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Intelligent power sharing of transformer with auto protection

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 General Background


The transformer is a static device, which converts energy at one voltage level to another voltage level. The project is all about protecting the transformer under overload condition. Due to overload on the transformer, the efficiency drops and the secondary winding gets over heated and may burnt. So, by reducing the load on the transformer, the transformer is protected. This will be done by arranging another transformer through a micro-controller. The micro-controller compares the load on the first transformer with a reference value. When the load exceeds the reference value, the second transformer will share the extra load. Therefore, the two transformers work efficiently under overload condition and the damage is prevented. In this project three modules are used to control the load current. The first module is Sensing unit, which is used to sense the current of the load; the second module is control unit. In this module Electromagnetic relay is the main role, and its function is to change the position with respect to the control signal and last module is microcontroller. It will read the analogue signal and perform some calculation and finally gives control signal to the relay. When designing low-voltage power systems to supply large load currents, paralleled lower-current modules are often preferred over a single, large power converter for several reasons. These include the efficiencies of designing and manufacturing standard modular converters which can be combined in whatever number necessary to meet a given load requirement; and the enhanced reliability gained through redundancy.

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Intelligent power sharing of transformer with auto protection

1.2 Literature Review


At present load sharing of transformer is done by paralleling the transformer. That is primary of the transformer is always energized. This method is following on olden days also. The challenge in paralleling modular supplies is to insure predictable, uniform current sharing-regardless of load levels and the number of modules. It provide enhanced system reliability through complete redundancy such that the failure of one or more modules could be tolerated as long as the total remaining capacity is equal to or greater than the demands of the load.

1.3 Aim and Scope of Project


This Project describes about, how to use power supply when critical load. Using this module can protect the transformer form the over load. This project will connect and disconnect the transformer automatically. This will be done by arranging another transformer through a microcontroller. It has the advantage to maintain a stable level of short circuit current. It reduces the voltage drop and balances the current and it is reverse power protection. It has applications in electrical substation and industry too.

1.4 Organization of project report

The project is all about protecting the transformer under overload condition. Due to overload on the transformer, the efficiency drops and the secondary winding gets over heated and may burnt. So, by reducing the load on the transformer, the transformer is protected. By introducing this method it have advantage to maintain a stable level of short circuit current. It reduces the voltage drop and balances the current and it is reverse power protection.

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Intelligent power sharing of transformer with auto protection

CHAPTER 2

SUBSTATION 2.1 Introduction


The substation may be defined as an assembly of apparatus which transforms the characteristics of electrical energy from one form to another say for example from alternating current to direct current or from one voltage to another. For economical transmission, higher and higher voltages should be achieved. At present normal voltages are 66kV, 110kV and 220kV; however 440kVwill be used for the national grid system in future. The consumers do not use such high voltages and so the high voltages must be transformed to low voltages by means of substation. Thus a substation may be called as link between the generating stations and consumers. The distribution voltages generally used in practice are 6.6kV, 11kV and 33kV. Substations or switching stations are integral part of transmission system, and function as a connection or switching point for transmission lines, substation feeders, generating circuits and step up and step down transformers .substation of voltages 66kV to 400kV are termed as EHV substations. Above 500kV, they come under the terminology of UHV system.

2.2 Equipments for Substation


The substation mainly consists of the following equipments: (a) Main bus bars Bus bars (or bus) term is used for a main bar or conductor carrying an electric current to which many connections may be made. Bus bars are merely convenient means of connecting switches and other equipments into various arrangements. The usual arrangement of connections in most of the substation permits working on almost any piece of equipment without interruption to incoming or outgoing feeders.

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Intelligent power sharing of transformer with auto protection

(b) Single bus arrangement This arrangement is a simple scheme in less important substations. A breaker or bus failure can cause total outage. By providing a bus-sectionalizing scheme, this can be overcome to some extent. Even though the protective relay in is simple, single bus scheme is inflexible. (c) Main and transfer bus A transfer bus is added to the single bus scheme. An extra bus-tie breaker is provided to tie the main and transfer buses together. When circuit breaker is in maintenance, the bus-tie breaker can be used for energizing the circuit. Bus-tie breaker relaying must be so arranged to protect the transmission line or transformer, if the protective relays also are not transferred. (d) Double bus, Single breaker This is superior to the single bus and main and transfers bus schemes. There are two main buses and each circuit can be connected to either of the buses by bus isolators. A bus-tie breaker connects the two main buses when closed allows the transfer of a circuit from one to the other without a break in supply. The circuit may operate all from one bus, or half of the circuit connected in each bus. For a bus fault, only half the number of circuit will be lost. In some cases the tie breaker is permanently closed and both the buses stand connected. A bus protection scheme will be necessary for opening the tie breaker in the event of a bus fault. Possibility of operator error is more as to bus isolators are involved for every circuit (e) Insulators They are used for supporting live conductors and bus bars. For low voltage up to 66kV, this can be used in stacks and mounted horizontally or vertically as the circumstances permit but for voltages beyond that, they are rarely used in a horizontal configuration. The porcelain insulators are employed in substations are of the post and bushing type. They serve as the supports and insulators of the bus bars.

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Intelligent power sharing of transformer with auto protection

A post insulator consists of porcelain body, cast iron cap and flanged cast iron base. The hole in the cap is threaded so that the bus bars are either directly bolted to the cap of fixed by means of a bus bar clamp. Past insulators are available with round, oval and square flanged bases for fixing respectively, with aid of one, two or four bolts. Each base in addition also has an earthing bolt. A bushing or through insulator consist of porcelain-shell body, upper and lower locating washers used for fixing the position of bus bars or rod in shell, and mounting flange with holes drilled for fixing bolts and supplied with an earthing bolt. For current rating above 2000A, the bushings are designed to allow the main bus bars to be passed directly through them. (f) Isolators An isolators or disconnecting switch is used to open some given part of a power circuit after switching of the load by means of a circuit breaker. Thus isolators serve only for preventing the some given section of the bus in a switch gear installation or to one or another piece of apparatus in the installation from voltage applied. In some cases isolators may be used as a circuit breaking device but their use for this purpose is strictly limited by definite conditions, such as the power rating of the given circuit. Isolators can be opened only after opening the circuit breaker .An isolator should be closed before closing the circuit breaker .Opening and closing of a current carrying circuit is performed by a circuit breaker. Isolators (disconnecting switch) operate under no load condition. It does not have any specified current breaking capacity or current making capacity, so it is not even used for breaking load currents. There are two types of isolators. 1. Single pole isolators 2. Three pole isolators (g) Circuit breaker Circuit breakers are switching devices, which open during fault condition and interrupt the short circuit currents automatically within about 2.5 cycles. They are

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Intelligent power sharing of transformer with auto protection

mounted on support structures .The circuit breakers are classified on the basis of the medium used for arc extinction. The types of circuit breaker include the following: 1. SF6 circuit breakers 2. Air blast circuit breakers 3. Vacuum circuit breakers 4. Minimum oil circuit breakers 5. Air circuit breakers 6. Miniature circuit breakers 7. Bulk oil circuit breakers The following circuit breakers are preferred for EHV ac substation 1. Single pressure buffer type SF6 CB .There is used for 132kV, 400kV, and 765kV. 2. Air blast circuit breakers. 3. Minimum oil CB. These were preferred for 33KV, 66kV, and 132kV. The circuit breakers are automatically switches, which can interrupt fault currents. The part of the circuit breaker connected in one phases is called the pole. A circuit breaker suitable for a three phase system is called triple pole CB. Circuit breakers are installed to perform the following duties. a. To carry full load current continuously. b. To open and close the circuit on no load. c. To make and break the normal operating current. d. To make and break the short circuit of magnitude up to which it is designed for. 2.3 Power Transformers Power transformers are used for stepping up the voltage for transmission at generating stations and for stepping down voltages for further distribution at main step down transformer substation. Usually naturally cooled, oil immersed, known as on type, two winding, 3-phase transformer, are used up to the rating of 10MVA. The transformers of rating higher than 10MVA are usually air blast cooled. For very high rating, the forced oil, water-cooling and air blast cooling may be used. For regulating the voltage the transformers used are provided with on load tap changer.
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Intelligent power sharing of transformer with auto protection

The transformers are generally installed upon length of rails fixed on concrete slabs having foundation 1 to 1.5 meters deep. The modern practice is to use three phase transformers as power transformers, although 3 single phase banks of transformers can also be used. The advantages of 3 transformers are that in case of fault in one of them, it could be completely replaced by new one. The main advantage of a 3-phase transformer is that only one 3-phase load taps changing mechanism (on LV side) could be used. Further the installation of a single 3phase transformer is much simpler than three single phase transformers. (a) Tertiary winding Tertiary winding is an additional winding in power transformers normally delta connected. Tertiary winding is required for the following reasons: 1. To reduce the triple harmonic contents of the output voltage, there by stabilizing potential of the neutral point, and reducing communication interference. 2. To permit the transformation of unbalanced three phase load. 3. To reduce system zero sequence impedance for effective grounding, where solid ground is not provided. 4. To supply additional auxiliary loads, this for some reason must be kept isolated from that of the secondary. 5. To function as a voltage coil in a testing transformers. 6. To load large split-winding transformers. 7. To interconnect three supply systems operating at different voltages.

(b) Current Transformers These instrument transformers are connected in ac power circuits to feed the current coils of indicating and metering instruments (ammeters, wattmeter, and watt hour meters) and protective relays. Thus the CT broadens the limits of measurements and maintains a watch over the currents flowing in the circuits and over the power loads. In high voltage installation CTs in addition to above, also isolate the indicating and metering instruments from high voltage.

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Intelligent power sharing of transformer with auto protection

The current transformers are rated voltage of the installation, the rated currents of primary and secondary windings and the accuracy class. The accuracy class indicates the limit of the error in percentage of the rated turn ratio of given CT. CT is available in accuracy classes .5, 1, 3, 10. (c) Potential Transformer The PT is employed for 380 volts to feed the potential coils of indicating and metering instruments (voltmeter, wattmeter, and watt hour meters) and relays. These transformers make the ordinary low voltage instruments suitable for measurement of high voltage and isolate them from high voltage. The primary winding of the PT is connected to the main bus bars of the switch gear installation and to the secondary windings various indicating and metering instruments and relays are connected. When the rated high voltage is applied to the primary of a PT, the voltage of 110volt appear across the secondary winding. The PT is rated for primary and secondary rated voltage, accuracy class, number of phases and system of cooling. (d) Autotransformers Autotransformers are well known for their reduced size and economic use of material. In an autotransformer the primary and secondary windings have a common part. The secondary is connected electrically to the primary at the common point. Most of the three phase autotransformers are star connected and it is a usual practice to add an additional delta winding called tertiary winding. The purpose of the delta tertiary is to provide an internal path to the third harmonic current required for execution and thus eliminating them from the AC network. The delta tertiary also helps to stabilize the neutral with reference to the line voltage. The economy and reduced size of autotransformer as compared with two winding transformer has resulted in development of an autotransformer for a very wide range of applications at EHV-AC transmission level, MV distribution levels as well as in industrial applications .A very wide choice is available for the tapping on the autotransformer. The suitable choice of tapping must be made for obtaining the alternatives.

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Intelligent power sharing of transformer with auto protection

As per the rules star-star connected autotransformer is provided with delta tertiary for the following purposes: 1. Stabilizing the phase to phase voltages during unbalanced load on secondary side. 2. Suppression of the third harmonic currents due to no load current in neutral to ground circuit when neutral is earthed. 3. Reduction in zero sequence reactance. 4. Increase of KVAR.

(e) Earthing switch Switch is connected between the line conductor and earth. Normally it is open. When line is disconnected, the earthing switch is closed so as to discharge the voltage trapped on the line capacitance to the earth. Though the line is connected, there is some voltage on the line to which the capacitance line and earth is charged. This voltage is significant in high voltage system. Before proceeding with the maintenance work the voltage is discharged to earth, by closing the earthing switch. (f) Earthing Connecting of electrical equipment or apparatus to the earth with the help of a connecting wire of negligible resistance is known as earthing or grounding. In an electric installation if a metallic part of an electric appliance comes in direct contact with a bare or live wire, the metal being a good conductor is charged and static charge on it will accumulate. Now if any person comes in contact with charged metal parts, he will get a severe shock. But if the metallic parts of the equipment are earthed, the charge will be given to the earth immediately as the metallic part comes in direct contact with a bare or live wire or breakdown occurs. The earthing can be divided into two parts. 1. System earthing: It is possible to provide to provide low fault impedance to the ground fault current for proper operation of the protective relays and therefore for meeting the system requirement by effectively earthed system

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2. Safety earthing: It is required to provide protection to the operating staff working in the yard and substation from any injury during fault conditions by keeping the voltage gradient within the safe limits. In electrical installation the following components must be earthed. 1. The frames, tanks and enclosures of electrical machines, transformers and apparatus, lighting fitting and other items of equipments. 2. Operating mechanism of switch gear 3. Frame work of switch boards, control boards, individual panel boards, and cubicles. 4. Structural steel work of indoor and outdoor substations. There are two types of earthing. 1. Pipe earthing: This is the best and cheapest method. In this method, a galvanized steel and perforated pipe of approved length and diameter is placed up right in permanently wet soil 2. Plate earthing: In this method either a copper of dimensions 60cmx 60cm x 3 mm or of galvanized iron of dimensions 60cmx 60cmx6mm is buried into the ground with its face vertical at a depth of not less than 3m from the ground level.

(g) Lightning arresters (Surge arresters) There equipment connected between the conductor and ground, to discharge the excessive voltage to the earth. Surge arresters divert the transient over voltages to the earth and protect the substation equipment from lightning and switching over voltage surges. There are two types of designs a) Conventional gapped arresters b) Metal Oxide (ZnO) arresters

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(h) Relays The protective relays are connected in the secondary circuits of the CT & PT. The relays sense the abnormal conditions and close the trip circuit of associated CB. The CB opens its contact. An arc is drawn between the contacts as they separate. The arc is extinguished by suitable medium and technique. The relays distinguish the normal and abnormal condition. Whenever an abnormal condition develops, the relay closes its contacts. Thereby the trip circuit of the CB is closed. Current from the battery supply flows in the trip coil of CB and the CB opens. The fault parties disconnected from the supply. (a) Substation Auxiliaries Supply In small-unattended substations only a small amount of power is required for electric lighting during regular periods of inspection, maintenance and repair is required. In regional substations the electric power is required for the auxiliaries-the lighting circuits, air blast fans of power transformers, battery charging sets, oil servicing facilities, compressors units in the case of ABCB, ventilating fans of the substation buildings, water supply, and heating system equipments. In substations incorporating synchronous condensers the supply is also required for the operation of auxiliary equipment of the synchronous condensers. In large substations it is wide practice to connect two transformers to the 11kV main bus bars for supply of the auxiliaries at a voltage of 400/230volts (b) Capacitor banks Reactive power monitoring is desirable to maintain efficient system operation, keeping voltage and load stability. Reactive power flow from the substation to the transmission line varies during low loads, heavy loads and changing loads. So series capacitors are installed in sending, receiving end station and also the intermediates stations.

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2.4 Transformers Transformers are used in substations for conversion of voltage from high to low and vice versa. A transformer is a static device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductorsthe transformer's coils. A conductors the varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage in the voltage" secondary winding. This effect is called mutual induction. If a load is connected to the secondary, an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. In an ideal transformer, the induced ideal voltage in the secondary winding (Vs) is in proportion to the primary voltage (Vp), and is ( ( given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (Ns) to the number of turns in ( the primary (Np) as follows:

By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus allows an alternating current (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making Ns greater than Np, or "stepp down" "stepped by making Ns less than Np. In the vast majority of transformers, the windings are coils wound around a ferromagnetic core, air-core transformers being a notable exception. Transformers range in size from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a thumbnail sized stage microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect portions of power grids. All operate with the same basic principles, although the range of designs . is wide. While new technologies have eliminated the need for transformers in some electronic circuits, transformers are still found in nearly all electronic devices designed for household ("mains") voltage. Transformers are essential for high-voltage electric voltage voltage power transmission, which makes long-distance transmission economically practical. hich long distance The transformer cannot supply load more than its rated capacity. So, by introducing another transformer reduces the load on the transformers. The transformers share the load as and when the load on the transformer exceeds a preset value.

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2.4.1 Parallel operation of Transformers The essential conditions for successful parallel operation of transformers are given below: I. Transformation or turn-ratios and voltage ratings are same. II. Polarities of the transformers are same. III. Percent impedances of the transformers are same. IV. Ratios of resistance to reactance are same. V. Phase displacement between primary and secondary windings of the transformers is same. VI. Phase sequences of the transformers are same.

a. Single Phase Transformers

For single phase transformers only the first four conditions apply as there is no phase sequence and phase displacement due to voltage transformation. If the turn-ratios or voltage ratings are not same a circulating current will flow even at no load. If the percent impedance or the ratios of resistance to reactance are not same there will be no circulating current, but the division of load between the transformers when supplied will no longer be proportional to their KVA ratings. Hence the capacities of the transformers cannot be utilized to a full extent. When the polarity of one transformer is additive and that of the other is subtractive, the transformers may be operated in parallel by reversing the connection of primary or secondary side of either transformer. In such a case check that dielectric strength is satisfactory when the reversed winding has a graded insulation.

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b. Three phase Transformers

The same conditions hold true for three phase transformers except in the case the questions of phase displacement and phase sequence must be considered. Phase sequence refers to the order in which the terminal voltages reach their maximum values. In paralleling those terminals whose voltages reach their maximum

simultaneously are paired. Certain transformer connections as the Wye-delta or WyeZigzag produce a phase displacement of 30 between the line voltage of primary side and those of the secondary side. Transformers of such connections cannot be run in parallel with the transformers not having this phase displacement such as Wye-Wye, delta, - delta zigzagdelta or zigzag-zigzag.

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CHAPTER 3

PROGRAMMING WITH PIC 6.1 PROGRAMMING IN PIC

#include<pic.h> #include<stdio.h> #include"delay.c" #define LED1 RD0;

#define RELAY0 RD1;

___CONFIG(0x3f72);

unsigned char CT;

void GetADC1(void);

void main( ) { TRISA=0xff; ADCON1=0x00; DelayMs(10); While (1) {

GetADC1 ( );

If (CT >=0.7) {

LED1=1;

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RELAY0=1; }

}
DelayMs (250); DelayMs (250);

Void GetADC1 ( ) { ADCON0=0x41; DelayMs (1); ADGO=1; While (ADGO==1); CT=ADRESH; }

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CHAPTER 4

LOAD SHARING
4.1 Introduction When designing low-voltage power systems to supply large load currents, paralleled voltage lower-current modules are often preferred over a single, large power converter for several current reasons. These include the efficiencies of designing and manufacturing standard mo modular converters which can be combined in whatever number necessary to meet a given load requirement; and the enhanced reliability gained through redundancy. While most modem-day power supplies can be paralleled for higher currents, the load day current will not share equally between modules without some extra effort in the design process. With unequal load sharing, the stress placed on the individual modules will be unequal; resulting in some units operating with higher temperatures-- recognized temperatures--a contributor to reduced reliability .Therefore, the challenge in paralleling modular supplies is to insure predictable, uniform current sharing sharing-regardless of load levels and the number vels of modules. Another major goal should be to provide enhanced system reliability through thr complete redundancy such that the failure of one or more modules could be tolerated as long as the total remaining capacity is equal to or greater than the demands of the load. Over the years, a variety of schemes have been devised to accomplish load sharing accomplish and, as one would expect, these schemes offer a wide range of performance characteristics. 4.2 Block Diagram

Fig 4.1 Block Diagram

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A brief description of some of these approaches will, perhaps, be useful in comparing their performance capabilities against the degree of difficulty in their implementation. The connection diagram for this most basic approach is shown in Figure where it can be seen that each unit is completely independent except for the common load. Each individual module must have inherent current limiting because in practice, the output voltage of all the modules will never be exactly equal. Thus, when several modules are paralleled, the one with the highest output voltage will attempt to supply all the load current, up to the point where its current limit is reached. As this unit goes into current limiting, its output voltage will fall to the level of the next highest module, which then begins to conduct and supply additional load current. When the second module reaches its current limit, number three starts conducting, and so on. Of course, there is no current sharing at all except for the units which are in current limiting, and it could be expected that the dynamic load regulation, particularly as each current limit threshold is passed, would be less than desirable.

4.3 Current Transformers

Fig. 4.2 Current transformer

The current transformer is used with its primary winding connected in series with line carrying the current to be measured and therefore the primary current is dependent upon the load connected to the system and is not determined by the load connected on the secondary winding of the current transformer . The primary winding consists of very few turns and therefore there is no appreciable voltage drop across it. The secondary winding of current transformer has large number of turns, the exact number
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being determined by the turns ratio. The ammeter current coil or the over current relay are connected directly across the secondary winding terminals. Thus a current transformer operates it secondary windings nearly under short-circuit conditions. One of the secondary windings is earthed so as to protect equipment and personnel in the vicinity in the event of an insulation breakdown in the current transformer.

4.4 Current Transformer operation

A Current Transformer (CT) is a type of instrument transformer designed to provide a

current in its secondary winding proportional to the alternating current flowing in its primary.

They are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power

industry where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents, often in the presence of high voltages.

The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the

high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured.

The instrument current transformer (CT) steps down the current of a circuit to a lower

value and is used in the same types of equipment as a potential transformer.

This is done by constructing the secondary coil consisting of many turns of wire,

around the primary coil, which contains only a few turns of wire.

In this manner, measurements of high values of current can be obtained. A current

transformer should always be short-circuited when not connected to an external load.

Because the magnetic circuit of a current transformer is designed for low magnetizing

current when under load, this large increase in magnetizing current will build up a large flux in the magnetic circuit and cause the transformer to act as a step-up transformer, inducing an excessively high voltage in the secondary when under no load. 4.5 Crystal Oscillator A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. Almost any object made of an elastic material could be used like a crystal, with appropriate

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transducers, since all objects have natural resonant frequencies of vibration When a , vibration. crystal of quartz is properly cut and mounted, it can be made to distort in an electric field by applying a voltage to an electrode near or on the crystal. This property is known as piezoelectricity.

Fig.4.3 Schematic symbol and equivalent circuit of a crystal oscillator

When the field is removed, the quartz will generate an electric field as it returns to its previous shape, and this can generate a voltage. The result is that a quartz result crystal behaves like a circuit composed of an inductor, capacitor and resistor, with a , precise resonant frequency (See Fig.4.3). Quartz has the further advantage that its elastic constants and its size change in such a way that the frequency dependence on temperature can be very low. l The specific characteristics will depend on the mode of vibration and the angle at which the quartz is cut (relative to its crystallographic axes). Therefore, the resonant frequency of the plate, which depends on its size, will not change much, either. This means that a quartz clock, filter or oscillator will remain accurate. For critical applications the quartz oscillator is mounted in a temperature-controlled container, called a crystal oven, and can temperature controlled also be mounted on shock absorbers to prevent perturbation by external mechanical perturbation vibrations. A quartz crystal can be modeled as an electrical network with a low impedance (series) and a high impedance (parallel) resonance point spaced closely resonance together.

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4.6 Driver Circuit Driver circuit performs amplification process. A transistor is


used for that. It is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals. It

is made of a solid piece of semiconductor material, with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be much more than the controlling (input) power, the transistor provides amplification of signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. 4.7 The Electromagnetic Relay Diagram that a relay uses an electromagnet. This is a device consisting of a coil of wire wrapped around an iron core. When electricity is applied to the coil of wire it becomes magnetic, hence the term electromagnet. The A B and C terminals are an SPDT switch controlled by the electromagnet.

Fig. 4.4 Electromagnetic relay

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When electricity is applied to V1 and V2, the electromagnet acts upon the SPDT switch so that the B and C terminals are connected. When the electricity is disconnected, then the A and C terminals are connected. It is important to note that the electromagnet is magnetically linked to the switch but the two are NOT linked electrically. Basic Design and operation

Fig. 4.5 Simple electromechanical relay

A simple electromagnetic relay consists of a coil of wire surrounding a soft iron core, an iron yoke which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, a movable iron armature, and one or more sets of contacts (there are two in the relay pictured). The armature is hinged to the yoke and mechanically linked to one or more sets of moving contacts. It is held in place by a spring so that when the relay is de-energized there is an air gap in the magnetic circuit. In this condition, one of the two sets of contacts in the relay pictured is closed, and the other set is open. Other relays may have more or fewer sets of contacts depending on their function. The relay in the picture also has a wire connecting the armature to the yoke. This ensures continuity of the circuit between the moving contacts on the armature, and the circuit track on the printed circuit board (PCB) via the yoke, which is soldered to the PCB.
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When an electric current is passed through the coil it generates a magnetic field that attracts the armature and the consequent movement of the movable contact either makes or breaks (depending upon construction) a connection with a fixed contact. If the set of contacts was closed when the relay was de-energized, then the movement opens the contacts and breaks the connection, and vice versa if the contacts were open. When the current to the coil is switched off, the armature is returned by a force, approximately half as strong as the magnetic force, to its relaxed position. Usually this force is provided by a spring, but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. Most relays are manufactured to operate quickly. In a low-voltage application this reduces noise; in a high voltage or current application it reduces arcing. When the coil is energized with direct current, a diode is often placed across the coil to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation, which would otherwise generate a voltage spike dangerous to semiconductor circuit components. Some automotive relays include a diode inside the relay case. Alternatively, a contact protection network consisting of a capacitor and resistor in series (snubber circuit) may absorb the surge. If the coil is designed to be energized with alternating current (AC), a small copper "shading ring" can be crimped to the end of the solenoid, creating a small out-of-phase current which increases the minimum pull on the armature during the AC cycle. 4.8 Power supply The ac voltage, typically 220V rms, is connected to a transformer, which steps that ac voltage down to the level of the desired dc output. A diode rectifier then provides a full-wave rectified voltage that is initially filtered by a simple capacitor filter to produce a dc voltage. This resulting dc voltage usually has some ripple or ac voltage variation. A regulator circuit removes the ripples and also remains the same dc value even if the input dc voltage varies, or the load connected to the output dc voltage changes. This voltage regulation is usually obtained using one of the popular voltage regulator IC units.

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4.9 Working principle of power supply

TRANSFORMER

RECTIFIER

FILTER

IC REGULATOR

LOAD

Fig. 4.6 Block Diagram of Power supply

(a) Transformer The potential transformer will step down the power supply voltage (0-230V) to (0-6V) level. Then the secondary of the potential transformer will be connected to the precision rectifier which is constructed with the help of opamp. The advantages of using precision rectifier are it will give peak voltage output as DC; rest of the circuits will give only RMS output. (b) Bridge rectifier When four diodes are connected as shown in figure, the circuit is called as bridge rectifier. The input to the circuit is applied to the diagonally opposite corners of the network, and the output is taken from the remaining two corners. Let us assume that the transformer is working properly and there is a positive potential, at point A and a negative potential at point B. the positive potential at point A will forward bias D3 and reverse bias D4. The negative potential at point B will forward bias D1 and reverse D2. At this time D3 and D1 are forward biased and will allow current flow to pass through them; D4 and D2 are reverse biased and will block current flow. The path for current flow is from point B through D1, up through RL, through D3, through the secondary of the transformer back to point B. this path is indicated by the solid arrows. Waveforms (1) and (2) can be observed across D1 and D3.

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One-half cycle later the polarity across the secondary of the transformer reverse, forward biasing D2 and D4 and reverse biasing D1 and D3. Current flow will now be from point A through D4, up through RL, through D2, through the secondary of T1, and back to point A. This path is indicated by the broken arrows. Waveforms (3) and (4) can be observed across D2 and D4. The current flow through RL is always in the same direction. In flowing through RL this current develops a voltage corresponding to that shown waveform (5). Since current flows through the load (RL) during both half cycles of the applied voltage, this bridge rectifier is a full-wave rectifier. One advantage of a bridge rectifier over a conventional full-wave rectifier is that with a given transformer the bridge rectifier produces a voltage output that is nearly twice that of the conventional full-wave circuit.

(c) Filter Filters are electronic circuits which perform signal processing functions, specifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal, to enhance wanted ones, or both. The most common types of electronic filters are linear filters, regardless of other aspects of their design.
(d) IC Regulator

An IC regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A voltage regulator may be a simple feed-forward design or may include negative feedback control loops. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages.

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CHAPTER 5
PIC MICROCONTROLLER
5.1 Introduction A micro-controller-based physiological sensing unit has been designed, prototyped, and field-tested for recording galvanic skin response data and relaying them to a computer for physiological analysis. Focusing on system design issues concerning battery-driven ambulatory applications, this paper presents a special data compression algorithm based on relative encoding to optimize memory utilization and reduce data transfer time. Data flow coordination and timing control are enabled by a PIC micro-controller. The embedded block is connected with the computer through serial port and the patient reaches an abnormal condition, automatically an alert message will given to the doctor. 5.2 PIC Microcontroller Major Blocks in the PIC MCU, The major parts of the PIC MCU (Microcontroller Unit) that we will be concerned with are the program memory, data memory which is also called file registers, and the Working Register, and finally the EEPROM memory section. Program Memory ----- 14 bit word length File Register Memory (Data Memory) ----- 8 bit word length EEPROM Memory ----- 8 bit word length ---- separate address space Working Register ----- Byte wide used in most instructions

5.3 PROGRAM MEMORY The program memory in the PIC16F877A has a total of 8K words. The word length for the midrange family of PIC microcontrollers is 14 bits long. Because each word uses 14 bits this amount of memory is roughly equivalent to 14K bytes. The

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program memory can be made up of EPROM using the 16CXXX parts or it can have FLASH memory as in the 16FXXX parts. After the program memory has been programmed it will retain the program even if power is lost. Therefore program memory is said to be non-volatile. The 8K words or program memory are made up of 4 sections or pages of 2K words each. Within each page every 14 bit word has an address with the first one starting at 000hex and ending with 7Ffhex which corresponds to 0 through 2047 decimal. The MCU can only use one of the program memory pages at a time. To read or write to a different page requires the programmer to do page switching within his program. How to do this will be covered in detail in a later section. The PIC 16F877A microcontroller is at the top of the end of the range for the midrange family. Other members have less memory than this. Members that have 4K words of program memory will only have 2 pages. Some members have only enough program memory for one page. For example the PIC 16F84A only has 1024 words of program memory so consequently needs only one page to contain its program memory. For the PIC16F84A page switching is not a consideration. For the programs used in this course we will normally only use the first page of program memory and will not have to worry with page switching. The methods for page switching will be covered in detail later in the course.

Fig. 5.1 File Registers (Data Memory)


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The file registers are where data and variables are stored. File registers contain a single byte in each address location. File registers will not retain their contents when power is lost and therefore is said to be volatile memory. File Registers are considered the data memory section of the MCU. File registers can be broken down into two types of data storage. General purpose registers (GPR) are used by the programmer for normal calculations and temporary data storage. Special Function registers (SFR) are used to control various internal functions contained within the microcontroller such as interrupts, serial communications, timers and counters, A/D converters, program counter, port direction control and many others. Special Function registers will have a name associated with them such as TMR0, STATUS, PORTA, PORTB, etc. Each Special Function register allows control or access to data associated with a particular hardware function within the microcontroller. General purpose registers do not have a name since they can be used for any purpose the programmer designates. After a power-up any special function registers that are going to be used must be loaded with the necessary setup data before they can be used. The file registers in data memory are divided up into Banks similar to the way program memory is divided into pages. Each Bank can hold up to 128 bytes and uses addresses from 00h to 7Fh. Notice in the image of the register map that in each bank the special function registers always start at address 00h and go up to a certain address at which point the general purpose registers begin. If all four banks contained 128 bytes each there would be 512 bytes total in the file register space. However not all locations are used. The byte locations tinted in grey are not available. Also in banks 1, 2 and 3 the last 16 bytes all map to the same 16 bytes that are in bank 0. After these considerations we find that there are actually 368 bytes of General Purpose Register Space. Other microcontrollers that are at the lower end of the midrange product line may have only 2 banks that contain even fewer bytes than the 128 bytes in each bank of the PIC 16F877A. For example the PIC 16F84A has 2 banks with each bank having addresses between 0 and 4Fh. This MCU has a total of 68 bytes of general purpose file register space. We will be using all 4 banks of the file register space available to the PIC 16F877A in our programs. The methods used to switch banks will be covered in detail in a later programming section of the course.

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5.4 EEPROM Memory The last type of memory we will deal with is EEPROM. This memory is nonvolatile meaning that it will retain its data even if the power is lost. EEPROM is normally used to store parameter data that needs to be saved over a long period over many power-up and power-down cycles. Writing to EEPROM involves a more complex series of steps than writing to the File Registers. Each write cycles is very slow compared to writing to the File Registers. However reading is much simpler and much faster. The procedures for using this type of memory will be covered in an intermediate course. The PIC16F877A has 256 bytes of EEPROM memory. The EEPROM memory is separate from program memory and data memory. It has it own address space. To read or write to EEPROM memory the Special Function Registers are used such as EEDATA and EEADR. 5.5 Working register The Working register is a single byte register that is used in most of the PIC MCU instructions. The Working register is nearly always involved in any actions involving data in the File Registers. Whenever two values are used in arithmetic operations or logic operations one of the values will be loaded into the Working register at the start of the instruction. After the instruction finishes the result is often left in the Working register. In other manufacturers microcontrollers the Working register is known as the accumulator. However, we will stick with the term working register for our purposes. If you look in the File Register Map you will not find the Working register. It is not part of file register space. It exists on its own within the PIC MCU. 5.6 Special function registers As can be seen in the File Register Map there are many special function registers. We will cover the most important ones in this course and leave others for more advanced course work.

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Fig.5.2 Register file

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5.7 Status register The Status register is at address location 03 in bank 0. Notice that it is also listed in banks 1, 2 and 3 at addresses 83h, 103h and 183h respectively. The Status register is used so often in programming that it was designed in to all banks so that it would be easy to access without switching banks. So there is really only one Status register but its contents are available in all 4 File Register banks. Each of the 8 bits in the Status register has a function. For example bit 0 is the Carry Flag. This bit is used to signal a carry when the result of an addition is too large to fit into a single byte. It can also be used to indicate a borrow when subtraction is performed. The carry flag can also be cleared or set directly by an instruction. Bit 1 is DC or Digit Carry. When working with binary coded decimal

it is necessary to have a carry for each decimal digit. Since each decimal digit is represented by 4 bits, the DC works as the carry for the low order digit and the regular Carry bit works as the carry for the high order digit. Often we want to test to see if the result of an arithmetic or logic operation resulted in zero or a non-zero number. The Z flag or Zero flag will be modified after arithmetic and logic instructions. If the result was 0 the Z flag will be set to 1. However if the result was not a zero the Z flag will be cleared to 0. The instruction set gives us the capability to check the results of C, DC and Z flags in order to make decisions based on their contents. For right now we will not concern ourselves with the functions of bits 3, 4 and 7. We will pick them up later when they will make more sense. Bits 5 and 6 are the bits that control which File Register bank is active. They are called RP0 and RP1 respectively. If both bit 5 and 6 are cleared then bank 0 is active. When bit 6 is cleared and bit 5 is set then bank 1 is active. All that is needed to change File Register banks is to set bit 5 and 6 as shown in the Status Register Map. The choice as to how each pin will be used in a particular application is controlled by programming various special function registers. The control of the various functions available is covered later in the context of programming and initializing the processor.

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5.8 Features of PIC 16F877A


The microcontroller has the following features: (a) High-Performance RISC CPU:

Only 35 single- word instructions to learn .Hence it is user friendly. Easy to use All single cycle instructions except for program branches, which are two-cycle Operating speed: DC 20 MHz clock input DC 200 ns instruction cycle

Up to 8K x 14 words of Flash Program Memory, Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM), Up to 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM Data Memory. (b) Peripheral Features: Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8 bit prescaler. It is used for synchronization during Sleep

Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler, can be incremented

Timer2:8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period register, prescaler and postscaler Two Capture, Compare -Capture -Compare -PWM and some PWM modules, having following features is 12.5 ns

is 16-bit, max. resolution is 16-bit,

max . resolution is 200 ns resolution that is 10-bit

maximum

(b) Analog features: It has an analog Comparator module with: (1) Two analog comparators reference (VREF) module (3) Programmable input internal voltage reference thus 3 parts

(2) Programmable on-chip voltage multiplexing from device

inputs and

I CMOS Technology: It has following features: (1) Low-power, high-speed Flash/EEPROM technology (2) Fully static design
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5.9 Blocks diagram of PIC 16F877A:

Fig.5.3 Block diagram of PIC 16F877A

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5.10 PIN diagram of PIC 16F877A

Fig. 5.4 Pin diagram of PIC 16F877A

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5.11 Trigeering Circuit

Fig. 5.5 Triggering circuit.

5.11.1 PIN description: (a) OSC1/CLKI: Oscillator crystal or external clock input. Oscillator crystal input or external clock source input. ST buffer when configured in RC mode; otherwise CMOS. External clock source input. Always associated with pin function OSC1 (see OSC1/CLKI, OSC2/CLKO pins). (c) OSC2/CLKO: Oscillator crystal or clock output. Oscillator crystal output. Connects to the crystal or resonator in Crystal Oscillator mode. In RC mode, OSC2 pin outputs CLKO, which has 1/4 the frequency of OSC1 and denotes the instruction cycle rate.

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(d) MCLR/VPP: Master Clear (input) or programming voltage (output). Master Clear (Reset) input. This pin is an active low Reset to the device. Programming voltage input.

RA0/AN0. RA1/AN1. RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF. VREFCVREF. RA3/AN3/VREF+. VREF+. RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT. T0CKI. C1OUT. RA5/AN4/SS/C2OUT/SS/C2OUT.

(e) I/O PORTS: Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an alternate function for the peripheral features on the device. In general, when a peripheral is enabled, that pin may not be used as a general purpose I/O pin. (f) PORT A AND THE TRISA PORT PORTA is a 6-bit wide, bidirectional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISA. Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a High Impedance mode). Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTA pin an output (i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the pins, whereas writing to it will write to the port latch. All write operations are readmodify-write operations. Therefore, a write to a port implies that the port pins are read; the value is modified and then written to the port data latch.

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Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin. The RA4/T0CKI pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open-drain output. All other PORTA pins have TTL input levels and full CMOS output drivers. Other PORTA pins are multiplexed with analog inputs and the analog VREF input for both the A/D converters and the comparators. The operation of each pin is selected by clearing/setting the appropriate control bits in the ADCON1 and/or CMCON registers. The TRISA register controls the direction of the port pins even when they are being used as analog inputs. The user must ensure the bits in the TRISA register are maintained set when using them as analog inputs. (g) PORT B and the TRISB Register PORTB is an 8-bit wide, bidirectional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISB. Setting a TRISB bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode). Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTB pin an output (i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). Three pins of PORTB are multiplexed with the InCircuit Debugger and Low-Voltage Programming function: RB3/PGM, RB6/PGC and RB7/PGD. Four of the PORTB pins, RB7:RB4, have an interruption- change feature. Only pins configured as inputs can cause this interrupt to occur (i.e., any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interruption- change comparison). The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are compared with the old value latched on the last read of PORTB. The mismatch outputs of RB7:RB4 are together to generate the RB port change interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>). This interrupt can wake the device from Sleep. The user, in the Interrupt Service Routine, can clear the interrupt in the following manner: a) Any read or write of PORTB. This will end the mismatch condition. b) Clear flag bit RBIF. A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF. Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition and allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared. The interrupt-on-

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change feature is recommended for wake-up on key depression operation and operations where PORTB is only used for the interrupt-on-change feature. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while using the interrupt-on- change feature. This interrupt-on-mismatch feature, together with software configurable pull-ups on these four pins, allow easy interface to a keypad and make it possible for wake-up on key depression. (H) PORTC and the TRISC Register: PORTC is an 8-bit wide, bidirectional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISC. Setting a TRISC bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a High- Impedance mode). Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will make the corresponding PORTC pin an output (i.e., put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin). PORTC is multiplexed with several peripheral functions (Table 4-5). PORTC pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. When the I2C module is enabled, the PORTC<4:3> pins can be configured with normal I2C levels, or with SMBus levels, by using the CKE bit (SSPSTAT<6>). When enabling peripheral functions, care should be taken in defining TRIS bits for each PORTC pin. Some peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an output, while other peripherals override the TRIS bit to make a pin an input. Since the TRIS bit override is in effect while the peripheral is enabled, read-modify write instructions (BSF, BCF, XORWF) with TRISC as the destination, should be avoided. The user should refer to the corresponding peripheral section for the correct TRIS bit settings. (i)PORT D and TRISD Register PORTD is an 8-bit port with Schmitt Trigger input buffers. Each pin is individually configurable as an input or output. PORTD can be configured as an 8-bit wide microprocessor port (Parallel Slave Port) by setting control bit, PSP MODE (TRISE<4>). In this mode, the input buffers are TTL. (j)PORTE and TRISE Register PORTE has three pins (RE0/RD/AN5, RE1/WR/AN6 and RE2/CS/AN7) which are individually configurable as inputs or outputs. These pins have Schmitt Trigger input buffers. The PORTE pins become the I/O control inputs for the microprocessor port when bit PSPMODE (TRISE<4>) is set. In this mode, the user must make certain that the

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TRISE<2:0> bits are set and that the pins are configured as digital inputs. Also, ensure that ADCON1 is configured for digital I/O. In this mode, the input buffers are TTL. Register 4-1 shows the TRISE register which also controls the Parallel Slave Port operation. PORTE pins are multiplexed with analog inputs. When selected for analog input, these pins will read as 0s. TRISE controls. The direction of the RE pins, even when they are being used as analog inputs. The user must make sure to keep the pins configured as inputs when using them as analog inputs. (k) TIMER0 Interrupt: The TMR0 interrupt is generated when the TMR0 register overflows from FFh to 00h. This overflow sets bit TMR0IF (INTCON<2>). The interrupt can be masked by clearing bit TMR0IE (INTCON<5>). Bit TMR0IF must be cleared in software by the Timer0 module Interrupt Service Routine before re-enabling this interrupt. The TMR0 interrupt cannot awaken the processor from Sleep since the timer is shut-off during Sleep. (l) TIMER1 Module: The Timer1 module is a 16-bit timer/counter consisting of two 8-bit registers (TMR1H and TMR1L) which are readable and writable. The TMR1 register pair

(TMR1H:TMR1L) increments from 0000h to FFFFh and rolls over to 0000h. The TMR1 interrupt, if enabled, is generated on overflow which is latched in interrupt flag bit, TMR1IF (PIR1<0>). This interrupt can be enabled/disabled by setting or clearing TMR1 interrupt enable bit, TMR1IE (PIE1<0>). Timer1 can operate in one of two modes: As a Timer As a Counter The operating mode is determined by the clock select bit, TMR1CS (T1CON<1>). In Timer mode, Timer1 increments every instruction cycle. In Counter mode, it increments on every rising edge of the external clock input. Timer1 can be enabled/disabled by setting/clearing control bit, TMR1ON (T1CON<0>).Timer1 also has an internal Reset input. This Reset can be generated by either of the two CCP modules. Shows the Timer1 Control register. When the Timer1 oscillator is enabled (T1OSCEN is

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set), the RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 and RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI pins become inputs. That is, the TRISC<1:0> value is ignored and these pins read as 0. (m)TIMER2 Module: Timer2 is an 8-bit timer with a prescaler and a postscaler. It can be used as the PWM time base for the PWM mode of the CCP module(s). The TMR2 register is readable and writable and is cleared on any device Reset. The input clock (FOSC/4) has a prescale option of 1:1, 1:4 or 1:16, selected by control bits T2CKPS1:T2CKPS0 (T2CON<1:0>). The Timer2 module has an 8-bit period register, PR2. A Timer2 increment from 00h until it matches PR2 and then resets to 00h on the next increment cycle. PR2 is a readable and writable register. The PR2 register is initialized to FFh upon Reset. The match output of TMR2 goes through a 4-bit postscaler (which gives a 1:1 to 1:16 scaling inclusive) to generate a TMR2 interrupt (latched in flag bit, TMR2IF (PIR1<1>)). Timer2 can be shutoff by clearing control bit, TMR2ON (T2CON<2>), to minimize power consumption. (n)Analog to Digital converter: The analog-to-digital (A/D) converter module can have up to eight analog inputs for a device. The analog input charges a sample and hold capacitor. The output of the sample and hold capacitor is the input into the converter. The converter then generates a digital result of this analog level via successive approximation. This A/D conversion, of the analog input signal, results in a corresponding 10-bit digital number. The analog reference voltages (positive and negative supply) are software selectable to either the devices supply voltages (AVDD, Avss) or the voltage level on the AN3/VREF+ and AN2/VREF. The A/D module has four registers. These registers are: A/D Result High Register (ADRESH) A/D Result Low Register (ADRESL) A/D Control Register0 (ADCON0) A/D Control Register1 (ADCON1)

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10-bit

A\D Converter:-

Fig. 5.6 10-bit A/D converter

Control register:

bit 7:6 ADCS1:ADCS0: A/D Conversion Clock Select bits 00 = FOSC/2 01 = FOSC/8 10 = FOSC/32

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11 = FRC (clock derived from the internal A/D RC oscillator) bit 5:3 CHS2:CHS0: Analog Channel Select bits: 000 = channel 0, (AN0) 001 = channel 1, (AN1) 010 = channel 2, (AN2) 011 = channel 3, (AN3) 100 = channel 4, (AN4) 101 = channel 5, (AN5) 110 = channel 6, (AN6) 111 = channel 7, (AN7) bit 2 GO/DONE: A/D Conversion Status bit

When ADON = 1 1 = A/D conversion in progress (setting this bit starts the A/D conversion which is automatically cleared by hardware when the A/D conversion is complete) 0 = A/D conversion not in progress bit 1 bit 0 Unimplemented: Read as 0 ADON: A/D On

1 = A/D converter module is powered up 0 = A/D converter module is shut off and consumes no operating current

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(o)ADCON1 Register:

bit 7:6 Unimplemented: Read as 0 bit 5 ADFM: A/D Result format select

1 = Right justified. 6 Most Significant bits of ADRESH are read as0. 0 = Left justified. 6 Least Significant bits of ADRESL are read as 0. Bit 4 Unimplemented: Read as 0

bit 3:0 PCFG3:PCFG0: A/D Port Configuration Control bits

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CHAPTER 6

HARDWARE LAYOUT
D1 VPP SW3 R5 220 ohm 11 32 12 31 RESET 1k TO RA1 PIN D3 5V zener 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 RB7 RB6 RB5 RB4 RB3 RB2 RB1 RB0 R6 VDD 0.1 uF C8 R14 1k 1 C5 2 470 uF 1 +4

R15 POT 2

5 3 1 JP1 2 1 230 VAC 3 5 8 6 7 V DD R13 RD7/PSP7 RD6/PSP6 RD5/PSP5 RD4/PSP4 RD3/PSP3 RD2/PSP2 RD1/PSP1 RD0/PSP0 30 29 28 27 22 21 20 19 RD7 RD6 RD5 RD4 RD3 RD2 RD1 RD0 1k Q3 BC547 1 2 RELAY DPDT K3 4 3 Load 1 Load 2 T1

8 4

VD D VD D

VSS VSS

MCLR RA1 RA2 RA3 RA4 RA5 RE0 RE1 RE2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

TRANSFORMER CT

MCLR/Vpp RB7/PGD RA0/AN0 RB6/PGC RA1/AN1 RB5 RA2/AN2/VrefRB4 RA3/AN3/Vref+ RB3/PGM RA4/T0CKI RB2 PIC16F877 RA5/AN4/SS RB1 U3 RE0/AN5/RD RB0/INT RE1/AN6/WR RE2/AN7/CS

13 14 OSC1/CLKIN OSC2/CLKOUT Y1 10Mhz C9 27 pF RC0 15 RC1 16 RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI 17 RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 RC3 18 RC2/CCP1 RC4 23 RC3/SCK/SCL C10 RC5 24 RC4/SDI/SDA 27 pF RC6 25 RC5/SDO RC7 26 RC6/TX/CK RC7/RX/DT

K3 4 3 5 8 6 7 R13 1k Q3 BC547 VDD 1 2 RELAY DPDT

TX RX

220ohms 220ohms

D1 JP1 2 1 220 VAC 2-

LM7805 U2 GN D +4 1 VIN VOUT 3 VDD VDD R4 220 ohm D2

C5 470 uF

C6 100 uF

C7 0.1 uF

LED Title

Pic Development Board - PIC Main and PS


Size B Date: Document Number 2 Tuesday, November 16, 2010 Sheet 2 of 2 Rev 2

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CHAPTER 7

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE

The project describes about how to use power supply intelligently under peak loads. The project automatically connects and disconnects the transformer thus protecting transformer from overload. Sensing unit, ie.Current transformer plays an important role by sensing the current through the load and sending feedback signal to the microcontroller.PIC Microcontroller is so programmed that as soon as the load exceeds a particular current limit it will soon generate a control signal that would be amplified by the driver unit and finally control signal is fed to the Electromagnetic relay. For working the relay AC supply is obtained through the inverter. The switching process occurs in the Electromagnetic Relay which automatically connects the transformer in parallel in accordance to the load sensed by the CT. The future scope of our project is particularly in Substation. In substations particularly during the peak hours there is a need for the operation of additional transformer to supply the additional load requirement. Our project automatically connects the transformer under critical loads. Thus there is no need to operate both transformers under normal loads, particularly during off peak hours. Thus power is shared intelligently with the transformers in parallel.

REFERENCES

[1] J. R. Rodriguez, J. W. Dixon, J. R. Espinoza, J. Pontt, and P. Lezana, PWM regenerative rectifiers: state of the art, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics,

vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 5 22, Feb. 2005.


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[2] J. Rodriguez, L. Moran, J. Pontt, J. Espinoza, R. Diaz, and E. Silva, Operating experience of shovel drives for mining applications, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 664671, Mar./Apr. 2004.
[3] http://www.pdf4me.net/pdf-data/load-sharing-of-transformers-using-embedded-systems.php [4]http://www.docstoc.com/docs/10934947/IEEE-Electrical-IEEE-Project-Titles_-2009---2010NCCT-Final-Year-Projects [5] www.2010ieeeprojects.com/power_electronics_projects.html [6]www05.abb.com/1MRK500401SEN_en_Transformer_protection_monitoring_and_control.pdf [7]http://www.chetanasprojects.com/Thread-EMBEDDED-MICROCONTROLLER-PROJECTS-4754

[8] ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/devicedoc/39582b.pdf
[9]http://www.docstoc.com/docs/41554618/PIC-Microcontroller-Development-Board-%28PIC16F877A-40-Pin%29 [10] www.barcolair.com/PDF/BarberColman/Load%20Sharing/f22107-4.pdf

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