustration f33.
3-23 REED BOX INSTALLATION

C o a t both sides of a MEW gasket with 1000 Sealer, and t h e n place t h e gasket in position on t h e exhaust side of t h e cylinder

Install t h e reed box and i n t a k e manifold o n t o t h e cylinder block. A gasket is installe d on both sides of t h e reed box. The reeds and reed stops f a c e inward toward t h e cylinder.

eblue-dist 2007

HEAD INSTALLATION

3-45

3-24 HEAD INSTALLATION


Place a NEW head gasket in place on t h e cylinder block. NEVER use automotive t y p e head gasket sealer. The chemicals in t h e s e a l e r will cause electrolvtic action and eat the aluminum faster than you can get to the bank f o r money t o buy a new cylinder block.

CAREFULLY place the head in position. Install t h e head bolts and tighten t h e m finger tight, then j u s t a bit more, Illustration

134 and 135. Now, tighten t h e bolts A=TERNATELY and EVENLY in t h r e e rounds t o t h e torque value specified in t h e Appendix. On t h e f i r s t round tighten t h e bolts t o the total torque value, on the second round t o 314 the t o t a l torque value, a n d t o t h e full torque value on t h k third aLd final round. If servicin g a V4 powerhead, r e p e a t t h e procedure f o r t h e other head, Illustration 536.

eblue-dist 2007

3-46

PO WERHEAD

POWERHEAD INSTALLATION
Install t h e assembled powerhead t o t h e exhaust housing and tighten t h e attaching bolts alternately and evenly in t h r e e rounds t o t h e torque value specified in t h e Appendix. Tighten t h e bolts t o 112 t h e torque value on t h e first round, t o 314 t h e total torque value on t h e second round, and t o t h e full torque value on t h e third and final round. Install all powerhead accessories including t h e flywheel, carburetor, ignition components, s t a r t e r , etc. If any doubts or difficulties a r e encountered, follow t h e procedures outlined in t h e chapters covering t h e particular component. The complete outboard unit is now ready t o be s t a r t e d and "broke-in" according t o t h e procedures outlined in t h e next section. 3-25 BREAK-IN PROCEDURES Mount the engine in a test t a n k or body of water. If this is not possible, connect a flush a t t a c h m e n t and garden hose t o t h e lower unit. NEVER o p e r a t e t h e engine above idle speed using t h e flush a t t a c h m e n t . If t h e engine is operated above a n idle speed, t h e unit must b e IN GEAR, preferably with a t e s t wheel a t t a c h e d t o t h e propeller shaft. If t h e engine is operated above idle speed with no load on t h e propeller, t h e engine could RUNAWAY resulting in serious damage or destruction of t h e unit.

CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. As soon as t h e engine starts, CHECK t o
b e sure t h e water pump is operating. If t h e water pump is operating, a water mist will b e discharged from t h e exhaust relief holes at t h e rear of t h e drive shaft housing. During t h e first 10 hours of operation, DO NOT o p e r a t e t h e engine at full t h r o t t l e (except for VERY short periods). Perform t h e break-in as follows: a- Operate at 112 throttle, approximatel y 2500 t o 3500 rpm, f o r 2 hours. b O p e r a t e at any speed a f t e r 2 hours BUT NOT at sustained full t h r o t t l e until another 8 hours of operation. c- Mix gasoline and oil during t h e breakin period, total of 10 hours, at a r a t i o of 50: 1. d- While t h e engine is operating during t h e initial period, check t h e fuel, exhaust, and water systems for leaks. e- R e f e r t o Chapter 5 f o r synchronizing procedures. After t h e test period, disconnect t h e f u e l line. Remove t h e engine from t h e t e s t tank. Install t h e engine hood.

Discharging a small quantity of fuel into a sixgallon tank prior to adding the recommended amount of oil. Some fuel MUST be in the tank before adding the oil, as explained in the text.

0MC approved oil for Johnson/Evinrude outboard engines. Only quality grade oil should be used for any engine. The added expense is ridiculously small compared to the cost of the outboard engine, or overhaul.

eblue-dist 2007

FUEL
4-1 INTRODUCTION
The carburetion and ignition principles of two-cycle engine operation MUST b e understood in order t o perform a proper tuneup on an outboard motor. If you have any doubts concerning your understanding of two-cycle engine operation, i t would b e best t o study t h e operation theory section in t h e first portion of Chapt e r 3, before tackling any work on t h e fuel system. fuel into t h e reservoir t o replace t h e fuei consumed by t h e engine. Fuel level in each chamber is extremely critical and must b e maintaine6 accurately. Accuracy is obtained through proper adjustm e n t of t h e float. This adjustment will provide a balanced metering of fuel t o each cylinder a t all speeds. Following t h e fuel through i t s course, from t h e fuel tank to t h e combustion chamber of t h e cylinder, will provide an appreciation of exactly what is taking place. In order t o s t a r t t h e engine, t h e fuel must b e moved from t h e t a n k t o t h e carburetor by a squeeze bulb installed in t h e fuel line. The fuel systems for engines covered in this manual a r e equipped with a manuallyoperated squeeze bulb in t h e line t o transfer fuel from t h e tank t o t h e engine until t h e engine starts. After t h e engine s t a r t s , t h e fuel passes through t h e fuel pump t o t h e carburetor. All systems have some t y p e of filter installed somewhere in t h e line between t h e tank and t h e carburetor.

4-2 GENERAL CARBURETION


INFORMATION
The carburetor is merely a metering device for mixing fuel and air in t h e proper proportions for efficient engine operation. At idle speed, an outboard engine requires a mixture of about 8 parts air t o 1 part fuel. At high speed or under heavy duty service, t h e mixture may change t o a s much as 12 parts a i r t o 1 part fuel.

Float Systems A small c h a m b e r in t h e carburetor serves as a fuel reservoir. A float valve admits

Float properly adjusted. Notice how the surface of the float is parallel with the surface of the carburetor.

Typical fuel line with squeeze bulb and quick? disconnect fitting at each end. These items may be purchased as an assembled unit.

eblue-dist 2007

4-2

FUEL
fuel t o be pushed out m e t e r i n g jets extending down into t h e fuel chamber. When t h e fuel leaves t h e jets, i t mixes with t h e a i r passing through t h e venturi. This f u e l l a i r mixture should t h e n b e in t h e proper proportion for burning in t h e cylinderls for maximum engine performance. In order t o obtain t h e proper air/fuel mixture for all engine speeds, high- and lowspeed needle valves a r e installed. On latemodel engines, t h e high-speed needle valve w a s replaced with a high-speed orifice. There is no adjustment with t h e orifice type. These needle valves a r e used t o compensate f o r changing atmospheric conditions. Only 15% t o 20% of t h e engines covered in t h i s manual have an adjustable high- and low-speed needle valve. Engine operation at s e a level compared with performance at high altitudes is q u i t e noticeable. A t h r o t t l e valve controls t h e volume of airlfuel mixture drawn into t h e engine. A cold engine requires a richer fuel mixture t o s t a r t and during t h e brief period i t is warming t o normal operating temperature. A choke valve is placed ahead of t h e m e t e r i n g jets and venturi t o provide t h e e x t r a amount of a i r required f o r s t a r t and while t h e engine is cold. When this choke valve is closed, a very rich fuel mixture is drawn i n t o t h e engine. The t h r o a t of t h e carburetor is usually r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e "barrel". Carburetors
lNDUCED LOW A I R PRESSURE

At t h e carburetor, t h e fuel passes through t h e inlet passage t o t h e needle and s e a t , and then into t h e f l o a t chamber (reservoir). P float in t h e chamber rides up and down on t h e surface of t h e fuel. A f t e r fuel e n t e r s t h e chamber and t h e level rises t o a predetermined point, a t a n g on t h e f l o a t closes t h e inlet needle and t h e fuel flow entering t h e chamber i s cutoff. When fuel leaves t h e chamber a s t h e engine o p e r a t e s , t h e fuel level drops and t h e f l o a t tang allows t h e inlet needle t o move off i t s seat and fuel once again e n t e r s t h e chamber. In this manner a constant reservoir of fuel is maintained in t h e chamber t o satisfy t h e demands of t h e engine at all speeds. A fuel chamber vent hole is located near t h e t o p of t h e carburetor body t o p e r m i t atmospheric pressure t o a c t against t h e fuel in e a c h chamber. This pressure assures a n adequate fuel supply t o t h e various operating systems of t h e engine.

Air/Fuel Mixture
A suction e f f e c t is c r e a t e d each t i m e t h e piston moves upward in t h e cylinder. This suction draws a i r through t h e t h r o a t of t h e carburetor. A restriction in t h e t h r o a t , called a venturi, controls a i r velocity and has t h e e f f e c t of reducing air pressure at this point. The difference in a i r pressures, a t t h e t h r o a t and in t h e fuel c h a m b e r , c a u s e s t h e

VENTUR l
,

Throw-away fuel pump used on some Johnson/Evinrude engines. The only service possible on this unit is to clean the filter and install a new gasket.

ATMOSPHERIC A I R PRESSURE
Air flow principle of a modern carburetor

eblue-dist 2007

TROUBLESHOOTING
installed on engines covered in t h i s manila1 all have a single metering jet with a single t h r o t t l e and choke plate. Single barrel carburetors a r e fed by one f l o a t and chamber

4-3

4-3 FUEL SYSTEM


The fuel system includes t h e fuel tank, fuel pump, fuel filters, carburetor, fuel lines with a squeeze bulb, and t h e associated p a r t s t o connect i t all together. Regular maintenance of t h e fuel system t o obtain maximum performance, is limited t o changing t h e fuel filter a t regular intervals and using FRESH fuel. Even with t h e high price of fuel, removing gasoline t h a t has been standing unused over a long period of t i m e is still t h e easiest and l e a s t expensive prevent i v e maintenance possible. In most cases t h i s old gas, even with s o m e oil mixed with i t , c a n be used without harmful e f f e c t s in an automobile using regul a r gasoline. If a sudden increase in gas consumption is noticed, or if t h e engine does not perform properly, a carburetor overhaul, including

Damaged piston, possibly caused by insufficient oil mixed with the fuel; using too-low an octane fuel; or using fuel that had flsouredll(stood too long without a preservative additive).

boil-out, or a t t e n t i o n t o t h e fuel pump, m a y b e required. Some engines have a nonserviceable t hrowavray fuel pump and o t h e r s have a pump t h a t can be rebuilt. Procedures t o s e r v i c e t h e second t y p e pumw a r e given in Section 4-1 1 of this chapter.

4-4 TROUBLESHOOTING
The following paragraphs provide an orderly sequence of t e s t s t o pinpoint problems

OMC fuel conditioner added to the fuel will keep it fresh for up to one full year.

Commercial additives, such as Sta-bil, may be used to keep the fuel in the tank fresh. Under favorable conditions, such additives will prevent the fuel from "souring" for up to twelve months.

eblue-dist 2007

44

FUEL

in t h e system. If an engine h a s not been used f o r some t i m e and fuel has remained in t h e carburetor, i t is possible t h a t varnish may have formed. Such a condition could b e t h e cause of hard s t a r t i n g o r complete failure of t h e engine t o operate. Fuel Problems Many t i m e s fuel system troubles a r e caused by a plugged fuel f i l t e r , a d e f e c t i v e fuel pump, or by a l e a k in t h e line f r o m t h e fuel t a n k t o t h e fuel pump. Aged fuel l e f t in t h e carburetor and t h e formation of varnish could cause t h e needle t o stick in i t s seat and prevent fuel flow into t h e bowl. A defective choke m a y also cause problems. WOULD YOU BELIEVE, a majority of s t a r t ing troubles, which a r e t r a c e d t o t h e fuel system, a r e t h e result of an e m p t y fuel tank or aged fuel Fuel will begin t o sour in t h r e e t o four months and will cause engine starting problems. Therefore, leaving t h e motor sitting idle with fuel in t h e carburetor, lines, o r tank, during t h e off-season, usually results in very serious problems. A fuel additive such a s Sta-Bil or CPMC 2+4 Fuel Conditione r may be used t o prevent gum from f o r m ing during s t o r a g e or prolonged idle periods. For many years t h e r e has been t h e widespread belief t h a t simply disconnecting t h e fuel line a t t h e engine or at t h e tank, and then running t h e engine until i t stops is t h e proper procedure before storing t h e engine f o r any length of time. P i g h t ? WRONG! First, i t is NOT possible t o remove all fuel in t h e carburetor by operating t h e engine until i t stops. Considerable fuel is trapped in t h e f l o a t chamber, o t h e r passage s , and in t h e line leading t o t h e carburetor. The ONLY guaranteed method of removing ALL fuel, is t o t a k e t h e t i m e t o remove t h e carburetor and drain t h e fuel. On all engines using high-speed orifice carburetors, t h e high-speed orifice plug can be removed t o drain fuel from t h e carburetor.

Fuel connector with the O-ring visible. These Orings have a relatively short life and MUST be replaced at regular intervals, as explained in the text.

Secondly, if t h e engine is operated with t h e fuel supply disconnect a t t h e "quickdisconnect" until i t stops, t h e fuel and oil mixture inside t h e engine is removed, leaving bearings, pistons, rings, and other p a r t s without any p r o t e c t i v e lubricant. Proper procedure involves: disconnecting t h e fuel line at t h e tank; operating t h e engine until i t begins t o run ROUGH; then stopping t h e engine, which will leave s o m e fuelfoil mixture inside t h e engine; and finally removing or draining t h e carburetor. By disconnecting t h e fuel supply, all SMALL passages a r e cleared of fuel, even though s o m e fuel is l e f t in t h e carburetor. A l i ~ h t oil should b e put in t h e combustion chamber

Female fuel line connector ready t o be mated with the male portion of the connector.

Fouled spark plug, possibly caused by operator's habit of over-choking or a malfunction holding the choke closed. Either of these conditions will deliver a too-rich fuel mixture to the cylinder.

eblue-dist 2007

TROUBLESHOOTING

4-5

as instructed in t h e Owner's Manual. On all


engines using high-speed orif ice carburetors, t h e high-speed orifice plug can b e removed t o drain fuel from t h e carburetor.

Choke Problems When t h e engine is hot, t h e fuel system can cause starting problems. A f t e r a h o t engine is shut down, t h e t e m p e r a t u r e inside t h e fuel bowl m a y rise t o 2 0 0 " ~and c a u s e t h e fuel t o actually boil. All c a r b u r e t o r s a r e vented t o allow t h i s pressure t o e s c a p e t o t h e atmoshphere, Fowever, s o m e of t h e fuel may p e r c o l a t e o v e r t h e high-speed nozzle. If t h e choke should stick in t h e open position, t h e engine will be hard t o s t a r t . If t h e choke should stick in t h e closed position, t h e engine will flood making i t VERY difficult t o start. In order for this raw fuel t o vaporize enough t o burn, considerable a i r must b e added t o lean o u t t h e mixture. Therefore, t h e only remedy is t o remove t h e spark plugs; ground t h e leads; crank t h e engine through a b o u t 10 revolutions; clean t h e plugs; install t h e plugs again; and s t a r t t h e engine. If t h e needle valve and s e a t assembly i s leaking, a n excessive amount of fuel m a y e n t e r t h e i n t a k e manifold in t h e following manner: a f t e r t h e engine is shut down, t h e pressure l e f t in t h e fuel line will f o r c e fuel

p a s t t h e leaking needle valve. This e x t r a fuel will raise t h e level in t h e fuel bowl a n d c a u s e fuel t o overflow into t h e i n t a k e manifold. A continuous overflow of fuel into t h e intake manifold m a y b e due t o a sticking inlet needle or t o a d e f e c t i v e f l o a t which would cause an e x t r a high level of fuel in t h e bowl and overflow into t h e intake manifold.

FUEL PUMP TESTS CAUTION: Gasoline will be flowing in the engine area during this test. Therefore, guard against fire by grounding the high-tension wire to prevent it from sparking. Testing System with Squeeze Bulb An a d e q u a t e s a f e t y method is t o ground e a c h spark plug lead. Disconnect t h e fuel line at t h e "quick-disconnect" at t h e engine. P l a c e a suitable container over t h e end of t h e fuel line t o c a t c h t h e fuel discharged. Insert a small screwdriver into t h e end of t h e line t o open t h e check valve, and t h e n s q u e e z e t h e primer bulb and observe if t h e r e is s a t i s f a c t o r y fuel flow f r o m t h e line. If t h e r e is no fuel discharged from t h e line, t h e check valve in t h e squeeze bulb m a y be defective, or t h e r e may b e a break or obstruction in t h e fuel line. If t h e r e is a good fuel flow, remove t h e fuel lines at t h e carburetors and connect t h e "quick-disconnect" at t h e engine. Crank t h e engine. If t h e fuel pump is operating properly, a healthy s t r e a m of fuel should pulse o u t of t h e line. Continue cranking t h e engine and c a t c h ing t h e fuel f o r a b o u t 15 pulses t o d e t e r m i n e if t h e a m o u n t of fuel decreases with e a c h pulse or maintains a constant amount. A d e c r e a s e in t h e discharge indicates a restriction in t h e line. If t h e fuel line is plugged, t h e fuel s t r e a m m a y stop. If t h e r e i s fuel in t h e fuel t a n k b u t no fuel flows o u t

The choke plays a most important role during engine start and in controlling the amount of air entering the carburetor, under various load conditions.

Insert a small Screwdriver into the end of the fuel line to open the check valve, as described in the text.

eblue-dist 2007

4-6

FUEL

t h e f u e l l i n e while t h e e n g i n e i s being c r a n k ed, t h e problem m a y b e i n o n e of s e v e r a l areas: 1- Plugged f u e l l i n e f r o m t h e f u e l p u m p t o t h e carburetor. 2- D e f e c t i v e O- ring i n f u e l l i n e connect o r i n t o t h e fuel tank. 3- D e f e c t i v e O- ring i n f u e l l i n e connect o r i n t o t h e engine. 4- D e f e c t i v e f u e l pump. 5- T h e line f r o m t h e fuel t a n k t o t h e f u e l pump m a y b e plugged; t h e l i n e m a y b e leaking air; o r t h e s q u e e z e bulb m a y b e defective. 6- D e f e c t i v e fuel tank. 7- If t h e e n g i n e d o e s n o t s t a r t e v e n though t h e r e is a d e q u a t e fuel f l o w f r o m t h e f u e l line, t h e fuel i n l e t needle valve and t h e seat m a y b e g u m m e d t o g e t h e r and p r e v e n t a d e q u a t e f u e l flow.

A typical squeeze bulb with the directional arrow clearly visible. The squeeze bulb must be installed with the arrow pointing in the direction o f fuel flow, toward the engine.

FUEL LINE TEST


O n all f a c t o r y installations c o v e r e d in t h i s m a n u a l , t h e f u e l l i n e is provided w i t h quick- disconnect f i t t i n g s at t h e t a n k a n d at t h e engine, as produced by t h e rnanufacture r . O w n e r s m a y install a built- in t a n k w i t h a p e r m a n e n t - t y p e f u e l l i n e t o t h e engine. If t h e r e is reason t o b e l i e v e t h e p h ~ b l e r nis a t t h e quick- disconnects, t h e hose e n d s c a n b e r e p l a c e d as a n assembly, o r new 0 - r i n p Pray b e installed. A supply s f n e w O-rings shoulc' b e c a r r i e d on board f o r u s e i n i s o l a t e d a r e a s w h e r e a m a r i n e s t o r e is not availehle. Fep l a c e m e n t p r o c e d u r e s a r e h resented in Sect i o n 4-12. F o r a s m a l l additional e x n e n s e , t h e snt i r e fuel line c a n b e r e p l a c e d a n d e l i v i n a t -

ing t h i s e n t i r e a r e a as a problem s o u r c e f o r m a n y f u t u r e seasons. T h e p r i m e r s q u e e z e bulb c a n b e r e p l a c e d in a s h o r t t i m e . A s q u e e z e h u h a s s e m b l y k i t , c o m p l e t e w i t h t h e c h e c k valves installed, m a y b e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e l o c s l Johnson/Evinrude dealer. T h e r e p l a c e m e n t k i t will also include t w o t i e straps' t o s e c u r e t h e bulb properly i n t h e line. An a r r o w i s c l e a r l y visible on t h e squeeze bulb t o i n d i c a t e t h e d i r e c t i o n of f u e l flow. T h e s q u e e z e bulb MUST b e installed c o r r e c t l y in t h e line b e c a u s e t h e c h e c k valves in e a c h e n d of t h e bulb will allow f u e l t o flow in ONLY o n e direction. T h e r e f o r e , if t h e s q u e e z e bulb should b e installed backwards, in a m o ~ n e n tof h a s t e t o g e t t h e job

Fuel connector with the O-rings visible. These Orings have a relatively short life and may be the source o f fuel problems. The O-rings MUST be replaced on a regular basis.

Parts in a squeeze bulb replacement kit include the squeeze bulb, two check valves, and two tie straps t o secure the k l b in the line.

eblue-dist 2007

TROUBLESHOOTING
done. fuel will not reach t h e carburetor. T o replace t h e bulb, see Section 4-12.

4-7

ROUGH ENGINE IDLE


If an engine does not idle smoothly, t h e most reasonable approach t o t h e problem i s t o perform a tune-up t o eliminate such a r e a s as: defective ignition parts; f a u l t y spark plugs; and synchronization o u t of adjustm ent. Other problems t h a t can prevent a n engine from 'runnin g smoothly include: an a i r l e a k in t h e intake manifold: uneven compression between t h e cylind&; and sticky o r broken reeds. Of course any problem in t h e carburetor affecting t h e air/fuel mixture will also prevent t h e engine from operating smoothly at idle speed. These problems usually include: t o o high a fuel level in t h e howl; a heavy float; leaking needle valve and s e a t ; defect i v e a u t o m a t i c choke; and improper idle or high-speed needle valve adjustments. "Sour" fuel (fuel l e f t in a tank without a preservative additive) will cause an engine t o run rough and idle with g r e a t difficulty. If t h e fuel/oil mixture is too strong on t h e oil side, t h e engine will run rough. The only solution t o t h i s problem is t o drain t h e f u e l and fill t h e tank with a FRESH ACCURATE mixture.

A set of points unfit for service due to oxidation.

EXCESSIVE FUEL CONSUMPTION


Excessive fuel consumption can result from one of t h r e e conditions, or a corn h i m tion of all three. 1- Inefficient engine operation. 2- Damaged condition of t h e hull, including excessive marine growth. 3- Poor boating habits of t h e operator. If t h e fuel consumption suddenly increase s o v e r what could b e considered normal, then t h e cause can probably h e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e engine or b o a t and not t h e operator. Marine growth on t h e hull c a n have a very marked e f f e c t on b o a t performance. This is why sail boats always t r y t o have a haul-out as close t o r a c e t i m e a s possible. While you a r e checking t h e bottom t a k e A bent n o t e of t h e propeller condition. blade or other damage will definitely c a u s e poor boat If t h e hull and propeller a r e in good shape, then check t h e fuel system f o r possible leaks. Check t h e line between t h e fuel pump and t h e carburetor while t h e engine is running and t h e line between t h e fuel tank and t h e pump when t h e engine is not running. A l e a k between t h e tank and t h e pump many t i m e s will not a p p e a r when t h e engine i s operating, because t h e suction c r e a t e d by

EL
Cross-sectional view of a spark plug showing the principle parts with important comments for satisfactory service.

whenever the engine fans to perform properly.

eblue-dist 2007

4-8

FUEL

fuel t o leak. Once t h e engine is turned off and t h e suction no longer exists, fuel m a y begin t o leak. If a minor tune-up has been performec! and t h e spark plugs, ignition parts, and synchronization a r e properly adjusted, then t h e problem most likely is in t h e carburetor, indicating an overhaul is in order. Check for leaks at t h e needle valve and seat. l l s e e x t r a c a r e when making any adjustments affecting t h e fuel consumption, such as t h e float level or automatic choke.

ENGINE SURGE
If t h e engine operates a s if t h e load on t h e boat is being constantly increased and decreased, even though a n a t t e m p t is being made t o hold a constant engine speed, t h e problem can most likely be attributed t o t h e fuel pump. Operational description and service procedures for t h e rebuildable fuel pump a r e given in Section 4-11.

Damaged propeller unfit for further service.

4-5 JOHNSON/EVINRUDE CARBURETORS


This section provides complete detailed procedures for: removal; disassembly; cleaning and inspecting; assembling including bench adjustments; installation; and operating adjustments f o r t h e four OMC carburetors installed on engines covered in this manual. The Type I carburetor is a downdraft carburetor installed on t h e 50 hp t o 85 hp V4

engines. The Type I1 is a frontdraft carburetor installed on t h e 90 hp and 100 hp V4 engines. The Type I11 is a f r o n t d r a f t carburetor used on t h e 55 hp and 60 hp, 3-cylinder engines. The Type IV is a frontdraft carburetor used on t h e 85 hp to 125 hp V4 engines. These carburetors a r e equipped with either a manual choke, an electric choke, a h e a t choke, water choke, or an override choke. The manual backup permits t h e operator t o operate t h e choke in t h e e v e n t t h e b a t t e r y is dead. The following t a b l e lists the types of carburetors installed on t h e various horsepower and model years f o r engines covered in this manual.

Marine growth allowed to accumulate on the lower unit will create !!dragv,seriously hampering boat performance. The growth will corrode the metal if it is not removed.

A rebuilt propeller ready for service.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I CARBURETOR

4-9

CARBURETOR INSTALLATIONS Type IA


Downdraft, double barrel with high-speed and low-speed needle valves. 50 hp -- 1958 and 1959 60 hp -- l a 6 4 and 1965 75 hp -- 1960

4-6 TYPE IA CARBURETOR DOWNDRAFT, DOUBLE BARREL WITH HIGH- AND LOW-SPEED NEEDLE VALVES 50 HP - 1958 AND 1959 60 HP - 1964 AND 8965 75 HP - 1960 TYPE IB CARBURETOR SAME AS TYPE IA EXCEPT WITH HIGH-SPEED FIXED ORIFICE 60 HP -- 1966 AND 1967 65 HP - 1968 75 HP - 1961 THRU 1965 80 HP - 1966 AND 1967 85 HP - 1968 DESCRIPTION The Type I carburetor has a double throat, commonly referred t o as a "double Figh speed operation of large barrel". horsepower engines requires a g r e a t deal of air. In order t o retain t h e efficiency and fuel economy of small horsepower engines with relatively small carburetor throats, a double t h r o a t ("barrel") is used instead of o n e large single throat. A single throat would b e wasteful of fuel and unresponsive at low speed operation. Air velocities become too low for proper air/fuel mixing and vaporization. To solve this problem, carburetors with t w e or more throats a r e used. When facing t h e front of t h e carburetor, t h e l e f t barrel crosses and feeds t h e No. 2 and No. 4 cylinders, port bank. The right barrel feeds t h e No. I and No. 3 cylinders, starboard bank. SPECIAL WORDS Since both t h e Type lA and IB carburetors a r e identical e x c e p t f o r t h e high-speed

Type IB
Downdraft, double barrel with fixed high-speed orif ice and low-speed needle valve. 60 hp -- 1966 and 1967 65 hp -- 1968 75 hp -- l o 6 1 t h r u 1O65 80 hp -- 1966 and 15267 8 5 hp -- 1968

Type 1 1
Frontdraft, four barrel with fixed high-speed orif ice and low-spee6 needle valve. 90 hp -- 1964 and 1965 100 hp -- 1966 thru 1968

Type 1 1 1
Three carburetors per enpine. Frontdraft, single barrel with fixed high-speed or if ice and low-speed needle valve. 55 hp -- 1968 and 1969 60 h~ -- 1970 and 1P71 65 hp -- 1972 (Uses this carburetor, but engine is covered in Volume IV Manual) -

Type IVA
Two carburetors per engine. Frontdraf t, double barrel with low-speed needle valve a n d fixed high-speed or if ice. 85 hp -- 1969 thru 1971 100 hp -- 1971 115 hp -- 1969 and 1970 125 hp -- 1971

Type IVB
with fixed low-speed and high-speed orif ices. 85 hp -- 1972 100 hp -- 1972 125 hp -- 1972

Type IA carburetor, downdraft, double barrel, with high-speed and low-speed needle valves. This unit is used on the engines listed at the head of this column.

eblue-dist 2007

4- 1 0

FUEL

Type IB carburetor with high-speed orifice and water choke. Engines listed on Page 4-9, use this unit.

adjustable needle valve and t h e venturis on t h e very early model engines, 1958 t o 1965, t h e following service procedures will cover t h e Type IB, with a fixed high-speed orifice. The differences, due t o t h e high-speed needle valve used on a f e w of t h e early model engines, will b e clearly indicated.
L,

REMOVAL

Choke Systems These carburetors a r e equipped with either a manual choke, an electric choke, a h e a t choke, water choke, or an override choke. The manual backup permits t h e operator t o operate t h e choke in t h e event t h e b a t t e r y is dead. See Section 4-8 t o service t h e choke system.

1- Disconnect t h e fuel line at t h e engine and at t h e fuel tank, by separating t h e quick-disconnect. Disconnect t h e cables at t h e b a t t e r y terminals. Remove t h e hood. 2- Disconnect t h e advance t h r o t t l e linka g e between t h e tower shaft and t h e carburetor. This is accomplished either by removing t h e t w o setscrews and then t h e rod, or by removing t h e screw on t h e cam. If this screw is removed, b e sure t o thread a nut onto t h e screw t o prevent losing t h e parts. Remove t h e return spring. 3- Remove either t h e choke wire t o t h e choke, or t h e water lines, if a water choke

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I CARBURETOR

4- l l

CARBURETOR DISASSEMBLING

is used. If a h e a t c h o k e is used, d i s c o n n e c t P e v o v e t h e t h r e e bolts t h e h e ~ tt u b e . securing t h e c a r b u r e t o r t o t h e rranifold. Cne h o l t is l o c a t e d sn e s c h s i d e of t h e c a r b u r e t o r and t h e thirS c o m e s up throuph t h e vamidcl8 f r o m t h e b o t t o r r . Lift t h e c a r b u r e t o r f r e e cf t h e m a r if ol d an8 rernove t h e fuel line f r o v t b e S a c k sick. Pear-inmind, t h i s f~rel Li~e MUST h e c o n n e c t e d h e f c r e d.)-:c cc?r!wrs.tor is p l a c e 8 in pc+sition on t h e ~ m i f e l 8 ~ Choke Removal and Service C .#ee b a~r i r r c ~ r i ~ portinn of e c t i c n 4t te 8, c t h i s c P a p t e r fPr r e r c v a l ?red s e r v i c e f prccec'ures c c v e r i r y t h e p a r t i c u l a r c h o k e i r s t c . l l ~ t i wor t h e anpine be in^ serviced.

4- R e m o v e all s c r e w s f r o m t h e t o p of t h e c a r b u r e t o r . N o t i c e t h e o n e s c r e w on t h e p o r t side t h a t passes t h r o u g h a s m a l l elong a t e d clip. This clip s e c u r e s t h e c h o k e c a m in place. R e m e m b e r under which s c r e w t h i s clip is secured. Carburetor with High-speed Adjustment 5- A f t e r a l l t h e s c r e w s on t o p of t h e c a r b u r e t o r have b e e n removed: n o t i c e t h a t t w o s c r e w s pass through t h e c a p c o v e r i n g t h e high- speed a d j u s t m e n t n e e d l e valve. R e m o v e t h e "E" c l i p f r o m t h e s m a l l rod b e t w e e n t h e t w o high- speed n e e d l e valves. Pull t h e rod, w i t h knob a t t a c h e d , f r e e . TAKE CARE n o t t o lose t h e w a s h e r s a n d spring in t h e c a r b u r e t o r r e c e s s f r o m which t h e rod w a s removed. R e m o v e t h e cap. 6- P n c a r b u r e t o r s ~ 4 t ht h e high-speed acrjustwent, both high- speed needles r r u s t h e r e v o v e d BEFORE t h e c a r b u r e t o r c o v e r is

eblue-dist 2007

4-12

FUEL

removed. Simply r o t a t e t h e needles COUNTERCLOCKWISE until t h e y a r e f r e e . 7- L i f t t h e t o p of t h e carburetor f r o m t h e body. Turn t h e t o p upside down. Notice t h a t t h e t o p contains t h e f l o a t and t h e needle and s e a t . 8- Remove and DISCARD t h e hinge pin from t h e float. A carburetor repair k i t contains a new f l o a t and hinge pin. 9- Remove t h e needle valve from t h e s e a t , and then remove t h e seat f r o m t h e carburetor. It is not necessary t o be careful with t h e seat because a NEW s e a t should b e installed during a carburetor overhaul. 10- Remove and discard t h e gasket.

11- F e m o v e and DISCARD t h e small 0ring from t h e side of t h e t h r o t t l e advance c a m roller, t h e n remove t h e roller. 12- Remove t h e low-speed adjusting knob, by removing t h e screw in t h e c e n t e r of t h e knob, and t h e n pull t h e knob f r e e . 13- Loosen t h e packing nut. P n t a t e t h e low-speed adjusting needle COUNTERCLOCKWISE until i t is f r e e of t h e carburetor body. 14- Remove t h e low-speed packing n u t and t h e packing f r o m t h e carburetor. Carburetors with High-speed Adjustment 15- F e m o v e t h e low-speed adjustment needle by pushing in on t h e knob, and t h e n using a screwdriver, r o t a t e t h e needle COUNTERCLOCKWISE until i t is f r e e of t h e carburetor body. F e m o v e and DISCARD t h e O-ring.

SPECIAL WORDS Two gaskets a r e inclu8ed in t h e replacem e n t kit. O n e is used with carburetors having t h e fixed high-speed orifice, and t h e o t h e r gasket is used with t h e c a r b u r e t o r s with t h e adjustable high-speed needle. THEREFORE t a k e n o t e of t h e gasket removed, t o ensure t h e NEW g a s k e t installed i s t h e proper one f o r t h e carburetor being serviced.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I CARBURETOR

4- 1 3

16- On t h e carburetor body: remove t h e t w o screws securine; t h e venturis in place, and then remove both venturis. 17- Remove t h e O-ring from around t h e high-speed tube. Use t h e proper s i z e screwdriver and r o t a t e t h e high-speed t u b e COUNTERCLOCKWISE until i t is f r e e of t h e carburetor body. Remove t h e o t h e r high-speed t u b e in a similar manner. Carburetors with High-speed Adjustment 18- Remove t h e t w o screws securing t h e venturis in place, and t h e n remove both venturis. The high-speed t u b e is p a r t of t h e venturi and will c o m e f r e e with t h e venturi.

eblue-dist 2007

4-14

FUEL

19- Remove t h e t w o 7/16" drain orifice plugs. These plugs a r e located on t h e bottom side of t h e carburetor in front. 20- Use t h e proper size screwdriver or special tool OF4C No. 317002, and remove t h e high-speed or if ices.
GOOD WORDS On some carburetors, even though a high-speed needle valve is used, a highspeed orifice is also used. Check t o determine if t h e high-speed needle valve opening has an or if ice.

GOOD

WORN

Cross sectional drawing t o allow comparison of a new needle and seat ( l e f t ) , and badly worn one (right).

CLEANING AND INSPECTING NEVER dip rubber parts, plastic parts, o r nylon parts, in carburetor cleaner. These parts should be cleaned ONLY in solvent and then blown dry with compressed air. Place all m e t a l p a r t s in a screen- type t r a y and dip them in carburetor cleaner until they appear completely clean, t h e n wash with solvent, or clean water, and blow dry with compressed air. Blow o u t all passages in t h e castings with compressed air. Check all parts and passages t o b e sure they a r e not clogged or contain any deposits. NEVER use a piece of wire or any typ-e of pointed instrument t o clean drilled passages or calibrated holes in a carburetor. Move t h e t h r o t t l e s h a f t back-and-f orth t o check for wear. If t h e shaft appears t o be too loose, replace t h e complete t h r o t t l e

body because individual replacement parts a r e NOT available. Inspect the main body, airhorn, and vent u r i cluster gasket surf aces f o r cracks and burrs which might cause a leak. Check t h e f l o a t for deterioration. Check t o be sure t h e f l o a t spring has not been stretched. If any p a r t of t h e float is damaged, t h e unit must b e replaced. Check t h e float arm needle contacting surface and replace t h e f l o a t if this surface has a groove worn in it. Inspect t h e tapered section of t h e idle adjusting needles and replace any t h a t have developed a groove. Check t h e orifices for cleanliness. The orifice has a stamped number. This number represents a drill size. Check t h e orifice with t h e shank of t h e proper size drill t o verify t h e proper or if ice is used. The local

Comparison of a worn and new carburetor adjusting screw. The upper screw is unfit for further service.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I CARBURETOR

4- 1 5

Exploded drawing of the Type IA carburetor on@ vwter ckoke assembly.

eblue-dist 2007

4-16

FUEL

OMC dealer will b e a b l e t o provide t h e c o r r e c t size orif i c e for t h e engine and carburetor being serviced. Most of t h e p a r t s t h a t should b e replaced during a carburetor overhaul a r e included in overhaul kits available from your local marine dealer. O n e of t h e s e kits will contain a matched fuel inlet needle and seat. This combination should b e replaced e a c h t i m e t h e carburetor is disassembled as a precaution against leakage.

GOOD
Comparison of worn and new needle valve. The top needle is unfit for further service.

Exploded drawing o f the Type IB carburetor and water choke assembly.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I CARBURETOR

4- 1 7

ASSEMBLING TYPE I CARBURETOR.

1- Install t h e high- speed orifices. U s e special tool, 0 P C No. 317002, o r a proper size screwdriver. 2- A f t e r t h e orif i c e s a r e installed, t h r e a d t h e o r i f i c e plugs i n t o place. Use NEW g a s k e t s when installing t h e o r i f i c e plugs. 3- L u b r i c a t e t h e high- speed t u b e 0rings w i t h lipbt-weight oil. Slide t h e O- ring onto t h e t u b e an6 then thread the t u b e CLOCKWISE in t o t h e c a r b u r e t o r body. Tighten t h e tube. Install t h e o t h e r high- speed n e e d l e t u b e in t h e s a m e m a n n e r . 4- P l a c e t h e t w o v e n t u r i s o v e r t h e highs p e e d t u b e s a n 8 s t a r t t h e retaining screws. Pring. t h e s c r e w s UP just SNUG. DO NOT tighter. t h e r at t h i s t i m e . Carburetors with High-speed Adjustment 5- P l a c e a NEW g a s k e t i n position on t h e carbanretcr b s s e , and t h e n install a v e n t u r i intci t h e c a r b u r e t o r t h r o a t . Inst211 t h e ventrrris with t h reteininp screws, h u t DO NOT ~ t i p b t e n the s c r e w a t this t i m e . 6- hr;easr*ref mm- e a c h side c\f t h e vent u t i tc! c e r t e r the v e n f ~ r iin t h e t h r o a t . A

eblue-dist 2007

4-18

FUEL

available for use on t h e Type I carburetor with fixed high-speed orif ices. Tighten t h e Install t h e second venturi at this time. venturi in t h e s a m e manner. 7- Slide t h e packing onto t h e low-speed needle, and t h e n t h r e a d t h e needle i n t o t h e carburetor body just enough t o hold i t in place. DO NOT tighten i t even snugly a t this time. 8- Thread t h e packing nut into t h e carburetor body FINGER tight. Push t h e k n ~ b o n t o t h e adjusting needle and then s e c u r e i t in place v i t h t h e screw. R o t a t e t h e lowspeed adjusting needle CLOCKWISE until i t just barely s e a t s , t h e n back i t o u t 1-112 turns, a s a preliminary adjustment. Tighten t h e packing nut t o hold t h i s preliminary adjustment.

t h e second low-speed needle valve in t h e s a m e manner. 10- P l a c e t h e c a m roller o n t o t h e thrott l e s h a f t , and t h e n install a NEW O-ring o n t o t h e side of t h e roller. 11- Place a M W gasket in position on E t h e carburetor body.

Carburetor with High-speed Adjustment 9- Place a NEW O-ring i n t o t h e carbur e t o r opening for t h e low-speed valve. Squirt just a drop of oil o n t o t h e O-ring. push in on t h e knob, and a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h r e a d t h e low-speed needle valve i n t o t h e carburetor body, using t h e proper size screwdriver. Tighten t h e needle valve until i t just BARELY s e a t s , then back i t o u t 1-112 turns, a s a preliminary adjustment. Install

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I CARBURETOR

4- 19

Carburetor with High-speed Adjustment 12- Insert a NEW O-ring into each oDening f o r t h e high-speed needle valve. squirt just a drop of oil onto each O-ring. 13- Place a NEW gasket in position on t h e carburetor body. This gasket MUST lay over t h e top of t h e O-rings. 14- Install t h e seat into t h e carburetor cover with a NEW gasket. TAKE CARE not t o damage t h e seat. Insert a drop of oil into t h e seat and then install t h e inlet needle. 15- Install a NEW float into t h e holder, and t h e n a NEW hinge pin. 16- Hold t h e carburetor cover upsidedown, and observe t h e float position. The f l o a t should be parallel with cover surface. If t h e float is not positioned properly, CAREFULLY bend t h e f l o a t arm at a point close to float on both sides. This is accomplished by holding t h e arm as close t o t h e float a s possible, and t h e n moving t h e f l o a t SLIGHTLY in t h e desired direction. 17- Lower t h e cover down over t h e carburetor with t h e float properly positioned in t h e body. 18- Secure t h e cover with t h e screws. REMEMBER t h e small tang t h a t must be installed under one of t h e screws on t h e Dort side of t h e carburetor. Tighten t h e screws a1ternatel y and securely.
-

1 -

- -

eblue-dist 2007

4-20

FUEL

Carburetors with High-speed Adjustment 19- Lubricate t h e high-speed needle valve O-rings with light-weight oil. Slide t h e O-ring onto t h e needle, and then thread t h e needle CLOCKWISE i n t o t h e carburetor body. Tighten t h e needle valve just SNUGLY, then back i t o u t COUNTERCLOCKWISE 314 turn as a preliminary adjustment. Check t o be sure t h e O-ring is s e a t e d properly in the recess of t h e carburetor body. Install and ad just t h e other high-speed needle valve in t h e s a m e manner. 20- Install t h e c a p over t h e high-speed adjustment knobs and secure t h e m in place with t h e screws. 21- Work t h e center high-speed adjustment knob through t h e housing, washers, and spring, and into t h e carburetor body. Lift up on t h e bottom washer and install t h e retaining E-clip. See the choke sections t o service t h e choke system installed on t h e engine being serviced. 22- Position a NEW gasket in place on t h e intake manifold, and then install t h e carburetor with t h e inlet hose towards t h e rear of t h e carburetor. Secure t h e carburetor in place with t h e t h r e e retaining screws, one on each side and t h e third from t h e bottom in t h e center.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I CARBURETOR

4-2 1

23- Connect t h e choke linkage, hoses, or wiring, f o r t h e choke system used on t h e engine being serviced. 24- Connect t h e advance arm from t h e tower s h a f t to t h e carburetor. To synchronize t h e carburetor with t h e ignition system, see Chapter 5. 25- Mount t h e engine in a test tank or body of water. If this is not possible, connect a flush a t t a c h m e n t and garden hose t o t h e lower unit. NEVER o p e r a t e t h e engine above idle speed using t h e flush attachment. If t h e engine is operated above idle speed with no load on t h e propeller. t h e engine could RUNAWAY resulting'in seiious damage or destruction of t h e unit.

CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. S t a r t t h e engine and allow i t t o warm t o operating temperature at about 500 rpm. Back o u t t h e low-speed adjustment needdle COUNTERCLOCKWISE until t h e engine begins t o run rough. From this point, r o t a t e t h e adjustment needle inward, CLOCKWISE, very slowly until engine performance smooths out. Repeat this procedure for t h e o t h e r needle. Carburetors with High-speed Adjustment 26- The engine MUST b e mounted in a n adequate size test tank or body of water, preferably with a test wheel a t t a c h e d t o t h e propeller shaft. Push upward on t h e knob in t h e center between t h e two high-speed neeThis will dle valves, and then turn i t 180'. t a k e t h e knob out of engagement with t h e t w o needle valves.

eblue-dist 2007

4-22

FUEL

27- S t a r t t h e engine and increase engine rpm t o full advance throttle. R o t a t e t h e high-speed needle CLOCKWISE until engine rpm begins t o drop. (Illustration shows c a r b u r e t o r n o t mounted.) From this point, r o t a t e t h e adjustment needle COUNTERCLOCKWISE until t h e highest rpm speed is attained. R e p e a t t h e procedure f o r t h e o t h e r high-speed needle valve. A f t e r t h e adjustments have been made, l i f t t h e c e n t e r rod between t h e two needle valves, and r o t a t e t h e knob 180, then allow t h e knob t o r e t u r n t o i t s normal position in mesh with t h e two high-speed needle valves.
4-7 TYPE 1 CARBURETOR 1 90 HP - 1964 AND 1965 100 HP - 1966 THRU 1968

CHOKE ASSEMBLY

c a r b u r e t o r or when making any adjustments, t h e reader m u s t t a k e e x t r a c a r e t o follow e a c h s t e p carefully and in sequence. 08 NOT a n t i c i p a t e w h a t will b e done next, skip a n y s t e p s thinking t h e y a r e not necessary, o r perform e x t r a t a s k s because of e x p e r i e n c e with o t h e r c a r b u r e t o r units.

DESCRIPTION
The Type I1 c a r b u r e t o r is a f r o n t d r a f t unit with four t h r o a t s ("barrels") utilizing fixed high-speed or if i c e s and ad justahle lowspeed needle valves. The c a r b u r e t o r might actually b e described a s f o u r individual carburetors incorporated i n t o one unit. Four fuel delivery i t e m s a r e incorporated t o provide a s e p a r a t e "barrel", inlet needle and s e a t , f l o a t , high-speed or if ice, and lowspeed adjustment, f o r e a c h of t h e four cylinders. As a result of i t s design, construction, and performance demands, t h e c a r b u r e t o r is considered a very complex piece of equipment. Therefore, vrhen servicing t h e Type I1

CHOKE SYSTEM A heat- type chchke s y s t e v is i s e d on t h e Type I11 c a r h u r e t c r , r e f e r e n c e illenstretion "A". F'eat is dranrn d r o r t h e exhaust b a f f l e just behind t h e exhaaast p l a t e a t t h t rear O t h e pcwerhead, t h r o w h a pipe te thc c a r h retor. ?Pis h e e t v7errrs 3 hi-6neta.I sprinq, v h i c h e x s h a d s r s its t e v p e r a t u r e rises. The choke is a c t i v a t e 8 throalpb t h e ~ x ~ a n s i c n anc" c o n t r a c t i o n ~f t b bi-rretal s ~ r i n ~ . ~ See S e c t i m h-8 f c r service prcccduse-s.

CARBURETOR REMOVAL 1- Disconnect t h e cables at t h e b t t e r v terrrinals. R e r w v e t h e hood. Disconnect t h e fuel line at t h e enqine, and a t t h e fuel

eblue-dist 2007

YPE II CARBURETOf?

4-23

tank, by separating t h e quick-disconnects. Disconnect t h e fuel hose between t h e fuel pump and t h e carburetor, at t h e carburetor. 2- On t h e starboard side of t h e engine, observe t h e t u b e extending from t h e exhaust manifold at t h e rear of t h e engine t o t h e a u t o m a t i c choke. Loosen t h e packing gland n u t on each end of t h e tube, and then slide t h e t u b e back o u t of t h e way t o p e r m i t removal of t h e carburetor. 3- On t h e port side of t h e engine, obs e r v e t h e rod extending from t h e tower s h a f t t o a nylon yoke. Remove t h e c o t t e r key and pin from t h e yoke. Remove t h e yoke f roG t h e carburetor.

4- Remove t h e c o t t e r key from t h e bottom side of t h e t h r o t t l e cam assembly. TAKE CARE not t o lose t h e t w o washers and spring a s t h e k e y is removed. L i f t t h e t h r o t t l e c a m assembly f r e e of t h e carburetor. These i t e m s must be removed BEFORE t h e bolts a r e removed securing t h e carburetor t o t h e i n t a k e manifold. 5- A t t h e f r o n t of t h e carburetor, remove t h e hose f r o m t h e lower end of t h e shield. Remove t h e shield a t t a c h i n g screws and t h e n t h e shield.

eblue-dist 2007

4-24

FUEL

6- R e m o v e t h e 10 c a r b u r e t o r a t t a c h i n g bolts. T h r e e b o l t s a r e l o c a t e d on t h e s t a r board side. Loosen t h e s e bolts, b u t you will not b e able t o remove them a t first. One b o l t i s long and e x t e n d s through t h e c a r b u r e t o r w i t h a nut. T h i s b o l t h a s t h e ground cable attached. Another bolt is located on t h e b o t t o m of t h e c a r b u r e t o r . This o n e i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o r e m o v e a n d t o install. T h e only a d v i c e i s PATIENCE. C o n t i n u e removing and loosening t h e b o l t s while working t h e c a r b u r e t o r f r e e of t h e manifold. Do n o t f o r c e t h e c a r b u r e t o r f r e e . If a l l b o l t s a r e r e m o v e d o r loosened properly, t h e c a r b u r e t o r will c o m e f r e e w i t h o u t difficulty. S e e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e portion of S e c t i o n 48 t o service t h e choke system.
DISASSEMBLING

7- R e m o v e t h e c h o k e w i r e c l a m p s c r e w , and t h e n s h i f t t h e c l a m p s w a y f r o m t h e c a r b u r e t o r body. L e a v e t h e c l a m p a t t a c h e d t o t h e wire. & P e m o v e t h e t w o s c r e w s and b r a c k e t holding t h e o v e r r i d e choke fron- t h e b o t t o m s i d e of t h e c a r b u r e t o r body. P e m s v e t h e plunger, spring, a n d s m a l l r u b b e r w a s h e r f r o m t h e choke. T h e s e i t e m s m u s t not b e i m m e r s e d in c a r b u r e t o r cleaninp, solvent.

9- O b s e r v e w h a t is t e r m e d t h e "gang bar" on t h e f r o n t side of t h e c a r b u r e t o r body. R e m o v e t h e p l a s t i c knobs frorn e a c h needle valve.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I1 CARPURFTOR

4-25

"GANG"

10- R e m o v e t h e s c r e w s s e c u r i n g t h e "gang" bar. L i f t t h e "gang" b a r f r e e . 11- R e m o v e t h e f o u r s c r e w s s e c u r i n g t h e cover plate over t h e float charrber, and then remove t h e plate. 12- Position t h e c a r b u r e t o r on t h e bench on i t s side, w i t h t h e f l o a t c h a m b e r f a c i n g t o w a r d s you. R e m o v e all s c r e w s securinp t h e f l o a t c h a m b e r t o t h e c a r b u r e t o r body. STOP! DO NOT l i f t t h e f l o a t c h a m b e r f r o m t h e c a r b u r e t o r body a t t h i s t i m e . 13- tlold t h e f l o a t c h a m p in place and t u r n t h e c a r b u r e t o r body 180 until t h e f l o z t c h a m b e r is f a c i n ~ doa~lnward tovrares t h e bench s u r f a c e . L i f t t h e c a r b u r e t o r body upward a w a y f r o m t h e f l o a t c h a m b e r . 14- With t h e f l o a t c h a m b e r on t h e h e n c h f a c i n g upward, n o t i c e t h e f o u r f l o a t s a n d f o u r needles and seats. Using a pair of n e e d l e nose pliers, r e a c h i n a n d rernove t h e f o u r floats. 15- From t h e o u t s i d e of t h e carDuretor, use a s c r e w d r i v e r a n d r e m o v e t h e f l c a t seats, n e e d l e seats, a n d t h e needles.
COVER PLATE

eblue-dist 2007

4-26

FUEL

16- Notice how a spring, small pin, and needle is incorporated in e a c h needle valve. These p a r t s will b e supplied in a new carbur e t o r repair kit. If a repair k i t has not been purchased, TAKE CARE not t o lose any of t h e s e parts. 17- Remove t h e four drain plugs from t h e carburetor body. 18- Obtain special screwdriver, OMC No. 317002. Use t h e special tool and remove t h e four high-speed orifices. 19- Remove t h e low-speed needle valves by rotating them COUNTERCLOCKWISE until e a c h one is f r e e of t h e c a r b u r e t o r body. Be careful not t o lose t h e washers and spring f r o m each needle. These p a r t s a r e NOT included in a repair kit. 20- Use a narrow blade screwdriver and pop t h e O-ring o u t of e a c h of t h e four lowspeed needle openings. 21- On t h e f l o a t chamber side of t h e carburetor, remove t h e four high-speed t u b e assemblies. 22- Remove t h e gasket, inner m e t a l plate, and second gasket, from t h e carburetor body.

ORIFICE

v!J

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE II CARBURETOR SPECIAL WORDS Because of t h e t i m e involved in realigning t h r o t t l e valves during assembly, t h e t h r o t t l e s h a f t should ONLY b e removed if i t is damaged; if t h e return spring requires replacement; or if t h e t h r o t t l e s h a f t is bent. CLEANING AND INSPECTING NEVER clip rubber parts, plastic parts, o r nylon parts, in carburetor cleaner. These parts should b e cleaned ONLY in solvent, and t h e n b l o w dry with compressed air. Place all metal p a r t s in a screen- type t r a y a d dip them in carburetor cleaner until they aDpear completely clean, then wash with solvent or clean w a t e r , and blow dry v i t h compressed air. GOOD WORDS I t may be necessary t o have t h e carbur e t o r body cleaned a t a special shop equipped with a tank and tray large enough t o a c c o ~ n r n o d a t et h e e x t r a long body of this Type I1 Carburetor.
Plow o u t a11 passages in t h e castincs v i t h c c r p r e s s e d air. c h e c k all marts and passages tc be sure t h e y a r e not cloyped or ccntaisr: m y cEencsits. NEVER use a piece of wire or a r y type of pointer" instrument t o clean &-ille$ passages or calibrate8 holes in a carburetcbr.

4-27

WORN

Comparison of worn and new needle valve. The top needle is unfit for further service.

Move t h e t h r o t t l e s h a f t back-and-forth t o check f o r wear. If t h e s h a f t appears t o b e t o o loose, replace t h e c o m p l e t e t h r o t t l e body because individual replacement p a r t s a r e NOT available. Inspect t h e main body, airhorn, and vent u r i cluster gasket s u r f a c e s f o r c r a c k s and burrs which might c a u s e a leak. Check t h e f l o a t f o r deterioration. Check t o be s u r e t h e f l o a t spring has not been stretched. If any p a r t of t h e float is damaged, t h e unit must b e replaced. Check t h e f l o a t arm needle contacting s u r f a c e and replace t h e f l o a t id this s u r f a c e h a s a groove worn in it. Inspect t h e t a p e r e d section of t h e idle adjusting needles and replace any t h a t have c'evelsped a groove. c h e c k t h e orifices f o r cleanliness. The orifice has a stamped number. This number represents a drill size. Check t h e orifice v-ith t h e s h m & of t h e prcper size drill t o verify t h e proper orifice is used. The local CP'C desler v i l l b e a b l e ta arovide t h e c o r r e c t size orifice for t h e engine and carhbarertor beine serviced. Frost o t h e p a r t s t h a t should b e replaced f h r i n e a carburetor overhaul a r e included in

GOOD

GOOD

WORN

Comparison of a worn and new carburetor adjusting screw. The upper screw is unfit for further service.

Cross sectional drawing to allow comparison of a new needle and seat (left), and badly worn one (right).

eblue-dist 2007

4-28

FUEL

Ca

HEAT CHOKE ASSEMBL)

Exploded drawing of the Type II carburetor.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I1 CARBURETOR

4-29

overhaul kits available from your 1oca.l marine dealer. One of t h e s e kits will contain a matched fuel inlet needle and seat. This combination should b e replaced each t i m e t h e carburetor is disassembled a s a precaution against leakage.

ASSEMBLING THE TYPE I1 CARBURETOR


1 Check t o be sure t h e inner plate is clean. Position a new gasket t o t h e side of t h e carburetor, then t h e inner plate, and another new gasket. 2 Install t h e four high-speed tube assemblies. Do not tighten t h e plate mounting screws until all four tubes a r e in place. Tighten t h e inner plate mounting screws ALTERNATELY and EVENLY.

4- The E-clip on t h e end of each needle valve should not have been removed. However, if i t was, snap i t into place. Install t h e washer, spring, a n d second washer onto each of t h e four low-speed needle valves. Install t h e four low-speed needle valves into t h e carburetor body. S e a t each needle GENTLY and then back i t out 314 turn, as a preliminary adjustment.
High-speed Orifice Installation 5- Install t h e four high-speed orifices into t h e float chamber, using special tool OMC No. 317002.

Low-Speed Needle Valve Installation 3- Lubricate each O-ring with just a drop of oil and then work each ring i n t o place in the four low-speed needle openings.

eblue-dist 2007

4-30

FUEL

6- Install t h e four orifice drain plugs using NEW gaskets.

Float Chamber 7- Assemble all four needle s e a t s and have t h e m ready f o r installation. This is accomplished a s follows: s e t t h e s e a t on t h e bench with t h e screwdriver slot facing downward. Install t h e fiber washer down over t h e seat. Place a new O-ring in place in t h e seat groove. Insert t h e needle into t h e s e a t , t h e n t h e small spring, then t h e pin into t h e center of t h e spring. CRITICAL WORDS Once the assembled needles a r e installed, t h e float chamber cannot be rotated o r t h e parts will b e dislodged. Therefore, proceed with caution and patience.
8- Position t h e carburetor body with t h e f l o a t chamber opening facing towards you. Insert each needle and s e a t into place from t h e bottom side of t h e float chamber. Thread each needle into t h e float chamber just FINGER tight. I t is not important f o r them t o b e real tight at this time.

9- After all four needles have been threaded into place, t a k e each float, one ata- time, and work t h e float down t h e pin with t h e t a b on t h e float s e t over t h e pin in t h e needle. The float a r m will hold t h e needle in t h e seat. 10- Lay t h e f l o a t chamber down on t h e carburetor with t h e opening facing upward. Tighten t h e four needle seats securely at this time.

Exploded &awing of the float chamber, with principle associated parts identified.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I1 CARPL'RETOR

4-3 1

Float Adjustment Experience has proven, i t is almost impossible t o adjust t h e floats properly witho u t t h e special float adjustment tool, OMC No. 380546, reference illustration "Bn. This tool is not expensive, but i t is essential t o ensure proper carburetor performance following t h e service work. 11- Turn t h e float body allowing t h e f l o a t to hang down and t h e tangs of each float resting up against t h e needles. In this position, t h e four floats will have weight against t h e inlet needle valves. Use t h e adjusting tool. The tool is inserted above t h e float t o t h e top of t h e float chamber, a s shown. 12- If a needle requires adjustment, move t h e tang inward or outward using t h e adjusting tool.

CRITICAL WORDS It is MOST important t h a t all four floats


be adjusted properly and equally t o ensure proper carburetor performance. If one f l o a t is just a wee bit o u t of adjustment, t h e cylinder served by t h a t float and nkedle valve will not have t.. e proper fuellair mixh ture.

Special tool OMC No. 380546 must be used t o p r o p erly adjust the float level. This inexpensive tool is inserted above the float and measures the distance t o the top o f the float chamber, as described in the t e x t .

eblue-dist 2007

4-32

FUEL

A f t e r t h e four f l o a t s a r e properly adjusted, set t h e f l o a t chamber aside with t h e f l o a t s facing upward. 13- Hold t h e assembled f l o a t chamber in o n e hand, and then lower t h e carburetor body down over t h e f l o a t chamber. O n c e t h e two have been brough$together, CAREFULLY r o t a t e t h e two 180 and set i t on t h e bench. DO NOT l i f t t h e f l o a t chamber from t h e carburetor body. 14- S t a r t all of t h e retaining screws around t h e perimeter of t h e float chamber. 15- Install and s e c u r e t h e drain cover using a new gasket. Check t o be s u r e t h e o u t l e t nipple extends through t h e bottom of t h e carburetor body.

16- Install t h e choke and choke plunger into t h e bottom side of t h e carburetor body. C o n n e c t t h e linkage. Override Choke Adjustment Measure t h e distance f r o m t h e back of t h e choke t o t h e base of t h e carburetor body, a s shown. This measurement should b e 1/2" (12.7 mm). Loosen t h e t w o s c r e w s a n d slide t h e override choke inward or outward until t h e proper dimension is obtained. Tighten t h e t w o screws t o hold t h e adjustment. To install t h e h e a t choke, s e e t h e appropriate portion of Section 4-8.

Choke installed on top of the carburetor, as on late model 100 hp engines.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE II CARBURETOR

4-33

17- Move t h e c h o k e w i r e t o w a r d s t h e c a r b u r e t o r and s e c u r e t h e w i r e c l a m p w i t h t h e a t t a c h i n g screw. 18- Install t h e "gang bar" o v e r t h e t o p of t h e f o u r needles. S e c u r e t h e "gang bar" in p l a c e w i t h t h e r e t a i n i n g clip. DO NOT install t h e nylon adjusting knob a t t h i s t i m e . Carburetor Installation 19- R e m o v e t h e t h r e e b o l t s m e r e l y loose n e d during r e m o v a l of t h e c a r b u r e t o r f r o m t h e i n t a k e manifold. Position a NEW g a s k e t in p l a c e on t h e manifold. 20- S t a r t t h e t h r e e b o l t s just r e m o v e d in t h e previous s t e p . Slide t h e c a r b u r e t o r i n t o p l a c e on t h e i n t a k e manifold a n d s e c u r e i t in p l a c e w i t h t h e mounting bolts. T i g h t e n t h e b o l t s ALTERNATELY a n d EVENLY. Do n o t f o r g e t t h e ground s t r a p s e c u r e d by o n e of t h e c a r b u r e t o r mounting bolts.

eblue-dist 2007

4-34

FUEL

21- Install t h e shield with t h e a t t a c h i n g hardware. C o n n e c t t h e hose a t t h e lower end of t h e shield. Install and c o n n e c t t h e fuel line between t h e c a r b u r e t o r and t h e fuel pump. C o n n e c t t h e override choke wire connector. 22- Slide t h e t h r o t t l e c a m assembly down into t h e carburetor retainer, and at t h e s a m e t i m e work up t h e washer, spring, and other washer, t h e n s e c u r e t h e m with t h e c o t t e r key. As an aid t o accomplishing t h i s

t a s k , use a screwdriver between t h e flywheel guard and t h e t o p of t h e tower s h a f t t o hold i t while t h e washers and spring a r e worked upward. As t h e tower s h a f t i s lowered into place, m a k e s u r e t h e roller on t h e end of t h e t h r o t t l e cam rides on t h e t h r o t t l e cam.

eblue-dist 2007

CHOKE SYSTEM
23- Install t h e yoke t h a t is a t t a c h e d t o t h e rod extending f r o m t h e tower s h a f t t o t h e t h r o t t l e c a m assembly. Attach the clevis on t h e end of t h e yoke and insert t h e pin t o hold i t in place, then t h e washer, and finally t h e c o t t e r pin. To synchronize t h e fuel system with t h e ignition system, s e e t h e appropriate s e c t i o n in Chapter 5. 24- Mount t h e engine in a test t a n k or body of water. If t h i s i s not possible, c o n n e c t a flush a t t a c h m e n t and garden hose t o t h e lower unit. NEVER o p e r a t e t h e engine above idle speed using t h e flush attachment. If t h e engine is o p e r a t e d above idle speed with no load on t h e propeller, t h e engine could RUNAWAY resulting in serious d a m a g e or destruction of t h e unit. CAUTION. Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. 25- S t a r t the engine and allow i t t o warm t o operating t e m p e r a t u r e at about 500 rpm Back o u t each low-speed adjustment needle COUNTERCLOCKWISE until t h e engine begins t o run rough. From this point, r o t a t e each adjustment needle inward,

4-35

CLOCKWISE very slowly until engine perf o r m a n c e smooths out. If t h e engine should "POP" while t h e adjustment is being made, t h e adjustment is already t o o lean. A f t e r all needles have been properly adjusted, snap t h e knobs over t h e low-speed needles and "gang bar".

4-8 CHOKE SYSTEM SERVICE FIRST, THEW WORDS JohnsonJEvinrude carburetors m a y b e identified by t h e t y p e of choke system used. One has a h e a t and e l e c t r i c combination choke; t h e second has an all e l e c t r i c choke; and t h e third a water choke. Detailed instructions will be given in this section f o r r e m o v a ' o f t h e t h r e e different types of choke systems. This section also provides detailed instructions t o disassemble, service, assemble, and install t h e various choke systems. EACH c a r b u r e t o r h a s only one choke system installed. Perform one of t h e following t h r e e procedures depending on t h e choke system installed on t h e carburetor of t h e engine being serviced. HEATIELECTRIC CHOKE - REMOVAL GOOD WORDS Perform only one of t h e t h r e e following choke installation procedures, depending on t h e t y p e of unit being serviced. A f t e r t h e choke and carburetor have been properly installed onto t h e engine, proceed directly t o t h e adjustment portion of this section t o o p e r a t e t h e engine f o r t e s t i n g and carburetor adjustments under load. On t h e 90 hp and 100 hp engines, t h e heat choke is mounted on t o p of t h e carbur e t o r and t h e e l e c t r i c portion is at t h e bottom of t h e carburetor.

eblue-dist 2007

4-36

FUEL

On all other engines covered in this manual, t h e heat choke is mounted on t h e side of t h e carburetor and t h e e l e c t r i c portion is a p a r t of t h e heat choke. The carburetor does NOT have t o b e removed in order t o service t h e choke system. S t e p No. 1 need only b e performed if t h e carburetor is t o be removed. 1- Observe t h e compression nut under t h e plate securing t h e heat tube t o t h e exhaust manifold. Loosen t h e nut and slide i t back on t h e h e a t tube. At t h e other end of t h e heat tube is another compression nut securing t h e tube in t h e choke chamber of t h e carburetor. Loosen t h e compression n u t and slide i t back on t h e tube. Remove t h e heat tube from t h e engine. 2- Observe t h e marks on t h e cover plate and on t h e base. Notice t h e cover plate has only one mark, but t h e base has several marks. Identify t h e relationship of t h e cover plate and t h e marks on t h e base t o ensure t h e cover plate will b e installed back into its original position. Remove t h e t h r e e screws securing t h e cover plate t o t h e choke base. 3- Lift t h e cover and gasket from t h e choke base. Observe t h e cover has a spring on t h e inside. This spring performs a very important role in t h e choke system. As t h e h e a t from the exhaust manifold moves through t h e tube and around t h e spring, t h e spring expands and releases its pressure on t h e choke. Also notice how t h e spring is a t t a c h e d t o t h e choke lever. The s ~ r i n n is

a t t a c h e d t o a plunger which a c t u a t e s t h e electrical part of t h e choke system. 4- Remove t h e two screws securing t h e e l e c t r i c choke solenoid t o the carburetor. Remove t h e solenoid and t a k e c a r e t o retain t h e spring inside t h e solenoid. Remove t h e choke solenoid gasket. 5- Using a pair of needle-nose pliers, reach inside t h e choke base and remove t h e spring from t h e choke lever. Lower t h e spring and plunger f r o m t h e carburetor. Further disassembly of t h e combination heat/electrical choke is not necessary. If t h e choke is t o be assembled without rebuilding t h e carburetor, proceed with t h e following steps. If t h e carburetor is t o b e

eblue-dist 2007

CHOKE SYSTEM

4-37

rebuilt at this time, proceed t o t h e appropriate section, depending on t h e unit being serviced.

HEATIELECTRIC CHOKE INSTALLATION

1- Install t h e choke plunger and spring by hooking t h e spring into t h e choke lever. 2- Insert a NEW gasket into t h e cavity of t h e choke base. Insert t h e spring i n t o t h e bore of t h e choke solenoid. 3- Work t h e choke solenoid up t h e plunge r and secure t h e plunger with t h e two retaining screws. 4- Place a NEW gasket onto t h e surface of t h e carburetor. 5- Install the choke cover onto t h e carburetor. Observe how t h e spring has a clip and t h e choke lever has a protrusion. The clip MUST f i t around t h e lever and protrusion.

eblue-dist 2007

4-38

FUEL

ALL ELECTRIC CHOKE - REMOVAL


The e l e c t r i c choke is mounted on t h e starboard side of t h e carburetor. 1- Disconnect t h e electrical wire from t h e choke solenoid. Remove t h e c o t t e r key, washers, and pin, from t h e choke plunger and pin. 2- Remove the two screws securing t h e clamp t o t h e carburetor. Remove t h e choke solenoid from t h e carburetor. The choke solenoid CANNOT be serviced.

6- Align t h e mark on t h e cover plate with t h e matching mark on t h e carburetor. Secure t h e cover plate in this position with t h e t h r e e attaching screws. 7- Connect t h e heat tube t o t h e engine and secure i t in place with t h e compression n u t at each end.

Typical electric/heat choke installation on top of the carburetor. This arrangement i used on the 90 hp s and lOOhp V 4 engines.

eblue-dist 2007

CHOKE SYSTEM

4-39

3- If t h e boot is unfit for f u r t h e r service, i t m a y b e removed by sliding i t off t h e solenoid. Observe t h e two washers and spring under t h e boot. Take c a r e not t o lose t h e s e t h r e e items. Clean t h e solenoid, and t h e n slide t h e boot back in place. The solenoid is then ready t o b e installed.

ELECTRIC CHOKE ASSEMBLING

1- Place t h e choke assembly into t h e choke bracket on t h e carburetor body. Install t h e retainer around t h e choke and s t a r t t h e t w o a t t a c h i n g screws on e a c h side. Shift t h e choke assembly until t h e bottom of t h e choke is even with t h e bottom of t h e b r a c k e t on t h e carburetor. Rotate the choke assembly until t h e choke wires a r e accessible. Tighten t h e screws securely. 2- Install t h e pin through t h e end of t h e s h a f t of t h e choke solenoid and i n t o t h e lever a t t a c h e d t o t h e carburetor. Install t h e washer and c o t t e r pin. C o n n e c t t h e choke wires t o t h e choke.

WATER CHOKE DESCRIPTfCN


An understanding s e x a c t l v h c w t h e f water choke functions is e s s e n t i d to ensasre t h e service procedures a r e properly performed. F o t w a t e r from t h e engine i s allowed t o circulate inside a chawber of t h e choke. As t h e hot water heats t h e spring, t h e metal expands and t h e spring relieves i t s tension on t h e choke. Once t h e tension i s released, t h e choke opens. The hot c i r c u l a t i n ~w a t e r is routed t o t h e port side of t h e e n i i n e and is discharged into t h e exhaust chamber. An additional f e a t u r e is included in t h e a u t o m a t i c choke assembly. A spring-loaded diaphragm and plunger assembly, a c t i v a t e d by i n t a k e manifold pressure, closes t h e choke t h e instant t h e engine is shut down, whether t h e engine is hot or cold. The plunger will release i t s hold on t h e choke only when t h e engine i s again started. A t low manifold pressure, with t h e engine operating, t h e spring-loaded plunger is released t o open t h e choke and t h e t h e r m a l (water) -system is in control. This system o p e r a t e s independently of t h e water choke system. A check valve and orifice is installed in t h e water system t o prevent flooding of t h e diaphragm when t h e manif old pressure fluct u a t e s during slow speed operation. A punct u r e , o r o t h e r damage, t o t h e diaphragm will cause t h e choke t o b e held in t h e closed position at all t i m e s , when t h e vacuum syst e m is in t h e a u t o m a t i c position. However,

eblue-dist 2007

4-40

FUEL

CHOKE LEVER

SPR l

t h e choke can still b e opened by using t h e manual lever. During installation of t h e carburetor, considerable attention must b e exercised t o install t h e proper hose t o t h e correct fitting. If t h e hoses a r e crossed, water will b e discharged i n t o t h e intake manifold and t h e engine, resulting in a series of horrendous problems. This water will then be released f r o m the cylinder through t h e spark plug openings when t h e spark plugs a r e removed and the engine is cranked in a n effort t o s t a r t it. THEREFORE, t a k e t i m e t o identify t h e hoses to ensure each is correctly connected t o t h e proper carburetor fitting.

WATER CHOKE REMOVAL

1- Remove t h e hoses connected t o t h e choke, one from t h e top, and t h e other t w o from the bottom. The hose connected t o t h e bottom of t h e choke and closest t o t h e

carburetor is the water out1 t line. The other hose on t h e bottom is t h e vacuum line. The hose connected t o t h e t o p of t h e choke is t h e water inlet line. 2- Observe t h e mark on t h e choke cover and a matching mark on t h e choke base. These marks must b e aligned in t h e s a m e position when t h e choke is assembled t o t h e carburetor. 3- Remove t h e t h r e e screws securing t h e choke cover t o t h e base. Lift t h e cover from t h e carburetor and t a k e notice of t h e spring on t h e inside of t h e cover. This spring relieves pressure on t h e choke as heated hot water from t h e engine circulates through t h e chamber. 4- After t h e cover has been removed, i t is not necessary t o remove t h e choke base from t h e carburetor. Remove t h e four screws securing t h e choke head, and t h e n remove t h e head.

SPR l NG

CHOKE
HEAD

eblue-dist 2007

CHOKE SYSTEM

4-41

\ D lAPHRAGM
5- Notice t h e diaphragm. Under t h e diaphragm is a spring. Remove t h e diaphragm and spring f rom t h e choke head. 6- Remove the small valve and support located under t h e spring. Further disassembly of t h e water choke valve is not necessary. If t h e choke is t o b e

assembled without rebuilding t h e carburetor, proceed with t h e following steps. If t h e carburetor is to b e rebuilt at this time, proceed t o t h e appropriate section.

WATER CHOKE INSTALLATION

1- Install t h e check valve support i n t o the vacuum opening of the choke body. 2- Install t h e check valve into t h e head. 3- Install t h e spring onto t h e t o p of t h e support. 4- Lower t h e stem down through t h e spring and diaphragm and onto t h e base. 5- Install t h e cover and secure i t in place with t h e attaching screws. Tighten t h e screws ALTERNATELY a s a precaution against warping t h e cover.

SPRING,

SUPPORT VALVE

eblue-dist 2007

4-42

FUEL

CHOKE LEVER

6- Take t h e cover assembly and install a new gasket onto t h e base of t h e carburetor. work- the spring clip over t h e protrusion of t h e choke lever and lower i t into t h e cavity. 7- Align t h e mark on t h e cover with t h e mark on t h e body, and then secure t h e cover in this position with t h e t h r e e attaching screws. 8- Connect t h e vacuum and water hoses t o t h e carburetor paying careful ATTENTION t o connect t h e proper hose t o t h e correct fitting according t o t h e identif ication given t o t h e hoses during disassembly. If identification was not made during disassemby, follow t h e hose t o t h e other end t o ensure proper connection t o t h e carburetor. a- Connect t h e water hose t o t h e t o p fitting of t h e water choke. b- Connect t h e outlet water hose t o t h e fitting closest t o t h e carburetor. The other end of this line is connected t o a fitting on t h e exhaust chamber on t h e port side of t h e engine. c- Connect t h e vacuum line t o t h e vacuum diaphragm fitting. The other end of t h i s line is connected t o t h e intake manifold. If t h e hoses a r e not connected correctly, water will h e injected into t h e cylinder when t h e engine is cranked, resulting in a series of horrendous problems.
CHOKE

Install t h e s t a r t e r motor and generator if t h e engine being serviced is equipped with these two units, Mount t h e engine in a t e s t tank or on t h e boat in a body of water. Make any retor adustments under a load condition.

HARK

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I l l CARBURETOR 4-9 TYPE In CARBURETOR 55 HP - 1968 and 1969 60 HP - 1970 and 1971 Three carburetors a r e installed on each engine, one for each cylinder. This carburetor is t h e single barrel, f r o n t draft, with an adjustable low-speed needle valve, and special packing for t h e valve. It has a fixed high-speed orifice in t h e float bowl. All of t h e Type 111 carburetors utilize an electric choke mounted on t h e side of t h e engine. On most models, t h e e l e c t r i c choke does not have t o b e removed in order t o remove and service t h e carburetor.

4-43

REMOVAL Preliminary Tasks 1- Disconnect t h e battery cables at t h e b a t t e r y as a precaution against an accident a l spark igniting t h e fuel or fuel fumes present during t h e service work. Disconnect t h e quick-disconnect on t h e fuel line t o t h e engine. Remove t h e hood. Disconnect t h e fuel line from t h e junction on t h e port side of t h e engine. This is t h e line from t h e fuel pump t o t h e carburetors. Remove t h e lowspeed adjustment lever a t t h e bottom of t h e a i r silencer. 2- Remove t h e air silencer cover, and then the air silencer. Disconnect t h e hose at t h e bottom of t h e air silencer. (This hose

is connected to a fitting at t h e bottom of t h e crankcase.) 3- Disconnect t h e choke and t h r o t t l e linkage between t h e t h r e e carburetors on t h e starboard side of t h e engine. The linka g e will snap out of a retainer on t h e carburetor cams. The nylon retainers MUST b e removed before t h e carburetor is immersed in any t y p e of cleaning solution. Disconnect t h e choke wire from t h e e l e c t r i c choke, by first removing t h e O-ring and coil spring.

eblue-dist 2007

4-44

FUEL

PC- Remove t h e six nuts securing t h e carburetor t o t h e intake manifold. Identify all of t h e carburetors as an aid t o installation. The carburetors MUST b e installed in their original positions. The fuel connections and t h e choke arrangement is different f o r each carburetor. The carburetors can now be removed a s an assembly.

SPECIAL WORDS Only one carburetor will b e rebuilt in t h e following procedures. Service of t h e o t h e r t w o units is to b e performed in t h e s a m e manner The carburetor parts should be kept with t h e individual unit t o ensure all items a r e installed back in their original positions.

DISASSEMBLING

5- Disconnect t h e fuel hoses between t h e t h r e e carburetors. This is accomplished by simply cutting t h e t i e s t r a p or working t h e clip securing t h e hose t o t h e carburetor fitting. Remove t h e drain plug or t h e highspeed orifice plug from t h e bottom of t h e carburetor bowl. 6- Remove t h e orifice from t h e float bowl, using t h e proper size screwdriver o r special OMC tool No. 317002. 7- Remove t h e low-speed needle valve. After removing t h e needle valve, observe and remove t h e retainer t h a t accepts t h e needle valve. Good shop practice is t o replace t h e retainer, because t h e retainer is actually t h e component holding t h e needle valve in adjustment. If t h e retainer has become worn, i t is not possible t o hold t h e needle valve in- an a c c u r a t e adjustment.
GOOD WORDS The low-speed needle valve has a bearing deep inside t h e carburetor. Removal of this bearing is no small task. A special tool is

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I1I CARBURETOR

4-45

not available. However, a paper clip with s hook on t h e end, c a n be used t o reach inside t h e bore and remove t h e bearing. Actually this bearing is made of plastic and t h e needle valve r o t a t e s inside. The bearing c e n t e r s t h e needle valve in t h e carburetor. 8- Remove t h e low-speed needle valve bearing using a paper clip a s described in t h e previous paragraph. 9- Turn t h e carburetor upside-down and remove t h e screw securing t h e f l o a t bowl t o t h e carburetor body. L i f t t h e bowl f r e e of t h e carburetor. 10- Remove and DISCARD t h e bowl gask e t and t h e small gasket around t h e highspeed nozzle. The high-speed nozzle is NOT removable. 11- Remove t h e f l o a t hinge pin, and t h e n remove t h e float.

Obsolete one-piece gasket. This type gasket will only be found on an older carburetor that has never been r e h i l t . A new two-piece gasket, one for the bowl and the other for the nozzle, replaces the one shown.

eblue-dist 2007

4-46

FUEL

12- Remove t h e inlet needle and seat from t h e carburetor body.

CLEANING AND INSPECTING NEVER dip rubber parts, plastic parts, o r nylon parts, in carburetor cleaner. These parts should b e cleaned ONLY in solvent, and then blown dry'with compressed air. Place all m e t a l parts in a screen- type t r a y and dip them in carburetor cleaner until they appear completely clean, t h e n wash with solvent o r clean water, and blow dry with compressed air.

Explofled drawing of t h e Type III carburetor, used on all three- cylinder engines.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I1 I CARBURETOR
Blow o u t all passages in t h e ccstings with compressed air. Check all p a r t s and passages t o be s u r e t h e y a r e not clogged or contain any deposits. NEVER use a piece of wire or any t y p e of pointed instrument t o clean drilled passages or calibrated holes in a carburetor. Move t h e t h r o t t l e s h a f t back-and-forth t o check f o r wear. If t h e s h a f t appears t o b e t o o loose, replace t h e complete t h r o t t l e body because individual replacement p a r t s a r e NOT available. Inspect t h e main body, airhorn, and vent u r i cluster gasket surfaces, f o r cracks and burrs which might cause a leak. Check t h e f l o a t for deterioration. Check t o b e s u r e t h e float spring has not been stretched. If a n y part of t h e f l o a t is damaged, t h e unit must b e replaced. Check t h e f l o a t a r m needle contacting s u r f a c e and replace t h e f l o a t if this surface has a groove worn in it. Inspect t h e tapered section of t h e idle adjusting needles and replace any t h a t have developed a groove. Check t h e orifices f o r cleanliness. The orifice has a stamped number. This number represents a drill size. Check t h e orifice with t h e shank of t h e proper size drill t o verify t h e proper orifice is used. The local OMC dealer will be a b l e t o provide t h e c o r r e c t size orifice f o r t h e engine and carburetor being serviced.

4-47

Most of t h e p a r t s t h a t should b e replaced during a carburetor overhaul a r e included in overhaul kits available f r o m your local marine dealer. O n e of t h e s e kits will contain a m a t c h e d fuel inlet needle and seat. This combination should b e replaced e a c h t i m e t h e carburetor is disassembled as a precaution against leakage. ASSEMBLING TYPE 111 CARBURETOR

1- Install t h e inlet seat using t h e proper s i z e screwdriver. Inject just a drop of lightweight oil i n t o t h e seat. Thread t h e i n l e t needle valve into t h e seat, and tighten i t until i t barely seats. DO NOT overtighten o r t h e needle valve may be damaged.
GOOD WORD Two different t y p e gaskets a r e used on this carburetor. O n e MUST b e installed before t h e f l o a t , because i t is a one-piece gasket with t h e nozzle gasket incorporated. The o t h e r t y p e consists of t w o individual gaskets, one f o r t h e f l o a t and a s e p a r a t e one f o r t h e nozzle. 2- Position NEW gaskets in place on t h e carburetor body and on t h e nozzle. 3- Lower t h e f l o a t down over t h e nozzle, and then slide t h e hinge pin into place.

GOOD

WORN

WORN

GOOD
Cross-secnonal drawing to allow comparison of a new needle and seat with one badly worn. Notice how the edges of the worn vlave and the seat have become beveled.

Carburetor idle adjustment screws. The top screw i worn and unfit for service. The bottom screw is new. s

eblue-dist 2007

4-48

FUEL

4- Hold t h e carburetor body in a horizontal position and check t o be sure t h e f l o a t is parallel t o t h e carburetor surface,

as shown.

If

t h e float is not parallel,

CAREFULLY bend t h e float tang until t h e


f l o a t is in a parallel position and both sides a r e equal distance from t h e carburetor surf ace. 5- Place t h e float bowl in position, and t h e n secure i t in place with t h e attaching screws. 6- Install t h e low-speed retainer in t h e carburetor body.

Obsolete one-piece gasket. This type gasket will only be found on an older carburetor that has never been r e k i l t . A new two-piece gasket, one for the bowl and the other for the nozzle, replaces the one shown.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE Ill CARBURETOR

4-49

7- Slide t h e nylon bearing onto t h e end of t h e low-speed needle valve, and t h e n thread t h e valve into t h e retainer. Continue threading t h e valve i n t o t h e retainer until i t s e a t s LIGHTLY, and then back i t o u t COUNTERCLOCKWISE 5/8 turn.

WORDS OF CAUTION Take t i m e t o use t h e proper, size screwdriver, or special tool OMC No. 317002, t o install an orif ice. If t h e orif ice is damaged and t h e edge of t h e opening burred, because t h e wrong size screwdriver was used, t h e flow of fuel will b e restricted and t h e

or if i c e will not function properly. Damage t o t h e orifice will also make i t very difficult t o remove during t h e next carburetor service. 8- Install t h e high-speed orifice into t h e carburetor bowl, using t h e proper size screwdriver t o prevent damaging t h e orifice. 9- Thread t h e plug, with a new gasket, i n t o place and tighten i t snugly.

SECOND AND THIRD CARBURETORS


Perform Steps 1 thru 9 t o assemble t h e second and third carburetors.

eblue-dist 2007

4-50

FUEL

INSTALLATION
10- Connect t h e fuel line between t h e carburetors. C l e a n t h e mating s u r f a c e of t h e intake manifold. Check t o b e sure all old gasket m a t e r i a l has been removed. Slide a NEW gasket down over t h e studs into place on t h e manifold. Install t h e t h r e e carburetors a t t h e s a m e t i m e onto t h e studs and s e c u r e t h e m in place with t h e nuts. Tighten t h e nuts ALTERNATELY and EVENLY. Connect t h e fuel line b e t w e e n t h e fuel pump and t h e carburetors. 11- Position a NEW a i r silencer gasket in p l a c e on t h e f r o n t of t h e engine. c o n n e c t t h e hose from t h e crankcase t o t h e back of the a i r silencer. C o a t t h e t h r e a d s of t h e a i r silencer retaining screws with L o c t i t e and t h e n install t h e air silencer. Install t h e a i r silencer cover and a t t h e s a m e t i m e slide t h e plastic adjusting knob o n t o t h e lowspeed needle for e a c h carburetor. DO NOT push t h e knobs all t h e way home o n t o t h e You may seriously needle at this time. consider NOT t o install and use t h e piece of linkage connecting t h e low-speed needle valve of each carburetor. 12- On t h e starboard side of t h e engine, install t h e choke and t h r o t t l e retainers. Connect t h e choke and t h r o t t l e linkage between t h e carburetors. Connect t h e choke coil solenoid wire o n t o t h e linkage stud, and

t h e n slide t h e O-ring and coil spring o n t o t h e s t u d t o s e c u r e t h e wire in place. Adjust t h e choke b u t t e r f l i e s by loosening t h e screw between t h e t o p and bottom carburetor linkage. The c e n t e r carburetor is t h e base unit. Adjustments a r e made f r o m t h e c e n t e r carburetor t o t h e top and bottom carburetors. Make t h e adjustment t o close t h e upper and lower carburetor choke butterflies when t h e c e n t e r butterfly is closed. After t h e adjustm e n t is s a t i s f a c t o r y , tighten t h e screw. Adjust t h e t h r o t t l e butterflies in t h e s a m e manner. Loosen t h e screw b e t w e e n t h e t o p and c e n t e r and t h e bottom and

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE 11CARBURETOR 1
c e n t e r carburetor linkage. Make t h e adjustm e n t t o close upper and lower t h r o t t l e butterfly~ when t h e c e n t e r butterfly is closed. A f t e r t h e adjustment is c o r r e c t , tighten t h e screw.

4-5 1

EXPLANATION This linkage permits adjustment of t h e t h r e e carburetors simultaneously, while using only one knob. Sounds great! But when t h e one carburetor is adjusted, t h e o t h e r s a r e also changed. A g r e a t many professional mechanics have discovered t h a t t h e linkage is not required. They f e e l i t is f a r m o r e efficient t o adjust each c a r b u r e t o r individually. GOOD WORDS I t is best t o synchronize t h e fuel and ignition systems at this time. S e e C h a p t e r 5. A f t e r t h e synchronization has been completed, proceed with t h e following work. 13- Mount t h e engine in a test t a n k or body of water. If t h i s is not possible, c o n n e c t a flush a t t a c h m e n t and garden hose t o t h e lower unit. NEVER o p e r a t e t h e engine above idle speed using t h e flush attachment. If t h e engine is o p e r a t e d above idle speed with no load on t h e propeller, t h e engine could RUNAWAY resulting in serious d a m a g e or destruction of t h e unit. CAUTION: Water must circulate through rhe lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. S t a r t t h e engine and allow i t t o warm t o operating temperature. Pop t h e t h r e e rub-

ber caps, one for e a c h carburetor, o u t of t h e f r o n t cover of t h e air silencer. Adjust t h e low-speed idle by turning t h e low-speed needle valve CLOCKWISE until t h e engine begins t o misfire or t h e rpm drops noticeably. From t h i s point, r o t a t e t h e needle vavle COUNTERCLOCKWISE until t h e engine is operating at t h e highest rpm. If t h e engine coughs and o p e r a t e s a s if t h e fuel is too lean, but t h e idle adjustments have b e e n c o r r e c t l y made, then recheck t h e synchronization between t h e fuel and ignition systems. A f t e r t h e idle has been adjusted, push t h e idle knob retainers onto t h e needle until i t engages t h e spline on t h e low-speed needle. R e p e a t t h e procedure f o r t h e o t h e r t w o carburetors. Replace t h e rubber caps i n t o t h e f r o n t cover of t h e a i r silencer.

4-10 TYPE IVA CARBURETOR WITH LOW-SPEED NEEDLE VALVE AND FIXED HIGH-SPEED ORIFICE 85 HP - 1969 100 HP - 1971 115 HP - 1969 AND 1970 125 HP - 1971 TYPE IVB CARBURETOR WITH FIXED LOW-SPEED AND HIGH-SPEED ORIFICES 85 HP - 1972 100 HP - 1972 125 HP - 1972 DESCRIPTION
Both t h e "A" and "B" Type IV c a r b u r e t o r s a r e f r o n t d r a f t type, with t w o t h r o a t s ("double barrel"). The Type IVA has a lowspeed adjustable needle valve and fixed high-speed orifice. The Type IVA h a s fixed Both low-speed and high-speed orifices. models a r e covered in this section. Two of t h e Type IV carburetors a r e installed on t h e model engines listed in t h e heading. This arrangement provides a sepa r a t e "barrel" for each cylinder. The f l o a t in each carburetor s e r v e s two cylinders.

REMOVAL

1- Disconnect t h e b a t t e r y cables at t h e b a t t e r y as a precaution against an accident a l spark igniting t h e fuel or fuel f u m e s present during t h e s e r v i c e work. Disconnect t h e quick-disconnect on t h e fuel line t o t h e

eblue-dist 2007

4-52

FUEL

engine. R e m o v e t h e hood. Remove the r e t a i n i n g s c r e w s f r o m t h e f r o n t of t h e a i r s i l e n c e r cover. R e m o v e t h e d r a i n h o s e f r o m t h e b o t t o m of t h e a i r s i l e n c e r base. R e m o v e t h e adjusting a r m s t o t h e low- speed n e e d l e valves, if used. R e m o v e t h e f o u r s c r e w s securing t h e a i r s i l e n c e r b a s e t o t h e c a r b u r e t o r s . L i f t t h e a i r s i l e n c e r b a s e upw a r d a n d o u t of t h e way. Disconnect t h e c h o k e linkage. Slip t h e r e t a i n i n g ring and t h e c h o k e solenoid spring b a c k f r o m t h e upper c h o k e a r m . R e m o v e t h e s c r e w s securing t h e c h o k e yoke t o t h e a i r silencer. Unclamp t h e wires t o t h e c h o k e solenoid. S e t t h e c h o k e solenoid aside. 2- R e m o v e t h e f u e l p u m p r e t a i n i n g screws. Move t h e f u e l p u m p a s i d e t o allow t h e c a r b u r e t o r s t o b e removed. I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o d i s c o n n e c t t h e line t o t h e f u e l pump. D i s c o n n e c t t h e f u e l i n l e t hose a t e a c h carburetor. 3- O n t h e s t a r b o a r d side of t h e engine, notice t h e a r m s between t h e carburetors f o r t h r o t t l e and c h o k e action. Loosen t h e linka g e f a s t e n e r , s l i d e t h e f a s t e n e r upward a n d t h e l i n k a g e a r m s will t h e n c o m e f r e e . 4- R e m o v e t h e c a r b u r e t o r retaining n u t s a n d lockwashers. L i f t t h e c a r b u r e t o r s f r e e of t h e i n t a k e manif old.

SPECIAL WORDS Only o n e c a r b u r e t o r will b e r e b u i l t in t h e following procedures. S e r v i c e of t h e o t h e r


CHOKE

p 8/
RETAINER

'LUNG"

AIR SILENCER BASE

CHOKE
YOKE

AIR SILENCER

COVER

SLOW / SPEED ADJUSTING ARM (4)

BUSHING^
STARBOARD STARBOARD

OUTER SLOW SPEED ADJUSTING ARM

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE IV CARBURETOR

4-53

unit is t o be performed in t h e s a m e manner. The basic carburetor is t h e unit with t h e orif ices. Differences f o r units with t h e lowspeed adjustments will be noted. The carburetor parts should be kept with t h e individual unit t o ensure all i t e m s a r e installed back in their original positions.

9- Remove t h e t w o low-speed orifice screws. These screws a r e l o c a t e d just above t h e high-speed orifices on both sides of t h e c a r b u r e t o r body.

DISASSEMBLING
5- Lay t h e t w o carburetors on t h e bencn on t h e t h r o a t openings. Disconnect and remove t h e t w o hoses between t h e carburetors. 6- Turn t h e carburetor body upsidedowr., and remove t h e four float chamber screws. 7- L i f t t h e bowl assembly f r e e of t h e carburetor body. Remove and discard t h e gasket. 8- Remove t h e hinge pin and then t h e float. Remove t h e needle f r o m t h e s e a t , then t h e s e a t , a n d finally t h e gasket.

eblue-dist 2007

4-54

FUEL

10- Use t h e proper size screwdriver, o r special tool Oh4C No. 317002, and remove t h e t w o low-speed orif ices. 11- If t h e unit being serviced has t h e adjustable low-speed needle valves, remove t h e low-speed needle valves. After removing t h e needle valve, observe and remove t h e retainer t h a t a c c e p t s t h e needle valve. Good shop p r a c t i c e is t o replace t h e retaine r , because t h e retainer is actually t h e component holding t h e needle valve in adjustment. If t h e retainer has become worn, i t is not possible t o hold t h e needle valve in an a c c u r a t e adjustment. 12- Observe t h e low-speed needle valve bearing deep inside t h e carburetor. Removal of this bearing is no small task. A special tool is not available. However, a paper clip
-. .\

with a hook on t h e end, c a n b e used t o reach inside t h e bore and remove t h e bearing. Actually this bearing is m a d e of plastic and t h e needle valve r o t a t e s inside. The bearing c e n t e r s t h e needle valve in t h e carburetor. Identify t h e orifices (or needle valves) t o ensure each will b e installed into t h e opening f r o m which i t was removed. 13- Remove t h e t w o drain plugs, o n e on e a c h side of t h e carburetor body. 14- Use t h e proper s i z e screwdriver, o r special tool OhnC No. 317002, and remove t h e t w o high-speed orif ices.

CLEANING AND INSPECTING NEVER dip rubber parts, plastic parts, or nylon parts, in carburetor cleaner. These p a r t s should b e cleaned ONLY in solvent, and t h e n blown dry with compressed air.

ON PORT SIDE, ON STARBOARD

!844

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE IV CARBURETOR
Place all metal p a r t s in a screen- type t r a y and dip t h e m in carburetor cleaner until they appear completely clean, then wash with solvent or clean w a t e r , and blow d r y with compressed air. Blow o u t ail passages in t h e castings with compressed air. Check all p a r t s and passages t o be sure t h e y a r e not clogged or contain any deposits. NEVER use a piece of wire or any t y p e of pointed instrument t o clean drilled passages or calibrated holes in a carburetor. Move t h e t h r o t t l e s h a f t back-and-forth t o check f o r wear. If t h e s h a f t appears t o be too loose, replace t h e c o m p l e t e t h r o t t l e body because individual replacement parts a r e NOT available. Inspect t h e main body, airhorn, a n d vent u r i cluster gasket surfaces f o r cracks and burrs which might cause a leak. Check t h e f l o a t f o r deterioration. Check t o b e s u r e t h e f l o a t spring has not been stretched. If any p a r t of t h e float is damaged, t h e unit must b e replaced. Check t h e f l o a t a r m needle contacting s u r f a c e and replace t h e f l o a t if t h i s s u r f a c e h a s a groove worn in it. Inspect t h e t a p e r e d section of t h e idle adjusting needles and replace any t h a t have developed a groove. Check t h e orifices f o r cleanliness. The orifice has a stamped number. This number represents a drill size. Check t h e orifice with t h e shank of t h e proper size drill t o

4-55

UORN

GOOD
Comparison o f worn and new needle valve. The top needle is unfit for further service.

verify t h e proper orifice is used. The local OMC dealer will b e a b l e t o provide t h e c o r r e c t s i z e orifice f o r t h e engine and carburetor being serviced. Most of t h e p a r t s t h a t should b e replaced during a carburetor overhaul a r e included in overhaul kits available from your local marine dealer. O n e of t h e s e kits will contain a m a t c h e d fuel inlet needle and seat. This combination should b e replaced e a c h t i m e t h e carburetor is disassembled a s a precaution against leakage.

ASSEMBLING
GOOD WORDS Make e v e r y e f f o r t t o k e e p all p a r t s a s Do not lay p a r t s on clean as possible. m a t e r i a l which may contain dust, d i r t , o r lint. Replace all gaskets and O-rings. Never a t t e m p t t o use t h e original p a r t s a second time. 1- Install t h e inlet s e a t using t h e proper size screwdriver. Inject just a drop of lightweight oil into t h e s e a t . Thread t h e inlet needle valve into t h e s e a t , and tighten i t until i t barely seats. DO NOT overtighten or t h e needle valve may be damaged.

' i

WORN

GOOD

GOOD
Comparison o f a worn and new carburetor adjusting screw. The upper screw is unfit for further service.

WORN

Cross sectional drawing t o allow comparison of a new needle and seat (left), and badly worn one (right).

eblue-dist 2007

4-56

FUEL

Exploded drawing of the Type N A carburetor.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE IV CARBURETOR

4-57

CHOKE LEVER

(85 HP ONLY)

ORIFICE PLUG

Exploded drawing of the Type NB carburetor.

eblue-dist 2007

4-58

FUEL

2- Postion NEW gaskets in place on t h e c a r b u r e t o r body and on t h e nozzle. 3- Lower t h e float down o v e r t h e nozzle, and then slide t h e hinge pin into place. Hold t h e carburetor body in such a manner t h a t allows t h e f l o a t t o hang free. The f l o a t should be parallel with t h e carburetor body. If i t is not, bend t h e t a b a s close t o t h e f l o a t as possible until t h e f l o a t is parallel with t h e body. Take c a r e t o bend t h e t a b on both sides of t h e f l o a t and t o bend i t squarely.
WORDS OF CAUTION Take t i m e t o use t h e proper s i z e screwdriver, or special tool OMC No 317002, t o install an orifice. If t h e orifice is damaged and t h e edge of t h e opening burred, because t h e wrong s i z e screwdriver was used, t h e flow of fuel will b e restricted and t h e orifice will not function properly. Damage t o t h e orifice will also m a k e removal very difficult during t h e next carburetor service.

4- Use special tool (?1\1C No. 317002 and install t h e highLspeed orifices, one on e a c h side of t h e carburetor body. 5- Install t h e drain plugs with MEW gaskets.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE IV CARBURETOR

4-59

Models with Low-Speed Orifices 6- Install t h e low-speed orifices i n t o t h e c a r b u r e t o r body just above t h e high-speed or if ices. 7- Install t h e screws, with NEW washers behind t h e orif ices. Models with Low-Speed Needle Valves 8- Install t h e low-speed retainer in t h e c a r b u r e t o r body. Slide t h e nylon bearing o n t o t h e end of t h e low-speed needle valve, and then thread t h e valve into t h e retainer. Continue threading t h e valve i n t o t h e retainer until i t s e a t s LIGHTLY, and then back i t o u t COUNTERCLOCKWISE 51% turn. 9- Install t h e f l o a t chamber and s e c u r e i t with t h e four screws. Tighten t h e screws ALTERNATELY and EVENLY.

INSTALLATION
10- Install and connect t h e fuel hoses b e t w e e n t h e carburetors. 11- Place a NEW gasket in position on t h e i n t a k e manifold. install t h e lower carburetor f i r s t , and s e c u r e i t in place with t h e four a t t a c h i n g screws. Install t h e upper c a r buretor.

NEEDLE RETAINER (TWO) BLACK ON PORT SIDE, WHITE ON STARBOARD LOW SPEED NEEDLE (TWO)
18 4 4

eblue-dist 2007

4-60

FUEL

12- Connect t h e fuel hoses between t h e t w o carburetors. 13- Install a NEW gasket t o t h e f a c e of t h e carburetor, and then t h e air silencer base. Install t h e choke t o t h e air silencer base. Connect t h e linkage t o t h e carburetor choke arm. Secure t h e linkage in place with t h e small O-ring. Sometimes a n E-clip i s used.

Models with Low-Speed Needle Valves


Check t o b e sire t h e needle valves a r e centered in t h e air silencer cover. Snap t h e low-speed adjustment a r m s onto t h e first notch in t h e horizontal position, facing forward. 14- Connect t h e linkage between t h e carburetors on t h e starboard side of t h e engine. Make sure t h e throttle butterflies a r e fully closed when t h e connections are
CHOKE

made. Tighten t h e retainer securely. Connect t h e choke linkage between t h e carburetors. Make sure t h e choke butterflies a r e wide open when t h e connections a r e made. Tighten t h e retainer securely. Check t o b e sure t h e choke butterfly in each carburetor seats fully closed. Check t h e t h r o t t l e butterflies t o be sure both a r e fully closed. Now, move t h e linkage and

DETAINFR

/P

PLUNGER

AIR SILENCER BASE

CHOKE YOKE

AIR SILENCER COVER


/

SPEE ADJUSTING ARM (4)

OUTER SLOW SPEED ADJUSTING / ARM


STARBOARD LINK
/

eblue-dist 2007

PUMP SERVICE
check t o b e sure t h e y both open fully and t o t h e s a m e degree. If an adjustment is required, t h e retainer on t h e linkage can b e moved.

4-61

4-11 FUEL PUMP SERVICE


A considerable number of fuel pump designs and sizes have been installed on t h e larger Johnson/Evinrude engines covered in this ma.nua1. Only one can b e rebuilt and detailed procedures with illustrations a r e given in this section. This fuel pump h a s t h r e e nipples providing t h e means of connecting fuel and vacuum lines. The vacuum line is connected t o one nipple. The other end of this hose i s connected t o t h e vacuum side of t h e engine. The inlet hose (from t h e fuel tank) is connected t o t h e second nipple. The outlet hose (to t h e carburetor) is connected t o t h e third nipple. Minor changes have been incorporated i n t o t h e fuel pump over t h e years. These changes will b e identified in t h e text. All other fuel pumps must be replaced a s a unit. However, t h e pump cover can b e removed, t h e filter screen cleaned or replaced, and a NEW cover gasket installed. The accompanying illustrations show only a couple of t h e s e fuel pumps, including t h e unit t h a t can b e rebuilt.

Synchronization To synchronize t h e fuel system with t h e ignition system, see t h e appropriate section in Chapter 5. 15- Mount t h e engine in a test tank or body of water. If this is not possible, connect a flush a t t a c h m e n t and garden hose NEVER o p e r a t e t h e t o t h e lower unit. engine above idle speed using t h e flush attachment. If t h e engine is operated above idle speed with no load on t h e propeller, t h e engine could RUNAWAY resulting in serious damage or destruction of t h e unit. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. S t a r t t h e engine and allow i t t o warm t o operating temperature. Adjust t h e lowspeed idle by turning t h e low-speed needle valve CLOCKWISE until t h e engine begins t o misfire or t h e rpm drops noticeably. From this point, r o t a t e t h e needle valve COUNTERCLOCKWISE until t h e engine is operating at t h e highest rpm. If t h e engine coughs and operates a s if t h e fuel is too lean, but t h e idle adjustments have been correctly niade, then recheck t h e synchronization between t h e fuel and ignition systems.

FUEL TANK

yJ %

Functional diagram to illustrate operation o f the fuel pump during UPWARD movement of the piston, causing a vacuum condition in the crankcase. Notice how the intake valve in the fuel pump is open and the outlet valve is closed.

eblue-dist 2007

4-62

FUEL

TROUBLES HOOTING
If t h e spark plug of t h e cylinder t o which t h e vacuum line is connected becomes w e t fouled, t h e cause may very well b e a rupt u r e d fuel pump diaphragm. This reasoning is sound for both t y p e of fuel pumps. Both type of pumps have an inlet hose from t h e fuel source, a n outlet hose t o t h e carburetors, and a vacuum hose from t h e powerhead. A good t e s t for t h e pump is t o disconnect t h e vacuum line from t h e engine, operate t h e squeeze bulb in t h e fuel line until i t is firm, and then t o carefully observe t h e end of t h e vacuum hose t o d e t e c t any fuel leakage. The smallest amount of fuel from the hose indicates a damaged diaphragm. The pump must be rebuilt to restore satisf a c t o r y service of t h e pump. If t h e pump is a non-rebuildable type, t h e unit must b e replaced.

PUMP REMOVAL AND REPAIR


1- Identify each hose and its location, t h e n disconnect t h e vacuum hose and two fuel hoses from t h e fuel pump. Remove t h e t h r e e attaching screws securing t h e pump t o t h e engine. Two screws a r e visible on t o p of t h e pump and t h e third is hidden behind t h e fuel inlet nipple. 2- Mount t h e fuel pump in a vise, as shown. Loosen t h e plastic screw securing t h e filter bowl t o t h e pump. 3- Swing t h e hinge down and lift t h e fuel bowl f r e e of t h e pump. Remove and DISCARD t h e bowl gasket and filter.

FUEL TANK

Functional diagram to illustrate operation of the fuel pump chtring DOWNWARD movement of the piston, causing pressure in the crankcase. Notice how the s pump inlet valve i closed and the outlet valve is open t o allow fuel to be transferred to the carburetor.

Throw-away fuel pump used on some Johnson/Evinrude engines. The only service possible on this unit is t o clean the filter and install a new gasket.

eblue-dist 2007

PUMP SERVICE

4-63

4- Shift the pump position in t h e vise, as shown. Remove t h e six screws securing t h e pump cover. 5- Remove t h e cover. Take c a r e not t o lose t h e disc washer and spring from t h e t o p of t h e diaphragm. Remove t h e disc washer, spring, and diaphragm. SAVE t h e small disc washer because i t will b e used again. 6- Some model pumps may have a small disc washer and long spring installed under t h e diaphragm. Other models may have a large nylon washer and spring. DISCARD t h e small disc washer because i t has been replaced with t h e larger nylon washer and is included in t h e pump repair kit. 7- Remove t h e two screws from t h e check valve retainer. Reach i n t o t h e pump and remove t h e check valve retainer.

eblue-dist 2007

4-64

FUEL

8- CAREFULLY observe how one check valve is facing downward and t h e other valve is facing upward. Also notice t h e groove in t h e fuel pump body. A small boss on t h e retainer f i t s i n t o t h e groove as a prevention against installing t h e retainer incorrectly. Remove t h e two check valves and t h e check valve gasket. Further disassembly of t h e pump is not necessary.
CLEANING AND INSPECTING Wash t h e fuel pump body thoroughly and then blow i t dry with compressed air. All internal parts necessary t o rebuild t h e pump, including diaphragm, check valves, gaskets, etc., will b e included in t h e pump repair kit. At one time, t h e s e kits w e r e available from t h e local OMC dealer at modest cost. However, OMC has discontinued packaging t h e parts in kit form. Therefore, unless t h e dealer still has one of t h e old kits i n stock, t h e fuel pump parts must be purchased individually.

PUMP ASSEMBLING

AND INSTALLATION
1- Insert one of t h e NEW check valves through t h e check valve gasket. 2- Install t h e gasket and check valve i n t o t h e pump body with t h e valve facing DOWNWARD, a s shown.

GASKET
'\\

RETAINER

CHECK VALVE

FILTER

m
Q

REPLACEMENT CAP

SHORT SPRING

CAP

Exploded drawing of the only fuel pump that can be rebuilt.

eblue-dist 2007

PUMP SERVlCE

4-65

Parts included in a fuel pump repair kit for those model pumps that can be re built.

3- Position t h e o t h e r check valve on t o p of t h e gasket facing UPWARD. 4- Slide t h e r e t a i n e r down over t h e check valves with t h e boss on t h e r e t a i n e r in t h e groove of t h e pump body. Observe t h e l a r g e and small hole in t h e retainer. T h e large hole MUST be positioned over t h e check valve facing UPWARD. Secure t h e r e t a i n e r in place with t h e t w o a t t a c h i n g screws. 5- Install t h e MEW LONG spring over t h e boss of t h e retainer, and t h e n place t h e nylon disc washer on t o p of t h e spring t h a t was provided in t h e kit. NEVER use t h e small disc on t o p of t h e long spring.

Damaged old-style diaphragm with the small cap installed on early model engines. This small cap has been replaced with a much larger one. Notice how this cap worked its way free of the spring and came through the diaphragm.

eblue-dist 2007

4-66

FUEL

GOOD WORD The following steps may only b e properly accomplished by exercising patience and a l i t t l e time. 6- Mount t h e pump i n a vise in a vertical position, as shown. Lay t h e diaphragm over t h e t o p of t h e nylon disc washer and onto t h e pump body. Notice how t h e spring holds t h e disc up and partially lifts t h e diaphragm from t h e pump. This is a norm a1 condition. 7- Insert t h e small disc and t h e short spring i n t o t h e cavity, as shown. This spring and disc helps t o cushion t h e vacuum impulses from t h e engine. 8- Ease t h e fuel pump cover down over t h e diaphragm and then thread t h e six cover attaching screws i n t o t h e pump body. As each screw is started, pull on t h e edge of t h e diaphragm t o align t h e screw holes i n t h e diaphragm with t h e matching holes in t h e pump body. Tighten t h e attaching screws securely. 9- Slide t h e filter element into t h e fuel. The end of t h e filter element must slide over t h e indexing peg in t h e bottom of t h e pump. Force t h e element onto t h e peg until i t is fully seated. 10- Place a NEW gasket into position in t h e fuel pump, as shown. 11- Place the fuel pump bowl over t h e filter element and i n t o position on t h e gasket.

eblue-dist 2007

PUMP SERVICE

4-67

4-12 FUEL TANK SERVICE


L a t e model fuel tanks (since about 1959), a r e not pressurized. A squeeze bulb is used t o move fuel from the t a n k t o t h e carburetor until t h e engine is operating. O n c e t h e engine s t a r t s , t h e fuel pump, mounted on t h e engine, transfers fuel from t h e tank t o t h e carburetor. The pickup unit in t h e tank is sold as a complete unit, but without t h e gauge and float. 1- To replace t h e pickup unit, first remove t h e four screws securing t h e unit in t h e tank. Next, l i f t t h e pickup unit up o u t of t h e tank. 2- Remove the two Phillips screws securing t h e fuel gauge t o t h e bottom of t h e pickup unit and set t h e gauge aside fo,r installation onto t h e new pickup unit. If t h e pickup unit is not t o b e replaced, clean and check t h e screen f o r damage. I t is possible t o bend a new piece of screen

12- Swing t h e hinge up over t h e pump bowl, and then secure i t in place by tightening t h e plastic thumb screw. 13- Mount t h e fuel pump onto t h e engine and secure it with t h e t w o screws on t o p and one behind t h e fuel inlet nipple. CAREFULLY connect t h e vacuum hose and t h e two fuel hoses t o their proper nipples, as identified during disassembling. If identification was not m a d e follow t h e hoses a s described. Connect t h e vacuum hose (from t h e engine) t o t h e nipple on t h e pump cover. Connect t h e inlet hose (from t h e fuel tank) t o t h e inside nipple (the one closest t o t h e engine). Connect t h e outlet hose (to t h e carburetor) t o t h e remaining nipple.

eblue-dist 2007

O-RING
/

0 "

TANK VALVE

CONNECTOR

Exploded drawing of a modern non-pressurized fuel tank and fuel line.

eblue-dist 2007

TANK AND LINE

4-69

material around t h e pickup and solder i t i n place without purchasing a complete new unit. Attach t h e fuel gauge t o t h e new pickup unit and secure i t in place with t h e t w o Phillips screws. 3- Clean t h e old gasket material from t h e . fuel tank and old pickup unit (if t h e old pickup unit is t o be installed for further service). Work t h e float arm down through t h e fuel t a n k opening, and at t h e s a m e t i m e insert t h e fuel pickup t u b e i n t o t h e tank. I t will probably b e necessary t o e x e r t a l i t t l e f o r c e on t h e float arm in order t o f e e d it all into t h e hole. The fuel pickup a r m should spring into place once i t is through t h e hole. Secure t h e pickup and float unit in place with t h e four attaching screws. 4- The primer squeeze bulb can be replaced in a short time. A squeeze bulb assembl y , complete with t h e check valves installed, may be obtained f r o m t h e local OMC dealer. An arrow is clearly visible on t h e squeeze bulb t o indicate t h e direction s f fuel flow. The squeeze bulb .MUST b e installed correctly in t h e line because t h e check valves in each end of t h e bulb will allow fuel t o flow in ONLY one direction. Therefore, if t h e squeeze bulb should b e installed backwards (in a moment of haste t o g e t t h e job done), fuel wiil not reach t h e carburetor. 5- To replace t h e bulb, first unsnap t h e clamps on t h e hose at each end of t h e bulb. Next, pull t h e hose out of t h e check valves

at each end of t h e bulb. New clamps a r e included with a new squeeze bulb. If t h e fuel line has been exposed t o considerable sunlight, it m a y have become hardened, causing difficulty in working i t over t h e check valve. To remedy this situation, simply immerse t h e ends of t h e hose in boiling water for a f e w minutes t o soften t h e rubber and t h e hose will then slip onto t h e check valve without further problerrs. After t h e lines on both sides have been

Fuel pump pickup assembly. The fuel - - assembgauge t y i not sold-& a pa& of the pickup &it. s

Typical Johnson/Evinrude non-pressurized fuel tank.

eblue-dist 2007

4-70

FUEL installed, snap t h e clamps in place t o s e c u r e t h e line. Check a second t i m e t o b e sure t h e arrow is pointing in t h e fuel flow direction, TOWARDS t h e engine. 6- Use two ice picks or similar tools, and push down t h e center plunger of t h e connector and work t h e O-ring out of t h e hole. 7- Apply just a drop of oil into t h e hole of t h e connector. Apply a thin coating of oil t o t h e surface of t h e O-ring. Pinch t h e O-ring together and work i t into t h e hole while simultaneously using a punch t o depress t h e plunger inside t h e connector.

Johnson/Evinrude fuel conditioner. This product may be added to the fuel to keep it fresh for up to a full year.

Johnson/Evinrude lubricant t o be added to the fuel. Using quality products will contribute to maximum efficiency and reduce repair costs.

eblue-dist 2007

IGNITION
5-1 INTRODUCTION

The less an outboard engine is operated, t h e m o r e c a r e i t needs. Allowing a n outboard engine to remain i d e will do more harm than if i t is used regularly. To maintain t h e engine in t o p shape and always ready for efficient operation at any time, t h e engine should be operated every 3 t o 4 weeks throughout t h e year. The car buret ion m d ignition princip$es of twc+cyck engine operation MUST be understood in order t o perform a proper tuneup on an outboard motor.

If you have any doubts csncerning your understanding of two-cycle engine operation, i t would be best Po study t h e operation theory section in t h e first portion of Chapt e r 3, before tackling any work on t h e ignition system. H engine performance is less than exf pected, and t h e ignition is diagnosed as t h e problem area, t h e sections in this chapter give detailed procedures t o restore full p ~ w e r to t h e unit. Complete instructions t o synchronize t h e ignition system with t h e fuel system, a r e given at t h e end of t h e chapter. BEFORE o ~ e n i n g t h e ignition system, purchasing expensive parts, and spending t i m e which might h e avoided, t a k e t i m e t o study and understand t h e early sections of this chapter covering spark plug e v d uatism, polarity check, and t h e wiring harness. The tests, checks, and procedures in these early sections should also b e perforwed BEFORE t h e system is opened.

Operating a V 4 engine for test purposes with a Flusbette attachment installed. The engine should NEVER be operated above idle speed with such a device.

A V 4 engine with belt-driven distributor magneto ignition system.

eblue-dist 2007

5-2

IGNITION

A V4 engine with belt-driven distributor battery

ignition system.

A V4 enoine showina arts o f the CD ianition mstem after the flywheel, &;or, distributor &p, and -rotor have been removed.

JGNITDN SYSTEMS
Three ignition systems a r e used on t h e outboard engines covered in this manual and a r e presented in t h e following order: 1- A distributor- type magneto system driven by a belt from t h e flywheel. 2- A b a t t e r y distributor- type system driven bv a belt from t h e flvwheel.

3- Three different capacitor discharge (CD) systems a r e covered. One uses a sensor in a distributor driven by a belt from t h e flywheel (produced only one year). The next C D system (an improvement over t h e first) has all t h e components mounted underneath t h e flywheel. The third C D system incorporated a double s e t of points mounted under t h e flywheel and an amplifier and associated components secured elsewhere on t h e engine.

A V4 100 hp, 1967 or 1968, with belt-driven distributor using the capacitor discharge (CD) ignition system with sensor.

View of a CD ignition system utilizing two sets of points, after the flywheel, stator, distributor cap, arld rotor have been removed.

eblue-dist 2007

SPARK PLUGS

53

BEST WORDS POSSIBLE It is of t h e utmost importance t o know, without a doubt, t h e type of ignition system installed on t h e unit being serviced. Proper troubleshooting, and of course service, can NOT b e performed unless a n identification is made as t o t h e horsepower and model year of t h e unit. The f o r m a t and appendix of this book will definitely solve t h e problem. BEFORE any working is started, first, find t h e model number on t h e engine and then m a k e a n identification in t h e Appendix. From this information (the horsepower and model year) proceed directly t o t h e proper sections (troubleshooting, replacement, etc.) of this chapter. 5-2 SPARK PLUG EVALUAnON REMOVAL
Remove t h e spark plug wires by pulling and twisting on only t h e molded cap. NEVER pull on t h e wire, or t h e connection inside t h e c a p may become separated or t h e boot damaged. Remove t h e spark plugs and keep t h e m in order. TAKE CARE not t o t i l t t h e socket as you remove t h e plug or t h e insulator may be cracked.

Damaged spark plugs. Notice the broken electrode on the left plug. The broken part MUST be found and removed before returning the engine to service.

all cases, a n engine overhaul is required t o correct t h e condition. To verify t h e cause of t h e problem, r o t a t e t h e flywheel by hand. As t h e piston moves t o t h e full up position, push on t h e piston crown with a screwdriver inserted through t h e spark plug hole, and at t h e s a m e t i m e rock t h e flywheel back-and-forth. If any play in t h e piston is detected, t h e engine must b e rebuilt.

EXAMINATION
Line t h e plugs in order of removal and carefully examine t h e m t o determine t h e firing conditions in each cylinder. If t h e side electrode is bent down onto t h e c e n t e r electrode, t h e piston is traveling too f a r upward in t h e cylinder and striking t h e spark plug. Such damage indicates t h e wrist pin o r t h e rod bearing is worn excessively. In

Correct Color A proper firing plug should b e dry and powdery. Hard deposits inside t h e shell indicate too much oil is being mixed with t h e fuel. The most important evidence is t h e light gray color of t h e porcelain, which is a n indication this plug has been running at t h e c o r r e c t temperature. This means t h e plug is one with t h e c o r r e c t heat range and also t h a t t h e air-fuel mixture is correct. Rich Mixture: A black sooty condition on both t h e spark plug shell and t h e porcelain is caused by an excessively rich air-fuel

This spark plug is foul from operating with an overrich condition, possibly an improper carburetor adjustment

This spark plug has been operating too cool, because it i rated with a too-low heat range for the engine. s

eblue-dist 2007

5-4

IGNITION
condition may b e t h e result of poor oil grade, (automotive- type instead of a marine-type); improper oil-fuel mixture in t h e fuel tank; or by worn piston rings.

mixture, both at low and high speeds. The rich mixture lowers t h e combustion temperature. At t h e lower tempearature, t h e spark plug does not run hot enough t o burn off t h e deposits. Deposits formed only on t h e shell is an indication t h e low-speed air- fuel mixture is t o o rich. A t high speeds with t h e c o r r e c t mixture, t h e temperature in t h e combustion chamber is high enough t o burn off t h e deposits on t h e insulator.

Too Cool
A dark insulator, with very f e w deposits, indicates t h e plug is running too cool. This condition can b e caused by low compression air by using a spark plug of an incorrect h e a t range. If this condition shows on only one plug it is most usually caused by low compression in t h a t cylinder. If all of t h e plugs have this appearance, then i t is probably due t o t h e plugs having a too-low heat range.

Overheating A dead white or gray insulator, which is generally blistered, is an indication of overheating and pre-ignition. The electrode gap wear r a t e will b e m o r e than normal and in t h e case of pre-ignition, will actually cause t h e electrodes t o m e l t as shown in t h i s illustration. Overheating and pre-ignition a r e usually caused by improper point g a p adjustment; detonation from using too-low a n o c t a n e rating fuel; a n excessively l e a n air-fuel mixture; or problems in t h e cooling system.

Electrode Wear
Electrode wear results in a wide gap and if t h e electrode becomes carbonized i t will form a high-resistance path for t h e spark t o jump across. Such a condition will cause t h e engine t o misfire during acceleration, If all plugs a r e in this condition, i t can cause a n increase in fuel consumption and very poor performance during high-speed operation. The solution is t o replace t h e spark plugs with a rating in t h e proper heat range and gapped t o specification. Red rust-colored deposits on t h e entire firing end of a spark plug can b e caused by water in t h e cylinder combustion chamber. This can b e t h e first evidence of w a t e r entering t h e cylinders through t h e exhaust manifold because of a n accumulation of scale or defective exhaust shutter. This condition MUST b e corrected at t h e first opportunity. R e f e r to Chapter 3, Engine Service.

Foded
A fouled spark plug may b e caused by t h e wet oily deposits on t h e insulator shorting t h e high-tension current t o ground inside t h e shell. The condition may also be caused by ignition problems which prevent a hightension pulse t o b e delivered t o t h e spark
P~!P

Carbon Deposits Heavy carbon-like deposits a r e a n indication of excessive oil in t h e fuel. This

ELECTRODE

ELECTRODE

Cut-a-way drawing showing major spark plug parts.

Today, numerous type spark plugs are available for service. ALWAYS check with your local marine dealer to be sure you are prchasing the proper plug for the engine being serviced.

eblue-dist 2007

POINTS AND CONDENSER

5-5

5-3 OTHER IGNITION PARTS

Breaker Points
The breaker points in an outboard motor a r e an extremely important part of t h e ignition system. A set of points may appear to b e in good condition, but they may b e t h e source of hard starting, misfiring, o r poor engine performance. The rules and knowledge gained from association with 4-cycle engines does not necessarily apply t o a 2cycle engine. The points should b e replaced every 100 hours of operation or at l e a s t REMEMBER, t h e less an once a year. outboard engine is operated, t h e more c a r e i t needs. Allowing an outboard engine t o remain idle will do more harm than if i t i s used regularly. A breaker point set consists of t w o points. O n e is a t t a c h e d t o a stationary bracket and does not move. The o t h e r point is a t t a c h e d to a moveable mount. A spring is used t o keep t h e points in c o n t a c t with each other, except when they a r e s e p a r a t e d by t h e action of t h e cam. Both points a r e constructed with a steel base and a tungsten c a p fused t o t h e base. To properly diagnose magneto (spark) problems, t h e theory of electricity flow must b e understood. The flow of electricity through a wire may b e compared with t h e flow of water through a pipe. Consider t h e voltage in t h e wire as t h e water pressure in t h e pipe and t h e amperes as t h e volume of water. Now, if t h e water pipe is broken, t h e w a t e r does not reach t h e end of t h e pipe. In a similar manner if t h e wire is broken t h e flow of electricity Is broken. If t h e pipe springs a leak, t h e amount of water reaching t h e end of t h e pipe is reduced. S a m e with t h e wire. If t h e installation i s defective or

t h e wire becomes grounded, t h e amount of electricity (amperes) reaching t h e end of t h e wire is reduced. Check t h e wiring carefully. Inspect t h e points closely and adjust t h e m accurately. The point s e t t i n g for ALL engines covered in this manual using magneto and b a t t e r y ignition systems is 0.020" (5.1 mm). These t w o systems a r e covered in Sections 5-6 and 5-8. Condenser A condenser is ONLY used on units equipped with magneto and b a t t e r y ignition systems. One condenser is used for both sets of points. In simple terms, a condenser is composed of two sheets of tin or aluminum foil laid one on t o p of t h e other, but separated by a s h e e t of insulating material such as waxed paper, etc. The sheets a r e rolled into a cylinder t o conserve space and then inserted into a metal case for protection and t o permit easy assembly. The purpose of t h e condenser is t o absorb o r s t o r e t h e secondary current built-up in t h e primary winding at t h e instant t h e breaker points a r e separated. By absorbing o r storing this current, t h e condenser prevents excessive arcing and t h e useful l i f e of t h e breaker points is extended. The condenser also gives added f o r c e t o t h e charge produced in t h e secondary winding as t h e condenser discharges.

r ,' 1

ACTUAL POINT OPENING .021

FEELER GAUGE

Worn and corroded breaker points unfit for further service.

Drawing to depict how a 0.016" feeler gauge may be inserted between a badly worn set of points and the actual opening is 0.021". The point set must be in good condition to obtain an accurate adjustment.

eblue-dist 2007

5-6

IGNITION

ALTERNATE LAYERS OF INSULATION WAXED PAPER ALTERNATE LAYERS OF FO IL I N O ALUMINUM R

--

FOIL

INSULATION
Rough sketch to illustrate how the waxed paper, aluminum foil, and insulation are rolled in a typical condenser.

Modern condensers seldom cause problems, therefore, i t is not necessary t o install a new one each t i m e t h e points a r e replaced. However, if t h e points show evidence of atcing, t h e condenser may b e at fault and should b e replaced. A faulty condenser may not b e d e t e c t e d without t h e use of special test equipment. The modest cost of a new condenser justifies i t s purchase and installation t o eliminate this i t e m as a source of trouble.

Polarity Check Coil polarity is extremely important f o r proper b a t t e r y ignition system operation. If a coil is connected with reverse polarity, t h e spark plugs may demand f r o m 30 t o 40 percent more voltage t o fire. Under such demand conditions, in a very s h o r t t i m e t h e coil would b e unable t o supply enough volta g e t o f i r e t h e plugs. Any one of t h e following t h r e e methods may b e used t o quickly determine coil polarity. 1- The polarity of t h e coil c a n b e checke d using an ordinary d c voltmeter. Connect t h e positive lead t o a good ground. With t h e

engine running, morn entarily touch t h e nega t i v e lead t o a spark plug terminal. The needle should swing upscale. If t h e needle swings downscale, t h e polarity is reversed. 2- If a voltmeter is not available, a pencil may be used in t h e following manner: Disconnect a spark plug wire and hold t h e metal connector at t h e end of t h e cable about 114" (6.35 mm) from t h e spark plug terminal. Now, insert a n ordinary pencil tip between t h e terminal and t h e connector. Crank t h e engine with t h e ignition switch ON. If t h e spark f e a t h e r s on t h e plug side and has a slight orange tinge, t h e polarity is correct. If t h e spark feathers on t h e cable connector side, t h e polarity is reversed. 3- The firing end of a used spark plug If t h e can give a clue to coil polarity. ground electrode is "dished", i t may m e a n polarity is reversed.

Proper hoohup to test a condenser.

eblue-dist 2007

WIRING HARNESS
Wiring Harness CRITICAL WORDS: These next two paragraphs may well b e t h e most important words in this chapter. Misuse of t h e wiring harness is t h e most single cause of electrical problems with outboard power plants. A wiring harness is used between t h e key switch and t h e engine. This harness seldom contains wire of sufficient size t o allow connecting accessories. Therefore, anytime a new accessory is installed, NEW wiring should be used between t h e b a t t e r y and t h e accessory. A s e p a r a t e f u s e panel MUST b e installed on t h e dash. To connect t h e fuse panel, use one red and one black No. 10 gauge wire from t h e battery. If a small amount of 12-volt current should b e accidentally attached t o t h e magneto syst e m , t h e coil may be damaged or DESTROYED. Such a mistake in wiring can easily happen if t h e source for t h e 12-volt accessory is taken from t h e key switch. Therefore, again l e t i t b e said, NEVER conn e c t accessories through t h e key switch. The wiring harness installed on t h e 50 hp 1958 & 1959, and t h e 75 hp 1960, was connected t o t h e side of t h e engine through an electrical plug utilizing "male" and "female" connectors. This particular t y p e connector has been a contributing f a c t o r t o a number of problems in t h e ignition system due t o t h e susceptibility of t h e connector t o corrosion. The plug is exposed and subject t o moisture which is especially destructive Therefore, in a s a l t water atmosphere.

5-7

during t h e troubleshooting work on t h e s e engines, always disconnect this plug and make a careful check for any sign of corrosion. The plug in illustration "A", needs t o be cleaned t o ensure a proper connection.

Key Switch A magneto key switch operates in REVERSE of any other type key switch. When t h e key is moved t o t h e OFF position, t h e circuit is CLOSED between t h e magneto and ground. In some cases, when t h e key is turned t o t h e OFF position t h e points a r e grounded. For this reason, a n automotivetype switch MUST NEVER b e used, because t h e circuit would b e opened and closed in reverse, and if 12-volts should reach t h e coil, t h e coil would b e DESTROYED.
On outboard units equipped with t h e batt e r y ignition system, only a MARINE switch should b e used. These switches a r e manufactured a s waterproof units. However, in

WITCH Functional diagram to illustrate proper hookup of accessories through a junction box. If a junction box is not installed on the boat, connect accessories directly to the battery. NEVER connect accessories through the key switch.

eblue-dist 2007

5-8

IGNITION
t h e r e f o r e t h e rotor s h a f t turns at t h e s a m e speed as t h e crankshaft. The pulley also acts as a cover f o r t h e breaker assembly housing. Breaker Assembly The breaker assembly consists of two sets of P a r t No. 580290. Each package includes one complete set of points, a wick, retainer, and clip. The two-lobed breaker c a m , which is keyed t o t h e rotor shaft, and t h e condenser a r e sold separately. A tuneup kit includes t w o (2) s e t s of points, a condenser, and a rotor. Now, with t h e engine runnlng at 4,000 rpm, 16,000 power impulses occur every minute. Therefore, 16,000 spark impulses a r e required to f i r e t h e compressed charges in each of t h e four cylinders. Two sets of breaker points in parallel and spaced at 90 a r e a c t u a t e d by t h e two lobed breaker cam. This arrangement equalizes t h e individual breaker point "load". Each set of breaker points s h a r e s half t h e load by operating or breaking 8,000 times per minute or twice t h e engine running speed t o f i r e just two cylinders. The other set of points fires t h e other t w o cyl inders. A check of t h e schematic wiring diagram in this section will assist in understanding how this is accomplished. Looking at i t another way, a single set of breaker points operating on a four-lobed c a m would be required t o interrupt t h e primary circuit 16,000 t i m e s per minute, if t h e engine were running at 4,000 rpm, t o f i r e t h e four cylinders. With th% double breaker installation spaced at 90 , t h e contour of t h e two-lobed breaker c a m has been calibrated t o permit both sets of points t o remain open simultaneously f o r short intervals, but never closed simultaneously. The breaker points t h u s alternately m a k e and break t h e primary circuit t o s h a r e t h e load. The breaker base and point assemblies may appear t o b e t h e s a m e as those installe d in t h e flywheel magneto system but t h e y a r e NOT interchangeable. The difference is i n t h e mounting base. The diameter of t h e breaker point f a c e has been increased t o 3/16" (4.76 mm) t o prolong its a c t i v e life. Therefore, when purchasing a new assembly, t a k e t i m e at t h e marine dealer to ensure t h e proper set is obtained f o r t h e engine being serviced.

an emergency situation, an automotive- type switch could b e installed on a temporary basis.

5-4 N PE I IGNITION DISTRIBUTOR MAGNETO 50 HP - 1958 to 1959 6 0 H P - 1%4 to 1966 75 H P - 1960 to 1965 80 H P - 1966
WORDS O F ADVICE It would be worth t h e t i m e t o read and understand t h e information presented in Sections 5-1 thru 5-3 before starting troubleshooting or service work on t h e irrnition system. DESCRIPTION READ AND BELIEVE. A b a t t e r y installed t o crank t h e engine DOES NOT mean t h e engine is equipped with a battery- type ignition system. A magneto system uses t h e b a t t e r y only t o crank t h e engine. Once t h e engine is running, t h e b a t t e r y has absolutely no a f f e c t on engine operation. Therefore, if t h e b a t t e r y is low and fails t o crank t h e engine properly f o r starting, t h e engine m a y b e cranked manually, started, and operated. Under these conditions, t h e key switch must b e turned t o t h e O N position or t h e engine will not s t a r t by hand cranking.
A magneto system, Illustration "An, is a self- contained unit. The unit does not require assistance from an outside source f o r s t a r t i n g or continued operation. Therefore, a s previously m-entioned, if t h e b a t t e r y is dead, t h e engine may be cranked manually and t h e engine started. A magneto ignition system can easily be distinguished from a b a t t e r y system. T h e high-tension spark plug leads on t h e magnet o system a r e routed out t h e bottom of t h e distributor -- distributor c a p is on t h e bottom. On a b a t t e r y ignition system, t h e distributor c a p is on top.

T h e Magneto The magneto assembly installed on V4 engines is a self- contained unit. The magneto is driven at crankshaft speed through a belt around a sprocket pulley a t t a c h e d t o t h e flywheel and a similar pulley keyed t o t h e distributor rotor shaft. Both pulleys a r e of equal diameter,

eblue-dist 2007

DISTRIBUTOR MAGNETO

5-9

= CONDENSER

SPARK PLUGS \

BREAKER

\
L

DISTRIBUTOR CAP PRIMARY,

MAGNET
/ '

Spark Plug Terminal A spark plug terminal kit, illustration "Bn, this page, consisting of t h e terminal and a rubber boot, may b e purchased at modest cost. To install: pierce t h e hightension lead in t h e c e n t e r with t h e terminal prong, illustration "Cn. If t h e lead is not pierced in t h e center, a good c o n t a c t may not b e accomplished. Moisten t h e inside of t h e boot with just a drop of saliva. Work t h e boot over t h e terminal and high-tension lead until t h e terminal is in t h e center of t h e boot opening f o r t h e spark plug. Condenser The condenser (Part No. 580256) is of conventional design and construction, shunte d or bridged across t h e breaker points, reference illustration "An, next page.

POLE SHOES (SOUTH)

LEAD

SPARK PLUG

eblue-dist 2007

5- 1 0

IGNITION

ALTERNATE LAYERS OF lN SULAT I0N WAXED PAPER ALTERNATE LAYERS OF FO I L

-1

INSULATION

The condenser prevents excessive arcing between t h e operating breaker points and therefore contributes significantly t o prolonging t h e a c t i v e l i f e of t h e point set. Of more importance, however, t h e condenser makes possible t h e surge of high voltage intensity required t o ignite t h e compressed fuel vapor charge in each cylinder.

Rotors used with magneto ignition system (left), and battery ignition (right). These rotors appear similar, but they do differ and are not interchangeable, as explained in the text.

proper lead t o b e installed. The hightension leads a r e identified by number with a tag. The high-tension spark plug leads a r e threaded into t h e cap. Whenever a hightension lead is disconnected from t h e cap, i t must be r o t a t e d COUNTERCLOCKWISE until it is free.

Ignition Coil An ignition coil, of basic design and construction, is mounted inside t h e lower half of t h e distributor, reference illustration "Bm,this page. The coil consists of primary and secondary windings around an electric steel laminated core which in assembly "bridges" t h e magnet pole shoes. The distributor cap covers t h e coil and t h e rotor. Distributor Rotor A distributor rotor is a t t a c h e d t o and turns with t h e rotor s h a f t t o properly distribute spark impulses while t h e engine is running. Distributor Cap A conventional distributor c a p is used. The c a p is mounted on t h e lower end of t h e distributor and covers t h e coil and t h e rotor. Each opening h-as a number t o indicate t h e

5-5 TROUBLESHOOTING DISTRIBUTOR h4AGNETO IGNITION 50 HP - 1 958 to 1959 60 HP - 1%4 to 1%6 75 HP - 1960 to 1965
80

HP - 1%6

Always a t t e m p t t o proceed with t h e troubles hooting in an orderly rnanner. T h e shot gun approach will on1y resul t in wasted time, incorrect diagnosis, replacement of unnecessary parts, and frustration. Begin t h e ignition system troubles hooting with t h e spark plugs and continue through t h e system until t h e source of trouble is located. On a V 4 engine, t h e cylinders a r e numbered 1 and 3 in t h e starboard bank, 2 and 4 In t h e port bank.

Inside of a magneto distributor cap showing the two springs which must be in place during installation for proper operation.

eblue-dist 2007

DlSTRlBUTOR MAGNETO
Remember, a magneto system is a selfcontained unit. Therefore, if t h e engine has a key switch and wire harness, remove t h e m f r o m t h e engine and t h e n m a k e a test f o r spark. A black "Kill" wire between t h e wire harness and t h e magneto can be disconnecte d t o e l m i n a t e t h e wiring in t h e key switch. If t h i s black "Kill" wire is disconnected, t h e r e is no convenient way t o shut t h e engine down, should i t start. In such a case t h e magneto would have t o be grounded in order t o s h u t t h e engine down. If a good spark is obtained with t h e s e t w o i t e m s disconnected, but no spark is available at t h e plug when t h e y a r e connected, then t h e trouble is in t h e harness or t h e key switch. If a test is made f o r spark at t h e plug with t h e harness and switch connected, check t o b e sure t h e key switch is turned t o t h e ON position.

5- 1 1

Spark Plugs 1- Check t h e plug wires t o b e sure t h e y


a r e properly connected. The distributor c a p h a s numbers embossed on t h e outside surface. The proper high-tension l e a d must b e installed into t h e proper opening in t h e c a p o r t h e engine will not operate. Check t h e e n t i r e length of t h e wires from t h e plugs to t h e distributor cap. If t h e wire is t o b e removed from t h e spark plug, ALWAYS use a pulling and twisting motion as a precaution against damaging t h e connection.

2- A t t e m p t t o remove t h e spark plugs by hand. This is a rough test t o d e t e r m i n e if t h e plug is tightened properly. You should not b e able t o remove t h e plug without using t h e proper socket size tool. R e m o v e t h e spark plugs and keep t h e m in order. Exa m i n e each plug and e v a l u a t e i t s condition as described in Section 5-2. If t h e spark plugs have been removed a n d t h e problem cannot b e determined, but t h e plug a p p e a r s t o b e in satisfactory condition, electrodes, etc., then replace t h e plugs in t h e spark plug openings. A plug may indicate s a t i s f a c t o r y spark when i t is removed and t e s t e d , but under a compression condition, i t may fail. A conclusive spark plug test should always b e performed with t h e spark plugs installed. An example would b e t h e possibility of a person being able t o jump a given distance on t h e ground, but if a strong, wind i s blowing, his distance may be reduced by half. The s a m e is t r u e with t h e spark plug. Under good compression in t h e cylinder, t h e spark m a y b e t o o weak t o ignite t h e fuel properly. Therefore, t o test t h e spark plug under compression, replace i t in t h e engine and

eblue-dist 2007

5-12

IGNITION
reality t h e spark will b e t o o weak when t h e plug is installed. If t h e r e is no spark, o r if t h e spark is weak, t h e trouble is most likely in t h e distributor magneto system.

tighten i t t o t h e proper torque value. Another reason f o r testing f o r spark with t h e plugs installed is t o duplicate actual operating conditions regarding flywheel speed. If t h e flywheel is r o t a t e d with t h e pull cord, and with t h e plugs removed, t h e flywheel will r o t a t e much f a s t e r because of ' t h e nocompression condition in t h e cylinder. T h e flywheel rotating f a s t e r will give t h e FALSE indication of s a t i s f a c t o r y spark. A spark t e s t e r capable of testing f o r spark while cranking and also while t h e engine is operating, can b e purchased from any automotive o r marine p a r t s outlet. T h e modest c o s t for such a tool i s well worth t h e investment. 3- Use a spark t e s t e r and check f o r spark at each cylinder. If a spark t e s t e r is not available, use a pair of insulated pliers and hold t h e plug wire about 114" (4.35 mm) f r o m t h e engine.

SAFETY WORD Never forget, this ignition system will g e n e r a t e approximately 20,OQO volts t o t h e spark plugs. Therefore, TAKE CARE when handling t h e high-tension leads during trouhleshooting or replacement work.
Turn t h e flywheel with a pull s t a r t e r o r electrical s t a r t e r and check f o r spark. A strong spark over a wide g a p must b e observed when testing in this manner, because under compression a strong spark is necess a r y in order t o ignite t h e air-fuel mixture in t h e cylinder. This means i t is possible t o think you have a strong spark, when in

Compression A compression check i s e x t r e m e l y imp o r t a n t , because an engine with low or uneven compression between cylinders CANNOT b e tuned t o o p e r a t e satisfactorily. Therefore, i t is essential t h a t any compression problem b e c o r r e c t e d before proceeding with t h e tune-up procedure. See C h a p t e r 3. If t h e powerhead shows any indication of overheating, such a s discolored or scorched paint, especially in t h e a r e a of t h e t o p (No. 1) cylinder, inspect t h e cylinders visually t h r u t h e transfer ports f or possIbBe scoring. A more thorough inspection can b e made if t h e heads a r e removed. I t is possible for a cylinder with s a t i s f a c t o r y compression t o be scored slightly. Also, c k c k t h e w a t e r pump. The overheatinp, conditicsn m a y b e caused by a faulty water pranrp. An overheating condition r a y dss be caused by r u m i n g t h e engine o u t of t h e water. For unknown reasons, many operat o r s have t h e rslisconception t h a t runwine a n engine for a short period of t i m e without t h e lower unit subwerged in w a t e r , can b e done without harm. FALSE! Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine m y time the engine i rm s t prevent damage t the water pump and an o o overheating condition, Just dive seconds w i t b u t water will damage the water pump Checking Compression 4- Remove t b e spark plug wires. ALWAYS grasp t be m d c W c a p an8 D ~ jf l oose B with a twistislp rsotisn t o prevent l a r r a ~ s to t h e connection. Remove t b e spark pAt!as 3 r d keep t h e m in ORDER by cylinder for C V ~ B V ation later. Ground t h e spark plug lea& to

eblue-dist 2007

DISTRIBCJTOR MAGNETO t h e engine t o render t h e ignition system inoperative while performing t h e compression check.

5- 13

SAFETY WORD The spark plug leads a r e grounded as a s a f e t y measure and t o prolong coil life. By grounding t h e leads t h e current has a path t o follow without creating a spark. Any amount of fuel in or on t h e engine, even t h e fumes from under t h e cowling, c r e a t e s a dangerous f i r e hazard. By eliminating t h e spark, t h e chances of igniting any fuel o r fuel vapors is drastically reduced.
Insert a compression gauge into t h e No. 1, top, spark plug opening. Crank t h e engine with t h e s t a r t e r , or pull on t h e s t a r t e r cord, through at least 4 complete piston strokes with t h e t h r o t t l e at t h e wideopen position, or until t h e highest possible Record reading is observed on t h e gauge. t h e reading. Repeat t h e test and record t h e compression for each cylinder. A variation between cylinders is far more important than t h e actual readings. A variation of more than 5 psi between cylinders indicates t h e lower compression cylinder may b e defective. The problem may b e worn, broken, or sticking

piston rings, scored pistons car worn cylinders. These problems may only b e determined a f t e r t h e head has been removed. Removing t h e head on an outboard engine is not t h a t big a deal, and may s a v e many hours of frustration and t h e cost of purchasing unnecessary parts t o correct a faulty condition. In most cases, under normal operating conditions of a V4 engine, t h e No. 4 cylinder usually causes problems before t h e other three. You ask, "Why is this so?" No man, including f a c t o r y engineers a r e a b l e t o give a logical and scientific answer. So b e it! If an overheating condition exists, t h e No. 1 cylinder suffers t h e most.

5-6 SERVICING THE MAGNETO IGNITION SYSTEM 50 HP - 1958 and 1959 60 HP -- 1%4 to 1%6 75 HP - 1960 to 1965 80 HP - 1966

WORDS OF ADVICE It would be worth t h e t i m e t o read and understand t h e information presented in Sections 5-1 thru 5-5 before starting t r o w bleshooting or service work on t h e ignition system. GENERAL INFORMATION
Magneto ignition overhaul procedures may differ slightly on various outboard models, but t h e fdlowing general basic instruction will apply t o all V4 magneto engines. The breaker points should b e carefully inspected before proceeding with more involved troubleshooting. On outboard engines, a very small amount of pitting, dirt, oil, or oxidation will rob t h e engine of power and should b e corrected. If in doubt REPLACE t h e point set. When replacing a point set or performing other distributor service work, i t is always best t o remove the- distributor from t h e engine. Realistically, removal of t h e distributor is necessary t o do any work properly*

REMOVAL

1- Disconnect t h e b a t t e r y l e a d s from t h e b a t t e r y terminals. Remove t h e hightension leads from t h e spark plugs. Use a pulling and twisting motioh as a precaution

eblue-dist 2007

5- 1 4

IGNITION

against damaging t h e connections. Release t h e high-tension leads t o t h e distributor by opening t h e retainers on each head. These retainers a r e split on t h e side and by using a pair of pliers t h e y may b e bent slightly t o facilitate removal. Take c a r e not t o l o s e t h e rubber bushings from inside t h e retainers. Notice how each bushing has a groove on t h e inside t o allow i t t o seat properly in t h e retainer, 2- Remove and examine each spark plug as an aid in determing how t h a t particular cylinder has been operating. Check t h e electrodes carefully. A bent electrode is an indication of a faulty wrist pin in t h a t piston assembly. If a compression check Ras not been made, as described earlier in this chapt e r , perform a check on each cylinder at this time. Correcting conditions in t h e ignition system will NOT restore t h e engine to satisfactory performance if t h e compression is weak in one cylinder or uneven between t h e four. 3- Remove t h e t h r e e screws securing t h e plate t o t h e top of t h e distributor pulley. Notice how t h e plate has a bevelled edge facing upward. The plate must b e installed with t h e bevel facing upward. If t h e bevel faces downward t h e distributor

be1 t will b e cut. Squeeze t h e timing be1t together as tightly as possible with one hand and at t h e s a m e time, remove t h e n u t on t o p of t h e distributor pulley with t h e o t h e r hand After t h e nut has been and a wrench. removed, slip t h e timing belt f r e e of t h e pulley. Disconnect t h e "kill" wire on t h e starboard side of t h e magneto.

GOOD NEWS
Do not worry about removing t h e timing belt or other items. No problem! Detailed timing procedures a r e presented l a t e r in this section. 4- Remove t h e two screws from t h e distributor advance arm. This is t h e a r m t h a t connects t h e distributor t o t h e tower shaft. Slip t h e "kill" wire f r e e of t h e "kill" switch. If this switch is a part of t h e

eblue-dist 2007

DISTRIBUTOR MAGNETO
system, i t is installed on t h e port side of t h e magneto. Remove t h e t h r e e bolts securing t h e magneto bracket t o t h e block. These 'bolts a r e located just a f t and t o t h e port side of t h e flywheel. Lift t h e distributor f r e e of t h e engine.

5- 15

SERVICING
5- Clean t h e exterior of t h e magneto using a wire brush, solvent, and compressed air, as required. NEVER submerge t h e magneto in solvent. Mount t h e magneto on a test block and slowly turn t h e pulley by hand. As t h e pulley is turned, check for any feeling of binding or rubbing. If a definite binding or rubbing is f e l t , no further testing is necessary. The magneto must b e disassembled because t h e bearings a r e bad1 y Do not worn and must b e replaced. confuse t h e "pull" due t o t h e magnetic field during rotation with binding or rubbing. 6- Hold t h e distributor a couple inches (5.0 c m ) above t h e surface of t h e bench. Now, hold t h e distributor pulley firmly with one hand and at t h e s a m e t i m e t a p t h e center rotor s h a f t with a soft- headed mallet. This action will "pull" t h e pulley from t h e shaft. If pulley fails t o come f r e e , a flywheel puller will have t o be installed. Use t h e t h r e e cover plate screws with t h e puller t o remove t h e pulley from t h e distributor shaft. 7- Remove t h e four screws securing t h e distributor cap. L i f t t h e c a p and gasket f r e e of t h e magneto assembly. 8- Pull t h e rotor f r e e of t h e distributor shaft.

eblue-dist 2007

5- 16

IGNITION

SPECIAL WORDS
Two different type rotors a r e used on Johnson/Evinrude engines. Both rotors appear very similar and both will f i t on t h e distributor shaft. HOWEVER, t h e rotor used with t h e magneto system has a wider metal surf ace on t h e end of t h e rotor than t h e o n e used on a b a t t e r y ignition system. If t h e wrong rotor is installed, t h e engine will never run satisfactorily at full power. The accompanying illustration nAm will b e helpful in distinguishing between t h e t w o rotors. When purchasing a n e w rotor, b e definite at t h e dealer parts counter as t o which unit t h e rotor is to b e installed. 9- If new bearings a r e t o be installed in t h e distributor base, remove t h e c a m , t h e n t h e key from t h e distributor shaft. A single key is used f o r t h e pulley and t h e cam. If t h e only work t o be done is t o replace t h e points, i t is NOT necessary t o remove t h e c a m and key.

GOOD WORDS
Take a f e w moments and notice t h e wire routing. You may e l e c t t o follow t h e pract i c e of many professional mechanics and t a k e a Polaroid-type picture of t h e w i r e connections as an aid during t h e installation

process. Notice how one wire extends f r o m t h e condenser t o t h e s e t of points closest t o t h e condenser, then a jumper wire connects t h a t set of points with t h e other set. Obs e r v e t h e "Kill" wire extending from t h e second set of points through t h e distributor p l a t e t o t h e "Kill" switch. 10- Disconnect t h e wire from t h e point sets and from t h e condenser. Notice how t h e wires a r e a t t a c h e d sideways and a r e tucked neatly d0wnwa1-d t o Prevent t h e m f ram rubbing on t h e belt pulley11- Using a pair of needle-nose pliers, remove t h e wire clips from both posts protruding through t h e c e n t e r of t h e point sets.

eblue-dist 2007

DlSTRiBUTOR MAGNETO

5- 17

12- Remove t h e screws securing t h e " point sets and t h e condenser. Notice t h a t t h e point setscrews have wavy washers and t h e condenser screw has a lockwas her. DONOT remove the adjusting screws through t h e point sets. Be sure t o s a v e t h e jumper wire between t h e t w o sets of points. 13- Slide t h e point s e t s up and f r e e of t h e posts.
-

how each of t h e fiber washers has a shoulder on t h e inside, reference illustration '8". The washers a r e installed with t h e shoulders fitting i n t o t h e hole. These shoulders keep t h e screw in t h e center of t h e hole through t h e housing and prevent i t from "shorting out" against t h e housing. 15- Remove the screw from each end of t h e coil. Observe t h a t me of t h e s c r e w s secures a ground wire from t h e coil.

GOOD NEWS If t h e only work t o be performed is t o replace t h e point sets and/or t h e condenser, further disassembly is not necessary. Proceed directly t o Step I following Cleaning and Inspecting. 14- Remove t h e small nut from t h e side of t h e coil housing. Save t h e fiber washer. Pull t h e bolt through t h e housing and save t h e fiber washer on t h e bolt inside t h e housing. These fiber washers prevent t h e bolt from grounding t o t h e housing. Notice

eblue-dist 2007

5- 1 8

IGNITION

16- Secure a good grip with a pair of needle-nose pliers onto one of t h e coil retainers, and then pull t h e retainer free. Remove t h e second retainer in a similar m anner 17- Pull on t h e coil and remove it. The coil may appear t o b e stuck, but i t is only t h e force of t h e magnets acting against t h e coil core.

View inside a mqqneto distributor cap showing the two springs which must be in place during installation. for proper operation.

CLEANING AND INSPECTING


Inspect all parts f o r wear or damage. Check t h e timing belt for cracks, cuts, o r other damage. Test t h e coil, condenser, rotor, end caps, high-tension leads, and breaker assemblies. Check t h e coil closely t o determine if t h e r e has been any leakage t o t h e uistributor housing. If in doubt as t o t h e integrity

of t h e coil, have i t checked at a shop o r replace i t with a new coil. Make a resistance test on t h e high-tension wires. The high-tension leads may b e removed. DO NOT a t t e m p t t o pull t h e high-tension leads from t h e distributor cap. These wires a r e screwed into t h e cap. F i r s t pull t h e rubber c a p back onto the hiphtension lead, and then unscrew t h e wire in a

Bottom side of a magneto distributor cap with the high-tens on leads threaded into place. The embossed spark plug lead numbers are clearly visible.
i

A coil removed from a magneto ignition system.

eblue-dist 2007

DISTRIBUTOR MAGNETO

5- 19

Rotors w e d with magneto ignition system ( l e f t ) ,and battery ignition (right). These rotors appear similar, but they do differ and are not interchangeable, as explained in the text.

\,

9"

COUNTERCLOCKWISE direction until t h e wire is free.

Damaged distributor drive belt. The inside surface should be checked frequently for evidence of damage, particularly broken or missing "teeth".

Leakage Paths The high-voltage surge of t h e secondary circuit may establish a path t o ground by a different route than across t h e spark plug gap. O n c e such a path is established, t h e spark will most likely continue t o jump across t h e ground. A surface leakage path can usually b e detected because of t h e burning a f f e c t t h e high-voltage spark has on t h e plastic insulating material. The condition causing t h e high-voltage spark t o s t r a y from its intended circuit must be corrected. Any repairs of t h e unit should b e performed very CAREFULLY, and should include discarding any insulating parts with evidence of high-volt a g e flashover.
Corrosion One cause of complete magneto failure is oxidation inside t h e unit. Such oxidation

is t h e result of continued high-vol t a g e arcing within t h e housing. Interior corrosion is easily d e t e c t e d by t h e green discoloration of A brownish t h e copper and brass parts. deposit is usually found throughout t h e unit, and sometimes evidence of moisture condensation may b e found. Oxidation may b e eliminated, if i t is d e t e c t e d in time, by removing t h e cause. Three common causes of oxidation inside a distributor m a g n e t o are: a spark g a p across a loose connection in t h e high-voltage circuit; carbon paths inside t h e magneto; and broken or sticking brush leads. Usually an oxidized distributor magneto can b e cleaned and returned t o satisfactory service. Examine t h e cam for wear. The cam s u r f a c e must b e smooth and f r e e of rough spots o r a n y indication of corrosion.

INSTALLATION
Coil 1- Lower t h e coil into t h e housing with t h e high-tension c e n t e r post of t h e coil UPWARD. Push t h e coil towards t h e rotor.

End of a spark plug high-tension lead showing the threaded end fitting and the cover boot.

Worn and corroded breaker points unfit for further service.

eblue-dist 2007

5-20

IGNITION

Exploded drawing of a magneto ignition system installed on the V 4 engines covered in this manual.

eblue-dist 2007

DISTRIBUTOR MAGNETO
1A Magneto & Bracket Assembly Complete Magneto Breaker plate Assembly Breaker Plate & Post Assembly Retainer -Screen Screen . Spacer Screen Breaker Assembly Complete Spring Clip Clip Eccentric Screw Screw Bracket Screw Screw Oiler Clip Oiler Wick Condenser Lead Assembly Ring Terminal Grommet Lead Assembly Ring Terminal Bow Washer Nut Lockwasher Washer Screw Cover Pulley Screw Lockwasher Screw Lockwasher Key Screw Cam Stop Washer Washer Magneto Bracket & Bearing Assembly Bumper Screw Link Bow Washer Washer Magneto Housing & Sleeve Assembly Screen Spacer Retainer Spring Screw Screw Insulating Bushing Inner Insulating Bushing Outer Nut Sleeve - Link to Magneto Coil Assembly Terminal Terminal Bearing Assembly Magneto Shaft -

5-21

.. .. . . .. . .. . . . .

. . .. .. . .. .

. .

. .

84 85

Lamination Assy. Washer Washer Bearing Support Screw Screw Rotor Assembly Spring Gasket Distributor Cap & Screen Assembly Brush & Spring Assembly Retainer Screen . Spacer Lockwasher Screw Lead Assembly Complete - Spark Plug . Lead (Only) Spark Plug . Nipple Terminal Spark Plug Terminal Assembly Safety Switch Screw Nut Sleeve No. 1 and 3 Spark Plug Leads Insulator Screw Washer

. . .

. .

The magnetic pull of t h e pulley magnets acting on t h e coil c o r e will hold t h e coil in t h e proper position. Work t h e primary and ground wires up alongside t h e coil to permit installation of t h e coil retainers. 2- Slip t h e two coil retainers down alongside t h e coil, and then align t h e retainer screw holes with t h e holes in t h e housing. 3- Install t h e two screws through t h e coil retainers into t h e housing. REMEMBER one of t h e s e screws secures t h e ground wire. Tighten t h e screws securely against t h e retainers.

eblue-dist 2007

5-22

IGNITION

4- Place t h e screw through t h e primary wire, and then slip t h e fiber washer o n t o t h e screw s o t h e washer shoulder, illustration 'C", will enter t h e hole in t h e housing first. Insert t h e screw through t h e fiber washer and housing. Hold t h e screw in place and slip t h e other fiber washer onto t h e s c r e w with t h e shoulder of t h e washer indexed into t h e hole in t h e housing. This arrangement, properly installed, will keep t h e screw in t h e center of t h e hole and prevent i t f r o m "shorting out" against t h e housing. Slide t h e m e t a l washer onto t h e screw, then t h r e a d t h e nut on and tighten it securely. Check t o b e sure t h e primary wire is tucked down o u t of t h e way.
Distributor 5- Place t h e rotor onto t h e distributor s h a f t and snap i t down into place. Check t o b e sure t h e proper rotor with t h e wide t i p is being installed, as described during t h e disassembly procedures. 6- Thread t h e spark plug high-tension leads i n t o t h e c a p (if t h e y were removed). The cylinder numbers a r e embossed on t h e c a p at each hole. The correct lead must b e threaded into t h e proper opening in t h e c a p or t h e engine will not operate. Thread t h e lead CLOCKWISE into t h e cap. Slide t h e rubber caps i n t o place on t h e distributor cap. Check t o be e x t r a sure each wire is threaded i n t o t h e proper hole in t h e cap. The c a p has numbers stamped into t h e material near each hole and t h e high-tension

leads have a t a g with a n identifying number. 7- Place a NEW gasket onto t h e housing. Install t h e distributor c a p and secure i t in place with t h e four attaching screws. Tighten t h e screws ALTERNATELY t o prevent warping t h e c a p or putting i t under a s t r a i n which could develop into 'a crack at a l a t e r date.

eblue-dist 2007

DISTRIBUTOR MAGNETO

5-23

Cam Wick The c a m wick should be replaced each t i m e a point set is installed or a f t e r every 100 hours of engine operation. The c a m wick is es p eciall y lubricated and requires no further lubrication. Any additional lubrication would shorten breaker point life. 8- Install t h e c a m wick. 9- Install t h e condenser i n t o t h e recess in the breaker plate and secure it in place with t h e screw and lockwasher.
GOOD WORDS All V 4 engines covered in this Section use t h e s a m e set of points ( P a r t No. 580390) and t h e s a m e condenser (Part No* 580256)* The points MUST be as are instal'ed* One side of each point

set has t h e base and is non-moveable. T h e other side of t h e set has a moveable arm. A small *re clip and a f l a t retainer a r e included in each point s e t package. NEVER touch t h e breaker point c o n t a c t s u r f a c e s with your fingers. Such action will deposit an oily residue on t h e c o n t a c t s u r f a c e s which will reduce t h e amount of current conducted through t h e points a n t o premature pitting.
Point Set 10- Hold t h e base side of t h e points and t h e f l a t retainer. Notice how t h e base has a bar at right angle t o t h e points. Q t h e hole in t h e bar. Observe t h e f l a t retainer. Notice t h a t one side has a slight indentation. When t h e points a r e installed, this indentation will slip into t h e hole in t h e base bar. 11- Hold t h e base side of t h e points and slide i t down over t h e anchor breaker plate. Install t h e wavy washer and hold-down screw t o s e c u r e t h e point base t o the breaker date. Tighten the hold-down " screw securely.

eblue-dist 2007

5-24

IGNITION

12- Hold t h e moveable arm and slide t h e points down over t h e post, and at t h e s a m e time, hold back on t h e points and work t h e spring arm t o t h e inside of t h e post of t h e base points. Continue t o work t h e points on down into t h e base. Observe t h e points. The points should be together and t h e spring part of t h e moveable arm on t h e inside of t h e f l a t post. 13- Install t h e f l a t retainer onto t h e f l a t bar of t h e base points. Check t o be s u r e t h e f l a t spring from t h e other side of t h e points is on t h e inside of t h e retainer. Push t h e retainer inward until t h e indentation slips The retainer into t h e hole in t h e base. MUST b e horizontal with t h e breaker plate. 14- Install t h e wire clip into t h e groove of t h e post. Repeat Steps No. 10 t h r u 14 f o r t h e second set of points. 15- Connect t h e condenser wire, primary wire, and one end of t h e jumper w i r e

t o t h e set of points closest t o t h e condenser. Connect t h e other end of t h e jumper wire t o t h e second set of points. Connect t h e "Kill" switch wire t o t h e second set of points. After all connections have been made, check t o be sure all wires a r e neatly tucked down and s a f e from being rubbed by t h e pulley as i t rotates.

GOOD WORDS Point spring tension is set at t h e f a c t o r y and does not require adjustment a f t e r t h e In point set has been properly installed. most cases, t h e contact points do not require alignment. Should t h e occasion arise and t h e contact points need alignment, CAREFULLY bend only t h e insulated p a r t of t h e breaker set t o achieve satisfactory alignment.

eblue-dist 2007

DISTRIBUTOR MAGNETO

5-25

Breaker Point Adjustment Two methods a r e available f o r s e t t i n g t h e breaker points, a s outlined in Steps 16 and 17. Follow either procedure t o adjust t h e points. GOOD WORDS Check t o b e sure t h e holddown screw with t h e wavy washer is tight. This s c r e w must be tight BEFORE t h e adjustment is made. If t h e screw is tightened a f t e r t h e adjustment, in most cases, t h e adjustment will be disturbed as t h e screw is rotated. First Method 16- Use a feeler gauge and adjust t h e points when t h e c a m is at t h e "highest" point. This is a n effective procedure, especially when i t is necessary t o m a k e a n adjustment away from t h e shop. With a f e e l e r gauge, adjust t h e points at 0.020" (0.52 mm). A wire gauge will permit a more a c c u r a t e setting than t h e blade-t ype. Second M e t hod 17- An a l t e r n a t e and much more accurate method of setting t h e points is accomplished in t h e shop and requires t h e use of special equipment. First, mo$ify a n old magneto pulley by cutting a 90 section out just t o t h e side of t h e timing mark. C u t o u t t h e section t o t h e hub. 18- Insert a small piece of cardboard between t h e set of points t h a t is not being adjusted. Remove t h e screw from t h e condenser t o t h e base plate, and then insulate t h e condenser from t h e housing by inserting a piece of paper between t h e condenser a n d t h e base plate. Next, install t h e modified pulley onto t h e distributor shaft. R o t a t e

t h e distributor shaft until t h e timing mark on t h e pulley is aligned with t h e first m a r k on t h e side of t h e magneto base. Now, o n e set of points is visible through t h e c u t o u t section.

GOOD WORDS Check t o b e sure t h e holddown screw with t h e wavy washer is tight. This s c r e w must be tight BEFORE t h e adjustment is made. If t h e screw is tightened a f t e r t h e adjustment, in most cases t h e adjustment will b e disturbed as t h e screw is rotated. 19- Connect a continuity m e t e r or an ohmmeter t o one side of t h e point set t o b e adjusted and t h e o t h e r side of t h e m e t e r t o a good ground on t h e distributor housing. With t h e mark on t h e pulley aligned with t h e mark on t h e distributor base, adjust t h e

eblue-dist 2007

5-26

IGNITION

points until they just close and t h e light comes on or t h e m e t e r indicates continuity. From this position, keep an e y e on t h e needle or t h e light and SLOWLY turn t h e point adjusting screw in t h e opposite direction until t h e light or t h e m e t e r indicates a broken circuit. This is it! The f i r s t set of points is properly adjusted. 20- Remove t h e piece of cardboard f r o m t h e second set of points and insert i t between t h e points of t h e set just adjusted. R o t a t e t h e distributor s h a f t until t h e second set of points is visible through t h e c u t out section and t h e mark on t h e pulley is aligned with t h e mark on t h e distributor base. Connect t h e continuity m e t e r or t h e o h m m e t e r and repeat the procedure until t h e second set of points is properly adjusted.

Remove t h e test equipment and t h e piece of cardboard f r o m underneath t h e condenser and from between t h e point set. Secure t h e condenser t o t h e breaker plate.

Distributor Installation 21- Place t h e distibutor in position on t h e engine and s e c u r e it with t h e t h r e e attaching bolts. Bring t h e bolts up just SNUG, at this time, t o allow adjustment of t h e distributor belt. 22- Slide t h e engine magneto pulley onto t h e distributor shaft with t h e keyway indexed over t h e key. Install a f l a t washer, then a lockwasher onto t h e shaft, and then t h r e a d on t h e pulley nut. Tighten t h e pulley nut.

eblue-dist 2007

DISTRIBUTOR MAGNETO
23- Connect t h e primary and key switch wires t o t h e starboard side of t h e distributor housing. Tighten t h e nut securely. 24- Connect t h e "Kill" switch wire t o t h e switch mounted on t h e distributor, if one is used.

5-27

5-7 DISTRIBUTOR BELT REPLACEMENT MAGNETO IGNllION


If t h e distributor belt is worn, frayed, o r requires replacement f o r any reason, i t should b e replaced as soon as possible.

GOOD WORDS Usually, a distributor belt breaks because t h e engine is o u t of time. Now, ask yourself t h e question: "What caused t h e engine t o jump out of time?" Possibly a broken flywheel key or t h e key in t h e distributor shaft has sheared. Should either of t h e s e conditions happen, t h e engine will backfire breaking t h e belt. Therefore, t h e necessity of verifying t h e engine is properly timed with t h e No. 1 cylinder at TDC when a new be1 t is installed. ENGINE MISTIMED If an engine is o u t of time, t h e r e must b e a good reason. 1- Check t o determine if t h e Woodruff k e y is broken or damaged. The Woodruff key is t h e most essential i t e m in t h e timing operation. To check t h e key, r o t a t e t h e flywheel CLOCKWISE until t h e No. 1 cylinder is at t o p dead c e n t e r (TDC). In t h e accompanying illustration, t h e head has been removed f o r photographic clarity t o show t h e piston at TDC. Insert a small

screwdriver i n t o t h e No. 1 spark plug opening. The piston should be f e l t as being at top dead c e n t e r (TDC). 2- Observe t h e flywheel timing mark. The mark on t h e flywheel must b e aligned with t h e embossed mark on t h e w a t e r cover jacket. If t h e marks a r e not aligned and t h e No. 1 cylinder is verified as being at TDC, t h e Woodruff key is most likely broken. Remove t h e flywheel using a proper flywheel puller and install a new Woodruff key. 3- If the be1t requires replacement, simply c u t i t free. No loss. To install a new belt, f i r s t remove t h e hand s t a r t e r . Remove t h e t h r e e screws securing t h e plate t o t h e t o p of t h e distributor pulley. Notice how

eblue-dist 2007

5-28

IGNITION

t h e plate has a bevelled edge facing u p w x d . The plate must be installed with t h e bevel facing upward. If t h e bevel f a c e s downward t h e distributor belt will b e cut. Work t h e belt around t h e flywheel and onto t h e pulley under t h e flywheel.

GOOD WORDS Two tasks must now b e accomplished. The engine must b e in t i m e and t h e distributor must be adjusted in t i m e with t h e engine. The flywheel will first b e set t o bring t h e cylinders t o t h e proper position and then t h e distributor will b e timed t o provide t h e necessary current t o ignite t h e fuellair mixt u r e in t h e proper cylinder at precisely t h e proper instant. Either t h e flywheel or t h e flywheel prot e c t o r will have definite marks as an aid t o timing t h e engine. The flywheel mark may b e just above or below t h e ring gear, or in s o m e cases, t h e r e may b e a red mark between t h e t e e t h on t h e ring gear. A matching mark may be visible 06 i h e port side of t h e hand s t a r t e r bracket. On all engines a water cover jacket is installed on t o p of t h e powerhead. A mark is embossed on t h i s cover.

et. T h e No. 1 (top starboard bank) is now in t h e firing position and t h e engine block is considered tim ed.

Flywheel Alignrnent
4- R o t a t e t h e flywheel CLOCKWISE until t h e mark on t h e flywheel is aligned with t h e embossed mark on t h e water cover jack-

Distributor to Engine Timing Timing t h e distributor t o t h e engine is not an easy task. Therefore, patience and attention to detail is absolutely necessary t o complete t h e task for maximum engine perform ance.

eblue-dist 2007

DISTRIBUTOR MAGNETO

5-29

CRITICAL WORDS M)NOT use t h e marks on t h e distributor base t h a t were used t o adjust t h e points. - - - -0 These marks a r e of no concern when timine t h e distributor with t h e engine. 5- R o t a t e t h e distributor pulley until t h e boss mark on t h e pulley is aligned with c u t o u t mark on t h e distributor base plate. This c u t o u t is at approximately t h e 9 o'clock position of t h e distributor base plate when viewed f r o m t h e top of t h e engine. T h e c u t o u t is just a bit hard t o see, but i t is underneath t h e bracket t o t h e powerhead. SPECIAL WORDS If t h e distributor has a s t a r t e r c u t o u t switch mounted on t h e side of t h e distributor, bring t h e pulley mark t o t h e c e n t e r of t h e switch plunger, as shown in illustration

6- Hold t h e pulley in this position and slip t h e belt over t h e pulley and into place. 7- Pull back on t h e distributor and tighten t h e t h r e e mounting bolts.

Be1t Check 8- The distance between two sides of t h e belt should be 4" (10.16 cm). The belt tension is c o r r e c t when t h e two halves of t h e belt can be brought together with finger: pressure to 3-518" (9.21 c m ) t o 3-11/16"

"m D

eblue-dist 2007

(9.37 cm). If t h e adjustment is not correct, keep t h e pulley from turning; loosen t h e t h r e e distributor mounting bolts slightly, make t h e adjustment, and then tighten t h e mounting bolts securely. Again, check t h e tension. 9- Place t h e distributor cover on t o p of t h e distributor with t h e flanges of t h e p l a t e facing UPWARD. Secure t h e cover in place with t h e t h r e e screws. 10- Install t h e spark plugs i n t o t h e openings and tighten them t o t h e torque value given in t h e Appendix. Connect t h e proper high-tension leads t o t h e spark plugs. 11- Insert t h e spark plug high-tension leads back into t h e holder on t h e head with t h e rubber bushings in place. Check t o b e s u r e No. 1 and No. 3 wires a r e on t h e starboard side and No. 2 and No. 4 wires a r e on

eblue-dist 2007

BATTERY DISTRIBUTOR

5-3 1

12- Mount the engine in a large t e s t tank or body of water and check t h e completed work. The engine MUST b e mounted in a l a r g e test tank or body of water to adjust t h e timing. NEVER a t t e m p t t o make this adjustment with a flush attachment connected t o t h e lower unit or in a small confined test tank. The no-load condition on t h e propell e r would cause t h e engine t o RUNAWAY, resulting in serious damage or destruction of t h e unit. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is r m to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. To synchronize t h e 50 hp -- 1958 and 1959 engines, s e e Section 5-25. To synchronize all other engines covered in this section, see Section 5-26.

BEFORE studying this b a t t e r y distributor ignition system. The principle of induction f o r sparking purposes is alike in both t h e magneto and b a t t e r y systems e x c e p t t h a t in a b a t t e r y ignition system, t h e source of primary current is t h e storage b a t t e r y while in t h e magneto system t h e magneto generates i t s own primary current t o make i t a self contained system. Standard established maint e n a n c e procedures f o r both systems of ignition a r e basically alike. The low- voltage current of t h e ignition system is carried by t h e primary circuits. P a r t s of each primary circuit include t h e ignition switch, and a double set of c o n t a c t points, coils, condensers, and resistor wire. The secondary circuit carries t h e highvoltage surges from t h e ignition coil which result in a high-voltage spark between t h e electrodes of each spark plug. Each secondary circuit includes t h e secondary winding of each coil, coil- to-distributor high-tension lead, distributor rotor and cap, ignition cables, and t h e spark piugs. Electrical Flow The following paragraphs describe, in detail, t h e electrical flow through t h e primary and secondary circuits for one bank of two cylinders. The flow is identical f o r t h e o t h e r bank. When one set of c o n t a c t points i s closed and t h e ignition switch is on, current from t h e battery, o r from t h e alternator, flows through t h e primary winding of t h e coil, through t h e c o n t a c t points t o ground. The current flowing through t h e primary winding of t h e coil c r e a t e s a magnetic field around t h e coil windings and energy is stored in t h e coil. Now, when t h e c o n t a c t points a r e opened by rotation of t h e distributor cam, t h e prim a r y circuit is broken. The current att e m p t s t o surge across t h e gap as t h e points begin t o open, but t h e condenser absorbs t h e current. In so doing, -the condenser c r e a t e s a sharp break in t h e current flow and a rapid collapse of t h e magnetic field in t h e coii. This sudden change in t h e strength of t h e magnetic field causes a voltage t o b e induce d in each turn of t h e secondary windings in t h e coil. The ratio of secondary windings t o t h e primary windings in t h e coil increases t h e voltage to about 20,000 volts. This high voltage travels through a cable t o t h e cen-

5-8 TYPE I1 IGNITION DISTRIBUTOR BATTERY 75 HP - 1961 to 1965 80 HP - 1966 and 1967 90 HP - 1964 and 1965 100 HP - 1966
DESCRIPTION The b a t t e r y ignition system used on all V 4 engines has a alternator included as a n necessary component. It would be well worth t h e t i m e spent t o read and understand t h e information presented at t h e beginning of this chapter, Sections 5-1 t h r u 5-3, covering t h e condenser, points, wiring harness, key switch, a n d other generail aspects of an ignition system

eblue-dist 2007

5-32

IGNITION
required t o ignite t h e compressed air-fuel mixture in t h e cylinder. The entire electrical build-up, break down, and transfer of voltage is repeated as e a c h l o b e of t h e distributor c a m passes t h e rubbing block on t h e contact breaker a r m , causing t h e c o n t a c t points t o open and close. When t h e engine is operating at a high rpm rate, t h e number of times this

t e r of t h e distributor cap, through t h e rotor t o an adjacent distributor c a p c o n t a c t point, and then on through one of t h e ignition wires t o a spark plug. When t h e high-voltage surge reaches t h e spark plug i t jumps t h e gap between t h e insulated c e n t e r electrode and t h e grounded side electrode. This high voltage jump across t h e electrodes produces t h e energy

A = CYLINDERS 2 8 4 B = CYLINDERS 1 8 3

NEGATIVE BAlTERY CABLE

-.
-

POSITIVE BATTERY CABLE

RED

Functional diagram of a battery ignition system with component parts identified.

eblue-dist 2007

BATTERY DISTRIBUTOR
sequence of action t a k e s place is staggering. All b a t t e r y ignition systems use t h e s a m e set of points ( P a r t No. 580290) and t h e s a m e condenser (Part No. 580256).

5-33

Breaker Assembly The breaker assembly, illustration "A", consists of two s e t s of P a r t No. 580290. Each P a r t No. package includes t w o sets of primary breaker goints connected in parallel and spaced at 90 ; a two-lobed breaker c a m which is keyed t o t h e rotor shaft; and a condenser. The lobes of t h e c a m a r e spaced I 80' apart. With t h e engine running at 4,000 rprn, 16,000 power impulses occur every minute. Therefore, 16,000 spark impulses a r e required t o fire t h e compressed charges in each of t h e four cylinders. Two sets of breaker points in parallel and spaced at 90 a r e a c t u a t e d by t h e t w o lobed breaker cam. This arrangement equalizes t h e individual breaker point "load". Each set of breaker points share half t h e load by operating or breaking 8,000 t i m e s per minute or twice t h e engine running speed to f i r e just two cylinders. The o t h e r set of points f i r e s t h e other t w o cylinders. A check of t h e schematic wiring diagram in this section will assist in understanding how this is accomplished. Looking at i t another way, a single set of breaker points operating on a four-lobed c a m would b e required t o interrupt t h e primary circuit 16,000 times per minute, if t h e engine w e r e running at 4,000 rpm, t o f i r e t h e four cylinders. With t h e double breaker installation spaced at 90, t h e contour of t h e two-lobed

breaker c a m has been calibrated t o permit both sets of points t o remain open simul taneously f o r short intervals, but never closed simultaneously. The breaker points thus alternately m a k e and break t h e primary circuit t o share t h e load. The breaker base and point assemblies may appear t o be the s a m e as those installe d in t h e flywheel magneto system but t h e y a r e NOT interchangeable. The difference is in t h e mounting base. The diameter of t h e breaker point f a c e has been increased t o 3/16" (4.76 m m ) t o prolong i t s a c t i v e life. Condenser The condenser (Part No. 580256) is of conventional design and construction, shunted or bridged across t h e breaker points. The condenser prevents excessive arcing between t h e operating breaker points and t h e r e f o r e contributes significantly t o prolonging t h e active l i f e of t h e point set. Of m o r e importance, however, t h e condenser makes possible t h e surge of high voltage intensity required t o ignite t h e compressed fuel vapor charge in each cylinder. Resistor Wire As mentioned several times, this system utilizes a resistor wire, illustration 'Bm. This is t h e white l e a d with t h e red t r a c e r running from t h e positive post of t h e ignition coil t o t h e wiring harness of t h e motor assembly. On some l a t e r model units, this resistor wire is in the wiring harness from t h e engine t o t h e key switch. This wire is a definite length and must NEVER b e shortened. The following description of current flow is valid for each resistor wire.

eblue-dist 2007

Beginning at t h e key switch, current flows t o t h e resistor wire and then t o t h e positive side of t h e coil. When t h e resistor wire is cold, i t s resistance is approximately 1.0 ohm. As t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e resistor wire rises, t h e resistance of t h e wire increases in a definite proportion. While t h e engine is operating at idle o r slow speed, t h e c a m on t h e distributor s h a f t revolves at a relatively slow rate. Therefore, t h e breaker points remain closed f o r a slightly longer period of time. Because t h e points remain closed longer, more current i s allowed t o flow. This current flow heats t h e resistor wire and increases its resistance t o c u t down on current flow. This current reduction minimizes burning of t h e c o n t a c t points. During high rpm engine operation, t h e reduced current flow allows t h e resistor wire t o cool enough t o reduce resistance, thus increasing t h e current flow and effectiveness of t h e ignition system f o r highspeed performance. The voltage drops about 25% during engine cranking due t o t h e heavy current demands of t h e starter. These demands reduce t h e voltage available f o r t h e ignition system.

In brief, if an automobile coil with an internal resistor is used, t h e resistor wire on t h e outboard must b e disconnected. If t h e coil uses an outside resistor -- no problem -proceed as if i t were a marine coil.

5-9 TROUBLESHOOTING 75 HP - 1961 to 1965 80 HP - I966 and 1967 90 HP - 1 4 and 1%5 % 100 HP - 1966
Always a t t e m p t t o proceed with t h e troubleshooting in an orderly manner. T h e shot gun approach will only result in wasted time, incorrect diagnosis, replacement of unnecessary parts, a n d frustration. Begin t h e ignition system troubleshooting with t h e spark plugs and continue through t h e system until t h e source of trouble is located.

GOOD WORD
If t h e coil appears t o have a very short life and requires replacement at s h o r t intervals, t h e cause is almost always with t h e resistor wire. Someone has removed it, t h e wire has become disconnected, o r is defective and not a b l e t o perform i t s job. When replacing a coil, illustration "C", m a k e every a t t e m p t t o use a marine replacement. If an automobile t y p e coil is installed, it should b e t h e type requiring a n outside resistor. If t h e coil has a built-in resistor and t h e marine f a c t o r y resistor wire is used, obviously t o o much resistance would b e in t h e system.

Spark Plugs I Check t h e plug wires t o be sure t h e y a r e properly connected. Check t h e e n t i r e length of t h e wires from t h e plugs t o t h e distributor. If t h e wire is t o b e removed from t h e spark plug, ALWAYS use a pulling and twisting motion as a precaution against damaging t h e connection. The distributor c a p has numbers embossed on t h e outside

eblue-dist 2007

BATTERY DISTRIBUTOR
surface. The proper high-tension l e a d must b e installed i n t o t h e proper opening in t h e c a p or t h e engine will not operate. The high-tension leads a r e threaded i n t o t h e distributor c a p openings. If t h e leads must b e removed, r o t a t e each lead COUNTERCLOCKWISE until t h e l e a d is free. During installation, t h e lead must b e threaded i n t o t h e c a p CLOCKWISE. 2- A t t e m p t t o remove t h e spark plugs by hand. This is a rough test t o determine if t h e plug i s tightened properly. You should not b e a b l e t o remove t h e plug without using t h e proper socket size tool. Remove t h e spark plugs and keep t h e m in order. Examine each plug and evaluate i t s condition as described in Section 5-2. A conclusive spark plug: test should aiways be performed with t h e spark plugs installed. A plug may indicate satisfactory spark when i t is removed and tested, but may fail when tested under compression. An example would be t h e possibility of a person being able t o jump a given distance on t h e ground, but if a strong wind is blowing, his distance may be reduced by half. The s a m e is t r u e with t h e spark plug. Under good compression in t h e cylinder, t h e spark may b e t o o weak to ignite t h e fuel proper1y.

5-35

Therefore, t o test t h e spark plug under compression, replace i t in t h e engine and tighten it t o t h e proper torque value. Another reason f o r testing f o r spark with t h e plugs installed is t o duplicate actual operating conditions regarding flywheel speed. If t h e flywheel is rotated with t h e pull cord with t h e plugs removed, t h e flywheel will r o t a t e much f a s t e r because of t h e no-compression condition in t h e cylinder, giving t h e FALSE indication of satisfactory spark. A spark t e s t e r capable of testing for spark while cranking and also while t h e engine is operating, can be purchased from any automotive o r marine parts outlet. The modest c o s t for such a tool i s well worth t h e investment. 3- Use a spark t e s t e r and check f o r spark at each cylinder. If a spark t e s t e r i s not available, hold t h e plug wire about 114" (6.35 mm) from t h e engine with a pair of insulated pliers.

S A F E N WORDS Never forget, this ignition system will generate approximately 20,000 volts t o t h e spark plugs. Therefore, TAKE CARE when h a n d i n g t h e high-tension leads during troubleshooting or replacement work.
R o t a t e t h e flywheel with a pull s t a r t e r or electrical s t a r t e r and check for spark. A

eblue-dist 2007

5-36

IGNITION
water. For unknown reasons, many operators have t h e misconception t h a t running a n engine f o r a short period of t i m e without t h e lower unit submerged in water, can b e done without harm. FALSE! Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump and an overheating condition. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump.

strong spark over a wide gap must b e observed when testing in this manner, because under compression a strong spark is necessary in order t o ignite t h e air-fuel mixture in t h e cylinder. This means i t is possible t o think you have a strong spark, when in reality t h e spark will be too weak when t h e plug is installed. If t h e r e is no spark, o r if t h e spark is weak, t h e trouble is most likely in t h e distributor, switch box, ballast resistor, key switch, or coils.

Checking Compression
Compression A compression check is extremely important, because an engine with low or uneven compression between cylinders CANNOT b e tuned t o o p e r a t e satisfactorily. Therefore, i t is essential t h a t any cornpression problem be corrected before proceeding with t h e tune-up procedure. See Chapter 3. If t h e powerhead shows any indication of overheating, such as discolored or scorched paint, especially in t h e a r e a of t h e t o p (No. 1) cylinder, inspect t h e cylinders visually thru t h e transfer ports f o r possible scoring. A more thorough inspection can b e made if t h e heads a r e removed. It is possible for a cylinder with satisfactory compression t o b e scored slightly. Also, check t h e w a t e r pump. The overheating condition may b e caused by a faulty water pump. An overheating condition may also b e caused by running t h e engine out of t h e
4- Remove t h e spark plug wires. ALWAYS grasp t h e molded c a p and pull i t loose with a twisting motion t o prevent damage t o t h e connection. Remove t h e spark plugs and keep t h e m in ORDER by cylinder for evaluation later. Ground t h e spark plug leads t o t h e engine to render t h e ignition system inoperable while performing t h e compression check.

SAFETY WORD The spark plug leads a r e grounded as a s a f e t y measure and t o prolong coil life. By grounding t h e leads t h e current has a path t o follow without creating a spark. Any amount of fuel in or on t h e engine, even t h e fumes from under t h e cowling, c r e a t e s a dangerous fire hazard. By eliminating t h e spark, t h e chances of igniting any fuel o r fuel vapors is drastically reduced.
Insert a compression gauge into t h e No. 1, (top starboard bank) spark plug opening. Crank t h e engine with t h e s t a r t e r , o r pull on t h e s t a r t e r cord, through at l e a s t 4 complete piston strokes with t h e t h r o t t l e at t h e wide-open position, o r until t h e highest possible reading is observed on t h e gauge. Record t h e reading. R e p e a t t h e test and record t h e compression for each cylinder. A variation between cylinders is f a r m o r e important than t h e actual readings. A variation of more than 5 psi between cylinders indicates t h e lower compression cylinder may b e defective. The problem may b e worn, broken, or sticking piston rings, scored pistons or worn cylinders. These problems may only b e determined a f t e r t h e head has been removed. Removing t h e head on an outboard engine is not t h a t big a deal, and may save many hours of frustration and t h e cost of purchasing unnecessary parts t o c o r r e c t a faulty condition.

eblue-dist 2007

BATTERY DISTRIBUTOR
In most cases, under normal operating conditions of a V4 engine, t h e No. 4 cylinder usually causes problems before t h e other three. You ask, "Why is this so?" No man, including f a c t o r y engineers a r e able t o give a logical and scientific answer. So b e it! If an overheating condition exists, t h e No. 1 cylinder suffers t h e most.
5-10 SERVICING

5-37

t o service t h e distributor including instructions to replace, adjust, and synchronize t h e double set of contact points. Replacement of t h e distributor drive belt is also covered.

REMOVAL
1 Disconnect t h e b a t t e r y leads from t h e b a t t e r y terminals. Remove t h e spark plug wires. Use a pulling and twisting motion as a precaution against damaging t h e connections. Release t h e high-tension l e a d s t o t h e distributor by opening t h e retainers on each head. These retainers a r e split on t h e side and by using a pair of pliers t h e y may be bent slightly t o f a c i l i t a t e removal. Take c a r e not t o lose t h e rubber bushings from inside t h e retainers. Notice how each bushing has a groove on t h e inside t o allow i t t o seat properly in t h e retainer. 2- Remove and examine each spark plug as an aid in determining how each cylinder has been operating. Check t h e electrodes carefully. A bent electrode is a n indication of a faulty wrist pin in t h a t piston assembly. If a compression check has not been made, as described earlier in this chapter, perform a check on each cylinder at this time. Correcting conditions in t h e ignition system will

BATTERY DISTRIBUTOR IGNITION SYSTEM 75 HP - 1961 to 1965 80 HP - 1966 and 1967 90 HP - 1964 and 1965
100 HP - 1966

WORDS OF ADVICE It would b e well worth t h e t i m e spent t o read and understand t h e information presented at t h e beginning of this chapter, Sections 5-1 thru 5-3, covering t h e condenser, points, wiring harness, key switch, and other general aspects of an ignition system and t h e information presented in Section 5-8 BEFORE working on this ignition system.
This section contains detailed instructions t o service t h e b a t t e r y ignition system. The procedures include t h e necessary s t e p s

eblue-dist 2007

5-38

IGNITION

NOT restore t h e engine t o satisfactory performance if t h e compression is weak in o n e cylinder or uneven between t h e four. 3- Remove t h e t h r e e screws securing t h e distributor c a p t o t h e distributor housing, and t h e n l i f t t h e c a p free. GOOD WORDS After t h e c a p is removed, t a k e t i m e t o notice t h e four posts extending up from t h e breaker point base. The purpose of t h e s e posts is t o allow t h e high voltage current in t h e distributor, t h a t normally ignites t h e fuellair mixture in t h e cylinder, t o jump t o t h e post if t h e spark plug wire should become disconnected from t h e spark plug while t h e engine is operating. Providing a path for this released current prevents dama g e t o expensive parts in t h e ignition syst e m , such as t h e coil. SPECIAL WORDS Two different type rotors a r e used on Johnson/Evinrude engines. Both rotors appear very similar and both will f i t on t h e distributor shaft. HOWEVER, t h e rotor used with t h e magneto system has a wider metal surf ace on t h e end of t h e rotor than t h e one used on a b a t t e r y ignition system. If t h e wrong rotor is installed, t h e engine will never run satisfactorily at full power. The accompanying illustration "An, will be helpful in distinguishing between t h e t w o rotors. When purchasing a new rotor, b e definite at t h e dealer parts counter as t o which unit t h e rotor is to b e installed. 4- Remove t h e rotor from t h e distributor shaft. 5- Disconnect t h e wire from t h e point sets and from t h e condenser. Notice how t h e wires a r e attached sideways and a r e

eblue-dist 2007

BATTERY DISTRIBUTOR

5-39

Rotors used with magneto ignition system flef t), and battery ignition (right). These rotors appear similar, but they do differ and are not interchangeable, as explained in the text.

CLEANING AND INSPECTING

tucked neatly downward t o prevent t h e m from rubbing on t h e belt pulley. 6- Using a pair of needle-nose pliers, remove t h e wire clips f rom both posts protruding through t h e center of t h e point sets.

7- Remove t h e screws securing t h e point sets and t h e condenser. Notice t h a t t h e point set screws have wavy washers and t h e condenser screw has a lockwasher. Remove DO NOT t h e point s e t s and condenser. remove t h e adjusting screws through t h e point sets. Be sure t o save t h e jumper w i r e between t h e two sets of points. Slide t h e point sets up and f r e e of t h e posts.

Inspect all p a r t s f o r wear or damage. Check t h e timing belt for cracks, cuts, o r other damage. To replace t h e belt, s e e Test the coil, condenser, Section 5-11. rotor, end caps, high-tension leads, and breaker assemblies. Check t h e coil closely t o determine if t h e r e has been any leakage t o t h e coil mounting bracket. If in doubt as t o t h e integrity of t h e coil have i t checked at a shop or replace i t with a new coil. Make a resistance test on t h e high-tension wires. The high-tension leads may b e removed. DO NOT a t t e m p t t o pull t h e high-tension leads from t h e distributor cap. These wires a r e screwed i n t o t h e cap. First pull t h e rubber c a p back onto the hightension lead, and then unscrew t h e wire in a counterclockwise direction until t h e wire is free. Check t h e c e n t e r a r e a of t h e distributor c a p t o be sure t h e brush and t h e spring a r e in good condition and seated properly in t h e c a p recess. In some c a s e s t h e - brush and spring a r e missing (they were not installed during t h e last service work).

Battery ignition distributor ready for installation. The small spring and carbon cylinder must be in place for proper operation.

eblue-dist 2007

5-40

IGNITION

Worn and corroded breaker points unfit for further service.

Leakage Paths The high-voltage surge of t h e secondary circuit may establish a path t o ground by a different route than across t h e spark plug gap. O n c e such a path is established, t h e spark will most likely continue t o jump across t h e ground. A surface leakage path can usually b e detected because of t h e burning e f f e c t t h e high-voltage spark has on t h e plastic insulating material. The condition causing t h e high-voltage spark t o s t r a y from its intende d circuit must be corrected. Any repairs of t h e unit should b e performed very CAREFULLY, and should include discarding any insulating parts with evidence of high-volta g e flashover.

Spark plug fitting being installed in the high-tension lea& The prong must pierce the wire in the center to ensure a good connection, as shown in the illustration at the bottom of this column. A drop of saliva inside the boot will assist in working the boot over the fitting until the terminal is centered in the spark plug opening.

easily d e t e c t e d by t h e green discoloration of A brownish t h e copper and brass parts. deposit is usually found throughout t h e unit, and sometimes evidence of moisture condensation may b e found. Oxidation may b e eliminated, if i t is d e t e c t e d in time, by removing t h e cause. Three common causes of oxidation inside a distributor are: a spark gap across a loose connection in t h e highvoltage circuit; carbon paths inside t h e distributor cap; and, broken or sticking brush 1eads.

Corrosion One cause of complete failure is oxidation inside t h e unit. Such oxidation is t h e result of continued high-vol t a g e arcing within t h e housing. Interior corrosion is

Overhaul Usually an oxidized distributor can be cleaned and returned t o satisfactory service. Check t h e c a m t o be sure i t is smooth without evidence of roughness or corrosion. If t h e c a m is not in excellent condition it should b e replaced.

Battery ignition distributor cap with the spark plug high-tension lead numbers embossed at each terminal point. Notice the threaded end fitting of the lower right lead. These leads MUST be rotated during removal and installation.

Diagram to show proper installation of a spark plug terminal fitting to the high-tension lead. See Caption for illustration at the head of this column.

eblue-dist 2007

BATTERY DISTRIBUTOR

5-4 1

1854

Exploded drawing of a battery ignition system installed on the V 4 engines covered in this manual.

eblue-dist 2007

5-42

IGNITION

INSTALLATION Breaker Cam First These Words An oil- impregnated breaker actuating c a m with double lobes is used on all V 4 b a t t e r y ignition systems. Both t h e lobes on t h e cam a r e identical. The c a m has t w o keyways machined on t h e inside t o t i m e t h e cam t o t h e distributor s h a f t and t o dampen c a m vibration. A Woodruff key is used for timing t o t h e s h a f t and a d e t e n t spring i s used t o dampen vibration S F t h e two cam keyways a r e exactly 180 a p a r t and since each keyway is in e x a c t relationship t o t h e s a m e degree of cam angle with e i t h e r lobe, i t is permissible t o install either keyway over t h e Woodruff key -- providing t h e side of t h e c a m marked TOP is facing upward. 1- Install t h e c a m (if i t was removed) t o t h e distributor shaft with t h e c a m aligned with t h e Woodruff key and t h e detent spring. When both a r e aligned, push t h e c a m against t h e distributor s h a f t nut. The cam wick should b e replaced e a c h t i m e a point set is installed o r a f t e r e v e r y 100 hours of engine operation. A new c a m wick is included in t h e new point set package. The wick is pre- lubricated and requires no further lubrication. Any additional lubrication would shorten breaker point life. Install t h e c a m wick. Install t h e condenser i n t o t h e recess in t h e breaker plate and secure i t in place with t h e screw and lockwas her.

Breaker Point Installation GOOD WORDS All V 4 engines covered in this Section use t h e s a m e set of points, illustration fBn (Part No. 580390) and t h e s a m e condenser ( P a r t No. 580256). The points MUST b e assembled as they a r e installed. One side of each point set has t h e base and is nonmoveable. The other side of t h e set has a moveable arm. A small wire clip and a f l a t retainer a r e included in each point set package. NEVER touch t h e breaker point contact surfaces with your fingers. Such action will deposit an oily residue on t h e c o n t a c t surfaces which will reduce t h e amount of current conducted through t h e points and will lead t o premature pitting. CRITICAL WORDS The position of t h e short connector lead attached between t h e t w o sets of points i s of e x t r e m e importance during bresker m i n t

eblue-dist 2007

BATTERY DISTRIBUTOR
installation. This lead must bend around t h e breaker post, as shown in t h e accompanying illustration. DO NOT allow t h e lead t o route over t h e t o p of t h e breaker post. Such routing will cause t h e No. 4 cylinder t o misfire. 2- Hold t h e base side of t h e points and t h e f l a t retainer. Notice how t h e base has a bar at right angle t o t h e points. Observe t h e hole in t h e bar. Observe t h e f l a t retainer. Notice t h a t one side has a slight indentation. When t h e points a r e installed, this indentation will slip into t h e hole in t h e base bar. Hold t h e base side of t h e points and slide i t down over t h e anchor pin onto t h e breaker plate. Install t h e wavy washer and hold-down screw t o secure t h e point base t o t h e breaker plate. Tighten t h e holddown screw securely. 3- Hold t h e moveable a r m and slide t h e points down over t h e post, and at t h e s a m e time, hold back on t h e points and work t h e spring arm t o t h e inside of t h e post of t h e base points. Continue t o work t h e points on down i n t o t h e base. Observe t h e points. The points should be together and t h e spring part of t h e moveable arm should be on t h e inside of t h e f l a t post. 4- Install t h e f l a t retainer onto t h e f l a t bar of t h e base points. Check t o b e s u r e t h e f l a t spring from t h e other side of t h e points is on t h e inside of t h e retainer. Push t h e retainer inward until the indentation slips i n t o t h e hole in t h e base. The retainer MUST b e horizontal with t h e breaker plate. 5- Install t h e wire clip i n t o t h e groove of t h e ~ o s t .

5-43

Repeat Steps No. 2 thru 5 f o r t h e second set of points. 6- Connect t h e condenser wire and one end of t h e jumper wire t o t h e set of points closest t o t h e condenser. Connect t h e o t h e r end of t h e jumper wire and t h e primary wire After all t o the second set of points. connections have been made, check to b e sure all wires are neatly tucked down and s a f e from being rubbed by t h e rotor a s i t rotates.
GOOD WORDS Point spring tension is set at t h e f a c t o r y and does not require adjustment a f t e r t h e point set has been properly installed. In most cases, t h e contact points do not require ali g nment. Should t h e occasion arise

eblue-dist 2007

5-44

IGNITION

and t h e contact points need alignment, CAREFULLY bend only t h e insulated p a r t of t h e breaker set t o achieve satisfactory alignment.

Breaker Point Adjustment Two methods a r e available f o r s e t t i n g t h e breaker points, as outlined in Steps 7 and 8. Follow either procedure t o adjust t h e points. CRITICAL WORDS When adjusting ignition breaker points, ALWAYS r o t a t e t h e distributor pulley in t h e normal operating direction by turning t h e engine flywheel CLOCKWISE (when viewed from above t h e engine) If t h e flywheel should b e turned in t h e wrong direction, t h e water pump in t h e lower unit would b e damaged. MORE GOOD WORDS Check t o be sure t h e hold down screw with t h e wavy washer is tight. This s c r e w must be tight BEFORE t h e adjustment is made. If t h e screw is tightened a f t e r t h e adjustment, in most cases the adjustment will be disturbed as t h e screw is rotated. The belt has been removed for t h e next two steps ONLY for photographic clarity. T h e blet need NOT b e removed t o make t h e adjustment. First Method 7- R o t a t e t h e flywheel CLOCKWISE until t h e point set heel is on t h e highest p a r t of t h e cam, and then use a feeler gauge and

adjust t h e points. This is an e f f e c t i v e procedure, especially when i t is necessary t o m a k e an adjustment away from t h e shop. With a feeler gauge, adjust the points at 0.020" (0.52 mm). A wire gauge will p e r m i t a more a c c u r a t e setting than t h e bladetype. R e p e a t t h e procedure f o r t h e second set of points. Now, r o t a t e t h e flywheel a couple complete turns, and then check t h e point gap setting.

Second Met hod 8- A much more a c c u r a t e method than using either of t h e feeler gauges in t h e first method, is t o use a continuity m e t e r a n d t h e t h r e e timing marks. Observe t h e two raised

eblue-dist 2007

BATTERY DISTRIBUTOR
marks on t h e distributor housing 90' a p a r t and t h e timing mark on t h e distributor pulley. Disconnect t h e primary lead on the coil and remove t h e condenser hold down screw. DO NOT disconnect t h e lead from t h e point set. Lay t h e condenser on a piece of cardboard. Slide a piece of cardboard between t h e points of t h e s e t identified a s "BVV in t h e accompanying illustration. The purpose of t h e cardboard is t o prevent met e r current flow t o ground through t h e points. 9- Connect a continuity light or an ohmmeter t o one side of t h e point s e t , identified a s "AtVand t h e other side of t h e m e t e r t o a good ground on t h e engine. R o t a t e the flywheel CLOCKWISE until t h e distributor pulley timing mark is aligned with t h e mark identified a s "AtV on t h e casting of t h e distributor base. Adjust t h e points until they just close and the light comes on or t h e m e t e r indicates continuity. From this position, keep an e y e on t h e needle or t h e light and SLOWLY turn t h e point adjusting screw in t h e opposite direction until t h e light or t h e m e t e r indicates a broken circuit. This is it! The first set of points is properly adjusted. 10- Remove t h e piece of cardboard from point s e t "Bn and insert i t between t h e points of t h e s e t "AtV. To adjust t h e second point s e t , first r o t a t e t h e flywheel CLOCKWISE until t h e timing mark on t h e distributor pulley is aligned with t h e mark "B". Connect the continuity light or ohmmeter t o t h e second set of points "BrV

5-45

and repeat t h e procedure until t h e second set of points is properly adjusted. 11- Remove t h e test equipment and piece of carboard from t h e point set. Install t h e condenser. Secure t h e condenser in t h e recess with t h e hold down screw and lockwasher. Connect t h e primary lead t o t h e coil

SPECIAL WORDS Two different type rotors, illustration "Cn a r e used on Johnson/Evinrude engines. Both rotors appear very similar and both will f i t on t h e distributor shaft. HOWEVER, t h e rotor used with t h e magneto system has a wider metal s u r f a c e on t h e end of t h e rotor than t h e one used on a b a t t e r y ignition

eblue-dist 2007

5-46

IGNITION

system. If t h e wrong rotor is installed, t h e engine will never run satisfactorily at full power. The accompanying illustrations will b e helpful in distinguishing between t h e t w o rotors. When purchasing a new rotor, b e definite at t h e dealer parts counter as t o whicn unit t h e rotor is t o b e installed. 12- Slide t h e distributor rotor into place on t h e distributor shaft. 13- Screw t h e spark plug high-tension leads into t h e c a p (if they were removed). Slide t h e rubber caps into place on t h e distributor cap. Check t o b e e x t r a s u r e each wire is threaded into t h e proper hole in t h e c a m The caD has numbers stamped i n t o t h e m i t e r i a l near each hole and t h e hightension leads have a t a g with an identifying number. 14- Install t h e distributor c a p onto t h e distributor housing with t h e brush and brush spring properly centered in t h e cap. Secure t h e c a p in place with t h e t h r e e retaining screws.

5-1 1 BELT REPLACEMENT AND TIMING BATTERY DISTRIBUTOR IGNITION 75 HP - 1961 to 1965 80 HP - 1966 and 1967 90 HP - 1964 and 1965 100 HP - 1966 and 1967

ENGINE MISTIMED If an engine is o u t of time, t h e r e must b e a good reason* First, check t o determine if t h e flywheel Woodruff key Is broken or damaged. This key is t h e most essential i t e m in t h e timing operation. To check t h e key, r o t a t e t h e flywheel CLOCKWISE until t h e No. 1 cylinder is at to^ dead c e n t e r (TDC). Observe the flywheei timing mark. The mark on t h e

eblue-dist 2007

BATTERY DISTRIBUTOR
flywheel must be aligned with t h e arrow on t h e flywheel ring gear guard. If t h e marks a r e not aligned and t h e No. 1 cylinder is verified as being at TDC, t h e Woodruff key is most likely broken. Of course, t h e flywheel must b e removed t o replace t h e Woodruff key. Second, t h e Woodruff key on t h e distributor drive shaft may b e broken. Replacem e n t of this key is covered in this section. Third, t h e timing be1t may b e stripped or damaged with a f e w t e e t h missing on t h e inside of t h e belt. Replacement of t h e distributor timing belt is covered in t h i s section. REMOVAL If t h e be1 t is being replaced because i t is broken, O R if t h e belt is worn and unfit f o r further service, t h e following s t e p s a r e not necessary to remove t h e belt. If t h e belt is broken, naturally i t does not have t o be removed. If i t is worn, simply c u t i t free. HOWEVER, if t h e belt is being removed in order t o accomplish other tasks, then all steps MUST b e performed in t h e order given. 1- Remove t h e high-tension lead f r o m t h e center of t h e coil by f i r s t pulling t h e rubber boot back, and then pulling t h e l e a d f r e e of t h e coil. Remove t h e coil from t h e flywheel guard. Disconnect t h e a1t e r n a t o r leads from t h e flywheel guard where t h e diodes a r e located (if diodes a r e used). Remove t h e flywheel guard from t h e engine.

5-47

2- Remove t h e distributor c a p retaining screws, and then l i f t t h e c a p f r e e of t h e distributor. 3- Slide t h e rotor up and f r e e of t h e distributor shaft. Remove t h e two s c r e w s securing t h e breaker plate t o t h e distributor housing. CAREFULLY lift t h e plate f r o m t h e housing. Work t h e heels of t h e point set f r e e of t h e cam. D O NOT remove t h e breaker point c a m from t h e distributor shaft. 4- Loosen t h e t h r e e distributor bracket bolts and push t h e distributor towards t h e crankshaft t o relieve tension on t h e belt. Bring one bracket bolt up snug, and t h e n l i f t t h e drive be1 t f r e e of t h e distributor pulley.

eblue-dist 2007

5-48

IGNITION

5- R e m o v e t h e flywheel cover. 6- Position a flywheel holder wrench ove r t h e flywheel ring gear t o prevent t h e flywheel from turning.
CRITICAL WORDS NEVER a t t e m p t t o hold t h e flywheel f r o m turning by placing a screwdriver o r o t h e r object between t h e flywheel ring t e e t h and t h e Bendix assembly of t h e s t a r t e r motor. Such p r a c t i c e will surely c a u s e d a m a g e and misalignment of t h e s t a r t e r motor pinion gear or t o t h e engine block. An expensive mistake just t o s a v e t h e troubl e of securing t h e flywheel properly t o remove t h e f l y w h e d nut. Hold firm on t h e flwheel wrench a n d remove t h e flywheel nut. Obtain an approved OMC flywheel puller t h a t lases t h r e e puller screws. A t t a c h t h e puller with t h e f l a t side facing UP. Install t h e puller screws i n t o t h e holes normally used f o r t h e cover p l a t e screws. Take up on t h e puller c e n t e r s c r e w and at t h e s a m e t i m e have an assistant l i f t up on t h e f l y w h e d rim and s t r i k e a s h a r p blow o r t w o against t h e c e n t e r screw with a rnediurn-sized hammer. This combination of e f f o r t s should unseat t h e flywheel from t h e crankshaft taper. If this action fails on t h e f i r s t t r y , r e p e a t t h e procedure until t h e dl yw heel is unseated. Slide t h e drive belt f r e e of t h e flywheel. L i f t t h e flywheel from t h e crankshaft. TAKE CARE n o t t o snag t h e s t a t o r windings with t h e flywheel a s it is removed.

7- Uncouple t h e s t a t o r e l e c t r i c a l conn e c t o r on t h e starboard side of t h e engine. Remove t h e s t a t o r hold down bolts and lift t h e s t a t o r f r e e of t h e engine. 8- L i f t t h e distributor timing b e l t off of t h e engine. These procedures cover removal and installation of t h e b e l t in order t o accomplish other work. However, MOW is t h e t i m e t o check t h e condition of t h e b e l t and replace i t with a new one if t h e r e is any sign of wear.

eblue-dist 2007

BATTERY DlSTRIBUTOR

5-49

INSTALLATION
9- Lay t h e belt down around t h e cranks h a f t and into t h e recess of t h e upper bearing cap. The bearing c a p has a slight flange on t h e upper edge. The s t a t o r rests on t h i s flange. Two slots a r e provided at t h e back side of t h e bearing c a p t o permit t h e belt t o run through. 10- Lcwer t h e s t a t o r down t h e crankshaft with t h e holes in t h e s t a t o r plate indexed over t h e locating pins. C o a t the retaining bolts with Loctite, or equivalent material, and then install and tighten t h e bolts.
sound, i t is this tight f i t t h a t actually drives t h e flywheel during engine operation and NOT t h e Woodruff key. The key merely serves t o t i m e t h e flywheel t o t h e cranks h a f t so the ignition timing marks c a n b e used properly. F o r this reason t h e cranks h a f t taper and t h e inside flywheel taper MUST b e absolutely clean before t h e flywheel is installed. There can b e no t r a c e of grease and/or oil. Both tapers must b e DRY. 11- Check t o be sure t h e Woodruff key is properly positioned in t h e crankshaft. Lower t h e flywheel down t h e crankshaft and at t h e s a m e time, work t h e belt towards t h e outside perimeter of t h e upper bearing cap. Continue t o lower t h e flywheel and work t h e b e l t into t h e pulley on t h e underside of t h e flywheel. Install and tighten t h e flywheel nut t o a torque value s f 70 t o 85 footpounds (94.9 t o 115.2 N.m) using an a c c u r a t e torque wrench and a flywheel holder wrench. 12- Install t h e flywheel cover plate onto t h e flyhweel and secure i t in place with t h e t h r e e bolts.

READ AND BELIEVE Loctite, o r similar material, MUST b e used on t h e stator retaining bolts and t h e bolts tightened securely t o prevent engine vibration from causing them t o backout and c a t c h on t h e flywheel while t h e engine is running. VERY BAD NEWS! Destruction like you wouldn't believe. GOOD WORDS A very tight f i t is achieved between t h e flywheel and t h e crankshaft taper a f t e r t h e specified torque value tension is applied t o t h e flywheel nut. Surprising as i t may

eblue-dist 2007

5-50

IGNITION

SPECIAL WORDS After t h e proper torque value has been achieved, approximately one crankshaft thread will protrude above t h e t o p s u r f a c e of t h e flywheel nut. If one thread appears, t h e flywheel keyway is properly indexed over t h e Woodruff key. If no threads a r e protruding above t h e flywheel nut, remove t h e flywheel and align t h e flywheel keyway with t h e Woodruff key. DO NOT a t t e m p t t o o p e r a t e t h e engine unless t h e flywheel i s properly installed. 1 3 R o t a t e t h e flywheel CLOCKWISE until t h e red mark on t h e flywheel rim i s aligned with t h e mark on t h e a f t port side of t h e water jacket cover, identified as BELT TIMING.

WORD OF CAUTION TAKE CARE when working with t h e timing belt loose t o prevent i t from becoming caught between t h e flywheel and t h e bearing head flanges. A new belt can easily b e c u t or damaged during t h e installation and timing work. 14- R o t a t e t h e distributor pulley until t h e notch in t h e pulley is aligned with t h e mark on t h e distributor bracket. 15- Work t h e timing belt onto t h e distributor pulley. Hold t h e distributor pulley timing mark aligned with t h e bracket mark. 16- Loosen t h e distributor bracket screw and slide t h e distributor away from t h e crankshaft until both t h e distributor pulley and t h e flywheel pulley a r e engaged with t h e distributor belt. Take up on one bolt until i t is snug.

eblue-dist 2007

BATTERY DISTRIBUTOR

5-5 1

Belt Tensim

17- Adjust t h e distributor until t h e belt tension will allow 5/16" t o 3/8" (7.94 mm t o 9.53,mm) deflection with slight finger pressure. A f t e r t h e belt has been adjusted properly, tighten t h e t h r e e distributor brack e t bolts securely. 18- Place t h e breaker plate assembly into position in t h e distributor housing. TAKE CARE t o work t h e point a r m s o u t and around t h e cam. Install t h e two holddown screws. 19- Slide t h e rotor onto t h e distributor shaft.

eblue-dist 2007

5-52

IGNITION

20- Install t h e distributor c a p and secure i t in place with t h e t h r e e retaining screws. 21- Install t h e flywheel ring gear guard and secure i t in place with t h e attaching screws. Install t h e coil and t h e coil holding bracket. Connect t h e high-tension lead i n t o t h e c e n t e r of t h e coil. Timing Check 22- R o t a t e t h e flywheel CLOCKWISE until t h e red mark on t h e flywheel is aligned with t h e arrow on t h e flywheel ring gear guard marked BELT TIMING. 23- The notch in t h e distributor pulley must b e in e x a c t alignment with t h e m a r k on t h e distributor bracket. In t h e accompanying illustration, parts have been remove d for photographic clarity and t o show t h e notch. 24- Mount t h e engine in a l a r g e test tank or body of water and check t h e completed work. Synchronize t h e distributor and carburetor, s e e Section 5-26. The engine MUST b e mounted in a large test tank or body of water t o adjust t h e timing. NEVER a t t e m p t t o m a k e this adjustment with a flush a t t a c h m e n t connected t o t h e lower unit or in a small confined test tank. The no-load condition on t h e propell e r would cause t h e engine t o RUNAWAY resulting i n serious damage or destruction of t h e unit. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump.

eblue-dist 2007

CD WITH SENSOR
5- 12 TYPE ID IGNITION CAPACITOR DISCHARGE (CD) WITH SENSOR 100 HP - 1967,1968, a n d 1972 115 HP 1969 and 1970 125 HP 1971 and 1972

5-53

WORDS OF ADVICE I t would b e worth t h e t i m e t o read and understand t h e inform ation presented in Sections 5-1 thru 5-3 before starting troubleshooting or service work on t h e ignition system. GOOD WORDS This section covers t h e ignition system f o r t h e horsepower engines and model y e a r s listed in t h e heading. The Description and Principles of Operation paragraphs apply t o all engines. HOWEVER, s o m e of t h e troubles hooting procedures differ somewhat f o r e a c h horsepower. Theref ore, e a c h troubles hooting section will clearly indicate exactly what horsepower and model years t h e procedures cover. DESCRIPTION
This system consists of t h r e e major components: A pulse transformer, a sensor, and a n electronic pack. The pulse transformer replaces t h e conventional ignition coil. O n 1967 model ONLY, t h e sensor t h e 100 hp is installed inside t h e distributor and replaces t h e breaker points and condenser. On t h e other models, t h e sensor, rotor, and distributor c a p a r e installed under t h e flywheel. The electronic powerpack is completely sealed in epoxy and a t t a c h e d t o a bracket on t h e lower rear motor cover. Special surface gap spark plugs a r e used with this system. Principles o Operation f A transistorized converter s t e p s up t h e 12 volt DC b a t t e r y current t o 300 volts DC, and then stores it in an energy s t o r a g e capacitor located within t h e electronic pack. A triggering circuit senses t h e trigger wheel position and closes a n electronic switch. This transfers t h e 300 volt energy from t h e storage capacitor t o t h e pulse transformer where i t is boosted again, this t i m e t o 25,000 volts DC. This high voltage is transmitted t o t h e spark plugs through t h e high-tension leads. For this reason, NEVER hold a high-tension lead with your hand

while t h e engine is being cranked or running. Such action could result in severe electrical shock. Now, when t h e storage capacitor has discharged its energy at t h e spark plug gap, t h e electronic switch opens and t h e convert e r rechar ges t he storage capacitor. Service on this t y p e of system is limited t o detailed troubleshooting, and then replacing t h e faulty component.

SAFETY WORDS This system generates approximately 20,000 volts which is f e d t o t h e spark plugs. Therefore, perform each s t e p of t h e troubleshooting procedures exactly as presented as a precaution against personal injury.
The following s a f e t y precautions should ALWAYS b e observed: DO NOT a t t e m p t t o remove any of t h e potting in t h e back of t h e powerpack. Repair of t h e powerpack is impossible. DO NOT a t t e m p t t o remove t h e high tension leads from t h e ignition pulse transformer. DO NOT open or close any plug-in connectors, or a t t e m p t t o connect or disconn e c t any electrical leads while t h e engine is being cranked or is running. DO NOT set t h e timing advance any further than as specified. DO NOT hold a high tension lead with your hand while t h e engine is being cranked o r is running. Remember, t h e system can develop approximately 20,000 volts which will result in a severe shock if t h e high tension lead is held. ALWAYS use a pair of approved insulated pliers t o hold t h e leads. DO NOT a t t e m p t any tests e x c e p t t h o s e listed in this troubleshooting section. DO NOT connect an electric t a c h o m e t e r t o t h e system unless i t is a t y p e which has been approved f o r such use. DO NOT connect this system t o a n y volt a g e source other than given in this troubleshooting section.

--

5-13 GENERAL TROUBLESHOOTING 100 HP - 1967,1968, and 1972 115 HP - 1969 and 1970 125 HP - 1971 and 1972
The following trouble shooting procedures cover t h e t h r e e most common causes requiring service: The engine fails t o s t a r t ,

eblue-dist 2007

5-54

IGNITION
at t h e terminals; and b a t t e r y leads f r e e of any frayed areas, cracks or other damage.

t h e engine misses badly, or t h e unit lacks proper power -- performs poorly. Always a t t e m p t t o proceed with t h e troubleshooting i n an orderly manner. The shotgun approach will only result in wasted time, incorrect diagnosis, replacement of unnecessary parts, and frustration. Begin t h e ignition system troubleshooting with t h e spark plugs and continue through t h e system until t h e source of trouble is located. B a t t e r y Condition The battery, illustration "A", is one of t h e most important i t e m s in this or any C D ignition system. The b a t t e r y should b e rated at l e a s t 70 amps with good clean terminals and tight cable connections. Double check t h e b a t t e r y hookup. The red cable should be connected t o t h e positive b a t t e r y terminal and t h e black cable connected t o t h e negative terminal. The o t h e r end of t h e positive cable (red) should b e connected t o t h e s t a r t e r solenoid terminal. The other end of t h e negative cable (black) should be connected t o a good ground on t h e If a b a t t e r y should accidently b e engine. connected t o a C D system backwards (wrong polarity), t h e diodes in t h e charging system will b e damaged and t h e engine will fail t o start. The cranking syst'ern will function but t h e ignition system will NOT operate. Before spending t i m e troubleshooting t h e ignition system, check t h e complete b a t t e r y circuit to b e sure all a r e a s a r e in satisfact o r y condition: electrolyte level; b a t t e r y charge; d e a n terminals; tight connections

Powerpack Grounding The powerpack on t h e original engines listed in t h e heading of this section was grounded through t h e powerpack case and mounting bracket t o t h e powerhead. This method of grounding was not as satisfactory as expected. Therefore, a service bulletin was issued from t h e f a c t o r y t o install a No. 12 size flexible ground wire (OMC P a r t No. 376349) from one of t h e powerpack mounting screws to a bolt on t h e powerhead, B. illustration " " SPECIAL WORDS On t h e engines listed: If t h e engine continues t o run a f t e r t h e ignition key switch has been turned t o t h e OFF position, o r if t h e engine is turned off and t h e boat appears t o suddenly move forward, t h e shift diodes may be at fault. S e e Chapter 8 f o r complete testing and service of t h e shift diodes.

Spark Plugs I- Check t h e plug wires t o be sure t h e y a r e properly connected. Check t h e e n t i r e length of t h e high-tension leads from t h e spark plugs t o t h e distributor cap. If t h e wire is t o be removed from t h e spark plug, ALWAYS use a pulling and twisting motion

eblue-dist 2007

CD WITH SENSOR

5-55

as a precaution against damaging t h e connection. 2- A t t e m p t t o remove t h e spark plugs by hand. This is a rough test to d e t e r m i n e if t h e plug i s tightened properly. You should not be a b l e t o remove a plug without using t h e proper socket s i z e tool. Remove t h e spark plugs and keep t h e m in order. Exa m i n e each plug and evaluate i t s condition as described in s e c t i o n 5-2.

If t h e spark plugs have been removed a n d t h e problem cannot be determined, but e a c h plug a p p e a r s t o b e in s a t i s f a c t o r y condition, electrodes, etc., t h e n replace t h e plugs into t h e spark plug openings. A conclusive spark plug test should always b e performed with t h e spark plugs installed. A plug may indicate s a t i s f a c t o r y spark when i t is removed and t e s t e d , b u t under a compression condition, i t may fail. An example would b e t h e possibility of a person being able t o jump a given distance on t h e ground, but if a strong wind i s blowing, his distance may be reduced by half. T h e s a m e is t r u e with t h e spark plug. Under good compression in t h e cylinder, the spark m a y b e t o o weak t o ignite t h e fuel proper1 y. Therefore, t o test t h e spark plug under compression, replace i t in t h e engine a n d tighten i t t o t h e proper torque value. Another reason f o r testing f o r spark with t h e plugs installed is t o duplicate actual s p e r a t ing conditions regarding f l y w h e d speed. If t h e f l y w h e d is r o t a t e d with t h e pull cord with t h e plugs removed, t h e flywheel will r o t a t e much f a s t e r because of t h e no-compression condition in t h e cylinder, giving t h e FALSE indication of satisf a c t s r y spark. A spark t e s t e r capable of testing for spark while cranking and also while t h e engine is operating, c a n b e purchased from any automotive o r marine p a r t s outlet. The modest c o s t for such a tool i s well worth t h e investment.

eblue-dist 2007

5-!X

IGNITION
circulating through t h e lower unit f o r cooling. Bear-in-mind, t h e laws governing operation and damage t o a l a r g e unit, ALL apply equally as well t o t h e small engine.

3- Use a spark t e s t e r and -check f o r spark at each cylinder. If a spark t e s t e r i s not available, hold t h e plug wire with a pair of INSULATED pliers about 114" (6.35 mm) from t h e engine.

S A F E N WORDS
Approximately 20,000 volts is produced in t h e system and transmitted through t h e high-tension leads t o t h e spark plugs. For this reason, NEVER hold a high-tension l e a d with your hand while t h e engine is being cranked or running. Such action could result in severe electrical shock. R o t a t e t h e flywheel with a pull s t a r t e r or electrical s t a r t e r and check f o r spark. A strong spark over a wide gap must b e observed when testing i n this manner, because under compression a strong spark is necess a r y in order t o ignite t h e air-fuel mixture in t h e cylinder. This means i t is possible to think you have a strong spark, when in reality t h e spark will be too weak when t h e plug is installed. If t h e r e is no spark, o r if t h e spark is weak, proceed t o t h e troubleshooting section for t h e particular horsepower and model year engine being serviced.

Compression A compression check is extremely important, because an engine with low or uneven compression between cylinders CANNOT b e tuned t o o p e r a t e satisfactorily. Therefore, it is essential t h a t any compression problem be corrected before proceeding with t h e tune-up procedure. See C h a p t e r 3. If t h e powerhead shows any indication of overheating, such as discolored or scorched paint, especially-in t h e a r e a of t h e t o p (No. 1) cylinder, inspect t h e cylinders visually t h r u t h e transfer ports for possible scoring. A more thorough inspection can b e made if t h e head is removed. It is possible f o r a cylinder with satisfactory compression t o be scored slightly. Also, check t h e w a t e r pump. The overheating condition may b e caused by a faulty water pump. An overheating condition may also b e caused by running t h e engine o u t of t h e water. For unknown reasons, many operators have formed a bad habit of running a small engine without t h e lower unit being submerged. Such a practice will result in a n overheated condition in a m a t t e r of seconds. I t is interesting t o note, t h e s a m e operator would never o p e r a t e o r allow anyone e l s e t o run a large horsepower engine without w a t e r

Checking Compression 4- ~ G m o v et h e spark plug wires. ALWAYS grasp t h e molded c a p and pull it loose with a twisting motion t o prevent damage t o t h e connection. Remove t h e spark plugs and keep t h e m in ORDER by cylinder f o r evaluation later. Ground t h e spark plug l e a d s t o t h e engine t o render t h e ignition system inoperable while performing t h e compression check. Insert a compression gauge into t h e No. 1, (top, starboard bank) spark plug opening. Crank t h e engine with t h e s t a r t e r , o r pull on t h e s t a r t e r cord, through at l e a s t 4 complete piston strokes with t h e t h r o t t l e at t h e wide-open position, or until t h e highest possible reading is observed on t h e gauge. Record t h e reading. Repeat t h e test and record t h e compression f o r each cylinder. A variation between cylinders is f a r more important than t h e actual readings. A variation of m o r e t h a n 5 psi between cylinders indicates t h e lower compression cylinder may be defective. T h e problem may be worn, broken, o r sticking piston rings, scored pistons or worn cylinders. These problems may only b e determined a f t e r t h e head has been removed. Removing t h e head on a n outboard engine is not t h a t big a deal, and may s a v e many hours of frustration and t h e cost of purchasing unnecessary parts t o c o r r e c t a faulty condition.

eblue-dist 2007

TROUBLESHOOTING

5-57

Electrical Tests
The r e f e r e n c e numbers used in t h e testing procedures a r e m a t c h e d t o t h e numbers on t h e accompanying diagram on P a g e 5-59.

tion 5-12 a n d PERFORM t h e General Troubleshooting procedures t h a t apply t o all models, Section 5-13. The following t e s t numbers a r e m a t c h e d t o test numbers on t h e accompanying wire diagram as an assist in performing t h e work.

GOOD WORDS Perform t h e following troubleshooting procedures in t h e sequence presented. DO NOT skip a s t e p or add checks of your own. DO NOT a n t i c i p a t e what is t o be done next, just k e e p in s t e p with t h e procedures and t h e work will move smoothly and orderly. Only in this manner will t h e f a u l t y component b e discovered in t h e shortest t i m e and without frustration. Replacement of a f a u l t y component is covered in t h e Sections 5-17 and 5-18, following t h e Troubleshooting procedures. T h e following t e s t equipment is a MUST when troubleshooting t h i s system. Stating i t another way, "There is no way on this g r e e n e a r t h t o properly and a c c u r a t e l y test t h e c o m p l e t e system o r individual components without most of t h e special i t e m s listed."
Voltrneter (0 t o 50 volts) Voltrneter ( t o 500 volts) Ohmmeter DC A m m e t e r (0 t o 5 amps) Timing Light S-20 o r M-20 neon t e s t light. Neon spark t e s t e r

FIRST, THESE WORDS: Powerpack


The 100 h p engines have a powerpack and voltage suppressor installed original Now, if t h e equipment, illustration "A". powerpack is t o be replaced or if t h e pack w a s replaced s o m e t i m e in t h e past, t h e suppressor MUST be removed and discarded. In st her words, t h e engine will NOT perform properly (in some cases i t will not run a t d l ) if t h e voltage suppressor is not removed whew t h e new powerpack is installed. T h e e a r l y model power pack can easily b e identified by t h e horizontal c o d i n g ribs visible on t h e f r o n t of t h e pack.

Spark Plugs
Any t i m e a C P ignition system is serviced or trot~bleshooting procedures performed, t h e spark plugs MUST b e removed and t h e high-tension leads grounded. Grounding t h e l e a d s provides a p a t h fair t h e electrical energy t o follow when t h e engine i s being cranked dearinn tests. This simple procedure will, prevent a cylinder f r o m firing during a t e s t and will d s o prevent any fuel vapors around t h e powerhead f r o m being ignited during a test.
Model Difference The 100 hp -- 1967 model is equippet with a belt driven distributor. The 6968 model is equipped w i t h t h e same cornpowe n s , but t h e y a r e 311 installed under t h e fl ywheel.

CRITICAL WOR OS The troubleshooting procedures airesente d t h u s f a r in this section apply t o all engines and model years listed in t h e 5-13 heading. The following procedures apply only t o t h e horsepower and model year indicated at t h e beginning of each group of tests. THEREFORE, p e r f o m o d y t h o s e tests given f o r t h e particular engine being serviced. All other tests and procedures may b e ignored (skipped, f o r g e t they a r e even given).

5- l4 TROUBLESHOOTING 100 hp -- 1967 a d 1968


CRITICAL WORDS BEFORE s t a r t inn t h e f dlcawinp t r s u N e shooting procedures f o r this ignition system, TAKE TIME t o read and understand t h e system description at t h e beginning of Sec-

eblue-dist 2007

5-58

IGNITION
t o a good ground on t h e engine. C r a n k t h e engine and observe t h e reading. The voltm e t e r should indicate not less than 9.5 volts. If t h e reading is less t h a n 9.5 volts, c h e c k t h e condition of t h e battery. O n e other possibility is a d e f e c t i v e s t a r t e r motor drawing an excessive amount of c u r r e n t f r o m t h e battery. If t h e s t a r t e r m o t o r i s defective, conduct a "draw test" on t h e motor as described in C h a p t e r 6 .

ONE MORE WORD: If t h e engine being serviced has t h e old power pack, perform all of t h e f 011 owing steps. If t h e engine being serviced has t h e new powerpack installed, perform T e s t No. 1, then skip t o Test No. 4 and c a r r y on with t h e remainder of tests. Test No. 1 Voltage Test To Suppressor Turn t h e ignition switch t o t h e ON position. Connect a voltmeter into t h e circuit at t h e connector just before t h e voltage suppressor. The m e t e r should indicate 12volts. If voltage is not present, t h e ignition switch is faulty, o r t h e b a t t e r y i s not up t o a full charge. Test No. 2 Voltage Suppressor Check If v d t a g e was present in T e s t No. 1, connect t h e voltmeter into t h e c i r c u i t a f t e r t h e voltage suppressor. If voltage is not present, t h e v d t a p e suppressor must be checked. If v d t a g e is present, proceed directly t o Test No. 4. Test No. 3 Suppressor O h Check Cisconnect both Beads, o n e t o t h e key and t h e other t o t h e powerpack. C o n n e c t t h e ohmmeter t o t h e t w o leads. The m e t e r skacndc' indicate 8.5 ohms resistance on t h e low scale. If 0.5 o h m s is not indicated, replace t h e suppressor. If 8.5 ohms is indic a t e d , proceed with t h e testing. Careddy check t h e l e a d t h a t was connected to t h e powerpack. Turn t h e ignition switch t o t h e OFF position. Disconnect t h e lead csming o u t of t h e suppressor t o t h e poverpack. Connect t h e o h m m e t e r t o t h e r e d lead and t o a ground on t h e voltage suppressor. Check t h e m e t e r reading. Reverse t h e o h m m e t e r connections. The ohmm e t e r shcrule give a reaeinp when t h e l e a d s a r e connected o n e way Put NOT the o t h e r way. Hd there is no read,\np in either ddirect i m , or t h e r e is a readinp i n both ~ G r e c t i o n s , t h e voltape. suppressor i s definitely defect i v e and mt.anst bc asdaced. If t h e voltage supprcssot gasses the t e s t proceed with t h e
bestinsn.

Test No. 5 100 HP - 1%8 Only Vacuum Safety Switch Test This model unit has a vacuum switch mounted on t h e starboard side of t h e engine. A s t h e engine is cranked, t h i s switch closes and allows c u r r e n t t o pass through f r o m t h e key switch t o t h e voltage suppressor and t h e powerpack. The s a f e t y vacuum switch does not close and allow c u r r e n t t o pass t o t h e powerpack until t h e engine is cranked and vacuum pulls t h e switch in permitting c u r r e n t t o flow. This s a f e t y switch also prevents a hot engine f r o m s t a r t i n g if t h e key switch i s turned t o t h e ON position immediately a f t e r a shutdown. Such a c i r c u m s t a n c e could r e s u l t in a RUNAWAY engine o r boat. Connect a v o l t m e t e r t o t h e output side of t h e vacuum switch and t o a good ground on t h e engine. Crank t h e engine and obs e r v e t h e voltmeter reading. The m e t e r should indicate not less t h a n 9.5 volts. If t h e reading i s less than 9.5 volts, c o n n e c t t h e vol t m e t e r t o t h e input side of t h e s w i t c h andl again observe t h e reading. If t h e reading is 9.5 v d t s o r more, t h e vacuum switch i s d e f e c t i v e md must be replaced. Test No. 6 Powerpack Output S e t t h e voltrneter t o t h e 500 volt scale. If t h e v o l t m e t e r i s n o t available, a spark t e s t e r may b e used for this test. T h e t e s t e r will flash indicating powerpack output. Disconnect t h e green wire f r o m t h e pulse transformer. Connect t h e r e d test l e a d t o t h e green wire running t o t h e powerpack. Connect t h e black test l e a d t o ground. C r a n k t h e engine m d observe t h e m e t e r reading. T h e m e t e r should i n d i c a t e 250 volts or more. If t h e m e t e r f d l s short, t h e indication is an i n t e r m i t t e n t s h o r t in t h e power pack. A s a t i s f a c t o r y m e t e r reading indicates a good ~ o w e r p a c k . The problem is most likely i n t h e pulse transformer.

Test No. 4 Voltage Test Connect a v d t n e t c r prcbe into t h e red leas' ts t he powerpack an? t h e other probe

eblue-dist 2007

TROUBLESHOOTING

5-59

C-D TEST METER

"A"
55

S80 OR M80 TESTER

Functional diagram of a CD ignition system with sensor t o be used with the tests on Pages 5-58, 60, & 61.

eblue-dist 2007

5-60

IGNITION
pulse transformer. C o n n e c t t h e blue wire from t h e neon t e s t e r (S-80 o r M-80 ) t o t h e green wire disconnected Prom t h e pulse transformer. C o n n e c t t h e o t h e r t e s t lead t o a good ground. Crank t h e engine and observe t h e light. If t h e light i s strong and bright, t h e powerpack i s a c c e p t a b l e for service and t h e problem is in t h e pulse transformer. If t h e light i s weak o r fails t o c o m e on, e i t h e r t h e powerpack or t h e sensor is defective. To check t h e sensor, proceed with T e s t No. 9.

Test No. 7 Intermittent Miss Engine Running Connect t h e green wire back t o t h e pulse transformer. Connect t h e red test l e a d t o t h e pulse transforrner terminal where t h e green wire is connected. Leave t h e black l e a d connected t o ground. S t a r t t h e engine and allow it t o warm t o operating t e m p e r a t ure. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower mit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. Advance t h e t h r o t t l e until i t begins t o misfire and observe t h e voltmeter. The m e t e r reading should not waver, but should 8 increase t o 3 ~ volts. If t h e m e t e r needle does waver, and i n t e r m i t t e n t short i s indic a t e d in t h e powerpack. If t h e v o l t m e t e r i s s a t i s f a c t o r y , a s a f e assumption is t h a t t h e powerpack is suitable f o r service. If t h e r e i s no w e t e r reading while t h e engine was cranked, or if t h e engine f a d s to s t a r t , ~ r o c e e cw i t h t h e testing in t h e next para~ graph.

Test No. 9 Pulse Transf orrner Output and Sensor Check 100 hp - 1 967
Connect o n e side of a spark t e s t e r t o t h e high-tension lead coming o u t of t h e pulse transformer and t h e o t h e r side of t h e t e s t e r t o a good ground. If a spark t e s t e r is not available, u s e a pair of insulated pliers and hold t h e high-tension l e a d about 112" (12.7 mm) f r o m t h e engine block. Remove t h e distributor c a p and r o t a t e t h e flywheel until t h e rotor is parallel with t h e sensor. Slide a f e e l e r gauge between t h e rotor and t h e sensor. A spark should be observed a t t h e spark t e s t e r or between t h e high-tension l e a d and t h e engine Mock. If a spark i s not observed, remove t h e blue wires f r o m t h e sensor md momentarily ground them. Each t i m e t h e blue wires a r e grounded a spark should be observed at t h e t e s t e r or between t h e high-tension lead and t h e engine block. If no spark is observed t h e pulse transformer is d e f e c t i v e and must be replaced.

100 HP - 1967
Remove t h e c%sPrithutor c a p and r o t a t e the c!Bsfrib~tor until t h e flat e d g e of t h e rotor is nardie! w i t h t h e sevsor.

100 Hip - 4 968 Connec? a jurrper wlre ts bypass t h e vacuurr switch. If t h c flyv~l-eel, s t a t o r , f i i s t r i h ~ t s r cap, and i- tor have not been rerroved, r m o v e then- at this time. Disconnect t h e ~ V J O - ~ ~ wires f r o m t h e sensor. CE

Test No. 10 Sensor Circuit 1967 M d e l I?emw.e t h e d i s t r i b u t ~ rc a p and connect an o h r n ~ e t e r o t h e terminals of t h e sensor. t S e t t h e o h m w e f e r t o t h e low scale. The w e t e r sboulc' i n d i c a t e 4.Q t o 6.8 o h r s . If t h e rea8ing is r o t within t h e required range, t h e sensor is 8 e f e c t i v e and must be replaced.
The s e r s o r on this model may be checked visually. Fernove t h e s e x o r and check i t tbosougkily for cracks t h a t wsul? allow t h e [!nit t o short o u t t o ground.

100 hp - 8968 If t h e fl y v l k e l , s t a t o r , 3istrikwtor cap, a d rotor have not heen removec", r e w o v e then- a t t h i s time. F'iscomect t h e blue wires from t b e sersor m ( r ~ * o m e ~ t a r i l y C

eblue-dist 2007

TROUBLESHOOTING
ground them to t h e engine block. Each t i m e t h e y a r e grounded t h e spark t e s t e r should indicate a strong spark. If no spark is observed, t h e pulse transformer is defective and must be replaced. Sensor C i r c u i t 1%8 Model Disconnect the two blue wires at t h e sensor. Connect an ohmmeter t o e a c h lead from the sensor. Set t h e ohmmeter t o t h e low scale. The ohmmeter should indicate 4.0 t o 6.0 ohms. If t h e reading is not within t h e required range, t h e sensor is defective and must be replaced. Set t h e ohmmeter t o t h e high ohm scale. Connect one m e t e r Iead t o t h e sensor lead and t h e other lead t o a good ground on t h e engine. Advance and r e t r a c t t h e t h r o t t l e t o shift the anti- reverse spring t o and from ground. The ohmmeter should read at l e a s t 100,000 ohms. With t h e meter still connected, work t h e wires back-and-forth f o r indication of a ground condition. Sensor Replacement All Models When t h e sensor is replaced, t h e a i r gap between t h e rotor and t h e sensor must b e adjusted t o 0.028" (7.1 mm). GOOD WORDS F O R 1968 MODEL ONLY The blue wires from t h e powerpack a r e routed onto an arm on t h e sensor base plate. The wires a r e then routed into a groove on t h e underside of t h e base plate and held i n place with a retainer and screw. Where t h e wires a r e held by t h e retainer is a common source of problems -- t h e wires may be grounded, The base plate should be removed and t h e wires checked for a grounded condition. S e e Section 5-17 t o remove a n d install components. T e s t No. 11 Amperage Input to Powerpack Check The engine MUST b e mounted in a l a r g e test tank or body of water t o check t h e amperage input t o t h e powerpack. NEVER a t t e m p t t o make this check with a flush a t t a c h m e n t connected t o t h e lower unit o r The no-load i n a small confined test tank. condition on t h e propeller would cause t h e engine t o RUNAWAY resulting in serious damage or destruction of t h e unit. CAUTION: Water must c i r c u l a t e through t h e lower unit t o t h e engine any t i m e t h e engine is run to prevent damage to t h e w a t e r

5-6 1

pump i n t h e lower unit. J u s t five seconds without w a t e r will d a m a g e t h e w a t e r pump. Connect a low reading DC a m p m e t e r (0 t o 5 amps) in series between t h e key switch and t h e powerpack. S t a r t t h e engine and allow i t t o warm t o operating t e m p e r a t u r e at 500 rpm. With t h e engine operating at idle speed, t h e m e t e r should indicate .4 amp t o .6 amp. A t high rpm, t h e meter should hold steady and not exceed 2.75 amps. If t h e m e t e r reading is not within t h e s e limits, t h e powerpack is defective (drawing excessive amperage) and must b e replaced.

- 1967 a n d 1968 If the powerpack is t o b e replaced, t h e voltage suppressor will not b e used. Conn e c t t h e lead from t h e key switch directly t o t h e powerpack bypassing t h e voltage suppressor. In other words, if t h e powerpack is to be replaced, t h e voltage suppressor is n o t used with t h e new pack and can b e removed and discarded. An old powerpack has ribs on t h e front side while t h e newer unit is smooth. Restore t h e system t o i t s original condition by removing all test equipment and making the necessary connections. To remove t h e flywheel and necessary parts t o replace an ignition component, see Section 5-17 or 5-18, depending on t h e engine being serviced. To synchronize t h e engine, see Section 5-26 or 5-28. To t i m e t h e engine, see Section 5-34 or 5-35.
800 h p

5-15 TROUBLESHOOTING 115 h p - 1969 and 1970


CFUTICAL WORDS BEFORE starting t h e following troubleshooting procedures f o r this ignition system, TAKE TIME t o read and understand t h e system description at t h e beginning of Section 5-12 a n d PERFORM t h e General Troubleshooting procedures t h a t apply t o all models, Section 5-13. The following troubleshooting procedures cover t h e t h r e e most common causes requiring service: t h e engine fails t o s t a r t , t h e engine misses badly, or t h e unit lacks proper power -- performs poorly. Always a t t e m p t t o proceed with t h e troubleshooting i n an orderly manner. The

eblue-dist 2007

5-62

IGNITION

shotgun approach will only result in wasted time, incorrect diagnosis, replacement of unnecessary parts, and frustration. Begin t h e ignition system troubleshooting with t h e spark plugs and continue through t h e system until t h e source of trouble is located. If t h e s a f e t y switch fails t o close and allow current t o pass t o t h e powerpack, several sources may be at fault: t h e s a f e t y switch circuit, rectifier , shift diodes, s t a t o r , tachometer (if one is installed), or t h e flywheel magnets. The flywheel magnets usually do not cause problems unless t h e y become corroded, o r foreign particles become a t t a c h e d t o them.

GOOD WORDS
Ignition Safety Switch 115 hp - 1969 a n d 1970 This s a f e t y switch is installed between t h e key switch and t h e powerpack. The switch does not close and allow current t o pass t o t h e powerpack until t h e alternator is rotating and creating current. This s a f e t y switch also prevents a hot engine from accidently starting if t h e key switch is turned t o t h e ON position immediately a f t e r a shutdown. Such a circumstance could result in a RUNAWAY engine or boat. Test No. 2 Safety Switch Leakage T e s t Remove t h e lead f r o m No. 7 post at t h e engine terminal board. Connect owe lead of a test light t o t h e wire leading t o t h e s a f e t y switch. Connect t h e other lead t o a good ground on t h e engine. Turn t h e ignition switch t o t h e ON position. The t e s t light should c o m e on (glow). Disconnect t h e wires from No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, and No. 4 posts at t h e terrnind board. If t h e light continues t o glow a f t e r t h e wires have been disconnected, t R s a f e t y switch is c'cfe s t i v e e and must be replaced. If t h e light goes out when t h e wires are d i s c o w ~ e c t e d st t h y terminal txard, t h e shift &odes, and t h e rectifier must be checkecl. Procedures t o check t h e shift diodes a r e presented in Chapter 8. A check of t h e rectifier is ~ i v e n in Chapter 6. Test No. 3 First Powerpack Outpult C k c k Connect t h e black nreter lead of a highvoltage voltmeter to a gooe provnc? on t h e enpine. Connect t h e red m e t e r lead t o No. 5 post at t h e engine termim8 boar@. Crank t h e enpine and observe t h e areter. If t h e meter indicates a t l e a s t 250 volts, t h e powerpack is satisfactory f ~ h r cwtintlied service. If less than 250 VCR t s gr PC"V O B P ~ P ~ h is registered when t b e engine is cranked, proceed to Test Po. 4 .
T e s t No. 4 Second Powerpack Output Check Disconnect t h e blue wire frorn the No. 5 post a t t h e terininal board. Connect t h e S80 or the M-80 blue lead t o t h e blue powerpack lead and t h e black t e s t lead t o a good ground on t h e engine. Connect one lead t o t h e blue lead t o the powerpack, and t h e o t h e r lead t o engine ground. Crank the engine. The t e s t light should flicker. If t h e

SAFETY WORDS Before proceeding with t h e following tests, t h e spark plugs should be removed and t h e high-tension leads connected t o a spark t e s t e r or grounded. This procedure will prevent a cylinder from firing accidently during a test. Grounding t h e leads will provide a path for t h e current generated during a test and drastically reduce t h e chances of a spark igniting fuel or fuel vapors around t h e powerhead. Test No. 1 Key Switch Output Attach t h e black lead of a low- voltage voltmeter t o a good ground on t h e engine and t h e red lead t o either No. 8 o r No. posts on t h e engine terminal hoard. T u r ~ t h e ignition key t o t h e O N position. The m e t e r should indicate 12 volts at e i t h e r terminal. If t h e meter fails t o register t h e required voltage, e i t h e r t h e key Switch is defective or t h e b a t t e r y circuit is defective.

"

Voltage Check Disconnect the red voltmeter test l e a d from t h e engine terminal boar6 and connect i t t o No. 7 post on t h e terminal board. Connect t h e other m e t e r lead t o a good ground on t h e engine. Crank the engine. The m e t e r should indicate no less t h a n 9.5 volts. If the meter registers t h e r e m i r e d voltage, t h e s a f e t y switch is satisfactory. If t h e meter indicated less thah 9.5 volts, o n e of t h r e e areas could be at fault: t h e b a t t e r y circuit is not up t o full service; t h e s a f e t y switch is defective; or t h e s t a r t e r circuit is drawing, an excessive amount of v o l t a ~ e .

eblue-dist 2007

eblue-dist 2007

5-64

IGNITION
GOOD WORDS T h e blue w i r e s f r o m t h e powerpack a r e r o u t e d o n t o a n a r m on t h e sensor b a s e p l a t e . T h e w i r e s a r e t h e n r o u t e d i n t o a g r o o v e on t h e underside of t h e b a s e p l a t e and held in p l a c e w i t h a r e t a i n e r a n d screw. Where t h e wires a r e held by t h e r e t a i n e r is a c o m m o n s o u r c e of problems -- t h e w i r e s m a y b e grounded. T h e b a s e p l a t e should b e r e m o v e d a n d t h e w i r e s c h e c k e d f o r a grounded condition. S e e S e c t i o n 5-18 t o r e m o v e a n d install components. Test No. 7 Other Ignition Items Check R e m o v e t h e flywheel and sensor. C h e c k t h e r o t o r and d i s t r i b u t o r cap f o r c r a c k s , carbon trails, or c ~ r r o s i ~ ~ ? ~ . Inspect t h e sensor f o r c r a c k s a c r o s s t h e serasot eye. HP dl a p p e a r s t o b e i n s a t i s f a c t o r y condition, i n s t d l a n d a d j u s t t h e sensor to 0.028" (0.71 mm). Install t h e r o t o r , cap, s t a t o r , and flywheel. Test No. 8 Coil Output With d units i n place and s e c u r e ; v 4 t h l
all test e q u i p m e n t c ' i s c o ~ n e c t e d ; an6 w i t h all originad wires csmnectes" back i n t h e i r proper positions, Pisconnect t h e p d s e t r a n s f o r m e r w i r e f r o m t h e disfritd~ltorcap. This high- tension l e a d is Qhreacle? i n t o t h e c a p , t h e r e f o r e , r o t a t e i t COUNTERCLOCKWISE until i t Is f r e e . As t h e w i r e is t u r n e d , cousit t h e number s f r e v o l ~ t i o n s a s an aid t c connecting i t later. b E e f ~ r ePhreadinp i t back i n t o t h e c a p t h e wire PUS% be twistefl t h e r e a u i r e d nnwbeo of revolutions isn t P p o p p o s i t c direction. the^, v p k n it is ~ ~ O Z P C T l y irustelle?, t h e wire will net h a v e a p v t w i s t s , but f d ~ o w m t u r a d d i r ~ c t i w . )T i w its a pair of iminl?ted pliers m.ir P d t b e I-ivPs? f e y u s i ~ s acsad a p r o x i ~ a t ~1/3'"ll;P.7 h n-vj f r o r P I ~ O I I P ? o n t h e enp4rtc. Crmk the enpine. If t h e spark is weak or no s a a s k If ohserve?, t b c~o l - i s Sefectjw a d W C I S ~ be redacecqe

l i g h t d o e s f l i c k e r , t h e powerpack i s s a t i s f a c tory. If t h e test light f a i l e d t o f l i c k e r , d i s c o n n e c t t h e t e s t light a n d c o n n e c t t h e blue w i r e back t o t h e No. 5 p o s t a t t h e t e r m i n a l board. P r o c e e d t o T e s t No. 5.

Test No. 5 Third Powerpack Output Check D i s c o n n e c t t h e plug on t h e w i r e s bet w e e n t h e sensor a n d t h e powerpack. Conn e c t t w o jumper w i r e s t o t h e w i r e s t o t h e powerpack. With a s m a l l w i r e , bridge bet w e e n No. 7 a n d No. 8 p o s t s on t h e t e r m i n a l board. C o n n e c t t h e blue w i r e f r o m t h e S-80 o r M-80 t e s t light t o t h e No. 5 p o s t on t h e t e r m i n a l board. C o n n e c t t h i s t e s t light t o t h e No. 5 p o s t a n d a good ground on t h e engine. T u r n t h e key s w i t c h t o t h e ON position. Now, m o m e n t a r i l y ground t h e w i r e s f r o m t h e sensor. E a c h t i m e t h e w i r e s a r e grounded, t h e neon light should flicker. If t h e light flickers, t h e powerpack is s a t i sf a c t o r y f o r f u r t h e r service. If t h e light f a i l e d t o f l i c k e r , t h e powerpack is d e f e c t i v e a n d m u s t b e replaced. T u r n t h e key s w i t c h OFF. Disconnect t h e jumper w i r e frorn t h e No. 7 and No. 8 posts, also t h e t e s t e r l e a d f r o m t h e No. 5 post. Test No. 6 First Sensor Output Check While t h e plug is still 4 i s c s n n e c t e d p e r T e s t No. 5, d i s c o n n e c t t h e t w o g'uwper l e a d s o u t of t h e plug on t h e s i c k t~ t k powerpack. C o n n e c t t h e t w o Beds f r o r a n o h m m e t e r t o t h e t w o l e a & i n the c o n ~ e c t o r t h a t run t o t h e sensor unckr t h e flvwbeel. If t h e o h m m e t e r i n 8 i c a t e s o t h e r t h a n b.0 t o 6.0 o h m s t h e sensor instaJled under t h e flywheel is d e f e e t i v e and wust be replacec'. If t h e required r e s i s t a n c e i s indicatef19 p r o c e e d t o T e s t No. 7.

Second Sensor Check - for Ground


C o n n e c t o n e o h m m e t e r l e a d t o t h e sew s o r l e a d at t h e plug a n d t h e o t h e r $ e x ' a s a good ground on t h e engine. Open and c l o s e t h e t h r o t t l e t o s h i f t a n t i - r e v e r s e spring to and f r o m ground. T h e m e t e r should i n d i c s t e at l e a s t 100,000 ohms. With t h e m e t e r s t i l l c o n n e c t e d , work t h e wires b a c k - a d - f o r t h to i n d i c a t e ground. If a ground is discovere?, t h e sensor o r t h e sensor w i r e s wust be replaced. If t h e sensor is found t o b e Eiss a t i s f a c t o r y , p r o c e e d to T e s t No. 7. connect the ohmmeter an8 connect the swsor plug t o g e t h e r .

Test No. 9 Intermittent Miss Check C o n n e c t t h e black lead of t h e neon t e s t e r t o a good ground on t h e ~ o w e r h e a d . C o n n e c t t h e o t h e r m e t e r l e a d t o t h e No. 5 p o s t of t h e e n g i n e t e r m i n a l board. C o n n e c t

eblue-dist 2007

TROUBLESHOOTING
t h e a m m e t e r t o t h e purple wire from t h e No. 7 post on t h e terminal board, and t o t h e purple wire leading t o t h e powerpack. This places t h e a m m e t e r in series with t h e powerpack. S t a r t and o p e r a t e t h e engine.

5-65

CAUTION Water must circulate through the lower unit to t h e engine any time t h e engine i s run to prevent damage to the water pump and an overheating condition, Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump and cause the engine to overheat.
Observe both t h e neon t e s t e r light a n d t h e a m m e t e r . If t h e light flashes or t h e a m m e t e r needle wavers, replace t h e powerpack. R e s t o r e t h e system t o its original condition by removing all t e s t equipment and making t h e necessary connections. To remove t h e flywheel and necessary p a r t s t o replace an ignition component, s e e Section 5-18. To synchronize t h e engine, s e e Section 5-30. To t i m e t h e engine, see Section 5-36.

SAFETY WORD The spark plug l e a d s a r e grounded a s a s a f e t y measure and t o prolong coil life. By grounding t h e l e a d s t h e c u r r e n t has a path t o follow without c r e a t i n g a spark. Any amount of fuel in or on t h e engine, even t h e fumes f r o m under t h e cowling, c r e a t e s a dangerous f i r e hazard. By eliminating t h e spark, t h e chances of igniting a n y fuel o r fuel vapors is drastically reduced. Test No. 1 Basic Components a t Rest Connect t h e black lead of t h e low-volta g e voltmeter t o a good ground on t h e engine. Connect t h e red lead t o e i t h e r t h e No. 8 or No, 9 post at t h e engine terminal board. Turn t h e ignition key t o t h e ON position and observe t h e m e t e r reading. If t h e reading is less t h a n 12 volts t h e problem i s either a blown f u s e in t h e f u s e holder; a d e f e c t i v e key switch, connection, or wires leading f r o m t h e key switch; a poor connection at t h e positive terminal on t h e s t a r t e r solenoid; or, a b a t t e r y t h a t is not up t o full charge. Test No. 2 Basic Components - Engine Cranking With t h e v o l t m e t e r still connected t o t h e No. 8 o r No. 9 post at t h e ennine terminal board, per T e s t No. 1, crank t h e engine and observe t h e m e t e r reading. If t h e reading i s less t h a n 9.5 volts, t h e b a t t e r y m a y not b e up t o a full charge, o r t h e s t a r t e r motor is drawing an excessive amount of voltage. Check o u t t h e b a t t e r y circuit, perform t h e test a second t i m e , and then check o u t t h e s t a r t e r motor circuit, see C h a p t e r 6. Disconnect t h e t e s t ecquiprn ent. Test No. 3 First Powerpack Output Check Connect t h e black lea$ of a high-voltage v o l t w e t e r to a good ground on t h e ennine. Connect t P e red l e a 6 t o t h e No. 5 post on t h e eneine terminal board. C r a n k t h e en~ine an@ observe t h e b e t e r reading. If t h e r e a 8 i w i s less than 258 volts, proceed t o Test Ph. 4. If t h e m e t e r reading is satisfact o r y ) t h e snowerpack is delivering sufficient voltape to the coil an6 t h e unit is a c c e p t a b l ~ further service. ROP Test No. 4 Second Powerpack Output Check Turn f he i g n i t i m switch t o t h e ON posit i o ~ . V i t h t b e hipb-vsii t a e e voltmeter still

5- 16 TROUBLESHOOTING CW IGNITION 100 HP - 1972 125 HP - 1971 AND 1972


CRITICAL VORDS BEFORE s t a r t i n p t h e fdBowinp troubleshooting procet?cares B w this iswition systerr, TAKE TIME tc rea? an? understarnc' t h e system clescriptisn a t the beginning of Section 5-12 an61 PERFORM t h e General T r o w b-.lssbooti~gn r o c e ~ u r e s t h a t a p d v t o ail ~ o d e l sS e c t i o ~ , 2-13.

eblue-dist 2007

5-66

IGNITION
t h e spark i s weak o r no spark i s observed, t h e coil is d e f e c t i v e and must b e replaced.

connected t o t h e No. 5 post at t h e engine terminal hoard per Test No. 3, disconnect t h e sensor plug at t h e powerpack. Use t w o jumper wires and insert t h e m into t h e plug half with t h e wires t o t h e powerpack. Momentarily ground one of t h e wires and at t h e s a m e tirne observe t h e m e t e r reading. E a c h t i m e t h e wire is grounc"ed, t h e m e t e r should indicate at l e a s t 250 volts. If t h e m e t e r f a i l s t o register t h e required voltage, t h e proMem is in t h e sensor or in t h e coil. Proceed t o Test No. 5.

Test No. 5 Third Powerpack Output Check Disconnect t h e voltmeter from t h e No. 5 post a t t h e engine terminal board. Disconn e c t t h e blue wire from t h e No. 5 post. Turn t h e ignition switch t o t h e ON position. C o n n e c t t h e blue wire from e i t h e r t h e S-80 o r M-80 t e s t e r t o t h e blue wire t h a t was just removed from t h e No. 5 post. Connect t h e o t h e r t e s t lead t o a good ground on t h e engine. With t h e jumper wires still connected per T e s t No. 4, momentarily touch one of t h e jumper wires t o ground. Each t i m e t h e wire is grounded, t h e t e s t e r light should flash indicating the powerpack is sending c u r r e n t t o t h e coil. If t h e light fails t o flash, t h e prob1e.m is in the coil o r in t h e sensor. Proceed t o T e s t No. 6. Disconnect t h e jumper leads Irom t h e sensor plug and connect t h e plug together. Connect the blue wire back t o the No. 5 post on t h e terminal board.

Test No. 7 Sensor Circuit Disconnect t h e plug in t h e lines leading t o t h e powerpack. S e t t h e o h m m e t e r t o t h e low-scale. Now, insert t h e t w o m e t e r test probes i n t o t h e plug on t h e sensor half (wires leading t o t h e sensor under t h e flywheel). T h e m e t e r should indicate 4.0 t o 6.0 ohms. If t h e reading i s low, t h e sensor is d e f e c t i v e and must b e replaced. If t h e reading is satisfactory, proceed with t h e next Test. TEST No. 8 Sensor Check for Grounding S e t t h e o h m m e t e r t o t h e high scale. Connect one m e t e r l e a d t o a good ground on t h e engine. Connect t h e o t h e r m e t e r l e a d into t h e sensor plug at either terminal. Open and close t h e t h r o t t l e t o shift t h e anti- reverse spring to-and-from ground. The m e t e r should indicate 108,000 ohms, then zero. With t h e m e t e r still connected, work t h e wires back-ane-forth t o i n d i c a t e groun4. If a ground i s indicated, e i t h e r t h e wires or t h e sensor is grounded. C o r r e c t t h e c o n d i t i o ~by replacing t h e wires and/or t h e sensor. R e s t o r e t h e systerr t o i t s original condition. Test No. 9 Intermittent Miss S e t t h e bieh-voltage v o l t m e t e r t o t h e 588 volt scale. Connect o n e m e t e r lead t o a good grcund on t h e engine. C o n n e c t t h e ~ t b e r e t e r lead t o t h e No. 5 post a t t h e p eneine t e r w i n d hoard. C o n n e c t one l e a d of t h e low-amp a m v e t e r t o t h e p u r ~ l e wire of the powerpa.& and t h e other l e a d t o t h e No. 8 or No. 9 post of t h e t e r v i n a l board. S t a r t t h e engine and o p e r a t e i t at t h e rpm at which t h e miss occurs. CAUTION Water must circulate through the lower unit t the engine any tirne the engine is run o to prevent damage to tk water pump and an overheating condition, Just five seconds w i t b u t wafer d l damage the water pump a d cause the engine to overheat. Cbserve both meters. The needles shocrld hole4 stea8y. If e i t h e r m e t e r fluctua t e s (wavers) t h e powerpack is defective If t h e a m m e t e r and must be replaced.

eblue-dist 2007

s
STARTER
\

TEST
112" GAP

TEST NO.3&9

TEST NO. 1 & 2

C D TEST METER

COIL

\ FUSE

\
KEY SWlTCh

I".."..".."."" ".".."..".."""

: :

;r.....................................................

........................................................... .............. ..............

..... * ...--.- .
, -

8'

-.
TEST NO.7&8

OHMMETER

LOAD BUTTON "A

4
S80 OR M80 TESTER

8
-

8
8

o
I

i 8

PULSE PACK

Diagram of ignition system for 125 hp -- 1971 & 1972, and 100 hp --1972, to be used with the tests on Pages 5-65, 5-66, and 5-68.

eblue-dist 2007

reading is greater than 1.8 amps, t h e powerpack is defective and must b e replaced. A MEW rotor MUST b e installed if t h e powerpack is replaced. The rotor is sold with t h e new style powerpack. DO NOT a t t e m p t t o use an old rotor with t h e new style powerpack. Restore t h e system t o its original condition by removing all t e s t equipment and making t h e necessary connections. To remove t h e flywheel and necessary parts t o replace an ignition component, see Section 5-18. To synchronize t h e ignition and fuel systems, s e e Section 5-31. To t i m e t h e engine, s e e Section 5-34, or 5-36, depending on t h e engine being serviced.
5-17 COMPONENT REPLACEMENT

rotor, and work t h e rotor upward and f r e e of t h e distributor shaft. Push t h e new lower rotor down t h e s h a f t and into place. Push t h e t o p rotor down into place on t h e distributor shaft. Place t h e distributor c a p into position and secure i t with t h e t h r e e attaching screws.

ROTOR REPLACEMENT SENSOR REPLACEMENT


1 Remove t h e t h r e e attaching screws, and then l i f t t h e c a p f r e e of t h e distributor. 2- Two rotors a r e installed on this model engine. The top rotor conducts current t o t h e distributor cap. The lower metal rotor performs t h e function of t h e trigger and works with the sensor. Grasp t h e t o p rotor and pull i t f r e e of t h e distributor shaft. If t h e lower rotor must be replaced, use t w o screwdrivers, one on t h e opposite side of t h e 100 hp 1%7 3- Remove t h e t h r e e attaching screws, and then l i f t t h e c a p f r e e of t h e distributor. Remove t h e holddown screw, disconnect t h e two blue wires at t h e sensor, then remove t h e sensor. Install t h e new sensor t o t h e base plate. R o t a t e t h e flywheel until t h e lower metal rotor is horizontal with t h e sensor, adjust t h e sensor t o 0.028" (7.1 mm). Connect t h e blue wires t o t h e sensor. Install and s e c u r e t h e distributor c a p with t h e t h r e e attaching screws.

POWERPACK REPLACEMENT
100 hp 1967 The distributor c a p must b e removed and t h e sensor wires disconnected from t h e sensor. These wires a r e an integral part of

eblue-dist 2007

COMPONENT REPLACEMENT
t h e powerpack. Disconnect t h e positive (green wire) running t o t h e pulse transformer and t h e ground wire. Remove t h e t h r e e attaching bolts, s e p a r a t e t h e t w o quickdisconnects, and remove t h e powerpack. Install t h e new powerpack (be sure t o see t h e Special Words following this step), secure i t in place with t h e t h r e e attaching screws, and connect t h e wire t o t h e sensor. The green wire is positive and t h e other wire is t h e ground wire. Install t h e distributor cap.

5-69

SPEClAL WORDS If a new powerpack is being installed on t h e 1967 and 1968 models, t h e voltage suppressor is not used with t h e system. Remove and discard t h e suppressor. 5-18 COMPONENT REPLACEMENT IGNITION PARTS UNDER FLYWHEEL: STATOR, DISTRIBUTOR CAP, DISTRIBUTOR ROTOR, SENSOR ROTOR, AND SENSOR 100 HP - 1%8 AND 1972 115 HP - 1969 AND 1970 125 HP - 1971 AND 1972 CRITICAL WORDS If an ignition component is replaced, t h e synchronization MUST be checked, see Section 5-28, 5-29, 5-30, or 5-31, depending on t h e engine being serviced. The timing MUST also be checked, see Section 5-34, 535, or 5-36. VACUUM SWITCH SERVICE 100 hp - 1968 Model The vacuum switch, Illustration "A", should remain open when t h e ignition key is The switch turned t o t h e ON- position. should close a f t e r t h e key is turned t o t h e START position and t h e s t a r t e r motor begins t o crank t h e engine.

To test t h e vacuum switch, see T e s t No. 5, Testing t h e Vacuum Switch -- 100 hp -- 1968 o n Page 5-58. Disassemble t h e switch components. Wash t h e parts in solvent and blow t h e m dry with compressed air. Inspect t h e valve and seat for any condition t h a t might prevent t h e valve from seating properly. Inspect t h e contacts t o b e s u r e they a r e clean and not corroded. Inspect t h e diaphragm and t h e diaphragm contact. Check t h e diaphragm f i t over t h e switch housing. Any leakage in this a r e a would prevent t h e contacts from closing. Assemble t h e check valve and test t h e action by alternately blowing and drawing a i r through t h e valve. The disc valve should close under pressure and open under suction. Replace any defective parts.

REMOVAL

l Flywheel - A l Models 1- Remove t h e flywheel. Use a holding tool t o prevent t h e flywheel from rotating and remove t h e flywheel nut. Use the proper flywheel puller and "pull" t h e flywheel f r e e of t h e crankshaft. After t h e flywheel has been removed, notice how t h e wiring is routed and tucked t o prevent chafing or other damage during engine operation. In particular notice how t h e sensor wire and s t a t o r wires a r e routed and held down by clamps t o protect t h e m from t h e flywheel during engine operation.

eblue-dist 2007

5-70

IGNITION

Stator Removal Observe how t h e s t a t o r surrounds t h e distributor cap. Remove t h e Phillips s c r e w s securing t h e s t a t o r and then l i f t t h e s t a t o r f r e e of t h e distributor cap. 2- L i f t t h e distributor c a p f r e e of t h e power head. 3- L i f t the rotor f r e e of t h e crankshaft. Observe t h e keyway in t h e rotor. Turn t h e rotor over and remove t h e wavy washer. This washer keeps t h e rotor from vibrating during engine operation. 4- T h e sensor and t h e sensor rotor a r e now visible. Notice how t h e sensor rotor is also keyed t o t h e crankshaft. Use t w o screwdrivers under t h e rotor and work t h e rotor upward and f r e e of t h e crankshaft. 5- The sensor is held in place with t w o attaching screws. The wires from t h e sensor a r e held in place on t h e distributor base by a retainer and a small screw between t h e t w o wires.- These sensor wires a r e a potential source of a ground. Therefore,

work with c a r e not t o damage t h e wires in any way. Remove t h e wire retainer screw. Check t h e condition of each wire carefully. Remove t h e sensor, remove t h e wire retainers, disconnect t h e wires at t h e powerpack, and then remove t h e sensor.

Distributor Base Removal 6- Remove t h e four retaining screws and t h e four retainer clips. Lift t h e distributor base f r e e and check t h e anti- reverse spring underneath t h e base.

eblue-dist 2007

COMPONENT REPLACEMENT 7- The function of t h e anti- reverse spring is t o shut t h e engine down immedia t e l y if i t should s t a r t with t h e crankshaft turning in t h e wrong direction. This spring SHOULD b e replaced any t i m e t h e distributor base has been removed. 8- The blue wires from t h e powerpack a r e routed onto an arm on t h e sensor base plate. The wires a r e then routed into a groove on t h e underside of t h e base plate and held in place with a retainer and screw. Where t h e wires a r e held by t h e retainer is a common source of problems -- t h e wires may b e grounded. The base plate should b e removed and t h e wires checked for a grounded condition.

5-7 1

CLEANING AND INSPECTING


Check and d e a n t h e distributor c a p and rotor with a good greaseless cleaning solvent, Tempo Instant Spray A1ternator- Gene r a t o r Cleaner No. 20-013, or equivalent. Denatured alcohol or trichlorethylene may also be used. Wipe t h e parts dry with a clean cloth. Inspect t h e c a p and rotor t o be s u r e t h e y a r e f r e e of any cracks which could cause a voltage leak. If t h e distributor c a p is to b e replaced, t h e five high-tension leads (four t o t h e spark plugs a n d one t o t h e coil) must b e unscrewed from t h e cap. Simply slide t h e small rubber caps back, a n d then r o t a t e each wire COUNTERCLOCKWISE until t h e wire is free. The high-tension leads all have numbers and t h e distributor c a p has matching numbers. Install t h e c o r r e c t numbered lead i n t o t h e proper numbered hole. Disconnect t h e high-tension lead from t h e spark plug one-at-a- time as it is installed into t h e d i s t r i b u t o ~ c a p t o prevent any twisting condition a s t h e lead is t h r e a d e d into t h e cap. Connect t h e wire t o t h e spark

plug a f t e r t h e other end is s e c u r e in t h e distributor cap. Check t h e electrodes for a burned condition. Inspect t h e sensor for cracks across t h e sensor eye. Check t h e plastic ring on t h e underneath side of t h e distributor base. This ring is t h e wearing surface for t h e distributor base as i t rotates during engine operation. The ring is a replaceable item.

ASSEMBLING

I- Install a NEW anti- reverse spring. A f t e r t h e spring is in place, lubricate i t with Shell EP No. 2 Grease. Lubricate t h e nylon plastic ring with light-weight oil, and t h e n install i t t o t h e underside of t h e distributor base with t h e FLAT side facing UPWARD.

eblue-dist 2007

5-72

IGNITION

Distributor Base 2- Lower t h e distributor base down into t h e top bearing cap, paying careful ATTENTION to be sure the $ti-reverse spring slides into t h e recess in t h e underside of t h e base plate. Work t h e nylon plastic ring down into t h e recess of t h e bearine head. " 3- Replace t h e four clips and screws securing t h e base plate t o t h e bearing head. R o t a t e t h e base t o b e sure i t moves f r e e l y without any evidence of binding. Install t h e sensor rotor with t h e cutout in t h e rotor indexed over the pin in the crankshaft. Work t h e rotor down onto t h e crankshaft shoulder.

5- Install t h e upper rotor with t h e small knob on t h e rotor indexed into t h e small recess On the crankshaft6- Slide t h e wavy washer down t h e crankshaft and into place inside t h e distribut or 7- Install t h e distributor c a p over t h e rotor and seat i t with t h e s m d l protrusion indexed into t h e cutout of t h e bearing head.

Sensor
4- Install t h e sensor t o t h e base plate. R o t a t e t h e crankshaft until f l a t side of t h e sensor rotor is 'horizontal with t h e sensor. Adjust t h e sensor t o 0.028" (7.1 mm).

eblue-dist 2007

COMPONENT REPLACEMENT
FLYWHEELNUT

5-73

/ '

FLYWHEEL

DISTRIBUTOR CAP
COIL LEAD

This position prevents t h e c a p from rotating and maintains engine timing.

SPARK PLUG LEAD ASSY

Stator
& Slide t h e s t a t o r over t h e distributor cap. C o a t t h e attaching screws with Loct i t e , o r similar holding compound. Secure t h e c a p with t h e screws and tighten t h e screws t o a torque value of 40 t o 60 inchpounds (4.52 t o 6.78 N.m). 9- Check t h e flywheel magnets t o be s u r e they a r e absolutely f r e e of any foreign particles. Install t h e flywheel and flywheel nut. Tighten t h e nut t o t h e torque value given in t h e Specifications in t h e Appendix.
VENT / HOUSING
\ SCREW IN CONNECTOR

ROTOR SPRING WASHER


n

TRIGGER

SENSOR

& -* <
, & "

REVERSE CUT-OFF CONTACT REVERSE STOP GROUND

, LEAD
BASE PLATE CLAMP

'

REVERSE CUT-OFF SPRING

\
\
PRIMARY LEAD (TO PULSE PACK)

DISTRIBUTOR BASE RETAINER

Exploded drawing o f a sensor-type ignition system with principle parts identified.

eblue-dist 2007

5-74

IGNITION
Service on this t y p e of system is limited t o detailed troubleshooting, and then replacing t h e faulty component.

5- 19 TYPE IV IGNITION CAPACITOR DISCHARGE (CD) WITH BREAKER POINTS 55 HP - 3-CYLINDER - 1968 AND 1969 60 HP - 3-CYLINDER -1970 AND 1971 65 HP - V4 - 1%8 85 HP - V4 - 1968 TO 1972 100 HP V4- 1971 DESCRIPTION

This system contains t h r e e major units: t h e ignition coil, t w o individual sets of points, and a n amplifier. The amplifier is a "throw away" type. If troubleshooting isol a t e s t h e problem t o t h e amplifier, i t is simply given "the deep six" (removed, discarded, and a new unit installed). This section is divided into t h r e e p a r t s covering t h e following horsepower engines and model years: First part: 55 hp, 3-cyl., 1968 & 1969 65 hp, V4, 1968 85 hp, V4, 1968 85 hp, V4, 1969 t o 1972 100 hp, V4, 1971 60 hp, 3-cyl., 1970 & 1971

FIRST, THESE WORDS The wiring on t h e s e engines is connected directly t o t h e individual units by means of connectors. The wiring for t h e other two CD systems in this section is connected through a n engine terminal board l o c a t e d on t h e a f t side of t h e engine. Normally, t h r e e conditions require troubleshooting: t h e engine fails t o s t a r t ; fails t o run smoothly at all rpm (misses in c e r t a i n ranges); or lacks power t o perform properly. SAFETY WORDS This system generates approximately 20,000 volts which is f e d t o t h e spark plugs. Therefore, perform each s t e p of t h e troubleshooting procedures exactly as presented as a precaution against personal injury. SAFETY
The following s a f e t y precautions should a1ways be observed. DO NOT a t t e m p t t o remove any of t h e potting in t h e back of t h e powerpack. Repair of t h e powerpack is impossible. DONOT a t t e m p t t o remove t h e high tension leads from t h e ignition coil. DO NOT open or close any plug-in connectors, o r a t t e m p t t o connect or disconnect any electrical leads while t h e engine is being cranked or is running. DO NOT set t h e timing advanced any further than as specified. DO NOT hold a high tension lead with your hand while t h e engine is being cranked or is running. Remember, t h e system can develop approximately 20,000 volts which will result in a s e v e r e shock if t h e high tension lead is held. ALWAYS use a pair of approved insulated pliers t o hold t h e leads. DO NOT a t t e m p t any tests except those listed in t h i s troubleshooting section. DO NOT connect an e l e c t r i c tachometer t o t h e system unless i t is a type which has been approved for such use. DO NOT connect this system t o any volt a g e source other than given in this troubleshooting section.

Second part: Third part:

Theory of Operation The amplifier contains a transistorized converter. The converter steps up t h e 12 volts from t h e b a t t e r y t o approximately 350 volts. This voltage is stored in an energy capacitor. The breaker points function in Current t h e s a m e manner as a switch. passes or does not pass through. The points a r e a c t u a t e d through a cam on t h e crankshaft. The points trigger t h e amplifier which releases t h e voltage stored in t h e capacitor t o t h e coil. The coil again boosts t h e voltage, this t i m e t o approximately 20,000 volts, t o t h e spark plugs. For this reason, NEVER hold a high-tension lead with your hand while t h e engine is being cranked or running. Such action could result in s e v e r e electrical shock. When t h e storage capacitor has discharge d i t s energy at t h e spark plug gap, t h e electronic switch opens and t h e converter recharges t h e storage capacitor. After t h e storage capacitor has discharged i t s energy at t h e spark plug gap, t h e electronic switch opens and t h e converter recharges t h e storage capacitor.

GOOD WORDS Perform t h e following troubleshooting

eblue-dist 2007

TROUBLESHOOTING CD
procedures in t h e sequence presented. DO NOT skip a s t e p o r add checks of your own. DO NOT a n t i c i p a t e what is t o b e done next, just k e e p in s t e p with t h e procedures a n d t h e work will move smoothly and orderly. Only in t h i s manner will t h e f a u l t y component b e discovered in t h e shortest t i m e and without frustration. Replacement of a faulty component is covered in t h e sections following t h e Troubleshooting procedures. The following test equipment is a MUST when troubleshooting t h i s system. S t a t i n g i t another way, "There is no way on t h i s green e a r t h t o properly and a c c u r a t e l y test t h e c o m p l e t e system or individual components without most of t h e special i t e m s 1istecLf' Voltmeter (0 t o 50 volts) Voltmeter ( t o 500 volts) Ohmmeter DC A m m e t e r (0 t o 5 amps) Timing Light S-80 o r M-80 neon t e s t light Neon spark t e s t e r T h e following troubleshooting procedures cover t h e t h r e e most common causes r e ~ u i r ing service: t h e engine fails t o s t a r t , t h e engine misses badly, o r t h e unit lacks proper power -- performs poorly. Always a t t e m p t t o proceed with t h e troubleshooting in an or8erly F a n n e r . T h e shotgun approach will only result in wasted time, i n c o r r e c t diagnosis, r e p l a c e w e p t of unnecessary parts, and frustration. Begin t h e ignition system troubleshsoting with t h e spark plugs and continue through t h e system until t h e source of trouble is located.

5-75

Before spending t i m e troubleshooting t h e ignition system, check t h e complete b a t t e r y circuit t o b e s u r e all a r e a s a r e in satisfact o r y condition: e l e c t r o l y t e level; b a t t e r y charge; clean terminals; t i g h t connections at t h e terminals; and b a t t e r y leads f r e e of a n y f r a y e d a r e a s , cracks, o r other damage.

SPECIAL WORDS If t h e engine continues t o run a f t e r t h e ignition key switch has been turne? t o t h e OFF position, o r if t h e engine is turned off and t h e boat appears t o sudden1 y move forward, t h e s h i f t diodes r r a y be at fault. S e e C h a p t e r 8 f o r c o m p l e t e testin? an? s e r v i c e of t h e s h i f t diodes. Spark Plugs 1- Check t h e plug wires t o b e s u r e t h e y a r e properly connected. G heck t h e e n t i r e l e n g t h of t h e wires. If t h e wire is t o be renwved from t h e spark plug, ALWAYS ease a pulling and tvtisting motion a s a prccautisn against d a r a p i n g t be connection. 2- A t t e m p t t o remove t h e spark plugs bv hand. This i s a rough test t o d e t e r w i n e if t h e plug is tightened properly. You should not be able t o remove t h e plue without using t h e proper socket s i z e tool. R e m o v e t h e spark plugs and keep t h e m in order. Exa m i n e each p l y an? e v a l u a t e i t s cc~c4ticsn as described i n S e c t i w 5-2. If t h e spark plugs have Peen rewove6 a d t h e problem cannot b e c!etern-he$, but t h e plug a p p e a r s tta b e in s a t i s f a c t c r y cghnditi~n, electrodes, etc., then replace t h e plugs i n t h e spark plug openinps.

5-20 GENERAL TROUBLESHOOTING ALL CD MODELS

Battery Condition The b a t t e r y i s one of t h e p o s t i w s o r t a n t i t e m s in t h i s or m y C @ ignition system. The b a t t e r y should be r a t e d at l e a s t 70 amps with good clean terminals and tight c a b l e connections. If a b a t t e r y s h o d 6 a c c i d e ~ tyl b e connected t o a CD system backwards (wrong polarity), t h e diocks in t h e charninp: system will be &wa$;ed an6 t h e e l a p i ~ e will fail t o s t a r t . The cranking system will function but t h e ignition systeh will he inoperative.

Battery installed in a well ventilated area, properly secured, with a heavy duty explosion proof switch.

eblue-dist 2007

5-76

IGNITION

A conclusive spark plug test should always be performed with t h e spark plugs installed. A plug m a y indicate s a t i s f a c t o r y spark when i t is removed and t e s t e d , but under a compression condition may fail. An example would b e t h e possibility of a person being able t o jump a given distance on t h e ground, but if a strong wind is blowing, his distance may be reduced by half. The s a m e is t r u e with t h e spark plug. Uncder good compression in t h e cylinder, t h e spark may b e t o o weak t o ignite t h e fuel properly. 3- To t e s t t h e spark plug under compression, replace i t in t h e engine and tighten i t t o t h e proper torque value. Another reason t o t e s t f o r spark with t h e plugs installed, i s t o duplicate actual operating conditions regarding flywheel speed. If t h e flywheel i s r o t a t e d with t h e pull cord, and with t h e plugs removed, t h e flywheel will r o t a t e much f a s t e r because of t h e no-compression condition in t h e cylinder. T h e flywheel r o t a t i n g f a s t e r will give t h e FALSE indication of satisfactory spark. A spark t e s t e r capable of testing for spark while cranking and also while t h e engine is operating, can be purchased from any automotive o r marine p a r t s outlet. The

modest c o s t for such a tool i s well worth t h e investment. Use a spark t e s t e r and check for s ~ a r k t a e a c h c y 1 i ~ d e r . If a spark t e s t e r is not available, use a p i r of insu43,tec' pliers mcl hold t h e plug wire about 6/4'"(6.35 rrr) f ram t h e enqine.

A compression check is e x t r e r n d y i p portant, because a engine w i t h low OP. unn even c o w p r e s s i ~ r between cylinders CAN~ NOT be tuned t o o p e r a t e satisfactorily. Therefore, i t is e s s e n t M t h a t any corpression problew be c o r r e c t e d h e f s r e p r o c e e c h ~

eblue-dist 2007

TROUBLESHOOTING CD
with t h e tune-up procedure. See Chapter 3. If t h e powerhead shows any indication of overheating, such as discolored or scorched paint, especially in t h e a r e a of t h e top (No. 1) cylinder, inspect t h e cylinders visually thru t h e transfer ports for possible scoring. A more thorough inspection can be made if t h e heads a r e removed. I t is possible for a cylinder with satisfactory compression t o b e scored slightly. Also, check t h e w a t e r pump. The overheating condition may be caused by a faulty water pump. An overheating condition may also b e caused by running t h e engine o u t of t h e water. For unknown reasons, many operators have t h e misconception t h a t running a n engine for a short period of t i m e without t h e lower unit submerged in water, can b e done without harm. FALSE! Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine m y time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump and an overheating condition. Just five seconds il without water wl damage the water pump.

5-77

SAFETY WORD The spark plug leads a r e grounded as a s a f e t y measure and t o prolong coil life. Ey grounding t h e leads t h e current has a path t o follow without creating a spark. Any amount of fuel in or on t h e engine, even t h e fumes from under t h e cowling, c r e a t e s a dangerous f i r e hazard. By eliminating t h e spark, t h e chances of igniting any fuel or fuel vapors is drastically reduced. Insert a compression gauge i n t o t h e No. 1, t o p spark plug opening. Crank t h e engine with t h e s t a r t e r , or pull on t h e s t a r t e r cord, through at l e a s t 4 complete piston strokes with t h e t h r o t t l e at t h e wideopen position, o r until t h e highest possible Record reading is observed on t h e gauge. t h e reading. Repeat t h e test and record t h e compression for each cylinder. A variation between cylinders is far more important than t h e actual readings. A variation of more than 5 psi between cylinders indicates t h e lower compression cylinder may be defective. T h e problem may b e worn, broken, o r sticking piston rings, scored pistons, or worn cylinders. These problems may only be determined a f t e r t h e head has been removed. Removing t h e head on an outboard engine is not t h a t big a deal and m a y s a v e many hours of frustration and t h e cost of purchasing unnecessary parts t o correct a faulty condition. In most cases, under normal operating conditions of a V4 engine, t h e No. 4 cylinder usually causes problems before t h e other three. You ask, "Why is this so?" No man, including f a c t o r y engineers, a r e able t o give a logical and scientific answer. So be it! If an overheating condition exists, t h e No. 1 cylinder suffers t h e most.

Checking Compression 4- Remove t h e spark plug wires. ALWAYS grasp t h e molded cap and pull i t loose with a twisting motion t o prevent damage t o t h e connection. Remove t h e spark plugs and keep t h e m in ORDER by cylinder for evaluation later. Ground t h e spark plug leads t o t h e engine t o render t h e ignition system inoperative while perf orming t h e compression check.

CRITICAL WORDS The troubleshooting procedures presente d t h u s f a r in this s e c t i o n apply t o all engines and model years listed in t h e 5-19 and 5-20 headings. The following procedures apply only t o t h e horsepower and model year indicated at t h e beginning of each group of tests. THEREFORE, perform only those tests given for t h e particular engine being serviced. All other tests and procedures may b e ignored (skipped, forget they a r e even given).

eblue-dist 2007

5-78

IGNITION This procedure will prevent t h e engine from firing accidently during a t e s t and grounding t h e spark plug leads will provide a path f o r t h e high-vol t a g e generated in t h e system. This path will prevent any fuel or fuel vapors around t h e powerhead from igniting from a spark. An assistant should b e available for most t e s t s involving turning t h e key switch. In c a s e of a short, t h e assistant can quickly turn t h e key off before an expensive p a r t is damaged.

5-21 TROUBLESHOOTING 55 hp - 1968 and 1969 Models 65 hp and 85 hp - 1968 Models CRITICAL WORDS BEFORE starting t h e following troubles hooting procedures f o r this ignition system, TAKE TIME t o read and understand t h e system description at t h e beginning of Section 5-19 and PERFORM t h e General Troubleshooting procedures t h a t apply t o all models, Section 5-20.
The following test numbers a r e matched t o test numbers on t h e accompanying wire diagram as an assist in performing t h e work.

55 hp - 1968 and 1969 A vacuum switch, reference illustration "An,. is installed t o allow current flow t o continue t o t h e lower unit a f t e r t h e ignition switch has been turned t o t h e OFF position. This arrangement prevents t h e shift diodes in t h e lower unit from immediately moving t h e shift mechanism into forward gear. Therefore, if t h e boat suddenly seems t o move forward, a f t e r t h e key switch is turned t o t h e OFF position, t h e shift diodes m a y b e at fault. For complete troubleshooting and service procedures of t h e shift diodes, see Chapter 8. SAFETY WORD BEFORE making any test on a CD ignition system t h e spark plugs should b e removed and t h e high-tension leads grounded.

Test No. 1 Ignition Switch Voltage Output Connect one lead from t h e low- voltage voltmeter t o a good ground on t h e engine. Probe with t h e other lead i n t o t h e red wire of t h e harness t o t h e key switch. Turn t h e ignition switch t o t h e ON position. The m e t e r should indicate 12 volts. If m e t e r fails t o indicate 12 volts, t h e b a t t e r y is not up t o a full charge or t h e key switch is defective. If t h e m e t e r indicates 12 volts, proceed t o Test No. 2. Test No. 2 Ignition Switch Voltage Drop With t h e voltmeter probe still inserted, as in Test No. I, crank t h e engine and observe t h e voltmeter. The voltage should have dropped t o approximately 9.5 volts. If t h e voltage dropped t o less than 9.5 volts, t h e b a t t e r y circuit may need attention, or t h e s t a r t e r may be drawing t o o many volts. See Chapter 6. Test No. 3 Battery Voltage Output Remove t h e t e s t probe inserted in Test No. 1 and T e s t No. 2. Use t h e vol t m e t e r and check t h e b a t t e r y voltage and t h e volta g e at t h e key switch. If no voltage is indicated at t h e key switch, use t h e voltm e t e r and check t h e voltage at t h e s t a r t e r solenoid -- meter should indicate 12 volts. Test No. 4 Amplifier Output to the Coil S e t t h e high-voltage voltmeter t o t h e 500 volt scale. Insert one lead of t h e voltmeter i n t o t h e lead going t o t h e coil from t h e amplifier. Connect the other m e t e r lead t o a good ground on t h e engine. Crank t h e engine and observe t h e m e t e r reading. The rneter should indicate a t l e a s t 250 volts. If t h e m e t e r fails t o indicate any voltage at this point, proceed with t h e n e x t Test.

eblue-dist 2007

TROUBLESHOOTING CD

5-79

G D TEST METER

TEST NO. 1 0 & 4

STARTER SOLENOID
-

LOAD BWON "A" TEST NO. 9

S80 OR M80 TESTER

sOR 1 3 4 , s-21
& '

TEST NO. 11

,A
H
TEST NO886

\,

z7
TEST
-

112" GAP

KEY SWITCI-

' '-,\ IGN

,
TEST NO. 3

,I

INTERMITTENTLY GROUND AMPLIFIER CONNECTOR TERMINAL

ppACl
i /
j LW

& BASE

C-D TEST METEf


I,

TEST NO. 1 & 2

AMPLIFIER

Schematic dicegram for the tests on Pages 78, 80, and 81.

eblue-dist 2007

5-80

IGNITION
i t y l i g h t to t h e positive t e r m i n a l of t h e s t a r t e r solenoid a n d t h e o t h e r l e a d i n t o t h e l e a d going t o t h e point set. Advance t h e d i s t r i b u t o r t o t h e full a d v a n c e position. Manually r o t a t e t h e flywheel CLOCKWISE. T h e l i g h t should glow until e a c h set of points opens. This will o c c u r as t h e flywheel t i m i n g m a r k passes t h e p o i n t e r on t h e l i f t i n g ring. If e i t h e r set of points f a i l s t o b r e a k at t h e p r o p e r t i m e , t h e point set i s s h o r t e d o r t h e y a r e o u t of a d j u s t m e n t . Adjust t h e point sets as o u t l i n e d in S e c t i o n 524. P e r f o r m t h e test again. If t h e points still fail t h e test, t h e y a r e d e f e c t i v e a n d m u s t b e replaced.

Test No. 5 Second Amplifier Output Check Disconnect t h e connector t o t h e coil and c o n n e c t o n e l e a d of t h e S-80, M-80 t e s t e r t o the lead t o the amplifier and t h e o t h e r lead t o a good ground on t h e powerhead. D e p r e s s load b u t t o n "A" on t h e t e s t e r , a n d a t t h e s a m e t i m e , c r a n k t h e engine. T h e light should flash. If t h e light f l a s h e s , t h e arnplif i e r is good a n d t h e c o i l should b e c h e c k e d , per T e s t No. 7. Test No. 6 Third Amplifier Output Check Vfith t h e t e s t e r still c o n n e c t e d t o t h e coil a s in T e s t No. 5 , c'isconnect t b e w i r e c o o r e c t o r betvreen t h e a m p l i f i e r and t h e w i ~ set. t ?urn t h e ipnition s w i t c h to t h e O N position. PY'o~entarilyw a k e c o n t a c t w i t b t h e w i r e f r o m t h e amplifier t o a goo$ proamcl on t h e engine. E a c h t i m e t h e w i r e i s gro~rnc"ed,t h e t e s t e r l i g h t should flash. If t h e l i g h t f a i l s t o flash, t h e a m p l i f i e r i s c'efective a ~ c 'r u s t be replacecl. R e s t o r e t h e s y s t e r r t o i t s o r i ~ i n dconeition Fv rew o v i n p dl test equipment 3rd m a k i w t h e necessa-v csa7nections.

Test No. 9 Point Set Check


GOOD WORDS 55 hp and 60 hp Engines Only T h e t w o point sets a r e c o n n e c t e 6 in a delayed parallel c i r c u i t . Both sets a f f e c t e a c b cylinder. R e f e r t o t h e illustration i d e n t i f i e d as T e s t 9, o n P a g e 5-81 t o perform t h e f s l l o v ~ i ~ e work an? tests. A n o t h e r t i p i n e m a r k r u s t h e acdeec? to t h e flywheel i n orcler t o c h e c k e a c h point set. k k a s u r e e x a c t l y 1-3/8" (34.9 mm) COUNTERCLOCKWISE s r o u ~ c t h e flywheel l p e r i r e t e r f r o m t h e existing p a r k .
AM Models P i s c o n n e c t t h e w i r e to t h e amplifier f row t h e point set, an? c o n n e c t o n e l e a d of a c e ~ t i s ~ u i t iyg h t t o t h e w i r e t o t h e point l set. C'wnect t h e e t h e r test l e a d to t h e positive k e r r r i ~ ? lof t h e s t a r t e r solenoid.

Y'itP t h e k e y i~ t h e OFF position a n d t h e c7istribartor fully advarcecl, manually r o t a t e t be dlyvrbeel CLOCKWISE until t h e e x i s t i n g r x k CP t h e f l y b e e l is aligned w i t h t h e bcss a- t b e r i ~ ppiex e u a d . Tbe l i a h t sbodc' p c out in8icating o p e set of points bas or ened. C o ~ ~ ~tc r oet a t e t h e flvwheel a l CLOCKWISE ( t h e Biebt sbould c o r r e on apird urthl tPe w v l a&-+$ p a r k the f l y w k e l is d i p c e c ' w i t h t h e boss on t h e fIw~Pee1 i p e pea- guard. When t h e m a r k is r a l i ~ ~ e~ 4 t hh e boss, t h e l i g h t should g o o u t c' t e p ~ j r ,i ~ 6 i c i i t i ~tkv s e c o n d set of p o i n t s p bas coere?. If t h e t i w i r y i s not a c c u r a t e , as c'escsibc? ir- t h e s e t w o c h e c k s , t h e flyv7heel ~ \ u s b e r e ~ o v e c anc" t h e ~ n i n t s d j u s t e d as t ? a c~ltlinec~ ~ i i Section 5-34.

eblue-dist 2007

TROUBLESHOOTING CD

5-8 1

Test No. 10 Intermittent Miss Set t h e voltmeter t o t h e 500 volt scale. Connect one m e t e r lead t o a good ground on t h e engine. Insert a probe into t h e connector lead t o t h e blue wire going i n t o t h e coil. S t a r t t h e engine and o p e r a t e i t at t h e rprn a t which t h e miss occurs. CAUTION The engine MUST b e mounted in a body of water with a test wheel t o m a k e t h e following check. NEVER a t t e m p t t o run an engine at above idle speed with a flush a t t a c h m e n t connected or in a confined test tank. Such practice, with a no-load condition on t h e propeller, would cause t h e engine t o RUN-AWAY causing serious damage o r destruction of t h e unit. The t e s t cannot b e performed with t h e boat moving through t h e water. CAUTION Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump and an overheating condition. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump and cause the engine to overheat. With t h e engine operating at t h e rpm at which t h e miss occurs, observe t h e voltmeter. The meter should indicate at l e a s t 250 volts and hold steady. If t h e needle f1uctua;es (wavers), o r fails t o register 250 volts, check t h e complete b a t t e r y circuit. If t h e b a t t e r y is up t o full charge and t h e

circuit, including all connections and wiring a r e in good condition, test t h e coil output a s outlined earlier in this section. If t h e voltage check was satisfactory and t h e engine still misses within a certain rprn range, perform t h e next test. Disconnect t h e voltm e t e r and check t o be sure all connections a r e in their original positions.

Test No. 11 Amplifier Check Connect t h e 0 t o 5 a m p a m m e t e r in series between t h e key and t h e amplifier. S t a r t and o p e r a t e t h e engine at idle speed, 500 rprn. The a m m e t e r should indicate less than 1.0 amps. Increase rpm speed t o t h e range where t h e miss occurs. The a m m e t e r should hold steady. If t h e needle wavers, check t h e b a t t e r y wire t o t h e amplifier. If all wires and connections a r e in good condition, replace t h e amplifier. Restore t h e system t o its original condition by removing all t e s t equipment and making t h e necessary connections. To remove t h e flywheel and necessary parts t o replace an ignition component, s e e Section 5-24. To synchronize t h e ignition and fuel systems, see Section 5-27 or 5-28, depending on t h e unit being serviced. To t i m e t h e engine, see Section 5-33 or 5-34.
5-22 TROUBLESHOOTING 85 h p - 1969 t h r u 1972 100 h p - 11971

CRITICAL WORDS BEFORE starting t h e following troubles hooting procedures f o r this ignition system, TAKE TIME t o read and understand t h e system description at t h e beginning of Section 5-19 and PERFORM t h e General Troubleshooting procedures t h a t apply t o all models, Section 5-20.
The following test numbers a r e matched t o test numbers on t h e accompanying wire diagram as an assist i n performing t h e work.

SAFETY WORD BEFORE making any test on a CD ignition system t h e spark plugs should b e removed and t h e high-tension leads grounded. This procedure will prevent t h e engine from firing accidently during a test, a n d ground-

eblue-dist 2007

5-82

IGNITION
was being cranked during T e s t No. 4, disc o n n e c t t h e coil primary wire ( t h e blue wire) from t h e No. 5 post a t t h e terminal board. C o n n e c t one lead of t h e 5-80, M-80 t e s t light t o t h e blue wire leading t o t h e amplifier and t h e o t h e r lead t o a good ground on t h e powerhead. Again crank t h e engine. If t h e light flashes, t h e coil is d e f e c t i v e and must be replaced.

ing t h e spark plug leads will provic'e a p a t h f o r t h e high-vd t a g e generated in t h e system. This path will prevent a spark f r o m igniting a n y fuel or fuel vapors in t h e a r e a of t h e powerhead.

Test No. 1 Ignition Switch C h e c k Connect one l e a d of t h e low-voltage voltmeter t o a good groun4 on t h e engine. Turn t h e ignition switch t o t h e ON position, and t h e n momentarily m a k e c o n t a c t with t h e o t h e r m e t e r l e a d t o t h e No. 8 o r No. 9 post at t h e engine terminal hoard. The m e t e r should indicate 12 volts. If voltage is present, t h e c u r r e n t between t h e key switch and t h e terminal board is satisfactory. If voltage is not present, t h e b a t t e r y is low; t h e key switch is defective; or t h e wiring to-and-from t h e terminal board requires attention. Test No. 2 Battery Circuit C h e c k s If voltage was not present in T e s t No. 1, test t h e v d t a g e at t h e ignition switch, t h e n between t h e switch and t h e s t a r t e r solenoid, and finally between t h e s t a r t e r solenoid and t h e battery. Test No. 3 Voltage Draw Test With o n e l e a d of t h e voltmeter still connected t o a good ground on t h e engine, c o n n e c t t h e o t h e r l e a d t o either t h e No. 8 o r No. 9 post of t h e terminal board. Now, crank t h e engine and observe t h e voltmeter. T h e m e t e r should indicate at l e a s t 9.5 volts. If t h e voltage- reading is low, e i t h e r t h e b a t t e r y circuit requires service, o r t h e s t a r t e r is drawing excessive voltage. T o check t h e s t a r t e r circuit, see C h a p t e r 6 . Test No. 4 Amplifier Output Connect t h e high s c a l e v o l t m e t e r t o ground and t o t h e No. 5 post at t h e terminal board. Set t h e m e t e r t o t h e 50Q v o l t scale. Crank t h e engine and observe t h e m e t e r reading. The m e t e r should indicate at l e a s t 250 volts. If t h e required amount of v o l t a g e is not present, proceed with t h e Test No. 5. Test No. 5 First Amplifier Check If t h e engine will not run and t h e r e was no indication of voltage while t h e engine

Test No. 6 Second Amplifier Check If t h e light failed t o flash during Test No. 5, disconnect t h e quick- disconnect bet w e e n t h e amplifier and t h e point set. Turn t h e ignition switch t o t h e ON position. With t h e t e s t e r still connected t o t h e blue wire t o t h e amplifier and ground, momentarily m a k e c o n t a c t t o ground with t h e wire from t h e amplifier. Each t i m e t h e wire makes contact with ground, t h e t e s t e r light should flash on. If t h e light flashes during t h i s t e s t , check t h e point s e t t o b e sure t h e y a r e properly adjusted. Adjust t h e points as required according t o t h e procedures outlined in Section 5-19. If t h e light fails t o flash, t h e amplifier is d e f e c t i v e and must b e replaced. R e s t o r e t h e system t o i t s original condition by removing all t e s t equipment and making t h e necessary connections.

Test No. 7
Coil Output Disconnect t h e coil high-tension l e a d f r o m t h e distributor cap. T h e l e a d is threaded into t h e ca and must b e r o t a t e d COUNTERCLOCKWI~E until i t is free. As t h e l e a d Is turned, count t h e revolutions and m a k e a n o t e a s an aid during installation. The l e a d must b e twisted COUNTERCLOCKWISE t h e c o r r e c t number of t u r n s b e f o r e i t is threaded into t h e distributor c a p t o ensure i t is a t r e s t and not twisted a f t e r installation. U s e a pair of insulated pliers and hold t h e l e a d about 1 /2" ( 12.7 m m ) f r o m a good engine ground. C r a n k t h e engine. If t h e spark is weak or no spark is observed, t h e coil is d e f e c t i v e a d must b e replaced. If t h e spark is strong, t h r e a d t h e coil wire back i n t o t h e distributor cap. Test No. 8 Point Set Condition Disconnect t h e wire from t h e amplifier t o t h e points at t h e quick-disconnect. Conn e c t one l e a d of a continuity light t o t h e lead t o t h e point set. Connect t h e o t h e r

eblue-dist 2007

TROUBLESHOOTING CD

5-83

580 OR M80 TESTER

GD TEST METER

GD TEST METER

"A"

TEST NO. 1 & 3

AMMETER

BATTERY

\
& BASE

COIL TEST NO. 2


--

yLTEST NO. 7

j INTERMITTENTLY GROUND
AMPLIFIER CONNECTOR TERMINAL TEST NO. 2
/

112"GAP

SWITCH

AMPLIFIER

\
/
#2 CYL

"'
DISTRIBUTOR CAP

Schematic diagram for the tests on P ~ g e s and 84. 82

eblue-dist 2007

5-84

IGNITION
is up t o full charge and t h e circuit, including all connections and wiring, a r e in good condition, t h e amplifier is defective and must b e replaced. Restore t h e system t o its original condition by removing all t e s t equipment and making t h e necessary connections. To remove t h e flywheel and necessary p a r t s t o replace an ignition component, see Section 5-24. To synchronize t h e ignition and fuel systems, s e e Section 5-29, 5-30, or 5-31, depending on t h e unit being serviced. To t i m e t h e engine, see Section 5-34.

continuity light lead t o t h e positive terminal of t h e s t a r t e r solenoid. With t h e ignition key in t h e OFF position, advance t h e distributor t o full advance. Remove t h e spark plugs a s an aid t o rotating t h e flywheel by hand. Manually r o t a t e t h e flywheel CLOCKWISE. Observe t h e timing mark on t h e flywheel guard and t h e two timing marks on t h e flywheel. As t h e flywheel is rotated and each mark passes t h e mark on t h e flywheel guard, t h e light should go o u t indicating t h e points a r e open. If t h e light fails t o g o out, t h e flywheel must be removed, and t h e point set adjustment carefully checked. Procedures t o adjust t h e point s e t s a r e outlined in Section 5-24.

Test No. 9 Intermittent Miss Restore t h e system t o its original condition by removing all t e s t equipment and making t h e necessary connections. Connect t h e black lead of a high-voltage voltmeter t o a good ground on t h e engine. S e t t h e m e t e r t o t h e 500 volt scale. Connect t h e other lead t o t h e blue lead at t h e No. 5 post at t h e terminal board. Connect a low-amp a m m e t e r ( 0 t o 5 amps) in series between t h e amplifier and t h e No. 8 or No. 9 post of t h e terminal board. CAUTION The engine MUST b e mounted in a body of water with a test wheel t o m a k e t h e following check. NEVER a t t e m p t t o run a n engine a t above idle speed with a flush a t t a c h m e n t connected or in a confined test tank. Such practice, with a no-load condition on t h e propeller, would cause t h e engine t o RUNAWAY causing serious damage or destruction of t h e unit. The test cannot b e performed with t h e boat moving through t h e water. Water must circulate through the lower unit to t h e engine any time t h e engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump and an overheating condition. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump andl cause the engine to overheat. S t a r t t h e engine and allow i t t o warm t o operating t e m p e r a t u r e at 500 rprn. Increase t h e t h r o t t l e until t h e engine is operating at t h e rpm at which t h e miss occurs and obs e r v e t h e voltmeter and t h e ammeter. T h e voltmeter should indicate at l e a s t 250 volts. If either needle fluctuates (wavers), check t h e complete b a t t e r y circuit. If t h e b a t t e r y

5-23 TROUBLESHOOTING 60 HP - 1970 AND 197 1

CRITICAL WORDS BEFORE starting t h e following troubleshooting procedures f o r this ignition system, TAKE TIME t o read and understand t h e system description at t h e beginning of Section 5-1 9 a n d PERFORM the General Troubleshooting procedures t h a t apply t o all models, Section 5-20.
The following test numbers a r e matched t o test numbers on t h e accompanying wire diagram as an assist i n performing t h e work.

SAFETY WORD BEFORE making any test on a CD ignition system, t h e spark plugs should b e removed and t h e high-tension leads grounded. This procedure will prevent t h e engine from firing accidently during a test. Grounding t h e spark plug leads will provide a path f o r t h e high-voltage generated in t h e system. This path will prevent a spark from igniting a n y fuel or fuel vapors in t h e a r e a of t h e powerhead. Test No. 1 Ignition Switch and Battery Circuit Connect one- lead of t h e 0 t o 50 voltm e t e r t o a good ground on t h e engine. Turn t h e ignition switch t o t h e ON position, and then momentarily m a k e c o n t a c t with t h e other m e t e r lead t o t h e No. 8 or No. 9 post at t h e engine terminal board on t h e a f t side of t h e engine. The m e t e r should indicate 12 volts. If voltage is not present, or t h e voltage is low, t h e b a t t e r y is low; t h e key switch is defective; or t h e wiring to-andfrom t h e terminal board requires attention.

eblue-dist 2007

TROUBLESHOOTING CD
Test No. 2 Voltage Imput to Amplifier System a t Rest C o n n e c t t h e black l e a d of a low-vol t a g e ( 0 t o 50) t o a good ground on t h e engine. Connect the other voltmeter lead t o the No. 6 p o s t of t h e t e r m i n a l board. Turn t h e ignition key t o t h e ON position. T h e voltm e t e r should i n d i c a t e 1 2 volts. If t h e m e t e r f a i l s t o r e g i s t e r 12 volts, t h e f u s e c o n n e c t e d i n s e r i e s w i t h t h e s t a r t e r solenoid i s blown; t h e c o n n e c t i o n at t h e s t a r t e r solenoid is n o t c l e a n and tight; o r t h e b a t t e r y c i r c u i t requires a t t e n t i o n . Test No. 3 Voltage Imput to Amplifier Engine Being Cranked With t h e test e q u i p m e n t still c o n n e c t e d as f o r T e s t No. 2, c r a n k t h e e n g i n e w i t h t h e s t a r t e r r o t o r . T h e v o l t r r e t e r should indicate at l e a s t 9.5 volts. If t h e m e t e r r e a d i n g i s l e s s than 9.5 volts, t h e b a t t e r y c i r c u i t m a y need attention or, t h e s t a r t e r circuit is drawing e x c e s s i v e voltage. T o c h e c k t h e . s t a r t e r c i r c u i t , see C h a p t e r 6

5-85

l e a d of a n S-80, a n M-80 t e s t e r , t o t h e b l u e l e a d going t o t h e amplifier. C o n n e c t t h e o t h e r l e a d t o a good ground on t h e powerhead. T u r n t h e ignition k e y t o t h e ON position. Momentarily m a k e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e a m p l i f i e r point l e a d t o e n g i n e ground. E a c h tirne c o n t a c t i s m a d e t o ground, t h e test l i g h t should f l a s h on. If t h e light d o e s flash, t h e a m p l i f i e r i s s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r f u r t h e r s e r v i c e a n d t h e coil i s d e f e c t i v e . If t h e l i g h t did NOT flash, t h e a m p l i f i e r i s d e f e c tive. If t h e coil i s s u s p e c t e d , p r o c e e d t o the next test.

Test No. 7 Coil Output D i s c o n n e c t a l l test e q u i p m e n t c o n n e c t e d t h u s f a r , a n d t h e n c o n n e c t a l l wiring back t o t h e i r original positions. D i s c o n n e c t t h e coil high- tension l e a d f r o m t h e d i s t r i b u t o r cap. T h e lead i s t h r e a d e d i n t o t h e c a p a n d m u s t b e r o t a t e d COUNTERCLOCKWISE until i t is free. As t h e l e a d i s t u r n e d , c o u n t t h e revolutions a n d m a k e a n o t e as a n a i d during installation. The lead must be twisted COUNTERCLOCKWISE t h e c o r r e c t n u m b e r Test No. 4 of t u r n s b e f o r e i t i s t h r e a d e d i n t o t h e disFirst Amplifier Output Check tributor c a p to ensure i t is a t r e s t and not C o n n e c t t h e b l a c k l e a d of a hipb-voltage t w i s t e d a f t e r installation. Use a pair of v o l t w e t e r t o a good ground on t h e engine. insulated pliers a n d hold t h e l e a d a b o u t 1/2" S e t t h e p e t e r t o t h e 508 volt scale. Con(12.7 m m ) f r o , n a good e n g i n e ground, n e c t t h e o t h e r v o l t w e t e r l e a d t o t h e No, 9 C r a n k t h e engine. If t h e s p a r k i s w e a k o r n o post of t h e terminall boarc". Crank t h e s p a r k is observed, t h e c o i l i s d e f e c t i v e a n d e n g i n e and t k e vhaltrreter shade iirackete a t m u s t b e r e p l a c e d . If t h e s p a r k a p p e a r s t o b e l e a s t 250 vsl ts. If t h e r s e t e r r e a , c ' i ~ ais rct good, r e p l a c e t h e coil w i r e i n t o t h e distribus a t i s f a c t o r y , o r t h e w e t e r f a i l s t~ l ~ r ' j ~ ; d f e t o r cap. a n y voltage, proceec' tc t h e n e x t test. Test No. 5 Second Amplifier 0utgmt Check
L e a v e t h e test e q u i p m e r t c o r w c t e c ~a s f o r T e s t No.4. Pisconnect t b e amplifier l e a d g o b g t o t h e point set. Yith tbg key still i n t h e ON position, r o w e r taridy m a k e c o n t a c t with t h e ampillfjer )Ieae7 t o e n g i n e ground. E a c h t i r e t k ;rlwrdif ier l e a d m a k e s c o n t a c t with erpine ergau~?,t e e m e t e r sbcrdd i n c k a t e at l e a s t 2561 volts. HP t h e v o l t a g e r e a d i ~ p r s s a t i s f x t o r y , peris s t f o r m t h e n e x t test. C o n w c t t h e arcnlifier l e a d goinp t o t h e p i ~ set. t

Test No. 8 Point Set Conditim


Insert o n e l e a d of a test l i p h t i n t o t h e c o n n e c t o r w i r e t o t h e point set narder t h e flywheel. T o n n e c t t h e o t h e r l e ~ d t h e of test light t o t h e p o s i t i v e t e r v i n a l of t h e s t a r t e r solenoid. Turn t h e ipnition s w i t c h t o t h e OFF pasition. i P o v e t h e c'istributor t o t h e full a d v a n c e position. P8anually r o t a t e t h e flywheel CLOCKWISE until t h e t i m i n g m a r k on t h e flywheel is s l i p n e d with t h e The t i m i n g m a r k on t h e f l y v h e e l puarc'. test l i p h t should g o o u t indicating t h e poirpt set is open. C o n t i n u e t o r o t a t e t h e flywheel CLOCKWISE 1-318" (34.9 wm), and t h e l i g h t c o m e s on. If t h e light f a i l e d t o c o r e s n when t h e f l y v h e e l passed t h e m e a s u r e m e n t given, t h e points m u s t h e r e p l a c e d or ar'jaliste d , as outlined in S e c t i o n 5-34.

Test No. 6 Third Amplifier Output C k c k E i s c s n n e c t t h e high-vol t ? p e vol trr e t e r . D i s c o n n e c t t h e blue lead fron- t h e fslo. 9 p o s t 2t t h e t e r ~ i n a lPsard. C c w e c t w e

eblue-dist 2007

5-86

IGNITION

BATTERY

C-D TEST METER

;-mi p(
C-D TEST METER TEST

............ ...........
TEST

AMPLIFIER

TERMITENTLY POWERHEAD

BREAKER POINTS TERMINAL BLOCK

I1=
I

DC
AMMETER

I..;.:"""
!
KEY

TEST NO. 9

IGN

, !

BUTTON "A"

-.q

!
i i
b

DISTRIBUTOR

! /

TEST NO. 6

TEST NO. 7

, /

580 OR M80 TESTER

Schematic diagram for the tests on Pages 84, 85, and 87.

eblue-dist 2007

CD PARTS REPLACEMENT

5-87

Test No. 9 Intermittent Miss Connect t h e black lead of a high-volt voltmeter t o a good engine ground. Connect t h e other voltmeter lead t o t h e No. 9 post of t h e terminal board. S e t t h e voltmeter t o t h e 500 volt scale. Connect a d c a m m e t e r (0 t o 5 a m p range) in series with t h e amplifier purple wire and t h e No. 6 post. S t a r t t h e engine and increase t h e rpm until t h e miss occurs. CAUTION The engine MUST b e mounted in a body of w a t e r with a t e s t wheel t o m a k e t h e following check. NEVER a t t e m p t t o run an engine at above idle speed with a flush a t t a c h m e n t connected o r in a confined test tank. Such practice, with a no-load condition on t h e propeller, would cause t h e engine t o RUN-AWAY causing serious damage o r destruction of t h e unit. The test cannot be performed with t h e boat moving through t h e water. Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump and an overheating condition. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump and cause t h e engine to over heat, If either needle fluctuates (wavers), t h e amplifier could be breaking down and must b e replaced. Restore t h e system t o its original condition by removing all test equipment and making t h e necessary connections. To remove t h e flywheel and necessary parts in order t o replace an ignition component, see Section 5-24 at t h e end of t h i s chapter. To synchronize t h e ignition and fuel systems, see Section 5-27. T o t i m e t h e engine, see Section 5-32. 5-24 CD IGNITION SYSTEM PARTS REPLACEMENT AND ADJUSTMENT 55 HP 3-CYLINDER - 1968 AND 1969 60 HP 3-CYLINDER - 1970 AND 1971 65 HP V4 - 1968 85 HP V4 - 1%8 TO 1972 100 HP V4 - 1971 FIRST, THESE WORDS The following procedures outline t h e necessary steps re q uired t o replace or adjust a component in a wide range of C D ignition systems. If t h e troubles hooting procedures indicate a part is defective and must b e

replaced, only t h e procedures necessary f o r t h a t particular part need be performed. Therefore, proceed directly t o t h e paragraph heading for t h e part t o be removed and installed.

REMOVAL

All Models Flywheel 1- Mold t h e flywheel with a holding fixt u r e and remove t h e flywheel nut from t h e crankshaft. Obtain an appropriate flywheel remover and "pull" t h e flywheel from t h e crankshaft. Notice how t h e s t a t o r f i t s over t h e t o p of t h e distributor cap.

eblue-dist 2007

5-88

IGNITION

Other Components 2- Separate t h e disconnect for t h e stator leads. Remove t h e t h r e e s t a t o r a t t a c h ing screws, and then l i f t t h e s t a t o r f r e e of t h e distributor cap. 3- L i f t the distributor clear of t h e engine. 4- After t h e distributor has been removed, notice t h e wavy washer inside t h e rotor. Remove t h e rotor and t h e wavy washer from t h e distributor. 5- The two sets of points a r e now exposed. Notice how these points a r e different from t h e normal set of outboard m o t o r points. The adjusting screw head is knurled. The grooves forming t h e knurls on t h e screw head- help t o hold t h e proper adjustment. When a point adjustment is made, t h e screw will make a definite "clicking" sound as t h e grooves move past a slight protrusion in t h e breaker point base plate.
GOOD WORDS The breaker point base does not normally have t o be removed. However, t h e breaker point leads a r e routed under t h e base and secured in place with a retainer. This wire has been known t o break and "ground" t h e point set. If such a condition is suspected, t h e distributor base must be removed and t h e wire replaced or repaired, r e f e r e n c e illustration "A". 6- To remove t h e distributor base plate, first, remove t h e four retaining clips located on t h e plate perimeter. 7- Lift t h e plate clear of t h e distributor. Turn t h e plate over and inspect t h e wires.

OBSERVE Notice t h e wire-type spring on t o p of t h e breaker base plate t h a t f i t s around t h e crankshaft. This spring performs t h e function of grounding: t h e ignition system if t h e engine should happen t o backfire and s t a r t operating in a COUNTERCLOCKWISE direc-

eblue-dist 2007

CD PARTS REPLACEMENT

5-89

8- During service of t h e point s e t , t h e anti- reverse spring should be replaced. Afte r t h e new spring is installed, use a very small ainount of OMC Type D lubricant on t h e crankshaft where t h e spring rides t o reduce friction and prolong spring life. Take note how t h e point set leads a r e routed t o a terminal block, and then under t h e base plate. Point Set Replacement Seldom does t h e point set require replacement. The explanation is simple: t h e set is not subjected t o high voltage charges, as in t h e conventional system. The set merely acts similar t o a light switch t o open and close t h e circuit, in this case t o ground t h e circuit and prevent current flow. 9- Remove t h e two attaching screws through t h e set. Disconnect t h e point set lead from t h e terminal block. Remove t h e point set.
CLEANING AND INSPECTING
-

Service of t h e point set is limited t o cleaning t h e m with a calling card pulled between the points and using acetone, o r similar material, t o remove any small amount of corrosion t h a t may have s t a r t e d t o form. Check t h e coil closely t o determine if t h e r e has been any leakage t o t h e powerhead. If in doubt as t o t h e integrity of t h e coil, have it checked at a shop or replace i t with a new coil. Make a resistance test on t h e high-tension wires. The high-tension leads may b e DO NOT a t t e m p t t o pull t h e removed. high-tension leads from t h e distributor cap. These wires a r e screwed into t h e cap. First pull t h e rubber c a p back up onto t h e hightension lead, and then unscrew t h e wire in a COUNTERCLOCKWISE direction until t h e wire is free.

Inspect all parts f o r wear or damage. T e s t t h e coil, rotor, end caps, high-tension leads, and breaker assemblies.

Leakage Paths The high-vol t a p e surge of t h e secondary circuit may establish a path t o ground by a different route than across t h e spark plug gap. O n c e such a path is established, t h e spark will most likely continue t o jump across t h e ground. A surface leakage path can usually b e detected because of t h e burning e f f e c t t h e high-voltage spark has on t h e plastic insulating material. The condition causing t h e high-voltage spark t o s t r a y from i t s intended circuit must b e corrected. Any repairs

eblue-dist 2007

5-90

IGNITION
FLYWHEEL NUT

of t h e unit should b e performed very CAREFULLY, and should include discarding any insulating parts with evidence of high volt a g e flashover.

--*

ASSEMBLING

1- T o install t h e distributor base plate, first notice t h e nylon ring on t h e underneath side. This nylon ring must be worked down into t h e recess in t h e upper bearing head as the base plate is installed. Lower t h e plate down onto t h e powerhead, and then work t h e plate t o enable t h e nylon retainer ring t o seat in t h e upper bearing head recess. Sec u r e t h e plate in place with t h e t h r e e clips on t h e perimeter. Place t h e new set of points into place on t h e distributor base plate, and t h e n secure t h e m with t h e t w o attaching screws. TAKE CARE t o carefully route t h e wires along t h e edge of t h e base plate, and then connect t h e m t o t h e terminal block. 2- Thread t h e flywheel nut onto t h e crankshaft, and then using a wrench on t h e nut, r o t a t e t h e crankshaft until t h e point heel is on t h e high point of t h e cam. Adjust t h e points by rotating t h e adjusting screw t o 0.010" (0.254 mm) for a used set of points and t o 0.012" (0.305 mm) for a new point set. R e p e a t t h e procedure f o r t h e second set of points. Remove t h e flywheel nut.
Distributor Parts 3- Slide t h e distributor rotor down t h e crankshaft with t h e t a b on t h e rotor indexed

COIL LEAD

DISTRIBUTOR CAP

SPARK

VENT HOUSING
CONNECTOR

\ '

ROTOR SPRING WASHER

,L-

GROUND

DISTRIBUTOR BASE RETAINER


18 5 12

/u

PRIMARY LEAD (TO AMPLIFIER)

Exploded &awing of an ignition system with distributor and breaker points. Principle parts are identified.

eblue-dist 2007

CD PARTS REPLACEMENT

5-91

--

into t h e recess on t h e crankshaft. Slide t h e wavy washer onto t h e crankshaft and seat i t in t h e rotor. 4- Slide t h e distributor c a p down t h e crankshaft and into place on t h e bearing head.

Flywheel 6- Check t h e inside tapered surface of t h e flywheel t o b e s u r e i t is clean and DRY. Lower t h e flywheel onto t h e crankshaft with t h e cutout in t h e flywheel indexed o v e r t h e Woodruff key. Thread t h e flywheel nut onto t h e crankshaft, and then using a holding f i x t u r e on t h e flywheel, tighten t h e nut t o t h e torque value specified in t h e Appendix.

Stator 5- Install t h e s t a t o r over t h e t o p of t h e


distributor cap. Dip t h e s t a t o r attaching screws in Loctite for similar substance). Secure t h e stator and distributor c a p with t h e screws. Tighten t h e screws t o a torque value of 48 t o 60 inch-pounds (5.42 t o 6.78 N.m). Connect the quick-disconnect for t h e s t a t o r leads.

eblue-dist 2007

5-92

IGNITION

5-25 SYNCHRONIZING DISTRIBUTOR AND CARBURETOR MAGNETO IGNITION MODELS 50 HP - 1958 and 1959 This procedure is highly important -synchronizing t h e ignition system with t h e fuel system t o achieve maximum perform a n c e from t h e outboard unit. I t might b e best t o read through t h e complete synchronizing procedure before actually performing t h e work t o obtain a good overall idea of exactly what needs t o b e done, why, and how i t is accomplished.

Tower Shaft t o Distributor 1- Place t h e advance arm from t h e distributor on t h e bottom of t h e advance arm on t h e tower shaft. S t a r t t h e t w o screws t h a t secure t h e arm in this position, but DO NOT tighten t h e m at this time. 2- R o t a t e t h e flywheel CLOCKWISE until the mark on t h e distributor pulley is aligned with t h e mark on t h e lower housing. Grasp t h e distributor housing and move i t until t h e mark on t h e breaker plate is in between t h e pulley mark and t h e timing mark. 3- When t h e t h r e e marks a r e aligned, advance t h e t h r o t t l e bx moving t h e tower s h a f t arm until i t is 90 from t h e embossed mark on t h e bracket on t h e port side attach e d t o t h e tower shaft. (This is all viewed from above t h e engine.) Check again t o b e sure t h e distributor pulley mark i s aligned with t h e timing mark on t h e distributor base.

If t h e marks a r e still a l g n e d and t h e tower s h a f t arm is still at 90 t o t h e tower s h a f t bracket -- you a r e a winner. Tighten t h e t w o screws securing t h e advance arm between t h e distributor and t h e tower shaft.

Tower Shaft to Carburetor 4- Remove t h e rod between t h e tower s h a f t and t h e t h r o t t l e advance cam. SPECIAL WORDS Some engine models have a double setscrew arrangement. O n e setscrew locks in t h e second. The first setscrew must be completely removed before t h e second can b e backed off. SLOWLY advance t h e t h r o t t l e cam and at t h e s a m e t i m e watch t h e mark on t h e t h r o t t l e cam and t h e mark on t h e nylon c a m roller. The nylon roller should just begin t o move (open) t h e t h r o t t l e s h a f t arm as t h e c e n t e r of t h e nylon roller comes into alignment with t h e t h r o t t l e cam timing mark. Now, if this setting requires adjustment, hold t h e nvlon roller in c o n t a c t with t h e

eblue-dist 2007

t h r o t t l e cam and at t h e s a m e t i m e loosen t h e t h r o t t l e arm screw and push t h e t h r o t t l e arm TOWARDS t h e t h r o t t l e cam. After t h e adjustment has been made, tighten t h e screw securely. 5- Shift t h e engine into forward gear and at t h e s a m e t i m e r o t a t e t h e propeller t o verify t h e engine is fully engaged in t h e forward gear. Grasp t h e magneto and t u r n i t t o t h e full advance position. Hold t h e magneto in t h e full advance position with a large rubberband. 6- Insert a 0,020" (0.51 mm) f e e l e r gauge between t h e t h r o t t l e s h a f t arm and its stop.

insert t h e rod 7- A t t h e carburetor: from t h e tower s h a f t i n t o t h e t h r o t t l e advance cam. Move t h e t h r o t t l e advance cam t o t h e wide open t h r o t t l e position, and t h e n tighten t h e setscrew. Remove t h e rubberband and allow t h e magneto t o return t o t h e idle position. Grasp t h e arm at t h e bottom of t h e tower s h a f t and r o t a t e t h e tower s h a f t t o t h e full advance position. Hold t h e tower s h a f t in this poisition and check t h e following t h r e e places: a- The t h r o t t l e advance c a m at t h e carburetor is against i t s stop, reference illustration 7. b- Tower s h a f t advance arm is against i t s stop, reference illustration 6 (without t h e feeler gauge). c- The distributor is fully advanced against i t s stop, reference illustration 5 . Mount t h e engine in a l a r g e test tank or body of water and check t h e completed work.

eblue-dist 2007

5-94

IGNITION

The engine MUST b e mounted in a l a r g e Pest tank or body of water t o adjust t h e timing. NEVER a t t e m p t t o make this adjustment with a flush a t t a c h m e n t connected t o t h e lower unit or in a small, confined test tank. The no-load condition on t h e propell e r would cause t h e engine t o RUNAWAY resui ting in serious damage or destruction of t h e unit. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower mit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump.

5-26 SYNCHRONIZING DISTRIBUTOR AND CARBURETOR BATTERY IGNITION MAGNETO IGNITION 60 HP - 1964 t o 1966 75 HP - 1960 to 1965 80 HP - 1966 and 1%7 90 HP - 1964 and 1965 100 HP 1966 and 1%7

described, loosen t h e two control link adjusting screws and either lengthen o r shorten t h e control shaft, until t h e edges of t h e a r m and boss a r e aligned. Tighten t h e adjusting screws.

Tower Shaft to Distributor


1- Grasp t h e t o p of t h e distributor and r o t a t e t h e distributor COUNTERCLOCKWISE t o t h e fully advanced position until t h e t a b on t h e distributor housing rests firmly against t h e rubber bumper. Use a l a r g e strong rubberband t o hold t h e distributor at this position. 2- Check t o be sure t h e inside edge of t h e control shaft arm is aligned with t h e outer edge of t h e triangular shaped boss on t h e control shaft bracket (when viewed from above). If t h e setting is not c o r r e c t as

Tower Shaft to Carburetor 3- Remove t h e rod between t h e tower s h a f t and t h e t h r o t t l e advance cam. SPECIAL WORDS Some engine models have a double setscrew arrangement t o hold t h e rod in place. O n e setscrew locks in t h e second. The f i r s t setscrew must b e completely removed bef o r e t h e second can be backed off. On s o m e other engines, a nylon yoke and pin arrangement may be used instead of t h e setscrews, reference illustration llA"".

eblue-dist 2007

SYNCHRONIZING

5-95

MORE GOOD WORDS On t h e 90 hp 1964 -- 1965, and t h e 100 hp 1966 -- 1967 t h e t h r o t t l e pickup and c a m mentioned in t h e following s t e p is loc a t e d on TOP of t h e carburetor. All o t h e r engines listed in t h e heading of this section have t h e s e i t e m s on t h e SIDE of t h e carburetor, reference illustration "B".

4- SLOWLY advance t h e t h r o t t l e c a m and at t h e s a m e t i m e watch t h e mark on t h e t h r o t t l e cam and t h e mark on t h e nylon c a m roller. The nylon roller should just begin t o move (open) t h e t h r o t t l e s h a f t arm as t h e c e n t e r of t h e nylon roller comes into alignm e n t with t h e t h r o t t l e cam timing mark. Now, if this setting requires adjustment, hold t h e nylon roller in c o n t a c t with t h e t h r o t t l e c a m and at the s a m e t i m e loosen t h e t h r o t t l e arm screw and push t h e t h r o t t l e arm TOWARDS t h e t h r o t t l e cam. After t h e adjustment has been made, tighten t h e screw securely.

Checking the Synchronizing Work 5- Shift t h e engine into forward gear and at t h e s a m e t i m e r o t a t e t h e propeller t o verify t h e engine is fully engaged in t h e forward gear. Grasp t h e distributor and turn i t t o t h e full advance position. Hold t h e distributor in t h e full advance position with a large rubber band.

6- Insert a 0.020" (0.51 mm) f e e l e r gauge between t h e t h r o t t l e s h a f t a r m and its stop. A t t h e carburetor: insert t h e rod from t h e tower s h a f t i n t o t h e t h r o t t l e advance cam. Move t h e t h r o t t l e advance c a m t o t h e wide open t h r o t t l e position, and t h e n tighten t h e setscrew.

eblue-dist 2007

5-96

IGNITION

7- If t h e engine being serviced has t h e nylon yoke and pin arrangement, adjust t h e yoke on t h e rod until t h e pin can be inserted through t h e yoke and t h e cam follower. Insert t h e pin and hold i t in place with a c o t t e r pin. Remove t h e rubberband. 8- Hold t h e tower shaft in t h e full advance position and check t h e following t h r e e places: a- The t h r o t t l e advance c a m at t h e carburetor is against i t s stop, illustration "8". b- Tower shaft advance arm is against i t s stop, illustration "6", but disregard f e e l e r gauge. c- The distributor is fully advanced against i t s stop, illustration "5". 9- Mount t h e engine in a large t e s t t a n k o r body of water and check t h e completed work. The engine MUST b e mounted in a l a r g e t e s t tank or body of water t o adjust t h e timing. NEVER a t t e m p t t o make this adjustment with a flush a t t a c h m e n t connected t o t h e lower unit or in a small, confined test tank. The no-toad condition on t h e propell e r would cause t h e engine t o RUNAWAY resulting in serious damage or destruction o f t h e unit.

CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is r m to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump.

eblue-dist 2007

SYNCHRONIZING

5-97

tact with t h e cam. Tighten t h e s c r e w securely t o hold t h e adjustment.

Adjust Carburetor and Distributor Linkage 2- On t h e starboard side of t h e engine:


move t h e distributor base and t h r o t t l e l e v e r t o t h e full t h r o t t l e position against their stops. The carburetor t h r o t t l e s h a f t MUST also b e against i t s full t h r o t t l e stop. T o adjust, t u r n t h e t h r o t t l e c a m yoke on t h e t h r o t t l e control rod until t h e conditions just described a r e satisfied. 3- If t h e t h r o t t l e c a m yoke has been removed f r o m t h e t h r o t t l e control rod, install t h e yoke o n t o t h e rod t o a rough adjustment of 5" (12.7 c m ) f r o m t h e end of t h e t h r o t t l e link t o t h e f a c e of t h e yoke, t h e n m a k e t h e linkage adjustment as just described. T o t i m e t h e engine, see Section 5-33.

5-27 SYNCHRONIZING FUEL SYSTEM WITH IGNITION SYSTEM 55 HP - 1968 AND 1969 60 HP - 1970 AND 197 1 Adjust Cam Follower 1- On t h e starboard side of t h e engine:
loosen t h e screw on t h e roller arm and m o v e t h e roller until t h e mark on t h e t h r o t t l e c a m is aligned with t h e c e n t e r of t h e c a m follower roller JUST as t h e roller makes con-

5-28 SYNCHRONIZING 65 HP - 1%8 85 HP - 1968 100 HP - 1%8


T o synchronize t h e 100 hp - 1967 model only, see Section 5-26.

Adjust Cam Follower Illustration 1 Page 5-98 1- On t h e starboard side of t h e engine


alongside t h e carburetor: position t h e t h r o t t l e c a m with t h e s c r i b e m a r k aligned with t h e c e n t e r of t h e c a m follower roller shaft. To m a k e an adjustment, loosen t h e adjusting s c r e w on t h e t h r o t t l e c a m a n d move t h e t h r o t t l e arm t o i t s l i m i t and t h e

eblue-dist 2007

5-98

IGNITION
5-29 SYNCHRONIZING 85 HP - 1969 W O D WORDS The cam follower has t w o marks one above t h e other. The t o p m a r k is used f o r t h e cam t o carburetor adjustment, and t h e lower mark is used f o r t h e carburetor t o distributor adjustment. Adjust Cam Follower 1- On t h e starboard side of t h e carburetor: check t o b e s u r e t h e t h r o t t l e valves a r e closed. Work t h e adjustment screw until t h e c e n t e r of t h e cam follower roller is aligned with t h e upper mark on t h e t h r o t t l e c a m JUST as t h e t h r o t t l e begins t o open.

throttle valves a r e closed. Check t o b e s u r e t h e c a m follower roller is contacting t h e cam. Tighten t h e screw t o hold t h e adjustment.

Adjust Carburetor and Distributor Linkage 2- N ~ ~h~ flywheel has been remov~ ~ : ed in the illustration ONLY for photographic clarity in order t o s e e t h e marks. O n t h e starbdard side toward t h e rear of t h e engine: move t h e distributor t o t h e full advance position. The mark on t h e distributor base plate arm should align with t h e m a r k on t h e distributor cap. With t h e control s h a f t at t h e full t h r o t t l e position against i t s stop, t h e t h r o t t l e shaft arm must also be against i t s stop. To adjust, turn t h e t h r o t t l e c a m yoke on t h e t h r o t t l e control rod until t h e t h r o t t l e shaft a r m is against its s t o p when t h e control s h a f t is in t h e full t h r o t t l e position.

Adjust Carburetor and Distributor Linkage Illustration 2, Col. 1, Page 5-99 2- Note: The flywheel has been remove d in t h e illustration ONLY for photographic clarity t o see t h e marks. On t h e starboard side of t h e engine: adjust t h e spark advance stop screw until t h e marks on t h e distributor base plate and t h e distributor c a p a r e align-

ea.
O n t h e starboard side of t h e engine: adjust t h e t h r o t t l e cam yoke until t h e lower mark on t h e t h r o t t l e c a m is aligned with t h e center of t h e cam follower roller. Check t o b e sure t h e distributor base and t h e distributor c a p a r e still aligned on t h e i r marks.

eblue-dist 2007

SYNCHRONIZING

5-99

5-30 SYNCHRONIZING 85 HP - 1970 115 HP - 1969 AND 1970 Adjust Cam Follower Illustration I, This Column 1- On t h e starboard side of t h e carburetor: check t p be sure t h e t h r o t t l e valves a r e closed. Work t h e adjustment screw until t h e center of the c a m follower roller is aligned with t h e upper mark on t h e t h r o t t l e c a m JUST a s t h e t h r o t t l e begins t o open. Adjust Carburetor and Distributor Linkage Illustration 2, Col. 2, This Page 2- Note: The flywheel has been remove d in t h e illustration ONLY for photographic clarity t o s e e t h e marks. On t h e starboard side of t h e engine. adjust t h e spark advance s t a p screw until t h e mark on t h e distributor base plate aligns with t h e mark on t h e

distributor cap. On t h e starboard side of t h e carburetor: hold t h e t h r o t t l e lever against t h e stop on t h e crankcase and adjust t h e t h r o t t l e c a m yoke until t h e t h r o t t l e valves a r e wide open. Check t o b e s u r e t h e mark on t h e distributor base plate still aligns with t h e mark on t h e distributor cap.

5-31 SYNCHRONIZING 85 HP - 1971 AND 1972 100 HP - 1971 AND 1972 125 HP - 1971 AND 1972 Adjust Cam Follower Illustration 1, This Column 1- On t h e starboard side of t h e carburetor: check t o b e s u r e t h e t h r o t t l e valves a r e closed. Work t h e adjustment screw until t h e center of t h e c a m follower roller is aligned with t h e upper mark on t h e t h r o t t l e c a m JUST as t h e t h r o t t l e begins t o open.

eblue-dist 2007

CAUTION The engine MUST b e mounted in a body of water with a test wheel t o m a k e t h e following adjustments. NEVER a t t e m p t t o run an engine at above idle speed with a flush a t t a c h m e n t connected or in a confined test tank. Such practice, with a no-load condition on t h e propeller, would cause t h e engine t o RUNAWAY causing serious dama g e or destruction of the unit. The test cannot b e performed with t h e boat moving through t h e water. Water must arculate through the lower unit to the engine any time t h e engine is run t o prevent damage to the water pump and an overheating condition, Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump and cause the engine to overheat. 2- Connect a timing light t o t h e No. 1 (top starboard bank) cylinder. Start t h e motor and allow i t t o warm t o operating t e m p e r a t u r e at 500 rpm. Gdjust t h e idle speed adjustment screw t o 5 advance timing. Shut t h e engine down. Adjust t h e t h r o t t l e c a m yoke until t h e upper embossed mark on t h e t h r o t t l e cam is aligned with t h e c e n t e r of t h e t h r o t t l e c a m roller. Adjust Carburetor and Distributor Linkage S t a r t t h e engine. Shift t h e engine into FORWARD gear. CAUTION The engine MUST b e in gear during t h e following adjustment t o prevent a RUNAWAY condition and possible destruction of t h e unit. 3- Advance t h e t h r o t t l e t o t h e wide open position. In t h e wide open position t h e upper carburetor t h r o t t l e shaft roll pin

should b e against i t s stop. Insert a thin piece of paper (approximately 0.003", 0.08 mm) between t h e roll pin and t h e s t o p on t h e intake manifold. Now, adjust t h e full t h r o t t l e advance screw on t h e t h r o t t l e advance arm until t h e paper can b e withdrawn This with just a slight amount of drag. procedure will prevent a strain on t h e thrott l e shaft.

5-32 TIMING POINTER ADJUSTMENT 85 HP - 1971 AND 1972 100 HP - 1971 AND 1972 125 HP - 1971 AND 1972

1- A special tool (OMC No. 384887 o r a dial indicator) is required t o accurately m a k e this adjustment. Remove all spark plugs from t h e block. Install t h e special tool or t h e dial indicator into t h e No. 1 cylinder. R o t a t e t h e flywheel CLOCKWISE until t h e piston crown makes c o n t a c t with t h e dial indicator or t h e special tool at 12' TDC (top dead center). Lock t h e tool o r t h e dial

eblue-dist 2007

TIMING

5-10!

purpose of t h e bar is t o prevent a person's hand from becoming caught in t h e flywheel while t h e engine is operating.) 2- Look behind t h e s a f e t y bar and obs e r v e t h e adjustment screw with a locknut and a rubber cap. The timing adjustment is made by loosening t h e nut slightly, and then threading t h e screw inward or outward.

indicator. A t t h a t point, scribe a mark on t h e flywheel in line with t h e pointer. SLOWLY r o t a t e t h e flywheel C O U N E R CLOCKWISE (under normal conditions w e s a y NEVER t o r o t a t e t h e flywheel counterclockwise but here i t is permissable), until t h e piston again makes c o n t a c t with t h e dial indicator or t h e special tool. 2- Scribe another mark on t h e flywheel in line with t h e pointer. Measure t h e dist a n c e between t h e t w o marks just scribed on t h e flywheel. The midway point between t h e t w o marks is t o p dead center. Loosen t h e screw and adjust t h e pointer t o align with t h e midway point between t h e t w o marks.

SPECIFICATIONS Check t h e Specifications in t h e Appendix and make a note of t h e timing degrees listed f o r t h e engine being serviced. VERY SPECIAL WORDS On s o m e engines t h e timing mark is an embossed mark on t h e flywheel and t h e degree marks a r e embossed on t h e s a f e t y guard just above t h e carburetor. On other engines covered in this section, t h e opposite is true. The timing mark is embossed on t h e s a f e t y guard and t h e degree marks a r e on t h e flywheel. HOWEVER, some engines m a y also have a triangular mark embossed on t h e flywheel. When timing t h e engines covered in this section, DISREGARD t h e triangular mark. Connect a timing light t o t h e No. 1 (top) cylinder. S t a r t t h e engine. CAUTION The engine MUST b e mounted in a body of w a t e r with a test wheel t o m a k e t h e following adjustment. NEVER a t t e m p t t o run an engine at above idle speed with a flush a t t a c h m e n t connected o r in a confined test tank. Such practice, with a no-load condition on t h e propeller, would cause t h e engine t o RUNAWAY causing serious dama g e or destruction of t h e unit. The test cannot be performed with t h e boat moving through t h e water. Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run

5-33 TIMING 55 hp - 1%8 and 1 %9 60 hp - 1970 and 197 1


The timing should not require adjustment unless t h e spark advance screw has been moved, o r t h e amplifier has been changed and an updated one installed. The timing should be checked any t i m e t h e ignition system is serviced.

1- Notice and identify f o r yourself, t h e square timing mark on t h e flywheel ring guard. Observe t h e s a f e t y bar installed directly above t h e carburetors. (The only

eblue-dist 2007

5- 102

IGNITION

to prevent damage to the water pump and an overheating condition. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump andl cause the engine to overheat. Allow t h e engine t o warm t o operating temperature at 500 rpm. Increase engine speed t o full throttle, approximately 4500 rpm. The degree timing mark on t h e flywheel should align with t h e mark on t h e flywheel guard. If t h e marks do not align, shut down t h e engine and move t h e adjusting screw inward or outward just a wee bit.

CRITICAL SAFETY WORDS The reason f o r shutting t h e engine down is one of SAFETY. The adjusting screw is so close t o t h e flywheel, t h e adjustment snould NOT b e a t t e m p t e d while t h e engine is running. Keep t e n fingers and both hands, they'll c o m e in handy t h e r e s t of your life. S t a r t t h e engine and repeat t h e check until t h e marks do align when t h e engine is Once t h e marks operating at 4500 rpm. align at 4500 rpm, tighten t h e locknut t o hold t h e adjustment and replace t h e rubber cap.

t h i s section is located at one end of t h e lifting bracket a t t a c h e d t o t h e powerhead opposite t h e carburetor. 2- Observe the adjustment screw a t t a c h e d t o t h e powerhead underneath t h e flywheel and just behind t h e t h r o t t l e advance a r m on t h e starboard side of t h e engine.

65 hp, 85 hp, and 100 hp - 1%8 Only 3- The adjustment screw on t h e s e engines is located on t h e port side and is a t t a c h e d t o t h e powerhead. T h e screw i s mounted in such a manner t h a t i t acts as a s t o p f o r a flange a t t a c h e d t o t h e distributor advance a r m as this arm rotates on t h e end of t h e tower shaft. Check t h e Specifications in t h e Appendix and m a k e a note of t h e timing degrees listed for t h e engine being serviced. 4- Connect a timing light t o t h e No. 1 Start the ( t o p starboard bank) cylinder. engine.

5-34 TIMING 65 hp - 1%8 85 hp - 1968 to 1970 100 hp -- 1%8 and 1%9 115 hp - 1969 and 1970
The timing should not require adjustment unless t h e spark advance screw has been moved, o r t h e amplifier has been changed and an updated one installed. The timing should be checked any t i m e t h e ignition system is serviced.

1- Notice and identify f o r yourself, t h e timing degree marks on t h e flywheel. T h e timing pointer for t h e engines covered in

CAUTION The engine MUST b e mounted in a body of water with a test wheel t o m a k e t h e following adjustment. NEVER a t t e m p t t o run an engine at above idle speed with a flush a t t a c h m e n t connected or in a confined test tank. Such practice, with a no-load condition on t h e propeller, would cause t h e engine t o RUNAWAY causing serious dama g e or destruction of t h e unit. The t e s t

eblue-dist 2007

cannot b e performed with t h e boat moving through t h e water. Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage t o the water pump and an overheating condition, Just five seconds without water wl damage the water pump il andl cause the engine to over heat. Allow t h e engine t o warm t o operating t e m p e r a t u r e at 500 rpm. Increase engine speed t o full throttle, approximately 4500 rprn. The pointer on t h e bracket should align with t h e proper degree mark on t h e flywheel as specified in t h e Appendix. If t h e proper degree mark does not align, shut down t h e engine, loosen t h e locknut, and move t h e adjusting screw inward or outward just a wee bit. One complete turn of t h e adjusting screw will advance or retard t h e timing one full degree.

t h e engine. S t a r t and o p e r a t e t h e engine a t 500 rpm. Note: In t h e illustration, t h e distributor Cap and belt have been removed ONLY for photographic clarity t o show t h e timing marks.

CRITICAL SAFETY WORDS The reason f o r shutting t h e engine down is one of SAFETY. The adjusting screw is very close t o t h e flywheel. The adjustment can be made with a screwdriver while t h e engine is running, but w e STRONGLY recommend t h e engine be shut down. The few e x t r a minutes involved will help you keep t e n fingers and both hands --they'll c o m e in handy t h e rest of your life. S t a r t the engine and repeat t h e check until t h e pointer and t h e proper degree m a r k do align when t h e engine is operating at 4500 rpm. O n c e t h e marks align at 4500 rpm, tighten t h e locknut t o hold t h e adjustment.

CAUTION Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump and an overheating condition, Just five seconds without water d damage the water pump l andl cause the engine to overheat,
A t 500 rpm, t h e mark on t h e distributor pulley MUST align with t h e mark on t h e distributor housing. If the marks do not align, t h e keyway in t h e flywheel, t h e Woodruff key, rotor wheel may b e damaged, or t h e sensor may not be adjusted properly, o r t h e sensor may not be located in t h e c o r r e c t pin. Actually, t h e r e is no adjustment. T h e timing marks must align at 500 rpm. If they do not, t h e defective part or condition must b e isolated and corrected.

5-35 TIMING CD IGNITION - FLYWHEEL WITH SENSOR 100 HP 1967

Idle Timing Check 1- Connect one lead of a timing light t o t h e No. 1 (top starboard bank) cylinder. Connect t h e other lead t o a good ground on

Full-Advance Timing Check CAUTION The engine MUST b e mounted in a body of w a t e r with a test wheel t o m a k e t h e following full- advance timing check. NEVER a t t e m p t t o run an engine at above idle

eblue-dist 2007

5- 104

IGNITION
overheating condition. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump d came the engine to overheat. Idle Adjustment First, check t h e specifications in t h e Appendix t o determine t h e proper number of degrees of timing advance. 1- Connect o n e lead of a timing light t o t h e No. 1 (top starboard bank) cylinder. Connect t h e other lead t o a good ground on t h e engine. S t a r t and o p e r a t e t h e engine at 500 rprn until i t reaches normal operating temperature. The flywheel ring gear has degree marks clearly visible. Observe t h e pointer l o c a t e d on t h e forward side of t h e engine. S t a r t and o p e r a i e f he engine at 500 rprn until i t reaches normal operating temperature. With t h e engine operating at 500 rprn t h e pointer should b e aligned with t h e 5d mark on t h e flywheel. If t h e pointer is not aligned, adjust t h e t o p screw on t h e t h r o t t l e advance arm toobring t h e pointer into alignment with t h e 5 mark. High-speed Adjustment 2- Increase engine speed t o 4500 rpm. The pointer should be directed t o t h e proper degree mark (as determined from t h e Specifications). If t h e proper degree m a r k is n o t indicated at 4500 rpm, loosen t h e nut on t h e t h r o t t l e s t o p on t h e starboard side of t h e engine. Move t h e screw inward or outward until t h e proper degree m a r k is indicated at 4500 rpm, then tighten t h e nut securely t o hold t h e adjustment. SPECIAL WORDS The timing pointer is secured t o t h e bracket with attaching screws. Now, it is possible t h a t t h e pointer could have been changed intentionally or accidently. Therefore, a Timing Pointer Adjustment may b e necessary as outlined in t h e following procedure.

speed with a flush a t t a c h m e n t connected o r in a confined test tank. Such practice, with a no-load condition on t h e propeller, would cause t h e engine t o RUNAWAY causing serious damage or destruction of t h e unit. The test cannot b e performed with t h e boat moving through t h e water. 2- See illustration "2", Col. 2, Page 5103. With t h e timing light still connected t o t h e No. 1 cylinder, observe t h e timing m a r k on t o p of the flywheel and t h e square mark on t h e a f t starboard side of t h e flywheel guard. S t a r t t h e engine and allow i t t o warm t o operating t e m p e r a t u r e at 500 rpm. Increase engine speed t o 4500 rprn and obs e r v e t h e timing marks. If t h e marks do n o t align, loosen t h e nut on t h e starboard side of t h e distributor housing. Adjust t h e s c r e w inward or outward until t h e timing marks a r e aligned.

5-36 TIMING

125 hp - 1971 and 1972

CAUTION The engine MUST b e mounted in a body of w a t e r with a test wheel t o m a k e t h e following timing check. NEVER a t t e m p t t o run an engine at above idle speed with a flush a t t a c h m e n t connected or in a confined test tank. Such practice, with a no-load condition on t h e propeller, would cause t h e engine t o RUNAWAY causing serious clama g e or destruction of t h e unit. The test cannot b e performed with t h e boat moving through t h e water. Water must arculate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump and an

eblue-dist 2007

ELECTRICAL
6-1 INTRODUCTION
The battery, gauges and horns, charging system, and t h e cranking system a r e all considered subsystems of t h e electrical system. Each of these units or subsystems will b e covered in detail in this chapter beginning with t h e battery. All engines covered in this manual use t h e magneto ignition system and a b a t t e r y is not required t o o p e r a t e t h e engine. Most of t h e larger horsepower units use a cranking motor for starting and t h e b a t t e r y is only used t o supply power for this motor. The starting circuit consists of a crafiking motor and a starter- engaging mechanism. A solenoid is used as a heavy-du'ty switch t o carry t h e heavy current from t h e b a t t e r y t o t h e s t a r t e r motor. The solenoid is actuated by turning t h e ignition key t o t h e START position. On some models, a pushbutton is used t o a c t u a t e t h e solenoid. These engines are also equipped with a hand s t a r t e r for use when t h e e l e c t r i c s t a r t e r motor system is inoperative. Do not consider a b a t t e r y of less t h a n 70- ampere hour capacity. If in doubt as t o how large your boat requires, make a liberal e s t i m a t e and then purchase t h e one with t h e next higher a m p e r e rating.

MARINE BATTERIES
Because marine batteries a r e required t o perform under much more rigorous conditions than automotive batteries, they a r e constructed much differently than those used in automobiles or trucks. Therefore, a marine b a t t e r y should always b e t h e No. 1 unit for t h e boat and other types of batteries used only in an emergency. Marine batteries have a much heavier exterior case t o withstand t h e violent pounding and shocks imposed on i t as t h e boat moves through rough water and in extremely tight turns. The plates in marine batteries a r e thicke r t h a n in automotive batteries and each

6-2 BATTERIES
The b a t t e r y is one of t h e most important parts of t h e electri-cal system. In addition t o providing electrical power t o s t a r t t h e engine, i t also provides power for operation of t h e t h e running lights, radio, electrical accessories, and possibly t h e pump for a bait tank. Because of its job and t h e consequences, (failure t o perform in a n emergency) t h e best advice is t o purchase a well-known brand, with an extended warranty period, f r o m a reputable dealer. The usual warranty covers a prorated replacement policy, which means you would b e entitled t o a consideration for t h e t i m e l e f t on t h e warranty period if t h e b a t t e r y should prove defective before its time.

A fully charged battery, filled to the proper level with electrolyte, is the heart of the ignition system. Engine starting and efficient performance can never be obtained if the battery is below a fully charged rating.

eblue-dist 2007

6-2

ELECTRICAL BATTERY RATINGS


Two ratings a r e used t o classify hatteries: o n e is a 20-hour rating at 8 0 O ~ and t h e other is a cold rating at O'F. This second figure indicates t h e cranking load capacity and is referred t o as t h e Peak W a t t Rating of a battery. This Peak Watt Rating (PWR) has been developed t o measure t h e coldcranking ability of t h e battery. The numerical rating is embossed on each b a t t e r y c a s e at t h e base and is determined by multiplying t h e maximum current by t h e maximum voltage. The ampere-hour rating of a b a t t e r y is i t s capacity t o furnish a @ven amount of amperes over a perioc! of t i m e at a cell voltage of 1.5. here fore, a b a t t e r y with a capacity of maintaining 3 a m p e r e s for 20 hours at 1.5 volts would be classified as a 60- ampere hour battery. Do not confuse t h e ampere-hour rating with t h e PWR, because t h e y a r e two unrelated figures used for different purposes. A replacement b a t t e r y should have a power rating equal or as close t o t h e old unit as possible.

plate is securely anchored within t h e battery case t o ensure extended life. The caps of marine batteries a r e "spill proof" t o prevent acid from spilling i n t o t h e bilges when t h e boat heels t o one side in a tight turn, or is moving through rough water. Because of these features, t h e marine b a t t e r y will recover from a low charge condition and give satisfactory service over a much longer period of t i m e than any type of automotive- type unit.

BATTERY CONSTRUCTION
A b a t t e r y consists of a number of positive and negative plates immersed in a solution of diluted sulfuric acid. The plates contain dissimilar a c t i v e materials and a r e kept apart by separators. The plates a r e grouped into what a r e t e r m e d elements. Plate straps on t o p of each element connect all of t h e positive plates and all of t h e negative plates into groups. The b a t t e r y is divided into cells which hold a number of t h e elements apart from t h e others. The entire arrangement is contained within a u hard-rubber case. The t o p is a one-piece cover and contains t h e filler caps for e a c h cell. The terminal posts protrude through t h e t o p where t h e b a t t e r y connections f o r t h e boat a r e made. Each of t h e cells is connected t o its neighbor in a positive-tonegative manner with a heavy s t r a p called t h e cell connector.
-

B A n E ~ y LOCATION
Every b a t t e r y installed in a boat must be secured in a well- protected ventilatec! area. If t h e b a t t e r y a r e a is not well ventilated, hydrogen gas which is given off during charging could become very explosive if t h e gas is concentrated and confined. Because of its size, weight, and acid content, t h e b a t t e r y must b e well-secured. If t h e batt e r y should break loose during rough boat maneuvers, considerable damage could b e done, including damage t o t h e hull.

BATTERY SERVICE
The b a t t e r y requires periodic servicing and a definite maintenance program t o en: s u r e extended life. If t h e b a t t e r y should test satisfactorily, but still fails t o perform properly, one of four problems could be t h e cause. 1- An accessory might have accidently been l e f t on overnight o r f o r a long period during t h e day. Such an oversight would result in a discharged battery. 2- Slow speed engine operation for long periods of t i m e resulting in an undercharged condition.

The battery MUST be located near the engine in a well-ventilated area. It must be secured in such a manner that absolutely no movement is possible in any direction under the most violent actions of the boat.

eblue-dist 2007

BATTERY SERVICE

6-3

3- Using more electrical power than t h e generator or alternator can replace resulting i n an undercharged condition. 4- A d e f e c t in t h e charging system. A f a u l t y generator or alternator system, a defective regulator, or high resistance somewhere in t h e system, could cause t h e battery t o become undercharged. 5- Failure t o maintain t h e b a t t e r y in good order. This might include a low level of electrolyte in t h e cells; loose or dirty cable connections at t h e b a t t e r y terminals; o r possibly an excessively dirty b a t t e r y top.
Electrolyte Level The most common practice of checking t h e electrolyte level in a b a t t e r y is t o remove t h e cell c a p and visually observe t h e level in t h e vent well. The bottom of e a c h vent well has a split vent which will c a u s e t h e surface of t h e electrolyte t o appear distorted when i t makes contact. When t h e distortion first appears at t h e bottom of t h e split vent, t h e electrolyte level is correct. Some late- model batteries have an electrol yte-level indicator installed which operates in t h e following manner: A transparent rod extends through t h e center of one of t h e cell caps. The lower

t i p of t h e rod is immersed in t h e electrolyte when t h e level is correct. If t h e level should drop below normal, t h e lower t i p of t h e rod is exposed and t h e upper end glows as a warning t o add water. Such a device is only necessary on one cell c a p because if t h e electrolyte is low in one cell i t is also low in t h e other cells. BE SURE t o replace t h e c a p with t h e indicator onto t h e second cell from t h e positive terminal. During hot weather and periods of heavy use, t h e electrolyte level should be checked more often than during normal operation. Add colorless, odorless, drinking water t o bring t h e level of electrolyte in each cell t o TAKE CARE not t o t h e proper level. overfill, because adding an excessive amount of water will cause loss of electrol y t e and any loss will result in poor performance, short b a t t e r y life, and will contribute quickly t o corrosion. NEVER add electrol y t e from another battery. Use only clean pure water.

Cleaning Dirt and corrosion should be cleaned from t h e b a t t e r y just as soon as i t is discovered. Any accumulation of acid film or dirt will permit current to flow between t h e terminals. Such a current flow will drain t h e b a t t e r y over a period of time. Clean t h e exterior of t h e b a t t e r y with a solution of diluted ammonia or a soda solution to neutralize any acid which may b e present. Flush t h e cleaning solution off with clean water. TAKE CARE t o prevent any of t h e neutralizing solution from entering t h e cells, by keeping t h e caps tight. A poor contact at t h e terminals will add

One of the most effective means of cleaning the battery terminals is to use a wire brush designed for this specific purpose.

An inexpensive brush can be ~ r c h a s e dand used to clean battery lead connectors to ensure a proper connection.

eblue-dist 2007

6-4

ELECTR lCAL

resistance t o t h e charging circuit. This resistance will cause t h e voltage regulator t o register a fully charged b a t t e r y , and t h u s c u t down on t h e a l t e r n a t o r output adding t o t h e low b a t t e r y c h a r g e problem. Scrape t h e b a t t e r y posts clean with a suitable tool or with a stiff wire brush. C l e a n t h e inside of t h e c a b l e clamps t o b e sure t h e y do not c a u s e any resistance in t h e circuit.

Battery Testing A hydrometer is a device t o measure t h e p e r c e n t a g e of sulfuric acid in t h e b a t t e r y e l e c t r o l y t e in t e r m s of specific gravity. When t h e condition of t h e b a t t e r y drops f r o m fully charged t o discharged, t h e acid leaves t h e solution and e n t e r s t h e plates, causing t h e specific gravity of t h e electrol y t e t o drop. The following six points should be observed when using a hydrometer. 1- NEVER a t t e m p t t o t a k e a reading irn mediately a f t e r adding w a t e r t o t h e battery. Allow at l e a s t 114 hour of charging at a high r a t e t o thoroughly mix t h e electrol y t e with t h e new water and t o c a u s e vigorous gassing. 2- ALWAYS b e s u r e t h e hydrometer is clean inside and o u t as a precaution against contaminating t h e electrolyte. 3- If a t h e r m o m e t e r is an integral p a r t of t h e hydrometer, draw liquid into i t several times t o ensure t h e c o r r e c t t e m p e r a t u r e before taking a reading. 4- BE SURE t o hold t h e hydrometer vertically and suck up liquid only until t h e f l o a t is f r e e and floating.

5- ALWAYS hold t h e hydrometer at e y e level and t a k e t h e reading at t h e s u r f a c e of t h e liquid with t h e f l o a t f r e e and floating. Disregard t h e light c u r v a t u r e appearing where t h e liquid rises against t h e f l o a t stem. This phenomenon is due t o s u r f a c e tension. 6- DO NOT drop a n y of t h e b a t t e r y fluid on t h e boat or on your clothing, it is e x t r e m e l y caustic. Use w a t e r and baking soda t o neutralize any b a t t e r y liquid t h a t does accidently drop. After withdrawing e l e c t r o l y t e from t h e b a t t e r y cell until t h e f l o a t is barely f r e e , n o t e t h e level of t h e liquid inside t h e hydrom e t e r . If t h e level is within t h e green band range, t h e condition of t h e b a t t e r y i s satisfactory. If t h e level is within t h e w h i t e band, t h e b a t t e r y i s in f a i r condition, a n d if t h e level is in t h e red band, i t needs charging badly o r is dead and should be replaced. If t h e level fails t o rise a b o v e t h e red band a f t e r charging, t h e only answer is t o replace t h e battery.

A pair of pliers should be useo to tighten the wingnuts, when they are used. Securing the wingnuts by hand is not adequate, the connections will vibrate loose.

A check of the electrolyte in the battery should be on the maintenance schedule for any boat. A'hydrometer reading of 1.300 or in the green band, indicates the battery is in satisfactory condition. If the reading is 1.150 or in the red band, the battery needs to be charged. Observe the six safety points given in the text when using a hydrometer.

eblue-dist 2007

BATTERY SERVICE
JUMPER CABLES
If booster b a t t e r i e s a r e used f o r s t a r t i n g

6-5

an engine t h e jumper cables must b e conn e c t e d c o r r e c t l y and in t h e proper sequence t o prevent damage t o e i t h e r b a t t e r y , or t o t h e a1t e r n a t o r diodes. ALWAYS connect a cable from t h e posit i v e terminal of t h e dead b a t t e r y t o t h e positive terminal of t h e good b a t t e r y FIRST. NEXT, connect one end of t h e other c a b l e t o t h e negative terminal of t h e good b a t t e r y and t h e other end t o t h e ENGINE f o r a good ground. By making t h e ground connection on t h e engine, if t h e r e is an a r c when you m a k e t h e connection i t will not b e near t h e battery. An a r c near t h e b a t t e r y could c a u s e an explosion, destroying t h e b a t t e r y and causing serious personal INJURY. DISCONNECT t h e b a t t e r y ground c a b l e before replacing an a l t e r n a t o r or b e f o r e connecting any t y p e of m e t e r t o t h e d t e r nator. If i t is necessary t o use a fast- charger on a dead b a t t e r y , ALWAYS disconnect o n e of t h e boat cables from t h e b a t t e r y FIRST, t o prevent burning o u t t h e diodes in t h e rectifier. NEVER use a fast- charger as a booster t o s t a r t t h e engine because t h e voltage regulator may b e DAMAGED. STORAGE If t h e boat i s t o be laid up for t h e winter o r f o r m o r e t h a n a f e w weeks, special

a t t e n t i o n must b e given t o t h e b a t t e r y t o prevent complete discharge or possible darna g e t o t h e terminals and wiring. Refore putting t h e b o a t in storage, disconnect a n d r e m o v e t h e batteries. Clean t h e m thoroughly of any dirt or corrosion, and t h e n c h a r g e t h e m t o full specific gravity reading. A f t e r t h e y a r e fully charged, s t o r e t h e m in a clean cool d r y place where t h e y will not b e damaged o r knocked over. NEVER s t o r e t h e b a t t e r y with anything on t o p of it or cover t h e b a t t e r y in such a manner a s t o prevent air from circulating around t h e fillercaps. All batteries, both new a d old, will discharge during periods of storage, m o r e s o if t h e y a r e hot t h a n if t h e y r e m a i n cool. Therefore, t h e e l e c t r o l y t e level and t h e specific gravity should b e checked at regular intervals. A drop in t h e specific gravity reading is cause t o c h a r n e t h e m back t o a full reading. In cold climates, c a r e should b e exercised in selectiner t h e h a t t e r y s t o r a p e area. A fully-charged b a t t e r y will f r e e z e at about 6Q degrees below zero. A discharged batt e r y , almost dead, will have ice formirap, a t a b u t 13 cdegrees above zero. DUAL BATTERY INSTALLATION T h r e e methods a r e availaMe for utilizing a dual- battery hook-up.

An explosive hydrogen gas is normally released from the cells under a wide range of circumstances. This battery exploded when the gas ignited from someone smoking in the area when the caps were removed. Such an explosion could also be caused by a spark from the battery terminals igniting the gas.

A cornmor, set of heavy-duty jumper cables. Observe the safety precautions given in the text when using jomper cables.

eblue-dist 2007

6-6

ELECTR l CAL

Schematic drawing of a three oattery, two engine hookup.

Schematic drawing far a t w o battery, two engine hookup.

1- A high-capacity switch can be used t o connect t h e two batteries. The accompanying illustration details t h e connections f o r installation of such a switch. This t y p e of switch installation has t h e advantage of being simple, inexpensive, and easy t o mount and hookup. However, if t h e switch is accidently l e f t in t h e closed position, i t will cause t h e convenience loads t o run down both batteries and t h e advantage of t h e dual installation is lost. The switch m a y be closed intentionally t o t a k e advantage of

t h e e x t r a capacity of t h e t w o batteries, or i t may b e temporarily closed t o help s t a r t t h e engine under adverse conditions. 2- A relay, can b e connected i n t o t h e ignition circuit t o enable both batteries t o be automatically put in parallel for charging o r t o isolate them for ignition use during engine cranking and start. By connecting t h e relay coil t o t h e ignition terminal of t h e ignition-starting switch, t h e relay will close during t h e s t a r t t o aid t h e s t a r t i n g battery. If t h e second b a t t e r y is allowed t o run down,

OTHER LOAD

i i
STARTER

Schematic drawing for a two battery, one engine hookup.

Schematic drawing for a single battery, one engine hookup.

eblue-dist 2007

GAUGES AND HORNS this arrangement can b e a disadvantage since i t will draw a load from t h e starting b a t t e r y while cranking t h e engine. One way t o avoid such a condition is t o connect t h e relay coil to t h e ignition switch accessory terminal. When connected in this manner, while t h e engine is being cranked, t h e relay is open. But when t h e engine is running with t h e ignition switch in t h e normal position, t h e relay is closed, and t h e second b a t t e r y is being charged at t h e s a m e t i m e as t h e starting battery. 3- A heavy duty switch installed as d o s e t o t h e batteries as possible can be connected between them. If such an arrangement is used, i t must m e e t t h e standards of t h e American Boat and Yacht Council, Inc. o r t h e F i r e Protection Standard f o r Motor C r a f t , N.F.P.A. No. 302.

6-7

TEMPERATURE GAUGES
The body of t e m p e r a t u r e gauges must b e grounded and t h e y must be supplied with 12 volts. Many gauges have a terminal o n t h e mounting bracket for attaching a ground wire. A t a n g from t h e mounting bracket makes c o n t a c t with t h e gauge. CHECK t o b e s u r e t h e tang does m a k e good c o n t a c t with t h e gauge. Ground t h e wire t o t h e sending unit and t h e needle of t h e gauge should move t o t h e full right position indicating t h e gauge is in serviceable condition.

WARNING LIGHTS
If a problem arises on a boat equipped with water and t e m p e r a t u r e lights or warning horn, t h e first a r e a t o check is t h e light assembly f o r loose wires or burned-out bulbs. Check t h e horn in t h e s h i f t box f o r loose connections and proper grounding. When t h e ignition key i s turned on, t h e light assembly is supplied with 12 volts and grounded through t h e sending unit mounted on t h e engine. When t h e sending unit m a k e s c o n t a c t because t h e water t e m p e r a t u r e is too hot, t h e circuit t o ground is completed and t h e l a m p should light or t h e horn sound.

6-3 GAUGES AND HORNS


Gauges or lights a r e installed t o warn t h e operator of a condition in t h e cooling and lubrication systems t h a t may need attention. The fuel gauge gives an indication of t h e amount of fuel in t h e tank. If t h e engine overheats, a warning light will c o m e on or a horn sound advising t h e operator t o shut down t h e engine and check t h e cause of t h e warning before serious damage is done.

CONSTANT-VOLTAGE SYSTEM
In order for gauges t o register properly, t h e y must b e supplied with a steady voltage. The voltage variations produced by t h e engine charging system would cause e r r a t i c gauge operation, t o o high when t h e generator or alternator voltage is high, and t o o low when t h e generator or alternator is not charging. To remedy this problem, a constant- voltage system is used t o reduce t h e 12-14 volts of t h e electrical system t o a n This steady 5 volts average of 5 volts. ensures t h e gauges will read accurately under varying conditions from t h e electrical system.

Check The Bulb: Turn t h e ignition switch on. Disconnect t h e wire at t h e engine sending unit, and then ground t h e wire. T h e l a m p on t h e dash should light or t h e horn sound. If it does not light, check f o r a burned-out bulb or a break in t h e wiring t o t h e light. If t h e horn does not sound, check

SERVICE PROCEDURES
Systems utilizing warning lights do not require a constant- voltage s y s t e m , therefore, this service is not needed. Service procedures f o r checking t h e gauges and t h e i r sending units is detailed in t h e following sections.

The gauges and controls on the dashboard should be kept clean and protected from water spray, especially when operating in a salt water atmosphere.

eblue-dist 2007

6-8

ELECTR lCAL
6-4 FUEL SYSTEM
FUEL GAUGE
The fuel gauge is intended t o indicate t h e quantity of fuel in t h e tank. As t h e experienced boatman has learned, t h e gauge reading is seldom an a c c u r a t e report of t h e fuel available in t h e tank. The main reason f o r t h i s false reading is because t h e boat is A considerable rarely on an even keel. difference in fuel quantity will b e indicated by t h e gauge if t h e bow or s t e r n is heavy, or if t h e boat has a list t o port or starboard. Therefore, t h e reading is usually low. The amount of fuel drawn from t h e t a n k is dependent on t h e location of t h e fuel pickup t u b e in t h e tank. The engine may c u t o u t while cruising because t h e pickup t u b e is above t h e fuel level. Instead of assuming t h e t a n k is empty, shift weight in t h e boat t o change t h e t r i m and t h e problem may be solved until you a r e a b l e t o t a k e on m o r e fuel

inside t h e shift box. Disconnect t h e horn wires, and then connect a good direct wire from the b a t t e r y t o t h e horn and another wire from t h e horn t o a good ground. The horn should sound. If t h e horn fails t o sound, t h e horn is defective. If t h e horn does sound, t h e wires or connections from t h e engine t o t h e horn need attention.

THERMOMELT STICKS
Thermornelt sticks a r e an easy method of determining if t h e engine is running at t h e proper temperature. Thermomel t sticks a r e not expensive and a r e available at your local marine dealer or from Better Way Marine. (See inside back cover for how t o order i t e m s from B.W .M. S t a r t t h e engine with t h e propeller in t h e water and run i t for about 5 minutes at roughly 3000 rpm. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. The 140 degree stick should m e l t when you touch i t t o t h e lower thermostat housing or on t h e top cylinder. If i t does not m e l t , t h e thermostat is stuck in t h e open position and t h e engine t e m p e r a t u r e is t o o low. Touch t h e 170 degree stick t o t h e s a m e spot on t h e lower thermostat housing or on t h e t o p cylinder. The stick should not melt. If i t does, t h e thermostat is stuck in t h e closed position or t h e water pump is not operating properly because t h e engine is running t o o hot-. For service procedures on t h e cooling system, see Chapter 8.

FUEL GAUGE HOOKUP


The Boating Industry Association recommends t h e following color coding be used on all fuel gauge installations: current-carryBlack - for all ing conductors. Pink -- insulated wire for t h e fuel gauge sending unit t o t h e gauge. Red -- insulated wire for a connection from t h e positive side of t h e b a t t e r y t o any electrical equipment. Connect one end of a pink insulated wire t o t h e terminal on t h e gauge marked TANK and t h e other end t o t h e terminal on t o p of t h e tank unit. Connect one end of a black wire t o t h e terminal on t h e fuel gauge marked IGN a n d t h e other end t o t h e ignition switch.
IGNIrION SWITCH BATTERY

-?

GROUND

THROUGH FRAME

A thermomelt stick is a quick, simple, inexpensive, and fairly accurate method to determine engine running temperature.

Schematic for a safe fuel tank gauge hookup.

eblue-dist 2007

FUEL SYSTEM

6-9

Connect one end of a second black wire t o t h e fuel gauge terminal marked GRD and I t is t h e other end t o a good ground. important for t h e fuel gauge case t o have a good common ground with t h e tank unit. Aboard an all- metal boat, this ground wire is not necessary. However, if t h e dashboard is insulated, o r made of wood or plastic, a wire MUST b e run from t h e gauge ground terminal t o one of t h e bolts securing t h e sending unit in t h e fuel tank, and then from t h e r e t o t h e NEGATIVE side of t h e battery.

t h e dash. 3- The wire from t h e gauge t o t h e ipnition switch is connected at t h e wrong t e r m inal. If the pointer remains at t h e 314 full mark, i t indicates a six-volt gauge is installe d in a 12-volt system. If t h e pointer remains at about 318 full, i t indicates a 12-volt gauge is installee in a six-vol t system.

FUEL GAUGE TROUBLESHOOTING


In order for t h e fuel gauge t o o p e r a t e properly, t h e sending unit and t h e receiving unit must b e of t h e s a m e t y p e and preferably of t h e s a m e make. The following symptoms and possible corrective actions will be helpful in restoring a faulty fuel gauge circuit t o proper operation. If you suspect t h e gauge is not operating properly, t h e first a r e a t o check is all electrical connections from one end t o t h e other. Be sure t h e y a r e clean and tight. Next, check t h e common ground wire between t h e negative side of t h e battery, t h e fuel tank, and t h e gauge on t h e dash. If all wires and connections in t h e circuit a r e in good condition, remove t h e sending unit from t h e tank. Run a wire from t h e gauge mounting flange on t h e tank t o t h e flange of t h e sending unit. Now, move t h e float up-and-down t o determine if t h e receiving unit operates. If t h e sending unit does not appear t o operate, move t h e f l o a t t o t h e midway point of its travel and see if t h e receiving unit indicates half full. If t h e pointer does not move from t h e EMPTY position o n e of four faults could b e t o blame: 1- The dash receiving unit is not properl y grounded. 2- No voltage at t h e dash receiving unit. 3- Negative m e t e r connections a r e on a positive grounded system. 4- Positive m e t e r connections a r e on a negative grounded system. If t h e pointer fails t o move from t h e FULL position, t h e problem could be one of t h r e e faul ts. 1- The t a n k sending unit is not properly grounded. 2- Improper connection between t h e t a n k sending unit and t h e receiving unit on

Preliminary Inspection Inspect all of t h e wiring in t h e circuit f o r possible damage t o t h e insulation o r conductor. Carefully check: 1- Ground connections at t h e receiving unit on t h e dash. 2- Harness connector t o t h e dash unit. 3- Body harness connector t o t h e chassis harness. 4- Ground connection from t h e fuel tank t o t h e t a n k floor pan. 5- Feed wire connection at t h e t a n k sending unit. Gauge Always Reads Full when t h e ignition switch is ON: 1- Check t h e electrical connections at t h e receiving unit on t h e dash; t h e body harness connector t o chassis harness connector; and t h e tank unit connector in t h e tank. 2- Make a continuity check of t h e ground wire from t h e t a n k t o t h e t a n k floor pan. 3- Connect a known good tank unit t o t h e t a n k f e e d wire and t h e ground lead. Raise and lower t h e float and observe t h e receiving unit on t h e dash. If t h e dash unit follows t h e arm movement, replace t h e t a n k sending unit. Gauge Always Reads Empty when t h e ignition switch is ON: Disconnect t h e t a n k unit f e e d wire and do not allow t h e wire terminal t o ground. The gauge on t h e dash should read FULL.
If Gauge Reads Empty: 1- Connect a spare dash unit into t h e dash unit harness connector and pround t h e unit. If t h e spare unit reads FULL, t h e original unit is shorted and must b e replaced. 2- A reading of EMPTY indicates a short in t h e harness between t h e tank sending unit and t h e gauge on t h e dash.

eblue-dist 2007

6- 1 0

ELECTRICAL
The m e t e r readings -range from 0 t o 6,000 rpm, in increments of 100. Tachomet e r s have solid- state electronic circuits which eliminates t h e need f o r relays o r b a t t e r i e s and contributes t o their accuracy. The electronic parts of t h e tachometer susceptible t o moisture a r e coated t o prolong their life. Take t i m e at t h e marine dealer t o specify t h e unit being serviced when purchasing a new tachometer t o ensure t h e c o r r e c t unit is installed.

If Gauge Reads Full: 1- Connect a known good t a n k sending unit t o t h e t a n k f e e d wire and t h e ground 1ead. 2- Raise and lower rhe float while observing t h e dash gauge. If dash gauge follows movement of t h e float, replace t h e tank sending unit.

Gauge Never Indicates Full This test requires shop test equipment. 1- Disconnect t h e f e e d wire t o t h e tank unit and connect t h e wire t o a good ground through a variable resistor or through a spare tank unit. 2- Observe t h e dash gauge reading. The reading should b e FULL when resistance i s increased t o about 90 ohms. This resistance would simulate a full tank. 3- If t h e check indicates t h e dash gauge is operating properly, t h e trouble is e i t h e r in t h e tank sending unit rheostat being shorted, or t h e float is binding. The arm could b e bent, or t h e tank may be deformed. Inspect and c o r r e c t t h e problem. 6-5 TACHOMETER
An a c c u r a t e tachometer can b e installed on any engine. Such an instrument provides a n indication of engine speed in revolutions per minute (rpm). This is accomplished by measuring t h e number of electrical pulses per minute generated in t h e primary circuit of t h e ignition system. The proper tachome t e r MUST be installed. Be sure t o check with your local marine dealer t o ensure t h e proper unit is being installed. The wrong tachometer will cause serious damage t o t h e ignition system.

6-6 HORNS
The only reason for servicing a horn is because i t fails t o o p e r a t e properly o r because i t is o u t of tune. In most cases, t h e problem can be traced t o a n open circuit in t h e wiring or t o a defective relay.

Cleaning: Crocus cloth and carbon tetrachloride should be used t o clean t h e c o n t a c t points. NEVER f o r c e t h e contacts a p a r t o r you will bend t h e c o n t a c t spring and change t h e operating tension. Check Relay and Wiring: Connect a wire from t h e b a t t e r y t o t h e horn terminal. If t h e horn operates, t h e problem is in t h e relay or in t h e horn wiring.
LOCKNUT

AD JUST NUT

0.007" GAUGE 1/4" Wl DE


CONTACT BLADE l N SULATOR The tone of a horn can be adjusted with a 0.007" feeler gauge, as described in the text. T A K E CARE to prevent the feeler gauge from making contact with the case, or the circuit will be shorted out.

Maximum engine performance can only be obtained through proper tuning using a tachometer.

eblue-dist 2007

GENERAL INFORMATION
If both of these appear satisfactory, t h e horn is defective and needs t o b e replaced. Before replacing t h e horn however, connect a second jumper wire from t h e horn f r a m e t o ground t o check t h e ground connection. Test t h e winding for an open circuit, faulty insulation, o r poor ground. Check t h e resistor with an ohmmeter, or test t h e condenser for capacity, ground, and leakage. Inspect t h e diaphragm for cracks.

6- 1 1

Ad just Horn Tone Loosen t h e locknut, and then r o t a t e t h e adjusting screw until t h e desired tone is reached. On a dual horn installation, disconnect one horn and adjust each, one-at-atime. The c o n t a c t point adjustment is made by inserting a 0.007" (1.78 mm) feeler gauge blade between t h e adjusting nut and t h e c o n t a c t blade insulator. TAKE CARE not t o allow t h e feeler gauge t o touch t h e metallic parts of t h e c o n t a c t points because i t would short them out. Now, loosen t h e locknut and turn t h e adjusting nut down until t h e horn fails t o sound. Loosen t h e adjusting nut slowly until t h e horn barely sounds. The locknut MUST b e tightened a f t e r each test. When t h e feeler gauge is withdrawn t h e horn will operate properly and t h e current draw will be satisfactory.
6-7 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM GENERAL INFORMATION
All outboard engines covered in t h i s manual have an e l e c t r i c s t a r t e r motor coupled with a mechanical gear mesh between t h e cranking motor and t h e engine flywheel. This arrangement is similar t o t h e method used t o crank a n automotive engine. If t h e e l e c t r i c cranking system is inoperat i v e for any reason, including a dead or weak battery, some of t h e large horsepower

engines may still b e cranked and s t a r t e d by hand. This is not an easy task, but i t c a n b e done, reference illustration "Am. Two types of s t a r t e r motors m a y b e installed on t h e horsepower and model year engines listed on t h e cover of this manual. On early model engines t h e drive gear was separated from t h e s t a r t e r motor. An intermediate gear was used between t h e pinion gear of t h e s t a r t e r motor and t h e flywheel ring gear. In l a t e r years, t h e intermediate gear was eliminated and t h e pinion gear of t h e s t a r t e r motor moves upward and meshes directly with t h e flywheel ring gear. Since t h e starting motor requires a l a r g e amount of electrical current, i t is necessary t o have a fully charged b a t t e r y available f o r t h e starting system. If t h e boat is equipped with several electrical accessories, such as bait tank with circulating pump, radio, a number of running and accessory lights etc., t h e charging system must b e performing properly t o keep t h e b a t t e r y charged.

Charging Circuit Magneto ignition system engines were manufactured without a generating system installed. The charging circuit was added a f t e r purchase and consists of a generator driven by a belt connected t o t h e flywheel. The flywheel is equipped with a pulley arrangement t o transfer flywheel rotation t o t h e generator pulley through t h e belt. On engines equipped with a b a t t e r y ignition system, a n alternator is installed. The alternator s t a t o r is mounted underneath t h e flywheel. The rotor is a t t a c h e d t o t h e inside diameter of t h e flywheel. As t h e flywheel rotates, a current is generated and f e e d into t h e charging circuit. Choke Circuit The choke is activated by a solenoid. This solenoid a t t r a c t s a plunger t o close t h e choke valves. The solenoid is energized when t h e ignition key is turned t o t h e START position and - t h e choke button is depressed. When using t h e e l e c t r i c choke, t h e manual choke MUST b e in t h e NEUTRAL position. L a t e model engines a r e equipped with a "FULL ONn choke. Electrical current passes through switch in t h e water jacket. As water temperature in t h e w a t e r jacket rises, t h e switch is opened and t h e choke opens, increasing t h e volume of air t o t h e carburetor.

eblue-dist 2007

6- 12

ELECTRICAL
all In this case, if all t h e lights a r e on and t h e radio is being used, t h e total draw on t h e b a t t e r y would b e 4 amps. If t h e engine is running at 1500 rpm or higher, and t h e generator circuit is performing properly by charging t h e b a t t e r y with 10 amps, then a n e t positive gain of 6 a m p s is being recieved by t h e battery. The b a t t e r y can b e externally charged or t h e engine can b e equipped with a generator t o charge t h e b a t t e r y while t h e engine is operating. A voltage regulator, mounted in a junction box on t h e rear of t h e engine, is connected between t h e generator and t h e batt e r y t o prevent overcharging of t h e b a t t e r y while t h e engine is operating. The junction box also houses a fuse t o protect t h e charging circuit. The generator circuit requires at least 1500 rpm engine speed t o effectively charge t h e battery. At this speed, t h e a m p e r e m e t e r on t h e dash will indicate a positive charge t o t h e battery. If t h e boat has a twin engine installation, t h e usual practice is t o use only one b a t t e r y f o r cranking both units. With such a twin installation, only one engine generator should be used t o charge and maintain t h e b a t t e r y at i t s full amperage rating. Most mechanics have discovered if both generators of a twin installation a r e connected t o charge t h e battery, one seems t o "fight" t h e other. Instead of having a n improved system, this type of hook-up cause s many serious electrical problems t h a t a r e unexplainable. See Page 6-16, for detailed service procedures on t h e generator circuit.

Complete service procedures for types of chokes a r e given in Chapter 4.

Starting Circuit The starting circuit consists of a cranking motor and a starter- engaging mechanism. A solenoid is used a s a heavy-duty switch t o carry t h e heavy current from t h e b a t t e r y t o the s t a r t e r motor and s a f e t y switch. The solenoid is a c t u a t e d by turning t h e ignition key t o t h e START position. On some models, a pushbutton is used t o a c t u a t e t h e solenoid. See Section 6-11 for detailed service procedures on t h e s t a r t e r motor circuit.
6-8 GENERATOR CHARGING CIRCUIT
A generator is installed a s a n accessory on engines equipped with a distributor magnetor ignition system. The generator has two terminals on t h e lower end. One terminal is larger than the other and t h e wires connected have different size connectors t o ensure t h e proper wire is connected t o t h e c o r r e c t terminal. If several electrical accessories a r e used and t h e engine is ~ p e r a t i n g idle speed, o r at r below 1500 ram f ~ extended periods of time, t h e h a t t e r y will not receive adequate current t o remain in serviceable condition. The r a t e d capacity of t h e generator is 10-amps. Therefore, t h e electrical accessory load should not exceed 10-amps o r current will b e drawn from t h e b a t t e r y at a preader r a t e than t h e generator is able t o produce. Such a negstive draw on t h e h a t t e r y will result in a run-down condition and failure sf . t h e b a t t e r y t o provide t h e required current t o t h e s t a r t e r f o r cranking t h e engine.

TROUBLESHOOTING
One of t h r e e areas, identified as a, b, and c, below, may cause problems in t h e generating circuit. Any one of t h e problems will result in failure of t h e system t o provide sufficient current t o maintain t h e batt e r y at a satisfactory charge. Remember, t h e generator will only p r ~ d u c e approximately 10 a m p s s f current. Most ampm e t e r s have a 20-amp scale. Therefore, i t is only necessary for t h e scale t o register in t h e 10-amp area, while t h e engine is operating ahove 1500 rprn, t o indicate satisfactory performance a- The 4-amp or 20-amp fuse in t h e junction box may have burned, opening t h e circuit. If t h e fuse requires replacement, a

To calculate t h e amperage draw of a n x c e s s o r y The f d l o w i w simple fcsrrnula may be used: Amps equals v a t t s divided by s Watts volts. A m ~ = -tJolts The volts wi18 slways be 12. Accessories ~111 usually b e eiven in watts. If t h e obsol e t e reasurernewt of candlepower is used, the^ me c;lndle nower is equal t o approximately cane v a t t . Example: A boat has P U P P ~ P lights requiring %watts; auxiliary liql-sts use 90 watts; 2nd a radio r a t e d a t 30v~atts. Amps = 4$ '*Y~tts/12 volts = 4 Amps.

eblue-dist 2007

GENERATOR CIRCUIT check should b e made immediately, t o det e r m i n e why t h e fuse burned protecting t h e circuit. b- The voltage regulator may be defective. If t h e regulator has failed, a thorough check of t h e circuit t o determine t h e cause. Simply replacing t h e regulator usually will not solve t h e problem and t h e new regulator may b e damaged when t h e engine and genera t o r a r e operating. c- The generator may b e defective and fail t o produce t h e current necessary t o maintain t h e battery. The problem may simply b e worn brushes. Replacement with new brushes may solve t h e problem. However, if t h e brushes a r e in good condition, and testing reveals t h e generator must b e replaced, t h e conservative mechanic will install a new voltage regulator at t h e s a m e time.

6- 13

engine above idle speed with a flush attachment connected t o t h e lower unit or with t h e engine mounted in a small test tank, such as a fifty- gallon drum. CAUTIOM: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water

pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump, 1- Check t o be sure all electrical connections in t h e circuit a r e secure and f r e e of corrosion. Double check t h e b a t t e r y connections and terminals. If t h e terminals a r e badly corroded, t h e r e is no way on this green e a r t h f o r t h e current produced by t h e A generator t o reach t h e b a t t e r y cells. special wire brush can b e purchased at very modest cost t o clean t h e inside of t h e wire connectors. A common wire brush may b e used t o clean t h e b a t t e r y terminals. Baking soda and water is a good cleaning agent f o r t h e b a t t e r y surface. 2- Check t h e wiring in t h e circuit f o r broken insulation, or a n actual break in t h e line. Disconnect t h e POSITIVE electrical lead from t h e b a t t e r y as a precaution against a n accidental short causing damage t o t h e voltage regulator. Remove t h e iunction box cover. Check t h e condition of t h e 4-amp or 20-amp fuse with a continuity light, o r install a new fuse and check t h e charging circuit again with t h e engine operating. The 4-amp and 20-amp fuses can easily b e ttpoppedtl out of their retainers in

CRITICAL WORDS The engine must b e operated, in gear, at speeds in excess of 1500 rpm t o test t h e Theref ore, t h e engine generator circuit. MUST be mounted in a body of w a t e r t o prevent a RUNAWAY condition and serious damage t o internal parts, or destruction of t h e unit. NEVER a t t e m p t t o operate t h e

eblue-dist 2007

6- 1 4

ELECTRICAL
BATTERY FIELD

ARMATURE

1
ENGINE GROUND

REGULATOR STARTER

I
CONNECTOR

GROUND TO LOWER MOTOR COVER

v
2- Place t h e junction box cover on i t s back and remove t h e five leads t o t h e voltage regulator. Notice how t h e leads a r e color-coded, as a n assist in connecting t h e m correctly during installation. Remove t h e attaching hardware securing t h e voltage

t h e panel of t h e junction box base and replaced a f t e r t h e cover has been removed. 3- Ground t h e field of t h e generator very QUICKLY and only MOMENTARILY with a jumper wire while t h e engine is operating at approximately 2000 rpm. By MOMENTARILY grounding t h e field, t h e voltage regulator is actually bypassed and t h e generator will "run wild". If t h e a m p m e t e r registers a high reading while t h e generator field is grounded, t h e circuit has a broken wire, or t h e voltage regulator is defective. If t h e a m p m e t e r reading does not change while t h e generator field is grounded, then t h e indication is a faulty generator.

Voltage Regulator 1- Disconnect t h e positive lead from t h e


b a t t e r y terminal t o prevent a n accidental short causing damage in t h e circuit. Loosen t h e t w o wingnuts on both sides of t h e junction box cover. These wingnuts a r e "captive" with t h e cover and cannot b e completely removed, only released from t h e junction box. (This arrangement prevents loss of t h e wingnuts.) Disconnect t h e wires between t h e generator and t h e terminal board in t h e junction box at t h e board, if t h e regulator is t o b e replaced.

eblue-dist 2007

GENERATOR CIRCUIT

6- 15

BROWN

regulator t o t h e cover. Remove t h e regulator. Place t h e new regulator in position in t h e junction box cover and secure i t with t h e attaching hardware. Connect t h e four color-coded wires t o t h e regulator: yellow, f r o m t h e generator armature; blue, from t h e generator field; brown, from t h e battery; and t h e black is t h e ground wire. A second brown wire is connected t o t h e bottom of t h e junction box t o allow additional electric a l accessories t o be connected. This second wire would not have been disconnected t o remove t h e regulator.

a MOMENTARY connection between t h e b a t t e r y terminal and t h e a r m a t u r e terminal of t h e regulator. The generator is now properly "polarized" with t h e new regulator f o r service. 4- Now, disconnect t h e positive b a t t e r y lead again, before installing t h e junction box cover. The f e w moments involved in disconnecting and connecting t h e positive lead a t t h e b a t t e r y is well spent. This small task will prevent any possible short from causing damage t o t h e circuit when working with t h e wires. 5- Install t h e junction box cover t o t h e box base. As t h e cover is moved into place, work t h e wires alongside t h e regulator. Sec u r e t h e cover in place with t h e t w o "captive" wingnuts.

CRITICAL WORDS When a new voltage regulator is installed, t h e generator must b e "polarized" BEFORE t h e cover is installed. 3- "Polarize" t h e new regulator by f i r s t connecting t h e positive lead t o t h e battery, and then using a small jumper wire t o m a k e

eblue-dist 2007

&1 6

ELECTRICAL

TERM l NAL

CENERATOR SERVICE
1- Disconnect t h e positive lead at t h e b a t t e r y terminal. Remove t h e hood from t h e engine. If t h e engine has a hand s t a r t e r , remove t h e retaining bolts and lift off t h e hand starter. Prevent t h e s h a f t from turning by engaging an open-end wrench with t h e f l a t s on t h e generator s h a f t underneath t h e pulley. Now, while continuing t o hold t h e wrench on the shaft, remove t h e nut from t h e t o p of t h e generator pulley.

2- Remove t h e generator belt from t h e pulley. Use a screwdriver or other similar tool and pry t h e puller up and f r e e of t h e generator shaft. Hold t h e generator, and at t h e s a m e t i m e remove t h e nuts from t h e t o p of t h e generator support bracket, and t h e generator is free. 3- Remove t h e two wires on t h e bottom side of t h e generator. Notice how o n e generator stud is smaller than t h e other and t h e electrical connectors a r e different sizes t o match t h e studs. 4- Remove t h e two nuts from t h e wire terminals at t h e bottom of t h e generator. Work out t h e two white insulators from around t h e studs. Remove t h e t w o thrubolts. 5- Remove t h e end c a p from t h e generator. After t h e c a p has been removed, t a k e notice of t h e smali dowel in t h e end of t h e generator. This dowel ensures t h e c a p will

eblue-dist 2007

GENERATOR CIRCUIT

6- 17

b e installed correctly when t h e dowel is indexed in a matching hole in t h e cap. Pull t h e a r m a t u r e and upper c a p out of t h e frame.

Testing for a Ground 7- Obtain a test lamp or continuity meter. Make c o n t a c t with one probe lead on t h e a r m a t u r e c o r e and t h e other probe lead on t h e commutator bar. If t h e l a m p lights, o r t h e m e t e r indicates continuity, t h e armat u r e is grounded and MUST be replaced. Checking the Commutator Bar 8- Check between or check bar-to-bar a s shown in t h e accompanying illustration. The test light should light, or t h e m e t e r should indicate continuity. If t h e commutator fails t h e test, t h e a r m a t u r e MUST b e Field Coil Test for Ground 9- Check t o be sure t h e f r e e end of t h e field wire is not grounded t o t h e f r a m e and t h e field insulation is not broken. Using a test l a m p or ohmmeter, make c o n t a c t with one probe lead t o t h e ground of t h e generator frame. Make c o n t a c t with t h e other

ARMATURE TESTING

Testing for a Short Position the armature On a growler, then hold a hacksaw blade over t h e armat u r e core. Turn t h e growler switch t o t h e ON position. Slowly r o t a t e t h e armature. If t h e hacksaw blade k b r a t e s , t h e a r m a t u r e or commutator has a short. Clean t h e grooves between t h e commutator bars on t h e armature. Perform t h e test again. If t h e hacksaw blade still vibrates during t h e t e s t , t h e a r m a t u r e has a short and MUST be replaced.

'-

eblue-dist 2007

6- 18

ELECTRICAL

lead t o t h e field terminal. If t h e lamp lights or t h e ohmmeter indicates continuity, t h e field coils a r e grounded. If t h e location of t h e ground in t h e field coils cannot b e determined, or repaired, t h e coils MUST b e replaced.

Make positive or insulated brush holder. c o n t a c t with t h e o t h e r probe lead t o a good ground on t h e generator frame. If t h e l a m p lights, or t h e ohmmeter indicates continuity, t h e brush holder is grounded due t o defective insulation at t h e frame.

Armature Terminal Test for Ground 10- Check t o b e sure t h e loose end of t h e a r m a t u r e terminal lead of t h e generator is NOT grounded t o t h e frame. Using a test lamp o r ohmmeter, make c o n t a c t with o n e probe lead t o t h e a r m a t u r e terminal of t h e generator. Make c o n t a c t with t h e other probe lead t o a good ground on t h e generator frame. If t h e test l a m p lights or t h e ohmmeter indicates continuity, t h e positive terminal insulation through t h e generator f r a m e is broken down and MUST b e replaced. Positive Brush Test for Ground 11- Using a test lamp or ohmmeter, m a k e c o n t a c t with one probe lead t o t h e

Field Test 12- Using a test l a m p or ohmmeter, make c o n t a c t with one probe lead t o t h e a r m a t u r e stud. Make c o n t a c t with t h e other probe lead t o t h e a r m a t u r e brush. The lamp should light or t h e ohmmeter indicate continuity. If this test is not successful, check f o r a poor connection between t h e stud and t h e brush. CLEANING AND INSPECTING
Check t h e ball bearing at t h e end of t h e commutator bar. Verify t h a t t h e bearing turns f r e e with no sign of "rough spots" or binding. Hold t h e a r m a t u r e in one hand and turn t h e upper c a p on t h e s h a f t with t h e other hand. The c a p and shaft should turn freely with no sign of binding. If e i t h e r of

eblue-dist 2007

GENERATOR CIRCUIT

6- 19

GENERATOR PULLEY

UPPER HEAD

FLYWHEEL PULLEY

ARMATURE

THRU BOLT

LOWER HEAD

Exploded view of a generator with principle parts identified.

eblue-dist 2007

6-20

ELECTRICAL

CORRECT

l NCORRECT

Armature segments properly cleaned ( l e f t ) and improperly cleaned (right).

t h e s e tests a r e not successful, t h e bearing MUST be replaced. Check t h e amount of brush wear. If t h e brush is worn more than 50% of i t s original size, o r t o within 114" (6.35 mm) of t h e base, i t should b e replaced. Replacement of t h e brushes is a simple task. First, remove t h e brush retaining screw, and then remove t h e old brush and install a new brush. Secure t h e new brush in place with t h e retaining screw. If t h e a r m a t u r e commutator requires turning, i t should be turned in a l a t h e t o ensure accuracy. The local generator shop can perform this task, usually f o r a very reasonable fee. If t h e turning is accomplished by other than generator shop personnel, t h e following words a r e necessarv. Aft e r t h e turning, a n undercut should b e made. The insulation between t h e commutator bars should b e 1-314" (4.44 cm). This undercut must be t h e full width of t h e insulation and f l a t at t h e bottom. A triangular groove is NOT satisfactory. After t h e undercut work is completed t h e slot should b e thoroughly cleaned t o remove any foreign material, dirt, or copper dust. Sand t h e commutator LIGHTLY with "00" sandpaper t o remove a n y slight burrs l e f t from t h e undercutting. After all work has been completed, test t h e unit again, on t h e growler.

ASSEMBLING THE GENERATOR

1- Slide t h e a r m a t u r e into t h e f r a m e and align t h e t o p a r m a t u r e c a p with t h e dowel in t h e frame. Proper alignment is achieved when t h e dowel in t h e f r a m e indexes into a matching hole in t h e cap. As t h e a r m a t u r e is moved into place, pull back on t h e brushes, and work t h e m around t h e commutator bar. 2- Install t h e end c a p down over t h e studs of t h e field and armature. Check t o b e sure t h e dowel in t h e f r a m e has indexed with t h e hole in t h e cap. 3- Install t h e two thru- bolts and secure t h e complete assembly with t h e nuts. 4- Place t h e t w o bushings over t h e terminal studs of t h e a r m a t u r e and field. Sec u r e t h e bushings in place with t h e washers and proper nuts (one terminal is larger than t h e other).

DOWEL PIN

eblue-dist 2007

GENERATOR CIRCUIT

6-2 1

Testing by Rotating the Armature Performing this test will also "polarize t h e new or rebuilt generator. If this test is not performed, t h e new or rebuilt generator MUST still b e lfpolarizedllfollowing installation. " P o l a r i ~ a t i o n at~ t h a t t i m e is ac~ complished by f i r s t connecting t h e b a t t e r y t o t h e system in t h e normal manner, and then connecting a jumper lead t o t h e BAT terminal of t h e voltage regulator. Next, MOMENTARILY make c o n t a c t with t h e othe r end of t h e jumper lead t o t h e GEN terminal of t h e regulator. The generator is now "polarized" f o r service.
f f

Return t o t h e bench f o r tesing a f t e r rebuilding t h e generator. CAUTION: The a r m a t u r e will turn rapidly during this test. Therefore, t h e generat o r MUST b e well SECURED before making t h e test t o prevent personal INJURY or damage t o t h e generator. 1- Connect a jumper wire between t h e field terminal and a good ground on t h e case. Connect a second jumper wire between t h e positive b a t t e r y terminal a n d t h e a r m a t u r e stud. MOMENTARILY make contact with t h e negative lead from t h e b a t t e r y t o any good ground on t h e generator. The

generator should r o t a t e rapidly. If t h e gene r a t o r fails t o rotate, t h e generator must b e disassembled again and t h e service work carefully checked. Sorry about t h a t , but s o m e phase of t h e rebuild task was not performed properly. 2- Check t o b e sure t h e Woodruff key is in place in t h e generator shaft. Install t h e generator into t h e bracket and at t h e s a m e t i m e slide t h e pulley onto t h e a r m a t u r e s h a f t with t h e slot in t h e pulley indexed with t h e Woodruff key. Secure t h e generat o r in place with t h e attaching hardware,

eblue-dist 2007

6-22

ELECTRICAL current drained from t h e b a t t e r y t o s t a r t and o p e r a t e t h e engine. On engines equibped with b a t t e r y ignition systems, a 15 t o 20-amp alternator is installed. On engines with t h e C D ignition system, t h e alternator is rated at approximately 2 t o 3-amps above t h e requirements f o r operating t h e engine. Therefore, any accessories added t o t h e engine or boat would require a higher output alternator. This higher output is usually accomplished through t h e installation of a n alternator kit available from t h e local OMC dealer. The alternator consists of a s t a t o r mounted underneath t h e flywheel, a rotor a t t a c h e d t o t h e inside diameter of t h e flywheel, and a regulator on t h e larger output alternators. A set of positive and negative diodes is installed in t h e system t o change t h e alternating current t o direct (dc) current. The necessary wiring t i e s t h e system together. Under normal operating conditions, very f e w problems a r e encountered with t h e alt e r n a t o r system. The most prevalent problem is connecting t h e b a t t e r y backwards. Such action will damage t h e diodes in t h e svstern. The red cable from t h e s t a r t e r motor solenoid terminal must b e connected t o t h e positive b a t t e r y terminal. The black cable from engine ground must b e connected t o t h e negative b a t t e r y terminal. Another problem a r e a is t h e use of a charging system with t h e b a t t e r y disconnected. This pract i c e will damage t h e diodes or t h e voltage regulator.
OPERATION

but DO NOT tighten t h e nuts on t h e generat o r thru-bolts a t this time. 3- Install t h e drive belt around t h e pulley on t h e bottom side of t h e flywheel and onto t h e generator pulley. Install t h e lockwasher and nut t o secure t h e generator pulley in place. Hold t h e genera.tor s h a f t from turning with a n men- wrench on t h e f l a t s of t h e shaft underneath t h e pulley. 4- Adjust tension on t h e generator pulley by pulling t h e generator away from t h e engine, and then tightening t h e thru-bolt nuts securing t h e generator in t h e bracket. The pulley is properly adjusted when i t may be depressed approximately 1/4" (6.35 m m ) a.t a ooint mid-way between t h e t w o pulleys. Install t h e hand s t a r t e r , if one is used.

6-9 ALTERNATOR CHARGING CIRCUIT


An alternator system, reference f unctional diagram illustration "A", is installed on engines equipped with a b a t t e r y or C D ignition system. The system replaces t h e

Immediately a f t e r engine s t a r t , t h e amm e t e r on t h e dash may indicate a full charging r a t e equal t o t h e capacity of t h e alternator. As engine operation continues, t h e r a t e of charge will fall off, depending on t h e number of electrical accessories in use. Any high demand on t h e b a t t e r y will result in an increase in -the charging r a t e until t h e b a t t e r y approaches a full or nearly full state of charge. The alternator system contains t w o distinct circuits, t h e field circuit and t h e charging circuit.

Field Circuit When t h e ignition switch is turned passed t h e ON position t o t h e START position, t h e field circuit is closed t o cause a current

eblue-dist 2007

ALTERNATOR CIRCUIT
flow from t h e positive pole of t h e b a t t e r y directly t o and through t h e field coils; on through t h e transistor; then through a ground return t o t h e negative pole of t h e battery t o complete t h e circuit. The ignition switch is spring loaded for starting. Once t h e engine starts, t h e key will return t o t h e O N position and remain t h e r e while t h e engine is operating. An indicator light bridges t h e field circuit and glows GREEN when t h e key is s e t t o t h e ON position. This light will continue t o glow until t h e switch is turned t o t h e OFF position when t h e engine is shut down. Bear-in-mind, b a t t e r y current continues flowing through t h e field circuit as long as t h e ignition switch is in t h e O N position. This is t r u e regardless of whether t h e engine is operating or not. Therefore, if t h e switch should b e accidently turned t o or l e f t in t h e ON position, t h e b a t t e r y will discharge itself through t h e field and ignition circuits and continue doing so until t h e b a t t e r y is completely discharged or, until t h e ignition switch is turned to t h e OFF position.

6-23

Charging Circuit
When t h e field coil is energized, a s just

described, t h e s t a t o r c o r e becomes magnetized. The upper row of pole segments assumes a NORTH polarity and t h e lower row of segments a SOUTH polarity. A magnetic field i s built-up around t h e poles, shifting through t h e surrounding atmosphere, from north t o south poles. Now, t h e irregularly shaped rotor a t t a c h e d t o and revolving with t h e flywheel around t h e stat o r poles, passes through i n t e r m i t t e n t a r e a s of variable magnetic field density. It does s o in such a manner as t o cause a current surge traveling in one direction t o b e induced in every other s t a t o r coil. A t t h e next instant, a surge traveling in t h e oppos i t e direction, is induced in t h e oppositely wound intervening coils as i t e n t e r s and passes through t h e adjacent field, creating alternating (ac) current. The s t a t o r includes 36 s t a t o r coils. Therefore, t h e current surges alternately 36 t i m e s per EACH revolution of t h e flywheel, which amounts t o 36,000 such reversals per e a c h 1000 motor rpm. At 4500 engine rpm, t h e r a t e is 162,000 alternating surges. This amount of current cannot b e employed t o charge t h e b a t t e r y but must b e first rectified or changed t o d i r e c t (dc) current. This

DASHBOARC INSTALLATIOF

I I I
I
I
I

I I

111

REGULATOR

lGNiTlON SWITCH

'

I I

IONlTlON

SAFTEY SWITCH

'

1 9 6 79

Schematic diagram of engine with flywheel alternator.

eblue-dist 2007

6-24

ELECTRICAL

function is accomplished by t h e diodes installed in series with t h e charging circuit. Two diodes a r e of positive polarity and t w o a r e negative. The diodes permit voltage t o pass in one direction and prevent passage in direction. the o~posite On engines equipped with a higher output alternator, a transistorized voltage regulat o r is installed in series with t h e b a t t e r y field circuit. This regulator confines alternator voltage rise t o within predetermined limits by automatically regulating intensity of t h e s t a t o r field. TROUBLESHOOTING The following alternator troubleshooting numbered procedures a r e divided into t w o groups. The first covers a n alternator installed on a n engine equipped with a battery- type ignition system and a 20-amp alternator. The second set of procedures covers engines with CD ignition. BEFORE assuming t h e alternator may b e at fault, check all wiring and connections associated with t h e alternator circuit. Frayed wires, loose connections, corroded terminals, or a defective battery, will cause problems in t h e alternator circuit. The b a t t e r y must b e FULLY charged, t h e terminals clean, t h e cable connections tight, and t h e b a t t e r y polarity properly connected bef o r e any troubleshooting work is commenced on t h e alternator circuit. Proper polarity means t h e c o r r e c t cables a r e connected t o t h e positive and negative b a t t e r y terminals. One end of t h e positive (red) cable should b e connected t o t h e positive b a t t e r y terminal and t h e other end t o t h e s t a r t e r motor solenoid terminal. One &nd of t h e negative (black) cable should b e connected t o t h e negative b a t t e r y terminal and t h e other end t o a good ground on t h e engine. Fuse C h e c k Check t h e heavy-duty 60-amp f u s e in t h e junction box. On early model engines, this fuse is located in t h e junction box on t h e bottom side of t h e bar t o which t h e diodes a r e attached, reference illustration "B". On later model engines this fuse is locate d underneath t h e small black cover of t h e diodes installed on t h e flywheel guard cover, reference illustration "Cn. The fuse does not appear as a normal fuse. The fuse is square with a piece of m e t a l on t h e back side and another on t h e front. The metal pieces a r e separated by a heavy insulating material. A narrow piece of metal connects t h e front and back metal strips. It is this small connecting piece of metal t h a t will burn through and render t h e fuse defective. -

All Alternator Systems


Check t o b e sure all electrical accessories a r e turned OFF, such as radio, lights, bait pump, blower, etc. Turn t h e ignition switch t o t h e ON position several times and observe t h e needle of t h e a m m e t e r on t h e dash and t h e indicator light (if one is installed). A slight amount of needle movement t o t h e negative side should b e observed each

eblue-dist 2007

ALTERNATOR CIRCUIT
t i m e t h e switch is moved t o t h e O N position, and t h e light should c o m e on. If needle movement is t o t h e positive side, t h e battery or some other component is connected in reverse polarity. A considerable amount of needle movement t o t h e negative side indicates a short some place in t h e electrical or ignition systems. Such a short would prevent t h e alternator from overcoming t h e drain on t h e battery. If t h e r e is no needle movement, check all wiring and terminal connections t o b e sure they a r e in good condition.

6-25

6-10 ALTERNATORS WITH BATTERY IGNITION MODELS 1961 THRU 1967 Voltage Regulator Check 1- Mount t h e engine in a n adequate size test tank or in a body of water. Remove t h e junction box cover at t h e rear of t h e boat. S t a r t t h e engine and allow i t t o warm t o operating t e m p e r a t u r e at 500 rpm. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. Increase engine speed t o approximately 1500 rpm. While t h e engine is running, use a screwdriver and ground t h e field terminal at t h e voltage regulator. Grounding t h e field terminal effectively removes t h e voltage regulator from t h e a1ternator circuit. Observe t h e a m m e t e r on t h e dash. A high

positive reading indicates a defective volt a g e regulator. A low, or negative, reading indicates problems in t h e stator, wiring, or diodes. Unless you have considerable experience with voltage regulator repair work, simply replace t h e regulator. The voltage regulator is secured on rubber mounts and therefore is allowed t o move t o compensate for engine vibration. Therefore, TAKE CARE when installing t h e regulator and t h e junction box cover t o allow slack in t h e wires t o permit t h e regulator t o move. If t h e a m m e t e r on t h e dash does not move while t h e engine is running and t h e field terminal is grounded, shut t h e engine down and proceed with t h e testing.

Diode Check A diode is simply an electrical check valve, allowing current t o flow in one direction but preventing i t from flowing in t h e opposite direction. Two positive diodes a n d t w o negative diodes a r e installed on all a1ternator circuits. 2- Disconnect t h e b a t t e r y from t h e system. On early model engines, disconnect t h e four diode leads from t h e junction box, t w o positive and two negative. 3- On l a t e r models, remove t h e cover on t h e flywheel guard t o expose t h e diodes. Connect one lead of an ohmmeter t o t h e ground terminal of t h e junction box and t h e o t h e r lead t o t h e terminal of t h e diode t o b e tested. Observe t h e ohmmeter. Reverse t h e leads of t h e ohmmeter. Again observe t h e ohmmeter. Continuity should be indic a t e d with t h e leads connected one way and no continuity when connected in reverse. If continuity is indicated in both directions,

eblue-dist 2007

6-26

ELECTRICAL

t h e diode is defective and must b e replaced. If continuity is not indicated in one direction, t h e diode is defective. Check t h e other t h r e e diodes in t h e s a m e manner

Stator Field Winding Checks SPECIAL WORDS For t h e following Steps 3, 4, 5, and 6, t h e s t a t o r has been removed ONLY f o r photographic clarity, t o show t h e electrical connections under t h e stator. 4- Disconnect t h e quick-disconnect plug on t h e starboard side of t h e engine just behind t h e s t a r t e r motor. This plug connects t h e wires from t h e s t a t o r t o t h e wires t o engine wiring harness. This connector will contain a red and blue wire from t h e stator. Obtain a n ohmmeter and set t h e reading for t h e high scale. Connect o n e lead of t h e m e t e r t o a good ground on t h e engine and t h e other lead t o either t h e blue o r t h e red wire going t o t h e stator. The

m e t e r should indicate NO continuity (an infinite reading). If continuity is indicated (less than 5000 ohms), t h e s t a t o r is grounded and should b e replaced. 5- S e t t h e ohmmeter t o t h e low scale. Connect m e t e r leads t o t h e red and blue s t a t o r field leads. The m e t e r reading should be from 1.69 ohms t o 3.14 ohms. A too high reading indicates an open (circuit) winding. A t o o low reading indicates a shorted field winding. In e i t h e r case, t h e s t a t o r is defective and must be replaced.

Stator Winding Tests 6- Connect t h e t w o halves of t h e quickdisconnect t h a t were separated f o r Steps 4 and 5. Disconnect t h e yellow leads t o t h e stator. S e t t h e ohmmeter selector t o t h e high ohm scale. Leave one m e t e r lead connected t o ground and connect t h e other

eblue-dist 2007

ALTERNATOR CIRCUIT
lead t o either yellow s t a t o r winding leads from t h e stator. Observe t h e ohmmeter. Connect t h e m e t e r lead t o t h e o t h e r yellow wire and again observe t h e meter. The m e t e r should indicate NO continuity (an infinite reading) during t h e either test. If continuity is indicated (less than 5000 ohms) during either t e s t , t h e s t a t o r is defective and must b e replaced. 7- Set t h e m e t e r selector t o t h e low ohm scale. Connect t h e m e t e r leads t o t h e yellow leads t o t h e stator. Observe t h e m e t e r reading. If less t h a n 1 ohm is indicated, t h e s t a t o r is satisfactory. A higher than 1 ohm reading indicates a broken (open) winding and t h e s t a t o r must b e replaced.

6-27

6-81 ALTERNATOR WITH CD IGNITION 100 HP 1967 ALL CD IGNITION 1%8 TO 1972
Most engines covered in this section were manufactured and distributed with 9a m p a1ternators as standard f a c t o r y equipment. The one exception is t h e 65 hp 1972 model which had a 6-amp alternator. However, due t o the addition of accessories, these units may have a 15-amp a l t e r n a t o r installed. If t h e higher r a t e d alternator is used, a voltage regulator must be installed.

associated with t h e alternator circuit. Frayed wires, loose connections, corroded terminals, o r a defective battery, will cause problems in t h e alternator circuit. The b a t t e r y must be FULLY charged, t h e terminals clean, t h e cable connections tight, and t h e b a t t e r y polarity properly connected, bef o r e any troubleshooting work is commenced on t h e alternator circuit. Proper polarity means t h e c o r r e c t cables a r e connected t o t h e positive and negative b a t t e r y terminals. One end of t h e positive (red) cable should b e connected t o t h e positive b a t t e r y terminal and t h e other end t o t h e s t a r t e r motor solenoid terminal. One end of t h e negative (black) cable should b e connected t o t h e negative b a t t e r y terminal and t h e o t h e r end t o a good ground on t h e engine.

Voltage Regulator Check


A voltage regulator is only installed with a 15-amp alternator following engine purc h a s e a s a n accessory. I t is not a f a c t o r y i t e m nor is i t original equipment. The voltage regulator installed with a C D ignition system is a solid state type. This means, if t h e regulator is proven t o b e defective, i t must b e discarded, i t cannot b e repaired. Theref ore, if t h e following checks indicate t h e voltage regulator is defective, t h e only remedy t o restore t h e circuit t o satisfactory performance is t o replace t h e regulator. If t h e regulator is defective, i t may allow t o o much voltage t o pass through, o r i t may prevent sufficient voltage from passing t o m e e t t h e engine and accessory demands t o keep t h e b a t t e r y fully charged. Continually adding water t o t h e b a t t e r y at an unreasonable frequency, could b e a n indication t h e voltage regulator is allowing excessive voltage t o pass through t o t h e battery. If t h e b a t t e r y cannot b e maintaine d at a satisfactory charge, a defective regulator could b e one of several i t e m s t o blame. 1- Mount t h e engine in a n adequate size If a n t e s t tank or in a body of water. a m m e t e r is not installed on t h e dash, disconnect t h e red wire on t h e positive side of t h e s t a r t e r solenoid. Connect one a m m e t e r lead t o this red wire and t h e o t h e r m e t e r lead t o t h e positive terminal of t h e s t a r t e r solenoid. The m e t e r is now in series with t h e alternator circuit. S t a r t t h e engine and allow i t t o warm t o operating t e m p e r a t u r e at 500 rpm.

TROUBLESHOOTING
The following troubleshooting procedures give detailed steps f o r checking t h e voltage regulator, alternator output, t h e rectifier, and t h e stator. BEFORE assuming t h e alternator may b e at fault, check all-wiring and connections

eblue-dist 2007

6-28

ELECTRICAL
AMMETER

( 3

/r\

IGNITION SWITCH.

/
19680

BATTERY

'

CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to t h e engine any time the engine is run t o prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. Increase engine speed t o approximately 1500 rpm. Observe t h e a m m e t e r on t h e dash or t h e m e t e r connected i n t o t h e circuit. The a m m e t e r should indicate maximum output f o r t h e alternator rating, t h e n gradually fall back. If t h e a m m e t e r fails t o indicate t h e required current, shut down t h e engine and disconnect t h e voltage regulator from t h e circuit, either at t h e quick-disconn e c t at t h e rear of t h e engine, or from t h e terminal board. Again, s t a r t and o p e r a t e t h e engine a t approximately 1500 rpm and observe t h e ammeter. If t h e m e t e r indicate.. adequate current passing through, t h e voltage regulator is defective and must b e replaced. If the a m m e t e r still fails t o indicate adequate current, proceed with testing other components in t h e system.
A1ternator Output Check 2- Connect one lead of a n ac voltmeter t o a good ground on t h e engine. S t a r t t h e engine.
VOLTMETER

CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run t o prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. MOMENTARILY make c o n t a c t with t h e o t h e r m e t e r lead t o f i r s t one of t h e yellow leads from t h e s t a t o r and then t o t h e o t h e r yellow lead. This momentary c o n t a c t will b e m a d e t o t h e yellow leads inside t h e quick- disconnect fitting, or at t h e terminal board, depending on t h e model engine being serviced. The m e t e r should indicate 12volts when t h e m e t e r c o n t a c t is m a d e t o e i t h e r yellow lead. If t h e m e t e r fails t o indicate 12-volts, t h e rectifier or t h e s t a t o r mav b e defective. Continue with t h e testing. Rectifier Checks Four checks must b e performed on t h e rectifier t o determine if i t is acceptable f o r f u r t h e r service. Two tests a r e performed for t h e negative diodes and two for t h e positive diodes. 3- Disconnect both t h e positive and nega t i v e cables from t h e b a t t e r y terminals. Obtain a n ohmmeter a n d set t h e selector t o t h e high ohm scale. Disconnect t h e rectifie r leads at t h e terminal board. (If a terminal board is not used, disconnect t h e rectifie r leads at t h e connector.) Connect one

GROUND

GROUND TERMINAL BLOCK OR CONNECTOR

RECTIFIER

19 6.81

ENGINE GROUND

eblue-dist 2007

ALTERNATOR CIRCUIT
ohmmeter lead t o a good ground on t h e rectifier and t h e other lead t o one of t h e yellow leads. Observe t h e m e t e r reading. Reverse t h e connections and again observe t h e meter. The m e t e r should indicate continuity in one direction but not in t h e other. Therefore, if a reading is obtained in both directions, o r if a reading is not obtained in one direction, t h e diode in t h e rectifier is defective and t h e rectifier must be replaced. Repeat t h e test f o r t h e other yellow wire. If t h e test fails, t h e other diode is defective and t h e rectifier must be replaced. 4- Connect one ohmmeter lead t o one of t h e yellow leads from t h e rectifier and t h e other lead t o t h e red or purple wire. Obs e r v e t h e m e t e r reading. Reverse t h e connections and again observe t h e meter. The m e t e r should indicate continuity in only one direction. If t h e test fails, t h e diode in t h e rectifier is defective and t h e rectifier must be replaced. Leave one m e t e r lead connecte d t o t h e red wire and connect t h e other m e t e r lead t o t h e other yellow wire. Obs e r v e t h e m e t e r reading. If continuity is observed in both directions or not in e i t h e r direction, t h e diode in t h e rectifier is defective and t h e rectifier must be replaced.
Stator Check

6-29

5- Check t o be sure both cables a r e disconnected from t h e battery. Separate t h e quick-disconnect from t h e s t a t o r leads. Obtain an ohmmeter and set t h e selector t o t h e low ohm scale. Connect t h e m e t e r leads t o t h e t w o yellow leads going t o t h e stator. The m e t e r should indicate a s follows: 9a m p a l t e r n a t o r -- 0.75 + 0.2 ohms; 15-amp + alternator -- 0.4 - 0.1 oh%.

SPECIAL WORDS The 15-amp alternator installation has a voltage regulator, t h e 9-amp unit does not. Therefore, t h e alternator output rating can quickly be determined. If t h e reading is not a s indicated, t h e s t a t o r is defective and must be replaced. 6- S e t t h e ohmmeter selector t o t h e high ohm scale. Connect one m e t e r lead t o a good ground on t h e engine and t h e other lead t o one of t h e yellow wires going t o t h e stator. The m e t e r should indicate no continuity. If continuity is indicated, t h e s t a t o r is defective and must b e replaced.

YELLOW OR YELLOWEFEY

YELLOW / I RECT I FLER

>

eblue-dist 2007

6-30

ELECTRICAL

Clipper Circuit Check


The clipper c i r c u i t p r o t e c t s t h e C D ignition system against a n i n t e r m i t t e n t b a t t e r y c u r r e n t , o r a sudden surge of c u r r e n t f r o m t h e alternator. The clipper circuit must b e checked if t h e b a t t e r y suddenly went dead, t h e GD amplifier b e c a m e inoperative, o r if t h e batt e r y c u r r e n t has f l u c t u a t e d or been interrupted. 7- To check t h e clipper c i r c u i t properly, a shifting diode, OMC P a r t No. 383840, and an o h m m e t e r a r e required. The diode i s used t o determine which m e t e r lead is t h e o h m m e t e r case lead. Connect t h e purple a n d green lead from t h e diode t o one of t h e o h m m e t e r leads. Connect t h e vellow lead t o t h e other m e t e r lead. If t h e m e t e r indicates zero or has a very low reading, t h e t e s t lead connected t o t h e yellow diode lead is t h e case lead. If t h e m e t e r has a high reading, t h e m e t e r lead connected t o t h e purple and green diode leads is t h e case lead. Identify t h e c a s e lead with a tag or piece of tape. 8- Disconnect t h e clipper circuit from t h e engine. The t e s t s will be m a d e on t h e work bench. Early model clipper circuits had t h r e e wires, t w o yellow and one ~ u r p l e

wire. L a t e r c i r c u i t s had a fourth wire, black, for a ground wire. The following t e s t s a r e identical e x c e p t f o r grounding. Momentarily ground t h e purple wire t o t h e c a s e t o discharge any c u r r e n t in t h e clipper circuit. C o n n e c t t h e c a s e t e s t lead t o t h e ground wire of t h e clipper c i r c u i t o r directly t o t h e case. Connect t h e o t h e r t e s t lead t o o n e of t h e yellow wires. The m e t e r should indicate a t l e a s t 300 ohms. If t h e reading is lower than 300 ohms, t h e clipper circuit m u s t be replaced. 9- Momentarily ground t h e purple wire t o t h e c a s e t o discharge any c u r r e n t in t h e clipper circuit. Connect the meter case wire t o a ground wire of t h e clipper circuit. Connect the o t h e r m e t e r lead t o t h e yellow wire with t h e gray stripe. If t h e m e t e r indicates less than 300 ohms, t h e clipper circuit must be replaced.

CASE LEAD

CASE L E A D

eblue-dist 2007

STARTER MOTOR

6-31

a- Obtain an ohmmeter.
b- Connect t h e black m e t e r lead t o a n unpainted or ti on of t h e engine block for a good ground. c- Connect t h e red m e t e r lead t o t h e choke terminal. d- Test t h e circuit using t h e R x l scale of t h e ohmmeter. A satisfactory reading is approximately 3 ohms. e- After t h e t e s t is completed, check t o be sure t h e choke plunger is pulled into t h e choke solenoid.

CASE LEAD

10- Momentarily ground t h e purple wire t o t h e case t o discharge any current in t h e clipper circuit. Connect t h e m e t e r case lead t o t h e ground wire of t h e clipper circuit and t h e other m e t e r lead t o t h e purple wire. If t h e m e t e r indicates more than 300 ohms, proceed t o t h e next test. If t h e reading is less than 300 ohms, or if t h e needle moves toward zero and then returns t o infinite ohms, t h e clipper circuit is def e c t i v e and must b e replaced. 11- Momentarily ground t h e purple wire t o t h e case t o discharge any current in t h e clipper circuit. Connect t h e m e t e r case wire t o t h e purple wire and t h e o t h e r lead t o t h e ground wire of t h e clipper circuit. If t h e needle moves towards z e r o and returns t o infinite ohms, t h e clipper circuit is satisfactory. If t h e needle fails t o move or moves t o z e r o and remains at zero, t h e clipper circuit is defective and must b e replaced. 6-12

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
As t h e n a m e implies, t h e sole purpose of t h e s t a r t e r motor circuit is t o control operation of t h e s t a r t e r motor t o crank t h e engine until t h e engine is operating. The circuit includes a solenoid or magnetic switch t o connect or disconnect t h e s t a r t e r f r o m t h e battery. The operator controls t h e switch with a pushbutton o r key switch. A c u t o u t switch is installed in t h e system t o prevent starting t h e engine if t h e t h r o t t l e is advanced too far, beyond idle speed. When t h e t h r o t t l e is advanced, t h e s t a r t e r solenoid is not grounded and t h e s t a r t e r motor will not rotate.

CHOKE CIRCUIT SERVICE

This short section provides instructions t o test t h e choke circuit. If t h e system fails t h e test, t h e attaching hardware can b e removed and t h e choke assembly replaced.

Choke Circuit Testing The choke circuit may be quickly t e s t e d t o determine if i t is functioning properly as follows: , :--Tt:l z--h' $

Proper test meter hookup for testing the choke circuit.

eblue-dist 2007

6-32

ELECTRICAL
placement unit must b e purchased, any one of t h e t h r e e may b e obtained and installed. The recommendation is t o spend a f e w doll a r s more for t h e longer, m o r e powerful unit. One more word: If a long s t a r t e r motor is replacing t h e short model, a n additional bracket MUST be bought and installed on t h e lower end of t h e s t a r t e r . Marine s t a r t e r motors a r e very similar in construction and operation t o t h e units used in t h e automotive industry. Some marine s t a r t e r motors use t h e inertia- type drive assembly. This t y p e assembly is mounted on a n a r m a t u r e s h a f t with external spiral splines which m a t e with t h e internal

STARTER MOTOR DESCRIPTION


Delco-Remy, Autolite, and Prestolite, s t a r t e r motors a r e used on t h e engines covered in this manual. Any one of t h e t h r e e may be installed on t h e engine. T h e early model s t a r t e r s (especially t h e DelcoRemy) were shorter and just a bit less powerful than t h e l a t e r models. If a re-

Removing a starter motor from the starboard side of a V 4 engine.

Tvwical starter motor installation on the port side of a thr&e-cylinder engine.

STARTER SOLENOID
1

STARTER

STARTER GROUND SAFTEY SWITCH

= -

KEY SWITCH

GROUND

Functional diagram to show current flow when the key switch is turned to the START position.

eblue-dist 2007

STARTER MOTOR splines of t h e drive assembly. Until about 1967 marine s t a r t e r motors had a splined gear t h a t meshed with a n intermediate g e a r which in turn meshed with t h e Bendix mechanism. The s t a r t e r motor is a series wound e l e c t r i c motor which draws a heavy current from t h e battery. I t is designed t o be. used only f o r short periods of t i m e t o crank t h e ennine f o r starting. To prevent overheat in^ t h e motor, cranking should not b e continued f o r more than 30-seconds without allowing t h e motor t o cool for at least t h r e e minutes. Actually, this t i m e can b e spent in making preliminary checks t o determine why t h e engine fails t o s t a r t . Most s t a r t e r motors o p e r a t e in much t h e s a m e manner and t h e service work involved in rest or in^ a defective unit t o service is almost identical. Theref ore, t h e inf ormation in this chapter is grouped together for t h e major components of t h e s t a r t e r under s e p a r a t e headings. Differences, where they "bccur, between t h e various manufacturers, a r e clearly indicated.

6-33

generating circuit ( l e f t ) and the starter motor circuit (right). These meters do not require any wire connections. A reading will be obtained by simply placing the meter on the line.

Theory of Operation
With one t y p e of Bendix drive, power is transmitted from t h e s t a r t e r motor t o t h e engine flywheel directly through t h e Bendix drive. This drive has a pinion gear mounted on screw threads. When t h e motor is operated, t h e pinion gear moves up t o mesh with t h e t e e t h on t h e flywheel ring gear. On another type of drive gear, t h e pinion gear and shaft a r e mounted above a powerhead bracket and t h e s t a r t e r motor is mounted below. The s t a r t e r motor has a small gear intalled o n t h e a r m a t u r e s h a f t which meshes with a much larger gear on t h e lower end of t h e drive gear assembly. This difference in gear sizes gives t h e arrangement a much g r e a t e r mechanical advantage (power) than t h e other model. The pinion gear of t h e drive gear assembly then moves upward and t h e drive gear meshes with t h e t e e t h of t h e flywheel ring gear. When t h e engine s t a r t s , t h e pinion gear is driven f a s t e r than t h e shaft, and as a result, i t screws o u t of mesh with t h e flywheel. A rubber cushion is built into t h e Bendix drive t o absorb t h e shock when t h e pinion meshes with t h e flywheel ring gear. The parts of t h e drive MUST b e properly assembled f o r efficient operation. If t h e drive is removed for cleaning, TAKE CARE

t o assemble t h e parts as shown in t h e accompanying illustration. If t h e screw shaft assembly is reversed, i t will strike t h e splines and t h e rubber cushion will not absorb t h e shock. The sound of t h e motor during cranking is a good indication of whether t h e s t a r t e r motor is operating properly or not. Naturally, t e m p e r a t u r e conditions will a f f e c t t h e speed at which t h e s t a r t e r motor is a b l e t o crank t h e engine. The speed of cranking a cold engine will b e much slower than when cranking a warm engine. An experienced operator will learn t o recognize t h e favorable sounds of t h e cranking engine under various conditions.

Faulty Symptoms If t h e s t a r t e r spins, but fails t o crank t h e ennine, t h e cause is usually a corroded o r gummy Bendix drive. The drive should be removed, cleaned, and given a n inspection. If t h e s t a r t e r motor cranks t h e engine too slowly, t h e following a r e possible causes and t h e corrective actions t h a t may be taken: a- Battery charge is low. Charge t h e b a t t e r y t o full capacity. b- High resistance connections at t h e battery, solenoid, o r motor. Clean and tighten all connections. c- Undersize b a t t e r y cables. Replace cables with sufficient size. d- Battery cables t o o long. Relocate t h e b a t t e r y t o shorten t h e run t o t h e s t a r t e r solenoid.

Maintenance
The s t a r t e r motor does not require periodic maintenance or lubrication EXCEPT just 'a drop of light-weight oil on t h e s t a r t e r s h a f t t o ease movement of t h e Bendix drive. If t h e motor fails t o perform properly, t h e

eblue-dist 2007

6-34

ELECTR l CAL
BATTERY

checks outlined in t h e previous paragraph should b e performed. The frequency of s t a r t s governs how often t h e motor should b e removed and reconditioned. The manufacturer recommends removal and reconditioning every 1000 hours. Naturally, t h e motor will have t o b e removed if t h e corrective actions outlined under Faulty Symptoms above, does not res t o r e t h e motor t o satisfactory operation.

L . a.

STARTER MOTOR TROUBLESHOOTING


Before wasting too much t i m e troubleshooting t h e s t a r t e r circuit, t h e following checks should be made. Many times, t h e problem will b e corrected. a- Battery fully charged. b- Throttle advanced too f a r (beyond f a s t idle speed). c- All electrical connections clean and tight. d- Wiring in good condition, insulation not worn or frayed. e- One of t h e cutout switches may b e defective. Two more a r e a s may cause t h e engine t o turn over slowly even though t h e s t a r t e r motor circuit is in excellent condition: A tight or "frozen" engine; and, water in t h e lower unit causing t h e bearings t o tighten up. The following troubleshooting procedures a r e presented in a logical sequence, with t h e most common and easily corrected
SWITCH GROUND
19.6.86

Functional diagram of a starter motor solenoid. Notice the separate terminal for a ground wire. This solenoid is NOT grounded through the mounting bracket.

a r e a s listed f i r s t in each problem area. The connection number refers t o t h e numbered positions in t h e accompanying illustrations. Perform t h e following quick checks and corrective actions for following problems:

TESTING

FIRST THESE WORDS


The s t a r t e r solenoid is actually nothing more than a switch between t h e b a t t e r y and t h e s t a r t e r motor. Several types of solenoids a r e used and many appear similar. NEVER a t t e m p t t o use an automotive- type solenoid in a marine installation. Such pract i c e will lead t o more problems than c a n b e

Typical Bendix spring arrangement on a starter motor. A small amount of oil on the shaft in the spring area will prolong satisfactory operation.

BATTERY ST~RTER Functional diagram of a ffslave-typeff starter motor solenoid used on four-cycle engine installations. This solenoid CANNOT be used on a two-cycle engine.

eblue-dist 2007

STARTER MOTOR
EXTERNAL GROUND

6-35

Functional diagrarn of a typical two-cycle outboard engine starter motor solenoid. Notice that the righthand small terminal is connected to ground or a safety switch. The unit is NOT grounded through the mounting bracket.

imagined. An automotive- type solenoid has a completely different internal wiring circuit. If such a solenoid is connected i n t o t h e s t a r t e r system, and t h e system is acti vated, current will be directed t o ground. The wires will b e burned and t h e c u t o u t switch will be burned and rendered useless. 'Therefore, when installing replacement parts in t h e s t a r t e r or other circuits on a marine installation, always t a k e t i m e t o obtain parts from a MARINE outlet t o ensure proper service and t o prevent damage t o other expensive components.

Starter Motor Fails To Rotate Voltage Check a- Check t h e voltage at No. 2, t h e batt e r y and ground. b- If satisfactory voltage is indicated at t h e battery, check t h e voltage at No. 3, t h e positive side of t h e s t a r t e r solenoid. Weak, or no voltage at t h i s point indicates corrode d b a t t e r y terminals, poor connection at t h e solenoid, or defective wiring between t h e b a t t e r y and t h e solenoid. c- Test t h e voltage at No. 4, t h e key. A full 12-volt reading should be registered a t t h e key. Weak or no voltage at t h e key indicates a poor connection at t h e solenoid, or a broken wire between t h e s t a r t e r solenoid and t h e key. d- If satisfactory voltage is indicated during Steps a, b, and c, connect a voltm e t e r at No. 5 and ground, and then turn t h e key switch t o t h e START position. If 12-volts is registered at No. 5 and t h e s t a r t e r still fails t o operate, t h e s t a r t e r is defec+ive and requires service. If voltage is MOT present at No. 5, proceed t o t h e next section, Testing S t a r t e r Solenoid. Testing Starter Solenoid a- Remove t h e heavy s t a r t e r cable at No. 5 , at t h e starter. This cable MUST b e disconnected prior t o performing this test t o

SAFETY WORD Before making any test of t h e cranking system, disconnect t h e spark plug leads at t h e spark plugs t o prevent t h e engine from possibly starting during t h e test and causing personal injury. The following tests a r e t o b e performed according t o t h e faulty condition described. The numbers referenced in t h e steps a r e correlated with numbers on t h e accompanying circuit diagram on Page 6-34 t o identify exactly where t h e connection or test is t o b e made. Starter Motor Turns Slowly a- Battery charge is low. Charge t h e b a t t e r y t o full capacity. b- Electrical connections corroded or loose. Clean and tighten. c- Defective s t a r t e r motor. Perform a n a m p draw test. Lay a n a m p draw-gauge on t h e cable leading t o t h e s t a r t e r motor No. 5. Turn t h e key t o t h e START position and a t t e m p t t o crank t h e engine. If t h e gauge i ~ d i c a t e sa n excessive amperage draw, t h e s t a r t e r motor MUST b e replaced o r rebuilt.

Starter motor mounted on the port side using a separate drive gear.

eblue-dist 2007

6-36

ELECTRICAL
t h e cutout switch. Therefore, t h e c u t o u t switch may b e defective and should b e checked a s outlined l a t e r in this section. c- With t h e voltmeter still connected at No. 3 and No. 7, connect one end of a jumpe r wire at No. 8, t h e s t a r t e r solenoid, and t h e other lead t o a good ground. Connect a second jumper wire at No. 2, t h e positive terminal of t h e battery, t o No. 6, t h e s t a r t e r solenoid. The voltmeter should indicate voltage is present. If voltage is not present, t h e s t a r t e r solenoid is defective and MUST be replaced.

prevent t h e s t a r t e r motor from turning and cranking t h e engine. Connect a voltmeter t o No. 6 (the s t a r t e r solenoid), and ground. Turn t h e key t o t h e START position. The m e t e r should indicate 12-volts. If voltage is not present at No. 6, t h e key switch is defective, or t h e wire is broken between t h e key switch and t h e s t a r t e r solenoid. b- If voltage is present at No. 6, connect a voltmeter at No. 3 and t o No. 7. Connect one end of a jumper wire t o No. 2, t h e positive terminal of t h e b a t t e r y and MOMENTARILY make c o n t a c t with t h e o t h e r end at No. 6, t h e s t a r t e r solenoid. If volta g e is indicated through t h e s t a r t e r solenoid, t h e solenoid is satisfactory and t h e problem has been corrected while making t h e tests. Sometimes, when working with electrical circuits, corrective action h a s been taken almost accidently, a bad connection has been made good, etc. If t h e solenoid test failed, i t does not necessarily mean t h e solenoid is defective. The solenoid may not be properly grounded through

Testing Throttle Advance Cutout Switch


Remove t h e existing wire from t h e No. 1 switch terminal. Connect one probe lead of an ohmmeter t o t h e terminal. Conn e c t t h e other test probe lead t o a good ground. Depress t h e switch button and t h e o h m m e t e r should indicate continuity. If continuity is not indicated, t h e switch is defective and MUST b e replaced. Connect t h e heavy cable at No. 5, t h e s t a r t e r motor.

GROUND

Diagram of hookup for making the various test outlined in the text. This illustration and the numbers shown are to be used when testing the starter motor components.

eblue-dist 2007

STARTER DRIVE GEAR

6-37

6-14 STARTER DRIVE GEAR SERVICE STARTER REMOVAL ALL V4 ENGINES 1958 TO 1968
Before beginning any work on t h e s t a r t e r motor, disconnect t h e positive (+) lead from t h e b a t t e r y terminal. Remove t h e hood. Disconnect t h e red cable at t h e s t a r t e r motor terminal.

1- Remove t h e t w o thru-bolts securing t h e s t a r t e r motor. These bolts pass through t h e s t a r t e r motor and t h r e a d into t h e drive gear housing. On some engines a s t a r t e r motor support bracket is installed under t h e s t a r t e r motor securing t h e s t a r t e r motor t o t h e engine. If t h e bracket is installed, remove t h e 7/16" bolt securing t h e bracket t o t h e powerhead. Remove t h e s t a r t e r motor and bracket together. STARTER DRIVE REMOVAL
GOOD WORDS The s t a r t e r drive assembly has a nut on t o p t h a t is easier t o loosen before t h e assembly is removed from t h e engine. A special tool can b e made from a n old screwdriver which will greatly assist in this task. After t h e screwdriver has been modified, as shown in t h e accompanying illustration "Aw, i t will f i t onto t h e pinion gear. 2- Using t h e special tool t o prevent t h e pinion gear from rotating, a socket wrench c a n b e used t o loosen t h e nut.

eblue-dist 2007

&38

ELECTRICAL

3- After t h e nut is loose, remove t h e 7/16" screw on t h e base of t h e drive gear assembly, and lift assembly f r e e of t h e bracket on t h e powerhead. 4- With t h e assembly on t h e bench, remove and DISCARD t h e nut from t h e t o p of t h e housing. Pull t h e shaft and attaching parts f r e e of t h e housing from t h e other end. Remove t h e component parts from t h e shaft and note their order a s a n aid t o assembling. The t o p of t h e housing has a s h a f t bushing which m a y remain in t h e housinn as t h e shaft is removed. If t h e bushing c a m e out with t h e shaft, remove i t first. Next, slide t h e pinion stop off t h e shaft, then t h e anti- drift spring, a thrust washer, anti- drift spring sleeve, t h e pinion gear, screw shaft, another thrust washer, upper cushion cup, cushion, spacer, lower cushion cup, and finally another thrust washer f r e e , in t h a t order leaving a bare shaft.

The drive gear assembly, left, is used with a magnet o ignition system. The right gear is used with a battery ignition system.

CLEANING AND INSPECTING


The most important i t e m s in t h e assembly a r e t h e shaft and t h e gear. The g e a r meshes with t h e splined gear on t h e armat u r e shaft. These gears MUST remain in good condition for t h e assembly t o function properly. Inspect t h e t e e t h of both gears t o b e sure they a r e f r e e of any t y p e of damage or wear. If t h e shaft is t o b e replaced, t h e armat u r e should also be replaced. The a r m a t u r e is a n expensive part, but if a new shaft is installed with t h e old armature, one or t h e

other will most likely wear excessively in a very short time. Inspect t h e pinion gear t e e t h t o be sure they a r e clean and f r e e of any damage. Check t o be sure t h e screw shaft moves freely inside t h e pinion gear with no sign of binding. Clean the screw portion of t h e shaft. Check t h e rubber cushion f o r wear, but DO NOT clean i t with solvent. If t h e bushing in t h e housing needs t o b e replaced, i t may b e pushed or pressed out. If, at all possible, put t h e new sleeve in a f r e e z e r or cold refrigerator overnight t o shrink i t f o r easier installation. After t h e new bushing has been installed, insert t h e shaft through t h e housing t o be sure i t turns freely.

INSTALLATION

1- Apply just a drop or t w o of oil onto t h e bushing in t h e t o p of t h e housing. The

Armature gear and drive gear with worn teeth. If only one gear is worn and unfit for service, BOTH gears must be replaced as a set.

eblue-dist 2007

STARTER DRIVE GEAR


remainder of t h e components will b e assembled DRY. Do not use any oil or lubric a n t on any of t h e other parts. Assembling t h e drive gear unit is simply a case of sliding t h e component parts onto t h e shaft in t h e reverse order from which they were removed. First, slide t h e thrust washer down into place, then t h e small cushion cup with t h e lip on t h e side, then t h e cushion spacer, t h e cushion, then t h e large cushion cup with t h e flange facing DOWNWARD, t h e second thrust washer, t h e screw shaft, s t a r t e r drive pinion gear, antidrift spring sleeve, another washer, antid r i f t spring down over t h e sleeve, and finally, t h e pinion s t o p with t h e concave side DOWN. Insert t h e assembled shaft up into t h e housing and hold i t in place by starting a NEW nut onto the shaft. I t is easier t o tighten t h e nut a f t e r t h e assembly has been installed using t h e modified screwdriver employed during loosening of t h e nut.

6-39

To install t h e s t a r t e r motor onto t h e engine, if no f u r t h e r work is t o b e performed, proceed directly to Section 6-20.

2- Install t h e unit onto t h e powerhead and secure i t in place with t h e 7/16" bolt. 3- Use t h e modified screwdriver and socket wrench t o tighten t h e nut until i t stops at t h e end of t h e shaft threads. A f t e r t h e nut is tightened, loosen t h e 7/16" bolt slightly t o assist with t h e s t a r t e r motor installation and t h e alignment of t h e thrubolts. To t e s t t h e complete s t a r t e r motor, proceed directly t o Section 6-19.

6-15 STARTER DRIVE GEAR SERVICE 5 5 HP 3-CYLINDER 1968 AND 1969 6 0 HP 3-CYLINDER 1970 AND 1971 85 HP V4 1969 TO 1972 115 HP V4 1969 AND 1970 125 HP V4 1971 AND 1972 STARTER REMOVAL
Before beginning any work on t h e s t a r t e r motor, disconnect t h e positive (+) lead from t h e b a t t e r y terminal. Remove t h e hood. Disconnect t h e red cable at t h e s t a r t e r motor terminal. 1- Remove t h e t h r e e 1/211 bolts securing t h e s t a r t e r motor t o t h e powerhead. One of

eblue-dist 2007

6-40

ELECTRICAL

Removing the drive gear using a pair of pliers to hold the gear and a boxend wrench to remove the shaft nut.

t h e s e bolts is located on t h e port side just above t h e carburetor. The brackets a r e welded t o t h e s t a r t e r motor housing. Once t h e bolts have been removed, t h e s t a r t e r motor can be lifted f r e e of t h e powerhead.

DISASSEMBLING Starter Drive Gear Prevent t h e a r m a t u r e from turning by holding i t with t h e proper size wrench o n

t h e hex nut provided for this purpose on t h e opposite end from t h e shaft nut. If t h e hex n u t is not provided, hold t h e drive assembly with a pair of water pump pliers. Remove t h e shaft nut, spring retainer, spring, and t h e n t h e drive assembly. The s h a f t n u t should be replaced and NOT used a second time. The manufacturer STRONGLY recommends against using any type of selflocking nut on t h e shaft. If servicing a 55hp, 1968 o r 1969, t a p t h e retainer downward, and then remove t h e snaD ring. Slide t h e retainer free, and then t h e other parts.

Removing the starter drive assembly using an openend wrench and a boxend wrench to remove the shaft nut.

Removal sequence of parts when disassembling the drive gear.

eblue-dist 2007

DELCO-REMY SERVICE
The exploded drawing accompanying this section will be helpful in assembling t h e s t a r t e r motor in t h e proper sequence.

6-4 1

CLEANING AND INSPECTING


Inspect t h e drive gear t e e t h f o r chips, cracks, or a broken tooth. Check t h e spline inside t h e drive gear f o r burrs and t o b e sure t h e drive gear moves freely on t h e a r m a t u r e shaft. Check t o b e sure t h e return spring is flexible and has not become distorted. Clean t h e a r m a t u r e s h a f t with crocus cloth.

ASSEMBLING Starter Drive Gear Begin by assembling t h e following parts in t h e order rriven. The accompanying illustration will b e most helpful in assembling t h e parts in t h e proper sequence. First, slide t h e drive gear onto t h e shaft, then t h e spring, spring retainer, and then a NEW locking nut. Prevent t h e a r m a t u r e s h a f t from turning by holding i t with t h e proper size wrench on t h e hex nut provided f o r this purpose on t h e opposite end from t h e s h a f t nut. If t h e a r m a t u r e hex nut is not provided, hold t h e drive assembly with a pair of w a t e r pump pliers. Tighten t h e shaft nut securely. If servicing a 55hp, 1968 or 1969, slide t h e drive gear onto t h e shaft, then t h e spring, and then t h e retainer. Secure t h e retainer in place with t h e snap rinn. Use a pair of pliers and force t h e retainer up over t h e snap ring. To t e s t t h e complete s t a r t e r motor, proceed directly t o Section 6-13. -

To install t h e s t a r t e r motor onto t h e engine, if no further work is t o b e performed, proceed directly t o Section 6-20.

6-16 DELCO-REMY SERVICE


REMOVAL
Before beginning any work on t h e s t a r t e r motor, disconnect t h e positive (+) lead from t h e b a t t e r y terminal. Remove t h e hood. Disconnect t h e red cable at t h e s t a r t e r motor terminal. 1- Remove t h e two thru- bolts securing t h e s t a r t e r motor. These bolts pass through t h e s t a r t e r motor and thread into t h e drive gear housing. On some engines a s t a r t e r motor support bracket is installed under t h e s t a r t e r motor securing t h e s t a r t e r motor t o

Installation sequence of parts when assembling the drive gear.

Using a right-angle carburetor socket wrench to remove the 3/8" starter motor mounting bolt.

eblue-dist 2007

6-42

ELECTRICAL

Armature gear and &ive gear with worn teeth. If only one gear is worn and unftt for service, BOTH gears must be replaced as a set.

t h e engine. If t h e bracket is installed, remove t h e 7/16" bolt securing t h e bracket t o t h e powerhead. Remove t h e s t a r t e r motor and bracket together. 2- To remove t h e drive gear assembly, remove t h e 7/16" screw on t h e base of t h e drive gear assembly, and lift assembly f r e e of t h e bracket on t h e powerhead.

GOOD NEWS
If t h e only motor repair necessary is replacement of t h e brushes, t h e drive g e a r does not have t o be removed. If additional work is required, see Section 6-14. All s t a r t e r motors have thru-bolts securing t h e upper and lower c a p t o t h e field f r a m e assembly. In all cases both caps have some type of mark or boss. These marks a r e used t o properly align t h e caps with t h e field f r a m e assembly.

FIRST THESE WORDS Two models of Delco-Remy s t a r t e r mators a r e installed, a short model and longer, more powerful model. The short model has one positive and one negative brush. The longer model has two positive and two negative brushes. The negative brushes can always b e identified as t h e brushes with t h e lead connected t o t h e frame. The o t h e r brush or brushes a r e connected t o t h e field coil. 3- Observe t h e caps and find t h e identiIf t h e marks fying mark or boss on each. a r e not visible, make a n identifying mark prior t o removing t h e thru- bolts a s a n essential aid during assembling. Remove t h e thru- bolts from t h e s t a r t e r motor. Use a small hammer and CAREFULLY t a p t h e lower c a p f r e e of t h e s t a r t e r motor. On t h e Delco-Remy s t a r t e r motor, t h e brushes a r e mounted in t h e f r a m e assembly. Pull on t h e a r m a t u r e shaft from t h e drive gear end and remove i t from t h e field f r a m e assembly. Remove t h e brushes f r o m their holders, and then remove t h e brush springs.
NOTCH

The drive gear assembly, l e f t , is used with a magneto ignition system. The right gear is used with a battery ignition system.

eblue-dist 2007

DELCO-REMY SERVICE

6-43

ARMATURE TESTING Testing for a Short 4- Position t h e a r m a t u r e on a growler, then hold a hacksaw blade over t h e armat u r e core. Turn t h e growler switch t o t h e O N position. Slowly r o t a t e t h e armature. If t h e hacksaw blade vibrates, t h e a r m a t u r e or commutator has a short. Clean t h e grooves between t h e commutator bars on t h e armature. Perform t h e test again. If t h e hacksaw blade still vibrates during t h e test, t h e a r m a t u r e has a short and MUST h e r e ~ l a c e d .

Testing for a Ground 5- Obtain a test lamp or continuity meter. Make c o n t a c t with one probe lead on t h e a r m a t u r e c o r e and t h e other probe lead on t h e commutator bar. If t h e l a m p lights, o r t h e m e t e r indicates continuity, t h e aimst u r e is grounded and MUST be replaced.

Checking the Commutator Bar


6- Check between or check bar-to-bar a s shown in t h e accompanving illustration. The t e s t light should light, or t h e m e t e r should indicate continuity. If t h e commutator fails t h e test, t h e a r m a t u r e MUST be replaced.

Turning the Commutator 7- True t h e commutator, if necessary, in a lathe. NEVER undercut t h e mica because t h e brushes a r e harder than t h e insulation. Undercut t h e insulation between t h e commutator bars 1/32" (0.79 mm) t o t h e full width of t h e insulation and f l a t at t h e bottom. A triangular groove is not satisfactorv. A f t e r t h e undercutting work is completed, clean o u t t h e slots carefully t o remove dirt and copper -dust. Sand t h e comm u t a t o r lightly with No. 00 s a n d ~ a p e r t o remove any burrs l e f t from t h e undercutting. Check t h e a r m a t u r e a second t i m e on t h e growler f o r wossible short circuits.

COMMUTATOR

CORRECT

INCORRECT

eblue-dist 2007

6-44

ELECTR l CAL

Positive Brushes 8- The positive brush or brushes can always be identified as t h e brushes connected t o t h e field coil. Obtain an ohmmeter. Connect one lead of t h e m e t e r t o t h e end of t h e brush and t h e other lead t o t h e terminal. The ohmmeter MUST indicate continuity between t h e brush and t h e terminal. If t h e m e t e r indic a t e s any resistance, check t h e lead t o t h e brush and t h e lead t o t h e positive terminal solder connection. If t h e connection cannot b e repaired, t h e brushes MUST b e replaced. If t h e unit being tested has a double set of positive brushes, repeat t h e t e s t for t h e other positive brush. Move t h e test lead from t h e brush t o a good ground on t h e frame. If continuity is indicated, t h e field coil is grounded t o t h e case.

fields would be grounded if t h e connections make c o n t a c t with t h e frame.

CLEANING AND INSPECTING


Clean t h e field coils, a r m a t u r e , commut a t o r , a r m a t u r e shaft, brush-end plate and drive-end housing with a brush or compressed air. Wash all other parts in solvent and blow t h e m dry with compressed air. Inspect t h e insulation and t h e unsoldered connections of t h e a r m a t u r e windings for breaks or burns. Perform electrical tests on any suspected defective part, according t o t h e procedures outlined earlier in this Section. Check t h e commutator f o r run-out. Ins p e c t t h e a r m a t u r e s h a f t and both bearings f o r scoring.

Negative Brushes 9- The negative brushes can always b e identified because t h e lead is connected t o t h e brush retainer as a ground t o t h e frame. Obtain an ohmmeter. Make c o n t a c t with one lead on the negative brush and make contact with t h e other lead on t h e s t a r t e r frame. If t h e m e t e r does not indicate continuity, t h e brush or brush retainer is not grounded t o t h e frame. If t h e unit being tested has a double set of negative and positive brushes, move t h e test lead from t h e one negative brush t o t h e other negative brush lead and again check for continuity. If t h e meter does not indicate continuit y , t h e brush or brush retainer is not grounded t o t h e frame. Check t o be sure none of t h e soldered connections a r e touching t h e frame. The

Typical brush spring. If the springs have turned blue in color, they must be replaced.

eblue-dist 2007

DELCO-REMY SERWCE Turn t h e commutator in a l a t h e if i t is out-of-round by more than 0.005" (1.27 mm) Check t h e springs in t h e brush holder t o be sure none a r e broken. Check t h e spring tension and replace if t h e tension is not 3240 ounces. Check t h e insulated brush holde r s f o r shorts t o ground. If t h e brushes a r e worn down t o 114" (6.35 mm) or less, t h e y must b e replaced. Check t h e field brush connections and lead insulation. A brush kit and a c o n t a c t kit a r e available at your local marine dealer, but all other assemblies must be replace d r a t h e r than repaired. The armature, fields, and brush holders, must b e checked before assembling t h e start e r motor. See t h e testing section in this chapter f o r detailed procedures t o test t h e s t a r t e r motor.

6-45

POSITIVE BRUSH

HOLDER

ASSEMBLING THE DELCO-REMY

Negative Brushes and Retainer


The following procedures apply t o brushes mounted t o t h e field f r a m e assembly. 1- Remove t h e old set of ground brushes by cutting off t h e rivets with a chisel or by drilling them out. Replacement brush holde r kits a r e available at marine outlets.

These kits a r e complete with screws, washers, and nuts, for a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e frame. Replacement brush springs a r e also available. The brush spring is removed from t h e holder by compressing one side of t h e spring with a small screwdriver until t h e spring flips o u t of i t s seat. After t h e spring pops out, turn t h e spring clockwise until i t is f r e e

FRAME

ARMATURE
/ '

BRUSH HOLDER POLE SHOE

END , / CAP
& ' (

WASHER

Exploded view showing arrangement of major Delco-Remy starter motor parts.

eblue-dist 2007

6-46

ELECTRICAL

A new negative brush and brush holder as it appears when removed from the package.

Replacement brush sets a r e available and usually contain t h e following parts: One insulated brush, with flexible lead attached. One ground brush holder with brush and lead attached. Necessary attaching screws, washers, and nuts.

overheat t h e leads, because t h e solder will run onto t h e lead and t h e lead will loose its flexibility.

Assembling the Starter Motor


1- Clamp t h e drive gear in a vise equipped with s o f t jaws and with t h e drive gear down. Insert t h e brush springs i n t o t h e brush holders, and then install t h e brushes in place. TAKE TIME t o whittle t h e end of t w o or four m a t c h sticks in t h e shape of a tiny spade. Now push one brush outward, and t h e n wedge one of t h e m a t c h sticks in between t h e brush and t h e lip of t h e retainer. The match stick will hold t h e brush in t h e r e t r a c t e d position during installation of t h e armature. R e t r a c t each of t h e remaining brushes and hold t h e m with a match stick. 2- A f t e r all t h e brushes have been ret r a c t e d and held in place with t h e m a t c h sticks, lower t h e field f r a m e assembly until

Positive Brushes
C u t off t h e old brush lead where it is attached t o t h e field coil. Prepare t h e ends of t h e coil for soldering t h e new brush lead assembly. Clean t h e ends of t h e coil by filing or grinding off t h e old brush lead connection. Remove t h e varnish only as f a r back as necessary t o enable a good soldered connection t o b e made. Use rosin flux and solder t h e leads t o t h e BACK SIDES of t h e coil t o prevent any excess solder from rubbing against t h e armature. Be sure t h e leads a r e in t h e right position t o reach t h e brush holders. Do not

Installing the negative brush into the frame assembly. A new bolt and washer is provided in the replacement kit.

eblue-dist 2007

AUTOLITE SERVICE

6-47

sticks, lower t h e field f r a m e assembly until t h e brushes make c o n t a c t with t h e commutator. Now, remove t h e match sticks. Align t h e mark on t h e upper c a p with t h e matching mark on t h e field frame. 3- Place t h e washer onto t h e commutat o r shaft, then place t h e c a p onto t h e end of t h e field f r a m e assembly. Align t h e mark on t h e lower caD with t h e mark on t h e field frame. Install t h e thru-bolts through t h e end c a p and hold i t all together with a nut on t h e end of each bolt. These nuts will b e removed later. To test t h e complete s t a r t e r motor, proceed directly t o Section 6-19. To install t h e s t a r t e r motor onto t h e engine, proceed directly t o Section 6-20.

t h e b a t t e r y terminal. Remove t h e hood. Disconnect t h e red cable at t h e s t a r t e r motor terminal. 1- Remove t h e two thru- bolts securing t h e s t a r t e r motor. These bolts pass through t h e s t a r t e r motor and thread into t h e drive gear housina. On some engines a s t a r t e r motor support bracket is installed under t h e s t a r t e r motor securing t h e s t a r t e r motor t o t h e engine. If t h e bracket is installed, remove t h e 7/16" bolt securing t h e bracket t o t h e powerhead. Remove t h e s t a r t e r motor and bracket together. 2- To remove t h e drive gear assembly, remove t h e 7/16" screw on t h e base of t h e drive gear assembly, and l i f t assembly f r e e of t h e bracket on t h e powerhead.

GOOD NEWS If t h e only motor repair necessary is replacement of t h e brushes, t h e drive g e a r does not have t o be removed. All s t a r t e r motors have thru- bolts securing t h e upper a n d lower c a p t o t h e field f r a m e assembly. In all cases both caps have some t y p e of mark or boss. These marks a r e used t o properly align t h e caws with t h e field f r a m e assembly.

6- 1 AUTOLITE STARTER 7 MOTOR SERVICE

REMOVAL Before beginning anv work on t h e s t a r t e r motor, disconnect t h e positive (+) lead from

eblue-dist 2007

6-48

ELECTRICAL

DISASSEMBLING
3- Observe t h e caps and find t h e identifying mark o r boss on each. If t h e marks a r e not visible, m a k e an identifying mark prior t o removing t h e thru-bolts a s a n essential aid during assembling. Remove t h e thru- bolts f rorn t h e s t a r t e r motor. 4- Use a small hammer and CAREFULLY t a D t h e lower cap f r e e of t h e s t a r t e r motor. Can t h e Autolite s t a r t e r motor, t h e brushes a r e mounted in t h e end cap. 5- Pull on t h e a r m a t u r e s h a f t from t h e drive gear end and remove i t from t h e field f r a m e assembly. Renrcsve t h e positive brush f rom i t s holder.

t h e hacksaw blade vibrates, t h e a r m a t u r e o r commutator has a short. Clean t h e grooves between t h e commutator bars on t h e armature. Perform t h e test again. If t h e hacksaw blade still vibrates during t h e test, t h e a r m a t u r e has a short and MUST b e replaced.

Testing for a Ground 7- Obtain a test l a m p or continuity meter. Make c o n t a c t with one probe lead on t h e a r m a t u r e c o r e and t h e other probe lead on t h e commutator bar. If t h e lamp lights,

ARMATURE TESTING

Testing for a Short 6- Position t h e a r m a t u r e on a growler, then hold a hacksaw blade over t h e armat u r e core. Turn t h e growler switch t o t h e ON position. Slowly r o t a t e t h e armature. If
-

19.6.88

COMMUTATOR

eblue-dist 2007

AUTOLITE SERVICE
o r t h e m e t e r indicates continuity, t h e armat u r e is grounded and MUST be replaced.

6-49

Checking the Commutator Bar 8- Check between or check bar-to-bar as shown in t h e accompanying illustration. The t e s t light should light, or t h e m e t e r should indicate continuity. If t h e commutator fails t h e test, t h e a r m a t u r e MUST b e replaced. Turning the Commutator 9- True t h e commutator, if necessary, in a lathe. NEVER undercut t h e mica because t h e brushes a r e harder than t h e insulation. Undercut t h e insulation between t h e comm u t a t o r bars 1/32" (0.79 mm) t o t h e full width of t h e insulation and f l a t at t h e bottom. A triangular groove is not satisfactory. A f t e r t h e undercutting work is completed, clean o u t t h e slots carefully t o remove d i r t and copper dust. Sand t h e comm u t a t o r lightly with No. 80 sandpaper t o remove any burrs l e f t from t h e undercutting. Check t h e a r m a t u r e a second t i m e on t h e growler f o r possible short circuits. Positive Brushes 10- The positive brushes can always fie identified as t h e brush with t h e lead connected t o t h e field coil. Obtain a n ohmmeter. Connect one lead of t h e m e t e r t o t h e end of t h e brush and t h e o t h e r lead t o t h e terminal. The ohmmeter MUST indicate continuity between t h e brush and t h e terminal. If t h e m e t e r indicates any resistance, check t h e lead to t h e brush and

CORRECT

INCORRECT

t h e lead t o t h e positive terminal solder connection. If t h e connection cannot b e repaired, t h e brush MUST b e replaced.

Negative Brush 11- The negative brush can alwavs be identified hecause t h e lead is connected t o t h e s t a r t e r motor end cap. (abtain an ohmmeter. Make c o n t a c t with one lead on t h e negative brush and make c o n t a c t with t h e other lead on t h e s t a r t e r end cap. If t h e m e t e r does not indicate continuity, t h e brush or brush retainer is not grounded t o t h e end cap. Positive Brush Installation 12- First, c u t t h e old field coil brush free. Next, a t t a c h t h e lead of t h e new brush t o t h e stiff wire lead on t h e field coil. Wrap a fine piece of copper wire around t h e lead and t h e stiff wire from t h e coil t o hold t h e brush lead in place while i t is soldered. If t h e wrapped wire becomes soldered also, no problem, leave i t in place. If i t did not become soldered, pull i t f r e e a f t e r t h e soldering is complete. Use rosin flux and solder t h e leads t o t h e BACK SIDES of t h e wire t o prevent any excess solder from rubbing against t h e armature. Be sure t h e leads a r e in t h e right

eblue-dist 2007

6-50

ELECTRICAL

position t o reach t h e brush holders. Do not overheat t h e leads, because t h e solder will run onto t h e lead and t h e lead will loose i t s flexibility. Check t o be sure none of t h e soldered connections a r e touching t h e frame. The fields would be grounded if t h e connections m a k e c o n t a c t with t h e f r a m e .

Negative Brush Installation 13- C u t t h e old brush f r e e from t h e end cap. Clean t h e surface thoroughly. Next, solder t h e lead of t h e new brush t o t h e end cap. If t h e retainer is no longer f i t f o r service, t h e entire end c a p must b e replaced. New brushes a r e NOT included with t h e end cap. CLEANING AND INSPECTING
Clean t h e field coils, armature, commut a t o r , a r m a t u r e shaft, brush-end plate and drive-end housing with a brush or compressed air. Wash all other p a r t s in solvent and blow them dry with compressed air. Inspect t h e insulation and t h e unsoldered connections of t h e a r m a t u r e windings for breaks or burns. Perform electrical t e s t s on any suspecte d defective part, according t o t h e procedures outlined earlier in this section. Check t h e commutator f o r run-out. Ins p e c t t h e a r m a t u r e shaft and both bearings f o r scoring. Turn t h e commutator in a l a t h e if i t is out-of-round by more t h a n 0.00511(1.27 mm). Check t h e springs in t h e brush holder t o b e sure none a r e broken. Check t h e spring tension and replace if t h e tension is not 3240 ounces. Check t h e insulated brush holde r s for shorts t o ground. If t h e brushes a r e worn down t o 114" (6.35 m m ) or less, t h e y must b e replaced. Check t h e field brush connections and lead insulation. A brush kit and a c o n t a c t kit a r e available at your local marine dealer, but all other assemblies must b e replace d r a t h e r than repaired. The armature, fields, and brush holders, must be checked before assembling t h e start e r motor. See t h e testing section in this chapter for detailed procedures t o test t h e s t a r t e r motor.

ASSEMBLING THE AUTOLITE 1- Clamp t h e a r m a t u r e in a vise e a u b ped with s o f t jaws with t h e drive end DOWN. Slide t h e thrust washers onto t h e a r m a t u r e shaft. Lower t h e field assembly down over t h e armature. The spring action
I

eblue-dist 2007

AUTOLiTE SERVICE
against t h e brush is built into t h e retainer, Therefore, a separate brush spring is not required. With one brush a t t a c h e d t o t h e end c a p and t h e other t o t h e f r a m e assembly, positioning t h e brushes properly is not t h e easiest task, but i t can b e done with patience. Insert t h e negative brush i n t o t h e retaine r and push i t in until t h e back part of t h e spring rests on t h e side of t h e brush. This f o r c e secures t h e brush in t h e retainer in a r e t r a c t e d position. Lower t h e end c a p over t h e f r a m e assembly. Install t h e positive brush i n t o t h e retainer and push t h e brush backward until t h e spring part of t h e retaine r is on t h e side of t h e brush. 2- Work t h e c a p over t h e end of t h e a r m a t u r e s h a f t and t h e brushes over t h e commutator. J u s t before t h e c a p is completely into place against t h e frame, use a punch and push on t h e back side of each brush and t h e brush will snap in t o ride against the commutator. The spring will then b e behind t h e brush.
FIELD

6-5 1

3- Align t h e end c a p notch or mark with t h e mark on t h e f r a m e and t h e upper c a p mark with i t s matching mark. Now, install t h e thru-bolts through t h e end c a p and hold i t all together with a nut on each bolt. The nuts will later be removed when t h e s t a r t e r motor is installed onto t h e powerhead. To test t h e complete s t a r t e r motor, proc e e d directly t o Section 6-19. To install t h e s t a r t e r motor onto t h e engine, proceed directly t o Section 6-20.

NOTCH
' a
8

MAGNET

BOLT
Exploded view of a starter motor with principle parts identified.

eblue-dist 2007

6-52

ELECTRICAL

6-18 PRESTOLITE SERVICE


Two d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d s of i n s t a l l a t i o n w e r e used f o r t h e P r e s t o l i t e s t a r t e r m o t o r s used on t h e e n g i n e s c o v e r e d in t h i s manual. If t h e s t a r t e r m o t o r i s installed on t h e s t a r b o a r d s i d e of t h e engine, i t i s s e c u r e d t o a b r a c k e t a t t a c h e d t o t h e powerhead. If t h e u n i t i s installed on t h e p o r t s i d e of t h e engine, a b r a c k e t i s welded t o t h e s t a r t e r and t h e bracket is then secured t o t h e powerhead. REMOVAL STARBOARD INSTALLATION WITH SEPARATE DRIVE GEAR B e f o r e beginning a n y work on t h e s t a r t e r m o t o r , disconnect t h e positive (+) l e a d f r o m t h e b a t t e r y terminal. R e m o v e t h e hood. Disconnect t h e r e d c a b l e at t h e s t a r t e r motor terminal. 1- R e m o v e t h e t w o thru- bolts s e c u r i n g t h e s t a r t e r motor. T h e s e b o l t s pass t h r o u g h t h e s t a r t e r m o t o r and t h r e a d i n t o t h e d r i v e g e a r housing. On s o m e e n g i n e s a s t a r t e r m o t o r s u p p o r t b r a c k e t i s installed under t h e s t a r t e r m o t o r securing t h e s t a r t e r m o t o r t o t h e engine. If t h e b r a c k e t is installed, rem o v e t h e 7/16" bolt s e c u r i n g t h e b r a c k e t t o t h e powerhead. R e m o v e t h e s t a r t e r m o t o r and b r a c k e t t o g e t h e r . 2- T o r e m o v e t h e d r i v e g e a r assembly, r e m o v e t h e 7/16" s c r e w on t h e b a s e of t h e d r i v e g e a r assembly, a n d l i f t a s s e m b l y f r e e of t h e b r a c k e t on t h e powerhead.

a r e visible. L i f t t h e s t a r t e r m o t o r f r e e of t h e powerhead.

GOOD NEWS If t h e only m o t o r r e p a i r n e c e s s a r y is r e p l a c e m e n t of t h e brushes, t h e d r i v e g e a r d o e s not h a v e t o b e removed. All s t a r t e r m o t o r s h a v e thru- bolts s e c u r i n g t h e upper a n d l o w e r c a p t o t h e fie14 f r a m e assembly. In a l l cases b o t h c a p s h a v e s o m e t y p e of m a r k o r boss. T h e s e m a r k s a r e used to properly align t h e c a p s with t h e f i e l d f r a m e assembly.

REMOVAL PORT SIDE INSTALLATION DRIVE GEAR ON ARMATURE SHAFT

3- R e m o v e t h e t h r e e a t t a c h i n g bolts f r o m t h e powerhead. O n e i s partially hidden just behind t h e c a r b u r e t o r a n d t h e o t h e r t w o

eblue-dist 2007

PRESTOLlTE SERVICE

6-53

DISASSEMBLING

4- Observe t h e caps and find t h e identifying mark or boss on each. If t h e marks a r e not visible, make an identifying mark prior t o removing t h e thru-bolts as an essential aid during assembling. Remove t h e thru- bolts from t h e s t a r t e r motor. 5- Use a small hammer and CAREFULLY t a p t h e lower c a p f r e e of t h e s t a r t e r motor. 6- Pull on t h e a r m a t u r e shaft from t h e drive gear end and remove i t from t h e field f r a m e assembly. Remove t h e brushes from their holders, and then remove t h e brush springs. Lift t h e white plastic retainer f r e e from t h e frame. Observe t h e location of t h e notch on t h e retainer in relation t o t h e frame. The retainer must be installed in t h e s a m e position.
ARMATURE TESTING

ON position. Slowly r o t a t e t h e armature. If t h e hacksaw blade vibrates, t h e a r m a t u r e or commutator has a short. Clean t h e grooves between t h e commutator bars on t h e armature. Perform t h e test again. If t h e hacksaw blade still vibrates during t h e t e s t , t h e a r m a t u r e has a short and MUST be replaced.

Testing for a Short


1- Position t h e a r m a t u r e on a growler, then hold a hacksaw blade over t h e armat u r e core. Turn t h e growler switch t o t h e

eblue-dist 2007

6-54

ELECTRICAL

CORRECT

INCORRECT

COMMUTATOR

' 0

t h e brushes a r e harder than t h e insulation. Undercut t h e insulation between t h e commutator bars 1/32" (0.79 mm) t o t h e full width of t h e insulation and f l a t at t h e bottom. A triangular groove is not satisfactory. After t h e undercutting work is completed, clean out t h e slots carefully t o remove dirt and copper dust. Sand t h e comm u t a t o r lightly with No. 00 sandpaper t o remove any burrs l e f t from t h e undercutting. Check t h e a r m a t u r e a second t i m e on t h e growler f o r possible short circuits.

Testing for a Ground 2- Obtain a test lamp or continuity meter. Make c o n t a c t with one probe lead on t h e a r m a t u r e c o r e and t h e other probe lead on t h e commutator bar. If t h e lamp lights, or t h e m e t e r indicates continuity, t h e armat u r e is grounded and MUST b e replaced. Checking the Commutator Bar 3- Check between or check bar-to-bar as shown in t h e accompanying illustration. The test light should light, or t h e m e t e r should indicate continuity. If t h e commutator fails t h e test, t h e a r m a t u r e MUST b e replaced. Turning the Commutator 4- True t h e commutator, if necessary, in a lathe. NEVER undercut t h e mica because

Positive Brushes 5- Notice how t h e positive brush lead is a t t a c h e d t o t h e terminal on t h e end of t h e frame. This is t h e s a m e terminal t o which t h e heavy b a t t e r y cable is attached. The terminal may b e removed from t h e frame. Pull t h e terminal f r e e of t h e frame. Obtain an ohmmeter. Connect one test lead of a n ohmmeter t o t h e brush and t h e other t e s t lead t o t h e terminal. Continuity should b e indicated on t h e ohmmeter. If continuity is not indicated, t h e brush must b e replaced. The brush and terminal a r e sold as a n assembly, eliminating t h e necessity for soldering. Negative Brushes 6- The complete terminology f o r Prestolite negative brushes is: Field Coil -- Negat i v e Brush.

eblue-dist 2007

PRESTOLITE SERVICE
Obtain an ohmmeter. Make c o n t a c t with one test lead t o t h e negative brush a n d m a k e c o n t a c t with t h e other lead t o t h e s t a r t e r frame. If t h e m e t e r does not indicate continuity, t h e field coils a r e open and MUST b e replaced. Check t o b e sure t h e soldered connections a r e NOT touching t h e frame. The fields must not b e grounded. If t h e connections make c o n t a c t with t h e f r a m e , t h e fields would b e grounded.

6-55

CLEANING AND INSPECTING


Clean t h e field coils, armature, commut a t o r , a r m a t u r e shaft, brush-end plate, and drive-end housing with a brush or compressed air. Wash all other p a r t s in solvent and blow them dry with compressed air. Inspect t h e insulation and t h e unsoldered connections of t h e a r m a t u r e windings for breaks or burns.

Perform electrical t e s t s on any suspecte d defective part, according t o t h e procedures outlined earlier in this section. Check t h e commutator f o r run-out. Inspect t h e a r m a t u r e s h a f t and both bearings for scoring.

UPPER HEAD
FIELD

WASHER
!

O-RING

- - . -F

BRUSH ARMATURE

G@
LOWER HEAD

HOLDER

Exploded drawing of a Prestolite starter motor.

eblue-dist 2007

6-56

ELECTRICAL

Turn t h e commutator in a l a t h e if i t is out-of-round by more than 0.005" (1.27 mm). Check t h e springs in t h e brush holder t o be sure none a r e broken. Check t h e spring tension and replace if t h e tension is not 3240 ounces. Check t h e insulated brush holde r s for shorts t o ground. If t h e brushes a r e worn down t o 1/4" (6.35 m m ) o r less, t h e y must b e replaced. Check t h e field brush connections and lead insulation. A brush kit and a c o n t a c t kit a r e available at your local marine dealer, but all other assemblies must b e replace d rather than repaired. The armature, fields, and brush holders, must be checked before assembling t h e start e r motor. See t h e testing section in this chapter for detailed procedures t o test t h e s t a r t e r motor.

ASSEMBLING THE PRESTOLITE

1- Slide t h e plastic terminal and brush lead retainer into t h e groove in t h e f r a m e with t h e small protrusion on one side facing DOWNWARD. Continue pushing t h e retaine r into t h e groove until i t is fully seated. Work t h e brush retainer down on t o p of t h e f r a m e with t h e postive lead through t h e cutaway in t h e retainer plate. Check t o b e sure t h e field coil negative brush passes through t h e cutaway in t h e plate. 2- Install t h e spring into t h e retainer. Push t h e negative brush into i t s retainer and then, wrap a fine piece of wire around t h e f r o n t side of t h e brush and t h e back side of t h e retainer. Tighten t h e wire snugly. This wire will hold t h e brush in t h e retainer. Repeat t h e procedure for t h e positive brush. Check t o b e sure t h e plate is secured onto t h e f r a m e and t h e cutaway is over t h e

protrusion of t h e positive plastic terminal. Clamp t h e a r m a t u r e in a vise equipped with soft jaws with t h e drive gear facing DOWNWARD. Install t h e thrust washers onto t h e end of t h e a r m a t u r e shaft. Lower t h e f r a m e assembly down over t h e a r m a t u r e until t h e brushes a r e over t h e commutator. 3- After t h e a r m a t u r e is in place, c u t and remove t h e wire wrapped around t h e brushes t o hold them in place. The brushes should then m a k e firm c o n t a c t with t h e commutator. 4- Install t h e end c a p onto t h e end of t h e s t a r t e r motor. Observe t h r e e small nipples on t h e inside of t h e end cap. These nipples MUST index with matching dimples in t h e retaining plate. Align t h e mark on t h e side of t h e end c a p with t h e terminal. Lower t h e c a p onto t h e frame, and seat i t GENTLY. NEVER t a p with a hammer o r other tool, because t h e nipples may not b e indexed with t h e dimples and t h e tapping may cause damage.

eblue-dist 2007

STARTER MOTOR TESTING

6-57

Align t h e e n d c a p n o t c h or m a r k , w i t h t h e m a r k on t h e f r a m e , a n d t h e upper c a p m a r k w i t h i t s mark.

Hookup to test an assmbled starter motor.

Starter Motor Installed on Port Side Install t h e thru- bolts through t h e e n d c a p and frame. Starter Motor Installed on Starboard Side Install t h e thru- bolts through t h e e n d c a p a n d f r a m e a n d hold i t a l l t o g e t h e r with a n u t on e a c h bolt. T h e s e n u t s will b e r e m o v e d l a t e r during installation of t h e s t a r t e r t o t h e power head.
T o test t h e a s s e m b l e d s t a r t e r m o t o r , see t h e S e c t i o n 6-19. To install t h e s t a r t e r m o t o r , proceed d i r e c t l y t o S e c t i o n 6-20.

F i r m l y c o n n e c t o n e e n d of a heavy- duty jumper w i r e to t h e POSITIVE t e r m i n a l of a b a t t e r y . F i r m l y c o n n e c t t h e o t h e r e n d of t h e jumper l e a d t o t h e s t a r t e r m o t o r terminal. C o n n e c t a s e c o n d heavy- duty jumper w i r e t o t h e n e g a t i v e t e r m i n a l of t h e b a t t e r y . Now, MOMENTARILY m a k e c o n t a c t with t h e o t h e r e n d of t h e s e c o n d jumper l e a d a n y w h e r e t o t h e f r a m e of t h e s t a r t e r m o t o r . NEVER m a k e t h e m o m e n t a r y contact with t h e positive l e a d t o t h e t e r m i n a l , b e c a u s e a n y a r c i n g at t h e t e r m i n a l m a y damage t h e terminal threads and t h e nut m a y not t a k e t o t h e d a m a g e d t h r e a d s . T h e m o t o r should t u r n rapidly. If t h e s t a r t e r motor fails t o rotate, t h e s t a r t e r m o t o r rnust b e disassembled a g a i n a n d t h e s e r v i c e work c a r e f u l l y checked. Sorry a b o u t t h a t , b u t s o m e phase of t h e rebuild t a s k w a s n o t perf o r m e d properly.

6-19 STARTER MOTOR TESTING

V4 Engines 1958 - 1968 Gear on the Armature Shaft Two P U ~ MUST b e t h r e a d e d o n t o t h e t w o S thru-bolts t o hol6 t6e m o t o r t o g e t h e r during testinn.
All Other Engines Flanges Welded to Motor Housing This unit is held t o g e t h e r by t h e t h r u b o l t s t h r e a d e d i n t o t h e upper cam.

6-20 STARTER MOTOR INSTALLATION


V 4 Engines 1958 to 1968 Gear on the Armature Shaft 1- O n t h e s t a r b o a r d s i d e of t h e engine: s e t t h e g e a r s h a f t i n t o t h e b r o n z e bushing a n d s t a r t t h e 7/16'' b o l t t h r o u g h t h e housing i n t o t h e e n g i n e b r a c k e t . DO NOT t i g h t e n t h e bolt a t this time. R e m o v e t h e n u t s f r o m t h e thru- bolts. T h e s e n u t s w e r e i n s t a l l e d during a s s e m b l i n g to hold t h e unit t o g e t h e r f o r t e s t i n g purposes. If a b o t t o m b r a c k e t is used, t h e t h r u b o l t s rnust pass through t h e b r a c k e t and then through t h e s t a r t e r motor.

Testing Hold t h e s t a r t e r motor f i r m l y on t h e floor wjth o n e f o o t , as shown.


I

SAFETY WORDS The a r m a t u r e will t u r n rapidly during this test. Therefore, t h e s t a r t e r motor MUST be vfell SECURED b e f o r e m a k i n g t h e t e s t to p r e v e n t personal INJURY o r d a m a g e t o t h e s t a r t e r motor.

GOOD WORDS Installation of t h e s t a r t e r m o t o r t o a n o u t b o a r d e n g i n e is n o t t h e e a s i e s t of tasks. I t m a y t a k e a l i t t l e t i m e and p a t i e n c e t o work t h e m o t o r up i n t o t h e d r i v e g e a r

eblue-dist 2007

6-58

ELECTRICAL
D O NOT, under any circumstances, s t a r t t h e engine unless i t is mounted in a n adequate size t e s t tank or body of water. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump,

bracket until i t is seated properly. If difficulty is encountered, cease t h e work, have a c u p of tea or coffee, and then t r y i t again. 2- Use a rubberband around each thrubolt a f t e r t h e bolt has been installed through t h e s t a r t e r t o hold them in place as t h e motor is lifted into place. Once t h e thru-bolts a r e s t a r t e d into t h e drive g e a r housing, break and remove t h e rubberbands from t h e bolts. Tighten t h e bolts securely. Install t h e 7/16" b s l t through t h e bracket i n t o t h e powerhead, if t h e bracket is used. Connect t h e positive red lead t o t h e s t a r t e r motor. c o n n e c t t h e electrical lead t o t h e battery. Test t h e completed work by cranking t h e engine with t h e s t a r t e r motor.

All Other Engines Starter Motor With Flanges 3- If t h e s t a r t e r motor has t h e mounting flanges permanently attached, then position t h e motor in place and s t a r t t h e t h r e e bolts t o a t t a c h t h e motor t o t h e engine. The hole f o r one bolt is hidden in behind t h e carburetor. Tighten t h e t h r e e bolts ALTERNATELY and EVENLY until all bolts a r e tight. The bolts MUST b e tightened alternately t o prevent binding and possibly bending t h e flanges. Connect t h e positive red lead t o t h e s t a r t e r motor. Connect t h e electrical lead t o t h e battery. Test t h e completed work by cranking t h e engine with t h e s t a r t e r motor. D O NOT, under any circumstances, s t a r t t h e engine unless i t is mounted in an adequate size t e s t tank or body of water. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the wate's pump.

eblue-dist 2007

7 ACCESSORIES
7-1 INTRODUCTION
Boat accessories a r e seldom obtained from t h e original equipment manufacturer, except in t h e case of t h e e l e c t r i c shift unit. The electric shift box is considered a p a r t of t h e new engine. Therefore, unless a n owner made a change, t h e electric shift unit with t h e engine is probably original engine manufacturer equipment. Mechanical shift units a r e sold and installed separately. Shift boxes, steering, bilge pumps, blowers, and other similar equipment may b e added a f t e r t h e boat leaves t h e plant. Because of the wide assortment, styles, and price ranges of such accessories, t h e distributor, dealer, or customer has a wide selection from which t o draw, when outfitting t h e boat. Therefore, t h e procedures and suggestions in this chapter a r e general in nature in order t o cover as many units as possible, but still specific and in enough detail t o allow troubleshooting, repair, and adjustment for each of these accessories. Proper operation will do much for maximum comfort, performance, and enjoyment. Complete procedures for removal, installation, and adjustment of four shift arrangements a r e covered in this Chapter: The old-style manual shift; new updated manual shift; electric shift; and t h e pushbutton shift mechanism. These shift boxes a r e all considered original Johnson/Evinrude equipment. equipped boats is considered an accessory, e x c e p t in t h e case of t h e e l e c t r i c shift. Theref ore, many installations may have othe r than a f a c t o r y installed unit. OMC equipped boats may b e equipped with one of four different t y p e s h i f t boxes: The oldstyle manual shift; new updated manual shift; e l e c t r i c shift; and t h e pushbutton shift arrangement. The mechanical shift box units have two levers, a long lever handle and a short lever handle. The long handle controls t h e thrott l e and t h e short one t h e shift mechanism. The electric shift units, including t h e pushbutton models, have only one lever handle for control of t h e s h i f t and throttle. The shift box installed with Johnson engines has one handle for shifting, and another at t h e
NEUTRAL

'
\FRICTION SCREW
Single lever electric shift box used only on the Johnson units. These boxes incorporate a warm-up throttle lever at,the rear and a friction screw on the bottom to hold the throttle position after the operator releases the handle.

7-2 SHIFT BOXES DESCRIPTION


Undoubtedly, t h e most used accessory on any boat is t h e t h e shift control box. This unit is a remote- control device for shifting t h e outboard and at t h e s a m e t i m e controlling t h e throttle. The shift box on OMC

eblue-dist 2007

7-2

ACCESSOR lES

rear of t h e box considered a "warmup" lever. This warmup lever may b e adjusted f o r low and f a s t idle speeds. The pushbutton type Locks out t h e shift lever t o prevent shifting if t h e t h r o t t l e is advanced t o o f a r while t h e engine is in neutral. The old style mechanical shift boxes were very simple in design. The lower end of t h e shift lever handle incorporated a rocker- type arrangement with t e e t h and a nylon sleeve- type slider with teeth. As t h e handle moves, t h e rocker llwalks" in t h e t e e t h of t h e slider, pulling on t h e inner t h r o t t l e cable or t h e shift cable, f o r shifting or advancing t h e throttle, depending on which lever is being actuated. Several accessories have been added t o t h e updated mechanical shift box. This new b o x s t i l l uses t h e two lever principle f o r t h e th~ottle and shift. A friction f e a t u r e on t h e t h r o t t l e mechanism permits t h e operator t o release his grip on t h e lever handle without t h e t h r o t t l e changing position. An idle s t o p is also built into t h e shift box. This f e a t u r e prevents t h e t h r o t t l e from being r e t r a c t e d past normal idle t o t h e point where t h e engine would shut down.
STANDARD INSTALLATION

START FAST

SLOW

L"\FRICTION
ADJUSTMENT Single lever electric shift. box installed with the Evinrude units. This box incorporates pushbuttons for shift control, an idle adjustment at the front, and a friction adjustment on the bottom to hold the throttle wosition.
18 7 4

Outboard models a r e equipped with a cut- out switch in t h e cranking system. t o open t h e circuit t o t h e s t a r t e r solenoid. This arrangement prevents the cranking system from operating unless t h e t h r o t t l e is

STARBOARD

tI

SPEED RANGE
,

1
SLOW
,,

SPEED RANGE

FAST

, '-)

,--. \

-!
1

NEUTRAL

NEUTRAL

It--------SHIFT RANGE
187 1

SHIFT RANGE

Double lever manual shift box installed with eariy model Johnson units. This box is no longer available. However some replacement parts may still be in stock at some dealers.

Double lever shift box installed with manual shift lower unit engines. TFis shift box is still in use and parts are available from OMC dealers.

eblue-dist 2007

DOUBLE SHIFT LEVER


installed in t h e shift box. This arrangement prevents t h e cranking system from operating unless t h e throttle is in t h e proper idle range. Stating i t another way, t h e t h r o t t l e MUST b e in t h e idle position or t h e s t a r t e r system will not operate. The position of t h e shift lever does not a f f e c t t h e starting motor circuit. All shift box models have a means of advancing t h e t h r o t t l e without moving t h e shift lever into gear. This device is commonly known a s t h e "warmup" lever and may be adjusted for low and f a s t idle speeds.

7-3

7-3 OLD-STYLE DOUBLE LEVER TROUBLESHOOTING


The following paragraphs provide a Iogical sequence of tests, checks, and adjustments, designed t o isolate and c o r r e c t a problem in t h e shift box operation. The procedures and suggestions a r e keyed by number t o matching numbered illustrations a s a n aid in performing t h e work. The two-lever shift boxes a r e fairly simple in construction and operation. Seldom do t h e y fail, creating problems requiring service more than normal lubrication.
I

SHIFT

LOCKOUT

Hard Shifting or Difficult Throttle Advance Remove t h e t h r o t t l e and shift control at t h e engine. Mow, at t h e shift box, a t t e m p t t o move t h e t h r o t t l e or shift lever. If t h e lever moves smoothly, without difficulty, t h e problem is immediately isolated t o t h e engine. A t t e m p t t o identify if t h e problem is in t h e t h r o t t l e or t h e shift side of t h e shift box. On engines equipped with distributor magneto or b a t t e r y ignition system, t h e problem may be in t h e tower shaft between t h e connector of t h e t h r o t t l e and t h e distributor advance a r m on t h e engine. On engines with a CD (capacitor discharge) system, t h e problem could b e between t h e t h r o t t l e arm and t h e breaker point base underneath t h e flywheel. If t h e problem with shifting is a t t h e engine, t h e first place t o check is t h e a r e a where t h e shift lever extends through t h e exhaust housing. The bushing may b e worn or corroded. If t h e bushing requires replacement, t h e engine powerhead must b e removed. Another cause of hard shifting i s water entering t h e lower unit. In this c a s e t h e lower unit must b e disassembled and t h e problem corrected. See Chapter 8. If hard shifting is still encountered at t h e shift box when t h e controls a r e disconnected from t h e engine, t h e cables may b e corroded and require replacement, or lack of lubrication in t h e shift box has resulted in excessive wear or corrosion.

FAST NEUTRAL

SLOW
;

,'

,,---,
'\

FRICTION ADJUSTMENT

i "-

WARM-UP LEVER

\
RUN POSITION

SPEED RANGE
18

4Johnson early model double lever shift box. This s box i no longer available.

75

Single lever remote control shift box with key, choke,-and "hot horn" incorporated.

eblue-dist 2007

7-4

ACCESSORIES

FAST

SLOW

Inner shift wire after it has been removed showing the proper type crimp necessary to hold the adjustment.

Unable t o Obtain Full Shift Movement or Full Throttle Normally, this type of problem is t h e result of improper shift box installation. This a r e a includes connection of t h e shift and t h r o t t l e cables in t h e shift box. If t h e stainless steel inner wire was not heated and t h e clamp did not hold t h e inner c a b l e (wire), t h e wire could slip inside t h e sleeve thus shortening t h e cable. Theref ore, if i t is not possible t o obtain full shift or full throttle, t h e shift box must b e removed, opened, and checked for proper installation work. The inner wire could also slip at t h e engine end of t h e control, but problems at t h a t end a r e very rare. Usually if improper installation work has been done at t h e engine end, t h e ability t o shift at all is lost, o r t h e t h r o t t l e cannot b e actuated. Failure t o obtain full movement of t h e t h r o t t l e or shift lever may b e caused by worn or broken t e e t h on t h e slider or on t h e rocker of t h e shift handle. This type of damage results in t h e mechanism jumping a tooth and loosing i t s "timing". DISASSEMBLING Removing Single-and Double Lever Shift Boxes 1- Remove t h e attaching hardware securing t h e shift box t o t h e side of t h e boat. Once t h e shift box is f r e e , t h e service work may b e performed in t h e boat. The cables m a y remain as routed. Remove t h e t w o screws, on t h e side a t t h e rear of t h e shift box holding t h e two halves together. Separate t h e two halves. OBSERVE Observe how one side accommodates t h e t h r o t t l e and t h e other side t h e shift mechanism. Notice t h e plastic plate between t h e two halves. This plate prevents any c o n t a c t between t h e shift parts and those f o r t h e throttle.

Throttle Half Disassembling 2- Remove t h e screw attaching t h e t h r o t t l e handle t o t h e shift box. Lift t h e t h r o t t l e handle and rocker f r e e of t h e shift box. If t h e handle is t o b e replaced, t h e shift ball on t h e end of t h e handle must b e removed and SAVED because a new ball is not included with a new handle. 3- Remove t h e two Allen screws, securing t h e ratchet t o t h e end of t h e shift cable,
THROTTLE LEVER
/

'\

/ /

a
TRUNNION

GEAR TEETH
18 7 5

/ '

eblue-dist 2007

DOUBLE SHIFT LEVER


and then pull t h e r a t c h e t f r e e of t h e cable end. Take c a r e not t o lose t h e small brass sleeve.

7-5

GOOD WORDS As the ratchet is removed from t h e cable end, t a k e notice of exactly where t h e Allen screws made c o n t a c t with t h e cable as a n aid during installation. Remove t h e small sleeve from t h e ratchet. Shift Half Disassembling 4- Lift t h e lever handle assembly f r e e of t h e shift box. 5- Remove t h e r a t c h e t from t h e end of t h e shift cable. This is accomplished by loosening t h e Allen screws in t h e sleeve and pulling t h e r a t c h e t f r e e of t h e cable. T a k e c a r e not t o lose t h e small brass sleeve. CLEANING AND INSPECTING
Check t o b e sure t h e t e e t h on t h e rocker of t h e shift and t h r o t t l e handle a r e not worn or damaged. Inspect t h e ratchets removed from t h e end of t h e cables. The t e e t h should not b e damaged or worn excessively. Wash t h e outside and inside of t h e s h i f t box halves with solvent and dry them thoroughly with a cloth or compressed air.

CABLE
1

inner wire, remove t h e casing guide from t h e cable at both ends. Attach a n e l e c t r i c drill t o one end of t h e wire. Momentarily turn t h e drill on and off t o r o t a t e t h e wire and at t h e s a m e t i m e allow lubricant t o flow into t h e cable, as shown.

MSEMBLING SHIFT BOX CRITICAL WORDS Location of t h e cable end is of t h e utmost importance. One Allen screw m u s t b e tightened hard, until t h e r e is a definite c r i m p in t h e wire. If t h e Allen screw is not tightened enough, t h e cable will slip in t h e sleeve and t h e adjustment will b e lost. 1- Check t h e end of t h e cable t o determine if t h e temper has been removed. If t h e end has a bluish appearance, i t has been heated at an earlier d a t e and t h e t e m p e r removed. The temper MUST b e removed t o permit t h e holding screw t o make a crimp in t h e wire t o hold an adjustment. If t h e &ire has not been tempered, heat t h e end, but not enough t o m e l t t h e wire. TAKE CARE not t o overheat t h e stainless steel wire with a torch because i t has a very low melting point. Assembling - Wire Cable to Ratchet Throttle and Shift Cables 2- Working with either cable: insert t h e small sleeve onto the end of t h e r a t c h e t with t h e two Allen screws s t a r t e d in t h e sleeve. Notice how t h e sleeve has a hole

Throttle Cable Lubrication 6- If t h e throttle or shift cables a r e not t o b e replaced, now is an excellent t i m e t o lubricate t h e inner wire. To lubricate t h e
TRUNNION
GEAR TEETH

SHIFT HANDLE

eblue-dist 2007

7-6

ACCESSORIES
TRUNNION GEAR TEETH

, --.HANDLE ,
SHIFT

completely through it. The wire MUST pass through t h e hole and protrude o u t t h e end of t h e r a t c h e t . Vdork t h e r a t c h e t onto t h e end of t h e cable. Continue working t h e r a t c h e t onto t h e cable until t h e inner c a b l e end is completely through t h e r a t c h e t , but just flush with end surface of t h e r a t c h e t . Tighten one Allen screw until a definite crimp is made in t h e cable, then tighten t h e o t h e r Allen screw securely. R e p e a t this s t e p for t h e o t h e r cable. 3- Apply a coating of lubricant around t h e pivot point of t h e t h r o t t l e lever bushing. S e t t h e lever in position inside t h e box half. Install t h e washer with t h e concave side of t h e washer on t h e s a m e side as t h e screw. Install t h e screw. Move t h e t h r o t t l e lever back-and-forth and check f o r freedom of movement. Slip t h e r a t c h e t and trunnion into t h e shift box starting t h e last tooth on t h e t h r o t t l e rocker engaged with t h e last t o o t h of t h e slider. Again, move t h e t h r o t t l e lever back-and-forth and check for freedom of movement. Check t o b e s u r e t h e s a m e number of t e e t h a r e engaging on t h e rocker a s on t h e slider. The t e e t h indexing i s e x t r e m e l y important and t h e key t o a successful installation. The r a t c h e t and rocker both have t h e s a m e number of t e e t h . All t e e t h must b e used on t h e r a t c h e t and rocker when t h e lever handle is moved t o maximum forward or a f t . THROTTLE , LEVER ,

Shift Half Assembling 4- Lay t h e shift r a t c h e t in position inside t h e shift half of t h e box. Place t h e s h i f t lever down over t h e t o p of t h e r a t c h e t , with t h e last tooth on t h e lever rocker engaged with t h e last t o o t h of t h e slider. Apply a coating of light lubricant o n t o t h e surface of t h e gear t e e t h ; t h e bottom and side walls of t h e r a t c h e t ; and onto t h e full length of t h e gear rack. Do not use a g r e a s e t h a t will harden, because t h e lubricating qualities will b e lost leaving t h e assembly dry. Install t h e divider s e p a r a t i n g t h e t h r o t t l e and shift halves of t h e box. Bring t h e t w o box halves together, and then install t h e retaining screws. Double check operation of both levers for smoothness and no evidence of binding. Install t h e s h i f t box o n t o t h e side of t h e b o a t and s e c u r e i t in place with t h e a t t a c h i n g hardware.

7-4 NEW STYLE SHIFT LEVER SERVICE


TROUBLESHOOTING
The following paragraphs provide a logic a l sequence of t e s t s , checks, and adjustments, designed t o isolate and c o r r e c t a problem in t h e s h i f t box operation. The procedures and suggestions a r e keyed by number t o matching numbered illustrations as an aid in performing t h e work. The two-lever s h i f t boxes a r e fairly simple in construction and operation. Seldom do t h e y fail c r e a t i n g problems requiring service in addition t o norm a1 lubrication.

,Q
/

Hard Shifting or Difficult Throttle Advance Checking Throttle Side Remove t h e t h r o t t l e and shift control at t h e engine. Now, at t h e shift box, a t t e m p t t o move t h e t h r o t t l e or s h i f t lever. If t h e

' \

1875

GEAR TEETH

\g',

eblue-dist 2007

NEW SHIFT LEVER

7-7

-1
FAST

SPEED RANGE
NEUTRAL
,

------.

:-. , ..---,
!

, I

SLOW ----.

Connecting a throttle cable with adjustable trunnion.

lever moves m o o t hly, without difficulty, t h e problem is immediately isolated t o t h e engine. A t t e m p t to identify if t h e problem is in t h e t h r o t t l e or t h e shift side of t h e shift box. On engines equipped with distributor magneto or b a t t e r y ignition system, t h e problem may be in t h e tower shaft between t h e connector of t h e t h r o t t l e and t h e distributor advance arm on t h e engine. On engines with a C D (capacitor discharge) system, t h e problem could be between t h e t h r o t t l e arm and t h e breaker point base underneath t h e flywheel. If t h e problem with shifting is at t h e engine, t h e first place to check is t h e a r e a where t h e shift lever extends through t h e exhaust housing. The bushing may b e worn, or corroded. If t h e bushing requires replacement, t h e engine powerhead must b e removed, see Chapter 3. Another cause of hard shifting is water entering t h e lower unit. In this case the lower unit must b e disassembled, see Chapter 8. If hard shifting i s still encountered at t h e shift box when t h e controls a r e disconnected from t h e engine, t h e cables may b e corroded and require replacement, or lack of lubrication in t h e shift box has resulted i n excessive wear or corrosion.

1
1872

SHIFT RANGE

Double lever shift box installed with manual shift lower unit engines. This shift box is still in use and parts are available from OMC dealers.

This a r e a includes connection of t h e shift and t h r o t t l e cables in t h e shift box. If t h e stainless steel inner wire was not heated and t h e clamp did not hold t h e inner cable (wire), t h e wire could slip inside t h e sleeve and t h e cable would be shortened. Therefore, if i t is not possible t o obtain full shift or full throttle, t h e shift box must b e removed, opened, and checked for proper installation work. The inner wire could also slip at t h e engine end of t h e control, b u t problems at t h a t end a r e very rare. Usually if improper installation work has been done at t h e engine end, t h e ability t o shift at a l l is lost, or t h e t h r o t t l e cannot b e actuated.

Unable to Obtain Full Shift Movement or Full Throttle Normally, this type of problem is t h e result of improper shift box installation.

Attaching a shift cable, with non-adjustable trunnion, to the shift arm.

Wire extended too far through the cable connector (slider). The end of the wire should be flush with the slider surface.

eblue-dist 2007

7-8

ACCESSORIES

REMOVAL Removing Double Lever Shift Box 1- Remove t h e attaching hardware securing t h e shift box t o t h e side of t h e boat. Once t h e shift box is f r e e , t h e service work may be performed in t h e boat. The cables may remain as routed. Remove t h e t w o screws, at t h e rear side of t h e shift box, holding t h e two halves toget her. Separate t h e t w o halves. OBSERVE Observe how one side accommodates t h e t h r o t t l e and t h e other side t h e shift mechanism. Notice t h e metal plate between t h e two halves. This plate prevents any c o n t a c t between t h e shift parts and those for t h e throttle. Notice t h e friction screw a n d t h r o t t l e s t o p on t h e t h r o t t l e side of t h e box. The shift side of t h e box does not have any adjustments, except for t h e low idle stop. Observe how t h e shift lever pivots a t t h e bottom and t h e t h r o t t l e lever pivots at t h e top. DISASSEM BLIMG Throttle Half 2- Remove t h e screw from t h e c e n t e r of t h e throttle lever. Notice how t h e washer has a concave side t o allow t h e screw t o f i t flush with t h e washer. Loosen t h e screw on t h e t o p side of t h e shift box t o relieve

Divider plate to separate the shift half components from the throttle half parts inside the control: box.

pressure on t h e anti- friction knob. Lift t h e lever and throttle cable f r e e of t h e shift box. Notice how t h e cable on t h e trunnion h a s t w o small caps --one on t h e underside and t h e other on top. 3- Loosen the two screws securing t h e gear rack t o t h e end of t h e t h r o t t l e c a b l e and remove t h e end of t h e cable from t h e t h r o t t l e lever. Take c a r e not t o lose t h e

eblue-dist 2007

NEW SHIFT LEVER

7-9

5- Loosen t h e t w o screws securing t h e gear rack t o t h e end of t h e t h r o t t l e cable and remove t h e end of t h e cable from t h e t h r o t t l e lever. Take c a r e not t o lose t h e small sleeve from t h e end of t h e rack t o which t h e screws were attached. Push o u t t h e c e n t e r square button, and t h e n remove t h e rack from t h e shift lever.
CLEANING AND INSPECTING
Check t h e nylon wear block on t h e end of t h e anti- friction cap. The c a p has t e e t h which index into t h e inside diameter of t h e t h r o t t l e lever. If t h e t e e t h a r e damaged a new block may be purchased and slipped into place. Clean t h e box halves thoroughly inside and o u t with solvent, and then dry t h e m with compressed air. Inspect t h e spring on t h e anti- friction lever t o be sure i t is not distorted. Check t h e screw on t h e t h r o t t l e idle s t o p t o ensure i t moves in and o u t freely without any sign of binding. small sleeve from t h e end of t h e rack t o which t h e screws were attached. Push o u t t h e center square button, and then remove t h e rack from t h e shift lever.

Shift Half Disassembling 4- Remove t h e screw and washer from t h e bottom of t h e shift lever. Notice how this washer also has a concave side t o accommodate t h e screw. Lift t h e lever and shift cable f r e e of t h e shift box. Notice how t h e cable on t h e trunnion has two small caps -- one on t h e underside and t h e other on top.

Throttle Cable Lubrication If t h e t h r o t t l e or shift cables a r e not t o b e replaced, now is an excellent t i m e t o lubricate t h e inner wire. 6- To lubricate t h e inner wire, remove t h e casing guide from t h e cable at both ends. Attach a n e l e c t r i c drill t o one end of

eblue-dist 2007

7- 1 0

ACCESSORIES has a bluish appearance, i t has been heated at an earlier d a t e and t h e temper removed. The temper MUST b e removed t o permit t h e holding screw t o make a c r i m p in t h e wire t o hold a n adjustment. If t h e wire has not been tempered, heat t h e end, but not enough t o m e l t t h e wire. 2- Slide t h e cable into t h e ratchet. Work t h e inner wire i n t o t h e sleeve and out t h e end of t h e ratchet. Push t h e wire back until t h e end is flush with t h e r a t c h e t surf ace. Tighten t h e TOP holding screw enough t o make a definite crimp in t h e wire, a s shown. If this screw is not tightened t o m a k e t h e crimp, t h e wire will slip during operation and t h e adjustment will b e lost. A f t e r t h e top screw has been fully tightened, bring t h e other screw up tight against t h e wire. It is not necessary f o r this second screw t o make a crimp in t h e wire. 3- Work t h e t h r o t t l e lever handle down over t h e friction nylon block and at t h e s a m e t i m e f e e d t h e t h r o t t l e cable into place in t h e box half. Check t o b e sure one of t h e small caps is on t h e bottom side of t h e trunnion. Install t h e washer and t h e screw with t h e concave side of t h e washer on t h e s a m e side as t h e screw. Tighten t h e screw securely. Install t h e other trunnion c a p on t o p of t h e trunnion. Check t h e t h r o t t l e lever for ease of movement with no sign of binding.

t h e wire. Momentarily turn t h e drill on and off t o r o t a t e t h e wire and at t h e s a m e t i m e allow lubricant t o flow into t h e cable, as shown. ASSEMBLING

Throttle Cable into Shift Box 1- If t h e slider sleeve was removed f r o m t h e t h r o t t l e lever, install t h e r a t c h e t i n t o t h e throttle lever with t h e hole on t h e end for securing t h e t h r o t t l e cable on t h e oppos i t e end of t h e hole t h a t accommodates t h e cable. Position t h e center of t h e r a t c h e t with t h e center of t h e throttle lever. Install t h e square nylon plug with t h e holes in t h e plug in a vertical position t o permit t h e cable t o slide through. Two different s i z e screws, or possibly Allen screws, a r e used on each end of t h e sleeve. Install t h e s h o r t screw into t h e bottom of t h e sleeve t o prevent t h e sleeve from rubbing on t h e s h i f t box. Install t h e longer screw on t h e t o p p a r t of t h e sleeve. Install t h e sleeve with t h e hole in t h e sleeve aligned with t h e hole for t h e cable.

CRITICAL WORDS Check t h e end of t h e cable t o determine if t h e temper has been removed. If t h e end
INSERT PULLED OUT

CASING GUIDE

eblue-dist 2007

NEW SHIFT LEVER

7- 1 1

Shift Cable into Shift Box 4- If t h e slider sleeve was removed from
t h e shift lever, install t h e slider sleeve into t h e shift lever with t h e hole on t h e end f o r securing t h e shift cable on t h e opposite end of t h e hole t h a t will accommodate t h e cable. Position t h e center of t h e slide with t h e center of t h e shift lever. Install t h e square nylon plug with t h e holes in t h e plug in a vertical position to permit t h e cable t o slide through. Two different size screws a r e used on each end of t h e sleeve. Install t h e short screw into t h e bottom of t h e sleeve t o prevent t h e sleeve from rubbing on t h e shift box. Install t h e longer screw on t h e t o p p a r t of t h e sleeve. Install t h e sleeve with t h e hole in t h e sleeve aligned with t h e hole f o r t h e cable.

CRITICAL WORDS Check t h e end of t h e cable t o determine if t h e temper has been removed. If t h e end has a bluish appearance, it has been heated at an earlier d a t e and t h e temper removed. The temper MUST b e removed t o permit t h e holding screw t o make a c r i m p in t h e wire t o hold an adjustment. If t h e wire h a s not

been tempered, h e a t t h e end, but not enough t o m e l t t h e wire. Slide t h e cable into t h e ratchet. Work t h e inner wire into t h e sleeve and out t h e end of t h e ratchet. Push t h e wire back until t h e end is flush with t h e r a t c h e t surface. Tighten the TOP holding screw enough t o m a k e a definite crimp in t h e wire, a s shown. If this screw is not tightened t o make t h e crimp, t h e wire will slip during operation and t h e adjustment will b e lost. After t h e t o p screw has been fully tightened, bring t h e other screw up tight against t h e wire. I t is not necessary for this second screw t o m a k e a crimp in t h e wire. 5- Place the wavy washer and regular washer into t h e shift box, and then work t h e shift lever handle down into t h e shift box with one of t h e small caps under t h e shift cable trunnion. Install t h e bushing into t h e bottom of t h e shift handle. Install t h e washer and t h e screw with t h e concave side

eblue-dist 2007

7- 12

ACCESSOR l ES

of t h e washer on t h e s a m e side a s t h e screw. Tighten t h e screw securely. Install t h e other trunnion c a p on top of t h e trunnion. Check t h e shift lever for e a s e of movement with no sign of binding. 6- Place t h e m e t a l separator between t h e two halves. Bring t h e two halves together and secure t h e m with t h e t w o screws from t h e back side. Install t h e box in t h e boat and secure i t in place with t h e attaching hardware. Again check t h e levers f o r ease of movement and no sign of binding.

&/
A ,
_$

FULL ADVANCE

FIRST CLAMP

NOSLACK

\;,

EIAY V R 33" T 42" AY O

SLACK

7-5 ELECTRIC GEAR BOXES AND SINGLE LEVER CONTROL JOHNSON UNITS
The electric gear box, with a single lever control was installed with engines having t h e standard type of exhaust system and also with those equipped with t h e propeller exhaust. The engines used with this shift arrangement and having t h e standard exhaust are: 75 hp, V4 -- 1962 t o 1965 80 hp, V4 -- 1966 and 1967 85 hp, V4 -- 1968 90 hp, V4 -- 1964 and 1965 100 hp, V4 -- 1966 t o 1968 Engines used with this shift arrangement and having t h e propeller exhaust are: 55 hp, 3-cyl. -- 1968 and 1969 85 hp, V4 -- 1969 115 hp, V4 -- 1969 The following troubleshooting procedures cover this shift mechanism installed with engines equipped with either t h e standard o r propeller exhaust systems. Where t h e test differs for t h e propeller exhaust, t h e diff erence is clearly indicated. TROUBLESHOOTING The following paragraphs provide a logical sequence of tests, checks, and adjustments, designed t o isolate and c o r r e c t a problem in t h e Johnson single lever shift box with t h e warmup lever t o t h e rear and t h e Evinrude single lever pushbutton shift box operation. The procedures and suggestions a r e keye d by number t o matching numbered illustrations as an aid in performing t h e work.

1- Difficult Shift Operation Many t i m e s this type of problem is t h e result of incorrect cable installation -- t h e cable is not t h e proper length or t h e r e a r e t o o many bends or kinks in t h e routing. Such an installation will cause t h e inner cable t o travel much f u r t h e r than necessary and therefore, wear on t h e outer cable. Over a period of time, inner cable wear will result in difficult shifting or t h r o t t l e operation. BE SURE t o cycle t h e shift lever t o t h e f ull position in both directions, when making any t e s t on t h e shift box. The shift switch may have a dead spot and will not indicate t h e switch is defective unless t h e shift lever is fully cycled for each test.
2- Amp Draw T e s t Turn t h e ignition switch t o t h e O N position and note t h e a m m e t e r reading. Now, o p e r a t e t h e shift control lever t o t h e FORWARD, NEUTRAL, and then t o t h e REVERSE position. Note how much t h e amm e t e r reading increased each t i m e t h e s h i f t lever was moved. If t h e reading was more than 2.5 amperes for any of t h e t h r e e shift positions, continue with t h e following checks. If t h e boat is not equipped with a n a m p e r e gauge, then temporarily disconnect t h e GREEN and BROWN (or RED) wires from the back side of t h e key switch and

eblue-dist 2007

ELECTRIC SHIFT BOX


temporarily install an a m p gauge for t h e test. R e p l a c e t h e w i r e s a f t e r t h e test i s completed. D i s c o n n e c t t h e s h i f t l e a d s at t h e r e a r of t h e engine. T e m p o r a r i l y l a y a p i e c e of c l o t h o r o t h e r insulating m a t e r i a l under t h e w i r e s t o p r e v e n t t h e m f r o m s h o r t i n g o u t during t h e following tests.

7 13 -

e d , i n s p e c t e d , and s e r v i c e d , to c o r r e c t t h e problem, see C h a p t e r 8.

Standard Prop. Models Again o p e r a t e t h e s h i f t l e v e r a n d n o t e t h e c u r r e n t loss. If t h e c u r r e n t d r a w is still m o r e t h a n 2.5 a m p e r e s , t h e n c h e c k f o r a s h o r t in t h e c o n t r o l box switch o r wiring. If t h e c u r r e n t draw is normal with t h e l e a d s d i s c o n n e c t e d f r o m t h e engine, t h e n c h e c k f o r a s h o r t i n t h e g e a r case coil(s) o r wiring. If t h e coil leads a r e s h o r t e d t o e a c h o t h e r , b o t h s h i f t c o i l s would be energized, s t a l l i n g t h e e n g i n e or causing serious d a m a g e t o t h e driveshaf t. Propeller Exhaust Models Enpines equipped with t h e prop. e x h a u s t s y s t e m , have t w o s h i f t solenoids installed i n t h e l o v e r unit. A c h e c k s f t h e s e solenoids is p r e s e n t e d in t h e n e x t test.
% Shift C ~ i Tests Standard Exhaust l T e s t i n g t h e shifting cccils is a c c o m p l i s h e d by f i r s t disccannecting t h e w i r e s a t t h e r e a r of t h e e n r i n e . P'ext, c o n m c t a n ~ h m m e t e r f i r s t tc m e s h i f t coil l e a d and ground, a n d then t o the o t h e r ir, t h e s a m e m a n n e r . A rezdin? o m o r e t h a n 4.5 t o 6.5 o h m s indif c a t e s a s h o r t in t h e coil or lead. F b reading at ell i n r k a t e s a n s a e n c i r c u i t . If t h e results of t h i s test i n d i c a t e a. s h o r t in t h e c i r c u i t , t h e Icwer unit m u s t b e disassembl-

Solenoid Tests O b t a i n a n o h m m e t e r . A t t h e r e a r of t h e engine, d i s c o n n e c t t h e g r e e n a n d blue w i r e s at t h e k n i f e disconnect. S e t t h e o h m m e t e r t o t h e low scale. C o n n e c t o n e l e a d t o t h e g r e e n w i r e t o t h e l o w e r unit, a n d t h e o t h e r l e a d t o a good ground. T h e m e t e r should i n d i c a t e 5 t o 7 ohms. C o n n e c t t h e m e t e r t o t h e blue w i r e t o t h e lower u n i t a n d ground. T h e m e t e r should a g a i n i n d i c a t e f r o m 5 t o 7 ohms.
BAD NEWS If t h e unit f a i l s t h e o h m m e t e r tests just outlined, t h e only c o u r s e of a c t i o n is t o disassemble t h e lower u n i t to d e t e r m i n e and c o r r e c t t h e problem.

4- Testing Shift Switch - Forward Standard Exhaust T o test t h e switch f o r t h e FORWARD position, m a k e c o n t a c t with o n e p r o b e of a c o n t i n u i t y m e t e r (or a test light) t o t h e t e r m i n a l (purple o r red lead) and t o t h e f o r w a r d (green l e a d ) t e r m i n a l w i t h t h e o t h e r probe. Now, m o v e t h e s h i f t l e v e r t o t h e FORWARD position. T h e m e t e r should indicate c o n t i n u i t y (or t h e test light c o m e on), when t h e s h i f t l e v e r i s in t h e FORWARD position.
Propeller Exhaust To test t h e switch f o r t h e FORWARD position, m a k e c o n t a c t with o n e p r o b e of a continuity meter, o r test light, to t h e purple or red lead terminal. M a k e c o n t a c t

eblue-dist 2007

7- 14

ACCESSORIES

with t h e other meter probe t o t h e blue or green wire terminal. Move t h e shift lever into t h e FORWARD position. The test light should NOT come on, or t h e m e t e r indicate continuity. If t h e light comes on, t h e switch has a short.

5- Testing Shift Switch - Reverse Engines with Standard Exhaust To test t h e shift switch for reverse, make contact with one probe of a continuity m e t e r (or t e s t light), t o t h e terminal (purple or red lead) and t o t h e reverse terminal (blue lead) with t h e other probe. Move t h e shift lever t o t h e REVERSE position. The meter should indicate continuity (or t h e t e s t light come on), when t h e lever is in t h e reverse position.
Engines with Propeller Exhaust To test t h e shift switch f o r REVERSE, make contact with one probe of a continuity m e t e r (or t e s t light), t o purple or red lead and with the other probe to the blue lead reverse terminal. Move t h e shift l ever to the REVERSE P ~ The meter ~ should indicate continuity or t h e test light come One. Move the One p robe the lead to the g reen lead terminal. The m e t e r should again indicate continuity or t h e t e s t light should c o m e on.
6- Testing Shift Switch - Neutral Engines with standard Exhaust After t h e forward and reverse tests have been completed check for continuity with t h e shift lever in t h e NEUTRAL position. Leave t h e red lead connected and check t h e blue lead (REVERSE) and t h e green lead

(FORWARD). Continuity should not b e indic a t e d when t h e shift handle is in NEUTRAL. If t h e switch is defective and requires replacement, procedures a r e p resented in this section under Disassembling.

Engines with Propeller Exhaust After t h e forward and reverse t e s t s have been completed, check for continuity with the shift lever in the ~ Leave one probe of t h e m e t~ r or t e s t light ~ ~ ~ * e connected to the red lead terminal, Make c o n t a c t with t h e other probe t o t h e green lead coming from t h e shift box. The meter should indicate continuity or the light should c o m e on. Test t h e blue wire in a similar manner. Continuity should NOT b e indicate d or t h e light should not c o m e on. 7- Cranking System Inoperative If t h e s t a r t e r fails t o crank t h e engine, check t o be sure t h e t h r o t t l e lever is in t h e idle position. If t h e t h r o t t l e is advanced more t h a n 114 forward, t h e cutout switch a t t a c h e d t o t h e breaker or distributor plate will open t h e circuit t o t h e s t a r t e r solenoid. If t h e cranking system fails t o operate t h e

eblue-dist 2007

ELECTRIC SHIFT BOX s t a r t e r properly when t h e t h r o t t l e lever is in t h e IDLE position, check t h e 20-ampere f u s e between t h e ignition switch BAT terminal and t h e a m m e t e r GEN terminal. If t h e s t a r t e r operates in full t h r o t t l e (which i t should not do), check f o r a short between t h e two white leads in t h e shift box wiring, o r in t h e wiring harness under t h e dash. Further problems in t h e cranking system may indicate more serious problems. S e e Chapter 6 , s t a r t e r motor sections.

7-15

FRONT

EXTREME OPPOS lTE POS ITION


n

DISASSEMBLING
GOOD WORDS On Johnson units, a friction screw is installed in t h e bottom side of t h e shift box. This screw allows friction adjustment of t h e t h r o t t l e handle. This arrangement prevents t h e t h r o t t l e handle from "creeping" a f t e r t h e operator releases his grip on t h e handle. The box has a maximum advance screw. The adjustment is made through movement of a screw in t h e warmup lever. If t h e engine shuts down when t h e t h r o t t l e lever i s moved back, then an adjustment must be made at t h e engine. This is accomplished through an adjustment knob at t h e engine. Movement of this knob will actually lengthe n or shorten t h e cable slightly f o r proper operation.

l DLE POSITION

1- Remove t h e attaching screws; pull t h e shift box clear; and then disconnect t h e shift wire under the dash. Remove t h e screws from t h e back side of t h e box. 2- CAREFULLY separate t h e two halves. Check t h e shift box f o r s a l t w a t e r corrosion, worn bushings, and general condition.

Throttle Cable
Notice how t h e t h r o t t l e cable e n t e r s t h e t h r o t t l e half of t h e shift box through t h e idle link. On t h e t o p side of t h e shift box, observe t h e screw and t h e concave washer. The washer must b e installed with t h e conc a v e side towards t h e screw t o allow t h e screw t o seat properly. 3- Remove t h e bushing from t h e shift rod. Observe t h e t w o slots in t h e bushing and how t h e f l a t a r e a without a hole f a c e s toward you. The bushing must b e installed i n this s a m e position.

eblue-dist 2007

4- Remove t h e screw and washer from t h e t o p of t h e shift box half. This is t h e screw and washer described in t h e previous paragraph. Lift o u t t h e cam lever and t h e idle link as a n assembly. 5- Remove t h e screws f r o m t h e end of t h e sleeve on t h e end of t h e cable, and then pull t h e t h r o t t l e cable f r e e of t h e link and sleeve. 6- If t h e switch fails t o check out, a s described in t h e previous tests, t h e switch and cable assembly MUST b e replaced. The switch is easily removed by simply removing t h e attaching screws and lifting t h e switch f r e e of t h e shift box.
CLEANING AND INSPECTING
Clean t h e box halves thoroughly inside and o u t with soIvent and blow them dry with compressed air. Apply a thin c o a t of engine oil on d l metal parts. The three- position switch installed in t h e gear box cannot b e repaired. Therefore, if a problem is isolated t o t h e switch, i t must be replaced.
SHORT CABLE
CAM
The shift switch need not be removed unless it is unfit for further service. Work the switch backandforth to be sure it is operating properly. A continuity check must also be performed to verify its condition.

SHORT ANCHOR SCREW

CONTROL GU l DE

Interior view of a used shift box showing the results of an improper installation. The inner wire was not crimped to hold the adjustment. The wire, therefore, slipped through and was bent as the casting struck the shift box during operation.

eblue-dist 2007

ELECTRIC SHIFT BOX

7- 1 7

Shift switch removed. A new switch will have the wiringand female plug attached.

Inner shift wire after it has been removed, showing the proper type crimp necessary to hold the adjustment.

Throttle Cable Lubrication If t h e t h r o t t l e cable is not t o b e replaced, now is a n excellent t i m e t o lubricate t h e inner wire. 7- To lubricate t h e inner wire, remove t h e casing guide from t h e cable at both ends. Attach an e l e c t r i c drill t o one end of t h e wire. Momentarily turn t h e drill on and off t o r o t a t e t h e wire and at t h e s a m e t i m e allow lubricant t o flow into t h e cable, as shown.
ASSEMBLING

CRITICAL WORDS Check t h e end of t h e cable t o determine if t h e temper has been removed. If t h e end has a bluish appearance, i t has been heated at an earlier d a t e and t h e temper removed. The temper MUST b e removed t o permit t h e holding screw t o make a crimp in t h e wire t o hold a n adjustment. If t h e wire has not been tempered, h e a t t h e end, but not enough t o m e l t t h e wire. Tighten t h e t o p screw in t h e sleeve until t h e screw makes a crimp in t h e wire. The screw must b e tightened t o this degree t o prevent t h e wire f r o m slipping during operation. Bring t h e bottom screw up tight against t h e wire.

1- S t a r t t h e t w o cable retaining screws into t h e sleeve. These screws a r e different sizes. On some models, Allen screws a r e used. Install t h e short screw on t h e bottom t o prevent t h e sleeve from rubbing on t h e shift box. Slide the sleeve onto t h e cable with t h e hole aligned with t h e hole in t h e plastic sleeve. Feed t h e wire on through until t h e end of t h e wire is flush with t h e end of t h e white plastic sleeve. 2- Lower t h e shift link and t h r o t t l e link into t h e box half and secure t h e t h r o t t l e link with t h e screw and washer. Check t o b e sure t h e concave side of t h e washer is facing toward t h e screw side t o permit t h e screw t o seat properly. 3- Slide the t h r o t t l e cable through t h e idle link, and then slide t h e bushing down over t h e cable.
SHORT CABLE CLAMP CAM
# .

...

fi

THRO'ITLE

SHORT ANCHOR SCREW

CONTROL GU l DE

lNN ER WIRE
I

eblue-dist 2007

7- 18

ACCESSOR I ES

' i EXTREME
FRO NT

OPPOS lTE

POSITION

lDLE POSITION

4- ALWAYS TAKE CARE when assembling t h e shift box, not t o damage t h e remote- control unit. The arm on t h e switch MUST lay in t h e cutout portion of t h e thrott l e cam. 5- Carefully work t h e two halves of t h e box together with t h e cam lever fitting i n t o t h e recess of t h e throttle handle and t h e t h r o t t l e link fitting into t h e warmup lever. 6- Secure t h e two halves together with t h e screws into t h e side of t h e box. Secure t h e shift box t o t h e side of t h e boat with t h e attaching hardware. Bolts with self-locking nuts SHOULD ALWAYS BE USED because a loose shift box during high speed operation could b e extremely dangerous. Connect t h e shift wire under t h e dash.

7- The tension of t h e t h r o t t l e lever is adjusted by t h e friction knob under t h e shift box. Turn t h e knob CLOCKWISE t o increase friction and COUNTERCLOCKWISE t o dec r e a s e friction. 8- Remote-Control Cable Installation In the Boat The remote- control cable must b e installed properly f o r satisfactory operation. The clamp nearest t h e shift box MUST b e positioned correctly a s follows: First, move t h e warmup lever on t h e shift box t o full advance. Now, measure 36" (9 1.44 cm), actually this measurement could range from 33" t o 42" (83.82 c m t o 106.68 cm), on t h e cable from t h e shift box. BE SURE t h e r e is no slack in t h e cable, and then secure the clamp t o t h e boat at t h e measured position. Next, place t h e warmup lever in t h e slow position and observe t h e amount of slack in t h e cable between t h e shift box and t h e first clamp. The slack should not b e m o r e t h a n

eblue-dist 2007

PUSHBUTTON SHIFT BOX

7-19

7-6 PUSHBUTTON SHIFT BOX SERVICE EVINRUDE UNITS ONLY

112" (12.7 mm). AVOID SHARP TURNS in t h e cable. The radius of any bend MUST not b e less than 5" (12.7 cm). ALWAYS use t h e c o r r e c t length of cable when replacing t h e assembly. 9- Adjusting Starter Lockout Switch Move t h e shift lever t o t h e NEUTRAL position and t h e warmup lever t o t h e START position. Now, turn t h e ignition switch t o t h e START position in a n a t t e m p t t o crank t h e engine. If t h e s t a r t e r fails t o crank t h e engine, move t h e warmup lever t o t h e IDLE position, and then r o t a t e t h e setscrew COUNTERCLOCKWISE one-half turn. Move t h e auxiliary t h r o t t l e t o t h e START position, and then turn t h e ignition switch t o t h e START position again. If t h e s t a r t e r still f a i l s t o crank t h e engine with t h e warmup lever in t h e full ADVANCE position, back off t h e warmup lever t o determine t h e point at which t h e s t a r t e r ceases t o operate. Make t h e adjustment of t h e setscrew CLOCKWISE, a half-turn at a time, until t h e s t a r t e r operates only with t h e warmup lever in t h e full START position.

GOOD WORDS A friction screw is installed in t h e bottom side of t h e shift box. This screw allows friction adjustment of t h e t h r o t t l e handle. This arrangement prevents t h e t h r o t t l e handle from "creeping" a f t e r t h e operator releases his grip on t h e handle. A thumbscrew on t h e f r o n t of t h e box permits adjustment of t h e t h r o t t l e handle t o prevent movement past a satisfactory idle position and subsequent shutdown of t h e engine. If adequate adjustment cannot be made at t h e shift box, and t h e engine continues t o shut down when t h e t h r o t t l e lever is moved back, then an adjustment must b e m a d e at t h e engine. This is accomplished through a n adjustment knob at t h e engine. Movement of t h e engine knob will actually lengthen or shorten t h e cable slightly f o r proper operation. The pushbutton shift box was installed with engines having t h e standard type of exhaust system and also with those equipped with t h e propeller exhaust.
The engines used with this shift arrangement and having t h e standard exhaust are: 75 hp, 80 hp, 85 hp, 90 ho, 100 hp, V4 -- 1962 t o 1965 V -- 1966 and 1967 4 V4 -- 1968 V4 -- 1964 and 1965 V4 -- 1966 t o 1968

H YVANCE
FULL

FIRST CLAMP

NO SLACK

HAY VARY 33" TO 42"

eblue-dist 2007

7-20

ACCESSORIES depress t h e shift button for t h e FORWARD, NEUTRAL, and then for t h e REVERSE position. Note how much t h e a m m e t e r reading increased each t i m e a shift button was depressed. If t h e reading was more than 2.5 amperes for any one of t h e shift positions, continue with t h e following checks. If t h e boat is not equipped with an a m p e r e gauge, then temporarily disconnect t h e GREEN and BROWN (or RED) wires from t h e back side of t h e key switch and temporarily install a n a m p gauge f o r t h e test. Replace t h e wires a f t e r t h e t e s t is completed. Disconnect t h e shift leads at t h e rear of t h e engine. Temporarily lay a piece of cloth or other insulating material under t h e wires t o prevent them from shorting o u t during t h e following tests. Standard Shift Again operate t h e shift buttons and note t h e current loss. If t h e current draw is still more than 2.5 amperes, then check f o r a short in t h e control box switch or wiring. If t h e current draw is normal with t h e leads disconnected from t h e engine, t h e n check f o r a short in t h e gear c a s e coil(s) or wiring. If t h e coil leads a r e shorted t o each other, both shift coils would b e energized, stalling t h e engine or causing serious damage t o t h e dr iveshaf t. Propeller Exhaust Engines equipped with t h e propeller exhaust system, have two shift solenoids installed in t h e lower unit. A check of these solenoids is presented in t h e second half of t h e next test. 2- Shift Coil Tests Standard Exhaust Testing t h e shifting coils is accomplished by first disconnecting t h e wires at t h e rear

Engines used with this shift arrangement and having t h e propeller e x h a l a t are: 55 hp, 3-cyl. -- 1968 and 1969 8 5 hp, V 4 -- 1969 115 hp, V 4 -- 1969 The following troubleshooting procedures cover this shift mechanism installed with engines equipped with either t h e standard or propeller exhaust systems. Where t h e t e s t differs for t h e propeller exhaust, t h e difference is clearly indicated. TROUBLESHOOTING The following paragraphs provide a logical sequence of tests, checks, and adjustments, designed t o isolate and c o r r e c t a problem in t h e Evinrude single lever shift box with t h e warmup lever t o t h e rear. The procedures may also be used f o r troubleshooting t h e Evinrude single lever pushbutton shift box operation. The procedures and suggestions a r e keyed by number t o matching numbered illustrations as an aid in performing t h e work. Many times this type of problem is t h e result of incorrect cable installation -- t h e cable is not t h e proper length or t h e r e a r e t o o many bends or kinks in t h e routing. Such an installation will cause t h e inner cable t o travel much further than necessary and therefore, wear on t h e o u t e r cable. Over a period of time, inner cable wear will result in difficult shiftin g or t h r o t t l e operation. BE SURE t o cycle all t h r e e shift pushbuttons t o t h e .full s h i f t position in both directions, when making any t e s t on t h e shift box. The shift switch may have a dead spot and will not indicate t h e switch is defective unless t h e t h r e e buttons a r e fully cycled for each test. I- Amp Draw T e s t Turn t h e ignition switch t o t h e ON position and note t h e a m m e t e r reading. Now,

eblue-dist 2007

PUSHBUTTON SHIFT BOX of t h e engine. Next, connect an o h m m e t e r f i r s t t o one shift coil lead and ground, and then t o t h e other in t h e s a m e manner. A reading of more than 4.5 t o 6.5 ohms indicates a short in t h e coil or lead. No reading a t all indicates an open circuit. If t h e results of this test indicate a short in t h e circuit, t h e lower unit must be disassembled and inspected. See Chapter 8. Shift Solenoids Propeller Exhaust Testing t h e shift solenoids is accomplishe d by first disconnecting t h e blue and green wires running t o t h e lower unit at t h e r e a r of t h e engine. Next, connect an ohmmeter first t o one solenoid lead and ground, and then t o t h e other in t h e s a m e manner. A reading of more than 5.0 t o 7.0 ohms indic a t e s a short in t h e solenoid or lead. No reading at all indicates a n open circuit. If t h e results of this t e s t indicate a short in t h e circuit, t h e lower unit must b e disassembled and inspected, s e e Chapter 8. GOOD WORDS Before t h e following shift tests a r e performed, t h e shift wires under t h e dash must b e disconnected at t h e quick-disconnect fitting.

7-21

FORWARD button is depressed, and indicates a n open circuit, for t h e other t w o shift positions. Engines with Propeller Exhaust To test t h e switch f o r t h e FORWARD position, make c o n t a c t with one probe of a continuity m e t e r (or test light) t o t h e purple o r red lead terminal and t o t h e neutral green lead terminal with t h e other probe. Depress the FORWARD pushbutton. The m e t e r should NOT indicate continuity while t h e FORWARD pushbu tton is depressed.
4- Testing Shift Switch - R e v e r s e Engines with Standard Exhaust To t e s t t h e shift switch f o r REVERSE, m a k e c o n t a c t with one probe of a continuity m e t e r (or t e s t light), t o t h e purple or red lead terminal and t o t h e reverse blue lead terminal with t h e other probe. Again, depress t h e FORWARD, NEUTRAL, and REVERSE pushbu ttons. The m e t e r should indicate continuity (or t h e test light come on), f o r t h e REVERSE position and indicate a n open circuit, in t h e other two.

3- Testing Shift Switch - Forward Engines with Standard Exhaust To test t h e switch for t h e FORWARD position, make contact with one probe of a continuity meter (or a test light) t o t h e terminal (purple or red lead) and t o t h e forward (green lead) terminal with t h e other probe. Now, depress each pushbutton f o r t h e FORWARD, NEUTRAL, and REVERSE positions. The m e t e r should indicate continuity (or t h e test light comes on), when t h e

Engines with Propeller Exhaust To test t h e shift switch f o r REVERSE, make contact with one probe of a continuity m e t e r (or test light), t o purple or red lead terminal and with t h e other probe t o t h e blue lead reverse terminal. Depress t h e REVERSE pushbutton. The m e t e r should indicate continuity or t h e t e s t light should come on. Move t h e one probe from t h e blue lead terminal t o t h e green lead terminal. The m e t e r should again indicate continuity o r t h e test light should c o m e on.

eblue-dist 2007

7-22

ACCESSORIES

5- Testing Shift Switch - Neutral Engines with Standard Exhaust After t h e forward and reverse t e s t s have been completed check for continuity with t h e NEUTRAL pushbutton. Leave t h e red lead connected and check t h e blue lead (REVERSE) and t h e green lead (FORWARD). Continuity should not b e indicated when t h e NEUTRAL pushbutton is depressed. If t h e switch is defective and requires replacement, procedures a r e presented in this section under Disassembling.

Engines with Propeller Exhaust After t h e forward and reverse t e s t s have been completed, check for continuity with t h e pushbutton depressed for t h e NEUTRAL position. Leave one probe of t h e m e t e r o r test light connected t o t h e red lead terminal. Make contact with t h e other probe t o t h e green lead coming from t h e shift box. The m e t e r should indicate continuity or t h e light should come on. Continuity should not be indicated when t h e probe is making contact with t h e blue wire.
6- Cranking System Inoperative If t h e s t a r t e r fails t o crank t h e engine, check t o b e sure t h e t h r o t t l e lever is in t h e idle position. If the throttle is advanced m o r e than 114 forward, t h e cutout switch

a t t a c h e d t o t h e a r m a t u r e plate will open t h e circuit t o t h e s t a r t e r solenoid. If t h e cranking system fails t o o p e r a t e t h e s t a r t e r properly when t h e t h r o t t l e lever is in t h e IDLE position, check t h e 20-ampere fuse between t h e ignition switch BAT terminal and t h e a m m e t e r GEN terminal. If t h e s t a r t e r operates at full t h r o t t l e (which i t should not do), check for a short between t h e two white leads in t h e shift box wiring, or in t h e wiring harness under t h e dash. Further problems in t h e cranking system may indicate more serious problems. See Chapter 6, s t a r t e r motor sections. DISASSEMBLING The t h r o t t l e cable and switch box may be replaced without removing t h e shift box from t h e boat. If t h e only service t o be performed is replacement of t h e cable, leave t h e shift box in place. 1- Remove t h e Phillips screws on t h e side plate of t h e shift box. Remove t h e f r o n t side cover.
SCREW &PLACES

NEUTRAL BUTTON

ARD

REVERSE

eblue-dist 2007

PUSHBUTTON SHIFT BOX

7-23

2- Notice t h e screw and retainer at t h e forward end of t h e casing guide and just below t h e t h r o t t l e lever. Remove t h e screw and retainer. Pull t h e t h r o t t l e cable and casing guide f r e e of t h e shift box. Take c a r e not t o lose t h e trunnion caps, one on t h e t o p and another on t h e bottom. 3- Remove t h e screws from t h e end of t h e casing guide and then pull t h e t h r o t t l e cable f r e e . TAKE CARE not t o lose t h e screws and sleeve from t h e end of t h e guide.

Shift Switch Removal 4- Remove t h e f o u r Phillips screws from t h e t o p of t h e shift box, and then lift off t h e shift box cover around t h e push buttons. 5- Pull upward and remove t h e t h r e e shift buttons. New buttons a r e not supplied with replacement switches. Therefore, SAVE t h e THREE BUTTONS f o r installation with t h e new switch. 6- Pull t h e red, green, and blue wires from t h e bottom of t h e switch box. 7- Notice t h e t w o small Phillips screws on t o p of t h e switch box holding t h e switch t o t h e retainer. Remove these t w o screws. 8- Work t h e switch out of t h e switch box.

eblue-dist 2007

7-24

ACCESSORIES

CLEANING AND INSPECTING


Clean the box halves thoroughly inside and out with solvent and blow them drv with compressed air. Apply a thin c o a t of engine oil o n all m e t a l parts. The three- position switch installed in t h e gear box cannot b e repaired. Therefore, if a problem is isolated t o t h e switch, i t must b e replaced.

and secure i t in place with t h e t w o Phillips screws. Check t o be sure t h e two terminals on the bottom side of t h e switch a r e towards you. This will place t h e forward button closest t o t h e t h r o t t l e handle. 2- Install t h e t w o small Phillips screws into the top the shift box* These screws secure t h e switch box t o t h e retainer 3- Connect t h e wires t o t h e bottom of t h e switch. On a standard exhaust unit: connect t h e red wire to t h e POSITIVE terminal; t h e green t o t h e FORWARD terminal; and t h e blue wire to t h e REVERSE terminal.

Throttle Cable Lubrication If t h e t h r o t t l e cable is not t o b e replaced, now is an excellent t i m e t o lubricate t h e inner wire. 9- To lubricate t h e inner wire, remove t h e casing guide from t h e cable at both ends. Attach an electric drill t o one end of t h e wire. Momentarily turn t h e drill on and off t o r o t a t e t h e wire and at t h e s a m e t i m e allow lubricant t o flow i n t o t h e cable, as shown. ASSEMBLING Switch Installation 1- Position t h e switch box inside t h e shift box underneath t h e retainer and slider

eblue-dist 2007

PUSHBUTTON SHIFT BOX

7-25

SCREW

On a propeller exhaust unit: connect t h e red wire t o t h e POSITIVE terminal; t h e green t o t h e NEUTRAL terminal, and t h e blue wire t o t h e REVERSE terminal. 4- Slide t h e buttons down over t h e protrusions of t h e switch and seat them in place.
Adjustment

5- Temporarily install the side plate, and then move t h e t h r o t t l e hand forward until t h e boss mark on the bottom of t h e t h r o t t l e hand aligns with t h e mark on t h e side of t h e shift box panel. 6- Remove t h e panel and depress t h e t h r e e buttons one-at-a-time. If i t is not possible t o depress t h e buttons, loosen t h e t w o screws on t h e selector bracket. Move t h e bracket forward or a f t until t h e buttons can b e depressed. Tighten t h e screws t o secure t h e bracket in t h e proper position. 7- Install t h e s h i f t box cover and secure i t in place with t h e four screws.

adjustment knob in t h e trunnion on t h e side of t h e engine. Check t h e end of t h e cable t o determine if t h e temper has been removed. If t h e end has a bluish appearance, i t has been heated at an earlier d a t e and t h e t e m p e r removed. The temper MUST b e removed t o permit t h e holding screw t o make a c r i m p in t h e wire t o hold an adjustment. If t h e wire has not been tempered, heat t h e end, but not enough t o m e l t t h e wire. 8- Feed t h e inner cable into t h e casing guide and align i t with t h e hole in t h e sleeve. Tighten t h e two Allen screws in t h e sleeve until one screw makes a c r i m p in t h e wire. The screw must b e tightened t o this degree t o prevent t h e wire from slipping during operation. Bring t h e other Allen screw up tight against t h e wire.

CRITICAL WORDS If t h e t h r o t t l e adjustment is not properly performed, t h e circuit t o t h e s t a r t e r solenoid wili b e opened preventing t h e s t a r t e r motor from cranking t h e engine. Adjustment is made by moving t h e t h r o t t l e cable

eblue-dist 2007

7-26

ACCESSOR J S E
7-7 HY DRO-ELECTRIC SHIFT BOX 6 0 HP - 1970 AND 1971 85 HP - 1970 TO 1972 100 HP - 1971 AND 1972 115 HP - 1970 125 HP - 1971 AND 1972 The hydro- electric shift box is mounted on t h e starboard side of t h e boat. The unit contains a shift s e l e c t lever, a n ignition and choke switch, t e m p e r a t u r e warning horn, An and a warmup speed control lever. e l e c t r i c switch activates t h e NEUTRAL, FORWARD, and REVERSE solenoids for shift movement. With no current t o t h e switch, t h e lower unit will automatically move into, t h e FORWARD position. Therefore, current must b e present and t h e unit shifted into NEUTRAL and REVERSE. Both t h e neutral and reverse solenoids a r e activated t o shift i n t o REVERSE. The box is equipped with a friction adjustment t o hold t h e shift lever and t h r o t t l e in desired engine speed position. A warmup lever is installed t o advance t h e t h r o t t l e without t h e need t o move t h e shift lever. This lever is provided with an adjustment t o obtain maximum efficiency during engine startup. The lever has a cutout f e a t u r e t o prevent current from passing t o t h e s t a r t e r motor circuit once engine speed has reached a predetermined rpm. The front of t h e shift box contains a blocking diode. This diode is used t o block current t o t h e lower unit when t h e key switch is in t h e OFF position. Detailed testing procedures of t h e diode a r e presente d in Chapter 8.

9- Install t h e cable and cable end into t h e shift box with t h e trunnion c a p on t h e bottom side. Lower t h e cable trunnion retainer into t h e recess and at t h e s a m e t i m e install t h e end of t h e shift cable sleeve over t h e end of t h e protrusion. Install t h e o t h e r trunnion c a p over t h e t o p of t h e cable retainer. Slide t h e retaining clip over t h e end of t h e guide. The guide slips over a pin and t h e retainer has a hole in t h e end. The retainer f i t s over t h e pin and holds t h e end of t h e t h r o t t l e cable onto t h e pin. Install t h e side plate with t h e attaching Phillips screws. S t a r t t h e engine and run i t at 700 rpm. CAUTION: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. Now, adjust t h e slide yoke t o allow t h e pushbuttons t o be depressed at 700 rpm, but not at 750 rpm. If i t is not possible t o depress t h e buttons a t 700 rpm, remove t h e side panel and loosen t h e t w o screws on t h e selector bracket. Move t h e bracket. forward or a f t until t h e buttons can be depressed. To adjust t h e friction knob under t h e shift box, turn t h e knob CLOCKWISE t o increase friction and COUNTERCLOCKWISE t o dec r e a s e friction.

TROUBLESHOOTING
The following paragraphs provide a logical sequence of tests, checks, and adjustments, designed t o isolate and c o r r e c t a problem in t h e Johnson single lever shift box with t h e warmup lever t o t h e rear and t h e Evinrude single lever pushbutton shift box operation. The procedures and suggestions a r e keyed by number t o matching numbered illustrations as an aid in performing t h e work.

A Johnson Hydro-Electric Drive shift box ready for installation.

1- Difficult Shift Operation If difficult shifting is experienced, t h e problem is usually in t h e s h i f t box. The friction knob may b e adjusted too tightly, t h e pad t h a t works t h e friction knob could b e excessively worn, or t h e advance a r m on

eblue-dist 2007

HYDRO-ELECTRIC SHIFT BOX t h e starboard side of t h e engine could b e inoperative. 2- Amp Draw Test Turn t h e ignition switch t o t h e ON position and note t h e a m m e t e r reading. There will b e no a m p draw when t h e shift lever is in t h e FORWARD position. Now, o p e r a t e t h e shift control lever t o t h e NEUTRAL and then t o t h e REVERSE position. Note how much t h e a m m e t e r reading increased each t i m e t h e shift lever was moved. If t h e reading was more than 2.5 amperes for either shift positions, continue with t h e following checks. If t h e boat is not equipped with an a m p e r e gauge, t h e n temporarily disconnect t h e GREEN and BROWN (or RED) wires from t h e back side of t h e kev switch and temporarily install a n a m p gaug& f o r t h e test. Replace t h e wires a f t e r t h e t e s t is completed. Disconnect t h e shift leads a t t h e r e a r of t h e engine. Temporarily lay a piece of cloth or other insulating material under t h e wires t o prevent them from shorting out during t h e following tests. Again o p e r a t e t h e shift lever and note t h e current loss. If t h e current draw is still more than 2.5 amperes, then check f o r a short in t h e control box switch or wiring. If t h e current draw is normal with t h e leads disconnected from t h e engine, then check for a short in t h e gear case coil(s) or wiring.

7-27

If t h e coil leads a r e shorted t o e a c h other, both shift coils would be energized, stalling t h e engine or causing serious damage t o t h e dr iveshaf t 3- Shift Solenoid Test Testing t h e shift solenoids is accomplishe d by f i r s t disconnecting t h e blue and green wires t o t h e lower unit a t t h e rear of t h e engine. Next, connect an ohmmeter first t o one solenoid lead and ground, and then t o t h e other in t h e s a m e manner. A reading of more than 5.0 t o 6.0 ohms indicates a s h o r t in t h e solenoid or lead. No reading at all indicates an open circuit. If t h e results of this test indicate a short in t h e circuit, t h e lower unit must b e disassembled and inspected, see Chapter 8.

eblue-dist 2007

7-28

ACCESSORJ S E

4- Testing Shift Switch - Forward The shift switch is tested by making m e t e r connections on t h e blue and green wires running t o t h e key switch. These a r e t h e wires t h a t were disconnected in T e s t (To t e s t at No. 3 at t h e engine terminal. t h e shift box would involve cutting wires in order t o make t h e meter connections.) To test t h e switch for t h e FORWARD position, m a k e c o n t a c t with one probe of a voltmeter t o a good ground on t h e engine. Move t h e shift lever t o t h e FORWARD position and t h e key switch t o ON. Make c o n t a c t with t h e other meter probe t o first t h e green and then t o t h e blue wires. T h e voltmeter should indicate ZERO volts. N voltage is indicated, t h e shift switch is defective and must b e replaced. 5- Testing Shift Switch - Reverse To test t h e shift switch f o r REVERSE, make contact with one probe of a voltmeter t o a good ground on t h e engine. Move t h e shift lever t o t h e REVERSE position and t h e key switch t o ON. Make c o n t a c t with t h e other m e t e r probe t o t h e green and blue wires. The m e t e r should indicate 12-volts. If voltage is not present, t h e shift switch is defective and must b e replaced. 6- Testing Shift Switch - Neutral After t h e FORWARD and REVERSE tests have been completed, check for continuity with t h e shift lever in t h e NEUTRAL

position. With one voltmeter probe still connected t o a good ground on t h e engine and t h e key switch still at t h e ON position, m a k e c o n t a c t with t h e other m e t e r probe t o t h e green and blue wires. When t h e m e t e r probe makes c o n t a c t with t h e green wire, t h e m e t e r should indicate 12-volts. When t h e probe makes c o n t a c t with t h e blue wire, t h e m e t e r should indicate ZERO volts. If t h e s e m e t e r readings a r e not satisfactory, t h e shift switch is defective and must b e replaced.

eblue-dist 2007

HYDRO-ELECTRIC SHIFT BOX

7-29

7- Cranking System Inoperative If the s t a r t e r fails t o crank t h e engine, check t o b e sure t h e t h r o t t l e lever is in t h e idle position. If t h e t h r o t t l e is advanced m o r e than 114 forward, t h e cutout switch, a t t a c h e d t o t h e a r m a t u r e plate, will open t h e circuit t o t h e s t a r t e r solenoid. If t h e cranking system fails t o operate t h e s t a r t e r properly when t h e t h r o t t l e lever is in t h e IDLE position, check t h e 20- ampere fuse between t h e ignition switch BAT terminal and t h e a m m e t e r GEN terminal.
DISASSEMBLING
GOOD WORDS Before starting work on t h e shift system, disconnect both b a t t e r y cables at t h e batt e r y terminals. 1- Remove t h e t h r e e attaching bolts and t h e n move t h e box away from t h e side of t h e boat. Remove t h e t h r e e screws from t h e back side of t h e box. The throttle c a b l e

SHIFT CIRCUIT TROUBLE SHOOTING

YELLOW
/ YELLOWIGRAY

,
SHIFT DIODES -- - - - I

I
I

I
I

I
I

TERMINAL BLOCK

PURPLUGREEN ->STRIPE

L - _ - - - J

SHIFT TOGGLE SWITCH


I

REMOTE CONTROL

1878

SOLENOIDS

AMMETER HOOK-UP

SAFTEY
SWITCH - .... -

Troubleshooting schematic diagram of the shift circuit.

eblue-dist 2007

7-30

ACCESSOR l E S

t h e s a m e time, b e careful not t o lose t h e spring and d e t e n t located in t h e warmup lever. Once t h e warmup lever begins t o move upward place a towel or cloth over t h e lever t o prevent t h e spring and detent from becoming lost. The warmup lever, detent, and spring a r e all sold as s e p a r a t e items. SPECIAL WORDS The shift box housing contains t h e shift lever, shift switch, warning horn, diode, choke, key switch, and t h e wiring harness. To service any of t h e s e items, simply remove t h e attaching hardware and c u t or disconnect t h e attaching wires, reference illustration "A", Page 7-31. The friction

can be removed and serviced without removing i t from t h e boat. 2- Lift off t h e f r o n t cover, but k e e p t h e warmup lever with t h e back cover. Observe t h e warmup lever and t h e t h r o t t l e cable in t h e front cover. Remove t h e screw from t h e t o p of t h e box securing t h e a r m t o t h e warmup lever. 3- Lift t h e arm and t h e t h r o t t l e cable from t h e shift box housing. TAKE CARE not t o lose t h e two caps from t h e back side of t h e cable. One c a p is located underneath t h e cable and t h e other on t o p of t h e cable. 4- Remove t h e Allen screws from t h e slider on t h e cable end. Pull t h e cable f r e e of t h e slider. 5- Remove t h e two warmup lever retaining clips. 6- Depress t h e release for t h e warmup lever and r o t a t e t h e release up about halfway. Work t h e warmup lever upward and at

eblue-dist 2007

HYDRO-ELECTR IC SHIFT BOX

9-3 1

CONTROL CONTROL

SPLICE

TUBING

knob on t o p of t h e shift box may be removed by pulling i t free. After t h e knob is f r e e t h e "Ll1 shaped bracket may be removed if t h e wiring needs service. Any t i m e t h e wires from t h e key switch a r e removed, t h e new connection MUST b e c o a t e d with Neoprene sealer a s a protection against moisture and corrosion. CLEANING AND INSPECTING Clean t h e box halves thoroughly inside and o u t with solvent and blow them dry with compressed air. Apply a thin c o a t of engine oil on all metal parts.

-.
.

'.

CAM

THROTTLE LlNK WASHER


''*---.

LOCK

RELEASE , KNOB THROTTLE

SPRING

'

\
THROTTLE LlNK CAM SCREW ROLLER WARM UP LEVER

' \

1879

CONTROL HOUSING

Exploded view of a switch box with principle parts identified.

eblue-dist 2007

7-32

ACCESSOR lES

If t h e t h r o t t l e cable is not t o be replaced, now is an excellent t i m e t o lubricate t h e inner wire.

Throttle Cable Lubrication 7- To lubricate t h e inner wire, remove t h e casing guide from t h e cable at both ends. Attach an electric drill t o one end of t h e wire. Momentarily turn t h e drill on and off t o r o t a t e t h e wire and at t h e s a m e t i m e allow lubricant t o flow into t h e cable, as shown. Checking the Shift Diode 8- Disconnect both wires from t h e shift diode. These wires have a rubber seal where they a r e routed underneath t h e horn. Peel back t h e seal and a t t a c h one lead of a n ohmmeter t o one of t h e wires, and t h e o t h e r m e t e r lead t o t h e other wire. Observe t h e ohmmeter for a reading. Reverse t h e m e t e r leads t o t h e wires. Again observe t h e m e t e r reading. The meter should indicate continui t y when t h e leads a r e connected one way t o t h e wires, and no continuity when t h e leads a r e connected t h e other way. If t h e r e was a m e t e r reading when t h e leads were connected both ways, t h e diode is defective. If t h e m e t e r did not indicate continuity when t h e m e t e r leads were connected either way, t h e diode is defective. Stating i t another way, t h e m e t e r should indicate continuity when t h e meter leads a r e connected t o t h e wires ONLY one way. ASSEMBLING 1- Lubricate t h e warmup lever with light-weight oil and then just s t a r t i t i n t o

place in t h e housing. Install t h e spring and detent, and then push t h e warmup lever fully into place in t h e housing. Secure t h e warmup lever in place with t h e two retaining clips.

CRITICAL WORDS Check t h e end of t h e t h r o t t l e cable t o determine if t h e temper has been removed. If the end has a bluish appearance, it has been heated at an earlier d a t e and t h e t e m p e r removed. The temper MUST be removed t o permit t h e holding screw t o m a k e a crimp in t h e wire t o hold an adjustment. If t h e wire has not been tempered,

eblue-dist 2007

HYDRO-ELECTRIC SHIFT BOX

7-33

h e a t tie end, but not enough t o m e l t t h e wire. 2- Work t h e cable end into t h e slider and through t h e anchor hole. Adjust t h e cable end t o be flush with t h e surface of t h e slider. Tighten t h e TOP holding screw enough t o make a definite crimp in t h e wire, a s shown. If this screw is not tightened t o make t h e crimp, t h e wire will slip during operation and t h e adjustment will b e lost. After t h e t o p screw has been fully tightened, bring t h e other screw up tight against t h e wire. It is not necessary f o r this second screw t o make a crimp in t h e wire. 3- Place one of t h e plastic caps in place in t h e shift box housing. Lower t h e slider and cable into position in t h e housing. Place t h e other plastic c a p on t o p of t h e cable. 4- Secure t h e arm t o t h e warmup lever with t h e washer (having a concave surface on t h e inside diameter) and t h e screw.

eblue-dist 2007

7-34

ACCESSORIES

5- Release t h e friction adjustment all t h e way. S e t t h e shift handle over t h e protrusion in the inner box. 6- Goat all wiring connections and screws with Neoprene Dip, a s a protection against corrosion and a possible short. 7- Bring t h e two halves of t h e shift box together. Notice t h e cut-a-way on t h e shift handle MUST index with a matching protrusion on t h e warmup lever. Work t h e t w o halves completely together and secure t h e m with t h e t h r e e screws in t h e back. Install t h e s h i f t box into place in t h e boat.
7-8 CABLE END FITTING INSTALLATION AT THE ENGINE END

-TRUNN l ON

NOT ADJUST1

FIRST, THESE WORDS In t h e early days, t h e t h r o t t l e and shift cables were installed using non-adjustable trunnions. The trunnions were installed on t h e ends of t h e cables and formed t h e connection for t h e cables t o t h e engine. The inner cable (wire) moved in both directions inside t h e outer cable and a c t u a t e d t h e mechanism at t h e engine. The anchor on t h e engine, t o which t h e trunnion is attached, has a "Pm and a n "S" stamped on t h e inside diameter or inside edge of t h e trunnion retainers. These lett e r s identified PORT and STARBOARD. As improvements and refinements were incorporated over t h e years, new cables and trunnions became adjustable through t h e trunnion.

Attaching the non-adjustable shift cable t o the s k f t arm, top. Connecting the throttle cable to the nonadjustable trunnion, bottom.

The non-adjustable unit is totally obsol e t e and no longer available. Therefore, if t h e old-style cable with t h e non-adjustable trunnion requires replacement, t h e new adjustable type will b e installed. When t h e new cable and trunnion a r e t o b e installed, a new trunnion retainer MUST b e purchased and installed port and starboard on t h e engine. The new cable and trunnion CANNOT b e connected t o t h e oldstyle retainer.

INSTALLATION Shift Cable End 1- Move t h e control lever at t h e shift control box t o t h e NEUTRAL position. Slide

Attaching a shift cable with adjustable trunnion t o the shift arm, top. Connecting the throttle cable with adjustable tunnion, bottom.

eblue-dist 2007

CABLE END FITTING

7-35

Detail drawing of the shift trunnion at the engine.

t h e gear shift fitting onto t h e control wire. Check t o b e sure t h e inner wire passes completely through t h e small holes in t h e cable clamp. Clamp t h e anchor screws t o prevent twisting t h e cable. The clamp and t h e anchor screws MUST b e parallel t o t h e trunnion on t h e gear shift cable. 2- Notice t h e f l a t and rounded a r e a s of t h e casting guide. The f l a t edge MUST f a c e TOWARDS t h e engine. In this position, t h e r e is a f l a t a r e a for t h e lever t o ride during t h e shifting action. A f t e r t h e c a b l e is in place in t h e casting guide, tighten t h e t o p screw until a definite c r i m p is m a d e in t h e cable. If t h e screw is not tightened enough, t h e inner wire will slip during operation and t h e adjustment will b e lost.

Proper instal lation of the throttle cable into the trunnion at the engine end.

CRITICAL WORDS Check t h e end of t h e cable t o determine if t h e temper has been removed. If t h e end has a bluish appearance, i t has been heated at an earlier d a t e and t h e temper removed. The t e m p e r MUST b e removed t o permit t h e

holding screw t o make a crimp in t h e wire t o hold a n adjustment. If t h e wire h a s not been tempered, heat t h e end, but not enough t o melt t h e wire. Bring t h e second screw "p tight against t h e wire. 3- Insert t h e shift cable control vertically into t h e trunnion bracket and turn t h e cable t o a horizontal position, as indicated by t h e arrows in t h e accompanying illustration. 4- Attach t h e shift cable end t o t h e shift lever on t h e engine by inserting t h e fitting into t h e shift control lever, and t h e n pushing inward, and at t h e s a m e t i m e rotating t h e fitting 112-turn. This action will lock t h e fitting in t h e shift lever.

Throttle Cable End Installation 5- Install the t h r o t t l e lock pin spring over t h e casing guide. S t a r t t h e screws i n t o

SH I

CABLE CLAMP

BLE

CASI NG G U I D E

CABLE W'IRE

ANCHOR SCREW LOCKING PLUG

0
~ z z i

NOT A JUSTABLE D

\ KNURLED ADJUSTING NUT

SHI FT'LEVER

M)LE

eblue-dist 2007

7-36

ACCESSORIES
LONG CABLE TRUNN I 0N

LUBR lCATE BRASS SLEEVE BEFORE ASSEMBLY

AD JUST SEAL CASING GU lDE


w

LONG ANCHOR
SCREW

t h e small cylinder, and then slide t h e cylinder down through t h e pin spring and i n t o t h e casing guide. Notice how t h e cylinder has a hole. This hole should be positioned vertically with t h e casing t o align with t h e hole in t h e guide. Slide t h e casing guide down over t h e t h r o t t l e cable and insert t h e end of t h e wire through t h e sleeve. Tighten t h e t o p screw until a definite crimp is made in t h e wire.

6- Install t h e trunnion retainers t o t h e engine, if necessary. Check t o b e sure t h e retainer with "P1*stamped on t h e inside is installed on t h e PORT side of t h e engine and t h e retainer with t h e "S" installed on t h e STARBOARD side. Connect t h e trunnion c a p t o t h e trunnion retainer. This is accomplished by holding t h e trunnion in a vertical position; inserting i t into t h e retainer; and then turning i t t o t h e horizontal position, a s shown. 7- Slide t h e guide over t h e pin onto t h e engine, and then snap t h e retainer clip over t h e end of t h e guide t o lock i t in place.

CRITICAL WORDS Check t h e end of t h e cable t o determine if t h e temper has been removed. If t h e end has a bluish appearance, i t has been heated at an earlier d a t e and t h e t e m p e r removed. The temper MUST b e removed t o permit t h e holding screw t o make a crimp in t h e wire t o hold an adjustment. If t h e screw is not tightened t o this degree, t h e wire will slip during operation and t h e adjustment will b e lost. If t h e wire has not been tempered, h e a t t h e end, but not enough t o melt t h e wire. Bring t h e bottom screw up tight against t h e wire.

Cable Adjustrn ents See Chapter 8, Lower Unit, t o proper!y adjust t h e shift cable and t o adjust t h e t h r o t t l e cable.

eblue-dist 2007

8 LOWER UNIT
8-1 DESCRIPTION
The lower unit is considered as t h a t part of t h e outboard below t h e exhaust housing. The unit contains t h e propeller shaft, t h e driven and pinion gears, t h e driveshaf t f rom t h e powerhead and t h e w a t e r pump. T h e forward and reverse gears, t o g e t h e r with t h e clutch, s h i f t assembly, a n d r e l a t e d linkage, a r e all housed within t h e lower unit. T h e lower unit is removed by o n e of t w o methods depending on t h e model year a n d t h e engine horsepower. 1- Two windows, a n inner window and an o u t e r window in t h e exhaust housing, a r e opened and t h e s h i f t coupler disconnected. 2- Green and blue shift wires a r e disconn e c t e d on t h e port side or at t h e r e a r of t h e en gi ne for each, as indicated: T y p e I, Section 8-2, has a split lower c a p with forward, neutral, and reverse, mechanical s h i f t capabilities. T y p e II, Section 8-3, is a mechanical shift, with an upper and lower section t o t h e lower unit. All gears and s h a f t s a r e installed through t h e back of t h e lower unit housing. T h e upper portion of t h e lower unit houses t h e w a t e r pump. The driveshaft and s h i f t linkage passes through t h e upper part. T y p e 111, Section 8-4, is an e l e c t r i c s h i f t lower unit. An e l e c t r i c magnet is used t o s h i f t into forward and reverse. T y p e IV, Section 8-5, is very similar t o t h e T y p e I11 unit, e x c e p t t h a t i t is much larger with heavier components. T y p e V , Section 8-6, has propeller exhaust with e l e c t r i c shift. Two solenoids a r e used t o a f f e c t t h e shift. One solenoid is used f o r neutral, and both solenoids a r e a c t i v a t e d f o r t h e s h i f t into reverse gear. Power t o t h e solenoids is not necessary t o s h i f t into forward gear. The unit automatically s h i f t s i n t o forward g e a r when power t o t h e lower unit is cutoff. Each section is c o m p l e t e with detailed procedures.

CHAPTER COVERAGE Five different t y p e lower units a r e covered in this chapter with s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n s

Window removed from a lower unit t o gain access to the shift connector. as explained in the text. The detailed drawing, upper l e f t ; illustrates the relationship of the bolt to the shift rod.

The two wires on the port side of the engine which must be disconnected before the lower unit is removed.

eblue-dist 2007

8-2

LOWER UNIT Actually, problems in t h e lower unit can be classified i n t o t h r e e broad areas: 1- Lack of proper lubrication in t h e lowe r unit. Most of t e n this is caused by failure of t h e operator t o check t h e gear oil level frequently and t o add lubricant when required. 2- A faulty seal allowing water t o e n t e r t h e lower unit. Water allowed t o remain in t h e lower unit over a period of non-use t i m e will s e p a r a t e from t h e oil and can be destructive. 3- Excessive clutch dog and clutch e a r wear on t h e forward and reverse gears. This condition is caused by excessive wear in t h e bellcrank under t h e powerhead. A worn bellcrank will result in sloppy shifting of t h e lower unit and cause t h e clutch components t o wear and develop shifting problems. Improper shifting techniques at t h e shift box will also result in excessive wear t o t h e clutch dog and clutch e a r s of t h e forward and reverse gears, in t h e manual s h i f t units. In an electric shift unit, t h e clutch springs and hubs wear. Time will also t a k e i t s toll. Continued service over a long period of t i m e will cause parts t o wear and require replacement.
8-2

Troubleshooting Since t h e Type I and Type I1 lower units a r e both mechanical shift, t h e troubleshooting for these two will be combined in Section 8-7. Troubleshooting for t h e Type I11 and Type IV units will be combined in Section 88. Section 8-9 will cover troubleshooting for t h e Type V lower unit.
Check t h e Table of Contents and follow t h e procedures in t h e given section f o r t h e unit being serviced.

Water Pump Water pump service work is by f a r t h e most common reason f o r removal of t h e lower unit. Each lower unit service section contains complete detailed procedures t o rebuild t h e water pump. The instructions given t o prepare f o r t h e water pump work must be performed a s listed. However, once t h e pump is ready f o r installation, if no other work is t o be performed on t h e lower unit, t h e reader may jump t o t h e pump assembling procedures and proceed with installation of t h e water pump. Each section is presented with complete detailed instructions for removal, disassembly, cleaning and inspecting, assembling, adjusting, and installation, of only one type unit. ILLUSTRATIONS
Because this chapter covers such a wide range of models over an extended period of time, t h e illustrations included with t h e procedural steps a r e those of t h e most popular lower units. In some cases, t h e unit being serviced may not appear t o be identical with t h e unit illustrated. However, t h e step-by-step work sequence will be valid i n all cases. If t h e r e is a special procedure for a unique lower unit, t h e differences will b e clearly indicated in t h e step.

PROPELLER SERVICE

PROPELLER WITH SHEAR PIN REMOVAL SAFETY WORD Check t o b e sure t h e high-tension leads t o t h e spark plugs have been removed from t h e plugs BEFORE starting t o remove t h e propeller. This simple s a f e t y task will prevent the engine from accidently "firing" while t h e propeller is being removed. Such action could cause SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY.
Type I, 11, 111, and IV units covered in this manual have a shear pin located between t h e propeller nut and t h e propeller. T h e propeller nut should be removed and t h e s h e a r pin checked. T h e Type V unit has t h e propeller exhaust system. T o remove t h e propeller, first pull t h e c o t t e r key, and then remove t h e propeller nut, shear pin, and washer, Illustration "A". Because t h e shear pin is not a tight f i t , t h e propeller is able t o move on t h e pin and cause burrs on t h e hole. The propeller may

SPECIAL WORDS All threaded parts a r e right-hand unless otherwise indicated. If t h e r e is any water in t h e lower unit or m e t a l particles a r e discovered in t h e g e a r lubricant, t h e lower unit should be completely disassembled, cleaned, and inspected.

eblue-dist 2007

WiOPELLER SERVICE

8-3

propeller. This simple s a f e t y t a s k will prevent t h e engine from accidently "firing" while t h e propeller is being installed. Such action could cause SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY. A FEW GOOD WORDS The propeller washer and shear pin, play an extremely important role. When shifting gears during normal operation, or if t h e propeller should hit an underwater obstacle, t h e propeller is subjected t o considerable shock. A washer is installed between t h e propeller and drive pin. This washer MUST always be in place for proper operation. If t h e hub should slip, t h e propeller will move back towards t h e propeller nut and lock against t h e drive pin. The washer is designed to stop propeller movement s o t h e drive pin can be easily removed for service. Now, on with t h e installation. C o a t t h e propeller s h a f t with a n anticorrosion grease. Install t h e propeller. Install t h e propeller with t h e drive pin holes aligned. Install t h e washer and drive pin. Slide t h e propeller c a p into place and secure i t with t h e c o t t e r pin, Illustration "C".

b e difficult t o remove because of t h e s e burrs. T o overcome this problem, t h e propeller hub has two grooves running t h e full length of t h e hub, Illustration "B". Hold t h e s h a f t from turning, and then r o t a t e t h e propeller 114 turn t o position t h e grooves over t h e drive pin holes. The propeller c a n then b e pulled straight off t h e shaft. After t h e propeller has been removed, file t h e drive pin holes on both sides of t h e s h a f t t o remove t h e burrs.

EXHAUST PROPELLER
Propellers with t h e exhaust passing through t h e hub MUST b e removed more frequently than t h e standard propeller. Removal a f t e r each weekend use, or outing, is not considered excessive. These propellers do not have a shear pin. The s h a f t and propeller have splines which MUST b e coate d with an anit-corrosion lubricant prior t o installation as an aid t o removal t h e next t i m e t h e propeller is pulled. Even with t h e lubricant applied t o t h e s h a f t splines, t h e

INSTALLATION SAFETY WORD Check t o be sure t h e high-tension leads t o t h e spark plugs have been removed from t h e plugs BEFORE starting t o install t h e

eblue-dist 2007

8-4

LOWER UNIT

propeller may be d i f f i c u l t t o remove. If t h i s t y p e propeller is "frozen" t o t h e s h a f t , s e e Section 8-10, f o r special instructions. The propeller with t h e exhaust hub is m o r e expensive than t h e standard propeller qnd t h e r e f o r e , t h e cost of rebuilding t h e unit, if t h e hub is damaged, is justified. A replaceable diffuser ring on t h e backside of t h e propeller disperses t h e exhaust away from t h e propeller blades a s t h e b o a t moves through t h e w a t e r , Illustration "D". If t h e ring becomes broken or damaged "ventilation" would be c r e a t e d pulling t h e exhaust gases back i n t o t h e negative press u r e a r e a behind t h e propeller. This condition would c r e a t e considerable air bubbles and reduce t h e effectiveness of t h e propeller.

PROPELLER WITH EXHAUST - REMOVAL SAFETY WORD Check t o b e s u r e t h e high-tension leads t o t h e spark plugs have been removed f r o m t h e plugs BEFORE s t a r t i n g t o remove t h e propeller. This simple s a f e t y t a s k will prevent t h e engine from accidently "firing" while t h e propeller is being removed. Such a c t i o n could cause SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY.
Pull t h e c o t t e r pin from t h e propeller nut, Illustration "En. Wedge a piece of wood between one of t h e propeller blades and t h e

cavitation plate t o prevent t h e propeller from rotating. Back off t h e c a s t e l l a t e d propeller n u t and r e m o v e t h e splined washer. Pull t h e propeller s t r a i g h t off t h e shaft. I t may be necessary t o carefully t a p on t h e f r o n t side of t h e propeller with a s o f t heade d mallet t o jar i t loose. Remove t h e t h r u s t washer from t h e propeller shaft.

"Frozen" Propeller If t h e propeller appears t o be "frozen" t o t h e s h a f t , see Section 8-10 f o r special removal instructions. EXHAUST PROPELLER INSTALLATION SAFETY WORD Check t o be s u r e t h e high-tension leads t o t h e spark plugs have been removed from t h e plugs BEFORE s t a r t i n g t o install t h e propeller. This simple s a f e t y task will prevent t h e engine from accidently "firing"
PROPELLER

PROPELLER NUT
Replaceable diffuser ring designed to dispurse the exhaust away from the propeller blades as the boat moves through the water.

eblue-dist 2007

LUBRICATION
while t h e propeller is being installed. S u c h a c t i o n could c a u s e SEVERE PERSONAL INJURY. Slide t h e t h r u s t w a s h e r o n t o t h e propell e r s h a f t . C o a t t h e propeller s h a f t w i t h P e r f e c t S e a l No. 4, T r i p l e G u a r d G r e a s e , o r s i m i l a r good g r a d e of l u b r i c a n t t o p r e v e n t t h e propeller f r o m b e c o m i n g " frozen" t o t h e s h a f t , Illustration "F". Slide t h e propeller o n t o t h e s h a f t w i t h t h e splines in t h e propell e r indexing w i t h t h e splines o n t h e s h a f t . Slide t h e splined w a s h e r o n t o t h e s h a f t . Thread t h e castellated nut onto t h e shaft, J a m a p i e c e of board Illustration "C" b e t w e e n o n e of t h e propeller blades a n d t h e c a v i t a t i o n p l a t e t o p r e v e n t t h e propeller f r o m turning. T i g h t e n t h e propeller n u t s e c u r e l y a n d t h e n a b i t m o r e t o align t h e hole through t h e n u t w i t h t h e hole t h r o u g h t h e propeller s h a f t . NEVER b a c k t h e n u t off in a n e f f o r t t o align t h e hole, ALWAYS t i g h t e n t h e n u t f o r a l i g n m e n t Illustration "H". Install t h e c o t t e r pin through t h e n u t a n d propeller s h a f t , Illustration "I".

8-5

8-3 LOWER UNIT LUBRICATION DRAINING LOWER UNIT


Position a s u i t a b l e c o n t a i n e r under t h e lower unit, a n d t h e n r e m o v e t h e FILE s c r e w and t h e VENT screw.

eblue-dist 2007

8-6

LOWER UNIT

CRITICAL WORD On many lower units, t h e Phillips screw, securing t h e s h i f t f o r k in place, is located very close t o t h e vent screw, Illustration I tJRU On some units t h e Phillips s c r e w i s l o c a t e d on t h e other side. If t h e wrong s c r e w is removed, BAD NEWS, VERY BAD NEWS! ! The lower unit will have t o be disassembled in order t o return t h e s h i f t f o r k t o i t s proper location. Allow t h e gear lubricant t o drain i n t o t h e container, Illustration "K". As t h e lubricant drains, c a t c h s o m e with your fingers, f r o m time-to-time, a n d rub i t between your t h u m b and finger t o determine if a n y m e t a l particles a r e present. If metal is d e t e c t e d in t h e lubricant, t h e unit must be completel y disassembled, inspected, a n d t h e damaged parts replaced. Check t h e color of t h e lubricant a s i t drains. A whitish or c r e a m y color indicates t h e presence of water in t h e lubricant. C h e c k t h e drain pan f o r signs of w a t e r separation from t h e lubricant. T h e presence of any w a t e r in t h e gear lubricant is BAD NEWS. The unit must be completely disassembled, inspected, t h e cause of t h e probl e m determined, a n d then corrected.

FILLING LOWER UNIT CRITICAL WORDS Any t i m e t h e drain plug or t h e vent plug is removed, a NEW gasket must be used with t h e plug t o ensure a proper seal. I t is NOT a good p r a c t i c e t o use t h e old gasket. Use ONLY Type C, now known as Premium Blend G e a r c a s e Lube, in all electric shift

models. Use t h e Hi-Vis Gearcase Lube for all o t h e r units. Fill t h e lower unit with lubricant. Insert t h e lubricant t u b e i n t o t h e bottom opening, and then fill t h e unit until lubricant is I visible at t h e vent hole, Illustration ' Z Install the vent plug. Remove t h e gear lubricant t u b e and install t h e drainlfill plug. A f t e r t h e lower plug has been installed, remove t h e vent plug again and using a squi rt- type oil can, add lubricant through this vent hole. A squirt- type oil can must be used to allow t h e trapped air in t h e lower unit t o escape at t h e s a m e t i m e t h e final lubricant is added, Illustration " page. Once t h e unit is completely full, install and tighten t h e vent plug.

eblue-dist 2007

TROUBLESHOOTING TYPES I AND 11

8-7

Frozen Powerhead This condition is suggested when t h e operator unsuccessfully a t t e m p t s t o c r a n k t h e engine with a hand s t a r t e r . T h e flywheel will not rotate. Do not assume t h e engine is "frozen" until t h e lower unit has been removed and thoroughly checked. If t h e lower unit is "locked" (the driveshaf t or propeller s h a f t will not rotate), t h e powerhead will have t h e indication of being "frozen" (failure t o r o t a t e t h e flywheel). The f i r s t s t e p t o perform under t h e s e conditions is t o "pull" t h e lower unit, a n d t h e n again a t t e m p t t o crank t h e engine. If t h e a t t e m p t is successful with t h e lower unit disconnected, t h e problem is in t h e lower unit. If t h e a t t e m p t t o crank t h e engine is still unsuccessful, t h e problem is i n t h e powerhead. S e e C h a p t e r 3, f o r special instructions. 8-4 TROUBLESHOOTING MANUAL SHIFT TYPE I AND TYPE I1 UNITS 50 HP - 1958 AND 1959 60 HP - 1%4 THRU 1%7 65 HP - 1968 75 HP - 1%0 THRU 1%5 80 HP - 1966 AND 1967 85 HP - 1%8
Troubleshooting MUST b e done BEFORE t h e unit is removed f r o m t h e powerhead t o permit isolating t h e problem t o one area. Always a t t e m p t t o proceed with troubleshooting i n an orderly manner. T h e shotgun approach will only result in wasted t i m e ,

i n c o r r e c t diagnosis, replacement of unnecessary parts, and frustration. T h e following procedures a r e presented in a logical sequence with t h e most preval e n t , easiest, and less costly i t e m s t o be checked listed first.

WORDS OF ADVICE O n e contributing f a c t o r t o lower unit problems can be blamed on t h e helmsman's operation. If t h e operator a t t e m p t s t o "EASE" t h e unit i n t o gear, h e is causing problems instead of preventing them. Any t i m e t h e unit is shifted into, or o u t of gear, i t must ALWAYS b e done with a definite and deliberate action.
Slippage in the Lower Unit If t h e s h i f t s e e m s t o b e slipping as t h e boat moves through t h e water. check t h e propeller and t h e r u b b e r hub, ' Illustration "N". If t h e propeller has been subjected t o many strikes against underwater objects, i t could slip on i t s hub. If t h e hub i s damaged or excessively worn, i t is not economical t o have t h e hub or propeller rebuilt. A new propeller may be purchased for considerably less than meeting t h e expense of rebuilding an old worn propeller.
v

Shift Linkage A definite problem a r e a , especially on a V 4 unit, is in t h e linkage f r o m t h e s h i f t handle t o t h e lower unit. The connection at t h e end of t h e shift handle consists of a "bellcrank", Illustration "P", next page. Over a long period of t i m e and operation, t h e bellcrank and t h e rod fittings wear, developing slack in t h e linkage t o t h e lower

eblue-dist 2007

8-8

LOWER UNIT

unit. Without tight fittings, f r e e of slack, t h e lower unit cannot be shifted fully i n t o gear as t h e design engineers intended. Theref ore, this a r e a should be checked early in t h e troubleshooting work, a s follows. Unable to Shift i n t o Forward or R e v e r s e Remove t h e propeller and check t o determine if t h e shear pin has been broken. Check t h e bellcrank under t h e powerhead. This is accomplished by removing t h e outer and inner windows in t h e exhaust housing, Illustration "Q"". Hold t h e shift rod with a pair of needle-nose pliers and at t h e s a m e t i m e a t t e m p t t o move t h e shift lever on t h e starboard side of t h e engine. If i t is possible t o move t h e shift lever, t h e bellcrank is worn. Shift Adjustment Remove t h e hood. Remove t h e rear cowling around t h e back of t h e engine. Observe t h e t w o boss marks on t h e c a m below

t h e head, on t h e starboard side of t h e engine, Illustration "R". Notice t h e boss or a n arrow mark on t h e block. Shift t h e unit i n t o FORWARD gear and at t h e s a m e t i m e rotate t h e propeller, until i t stops, indicating t h e gear is against t h e clutch dog. Ease t h e handle back out of forward gear, and t h e n r o t a t e the propeller a very small amount. Shift back i n t o FORWARD gear. The clutch dog and gear should be on t o p of each other. The clutch dog should be closest t o going into gear without actually going into gear. The boss on t h e cam should be aligned with t h e mark on t h e block. If i t is not, loosen t h e nut below t h e indent and make t h e adjustment. Repeat t h e procedure for REVERSE gear, Illustration "S". The other boss mark on t h e c a m should align with t h e mark on t h e block. If i t is not possible t o adjust both FORWARD and REVERSE exact1y, i t is best t o have FORWARD gea. nearer perfect than REVERSE. Install t h e exhaust cover and secure i t in place with t h e attaching screws. Crankshaft and Driveshaf t Splines The splines in t h e crankshaft or on t h e driveshaf t may be damaged or worn and thus prevent rotation from t h e crankshaft t o reach t h e propeller shaft. If the splines in t h e crankshaft a r e destroyed, t h e crankshaft will have t o be replaced, see C h a p t e r 3, Powerhead. If t h e splines on t h e driveshaft

eblue-dist 2007

TROUBLESHOOTING TYPES 1 AND I1


have been destroyed, t h e driveshaft must b e replaced. Procedure t o replace t h e drives h a f t a r e included in each section of this chapter.
Difficult Shifting Verify t h a t t h e ignition switch is OFF, or b e t t e r still, disconnect t h e spark plug wires from the plugs, t o prevent possible personal injury, should t h e engine start. Shift t h e unit i n t o REVERSE gear at t h e shift control box, and at t h e s a m e time have an assistant turn t h e propeller s h a f t t o ensure t h e clutch is fully engaged. If t h e shift handle is hard t o move, t h e trouble may be in t h e lower unit, with t h e shift cable, or in t h e shift box, if used.

8-9

Water in the Lower Unit Water in t h e lower unit is usually caused by fish line becoming entangled around t h e propeller shaft behind t h e propeller and damaging t h e propeller seal. If t h e line is not removed, i t will c u t t h e propeller s h a f t seal and aliow water t o e n t e r t h e lower unit. Fish line has also been known t o c u t a groove in t h e propeller shaft. The propeller should be removed each t i m e t h e boat is hauled from t h e water at t h e end of an outing and any material entangled behind t h e propeller removed before i t can cause expensive damage. The small amount of t i m e and e f f o r t involved in pulling the propeller is repaid many times by reduced maintenance and service work, including t h e replacement of expensive parts. Isolate t h e Problem Disconnect t h e shift cable, at t h e engine. O p e r a t e t h e shift lever. If shifting is still hard, t h e problem is in t h e shift cable If t h e or control box, s e e Chapter 7. shifting f e e l s normal with t h e shift cable disconnected, t h e problem must b e in t h e lower unit, or in t h e shift lever rod passing through t h e exhaust housing. T o verify t h e problem is i n t h e lower unit, have an assist a n t turn t h e propeller and at t h e s a m e t i m e move t h e shift cable back-and-forth. Determine if t h e clutch engages properly.

Jumping out of Gear If a loud thumping sound is heard at t h e transom, while t h e boat is underway, t h e unit is jumping o u t of gear. The propeller does not have a load, theref o r e t h e rushing water under t h e hull forces t h e lower unit in

a backward direction. The unit jumps back into gear, t h e propeller catches hold, t h e lower unit is forced forward again, and t h e result is t h e thumping sound as t h e action is repeated. Normally this type of action occurs perhaps once a day, then more f requently each t i m e t h e clutch is operated, until finally t h e unit will not s t a y in gear for even a short time. The following a r e a s must be checked t o l o c a t e t h e cause: 1- Check t h e bellcrank under t h e powerhead. This is accomplished by outer and inner windows in t h e exhaust housing. Hold t h e shift rod with a pair of needle-nose pliers and at t h e s a m e t i m e a t t e m p t t o move t h e shift lever on t h e starboard side of t h e engine. If i t is possible t o move t h e shift lever, t h e bellcrank is damaged. 2- Disconnect t h e shift cable at t h e engine. A t t e m p t t o shift t h e unit i n t o forward gear with t h e shift lever on t h e starboard side of t h e engine and at t h e s a m e t i m e r o t a t e t h e propeller in an e f f o r t t o s h i f t into gear. Shift t h e control lever at t h e control box into forward gear. Move t h e s h i f t cable at t h e engine up t o t h e shift handle and determine if t h e cable is properly aligned. T h e control lever may have jumped a tooth on t h e slider or on t h e shift lever arc. If a tooth has been jumped, t h e cable would lose its adjustment and t h e unit would fail t o shift properly. If t h e inner cable should slip on t h e end cable guide, t h e adjustment would be lost. 3- Move t h e shift lever at t h e engine into t h e neutral position and t h e shift lever at t h e control box t o t h e neutral position. Now, move t h e shift cable up t o t h e s h i f t lever and see if i t is aligned. Shift t h e unit into reverse at t h e engine and shift t h e control lever at t h e control box i n t o reverse. Move t h e cable up and see if it is aligned. If t h e cable is properly aligned, but t h e unit still jumps o u t of gear when t h e cable is connected, one of t h r e e conditions may exist. a- The bellcrank is worn excessively or damaged. b- The coupler at t h e connector at t h e shift rod is misaligned. This coupler is used t o connect t h e upper shift rod with t h e lower rod. If t h e coupler has not been installed properly, a n y shifting will b e difficult. c- P a r t s i n t h e lower unit a r e worn from extended use.

eblue-dist 2007

8-10

LOWER UNIT
housing. Access t o t h e shift coupler is gained through t h e opening. Disconnect t h e shift rod from t h e exhaust housing by removing t h e bottom bolt from t h e shift coupler. GOOD WORDS In MOST cases, if any unit being serviced has t h e 6-inch extension, i t is NOT necess a r y t o remove t h e extension in order t o "dropft t h e lower unit. 2- Remove t h e four bolts from each side of t h e lower unit. Work t h e lower unit loose from t h e exhaust housing. I t is not uncommon f o r t h e w a t e r tube/s t o be s t u c k in t h e water pump making separation of t h e lower unit from t h e exhaust housing difficult. However, with patience and persistence, t h e tube/s will come f r e e of t h e pump and t h e lower unit separated from t h e exhaust housing.

8-5 TYPE I LOWER UNIT SERVICE MANUAL SHIFT SPLIT LOWER UNIT 50 HP - 1958 AND 1959 60 HP - 1964 THRU 1967 65 HP - 1%8 75 HP - 1964 AND 1965 SPECIAL WORDS The manufacturer did not make things easy t o service t h e 75 hp -- 1965 engine lower unit, because t h e unit may have one of t h r e e different type lower units. Therefore, i t is extremely important t o determine t h e type unit f o r t h e engine being serviced. O n e has a split lower unit, o n e is a single unit type, and t h e third is an e l e c t r i c s h i f t . Propeller Removal Remove t h e propeller according t o t h e detailed procedures outlined in Section 8-2. Draining Lower Unit Drain t h e lower unit according t o t h e detailed procedures outlined in Section 8-3. GOOD WORDS Access t o t h e s h i f t disconnect is through outer and inner windows on t h e starboard side of t h e engine. LOWER UNIT REMOVAL
Window Removal to Gain Access 1- Remove t h e o u t e r m e t a l plate from t h e starboard side of t h e engine housing. Remove t h e inner plate from t h e exhaust

MORE GOOD WORDS Position t h e lower unit in a vertical position on t h e edge of t h e work bench resting on the cavitation plate. Secure t h e lower unit in this position with a C-clamp. The lower unit will then be held firmly in a favorable position for further service work. An a l t e r n a t e method is t o c u t a groove in a short piece of 2" x 6" wood t o accommodate t h e lower unit with t h e cavitation plate resting on t o p of t h e wood. C l a m p t h e wood i n a vise and service work may then be performed with t h e lower unit e r e c t (in i t s normal position), or inverted (upside down). In both positions, t h e cavitation plate is t h e supporting surface.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I MANUAL SHIFT

8- 1 1

LOWER UNIT DISASSEMBLING


3- Remove and DISCARD the O-ring from t h e t o p of t h e driveshaft.
6- Turn t h e lower unit upside down and again clamp i t in t h e vise or slide i t i n t o t h e wooden block, if one is used. Carefully examine t h e lower portion of t h e unit. The c a p is considered t h a t part below t h e split with t h e skeg attached. Remove t h e Phillips screw from t h e starboard side of t h e lower housing. This screw passes through t h e shift yoke and threads into t h e side of t h e housing. Remove t h e attaching screws around the cap. These screws may b e slotted- type or Phillips screws. CAREFULLY t a p t h e c a p t o jar i t loose, and then s e p a r a t e i t from t h e lower unit housing.

WATER PUMP REMOVAL


4- Remove the bolts securing t h e water pump t o t h e lower unit housing. It is very possible corrosion will cause t h e bolt heads t o break-off when a n a t t e m p t t o remove them is made. If this should happen, use a chisel and breakaway t h e water pump housing from t h e lower unit. EXERCISE CARE not t o damage t h e lower unit housing. 5- After t h e screws have been removed, slide t h e water pump, impeller, t h e impeller key, and t h e lower water pump plate upward and f r e e of t h e driveshaf t. CAREFULLY pull upward on t h e driveshaf t and remove i t from t h e lower unit.

GOOD NEWS If the only work t o be performed is service of t h e water pump, disregard t h e following steps, and proceed directly t o the Water Pump Installation portion of this section, beginning on Page 8-19.

TAKE TIME Before proceeding with t h e disassembly work, t a k e t i m e t o study t h e arrangement of parts in t h e lower unit. You may e l e c t t o follow t h e practice of many professional mechanics and t a k e a polaroid picture of t h e unit as an aid during t h e assembly work. Several engineering and production changes have been m a d e t o t h e lower unit over t h e

eblue-dist 2007

8-12

LOWER UNIT

years. Therefore, t h e positioning of t h e gears, shims, bearings, and o t h e r p a r t s m a y v a r y slightly f r o m one unit t o t h e next. T o show e a c h and e v e r y a r r a n g e m e n t with a picture in this manual would n o t be practical. Even if i t were done, t h e ability t o associate t h e unit being serviced with t h e illustration would be almost impossible. Therefore, t a k e t i m e t o m a k e notes, scribble out a sketch, or t a k e a couple photographs.

GOOD WORDS Observe t h e seal retainer on t h e propeller end of t h e propeller shaft. Now, notice t h e matching pin in t h e lower unit housing. During t h e installation work, t h e r e t a i n e r MUST b e installed with t h e pin indexed in t h e hole. Take note of t h e snap ring installe d in f r o n t of t h e seal retainer. O n e m o r e i t e m of particular interest. N o t i c e t h e t w o sides of t h e t h r u s t washers. O n e side is as a normal washer, but t h e o t h e r side is a babbitt. The babbitt side MUST f a c e toward t h e reverse gear during installation. The washer also has a dog e a r which MUST f a c e upward, when i t is installed, Illustration "A". By taking note, at this time, of t h e s e i t e m s and e x a c t l y how t h e y a r e installed, t h e task of assembling and installation will progress more smoot hl y. 7- L i f t t h e s h i f t lever o u t of t h e cradle, and t h e n remove t h e cradle f r o m t h e s h i f t dog. Raise t h e propeller s h a f t and at t h e s a m e t i m e t a p with a soft-headed mallet on t h e bottom side t o jar i t loose, t h e n remove t h e s h a f t assembly f r o m t h e lower unit. T h e forward and reverse gear including t h e bearings will all c o m e o u t with t h e propeller shaft. The forward gear is t h e gear at t h e opposite end of t h e s h a f t f r o m t h e -propeller. 8- Remove t h e a t t a c h i n g screws, and t h e n t h e U-shaped bracket f r o m t h e t o p of t h e pinion gear. R e a c h i n t o t h e lower housing and remove t h e pinion gear.

9- The pinion gear bearing, t h r u s t bearing, and driveshaf ;bearing do not have t o be removed unless t h e y a r e unfit f o r f u r t h e r service. Feel carefully with your fingers to determine t h e i r condition. If t h e y do have t o be removed, use a slide hammer with fingers. An a l t e r n a t e method is t o drive t h e m o u t with a d r i f t punch f r o m above.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I MANUAL SHIFT

8- 13

15- Clean t h e upper portion of t h e shift rod a s an aid t o pulling i t through t h e bushing and O-ring. Pull t h e shift rod f rom t h e bottom portion of t h e lower unit housing. The shift rod passes through a n O-ring

Forward G e a r Removal 10- Remove t h e Truarc snap ring from t h e propeller shaft. 11- Remove t h e small thrust washer, roller bearing, another small thrust washer, and then t h e large thrust washer. Remove t h e second Truarc snap ring, t h e forward gear bushing, and finally t h e forward gear. Reverse G e a r Removal 12- Remove t h e snap ring, t h e oil retainer, t h e roller bearing, thrust washer, reverse gear and bushing, and finally t h e clutch dog. 13- Turn t h e lower unit housing right side up and again clamp i t in t h e vise. Remove t h e upper seal using a seal puller. An a l t e r n a t e method, if t h e puller is not available, is t o use two screwdrivers and work t h e seal out of t h e housing. TAKE CARE not t o damage t h e seal recess as t h e seal is being removed. 14- A babbitt bearing is installed under t h e seal. Normally, i t is NOT necessary t o remove this bushing. However, check t h e bushing surface with a finger and if a n y roughness is f e l t , t h e bearing MUST b e replaced.

eblue-dist 2007

8-14

LOWER UNIT

and bushing in t h e lower unit housing. These t w o i t e m s prevent water from entering t h e A special tapered punch is lower unit. required t o remove t h e bushing from the lower unit housing. Obtain t h e special punch, and then remove t h e bushing, and t h e O-ring.

CLEANING AND INSPECTING


Clean all water pump parts with solvent, and then dry t h e m with compressed air. Inspect t h e water pump cover and base for cracks and distortion, possibly caused from overheating. Inspect t h e f a c e plate and water pump insert for grooves and/or rough surfaces. If possible, ALWAYS install a complete new water pump while t h e lower unit is disassembled. A new impeller will ensure extended satisfactory service and give "peace of mind" t o t h e owner. If t h e old impeller must be returned t o service, NEVER install i t in reverse t o t h e original direction of rotation. Installation in reverse will cause premature impeller failure. Inspect t h e impeller side seal surfaces and t h e ends of the impeller blades for

Clutch dog with worn "ears", rendering i t unfit for further service.

cracks, tears, and wear. Check f o r a glazed o r me1ted appearance, caused from operating without sufficient water. If any question exists, and as previously stated, install a new impeller if at all possible. Clean all parts with solvent and dry t h e m with compressed air. DISCARD all Orings and gaskets. Inspect and replace t h e driveshaft if t h e s ~ l i n e sa r e worn. Inspect t h e gearcase and exhaust housing f o r dama g e t o t h e machined surfaces. Remove any nicks and refurbish t h e surfaces on a surface plate. S t a r t with a No. 120 Emery paper a n d finish with No. 180. Check t h e water intake screen and passages by removing t h e bypass cover. Inspect

Removing the seal from the bearing head. If the head is damaged in any manner, the less expensive solution is t o replace the bearing head as an assembly.

Forward gear, forward gear bearing, and propeller shaft badly damaged from water in the lower unit over an extended period of time. lmmediate disassembly might have saved them.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I MANUAL SHIFT

8- 15

/
/ '

WATER PUMP ASSEMBLY

Exploded drawing of a Type I lower unit with principle parts identified.

eblue-dist 2007

8-16

LOWER UNIT

t h e clutch dog, drive gears, pinion gear, and thrust washers. Replace t h e s e i t e m s if t h e y appear worn. If t h e clutch dog and drive gear arrangement surfaces a r e nicked, chipped, or t h e edges rounded, t h e operator may be performing t h e shift operation improperl y or t h e controls may not be adjusted correctly. These i t e m s MUST be replaced if t h e y a r e damaged. Inspect t h e dog ears on t h e inside of t h e forward and reverse gears. The gears must b e replaced if t h e y a r e damaged. Check t h e cradle t h a t rides on t h e inside diameter of t h e clutch dog. The sides of t h e cradle must b e in good condition, f r e e of any damage or signs of wear. If damage o r wear has occurred, t h e cradle must b e replaced. Check t h e shift lever and t h e t w o prongs t h a t f i t inside t h e cradle. Check t o b e s u r e t h e prongs a r e not worn or rounded. Dama g e or wear t o t h e prongs indicates t h e lever must b e replaced.

ASSEMBLING 1- Place the lower unit on t h e work bench with t h e water pump recess facing upward. Install a NEW O-ring into t h e shift cavity. Work t h e bushing into place on t o p of t h e O-ring with a punch and mallet. Inject just a couple drops of oil i n t o t h e bushing and O-ring as an assist during installation of t h e shift rod. 2- Install t h e babbitt bearing, if i t was removed. The babbitt bearing may b e installed using t h e proper size socket and hammer. 3- C o a t t h e outside edge of a NEW seal with No. 1000 sealer, and then t a p t h e s e a l into place in t h e t o p of t h e upper lower unit housing.

4- Turn t h e unit over, and then install t h e driveshaf t bearing. Press against t h e l e t t e r e d side of t h e bearing from t h e bottom side of t h e lower unit housing. Use t h e proper size socket and be careful not t o distort t h e bearing. 5- Lower t h e s a m e number of shims t h a t were removed during disassembling. If t h e shims a r e distorted or damaged, use a mic r o m e t e r t o measure t h e thickness and t h e n purchase new ones of exactly t h e s a m e size. If t h e shims were accidently lost, a new

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I MANUAL SHIFT

8- 17

bearing must be purchased and new shims will be included in t h e package. 6- Install t h e first bearing by pressing on t h e lettered side. Install t h e pinion g e a r bearing. 7- Lower t h e pinion gear into t h e housing. Check t o be sure i t s e a t s properly. Lower the U-shaped pinion gear retaining bracket into position and secure i t in place with t h e attaching screws. Check t o b e sure t h e pinion gear is properly located. 8- Check t o be sure t h e shift rod is clean and smooth (free of any burrs or corrosion). C o a t t h e shift rod and t h e 0ring with oil as an aid t o installation. Slide t h e shift rod through t h e O-ring and bushing into t h e gear case, from t h e bottom side of t h e lower unit housing. 9- Install a NEW seal into t h e seal retainer. Install a NEW O-ring around t h e outside perimeter of t h e retainer. Assembling t h e Propeller Shaft Forward G e a r Installation 10- Slide t h e forward gear and forward gear bushing onto t h e end of t h e propeller shaft. Secure t h e bushing in place by installing t h e Truarc snap ring. Install t h e thrust washer with t h e babbitt side facing towards t h e forward gear.

11- Install t h e large thrust washer, rolle r bearing, small thrust washer, and finally t h e Truarc snap ring.

Reverse G e a r Installation 12- Slide t h e clutch dog onto t h e propell e r shaft with t h e splines indexed with t h e

m/
' 8 3 ,

FORWARD GEAR LARGE THRUST

ROLLER BEARING
,,

SMALL THRUST WASHER

TRUARC ' SNAP RING

T F SNAP KING

eblue-dist 2007

8- 1 8

LOWER UNIT

splines on t h e shaft. Install t h e reverse gear and reverse gear bushing. Slide t h e t h r u s t washer on t h e s h a f t with t h e babbitt side facing towards t h e reverse gear. Slide t h e rolle; bearing o n t o t h e s h a f t , and then t h e oil retainer seal. Check t o be sure a NEW seal and O-ring has been installed into t h e seal retainer, and t h e n install t h e retainer.

15- P l a c e t h e cradle into place in t h e clutch dog recess. Bring t h e shifting forks t o t h e cradle. C h e c k t o b e s u r e t h e forks seat properly i n t h e cradle. Work t h e s h i f t rod up and down t o be s u r e t h e unit is in NEUTRAL.

&Isernbling Lower Gear Case 16- Lay down a bead of No. 1800 Sealer i n t o t h e groove of t h e c a p in preparation t o installing t h e seal. Apply a small amount of

Propeller Shaft Installation CRITICAL WORDS The seal retainer has a hole and t h e lower housing of t h e lower unit has a pin. This pin MUST index into t h e hole in t h e retainer when t h e propeller s h a f t is installed. If t h e pin is not s e a t e d properly in t h e hole, t h e seal retainer will work p a r t w a y o u t of t h e housing and t h e lubricant in t h e lower unit will b e lost. 13- Lower t h e assembled propeller s h a f t i n t o t h e lower unit housing, and at t h e s a m e t i m e check t o be sure t h e oil r e t a i n e r hole indexes with t h e pin in t h e housing. 14- Install t h e snap ring in f r o n t of t h e seal retainer with t h e open end towards t h e top. Check t o be sure t h e t a b s on t h e t h r u s t washers a r e facing upward.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I MANUAL SHIFT

& 19

silicone sealer on each side of t h e bearing gear case head. This sealer will f o r m a complete seal when t h e lower unit c a p is installed. 17- Position t h e lower unit c a p over t h e gear assembly onto t h e lower unit housing. Apply a drop of sealer into t h e opening for each cap retaining screw t o ensure a complete seal between t h e c a p and t h e lower unit housing. Install t h e screws securing t h e cap the lower unit housing* Tighten the screws ALTERNATELY and EVENLY.

on the screw t o ensure a leak proof seal. The lubricant in t h e lower unit must not escape and water must not enter. Tighten t h e screw securely.

WATER PUMP INSTALLATION


19- Apply a coating of sealer t o t h e upper surface of the lower unit. Install the water pump base plate. Slide t h e driveshaf t into the lower unit, and then r o t a t e t h e s h a f t very slowly. when t h e splines of t h e driveshaft index with t h e pinion gear, t h e s h a f t will drop slightly. Install t h e w a t e r pump key. 20- Slide t h e water pump impeller down the driveshaft and into place on top of t h e water pump base plate with the pump key indexed in t h e impeller. Lubricate t h e insid e surface of the water pump with lightw e i g ht oil.

GOOD WORD If time is taken to grind the end of the i screw t o a SHORT point, Illustration 'Bm, t will make t h e task of installation much easier* If the cap and shift lever are not aligned exactly, t h e screw will "seek" and make the as it passes through. However, do make a long point Or the screw will not have enough support and would bend during o ~ e r a t i o nof t h e shift lever. 18- Use a flashlight and align t h e hole in t h e c a p with t h e hole in t h e shift lever. Install t h e tapered Phillips screw i n t o t h e housing and through t h e lever. Always use a NEW washer with this screw and 1000 s e a l e r

- .

eblue-dist 2007

8-20

LOWER UNIT

21- Lower t h e water pump housing down t h e driveshaft and over t h e impeller. Rotate the driveshaf t CLOCKWISE as t h e wat e r pump housing is lowered t o allow t h e impeller blades t o assume their natural and proper position inside t h e housing. Continue t o r o t a t e t h e driveshaft and work t h e water pump housing downward until i t is seated on t h e lower unit upper housing ALWAYS r o t a t e t h e driveshaf t CLOCKWISE while t h e screws a r e tightened t o prevent damaging t h e impeller vanes. If t h e impeller is not rotated, t h e housing could damage or c u t t h e end of t h e vanes as t h e screws a r e brought up tight. The rotation allows t h e m t o spring back in a natural position. 22- Place NEW grommets into t h e water pump housing f o r t h e water tubes. Install a NEW seal ring on t o p of t h e water pump. Install a NEW O-ring on t h e t o p of t h e drives haf t.

area on t h e end of t h e shift rod, Illustration ""C". This a r e a permits the bolt t o pass through t h e coupler past t h e shift rod, and into t h e other side of t h e coupler Illustration "Dm.I t is this bolt t h a t holds t h e s h i f t rod in t h e coupler. Now, in order for t h e bolt t o be properly installed, t h e cutout a r e a o n t h e shift rod MUST b e aligned in such a manner t o allow t h e bolt t o be properly installed. Therefore, a s t h e lower unit is m a t e d with t h e exhaust housing, exercise patience as t h e t w o units c o m e together, t o enable t h e bolt t o b e installed at t h e proper time. If t h e rod is allowed t o move t o o f a r i n t o t h e coupler before t h e bolt is installed, it may b e possible t o force t h e bolt i n t o place, past t h e shift rod. T h e threads on t h e bolt will be stripped, and t h e shift rod will eventually come out of t h e coupler.

LOWER UNIT INSTALLATION GOOD WORDS Connecting t h e shift rod with t h e coupler is not an easy task but can be accomplished as follows: First, notice t h e c u t o u t

GOOD WORDS Normally t h e coupler is not removed. In most cases i t stays with the upper shift rod. If, however, t h e coupler was removed, for any number of reasons, peform S t e p 24. Install t h e coupler onto t h e upper unit shift rod, with t h e NO THREAD section towards t h e window. With t h e coupler in this position, t h e bolt may b e inserted through t h e coupler and "catch" t h e threads on t h e f a r side. Install t h e coupler bolt in t h e manner described in t h e previous paragraph.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I MANUAL SHIFT

8-21

23- Check t o b e sure t h e water pickup tubes a r e clean, smooth, and f r e e of any corrosion. C o a t t h e water pickup tubes and grommets with lubricant as an aid t o installation. Shift t h e lower unit i n t o FORWARD or REVERSE gear as an aid t o rotating t h e shaft and t h e lower unit housing: is worked towards the exhaust housing. Guide t h e lower unit up i n t o t h e exhaust housing with t h e water t u b e sliding into t h e rubber grornm e t of t h e water pump. Continue t o work t h e lower unit towards t h e exhaust housing, and at t h e s a m e t i m e r o t a t e t h e propeller s h a f t a s an aid t o indexing t h e driveshaft splines with t h e crankshaft. S t a r t t h e bolts securing t h e lower unit t o t h e exhaust housing. Tighten t h e bolts EVENLY and ALTERNATELY. 24- Insert t h e bolt i n t o t h e connector. TAKE TIME t o read and understand t h e "Good Wordsu on Page 20, before making this connection. 25- After t h e bolt is in place, install and secure t h e gasket and inner window with t h e attaching hardware. Install t h e outer window and gasket. Filling Lower Unit See Section 8-3 f o r detailed instructions on filling t h e lower unit. Propeller Installatim See Section 8-2 for detailed procedures t o install t h e propeller. Shift Linkage Adjustment See special instructions on Page 8-8.

Functional Check 26- Perform a functional check of t h e completed work by mounting t h e engine in a test tank, in a body of water, or with a flush a t t a c h m e n t connected t o t h e lower unit. If a flush a t t a c h m e n t is used, NEVER o p e r a t e t h e engine above an idle speed, because t h e no-load condition on t h e propeller w~ulc! allow t h e engine t o RUNAWAY resulting in serious damage or destruction of t h e engine. CAUTIOM: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump.

eblue-dist 2007

8-22

LOWER UNIT

S t a r t t h e engine and observe t h e t a t t l e t a l e flow of water from t h e idle relief in t h e exhaust housing. The water pump installation work is verified. If a flush a t t a c h m e n t is connected t o t h e lower unit, VERY LITTLE w a t e r will be visible from t h e idle relief port. Shift t h e engine into t h e t h r e e gears and check f o r smoothness of operation and satisfactory performance.

Modified propeller shaft (top) with the hole drilled for the spring, as explained in the text. The bottom shaft has not been modified.

8-6 TYPE 1 LOWER UNIT SERVICE 1 MANUAL SHET - SINGLE ENCLOSED HOUSING 60 HP - 1%4 THRU 1%7 65 HP - 1968 75 HP - 1960 THRU 1965 80 HP - 1 966 AND 1967 85 HP - 1%8 On t h e 75 hp -- 1960, t h e pinion gear and bearing assembly, and t h e driveshaft bearing assembly were different from t h e other lowe r units covered in this seciton. Where t h e s e differences occur, they will b e noted in t h e procedures and supported with accompanying illustrations. As a result of this condition, a service bulletin, fixture, new clutch dog, and associa t e d parts, were dispatched from t h e factory, Illustration "An. Service centers were instructed t o modify t h e lower unit any t i m e i t was disassembled. A hole was drilled through t h e propeller shaft, Illustration flB'l. A spring and two balls, provided in t h e package, were installed on t h e propeller shaft, one on e i t h e r side. A groove had been c u t into t h e inside diameter of t h e new clutch dog. When t h e new clutch dog is placed in t h e NEUTRAL position, t h e groove

Clutch Dog Modification A standard unit from t h e manufacturer included a spline f o r t h e clutch dog t o operate into forward and reverse gears. Design of t h e clutch dog caused i t t o "chatter1' or t h e unit t o slide slightly o u t of gear during normal operation. This action caused t h e e a r s of t h e d u t c h dog t o wear very rapidly.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE II MANUAL SHIFT is over t h e balls. The spring e x e r t s a f o r c e on t h e balls t o hold t h e clutch dog in position. Two ramps a r e manufactured on t h e inside surface of t h e clutch dog, one towards t h e forward gear, and t h e other towards t h e reverse gear, Illustration "Cn. As t h e clutch dog is moved toward either forward or reverse gear, t h e spring and balls e x e r t a small force on t h e clutch dog t o prevent t h e "chattering". If t h e unit being serviced has not had this clutch dog modification incorporated, t h e authors strongly recommend t h e propell e r shaft b e taken t o an authorized OMC dealer shop and t h e work performed. DO NOT a t t e m p t t o drill t h e hole without t h e special fixture. The following procedures and supporting illustrations cover service of t h e original f a c t o r y delivered lower unit without t h e spring and balls. However, during t h e assembling sequence, e x t r a procedures and supporting illustrations a r e included as an aid t o installation.

8-23

wear, developing slack in t h e linkage t o t h e lower unit. Without tight fittings, f r e e of slack, t h e lower unit cannot b e shifted fully into gear a s t h e design engineers intended. Therefore, this a r e a should b e checked early in t h e troubleshooting work.

LOWER UNIT REMOVAL Propeller Removal Remove t h e propeller according t o t h e detailed procedures outlined in Section 8-2. Draining Lower Unit Drain t h e lower unit according t o t h e detailed procedures outlined in Section 8-3. Preparation Work Disconnect t h e cables from t h e battery. Remove t h e hood. Disconnect t h e shift cable from t h e shift handle. On t h e starboard side of t h e engine, remove t h e eggshaped outer window from t h e exhaust housing, about half way down. After t h e o u t e r is removed, remove t h e inner elongated window. Lower Unit 1- Observe t h e shift rod connection through t h e windows. If t h e engine does not have t h e long extension, t h e connector will b e about 1-114" (3.1 8 cm) long. Remove t h e lower screw in t h e connector. After t h e screw is loose, i t may b e necessary t o grasp i t with a pair of needle-nose pliers in order t o withdraw i t from t h e connector. 2- If t h e unit being serviced has t h e long s h a f t extension, remove t h e eight bolts securing t h e lower unit t o t h e extension.

TROUBLESHOOTING
Detailed troubleshooting procedures for this lower unit a r e presented in Section 8-4, beginning on Page 8-7. Failure of a lower unit t o function properly can almost always be t r a c e d t o some outside action or condition other than normal wear of t h e components. Therefore, anytime troubleshooting of a lower unit is required, t h e cause of t h e malfunction o r f a u l t y part MUST b e discovered and corrected. If t h i s is not done, rebuilding t h e lower unit will only give satisfactory service f o r a very short time.

WORDS OF ADVICE One contributing f a c t o r t o lower unit problems can b e blamed on t h e helmsman's operation. If t h e operator a t t e m p t s t o "EASEtt t h e unit into gear, he is causing problems instead of preventing them. Any t i m e t h e unit is shifted into, or o u t of gear, i t must ALWAYS b e done with a definite and deliberate action. Another problem area, especially on a V4 unit, is in t h e linkage from t h e shift handle t o t h e lower unit. The connection at t h e end of t h e shift handle consists of a "bellcrank". Over a long period of t i m e and operation, t h e bellcrank and t h e rod fittings

eblue-dist 2007

8-24

LOWER UNIT

Work t h e lower unit loose and s e p a r a t e i t f r o m the exhaust housing. If difficulty i s encountered separating t h e lower unit from t h e exhaust housing, t h e cause is usually t h e water pump tubes being stuck in t h e water pump, and/or t h e shift rod being tight in t h e connector, or t h e driveshaf t llfrozen" in t h e powerhead crankshaft. Use patience, a rubber mallet, m o r e patience, and perhaps a break f o r coffee or tea, until t h e lower unit is free.

DISASSEMBLING 3- Set the lower unit in a fixture or clamp t h e anti- cavitation plate t o t h e edge of a work bench with t h e lower unit in its normal upright position. Remove t h e O-ring from the groove at the t o p of the driveshaft. WATER PUMP REMOVAL
4- Remove t h e four 7/16" bolts from t h e water pump. Lift t h e water pump housing upward off t h e pump impeller, and then f r e e of t h e driveshaft. Slide t h e water pump impeller up and f r e e of t h e driveshaft. 5- Remove t h e impeller Woodruff key from t h e driveshaft. Slide t h e water pump base plate up and f r e e of t h e driveshaft. GOOD WORDS Notice how t h e shift rod extends o u t of t h e housing. Also notice how t h e shift rod has a bend near t h e t o p towards the driveshaft. This is t h e normal configuration f o r t h e shift rod. Do not consider this bend as damage and a t t e m p t t o straighten it. When t h e shift rod is installed during assembling of t h e lower unit, make certain t h e bend is towards t h e driveshaf t, Illustration wD1l.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I1 MANUAL SHIFT

8-25

SPECIAL WORDS After t h e water pump base plate has been removed, observe t h e upper bearing DO NOT c a p in t h e lower unit housing. remove t h e c a p or bearing unless t h e r e is no doubt t h e bearing is unfit for further service. The screws a r e very difficult t o remove and many times t h e housing will b e damaged in t h e a t t e m p t t o remove t h e bearing. 6- Clamp t h e driveshaft in a vise s o as not to damage t h e splines. Place a wooden block on t h e upper surface of t h e housing. Use a hammer and drive t h e lower unit from t h e driveshaft. This action will "pull" t h e seal f r e e of t h e c a p and t h e driveshaf t f r e e of t h e lower unit housing. Check t h e bearing surf a c e on t h e driveshaft. If t h e surface is rough, corroded, or damaged in any way, t h e c a p must be removed and t h e bearing replaced.
Lower Unit Separation 7- Lay the lower unit on t h e bench on its side. Remove t h e two 9/16" nuts on t h e f r o n t and rear section of t h e upper gear housing. 8- Tap with a soft-headed mallet on t h e I1torpedo1l end of t h e lower unit. Continue t o t a p with t h e mallet until t h e lower section ieparates from t h e upper section. C o a t t h e shift rod with lightweight oil a s an aid f o r i t t o slip through t h e housing. As t h e t w o parts of the lower unit a r e seoarated.
-

t h e shift rod will then come through t h e upper housing. As t h e halves a r e separated, t h e needle bearings will usually .fall f r e e of t h e bearing carrier. Theref ore, b e prepared t o keep track of them as they c o m e out. 9- To remove t h e driveshaft bearing installed just below t h e ' s e a l t h a t was removed with t h e driveshaft, remove t h e four 7/16" bolts, and then t h e bearing assembly.

eblue-dist 2007

8-26

LOWER UNIT

10- On t h e 75 hp -- 1960 units, a roller bearing is i n s t a l l e d ' a t this location. This bearing is pressed onto t h e driveshaft and secured with a washer and snap ring. This bearing need not b e removed unless i t is unfit for further service, water has e n t e r e d t h e lower unit. The driveshaft on these units is in two sections, one above t h e w a t e r pump, and t h e other below t h e pump.

t h e less expensive upper half. A f t e r t h e bolts have been cut, again t a p with t h e m a l l e t and t h e two halves should separate. Drive the two studs o u t of t h e upper part. Have t h e c u t marks welded, sand t h e surf a c e smooth, apply a new c o a t of paint, and t h e section can b e restored t o service.

MORE GOOD WORDS


If the two halves of t h e lower unit a r e flfrozen'l and refuse t o separate, t h e cause is usually corrosion around t h e two long bolts passing through t h e two halves. Theref ore, i t may b e necessary t o c u t t h e bolts, Illustration "E". If one of t h e two halves is t o b e damaged in the separation process, l e t i t b e

Shift Rod Removal 11- Pull upward on the shift rod and r o t a t e t h e propeller shaft. Notice t h e 7/16" bolt through t h e shift lever and shift rod. Remove t h e bolt, and t h e shift rod can t h e n b e removed from t h e t w o levers. 12- Work t h e two levers o u t of t h e lower unit housing.

Driveshaft of a 75 hp -- 1960 unit with the upper bearing pressed onto the shaft. The driveshaft has two sections.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE II MANUAL SHIFT

8-27

Lower Portion Disassembling 13- Remove t h e four screws from t h e propeller s h a f t bearing cap. Use a hammer and chisel and remove t h e bearing carrier c a p from t h e lower unit housing. DO NOT use t h e chisel in t h e groove between t h e housing and t h e bearing carrier cap. Such action would probably destroy t h e sealing ability of t h e two surfaces. 14- Observe t h a t this washer has a plain side and a babbitt side. The babbitt side MUST b e installed towards t h e forward gear during installation. The two e a r s f i t inside t h e retainer washer. GOOD WORDS The bearing c a p contains a seal a n d a bearing for t h e propeller shaft. The seal prevents lubricant in t h e lower unit from escaping and prevents water from entering. Special tools a r e required t o remove t h e bearing and seals from t h e cap, Theref ore, if t h e bearing or seal is unfit for further service, t h e purchase of a new bearing c a p may b e more practical than attempting t o remove and replace t h e individual parts. The new c a p will have t h e bearing, seal, and O-ring properly installed and readv for service. WARNING The next s t e p involves a dangerous procedure and should b e executed with c a r e while wearing SAFETY GLASSES. The retaining ring is under tremendous tension in t h e groove and while i t is being removed. If i t should slip off t h e Truarc pliers, i t will travel with incredible speed causing personal injury if it should -strike a person. Therefore, continue t o hold t h e ring and pliers
firmly a f t e r t h e ring is o u t of t h e groove and clear of t h e lower unit. Place t h e ring on t h e floor and hold i t securely with one f o o t before releasing t h e grip on t h e pliers. An a l t e r n a t e method is t o hold t h e ring inside a trash barrel, or other suitable container, before releasing t h e pliers. 15- Obtain a pair of Truarc pliers. Ins e r t t h e tips of t h e pliers into t h e holes of t h e retaining ring, inside t h e housing. Now, CAREFULLY remove t h e retaining ring f r o m t h e groove and gear case without allowing t h e pliers t o slip. Release t h e grip on t h e pliers in t h e manner described in t h e WARNING, just before this step.

eblue-dist 2007

8-28

LOWER UNIT

16- Remove t h e retainer washer with t h e four holes and t h e thrust washer. Not i c e t h e two cutouts in t h e washer. During installation, t h e ears of t h e babbitt washer index into these cutouts. 17- The reverse gear will c o m e with t h e shaft. Slide t h e reverse gear f r e e of t h e propeller shaft. Notice t h a t t h e reverse gear has a washer on t h e inside. Also notice t h a t t h e reverse gear has a removeable bushing. The bushing and washer must b e purchased a s separate items. They a r e NOT included with t h e purchase of a new r e v e t s e gear. 18- On t h e starboard side of t h e lower unit, remove t h e Phillips screw. This screw holds t h e shift yoke in place. 19- Grasp t h e propeller shaft firmly and pull i t f r e e of t h e lower unit. Reach inside t h e lower unit and remove t h e clutch dog, clutch cradle, and yoke. 20- Remove the pinion gear, t h e pinion f l a t washer, and t h e pinion thrust bearing.
GOOD WORDS On t h e 75 hp -- 1960 lower unit, t h e pinion gear does not use a f l a t washer or a thrust bearing. 21- Reach in and withdraw t h e forward near. Notice t h a t t h e forward gear also has

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I MANUAL SHIFT 1

8-29

a f l a t washer. Sometimes this washer f a i l s t o c o m e with t h e gear and remains on t h e shaft. In t h a t case, t h e washer is removed with t h e propeller shaft. Also notice t h a t t h e bushing is q u i t e different from t h e bushing in t h e reverse gear. This bushing is pressed in with a flange on t h e back side. This bushing cannot be replaced. A new forward g e a r will have t h e bushing pressed in place ready f o r service. Therefore, if t h e bearing is worn and unfit f o r f u r t h e r service, a new forward gear must be purchased.
22- Reach in and withdraw t h e f o r w a r d g e a r bearing. 23- The bearing r a c e does NOT have t o be removed unless t h e bearing i s being replaced. A special tool i s available t o remove t h e race. HOWEVER, t h e torpedo end of t h e lower unit may be h e a t e d with a torch and then tapped with a soft- head mallet. The r a c e will then c o m e free. T h e r e a r e no shims installed behind t h e race.
CLEANING AND INSPECTING Clean all w a t e r pump p a r t s with solvent, and then dry t h e m with compressed air. Inspect t h e water pump cover and base f o r cracks and distortion, possibly caused f r o m overheating. Inspect t h e f a c e plate and w a t e r pump insert f o r grooves and/or rough surfaces. If possible, ALWAYS install a complete new water pump while t h e lower unit is disassembled. A new impeller will ensure extended s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e and give "peace of mind" t o t h e owner. If t h e old impeller must be returned t o service, NEVER install i t in reverse t o t h e original direction of rotation. Installation in reverse will c a u s e p r e m a t u r e impeller failure. Inspect t h e impeller side seal s u r f a c e s and t h e ends of t h e impeller blades f o r

Upper Portion Disassembling


FIRST, THESE WORDS The upper pinion gear bearing shell usually does not require replacement. DO NOT remove this i t e m unless t h e bearing i s unfit f o r f u r t h e r service. The bearing and t h e shell must b e replaced a s a set.

24- Use a long punch inserted through t h e t o p of t h e upper lower unit section and drive t h e pinion gear bearing shell f r e e of t h e housing. To remove t h e upper drives h a f t bearing, drive i t f r e e f r o m t h e t o p side. Remove this bearing ONLY if i t is unfit f o r f u r t h e r service.

PINION GEAR BEAR l NG

eblue-dist 2007

8-30

LOWER UNIT

A new driveshaft, top, and a damaged shaft unfit for

further service, bottom. Notice the water marks on the bottom shaft.

Driveshaft from a 75 hp bearing pressed into dace.

- 1960 unit with the upper

cracks, tears, and wear. Check for a glazed o r me1 ted appearance, caused from operating without sufficient water. If any question exists, a s previously stated, install a new impeller if at all possible. Clean all parts with solvent and dry them with compressed air. DISCARD all Orings and gaskets. Inspect and replace t h e driveshaft if t h e splines a r e worn. Inspect t h e gearcase and exhaust housing for dama g e t o t h e machined surfaces. Remove any nicks and refurbish t h e surfaces on a surface plate. S t a r t with a No. 120 Emery paper and finish with No. 180.

Check t h e water intake screen and passages by removing t h e bypass cover. Inspect t h e clutch dog, drive gears, pinion gear, and thrust washers. Replace t h e s e i t e m s if t h e y appear worn. If t h e clutch dog and drive gear arrangement surfaces a r e nicked, chipped, or t h e edges rounded, t h e operator may b e performing t h e shift operation improperl y or the controls may not be adjusted correctly. These i t e m s MUST b e replaced if t h e y a r e damaged. Inspect t h e dog e a r s on t h e inside of t h e forward and reverse gears. The gears must b e replaced if t h e y a r e damaged. Check t h e cradle t h a t rides on t h e inside diameter of t h e clutch dog. The sides of t h e cradle must b e in good condition, f r e e of any damage or signs of wear. If damage o r

Pinion bearing (Ieft)is used on the 75 hp 1960 model. The pinion bearing (right) is used on all other units. Thrust washer used with the pinion gear. Notice the missing needle bearings. This washer MUST be replaced, as explained in the text.

New type clutch dog with the ramps for the balls clearly visible. The text explains the reason for the ramps and the balls.

Snap ring installed in the pinion gear.


holds the driveshaft in position.

This ring

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE I! MANUAL SHIFT

8-3 1

A broken driveshaft. This damage was most tikely caused by the operator shifting while the engine was operating at a high rpm.

wear has occurred, t h e cradle must be replaced. Check t h e shift lever and t h e t w o prongs t h a t f i t inside t h e cradle. Check t o be sure t h e prongs a r e not worn or rounded. Dama g e or wear t o t h e prongs indicates t h e lever must b e replaced.

housing. The back side of t h e pinion g e a r will lay on t h e forward gear. The parts installed thus f a r , except t h e forward gear bearing race, a r e all just laying in place without being secured at this time.

LOWER UNIT ASSEMBLING


Forward Gear and Pinion Gear Installation 1- Drive t h e forward gear bearing r a c e into place using a bearing installer, until i t in t h e housing. 2- Clamp t h e lower unit housing in a vise and tilted backwards slightly, a s shown. Install t h e forward bearing into t h e race. 3- Install t h e forward gear. Check t o b e sure i t is t h e gear with t h e babbitt boss on t h e back side. Check t o be sure t h e washer is in place inside t h e gear. This washer mav b e held in place w i h n t h e gear, with small amount of grease. 4- Install t h e f l a t bearing and f l a t washe r on t o p of t h e pinion gear. If t h e unit being serviced is a 75 hp -- 1960, t h e f l a t bearing and f l a t washer is not used. Install t h e pinion gear assembly into t h e lower unit

This pinion gear is unfit for further service due t o the broken teeth.

eblue-dist 2007

8-32

LOWER UNIT

'.
'\

'!
PINION
GEAR ASSEMBLY
I

WATER

ASSEMBLY j

PUMP

REVERSE GEAR ASSEMBLY

FORWARD

Exploded drawing of o Type I1 loser unit with principle parts icientif ied.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE II MANUAL SHIFT

8-33

5- Lay t h e shifting yoke into position in t h e bottom of t h e lower unit. Modified Propeller Shaft If t h e propeller has had t h e modification, described in t h e Clutch Dog Modification paragraphs beginning on Page 8-22, perform S t e p 5A. 5A- Insert t h e spring into t h e hole in t h e propeller shaft. Set a ball in place on t h e spring on each side of t h e shaft. Slide t h e clutch dog down t h e propeller s h a f t until t h e balls index i n t o t h e groove in t h e inside surface of t h e clutch dog. Move t h e clutch dog until i t snaps i n t o t h e NEUTRAL position. 6- C o a t t h e groove in t h e outside surf a c e of t h e clutch dog with OFJC Grease, or equivalent. Install t h e cradle t o t h e clutch dog. Slide t h e clutch dog onto t h e propeller s h a f t with t h e splines of t h e clutch dog indexed with t h e splines on t h e shaft. Slide t h e propeller s h a f t into t h e lower unit with t h e forward end of t h e shaft entering t h e forward bearing. Push t h e shaft forward as f a r a s possible t o s e a t i t properly in t h e forward bearing.
GOOD WORDS The following s t e p is tricky, requiring patience and possibly a break f o r coffee o r tea, but i t can b e done. 7- Reach into t h e opening of t h e lower unit with a screwdriver and work t h e fingers of t h e yoke until they index into t h e c r a d l e around t h e clutch dog. A f t e r t h e yoke fingers a r e in position, move t h e yoke very

slightly until t h e hole on t h e starboard side of t h e housing is aligned with t h e hole in t h e yoke. Once t h e holes a r e aligned, t h r e a d t h e Phillips screw, with a MEW O-ring coate d with 1000 sealer, through t h e housing and into t h e yoke. Tighten t h e screw securely. Victory! A difficult task has been completed. 8- Check t o be sure t h e bushing and thrust washer have been installed i n t o t h e reverse gear. Slide t h e assembled reverse gear onto t h e propeller shaft until t h e g e a r t e e t h index with t h e t e e t h of t h e pinion Eear.

eblue-dist 2007

8-34

LOWER UNIT

9- Install the large retainer washer with t h e four holes. Slide t h e washer up against t h e reverse gear.

WARNING This next s t e p can be dangerous. The snap ring is placed under tremendous tension with t h e Truarc pliers while i t is being placed i n t o t h e groove. Therefore, wear SAFETY GLASSES and exercise c a r e t o prevent t h e snap ring from slipping out of t h e pliers. If the snap ring should slip out, i t would travel with incredible speed and cause personal injury if i t struck a person. 10- Observe t h e snap ring. Notice how one edge is square and t h e other edge is rounded. When t h e snap ring is installed t h e square edge MUST f a c e towards you. CAREFULLY install t h e snap ring i n t o t h e groove in the lower unit following t h e precautions given in t h e previous WARNING. 11- Install two guide pins into t h e f l a t washer containing t h e four holes. These guide pins will assist t o install t h e bearing cap. Hold t h e guide pins t o prevent t h e washer from sliding o u t of t h e retainer. Slide t h e thrust washer onto t h e propeller s h a f t with t h e babbitt side facing toward

t h e gear and t h e two e a r s indexed i n t o t h e cutouts of t h e large retainer washer. 12- Install a NEW O-ring, coated with 1000 sealer, onto t h e propeller s h a f t bearing cap. Slide t h e cap onto t h e propeller s h a f t , and at t h e s a m e t i m e hold t h e guide pins. Work t h e bearing c a p over t h e guide pins. Hold t h e guide pins with needle nose pliers and t a p t h e bearing c a p into place with a soft- headed mallet. S t a r t t w o attaching screws, with NEW O-rings coated with 1000 sealer, through the two holes in t h e c a p without guide pins. A f t e r t h e two screws have been well started, remove t h e two guide pins and install t h e other t w o screws with NEW O-rings coated with 1000 sealer. Tighten all four screws EVENLY and ALTERNATELY. Words of Experience If you think some of t h e o t h e r assembling procedures were tricky on this unit, stand by! This next one will put you t o t h e test.

TWO Lever Installation


13- Lower t h e t w o levers into t h e lower unit, and then index t h e a r m s t o t h e shift yoke. Insert t h e shift rod with t h e bend towards t h e driveshaf t.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE II MANUAL SHIFT

&35

14- Install t h e bolt through t h e a r m s and t h e shift rod. R o t a t e t h e propeller s h a f t and at t h e s a m e t i n e pull upward on t h e shift rod. This action will shift t h e unit i n t o FORWARD gear and t h e bolt will b e hinh enough t o permit tightening it. Move t h e shift rod downward t o t h e NEUTRAL position and at t h e s a m e t i m e r o t a t e t h e propeller shaft. Watch t h e pinion gear as t h e propeller s h a f t is rotated. The pinion g e a r should not move. Continue t o push t h e shift rod down a s f a r a s possible and at t h e s a m e t i m e turn t h e propeller shaft. As t h e propeller shaft is r o t a t e d CLOCKWISE, t h e pinion gear should turn COUNTERCLOCKWISE. Pull upward on t h e shift rod and engage t h e clutch dog into t h e FORWARD gear. Turn t h e propeller s h a f t CLOCKWISE and t h e pinion gear should turn CLOCKWISE.
Drivesbf t Bearing Installation 15- Turn t h e upper half of t h e lower unit upside down and press t h e driveshaft caged needle bearine into place.

Lower Pinion Gear Bearing Installation If this bearing was removed, perform Step 16, t o install t h e bearing and shell. 16- Push t h e lower pinion gear bearing shell i n t o t h e housing recess with t h e l e t t e r e d side facing OUTWARD. C o a t t h e inside of t h e shell with needle hearing grease. Insert t h e individual needle bearings into t h e shell. The count must b e t h e s a m e as noted during disassembling. The proper number allows t h e needles t o r o t a t e and perform t h e i r bearing function properly. 17- Apply just a small amount of OAAC 1QQQsealer around the shell and in t h e recess. Work a NEW O-ring into t h e recess.

BEAR1NES

eblue-dist 2007

8-36

LOWER UNIT

Lower Unit Mating


1% Clamp t h e l o v e r p ~ r t i s n t h e lowaf e r unit ta t h e work bench with a C-clamp on t h e anti- cavitation plate, or clamo t h e unit in a vise. Lower t h e upper portion of t h e lower unit deww over t h e shift rod, but do not m a k e c o n t a c t with t h e surface of t h e lower portion. V i t h a l i t t l e distance het w e n t h e two parts, clamp a pair of vise p r i ~y p e aliers onto one of t h e studs t o hold t t h e units apart. C o a t t h e lower p o r t i o ~ surface with OF" 1000 sealer. Pernave t h e pliers and lower t h e upper portion vise p r i ~ t h e surfaces of t h e two lower unit sections m a k e contact. Thread a NEW nut onto each stud. The nuts a r e self-locking and should NEVER be used a secsnc" t i m e hecause a f t e r t h e first use, they lose their lockinp ability. Tighten t h e nuts EVXNLY and ALTERNATELY.
GOOD WORDS Some bearing carriers use a gasket and a n O-ring, while others just use t h e e r i n g . Check t h e horsepower and model year of t h e

unit being serviced, then determine t h e t y p e installation from the parts book. 19- If t h e upper bearing carrier was removed, install t h e driveshaft down into t h e housing. 20- Slide t h e upper bearing carrier down t h e driveshaft and i n t o t h e housing. Install t h e four retaining bolts. 21- If the bearing carrier was not removed, install t h e driveshaf t down through t h e bearing carrier and into t h e lower unit. Cover t h e splines of t h e driveshaft with protective tape. Work a NEW seal down t h e driveshaft. Tap t h e seal i n t o t h e bearing head.

WATER PUMP INSTALLATION


22- C o a t t h e upper housing surface with OMC 1000 Sealer, or equivalent. Slide a NEW water pump gasket down onto t h e housing surface. C o a t the t o p surface of t h e gasket with sealer. Slide t h e w a t e r pump plate down into position on t h e gasket.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE II MANUAL SHIFT

8-37

Install a NEW Woodruff key i n t o t h e driveshaft. 23- Slide t h e water pump impeller down t h e driveshaft and into place on t o p of t h e water pump base plate with t h e pump key indexed in t h e impeller. Lubricate t h e inside surface of t h e water pump with lightweight oil. 24- Lower t h e water pump housing down t h e driveshaft and over t h e impeller. Rotate t h e driveshaft CLOCKWISE as t h e wat e r pump housing is lowered t o allow t h e impeller blades to assume their natural and proper position inside t h e housing. Continue t o r o t a t e t h e driveshaft and work t h e w a t e r pump housing downward until i t is s e a t e d on t h e lower unit upper housing. 25- ALWAYS r o t a t e t h e driveshaft CLOCKWISE while t h e screws a r e tightened t o prevent damaging t h e impeller vanes. If t h e impeller is not rotated, t h e housing could damage or c u t t h e end of t h e vanes as t h e screws a r e brought up tight. The rotation allows them t o spring back in a natural position. Place NEW grommets i n t o t h e water pump housing for t h e water tubes. Install a NEW seal ring on top of t h e water Pump 26- Install a NEW O-ring on t h e t o p of t h e dr iveshaf t.

eblue-dist 2007

8-38

LOWER UNIT

LOWER UNIT INSTALLATION VERY GOOD WORDS Connecting t h e shift rod with t h e coupler is not an easy task but can be accomplished a s follows: First, notice t h e c u t o u t a r e a on t h e end of t h e shift rod, Illustration "F". This a r e a permits t h e bolt t o pass through t h e coupler, past t h e shift rod, and into t h e other side of t h e coupler, Illustration "Gm. It is this bolt t h a t holds t h e s h i f t rod in t h e coupler. Now, in order for t h e bolt t o b e properly installed, t h e cutout a r e a on t h e shift rod MUST b e aligned in such a manner t o allow t h e bolt t o b e properly installed. Therefore, as t h e lower unit is m a t e d with t h e exhaust housing, exercise patience as t h e t w o units c o m e together, t o enable t h e bolt t o b e installed at t h e proper time. If t h e rod is allowed t o move t o o f a r before t h e bolt is installed, into t h e c o u ~ l e r i t may b e 'possible t o force t h e bolt i n t i place, past t h e shift rod. The threads on t h e bolt will b e stripped, and t h e shift rod will eventually come out of t h e coupler. Coupler Installation Normally the coupler is not removed. In most cases i t stays with t h e upper shift rod. If, however, t h e coupler was removed, f o r any number of reason, perform S t e p 24. Install t h e coupler onto t h e upper unit shift rod, with t h e NO THREAD section facing towards the window. With t h e coupler in this position, t h e bolt may b e inserted through t h e coupler and "catch" t h e threads on t h e f a r side. Install t h e coupler bolt in t h e manner described in t h e previous paragraph.

27- Check t o b e sure t h e water pickup tubes a r e clean, smooth, and f r e e of any corrosion. C o a t t h e water pickup tubes and grommets with lubricant a s an aid t o installation. Shift t h e lower unit into FORWARD or REVERSE gear as an aid t o rotating t h e s h a f t and t h e lower unit housing is worked towards t h e exhaust housing. Guide t h e lower unit up into t h e exhaust housing with t h e water tube sliding into t h e rubber gromm e t of t h e water pump. Continue t o work t h e lower unit towards t h e exhaust housing, and at the s a m e t i m e r o t a t e t h e propeller s h a f t a s an aid t o indexing t h e driveshaft splines with t h e crankshaft. S t a r t t h e bolts securing t h e lower unit t o t h e exhaust housing. Tighten t h e bolts EVENLY and ALTERNATELY.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE II MANUAL SHIFT

8-39

28- Insert t h e bolt into t h e connector. TAKE TIME t o read and understand t h e "Good Words n following Step 26, before making this connection. 29- After t h e bolt is in place, install and secure t h e gasket and inner window with t h e attaching hardware. Install t h e outer window and gasket.

Filling Lower Unit See Section 8-3 for detailed instructions on filling t h e lower unit. Propeller Installation See Section 8-2 for detailed procedures t o install t h e propeller. Engine Shift Linkage Adjustment See special instructions beginning on page 8-8, t o make this adjustment. Functional Check 30- Perform a functional check of t h e completed work by mounting t h e engine in a test tank, in a body of water, or with a flush

a t t a c h m e n t connected t o t h e lower unit. If t h e flush a t t a c h m e n t is used, NEVER operate t h e engine above an idle speed, because t h e no-load condition on t h e propeller would allow t h e engine t o RUNAWAY resulting in serious damage or destruction of t h e engine. CAUTIOIM: Water must circulate through the lower unit to the engine any time the engine is run to prevent damage to the water pump in the lower unit. Just five seconds without water will damage the water pump. S t a r t t h e engine and observe t h e t a t t l e t a l e flow of water from idle relief in t h e exhaust housing. The water pump installation work is verified. If a flush a t t a c h m e n t is connected t o t h e lower unit, VERY LITTLE water will b e visible from t h e idle relief port. Shift the engine into t h e t h r e e gears and check for smoothness of operation and satisfactory performance.

Lower unit with a flush attachment installed. The unit should NEVER be run above idle speed with such a device.

eblue-dist 2007

8-40

LOWER UNIT
shift mechanism. When t h e k e y is in t h e ON position, power moves through t h e ignition switch t o t h e switch in t h e shift box, and on t o t h e lower unit. The necessary wiring is routed from t h e dash t o t h e shift box, then t o t h e rear of t h e engine t o a knife-disconnect fitting, and then down t o t h e lower unit. The forward shift wire is green and t h e reverse wire is blue. An easy way t o remember t h e color code is green for go, forward t h a t is.

8-7 TYPE 111 ELECTROMATIC

LOWER UNIT SERVICE 75 HP - 1962 THRU 1965 80 HP - 1%6 AND 1967 85 HP - 1968 90 HP - 1964 AND 1%5 100 HP - 1966 THRU 1968 DESCRIPTION TYPE 111 AND TYPE IV LOWER UNITS
This section includes description, troubleshooting, and service procedures for t h e Type 111 lower unit. The Type IV unit used with t h e 100 hp -- 1966 t o 1968 will have s e p a r a t e service procedures, presented in Section 8-8.

TROUBLESHOOTING TYPE 111 AND TYPE IV LOWER UNITS


In order t o prevent unnecessary service work, specific troubleshooting should be performed. The following steps present a logical sequence of t e s t s and checks t o pinpoint problems in a Type 111 and Type IV lower unit. 1- Check t h e quantity of lubricant in t h e lower unit and t o p i t off, if necessary. The unit will not o p e r a t e properly if a lubricant other than OMC Type C or Premium Lube is used. If any doubt exists a s t o t h e type of lubricant in t h e lower unit, drain t h e unit, refill with t h e Type C , now known a s Premium Lube material, and then check operation of t h e shift mechanism. At t h e s a m e t i m e t h e quantity of lubricant is being checked, observe t h e m a t e r i a l carefully for a n y sign of water. Position a suitable container under t h e lower unit, and t h e n remove t h e FILL plug and t h e VENT plug.

Operation When t h e unit is shifted t o t h e forward position, an electric switch in t h e shift box closes the circuit t o t h e forward electromagnetic coil in t h e gearcase. A f t e r t h e coil is energized, magnetism a t t r a c t s and anchors t h e f r e e end of t h e clutch spring t o t h e flange of t h e clutch hub. The revolving gear causes t h e spring t o wrap around t h e hub, creating a direct coupling with t h e propeller shaft. Power is transmitted through t h e pinion gear, forward gear, and propeller shaft t o t h e propeller, Illustration "A". When t h e lower unit is shifted t o t h e reverse position, t h e reverse coil is energized, and t h e s a m e sequence of events t a k e s place. The reverse gear assembly is ALWAYS t h e one nearest t h e propeller. The boat b a t t e r y provides 12-volt power for operation. . Theref ore, all engines covered in this manual a r e equipped with an alternator t o maintain b a t t e r y a m p e r a g e and voltage for efficient operation of t h e

CAUTION WORDS Do not remove t h e plugs if t h e engine has been operated recently, or if t h e unit has been sitting exposed t o t h e hot sun. If

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE Ill ELECTROMATIC

8-4 1

WAS

one of t h e plugs should be removed when t h e lubricant is hot, t h e material will squirt o u t under considerable pressure. Allow t h e lubricant t o drain into t h e container. As t h e lubricant drains, c a t c h s o m e with your fingers, from time- to-time, and rub i t between your thumb and finger t o determine if any metal particles a r e present. If m e t a l is detected in t h e lubricant, t h e unit must b e completely disassembled, inspected, t h e cause of t h e problem determined, and then corrected. 2- Check f o r a broken shear pin by removing t h e propeller. First pull t h e c o t t e r key, and then remove t h e propeller nut, drive pin, and washer. Because t h e drive pin is not a tight f i t , t h e propeller is able t o move on t h e pin and cause burrs on t h e hole.

Propeller removal may be difficult because of these burrs. To overcome this problem, t h e propeller hub has two grooves running t h e full length of the hub. Hold t h e s h a f t from turning, and then r o t a t e t h e propeller 114 turn t o position t h e grooves over t h e drive pin holes. The propeller can then b e pulled straight off t h e shaft. After the propeller has been removed, file t h e drive pin holes on both sides of t h e s h a f t t o remove t h e burrs.

are an assist when removing the propeller.

eblue-dist 2007

8-42

LOWER UNIT

3- Check t h e propeller and t h e rubber hub. See if t h e hub is shredded. If t h e propeller has been subjected t o many strikes against underwater objects, i t could slip on its hub. For this size engine, in most cases, i t is less expensive t o purchase a new propeller instead of having i t rebuilt. 4- Battery Check: Begin with a thorough check of t h e battery. Measure t h e gravity of t h e electrolyte in each cell by withdrawing only enough t o l i f t t h e float. A fully Take t h e reading at e y e level. charged b a t t e r y cell should read 1.280; at half-charge, 1.210; and a dead b a t t e r y will read only 1.150. If t h e electrolyte level is low, bring i t up t o full level with clean clear water. NEVER ADD ACID t o a b a t t e r y cell. If water is added, i t is not possible t o t a k e an accurate reading until t h e b a t t e r y has been charged for a few hours. 5- Battery Voltage: Check t h e total b a t t e r y voltage for a full 12 volts. Clean any corrosion from, on, or, around t h e cables and terminals. Remove t h e cables, clean t h e posts until bright metal is visible. Scrape o u t t h e inside of t h e b a t t e r y terminals, then connect and tighten t h e m securely. 6- Amperage Draw Check: Turn t h e ignition switch t o t h e ON position and observe t h e amperage reading on t h e dash a m m e t e r . If an a m m e t e r is not installed o n t h e dash, one must b e temporarily connected t o t h e system f o r this t e s t , by f i r s t removing t h e wire marked BAT from t h e key

switch, and then connecting t h e a m m e t e r in series with this wire and t h e key switch terminal marked BAT. Check t h e current draw. If t h e draw exceeds 2.5 amps in either gear, disconnect t h e shift wires at t h e shift wire disconnects Again, on t h e port side of t h e engine. check t h e current draw. A higher reading than 2.5 a m p s indicates a short in t h e wiring, in t h e shift switch, or in t h e shift box. If t h e readings a r e within acceptable limits, reconnect t h e shift wires at t h e engine, shift t h e unit into forward and t h e n reverse gear. Check t h e current draw in each gear. A high-amp draw, indicates a shorted wire t o t h e lower unit, or a short in one of t h e coils. A broken driveshaft from t h e powerhead t o t h e lower unit indicates both forward and reverse gears were energized at t h e s a m e time. Check t h e shift box, shift switch, and t h e wiring t o t h e lower unit.

7- Defective Wiring Check: Leave t h e wire marked BAT disconnected from the key Check t h e wiring switch f o r this test.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE Ill ELECTROMATIC

8-43

leading t o t h e ignition switch, and from t h e switch f o r 12 volts. If t h e reading is less than 12 volts, t h e key switch is defective and should be replaced. 8- Shift Box and Coil Tests: Disconnect t h e blue and green shift wires at t h e rear of t h e engine. Connect one lead of a voltm e t e r t o t h e green wire of t h e shift box, and t h e other lead t o a good ground. Turn t h e ignition switch t o ON, and move t h e shift lever into forward gear. The voltm e t e r must indicate 12 volts. Next, conn e c t t h e voltmeter t o t h e blue wire, shift into reverse gear, and t h e voltmeter should indicate 12 volts. If t h e voltmeter fails t o indicate 12 volts during either one of t h e s e tests, t h e shift box requires service, s e e Chapter 7, Accessories. Leave t h e shift wires disconnected; turn t h e ignition switch OFF; move t h e s h i f t lever t o t h e NEUTRAL position; and connect one lead s f a n ohmmeter t o t h e green (forward) wire leading from the rear of t h e engine t o t h e lower unit, and t h e other l e a d t o a good ground. The ohmmeter should Make t h e indicate f rorn 4.5 t o 6.5 ohms. s a m e t e s t for reverse gear, t h e blue wire leading from t h e rear of t h e engine t o t h e lower unit, and check for t h e s a m e reading. If t h e ohmmeter fails t o indicate t h e required resistance, a wire is broken, or t h e coil in t h e lower unit is shorted.

ELECTROMATIC REMOVAL 1 TYPE 1 1 LOWER UNIT 75 I-IP - 1962 THRU 1965 80 H P - 1966 AND 1967 85 H P -- 1968 90 HP - 1964 AND 1965 REMOVAL Propeller Removal Remove t h e propeller according t o t h e detailed procedures outlined in Section 8-2. Draining Lower Unit Drain t h e lower unit according t o t h e detailed procedures outlined in Section 8-3. Preparation Work Disconnect t h e cables f rorn the battery. Remove t h e hood. Lower Unit 1- At t h e rear of t h e engine, slide t h e insulating sleeve back on t h e shift c a b l e wires. Pisconnect the shift and engine s h i f t terminals. 2- Remove t h e attaching hardware from t h e exhaust plate on t h e starboard side of t h e engine. Remove t h e two screws from t h e inner plate and clamp on t h e shift wire. Pull the shift wire down through t h e exhaust cover. Apply oil or soap onto t h e cable and remove the inner plate from t h e cable. 3- If the lower unit being serviced has t h e 6-inch extension above t h e lower unit, remove t h e screws from t h e bottom side of

eblue-dist 2007

8-44

LOWER UNIT

t h e extension. I t is not necessary t o remove t h e extension in order t o remove t h e lower unit. Remove screws securing t h e lower unit t o t h e exhaust housing or t o t h e extension. Work t h e lower unit away from t h e exhaust housing or extension. The water tubes may b e stuck in t h e water pump. Therefore, if difficulty is encountered in freeing t h e lowe r unit, f o r c e a wide blade chisel, stiff scraper, or other suitable tool, between t h e t w o surfaces and work each side of t h e lower unit away from t h e exhaust housing.

DISASSEMBLING

4- S e t t h e cavitation plate on t h e edge of t h e work bench or other suitable surface, and secure i t firmly with a C-clamp. An a l t e r n a t e method is t o c u t a deep "Vn in a piece of 2" x 6" (5 x 15 cm) piece of wood, and then slide t h e lower unit i n t o t h e "V", resting i t on t h e cavitation plate. 5- Remove t h e O-ring from t h e t o p of t h e dr iveshaf t

AUTHOR'S APOLOGY The photographs taken for this section involved a water pump from a manual shift lower unit. However, t h e pump and the service procedures a r e identical f o r t h e Elec tromatic shift. Theref ore, disregard t h e shift rod shown in t h e photographs.

eblue-dist 2007

TYPE111 ELECTROMATIC

8-45

WATER PUMP REMQVAL


6- Remove t h e screws attaching t h e wat e r pump t o t h e lower housing. If t h e screws a r e stubborn and refuse t o release, or if t h e y break off due t o corrosion, i t may be necessary t o actually chisel t h e w a t e r pump f r e e of t h e housing. Lift t h e water pump and impeller up off t h e driveshaft. 7- Remove t h e Woodruff key from t h e dri'veshaft, and then remove t h e base p l a t e and gasket from t h e lower unit housing.

If t h e only work t o b e performed i s service of t h e water pump, proceed directly t o Page 8-59, Water Pump Installation.

GOOD WORDS The upper bearing and seal assembly is a very tight f i t into t h e upper gear housing. Usually one or more of t h e mounting bolts will break during removal. After all t h e bolts a r e removed t h e bearing carrier is still difficult t o remove. & Clamp t h e driveshaft in a vise about midway. Tap on t h e housing with a softheaded mallet and "pull" t h e s h a f t from t h e housing. As t h e s h a f t is removed, a doughnut on t h e end of t h e s h a f t will "pull" t h e seal with it. After t h e s e a t and s h a f t have been removed, a check of t h e bearing can b e made t o determine if i t must b e replaced. 9- If t h e bearing is defective and unfit f o r further service, remove t h e four screws, and then work two screwdrivers under t h e bearing head and remove t h e bearing. T h e O-ring around t h e outside edge of t h e bearing MUST b e replaced with t h e bearing.

10- Lay t h e lower unit f l a t on t h e bench because when t h e gearcase nuts a r e removed, t h e lowef section could drop t o t h e floor and b e severely damaged. Use a 9/16" deepwell socket and remove t h e lower unit gearcase stud nuts, then t h e washers. DISCARD t h e nuts because they a r e t h e self-locking type and MUST NOT b e used a second time. 11- Tap t h e front cone with a softheaded mallet t o s e p a r a t e t h e lower housing f r o m t h e upper housing a distance of about 3".

eblue-dist 2007

bearing s e t , as the needles a r e removed, or t h e y fall out.

After t h e uraper and lower housings have been separated about 3" (7.62 cm), slide t h e terminal sleeves on t h e forward and reverse wires t a c k a d disconnect t h e quick-disconnects of t h e shift cable t o t h e coil.

SPECIAL NOTE T5e upper housirig has a bearing Po accorrrreic!ete t h e pinion gear. This bearing is comprised of 20 individual needles. TAKE CARE not t o lose any of t h e needles t o t h e

VERY GOOD WORDS If t h e lower housing cannot b e dislodged from t h e upper housing, because t h e long bolts extending through t h e upper housing into t h e lower housing a r e badly corroded, a decision must b e made. Something will b e destroyed in order t o proceed with t h e work. In almost all cases t h e sacrificed piece is t h e less expensive upper housing. Therefore, c u t through t h e upper housing on both sides, a s shown, Illustration "An. The lower housing can then be separated from the upper housing. The studs can then be presse d o u t of t h e upper housing