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Homework 4

Due: 11:59pm on Sunday, March 27, 2011

Note: You will receive no credit for late submissions. To learn more, read your instructor's Grading Policy [Switch to Standard Assignment View]

Shrinking Loop. A circular loop of flexible iron wire has an initial circumference of 164 circumference is decreasing at a constant rate of 15.0 in a constant uniform magnetic field of magnitude 0.600 , but its due to a tangential pull on the wire. The loop is , which is oriented perpendicular to the plane of the

loop. Assume that you are facing the loop and that the magnetic field points into the loop. Part A Find the magnitude of the emf induced in the loop after exactly time 7.00 has passed since the

circumference of the loop started to decrease. Hint A.1 How to approach the problem

The induced emf in a loop is related to the rate of change of magnetic flux through the loop. (If you don't know the exact relation, look at Hint A.3.) Therefore, to find the induced emf, you first need to find the magnetic flux through the loop as a function of time. The magnetic flux through the loop is proportional to the area of the loop, so a good starting point is to write the area of the loop as a function of time in terms of the given parameters. The area of the loop is related to its radius, which in turn can be related to its circumference. Hint A.2 Let An expression for the circumference of the loop as a function of time , the circumference starts decreasing at the is given by the relation

Hint A.3

An expression for the flux through the loop as a function of its circumference through the loop is ,

where

is the magnetic field through the loop (which is a constant in this problem),

is the area

vector associated with the loop, and vector. In this problem, is given as

is the angle between the magnetic field vector and the area

where

and

is the radius of the loop as a function of time. of the loop is related to its circumference by . Substituting this

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gives .

A formula for the induced emf in the loop (Faraday's law) induced in the loop (Faraday's law) is ,

where

Hint A.5

An expression for

, where .

is a function of , as follows:

3 = 8.4510 V Correct

Part B Find the direction of the induced current in the loop as viewed looking along the direction of the magnetic field. ANSWER:

The induced current flows in the direction that tends to prevent the flux through the coil from decreasing. That is, it adds to the magnetic field through the coil as the coil's area is decreasing. This means that the current has to flow clockwise, so that the magnetic field produced by it (right-hand rule) points away from you (you were asked to look at the loop along the direction of the original magnetic field). Alternatively, you could look at how each part of the wire moves toward the center of the loop as it gets smaller. As a result, we can use the standard equation for force on a particle and the right-hand rule to determine the direction of the current.

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In a physics laboratory experiment, a coil with 200 turns enclosing an area of 10.6 time interval 4.50102

from a position in which its plane is perpendicular to Earth's magnetic field to one in

which its plane is To workto the field.straightforward applicationmagnetic fieldlawthe find location is 5.40105 Learning Goal: parallel through a The magnitude of Earth's of Faraday's at to lab the EMF and the . electric field surrounding a region of increasing flux Faraday's law describes how electric fields and electromotive forces are generated from changing magnetic fields. A Part This problem is a prototypical example in which an increasing magnetic flux generates a finite line integral of the electric field around a closed loop that surrounds the changing magnetic flux through a surface What is the total magnitude of the magnetic flux ( ) through the is before is rotated? bounded by that loop. A cylindrical iron rod with cross-sectional area coilorienteditwith its symmetry axis coincident with the z axis of a cylindrical coordinate system as shown. It has a uniform magnetic field inside Hint A.1 Formula that varies according tofor the magnetic flux other words, theloop . In through a wire magentic field is always in the positive z Hint not displayed direction, and it has no other components. For your convenience, we restate Faraday's law here: Hint A.2 , where The initial angle between the magnetic field and the area vector Hint not displayed is the line integral of the electric Hint A.3 Definition of the weber field, and the magnetic flux is given by , where is displayed Hint not the angle between the magnetic field and webers, to at least three significant figures. Express your answer numerically, in the local normal to the surface bounded by the closed loop. Direction: The line integral and surface integral reverse ANSWER: 5 = 1.1410 Wb their signs if the reference direction of is Correct or reversed. The right-hand rule applies here: If the thumb of your right hand is taken along , then the Part B fingers point along . You are free to take the loop anywhere you choose, although usually it makes sense What is the magnitude of the total magnetic flux through the coil after it is rotated? to choose it to lie along the path of the circuit you are considering. Hint B.1 Part A Find The angle between the magnetic field and the area vector Hint not loop that is , the electromotive force (EMF) around a displayed at distance from the z axis, where is

restricted to the region outside the iron rod as shown. Take the direction shown in the figure as positive. Express your answer numerically, in webers, to at least three significant figures. loop Hint A.1 ANSWER: Selecting the 0 = Wb Correct Hint A.2 Part C Find the magnetic flux

Hint not displayed What is the magnitude of the average emf induced in the coil? Express in terms of , , , , and any needed constants such as Hint C.1 Formula for the average emf induced in a coil (Faraday's law) ANSWER: = Hint not displayed

, and

Correct Express your answer numerically (in volts) to at least three significant figures. ANSWER: Part B average induced emf = 2.54104 V Correct

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Due to the cylindrical symmetry of this problem, the induced electric field distance Hint B.1 from the z axis, where

is restricted to the region outside the iron rod. Find this field.

Hint B.2

Express

in terms of quantities given in the introduction (and constants), using the unit

When a magnet is plunged into a coil at speed , as shown in the figure, a voltage is induced in the coil and a current flows in the circuit.

Part A If the speed of the magnet is doubled, the induced voltage is ________ . Hint A.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed

ANSWER: Correct

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Part B The same magnet is plunged into a coil that has twice the number of turns as before, as shown in the figure. If the speed of the magnet is again , the induced current in the coil is _______ .

Hint B.1

Hint B.2

Hint B.3

Hint B.4

ANSWER: Correct

By increasing the number of turns in the coil, the induced emf increases, but so does the resistance of the coil. Since those two quantities increase by the same factor, their ratio remains constant, and the induced current in the circuit is unchanged.

Learning Goal: To learn about mutual inductance from an example of a long solenoid with two windings. To illustrate the calculation of mutual inductance it is helpful to consider the specific example of two solenoids that are wound on a common cylinder. We will take the cylinder to have radius and length . Assume that the solenoid is much longer than its radius, so that its field can be determined from Ampre's law throughout its entire length: .

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which has turns per unit length. The magnetic field due to solenoid 1 passes (entirely, in this case) through solenoid 2, which has turns per unit length. Any change in magnetic flux from the field generated by solenoid 1 induces an EMF in solenoid 2 through Faraday's law of induction, .

Part A Consider first the generation of the magnetic field by the current (sufficiently far from its ends), what is the magnitude Express ANSWER: in terms of in solenoid 1. Within the solenoid

= Correct

Note that this field is independent of the radial position (the distance from the symmetry axis) for points inside the solenoid. Part B What is the flux Hint B.1 generated by solenoid 1's magnetic field through a single turn of solenoid 2?

Express ANSWER:

in terms of

= Correct

Part C Now find the electromotive force solenoid 1. Hint C.1 Find the flux from Hint not displayed induced across the entirety of solenoid 2 by the change in current in

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Hint C.2

Hint C.3

Part D This overall interaction is summarized using the symbol to indicate the mutual inductance between the

two windings. Based on your previous two answers, which of the following formulas do you think is the correct one? ANSWER:

Correct

Mutual inductance indicates that a change in the current in solenoid 1 induces an electromotive force (EMF) in solenoid 2. When the double solenoid is thought of as a circuit element, this electromotive force is added into Kirchhoff's loop law. The constant of proportionality is the mutual inductance, denoted by . The negative sign in the equation comes from the negative sign

in Faraday's law, and reflects Lenz's rule: The changing magnetic field due to solenoid 1 will induce a current in solenoid 2; this induced current will itself generate a magnetic field within solenoid 2, such that changes in the induced magnetic field oppose the changes in the magnetic field from solenoid 1. Part E

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Using the formula for the mutual inductance, Express the mutual inductance relevant physical constants. ANSWER: = Correct in terms of ,

, find

Part F Not surprisingly, if a current is sent through solenoid 2, it induces a voltage in solenoid 1. The mutual inductance in this case is denoted by , the mutual inductance for voltage induced in solenoid 1 from current in solenoid 2. What is Hint F.1 A new symmetry Hint not displayed Express the mutual inductance in terms of physical constants. ANSWER: = Correct , , quantities given in the introduction, and relevant ?

is equal to

the coils are only partially coupled (for example, if one coil is wound on a much larger cylinder or if only a fraction of the larger coil's flux is intercepted by the smaller coil). Because of this fact, the subscripts are generally omitted: There is only one mutual inductance between two coils, denoted by : An EMF is generated in one coil by a change in current in the other coil.

The figures below show six circuits which consist of identical ideal batteries, resistors, and inductors. All of the switches are closed at the same time. Part A Rank the circuits based on the current through the battery immediately after the switch is closed. Hint A.1 Ideal inductors in circuits

Inductors have time-dependent effects on the behavior of electric circuits. When a potential difference is first applied to an ideal inductor, the inductor generates a back emf equal in magnitude to the potential difference applied, but opposite in direction (this is what is meant by a back emf). After a long amount of time, the emf generated by the inductor becomes zero, and an ideal inductor will act like a simple resistance-free wire.

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Hint A.2

When the switch is first closed, the inductor generates a back emf equal in magnitude to the potential difference applied. This means that no net potential difference exists across the inductor, so no current can flow through the inductor. Thus, the inductor acts like an "open" in the circuit. Imagine simply removing the inductor from the circuit, leaving the circuit open at the location occupied by the inductor. Analyze the remaining circuit using ideas developed earlier. Hint A.3 Replacement in a circuit

Replace the inductor with an open switch at its location. This open will prevent any current from flowing to the resistor that shares the inductor's branch. Thus, this circuit is reduced to a simple one-resistor circuit, with current .

Hint A.4

Replacement in a circuit

Replace the inductor with an open switch at its location. This circuit is reduced to a simple circuit with two resistors in series and current equal to . Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. ANSWER:

View

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Part B Rank the circuits based on the current through the battery a very long time after the switch is closed. Hint B.1 Replacing inductors with "shorts"

Long after the switch is closed, the inductor generates no emf and acts like a wire with zero resistance. Thus, the inductor acts like a "short" in the circuit. Imagine simply replacing the inductor with a bare wire. Analyze the remaining circuit using ideas developed earlier in the course. Hint B.2 Replacement in a circuit

Replace the inductor with a bare wire at its location. This circuit is reduced to a simple circuit with two resistors in parallel and total current .

Hint B.3

Replacement in a circuit

Replace the inductor with a bare wire. This bare wire "shorts" the battery, resulting in a huge (infinite for an ideal battery) current. An infinite current is the largest possible current. Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. ANSWER:

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A long solenoid (black coil) with cross-sectional area time-varying current flows through this wire. A turns of wire surrounds and length is wound with turns of wire. A

Note: The current in coil 1 is constantly changing. However, when using the hints it may help you to consider the instant at which the current in coil 1 is . Hint A.1 Mutual nature of mutual inductance Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Find the magnetic field of the solenoid Hint not displayed Hint A.3 Find the magnetic flux in coil 2 Hint not displayed Hint A.4 Finding the mutual inductance Hint not displayed

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As you can see, the more tightly wound each coil is (the bigger n is for a given length), the higher the value of M.

In this problem you will calculate the inductance of an inductor from a current measurement taken at a particular time. Consider the L-R circuit shown in the figure. Initially, the switch connects a resistor of resistance and an inductor to a battery, and a current flows through the circuit. At time , the switch is thrown open, removing the battery from the circuit. Suppose you measure that the current decays to at time .

Hint A.2

Hint A.3

Hint A.4

, and

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ANSWER: = Correct

, and

Learning Goal: To understand the mathematics of current decay in an L-R circuit A DC voltage source is connected to a resistor of resistance and an inductor with inductance , forming the circuit shown in the figure. For a long time before , the switch has been in the position shown, so that a current has been built up in the the switch is circuit by the voltage source. At

thrown to remove the voltage source from the circuit. This problem concerns the behavior of the current through the inductor and the voltage inductor at time after . across the

Part A After , what happens to the voltage ? across the inductor and the current through the

What is the relation between current and voltage for the inductor? Hint not displayed

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ANSWER:

changes slowly and changes slowly and Both change slowly. Both change abruptly. Correct

After

, the battery no longer provides a voltage that drives current around the circuit. If the circuit

did not contain an inductor, then the current would drop to zero immediately. However, inductors act to keep the current flowing. If the current starts to change, this causes an electromotive force (EMF) to form across the inductor that (by Lenz's law) opposes the tendency for the current to change. Here, this causes the current through the inductor to persist for a while as it decays toward zero. Part B What is the differential equation satisfied by the current Hint B.1 Kirchhoff's loop law Hint not displayed Express in terms of , , and . after time ?

ANSWER: = Correct

The minus sign in this equation tells us that the current is decreasing with time. The current is decaying. This is the case because the DC voltage source no longer acts to sustain the current. Part C What is the expression for Hint C.1 obtained by solving the differential equation that satisfies after ?

Hint C.2

, as well as

, and .

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ANSWER:

= Correct

Hint D.2

and

Transformers

Learning Goal: To understand the concepts explaining the operation of transformers. One of the advantages of alternating current (ac) over direct current (dc) is the ease with which voltage levels can be increased or decreased. Such a need is always present due to the practical requirements of energy distribution. On the one hand, the voltage supplied to the end users must be reasonably low for safety reasons (depending on the country, that voltage may be 110 volts, 220 volts, or some other value of that order). On the other hand, the voltage used in transmitting electric energy must be as high as possible to minimize losses in the transmission lines. A device that uses the principle of electromagnetic induction to increase or decrease the voltage by a certain factor is called a transformer. The main components of a transformer are two coils (windings) that are electrically insulated from each other. The coils are wrapped around the same core, which is typically made of a material with a very large relative permeability to ensure maximum mutual inductance. One coil, called the primary coil, is connected to a voltage source; the other, the secondary coil, delivers the power. The alternating current in the primary coil induces the changing magnetic flux in the core that creates the emf in the secondary coil. The magnitude of the emf induced in the secondary coil can be controlled by the design of the transformer. The key factor is the number of turns in each coil. Consider an ideal transformer, that is, one in which the coils have no ohmic resistance and the magnetic flux is the same for each turn of both the primary and secondary coils. If the number of turns in the primary coil is and that in the secondary coil is , then the emfs induced in the coils can be written as , and therefore, . Since both emfs oscillate with the same frequency as the ac source, the formula above can be applied to the

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instantaneous amplitude or the rms values of the emfs. Moreover, if the coils have zero resistance (as we assumed), then for each coil the terminal voltage will be equal to the induced emf. Therefore, we can write . Note that if , then . This is a case of a step-up transformer. Conversely, if , then

. This is a case of a step-down transformer. Without energy losses, the power in the primary and secondary coils is the same: . If the secondary circuit is completed by a resistance above gives . Dividing the first and last expressions by and then inverting gives . In other words, the current in the primary coil is the same as if it were connected directly to a resistance equal to . In a way, transformers "transform" resistances as well as voltages and currents. In reality, no , then . Combining this with the two equations

transformer is ideal. There are always some energy losses. However, modern transformers have very high efficiencies, usually well exceeding 90%. In answering the questions below, consider the transformer ideal unless otherwise noted.

Part A The primary coil of a transformer contains 100 turns; the secondary has 200 turns. The primary coil is connected to a size AA battery that supplies a constant voltage of 1.5 volts. What voltage would be measured across the secondary coil? ANSWER:

zero

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Correct In order for an emf to be induced in the secondary coil, the flux through it must be changing; therefore, the current in the primary coil must also be changing. If a constant voltage is supplied to the primary coil, no emf would be induced in the secondary, and therefore, the secondary voltage would be zero. Part B A transformer is intended to decrease the rms value of the alternating voltage from 500 volts to 25 volts. The primary coil contains 200 turns. Find the necessary number of turns in the secondary coil.

ANSWER:

= 10 Correct

This is a step-down transformer: The voltage decreases. Part C A transformer is intended to decrease the rms value of the alternating current from 500 amperes to 25 amperes. The primary coil contains 200 turns. Find the necessary number of turns in the secondary coil. Hint C.1 How to approach this problem Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

= 4000 Correct

This is a step-up transformer: The voltage increases by the same factor by which the current decreases. Part D In a transformer, the primary coil contains 400 turns, and the secondary coil contains 80 turns. If the primary current is 2.5 amperes, what is the secondary current ? Express your answer numerically in amperes. ANSWER: = 12.5 Correct

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Part E The primary coil of a transformer has 200 turns and the secondary coil has 800 turns. The power supplied to the primary coil is 400 watts. What is the power generated in the secondary coil if it is terminated by a 20-ohm resistor? Hint E.1 In the ideal world... Hint not displayed

ANSWER:

Correct

In case of an ideal transformer, the power in the primary circuit is the same as that in the secondary circuit. Part F The primary coil of a transformer has 200 turns, and the secondary coil has 800 turns. The transformer is connected to a 120-volt (rms) ac source. What is the (rms) current in the primary coil if the secondary coil is terminated by a 20-ohm resistor? Hint F.1 How to approach the problem

Recall that transformers "transform" resistances as well as voltages and currents. Express your answer numerically in amperes. ANSWER: = 96 Correct

Part G A transformer supplies 60 watts of power to a device that is rated at 20 volts (rms). The primary coil is connected to a 120-volt (rms) ac source. What is the current in the primary coil? Hint G.1 How to approach the problem

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Hint not displayed Express your answer in amperes. ANSWER: = 0.5 Correct

Part H The voltage and the current in the primary coil of a nonideal transformer are 120 volts and 2.0 amperes. The voltage and the current in the secondary coil are 19.4 volts and 11.8 amperes. What is the efficiency of the transformer? The efficiency of a transformer is defined as the ratio of the output power to the input power, expressed as a percentage: Express your answer as a percentage. ANSWER: = 95.4 % Correct .

An inductor is hooked up to an AC voltage source. The voltage source has EMF current amplitude in the inductor is Part A What is the reactance Hint A.1 of the inductor? . and frequency . The

and

Part B What is the inductance Hint B.1 of the inductor? and Hint not displayed

Reactance in terms of

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, and

Part C What would happen to the amplitude of the current in the inductor if the inductance Hint C.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed were doubled?

ANSWER:

There would be no change in the amplitude of the current. The amplitude of the current would be doubled. The amplitude of the current would be halved. The amplitude of the current would be quadrupled. Correct

Inductive Reactance

Learning Goal: To understand the concept of reactance (of an inductor) and its frequency dependence. When an inductor is connected to a voltage source that varies sinusoidally, a sinusoidal current will flow through the inductor, its magnitude depending on the frequency. This is the essence of AC (alternating current) circuits used in radio, TV, and stereos. Circuit elements like inductors, capacitors, and resistors are linear devices, so the amplitude of the current will be proportional to the amplitude of the voltage. However, the current and voltage may not be in phase with each other. This new relationship between voltage and current is summarized by the reactance, the ratio of voltage and current amplitudes, , and : , where the subscript L indicates that this formula applies to an inductor. Part A To find the reactance of an inductor, imagine that a current across this inductor? , is flowing through the

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ANSWER:

= Correct

= Correct

Part C In thinking of an inductor as a circuit element, it is helpful to consider its limiting behavior at high and low frequencies. At one extreme, the inductor might behave like a short circuit, that is, like a resistor with almost no resistance (an ideal wire) having essentially no voltage drop across it no matter what the current. Alternatively, the inductor might behave like an open circuit, that is, like a resistor with large resistance so that essentially no current will flow no matter what the applied voltage. Based on the formula you obtained for the reactance, how does an inductor behave at high and low frequencies? ANSWER:

like a short circuit at both high frequencies and low frequencies like an open circuit at both high frequencies and low frequencies like an open circuit at high frequencies and a short circuit at low frequencies like an open circuit at low frequencies and a short circuit at high frequencies Correct

Score Summary:

Your score on this assignment is 93.1%. You received 93.1 out of a possible total of 100 points.

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