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66591175.xls

NAME OF PROJECT :

DESIGN INPUT DATA : (a) Canal (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (b) Drain (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Max. observed flood discharge Bank level Bed level Highest Flood Level (H.F.L.) slope 100.00 cumec 254.00 m 251.80 m 253.25 m 1/600 Full supply discharge of canal Bed width of canal Full supply depth of canal Bed level of canal (C.B.L.) at D/S Side slope of canal (s) Free board of canal 40.00 18.00 2.10 Cumec m m Case study, Design example 9.4/p394

HYDRAULIC DESIGN : (1) Section of the drainage channel According to Lacey's formula = 4.83 X Q 1/2 = 4.83 X 10 = 48.3 Provide bed width of the drain at the crossing (2) Canal waterway Bed width of canal Normal X-area of the channel (A) Velocity in the normal section Adopt size of the barrel as Width = 3.00 m, Wall thickness = 0.30 m = = = = = 18.00 m. BD + 44.42 Sq.m. Q/A 0.90 P

44.50 m.

sD 2

m/sec

Hydraulic 1

Checked by - P.P.Pareek

66591175.xls

Height

2.50

m,

No. of barrels

No.

Hydraulic 2

Checked by - P.P.Pareek

66591175.xls

18.00 m = <

to 2.67 6.00

The velocity is within the recommended range The size of the barrel is, therefore okay It should be checked that the flow is subcritical in the barrel, .i.e., Froude number (F) should be less than unity Now F = V/(gd)1/2 Where, V = 2.67 m/sec g = 9.81 m/sec d = 2.50 m Therefore, F = 0.538 Since the value of F is less than 1

(3) Head loss and bed levels at different sections : Width of canal in the flumed portion Provide 2 in 1splay in contraction and = 6.3 3 m in 1 splay in expansion transition

11.70 Length of contraction transition = -------- X 2 11.70 Length of expansion transition = -------- X 2 Assume,Length of the barrels in the flumed portion=

11.7

17.55

4

In the transitions, the side slopes of the section shall be warped from

1 2 3

1 2

70.00

3

17.55

4 (All dim in meter)

Canal waterway

Hydraulic 3

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66591175.xls

At section 4-4 Area of section = 44.42 Sq.m. (Normal channel section) Velocity = Q/A = 0.901 m/sec 2 Velocity head = V /2g = 0.0414 m R.L. of bed = 250.00 m (given) R.L. of water surface = 250.00 + = 252.10 m R.L. of T.E.L. = 252.10 + = 252.141 m At section 3-3 Water depth at the entry and exit of the barrel should be kept slightly higher than the depth of the barrels so as to keep the ends of the barrel submerged for proper syphoning Provide water depth equal to 3.00 m Area of section = 3.00 X 6.3 = 18.9 Sq.m. Velocity = Q/A = 2.116 m/sec 2 Velocity head = V /2g = 0.228 m Loss of head in expansion from section 3-3 to section 4-4 0.3 (V22 - V12) /2g = = 0.056 m Hence elevation of T.E.L. at section 3-3 = 252.141 + 0.056 = 252.197 m R.L. of water surface = 252.197 0.228 = 251.969 m R.L. of bed = 251.969 3.00 = 248.969 m From section 3 - 3 to section 2 - 2, area and velocity are constant. Head loss through barrels Head loss through barrels is given by ( 1 + f1 + f2 xL/R )V 2/2g = Where, f1 f2 Where, a L R = = = = = = 0.080 a(1+b/R) 0.00316 , b 70.0 m A/P 0.682 m = 0.10000 ,for bell mouthed syphon

2.1 0.0414

0.526 m

Hydraulic 4

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66591175.xls

At section 2-2 R.L. of T.E.L. = = = R.L.of water surface = = = R.L. of bed = = At section 1-1 Loss of head in contraction transition from section 1-1 to section 2-2 0.2 (V22 - V12) /2g = = 0.037 m R.L. of T.E.L. = T.E.L. at section 2-2 + head loss in contraction transition = 252.724 + 0.037 = 252.76 m R.L. of water surface = 252.76 0.041 = 252.72 m R.L. of bed = 252.72 2.10 = 250.62 m (4) Transitions The general method of Hinds shall be applied for designing the transitions, as the water depths in the transitions vary from 2.10 m to 3.00 m (a) Contraction transition

w.s.profile 1 R.L. 252.72 y1 = 0.112 x1= 5.85 1 11.70 2

(All dim in m)

T.E.L. at section 3-3 + head loss through barrels 252.197 + 0.526 252.724 m R.L. of T.E.L. - Velocity head at section 3-3 252.724 0.228 252.495 m 252.495 3.00 249.495 m

R.L.

252.50

Contraction transition y1 = = = x1 = = = Water level at section 1-1 2 252.72 252.50 2 0.1122 Water level at section 2-2

Hydraulic 5

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66591175.xls

Hydraulic 6

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66591175.xls

C y

= =

y1 x12 0.00328 x2

0.112 34.223

0.00328

The details of the contraction transition have been worked out in Table 1 (b) Expansion transition

w.s.profile 3 y1 = R.L. 251.97 x1= 3 8.78 17.55 4 0.065 R.L. 4 252.10

Expansion transition y1 = = = x1 = = = Hence, C y = = y1 x12 0.00085 = x2 0.07 77 = 0.00085 Water level at section 4-4 2 252.10 0.0654 m Length of expansion transition 2 17.55 2 8.78 m 2 251.97 Water level at section 3-3

Hydraulic 7

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66591175.xls

Table 1

water Distance y=cx2 surface elevation m 1 2 3 Elevation Velocity Velocity head (hV) V= 2ghV of T.E.L. m 4 (4) - (3) m 5 6 7 8 9 side slope 's' Area A= Q/V Bed Level Depth(D) Col.(3) -Col(9) m 10 Bed width B = A/D -sD 11

From section 1-1 to 2-2 0 3.0 5.85 8.7 11.7 0 3 6 8.78 11.55 14.55 17.55 0.0000 0.0295 0.1122 0.0295 0.0000 0.0000 0.0076 0.0306 0.0654 0.0306 0.0076 0.0000 252.720 252.690 252.608 252.525 252.495 251.969 251.977 252.000 252.035 252.069 252.092 252.100 252.761 252.752 252.742 252.733 252.724 252.197 252.188 252.178 252.169 252.161 252.151 252.141

CONTRACTION TRANSITION 0.041 0.062 0.135 0.208 0.228 0.228 0.211 0.179 0.135 0.091 0.059 0.041 0.901 1.099 1.627 2.021 2.116 2.116 2.035 1.872 1.627 1.337 1.072 0.901 1.500 :1 1.115 :1 0.750 :1 0.385 :1 0.00 :1 0 :1 0.256 :1 0.513 :1 0.750 :1 0.987 :1 1.244 :1 1.500 :1 44.392 36.406 24.593 19.794 18.900 18.900 19.656 21.372 24.593 29.913 37.300 44.392 250.62 250.34 250.06 249.78 249.50 248.969 249.145 249.322 249.485 249.648 249.824 250.00 2.10 2.35 2.55 2.75 3.00 3.00 2.83 2.68 2.55 2.42 2.27 2.10 18.00 12.86 7.73 6.30 6.30 6.30 6.30 6.61 7.73 9.96 13.62 18.00

EXPANSION TRANSITION

(5) Invert level Bed level of drain = Provide 251.80 m 0.60 m thick earth fill over the slab

= 251.80 - ( 0.6 + 0.3 + 2.5 ) = 248.40 m Invert level at the entrance and exit of the barrel shall be the same as the bed levels already worked out at sections 2-2 and 3-3 respectively. Thus the invert level at the entry = The invert level at the exit = 249.495 m 248.969 m

The invert level of the barrel would be kept at 248.40 m in a length of 44.5 m (under base of drain) after which it would meet the respective bed levels at the entrance and exit, so as to obtain a slope of about 1in 15 in the barrel at either side. Thus, Length of barrel upstream = 16.00 m Length of barrel downstream = 8.00 m The length of the pucca floor on either end should be adequate to provide safe hydraulic gradient and its thickness sufficient to counterbalance the total uplift pressure by gravity. The barrel shall be made of reinforced concrete box construction and its structural design is given subsequently.

Hydraulic 8

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66591175.xls

(6) Pucca Floor Provide pucca floor in half the transition length in the upstream and 3/4 th the length of expansion transition in the downstream. Length of pucca floor upstream = 1/2 X 11.7 = 5.85 m say 6.00 m Length of pucca floor downstream = 3/4 X 17.55 = 13.16 m = say 13.00 m The floor shall be subjected to static uplift and seepage head; it is maximum when high flood is passing through the drain and there is no flow in the barrel. The seepage head would be calculated by Bligh's theory. (7) Uplift pressures on the barrel floor and pucca floor (a) Static pressure At bottom of barrel floor Deepest invert level of the barrel = 248.40 m The thickness of the barrel is = 0.30 m The bottom level of the barrel floor = 248.10 m Assuming the sub-soil water level upto the bed level i.e.at R.L. static head = 250.00 248.10 = 1.90 m At the downstream end of barrel Floor level at d/s end of barrel = 248.969 m Assuming floor thickness at this point 2.00 m, The bottom level of pucca floor = 248.969 2.00 = 246.969 m Hence, Static head = 250.00 246.969 = 3.031 m At the upstream end of barrel Floor level at u/s end of barrel = 249.495 m Assuming floor thickness at this point 1.50 m, The bottom level of pucca floor = 249.495 1.50 = 247.995 m Hence, Static head = 250.62 247.995 = 2.624 m (b) Seepage head The seepage head will be maximum when the drain is running full and there is no flow in the canal. Thus total seepage head = = H.F.L. in the drain Bed level of canal

Hydraulic 9

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66591175.xls

= =

253.25 3.25 m

250.00

Hydraulic 10

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66591175.xls

At bottom of barrel floor The residual seepage head at point 'a' in the centre of the first barrel has been calculated by Bligh's theory. The seepage line would follow the path indicated by the line x a b y. Its total length (neglecting floor depression or thickness) is the sum of the following (i) (ii) (iii) Half the barrel span = Length of barrel in indicated portion = Length of pucca floor = 1.5 m 8.00 m 13.00 m

22.50 m and creep length upto point 'a' i.e. centre of first

c.c.floor

c.c.cutoff 8

13.00

a x

R.C.C.Barrel

b

1.5

Barrel Plan Residual seepage head point 'a' Thus total uplift in the barrel = = say At the downstream end of barrel floor total creep length upto the end of barrel floor i.e. at point b = 1.5 = 9.5 Hence , Residual seepage head at this point = 1.88 Thus total uplift = 3.033 m 1.90 + 4.93 m 4.93 t/m2 3.033

+ m m

8.0

= Static uplift + residual seepage head = 3.031 + 1.88 = 4.909 m 4.909 The floor thickness required (sp.gr.=2.22) = ----------- = 2.22 Say Provide 2.20 m thick c.c.floor d/s and reduce it to thickness

Hydraulic 11

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66591175.xls

At the upstream end of barrel floor total creep length upto the end of barrel floor = 1.5 + = 17.5 m Hence , Residual seepage head at this point = Thus total uplift

16.00

0.83

= Static uplift + residual seepage head = 2.624 + 0.83 = 3.454 m 3.454 The floor thickness required (sp.gr.=2.22) = ----------- = 2.22 Say Provide 1.60 m thick c.c.floor u/s and reduce it to thickness

**********************

Hydraulic 12

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66591175.xls

4.28

TRANSITION WING

DRAIN

TRANSITION WING

4.28

R.C.C. BARRELS

0.30 M THICK

A 18.00

CANAL

3.00

4.28

16.00

44.50

8.00

4.28

CONTRACTION TRANSITION

EXPANSION TRANSITION

11.7

68.50

17.55

PLAN

0.60 TH. EARTH FILL TOP OF WING WALL R.L. 253.47 U/S F.S.L. 252.72 CANAL U/S BED R.L. 250.62 249.50 2.50 248.97 D/S R.L. 250.00 R.L. 254.00 H.F.L. 253.25 254.00 TOP OF WING WALL R.L. 252.85 D/S F.S.L. 252.10

248.40

C.C. BLOCK

LEAN CONCRETE

C.C. BLOCK

5.70

6.00

16.00

44.50

8.00

13.00 17.55

4.55

11.7

68.50

TOP OF BARREL ROOF

SECTION AT A-A

R.L. 251.20

1 2 3 4 5

DETAILS OF PROTECTION WORKS U/S TOE WALL 0.40 X 0.80 U/S CUT OFF 0.50 X 1.00 C.C. BLOCK 0.50 X 0.50 D/S CUT OFF 0.50 X 1.50 D/S TOE WALL 0.40 X 1.00

Drawing 13

18.00

3.00

SECTION AT B-B

TRANSITION WING TRANSITION WING

4.28

4.28

18.00

12.86

13.62

6.00 3.00 5.85 4.28 8.70 11.70 8.78 11.55 14.55 17.55

4.28

CONTRACTION TRANSITION

EXPANSION TRANSITION

0.70 0.90

1.15

1.60

2.20

3.25

1.70

3.25

1.30

3.25

3.25

13.00

Drawing 14

7.73

6.30

6.30

6.30

6.61

7.73

9.96

66591175.xls

Drawing 15

66591175.xls

NAME OF PROJECT :

DESIGN DATA : 1 UNIT WEIGHT OF DRY EARTH 2 UNIT WEIGHT OF SATURATED EARTH 3 UNIT WEIGHT OF SUBMERGED EARTH 4 UNIT WEIGHT OF CONCRETE 5 ANGLE OF INTERNAL FRICTION ( ) 6 GRADE OF STEEL 7 GRADE OF CONCRETE 6 DIAMETER OF REINF. BARS Main Dist Fe M 1.60 2.00 1.00 2.40 30 415 20 16 12 2 3.00 2.50 0.30 254.00 253.25 251.20 4.93 Nos. m m m m m M t/m2 t/m3 t/m3 t/m3 t/m3 Degree Case study, Design example 9.4/p394

7 NUMBER OF BARRELS 8 WIDTH OF EACH BARREL 9 HEIGHT OF EACH BARREL 10 THICKNESS OF BARREL 11 BANK LEVEL 11 DRAIN H.F.L. 12 LEVEL AT TOP OF BARREL 13 UPLIFT AT BASE OF BARREL

Structural 16

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66591175.xls

(1) Critical section of the barrel The barrel shall be subjected to maximum loading under the bank at the lowest possible level of the barrel as indicated below in the following section:Bank level Saturation line 254.00 m 253.25 m R.L. 251.20 m

(2) Design features Following cosiderations have been made in the design of barrels : (i) Bottom slab : This design is for uplift pressure and reaction from soil resulting from the loading on the foundations. Theoretically, the soil reaction is not uniform but for simplification it is assumed uniform. (ii) side walls : Side walls would be tested in the following two critical conditions (a) High flood in the drain while barrels are empty (b) No water in the drain while barrels are full (iii) Partition walls : The partition walls are subjected to equal pressures on either side, and therefore,no reinforcement is required. Nominal reinforcement is, however, provided to take care of contingency arising due to unequal pressures resulting from chocking up of any of the barrels. (iv) Top slab : The loads considered for design of top slab are : (a) Earth load, (b) Weight of water below saturation line As there is no roadway along the drain, no live load due to traffic shall be considered. (3) Design As the barrels are rigidly joined, they should be designed as a continuous structure. Hardy Cross method of moment distribution shall be used for design. The effective length of horizontal member = 3.30 m The effective length of vertical member = 2.80 m Distribution factors At joint A For member AB = 2.8 2.8 + 3.3 + 3.3 = 0.46

For member AD

2.8

3.3

0.54

Structural 17

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66591175.xls

Structural 18

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66591175.xls

For member DC (i) Dead loads Consider one meter length of barrel Depth of dry earth over barrel = Depth of saturated earth = Weight of dry and saturard earth = = Weight of top slab =

2.8

3.3

0.46

= =

Weight on the top slab including its own weight = = Weight of the barrels per metre of length =( 4 X 3.3 + 3 = 15.55 t Total dead load/m length of barrels Uplift/m length = 4.93 X

2.8

0.30 X

2.40

= = 6.90 =

5.3

6.90

Net vertical load acting on foundation = = Pressure on foundation soil = Pressure acting on the base slab 18.08 6.90 =

34.04

uplift 4.93

0.72

The earth pressure shall comprise of the following : (a) dry earth pressure above saturation line from R.L. (b) saturated earth pressure from R.L.

253.25 253.25

to to

254.00 248.25

Structural 19

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66591175.xls

Corresponding to = 30 degree , The pressure at A= Surcharge due to dry earth = Cp X wd X 0.75 = = Pressure at D = = = 1/3 X 1.60 X

+ + 0.75

Cp = 1/3 Surcharge due to saturated earth Cp X ws X 2.20 + + w X 2.20 1/3 X 1.0 X + 1 X 2.20 2.20

3.33 t/m2 3.33 + 3.33 + 7.07 t/m2 Cp X 1/3 X ws 1.00 X X 2.8 + 2.8 + w 1 X X 2.8 2.8

6.02 t/m2 3.33 t/m

2

3.33 t/m2

A

3.30

B

3.30

E

2.80

D

7.07 t/m2

C D

6.83 t/m

2

F

7.07 t/m2

(iii) Fixing moments (i) On span AB = wl2 12 6.02 = = wl2 12 5.46 t-m 6.83 = = (iii) 6.20 t-m X 12 3.3 2 X 12 3.3 2

(ii)

On span CD

On span AD fixed end moments in the wall at each end due to rectangular portion wl2 12 3.33 = = 2.178 t-m X 12 2.8 2

Fixed end moments due to triangular portion 3.73 X MAD MDA = = = 30 0.98 t-m 3.73 X 20 2.8 2 2.8 2

Structural 20

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66591175.xls

1.46 t-m

Structural 21

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66591175.xls

= = = =

0.976

1.46

(iv) Distribution of moments Joints Distribution factors Fixed end moments Balance Carry over Balance Carry over Balance Carry over Balance Total C 0.46 -6.20 6.20 -1.18 -0.59 -0.29 -0.14 -0.09 -0.04 -0.02 -6.98 4.63 D 0.54 -3.64 -1.39 0.62 -0.34 0.19 -0.10 0.05 -0.02 -4.63 0.54 3.15 1.25 -0.69 0.37 -0.17 0.09 -0.05 0.03 3.98 A 0.46 -5.46 1.06 0.53 0.32 0.16 0.08 0.04 0.02 -3.98 6.19 5.46 B

(v) Net moments at centre and face Span AB 6.02 X 3.3 Sagging moments at face = ------------------2 = Fixing moments at face= 1.42 t-m 3.98 + = Net fixing moments at face = = = = Fixing moments at centre = = Net sagging moments at centre = = 3.15 ( 3.3 6.09 t-m 6.09 4.67 t-m 6.02 X 8 8.19 t-m 3.98 + 2 5.09 t-m 8.195 3.107 t-m 6.19 1.422 6.19 3.98 ) X 0.15 6.02 X 0.15 2 ----------------------------2

3.3 2

5.088

Structural 22

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66591175.xls

Structural 23

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66591175.xls

Span CD 6.83 X 3.3 Sagging moments at face = -------------------2 = Fixing moments at face= 1.61 t-m 4.63 + 6.87 t-m = = = 6.87 5.25 t-m 6.83 X 8 = Fixing moments at centre = 9.3 t-m 6.98 + 2 = Net sagging moments at centre 5.8 t-m = = 9.303 3.498 t-m 5.804 4.63 1.61 3.15 ( 3.3 6.98 4.63 ) 6.83 X 0.15 2 ---------------------------2

0.15 -

3.3 2

Span AD (a) Due to rectangular portion = = (a) 3.33 X 2 0.66 t-m 2.8 X 0.15 3.33 X 2 0.15 2

0.261

4.63

3.98 )

Structural 24

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66591175.xls

Structural 25

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66591175.xls

= =

Sagging moments at centre (a) Due to rectangular portion = = (b) Due to triangular portion = = 3.33 3.27 t-m X 2.8 X 1 7.81 X 8 2.80 2

= = 3.98

1.87

= =

= =

4.31

The net moments at face and centre of the different spans are tabulated below : Span AB CD AD (vi) Thickness of members The maximum moment in the barrels is For M 20 grade concrete and steel of Fe cbc = st = 70 Kg/cm2 5.25 t-m 415 1500.00 Kg/cm2 MOMENTS At face 4.67 t-m (hogging) 5.25 t-m (hogging) 3.67 t-m (hogging) 3.11 3.50 0.83 At centre t-m (sagging) t-m (sagging) t-m (sagging)

m = 13 k = 0.378 j = 0.874 Q = 11.552 The minimum effective thickness (d) required for bending moment M 5.25 X d = = bQ 100 X

105 11.55

= 21.33 cm Adopt overall thickness of all the members = Then effective thickness

30.0 cm 25.20 cm

Structural 26

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66591175.xls

(clear cover =

4.0

cm )

Structural 27

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66591175.xls

Span AB & BE Moments in t-m At face At centre Span CD & CF Moments in t-m At face At centre Span AD & EF Moments in t-m At face At centre 3.67 t-m (hogging) Provide 0.83 t-m (sagging) Provide Reinforcement required At = 16 mm bars @ At = 16 mm bars @ 11.12 Cm2 18.0 cm c/c 2.52 Cm2 25.0 cm c/c 5.25 t-m (hogging) Provide 3.50 t-m (sagging) Provide Reinforcement required = 16 mm bars @ At = 16 mm bars @ At 15.90 Cm2 12.0 cm c/c 10.59 Cm2 18.0 cm c/c 4.67 t-m (hogging) Provide 3.11 t-m (sagging) Provide Reinforcement required At = 16 mm bars @ At = 16 mm bars @ 14.13 Cm2 14.0 cm c/c 9.40 Cm2 21.0 cm c/c

Nominal steel shall also be provided on the outer face of the walls for the condition when there is no water in the drain and barrels are running full. The details of reinforcement are shown below

16 mm @ 16 mm @ 16 mm @ 14.0 cm c/c 12 mm @ 21.0 cm c/c 25.0 cm c/c 14.0 cm c/c

C.C. M - 20

16 mm @

25.0 cm c/c

12 mm @

25.0

cm c/c

16 mm @

18.0 cm c/c

16 mm @ 16 mm @ 18.0 cm c/c

12.0 cm c/c

0.30

3.00 m

0.30

3.00

0.30

Structural 28

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66591175.xls

*************

Structural 29

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