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British Electricity International

Modern Power Station Practice



Third Edition incorporating Modern Power System Practice

TURBINES,
GENERATORS AND
ASSOCIATED PLANT.
Volume C

Only Ch 6: The Generator
.!
British Electricity International . .
. Modern .....
Power Station
Practice
Third Edition incorporating Modern Power System Practice
TURBINES,
GENERATORS AND
ASSOCIATED PLANT. ,
Volume c ....
Press
..
MODERN
POWER STATION PRACTICE
Third Edition
Incorporating Modern Power System Practice
British Electricity International, London
volume C
Turbines, Generators and Associated Plant
PERGAMON PRESS
OXFORD . NEW YORK . SEOUL . TOKYO
'
-..ain Editorial PaneJ
: w Littler, BSc, PhD, ARCS, CPhys, FlnstP, CEng. FlEE (Chairman)
~ ::-:"essor E. J. Davies, DSc, PhD, CEng, FlEE
- E Johnson
= ( rkbyf BSc/ CEng, MIMechE, AMIEE
= 3 Myerscough, CEng, FIMechE, FINucE
" .right, MSc, ARCST, CEng, FlEE, FIMechE, FlnstE, FBlM
Volume Consulting Editor
7 =-:"'essor E. J. Davies, DSc, PhD, CEng, FlEE
Volume Advisory Editor
= Hambling, CEng, MlMechE
Authors
:- : : : : ~ - - s 1 & 2 G. F. Hunt, BSc(Eng), CEng, MIEE
_ - : : : : ~ " 3 M. Douglass, CEng, MIMechE
- ~ - - " " 4 A. R. Woodward, BSc(Eng)
D. L. Howard, BSc, CEng, MIMechE
E. F. C. Andrews, CEng, MlMechE, ABTC
-- :::::;" 5 B. J. Beecher, BSc, CEng, MlMechE
- - : : : : ~ " 6 ffi J. J. Arnold, BSc, CEng, MIEE
J. R. Capener, BSc, CEng, MIEE
Series Production
=;;s:_"::;es and
::-:-:ration
P. M. Reynolds
H. E. Johnson
T. A. Dolling
J. R. Jackson
U.K.
U.S.A.
SEOUL
JAPAN
Pergamon Press pic., Headington Hill Hall,
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Copyright 1991 British Electricity International Ltd
All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted
in any form or by any means: electronic, electrostatic,
magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording or
otherwise, without permission in writing from the copy-
right holder.
First edition 1963
Second edition 1971
Third edition 1991
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Modern power station practice: incorporating modern
power system practice/ British Electricity International.-
3rd ed. p. em.
Includes index.
1. Electric power-plants. I. British Electricity Inter-
national.
TK1191.M49 1990
62.31 '21 - dc20 90-43748
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
British Electricity International
Modern power station practice.- 3rd. ed.
1. Electric power-plants. Design and construction
I. Title II. Central Electricity Generating Board
621.3121.
ISBN 0-08-040510-X (12 Volume Set)
ISBN 0-08-040513-4 (Volume C)
Printed in the Republic of Singapo;e
by Singapore National Printers Ltd
CoLOUR PLATEs
FOREWORD
PREFACE
CoNTENTs oF ALL VoLUMEs
Contents
Chapter 1 The steam turbine
Chapter 2 Turbine plant systems
Chapter 3 Feedwater heating systems
Chapter 4 Condensers, pumps and cooling water plant
Chapter 5 Hydraulic turbines
Chapter 6 The generator
INDEX
VI
Vll
ix
XI
1
124
241
323
422
446
563
(
Foreword
G. A. W. Blackman, CBE, FEng
Chairman, Central Electricity Generating Board
and Chairman, British Electricity International Ltd
FoR oVER THIRTY YEARS, since its formation in 1958, the Central Electricity Generating
Board (CEGB) has been at the forefront of technological advances in the design,
construction, operation, and maintenance of power plant and transmission systems. During
this time capacity increased almost fivefold, involving the introduction of thermal and
nuclear generating units of 500 MW and 660 MW, to supply one of the largest integrated
power systems in the world. In fulfilling its statutory responsibility to ensure continuity of a
safe and economic supply of electricity, the CEGB built up a powerful engineering and
scientific capability, and accumulated a wealth of experience in the operation and
maintenance of power plant and systems. With the privatisation of the CEGB this
experience and capability is being carried forward by its four successor companies
National Power, PowerGen, Nuclear Electric and National Grid.
At the heart of the CEGB's success has been an awareness of the need to sustain and
improve the skills and knowledge of its engineering and technical staff. This was achieved
through formal and on-job training, aided by a series of textbooks covering the theory
and practice for the whole range of technology to be found on a modern power station. A
second edition of the series, known as Modern Power Station Practice, was produced in
the early 1970s, and it was sold throughout the world to provide electricity undertakings,
engineers and students with an account of the CEGB's practices and hard-won experience.
The edition had substantial worldwide sales and achieved recognition as the authoritative
reference work on power generation.
A completely revised and enlarged (third) edition has now been produced which updates
the relevant information in the earlier edition together with a comprehensive account of
the solutions to the many engineering and environmental challenges encountered, and which
puts on record the achievements of the CEGB during its lifetime as one of the world's
leading public electricity utilities.
In producing this third edition, the opportunity has been taken to restructure the
information in the original eight volumes to provide a more logical and detailed exposition
of the technical content. The series has also been extended to include three new volumes on
Commissioning', 'EHV Transmission' and 'System Operation'. Each of the eleven
subject volumes had an Advisory Editor for the technical validation of the many
contributions by individual authors, all of whom are recognised as authorities in their
particular field of technology.
All subject volumes carry their own index and a twelfth volume provides a consolidated
index for the series overall. Particular attention has been paid to the production of draft
material, with text refined through a number of technical and language editorial stages and
complemented by a large number of high quality illustrations. The result is a high standard
of presentation designed to appeal to a wide international readership.
It is with much pleasure therefore that I introduce this new series, which has been
attributed to British Electricity International on behalf of the CEGB and its successor
companies. I have been closely associated with its production and have no doubt that it will
be invaluable to engineers worldwide who are engaged in the design, construction,
commissioning, operation and maintenance of modern power stations and systems.
March 1990

Preface
The increase in generating capacity of the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB)
during the last thirty years has involved the introduction of new 500 MW and 660 MW
turbine-generator plant for a variety of operational duties from base load to that of flexible
two-shift operation. These plants have been installed in nuclear, coal and oil fired. power
stations.
The early operational experience of the 500 MW units provided important data for the
design development of the 660 MW turbine-generator plant. These latter machines
benefited from the high quality approach to the design of major components by UK
manufacturers using their developed analysis techniques in the areas of aerodynamics and
stress analysis. The soundness of this approach has been demonstrated by the improved
reliability and performance of the later plants.
The Third Edition of Modern Power. Station Practice gives a detailed account of ex-
perience obtain<:d in the development, design, manufacture, operation and testing of
large turbine-generators in the last twenty years. The practice of testing and evaluation of
modern plant has proceeded as before; the advance in analytical and computational
techniques has however meant that the application of this experience to future design and
operation of large turbine-generator plant is of greater benefit than ever before.
One of the major tasks of the Turbine-generator Plant Branch in the CEGB was to secure
the development of Turbine-generators and their associated Plants to meet the needs of the
CEGB with due regard to economics, performance and reliability. As Head of the Branch
for some years I have felt privileged to have been asked to edit Volume C.
The authors of this volume have wide experience of the plant engineering field and all
are authorities in their particular field of Technology. I would like to record my sincere
thanks to these colleagues who have produced Volume C. They have undertaken the task
with an enthusiasm derived from the knowledge that this work will' be of the greatest
assistance to engineers in this field of technology worldwide.
P. HAMBLING
Advisory Editor - Volume C
-
.... -------------------------------------------------------------- ~ ----
Contents of All Volumes
Volume A - Station Planning and Design
Power station siting and site layout
Station design and layout
Civil engineering and building works
Volume B - Boilers and Ancillary Plant
Furnace design, gas side characteristics and combustion equipment
Boiler unit - thermal and pressure parts design
Ancillary plant and fittings
Dust extraction, draught systems and flue gas desulphurisation
Volume C - Turbines, Generators and Associated Plant
The steam turbine
Turbine plant systems
Feedwater heating systems
Condensers, pumps and cooling water plant
Hydraulic turbines
The generator
Y olume D '"'-- Electrical Systems and Equipment
Electrical system design
Electrical system analysis
Transformers
Generator main connections
Switchgear and control gear
Cabling
.\Iotors
Telecommunications
Emergency sqpply equipment
.\1echanical plant electrical services
Protection
Synchronising
Y olume E - Chemistry and Metallurgy
Chemistry
Fuel and oil
Corrosion: feed and boiler water
\\- ater treatment plant and cooling water systems
?!ant cleaning and inspection
\letallurgy
i.:J.:roduction to metallurgy
\1aterials behaviour
:'\on-ferrous metals and alloys
:'\on-metallic materials
\ 1aterials selection
vi
Contents of All Volumes
Welding processes
Non-destructive testing '
Defect analysis and life assessment
Environmental effects
Volume F - Control and Instrumentation
Introduction
Automatic control
Automation, protection and interlocks and manual controls
Boiler and turbine instrumentation and actuators
Electrical instruments and metering
Central control rooms
On-line computer systems
Control and instrumentation system considerations
Volume G - Station Operation and Maintenance
Introduction
Power plant operation
Performance and operation of generators
The planning" and management of work
Power plant maintenance
Safety
Plant performance and performance monitoring
Volume H - Station Commissioning
Introduction
Principles of commissioning
Common equipment and station plant commissioning
Boiler pre-steam to set commissioning
Turbine-generator/feedheating systems pre-steam to set commissioning
Unit commissioning and post-commissioning activities
Volume J - Nuclear Power Generation
Nuclear physics and basic technology
Nuclear power station design
Nuclear power station operation
Nuclear safety
Volume K- EHV Transmission
Transmission planning and development
Transmission network design
Overhead line design
Cable design
Switching station design and equipment
Transformer and reactor design
Reactive compensation plant
HVDC transmission plant design
Insulation co-ordination and surge protection
Interference
Power system protection and automatic switching
Telecommunications for power system management
Transmission operation and maintenance
:c
---
, . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - ~ -
Volume L - System Oper,ation
System operation in England, and Wales
Operational planning - demand and generation
Operational planning - power system
Operational procedures - philosophy, principles and outline contents
Control in real time
System control structure, supporting services and staffing
Volume M - Index
Complete contents of all volumes
Cumulative index
Contents of All Volumes
-
xiv
Evan John Davies
Emeritus Professor of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
at Aston University in Birmingham, died on 14 April 1991.
John was an engineer, an intellectual and a respected author
in his own right. It was this rare combination of talents that
he brought to Modern Power Station Practice as Consulting
Editor of seven volumes and, in so doing, bequeathed a
legacy from which practising and future engineers will
continue to benefit for many years.
!
1
1.
l
1
~ ! i
,.
CHAPTER 6
The generator
Introduction
1.1 Types of generator
1.2 Historical background
1.3 Stnndards and specifications
2 Synchronou:; generator theory
2.1 Electromagnetic induction
3
2.2 Speed, frequency and pole-pairs
2.3 Load, rating and power factor
2.4 MMF, flux an.d magnetic circuit
2.5 Rotating phasors
2.6 Phasor diagrams
2.6.1 Rated voltage, no stator current, open-circuit
conditions
2.6.2 Rated voltage, rated stator current and rated power
factor
2.7 Torque
2.8 Three-phase windings
2.9 Harmonics: distributed and chorded winding
Turbine-generator components: the rotor
3.1 Rotor body and shaft
3.2 Rotor winding
3.3 Rotor end rings
3.4 Wedges and dampers
3.5 Sliprings, brushgear and shaft earthing
3.6 Fans
3.7 Rotor threading and alignment
3.8 Vibration
3.9 Bearings and seals
3.10 Size and weight
4 Turbine-generator components: the stator
4.1 Stator core
4.2 Core frame
4.3 Stator winding
4.4 End winding support
4.5 Electrical connections and terminals
4.6 Stator winding cooling components
4.7 Hydrogen cooling components
4.8 Stator casing
5 Cooling systems
5.1 Hydrogen cooling
5.2 Hydrogen cooling system
5.3 Shaft seals and seal oil system
5.3.1 Thrust type seal
5.3.2 Journal type seal
5.3.3 Seal oil system
5.4 Stator winding water cooling system
5.5 Other cooling systems
6 Excitation
6.1 Exciters
6.1.1 Historical review
6.1.2 AC excitation systems
6.1.3 Exciter transient performance
6.1.4 The pilot exciter
6.1 .5 The main exciter
6.1.6 Exciter performance testing
6. 1. 7 Pilot exciter protection
446
6.1.8 Main exciter protection
6.2 Brushless excitation systems
6.2.1 System description
8. 2 2 The rotating armature rna in exciter
6.::.:> Telemetry systum
6.2.4 Instrument slipnngs
6.2.5 Rotating rectifier protection
6.3 Static rectifier excitation equipment
6.3.1 Introduction
6.3.2 General description of static diode rectifier equipment
6.3.3 Rectifier protection
6.3.4 Static thyristor rectifier schemes
6.4 The voltage regulator
6.4.1 Historical review
6.4.2 System description
6.4.3 The regulator
6.4.4 Auto follow-up circuit
6.4.5 Manual follow-up
6.4.6 Balance meter
6.4.7 AVR protection
6.4.8 Thyristor converter protection
6.4.9 Fuse failure detection unit
6.4.10 The digital AVR
6.5 Excitation control
6.5.1 Rotor current limiter
6.5.2 MVAr limiter
6.5.3 Overfluxing limit
6.5.4 Speed reference controller
6.6 The power system stabiliser
6.6.1 Basic concepts ,
6.6.2 Characteristics of GEP
6.6.3 System modes of oscrllation
6.6.4 Principles of PSS operation
6.6.5 The choice of stabiliser signal
6. 7 Excitation system analysis
6. 7.1 Frequency response analysis
6. 7.2 State variable analysis
6.7.3 Large signal performance investigations
7 Generator operation
7.1 Running-up to speed
7.2 Open-circuit conditions and synchronising
7.3 The application of load
7.4 Steady state stability
7. 5 Capability chart
7.6 Steady short-circuit conditions, short-circuit ratio
7.7 Synchronous compensation
7.8 Losses efficiency and temperature
7.9 Electrically unbalanced conditions
7.10 Transient conditions
7.11 Neutral earthing
7.12 Shutting down
8 Mechanical considerations
8.1 Rotor torque
8.2 Stress due to centrifugal force
8.3 Alternating stresses, fretting and fatigue
8.4 'Slip-stick' of rotor windings
8 ,, rJoise
9 Electrical and electromagnetic aspects
9.1 Flux distribution on load
9.2 Control and calculation of reactances
9.3 The cause and e f f ~ c t of harmonics
9.4 Magnetic pull
9.5 Shaft voltage and residual magnetism
9.6 Field suppression
9.7 Voltage in the rotor winding
9.8 Stator winding insulation
1 0 Operational measurement, control, monitoring and
protection
10.1 Routine instrumentation
10.1.1 Temperature
10.1.2 Pressure
10.1.3 Flow
1 0.1.4 Condition monitoring
10.1.5 Electrical
10.1.6 Vibration
10.2 Logging and display
10.3 Control
10.4 On-load monitoring, detection and diagnosis
10.4. 1 Air gap flux coil
10.4.2 Core or condition monitor
10.4.3 Insulation discharge
10.4.4 Rotor winding earth fault indication
10.4.5 Shaft current insulation integrity
10.4.6 Stator winding water analysis
1 Introduction
1.1 Types of generator
The CEGB transmission systertl operates at a fre-
quency of 50 Hz: so do all the: generators connected
synchronously to iL The larger _generators ate almost
all directly driven by steam turbines rotating at 3000
r/min; a few operate at 1500 r/min.
These high speed generators are commonly known
as turbine-generators, or cylindrical rotor generators;
in this chapter, such machines are implied unless
otherwise stated.
The CEGB has for many years standardised on
generating units of 500 and 660 MW electrical output_
At these ratings, there have been six different designs
of generator, each design incorporating minor changes
as time progressed. However, they are all sufficiently
similar for a generalised description to be applicable.
Where a design departs radically from that being de-
scribed, this will be noted (see Fig 6.1).
The bulk of this chapter deals with generators of
this size; the theory applies to all synchronous gen-
erators. Brief descriptions of other types of generator
in use on the CEGB system will be found at the end
of this chapter.
1.2 Historical background
fhe advantages of AC over DC as a means of elec-
tricity distribution were established towards the end
Introduction
10.5 Protection
10.5.1 Class 1 trips
10.5.2 Class 2 trips
11 Maintenance, testing and diagnosis
11 .1 Maintenance and tests during operation
11.2 Maintenance and tests when shut down for a short
outage
11 .3 Maintenance during a longer outage
11 .4 Maintenance and tests with the machine dismantled
11.5 Reassembly
11.6 Diagnosis
12 Future developments
12.1 Extension of present designs
12.2 Extension of water cooling
12.3 Slotless generators
12.4 Superconducting generators
12.5 <\uxiliary systems
13 Other types of generator
13. I i urbine-tyre 0er1etatorc .. ,f :,>wer rating
13.2 Water turbine d'riven salient pcie synchronous generators
13.2.1 Excitation and control
13.2.2 Other features
13.3 Diesel engine driven salient-pole generators
13.4 Induction generators
of the 19th century, and the rapid growth of AC
systems led to a demand for AC generators. At first,
these were slow speed machines driven by recipro-
cating engines but, by 1900, generators driven directly
by high speed steam turbines were being introduced
.in what are recognisably the forerunners of modern
:machines, the benefits being principally in the prime
:mover.
The early, turbine-gel).erators were made both in
vertical and horizontal shaft configurations. The ver-
tical shaft design required a large thrust bearing, and
was quickly abandoned. The development of hori-
zontal shaft machines was rapid; unit outputs had
risen from a few hundred kW to 20 MW by 1912
(see Fig 6.2).
The rate of increase in output slowed subsequently,
but unit outputs had risen to 50 MW by the 1930s.
The 60 Hz frequency standardised in the USA re-
quired the speed of American two-pole generators
to be 3600 r /min, and the losses caused by air friction
at this speed made the much-less-dense gas hydrogen
attractive as a cooling medium. In the UK, hydrogen
cooling was used on 3000 r /min units of 50 MW and
above from about 1950.
Later, the search for increasingly effective means
of heat (loss) removal led first to the use of hydrogen
at higher pressure, then insulating oil, and finally,
pioneered in the UK, water in direct contact with the
winding conductors. By these means, generators with
the increasing outputs demanded were able to be
manufactured, transported and installed in a power
station as single units, which was both economically
and operationally attractive (see Fig 6.3).
447
..,.
..,.
CXl
STATOR WINDING STATOR ENDWINDING
'N'TER INLET MANIFOLD SUPPORT BRACKET RETAINING RING
GENERATOR-lURE,:,;.:
HALF COUPLIN .

WINDING I I
ATER OU.TLET CORE ENDPLATE_ 1 .COR. E BAR
E I / d-
OliGJJ i

r 1



FLANGE CONNECTIONS . -- --- .
, . - GAS SEAL
TO CONDENSATE SYSTEM ' . __ /
FLANGE CONNECTIONS TO
STATOR WINDING WATER SYSTEM
STATOR
INNER FRAME
Ftc;_ 6.1 Sectional view of a 660 !'v!W generator
TRANSFORMERS
STATOR
CAGED CORE
(.-]
_j
J_______,
TERMINAL BUSHINGS NEUTRAL
STATOR END CONNECTORS
STATOR ENDWINDING
TERMINAL BUSHING MAIN
--1
::r
<D
<0
<D
::l
<D
iil
....
0
...,
n
::r
w
"0

(J)
Introduction
FIG. 6.2 20 MW air cooled generator
Both the pace of development and the rate of
increase in unit output has slowed markedly in re-
cent years, as greater emphasis has been placed on
the reliability achieved by proven designs, and on
the advantages of interchangeability of major plant
components.
1.3 Standards and specifications
The British Standard covering generators is BS5000,
which refers to many parts of BS4999. The corre-
sponding international standard is IEC 34. Standards
specific for turbine-generators are BS5000 Part 2 and
IEC 34 Part 3. These standards specify acceptable
characteristics, values of temperature, vibration, noise,
phase unbalance, harmonic content, excitation control
limits and tolerances, and test conditions, e.g., high
voltage test levels.
Other parameters, such as hydraulic pressure and
dielectric loss test values, are specified in various
CEGB Standards.
Specific requirements for a new generator are con-
tained within its own specification, which covers items
peculiar to its location or duty, for example, tem-
perature of cooling water, power factor and reactances.
Where necessary, these requirements may differ from
those in the appropriate Standard. The expected op-
erational life is quoted in the specification; this is
currently 200 000 hours, with 10
4
start/stop cycles.
These values are used in design calculations, e.g., crack
growth rate by fatigue.
The following Standards are relevant:
IEC 34-1: Rotating electrical machines - rating and performance.
IEC 34-2: Rotating electrical machines - methods for determining
losses and efficiency from tests.
449
The generator
2.5
2.0
WEIGHT/RATING
kg/kVA
1.5
1.0
1930 1940 1950
Chapter 6
YEAR
1960 1970
1
980 1990
IN SERVICE
M w M SUPERCONDUCTING
DIRECT GAS OR LIQUID COOLING
OF STATOR AND DIRECT ROTOR COOLING
0.5
, LIQUID COOLING OF STATOR AND ROTOR ~
SUPERCONDUCTING ~ -
ROTOR ~
10 20 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 5000
MVA RATING
FIG. 6.3 Development of generator size, weight and cooling arrangements
IEC 34-3: Ratings and characteristics of 3-phase 50 Hz turbine
type machines.
IEC 34-4: Methods for determining synchronous machine quan-
tities from tests.
IEC 34-6: Methods of cooling rotating machinery.
BS4999: General requirements for rotating electrical machines.
BS4999 Part 106: Classification of methods of cooling.
BS4999 Part 101: Specification for rating and performance.
BS4999 Part 142: Mechanical performance - vibration.
BS4999 Part 109: Noise levels.
BS5000: Specification for rotating electrical machines of particular
types or for particular applications.
BS5000 Part 2: Turbine type machines.
BS27 57: Classification of insulating materials for electrical machinery.
BS5500: Specification for unfired fusion welded pressure vessels.
BS601: Steel sheets for magnetic circuits of power electrical apparatus.
BS1433: Copper for electrical purposes: rod and bar.
BS3906: Electrolytic CO!'(lpressed hydrogen.
ES1 Standard 44-7: Testing the insulation system of bars.
450
2 Synchronous generator theory
Some basic principles of theory and design are es-
tablished in this section in order that the descriptive
matter in later sections may be more easily understood.
2.1 Electromagnetic induction
In a synchronous generator with the rotor running
at constant speed, the instantaneous voltage induced
in a stator conductor is proportional to the magnetic
flux density experienced by the conductor.
where e
dB
cit
f
k
dB
e k-
dt
instantaneous voltage induced along the
length of the conductor, V
rate of change of magnetic flux density,
tesla/s
length of conductor exposed to the flux, m
constant
In order to operate synchronously with the inter-
connected AC transmis'i'):l system, the generated
voltage is required to vary sinusoidally. The magnetic
flux density experienced by the stator conductors must
therefore also vary sinusoidally. This is achieved by
arranging, on the rotor, excitation coils which produce
a flux whose density varies approximately sinusoidally
around the circumference.
As the rotor rotates inside the stator bore, a con-
ductor fixed in the stator will be subjected to an
approximately sinusoidally varying magnetic flux den-
sity, and will have an approximately sinusoidal voltage
generated along its length (Fig 6.4). The magnitude
of the flux density, which determines the magnitude
of the generated voltage, can be changed by varying
the direct current supplied to the excitation coils on
the rotor.
2.2 Speed, frequency and pole-pairs
The relationship between speed, number of pole-
pairs and the frequency of the generated voltage is:
f = pn
where f frequency, Hz
n rotational speed, r/s
p number of pole-pairs
Cylindrical rotor 50 Hz generators have two poles
and operate at 3000 r/min, or less commonly four
CONDUCTOR
IN STATOR
Synchronous generator theory
poles operating at 1500 r/min. Salient-pole generators
usually have more than four poles, for example, the
Dinorwig hydraulic turbine-generators have 12 poles
and operate at 500 r/min. Generators producing other
frequencies are used for special purposes; those whose
output is rectified for use as an excitation supply
commonly operate at 150 Hz or 400 Hz.
2.3 Load, rating and power factor
Root-mean-square (RMS) values of alternating volt-
ages and currents are implied in this chapter, unless
specifically noted otherwise.
A single AC generator supplying a load has its
voltage/ current relationship dictated by the nature of
that load. For any load which is not purely resistive,
the sinusoidal voltage and current will not be m
phase.
The rated output of a single-phase generator is
the product of its rated voltage and its rated current,
expressed in volt-amps, kVA or MVA. The rated
power is the rated output times the rated power factor,
expressed in watts, kW or MW.
The rated power of a three-phase generator is three
times rated phase voltage times rated phase current
times power factor. Virtually all CEGB generators
have their three phases connected in star, so that:
line voltage
and line current
-J3 x phase voltage
phase current.
. 0 ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - r -
MAGNETIC FLUX
PRODUCED BY
ROTOR WINDINGS
-V
FIG. 6.4 Production of sinusoidal voltage
451
The generator
The MV A rating is then:
.J3 x rated line current x 10-
6
The MW rating i\ then: rated MW A X rated power
factoc. \
I
The present CEGB 'ating for large turbine-generators is:
660 MW, 0.85 pc\wer factor lagging, 23 500 V, 3-
phase, 50 Hz I
The MV A rating islherefore 660/0.85
and the rated line c rrent is:
776 MVA
776 X 10
6

19 076 A
The output is specified as a maximum continuous
rating (MCR), which implies no guaranteed sustained
overload capacity. The standards specify very short
term overcurrent capability, and acceptable variations
in voltage and frequency. Some sustained overload
capability may be possible by operating at a hydrogen
pressure greater than the rated value, by agreement.
Although operation at 0.85 power factor (lagging)
is specified, generators on the CEGB network gen-
erally operate at power factors of 0.9 or higher, and
this allows operation at higher than rated MW if
this is available from the turbine, up to the limit of
rated MVA (see Fig 6.5).
2.4 MMF, flux and magnetic circuit
Direct current circulating in coils wound into the
rotor poles, causes them to act as electromagnets,
452
OPERATION ABOVE RATED MW
PERMISSIBLE IN THESE AREAS
MW
LEADING LAGGING
MVAR
NOMINAL
RATED MW
MCR POINT
0.85 POWER FACTOR
LAGGING
F!G. 6.5 Operation at high MW and power factor
Chapter 6
which provide a source of magneto-motive force
(MMF); the 'driving force' behind the magnetic flux .
The value of MMF depends on the maximum flux
density required at the stator conductors to produce
the required voltage and on the reluctance of the
magnetic circuit. The magnetic circuit consists of
paths of low reluctance in the iron of the rotor and
stator, with an air gap of high reluctance between
them. The air gap reluctance is effectively constant,
but that of the iron paths increases at high values
of magnetic flux density, when the iron becomes
magnetically saturated.
2.5 Rotating phasors
A sinusoidally-varying voltage has an instantaneous
value v at time t expressed by:
where V
f
v = V sin (27rf)t
maximum value of v
frequency in Hz
The same relationship can be derived by rotating a
phasor of constant magnitude V at a constant speed
(Fig 6.6). At time t, when the phasor is at an angle
e to the horizontal axis, v = v sin e, i.e.' the pro-
jection of V on to the vertical axis.
In a synchronous machine, all the sinusoidally-
varying quantities (voltage, current, etc.) can be re-
presented by phasors rotating together at synchronous
speed. The rotating phasor diagram can be thought
of as a snapshot of a set of phasors which all rotate
together while maintaining the relationships to each
other.
In a three-phase machine, with balanced electrical
output, conditions in one phase are repeated exactly
in the other two, with time delays of 11(3f) and 2/
(3f). For clarity, one phase is chosen, and its phasors
are taken as representative of the phase quantities
for all the other phases in a diagram of rotating
phasors.
2.6 Phasor diagrams
2.6.1 Rated voltage, no stator current, open-
circuit conditions
Let a phase voltage be represented by the phasor
V (Fig 6. 7). Since it is the rate of change of flux
density which produces V, the phasor for flux den-
sity, B, is drawn 90 out-of-phase with V. The
MMF, F, producing this flux density is in phase
with B.
I
I
I
I
I
I
------
.. -----...
i
PHASEC
\
\
\
\
\
\
\PHASE B
\
\
INSTANTANEOUS
VOLTAGE
v
v
0.005
I
I
I
I
I
/
FIG. 6.6 Rotating phasors
Vbf
Synchronous generator theory
v = Vsin (21rf) t
= Vsin 9
I
.... - ,.
/''
/ PHASE B
0.015
8 , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - ~ ~ ~
b = Bsm (100n) t
v = Vs1n (100nj t
v
0
FIG. 6.7 Phasors for open-circuit conditions
453
The generator
2.6.2 Rated voltage, rated stator current and
rated power factor '
If the power factor is 'expressed as cos , is the
angle between the voltage and current phasors, as
shown in Fig 6.8 for a lagging power factor.
Current circulating in the stator winding results in
voltage drops: IR due to the winding resistance R, in
phase with I, and IXe due to the winding 'leakage
reactance', Xe, lagging I by 90. R is negligibly small,
and the resistive voltage drop is neglected henceforth.
An 'internal' voltage E must be generated in the
winding such that after subtracting (phasorially) the
leakage-reactance drop, the rated voltage V is pro-
duced at the terminals.
In order to generate E, flux density Be and MMF
Fe are required, such that the voltage, flux and MMF
phasor triangles are all similar. The physical meaning
of this is discussed later.
Current in the three-phase stator winding produces
its own MMF, Fd, which acts in the same direction
as Fxe An MMF, F, must be provided, such that,
when the Fd component is subtracted vectorially,
the resultant is Fe. This is achieved by increasing the
rotor winding current and by the rotor moving ahead
of its open-circuit alignment, by the 'load angle', o,
as shown.
This demagnetising effect of the stator winding
current is known as armature reaction, and can be
seen from the diagram to be similar in effect (though
much larger in magnitude) to that of the leakage
Be
Chapter 6
reactance. The term synchronous reactance (Xd + Xe)
is used to express this effect, the IXd drop being
added to the IXe drop in the diagrams.
As the lagging power factor of the load worsens,
i.e., cos is smaller and larger, the required MMF,
F, increases, i.e., more current is required in the
rotor winding (Fig 6.9 (a}}. Conversely, if the lagging
power factor increases or goes beyond unity into the
leading regime, the rotor current must be reduced
(Fig 6.9 (b)).
2.7 Torque
The mechanical torque provided by the prime mover
is balanced by an electromagnetic torque caused by
the interaction of the magnetic flux and the current
flowing in the stator windings.
IXd
The rotor shaft must be designed to transmit rated
torque, and the stator must be able to withstand a
similar torque reaction. In practice, the design must
cope with the very much higher torques produced
during certain fault conditions.
2.8 Three-phase windings
The voltages and currents produced in each phase
must be identical, apart from their phase displace-
Fd
MMF P H ~ . S O R S ROTATED BACK
THROUGH 90 TO SHOW
SIMILARITY OF TRIANGLE TO
VOLTAGE PHASORS
FIG. 6.8 Phasor diagram for load conditions
454
PROPORTIONAL
TO F
IXd
Ia) Lagg1ng current:
Exc1tat10n current on
load lS proportional to F
PROPORTIONAL
TOF
Synchronous generator theory
(b) Leading curr,ent
Rotor angle h larqer
load excttatron current smaller
IXd
v
FIG. 6.9 Phasor diagrams for lagging and leading loads
ments, in order to avoid the damaging effects of
unbalance.
In this and the next section, a complete two-pole
generator is considered, for simplicity. In a machine
with 2n poles, a two-pole segment is exactly repeated
n times, and can be considered as electromagnetically
equivalent to a two-pole machine.
An economic design of stator winding has many
conductors connected in series, so the individual con-
ductor voltages are additive. Each 'go' conductor is
connected to a 'return' conductor, acted on by the
pole of opposite polarity, and thence to a third con-
ductor adjacent to the first, and so on through the
phase. The 'return' conductors are disposed in a layer
displaced radially from the 'go' conductor, both in
the slots and in the end region.
The usual and most economic arrangement is for
the winding of one phase to occupy one-sixth of the
circumference, with a parallel section of the same
phase occupying the position opposite
(see Fig 6.10).
2.9 Harmonics: distributed and chorded
winding
A cylindrical rotor generator has a circular rotor
profile which cannot be shaped to produce a sin-
usoidal flux density variation (as can, approximately,
a salient pole on a multi-polar slow speed generator).
The flux density variation in a turbine-generator is
of a stepped rectangular form (Fig 6.11), which con-
tains a fundamental with odd harmonics of significant
amplitude. The voltage induced in a single stator con-
ductor would contain similar unacceptable harmonic
components.
In a series-connected winding occupying several
adjacent slots in the stator, the voltage induced in
one conductor will be displaced from that induced
in its neighbour by the electrical angle subtended
by the two slots, a in Fig 6.12. The sum of n such
voltages is V + 2Vcos a + 2Vcos 2a + ... + 2Vcos
(n - 1 )a if n is odd, or, 2Vcos a/2 + 2Vcos 3a/2
+ ... 2V cos (2n - 1 )a, if n is even. The ratio of
this to n V is the distribution factor Kd ( < 1).
The effect of distribution on the third harmonic
voltage is to triple the effective angle, so that the
s.ummated voltage is:
V
3
+ 2V
3
cos 3a + 2V
3
cos 6a + etc.
and the resultant third harmonic voltage is very much
reduced. A similar argument applies even more effec-
tively to harmonics of higher order.
455
The generator
STATOR CONDUCTORS
NEAREST TO BORE
/
PHASE C
"SPACES FOR
PARALLELED
PHASE A WINDING
CONNECTION OF PHASES
FIG. 6.10 Arrangement of stator conductors
P ~ . A S E 8
WINDING
SPACE
A somewhat similar effect is produced by the
common practice of chording, or short-pitching. Here
the return conductor is at an angle less than I80
from its connected conductors. If {3 is the angle by
which this falls short of I80 (Fig 6.I3):
the ratio (I - cos{3)12 is the pitch factor, KP (<I)
Hence, in the usual distributed short-pitched winding,
the generated voltage is n VKctKp, the harmonic con-
tent is acceptably small, and the stepped rectangular
flux density wave generates a substantially sinusoidal
voltage of fundamental frequency.
456
Chapter 6
3 Turbine-generator components: the
rotor
The rotor must carry the excitation winding, provide
a low reluctance path for the magnetic flux, and
transfer the rated torque from the turbine to the
electromagnetic reaction at the air gap. Steel is the
only material which meets these requirements
economically. A single steel forging is used, from
which the central cylindrical body and its supporting
shafts are machined.
3.1 Rotor body and shaft -
The high rotational speed produces large centrifugal
forces in the rotor body, and a high-strength steel is
necessary. Typical alloying constituents are:
2.50Jo nickel 0.250Jo carbon
I.2 OJo chrome 0.2 OJo silicon
0. 60Jo manganese 0.1 OJo vanadium
0.50Jo molybdenum
The steel is vacuum-degassed, which minimises the
possibility of hydrogen-initiated cracking, and the
forging is hardened by reheating and quenching under
closely controlled conditions. Rough machining is
followed by a stress-relieving heat treatment.
Mechanical properties as high as 800 MN/m
2
at 0.20Jo
proof stress, with 940 MN/m
2
ultimate tensile strength,
are obtained in forgings for the largest
ratings. A reduction in area of 400Jo, elongation 15 OJo,
Charpy V-notch impact level of 40 Joules, and a
fracture-appearance transition temperature of 20C,
are typical of this material, though specified pro-
perties are allowed to differ at different parts of the
forging and in different test piece orientations. Stresses
in a rotor at 3000 r/min limit the practicable diameter
to about 1150 mm.
The rotor is examined ultrasonically from the sur-
face at various stages, and any significant defects
are reported. These are most likely to occur near the
cylindrical axis, and may be cleared by machining a
central axial hole, not usually larger than 100 mm
diameter, through all or part of the rotor. The critical
defect size is established from considerations of crack
growth by fatigue, recognising that there will be- a
small, but significant, once-per-revolution alternating
bending stress superimposed on the steady stress.
Magnetic permeability tests are carried out at flux
densities up to 2.2 tesla, i.e., well into magnetic
saturation.
The rough-turned forging is further turned by the
generator manufacturer. The winding slots are then
cut, using accurately indexed milling cutters working
at a controlled cut rate to minimise residual surface
stresses (see Fig 6.I4).
l
'
I
"
'
FUNDAMENTAL
DEVELOPED VIEW
SHOWING STEPPED MMF WAVE
AND FUNDAMENTAL SINE WAVE
Turbine-generator components: the rotor
MMF DUE
TO COIL
FIG. 6.11 The stepped magneto motive force wave
The shape and size of the winding slots are deter-
mined by an optmisation process, taking into account
the following factors, and considering a radial cir-
cumferential section:
The more ampere-turns the rotor can carry, the
smaller the generator. Together with the need for
keeping a low current density to minimise the loss
and temperature, as much of the area as possible
must be allocated to the winding copper.
The winding insulation must be mechanically strong
to withstand centrifugal and bending stresses, and
stable to withstand load cycling. Adequate electrical
457
~ -
l
~
4.'. " - I ~
i
The generator
SLOT n
SLOT:
Chapter 6
v
THE EFFECT ON THE
FUNDAMENTAL VOLTAGES
THE EFFECT ON THE
THIRD HARMONIC VOLTAGES
FIG. 6.12 The effect of distributing the stator winding over several slots
tracking distances from the winding to the rotor
body must be provided, since the winding is in
direct contact with the ventilating gas, and dirt
and oil may collect on insulation surfaces. The
insulation must therefore be more substantial than
the operating voltage of about 600 V would require
in other applications.
Passages for an appropriate flow of cooling gas
must be provided in the winding copper section,
and also in the steel body section in some designs,
to ensure that the specified temperature rise is
not exceeded.
The magnetic flux in the rotor is unidirectional
and normally substantially constant, so there is
no loss due to magnetic hysteresis or eddy currents,
but there must be an adequate magnetic section
particularly in the area of the winding slots. A
high degree of saturation in the teeth would result
in unacceptably high excitation requirements and
losses.
458
The whole centrifugal force of the slot contents, the
retaining wedge and the tooth is resisted by the
narrowest section of the tooth, normally the tooth
root. There must be an adequate safety margin
between the maximum tooth stress at overspeed and
the proof stress of the steel.
The optimisation of these conflicting requirements
has led, in the latest designs, to a departure from
parallel-sided slots to slots of trapezoidal section (Fig
6.15).
The winding slots are cut in diametrically opposite
pairs, equally pitched over about two-thirds of the
periphery, leaving the pole faces without winding slots.
The resulting difference in stiffness in the two per-
pendicular axes would produce a twice-per-revolution
vibration; this is avoided by cutting equalising slots
in the pole faces (Fig 6.16). These are either similar to
the winding slots and are subsequently filled with short
steel blocks to restore the magnetic properties, or
slits cut with a large diameter cutter in the radial
/
/
/
- ~
/
Turbine-generator components: the rotor
Jrl
vs
EFFECT ON
FUNDAMENTAL VOLTAGE
EFFECT ON
THIRD HARMONIC
VOLTAGE
EFFECT ON
FIFTH HARMONIC
VOLTAGE
FIG. 6. I 3 The effect of shurt-pi1ching the stator winding
circumferential plane, at intervals axially along the
pole faces.
During a three-phase sudden short-circut at the
generator terminals, torque peaks of four to five
times full-load torque are experienced between the
LP turbine and generator shafts. The generator rotor
shaft and coupling at the turbine end must be designed
to withstand this peak torque with an adequate safety
margin. The coupling is usually shrunk on and keyed
or dowelled, and has oil-injection grooves for removal.
A proportion of the coupling bolts are fitted, the
others have a clearance to the coupling holes.
Journal and journal-type shaft seal surfaces are
ground and polished to a high degree of circularity.
Overall, good surface finishes and absence of sharp
blemishes are called for. Radii are made as large as
practicable to minimise stress concentrations.
3.2 Rotor winding
Winding coils are assembled into pairs of rotor slots
symmetrically disposed about the pole axis, but in
opposite senses in the two poles, i.e., clockwise cur-
rent flow for the 'north' pole and counterclockwise
for the 'south' pole.
Because the rotor winding slots are cut radially,
it is not possible to fit a preformed coil into the slots
since the span of a coil is smaller the lower down
the slot it is, and considerable distortion would be
required to get the coils in. Each turn is therefore
assembled separately, either as half-turns or in more
pieces, with joints either at the centres of the end-
turns or at the corners, being brazed together after
each turn is assembled, to form a series-connected
coil. Hard, high conductivity copper, with a small silver
content to improve its creep properties, is used for
the coils. Depending on the method of ventilation,
rectangular sections with grooves and/ or slots, or
tubular rectangular sections are used. When a trape-
zoidal slot is used, the sections may be of several
different sizes. One or two turns in the width -of the
slot are normally used. Radially-aligned slots provide
gas exit passages (see Fig 6.17).
The coils are not individually wrapped with insula-
tion. Instead, slot liners of moulded glassfibre, or a
composite of glassfibre and a more flexible insulating
material, insulate the coils from the sides and bottoms
of the slots, and a block of insulation separates the
top turn from the wedge. Between each turn, thin
separators of glassfibre or similar material, serve to
insulate against the 10 V or so between adjacent turns
459
The generator
Chapter 6
FIG. 6.14 Cutting winding ;lots in a rotor
(Fig 6.18). Thick layers of insulation material on the
inside surfaces of the end ring and end disc insulate
them from the end windings. The spaces between
turns in the end windings are partially filled with
insulating blocks, which ensure that the coils do not
distort, and which contain holes and passages for
the transfer of ventilating gas.
Because direct current circulates in the winding,
there are no eddy current or other frequency related
losses in the rotor winding. The resistance (I
2
R) loss,
amounting to 2 MW at rated load, together with the
rotational (windage) loss, must be dissipated, and the
average winding temperature must not be allowed
to exceed ll5C. A cooling system is used, in which
hydrogen is in direct contact with the copper con-
ductors, for optimum heat transfer. The high ro-
tational speed produces a pressure head through the
rotor slots which causes hydrogen to flow from both
ends, under the end windings and axially through sub-
slots in the rotor and channels in the coils, whence
it emerges radially through the wedges into the airgap.
460
Fans mounted on the rotor, primarily to circulate
hydrogen through the stator, assist the natural flow
through the rotor (see Fig 6.19).
The ends of the winding are connected to flexible
leads, made from many thin copper strips, which run
radially inwards onto the shaft at the exciter end.
These leads are housed in two shallow slots in the
shaft and are retained by wedges. At a point axially
beyond the end windings, the leads connect with
radial copper studs and thence to D-shaped copper
bars housed in the shaft bore. Seals against hydrogen
leakage are provided on the radial studs. From the
D-leads, connections are taken either to sliprings
. or to the shaft-mounted exciter connections in a
brushless machine (see Fig 6.17).
3.3 Rotor end rings
Thick end rings are used to restrain the rotor end
windings from flying out under the action of centri-
Turbine-generator components: the rotor
HIGH
\ _ _ _ . . . . = ~ MECHANICAL
STRESS
MAGNETIC
FLUX
FIG. 6.15 Optimisation of a rotor section
fugal force. For electromagnetic reasons, these rings
have traditionally been made from non-magnetic steel,
typically .a 1807o Mn, 4% Cr austenitic steel. A 0.2%
proof stress of 1000 MN/m
2
is available to cope with
the high operating stresses. A ring is machined from
a single forging, and is attached to the end of the
rotor body with a shrink fit designed to provide a
small residual interference at 20% overspeed. The
material has proved to be liable to stress-corrosion
cracking at the stresses involved, and all the surfaces ex-
cept the shrink fit are given a protective finish to
ensure that hydrogen, water vapour, etc., does not
have access to the surfaces. Even so, it is recom-
mended that rings are removed occasionally for de-
tailed surface crack detection using a fluorescent
dye. Ultrasonic scanning is not entirely satisfactory,
because of the coarse grain structure, particularly
where the shape is complex.
An austenitic steel, containing 18% Mn 18% Cr,
has recently been developed which has shown virtual im-
munity to stress-corrosion cracking in exhaustive
tests, while maintaining other properties at least as
good as the older material. This alloy is being used in
new machines and for replacement rings, eliminating
the need for pe;iodic inspection.
The end ring is prevented from moving axially
either by means of lugs mating with similar lugs on
the rotor body, or by small spring-loaded plungers
locating into grooves (see Fig 6.20). In both these
designs, the ring must be rotated through a small
angle, when fully home axially, in order to lock. In
a different design, a screwed ring is used to pull the
461
The generator
462
ROTOR BLOWER
TURBINE
HALF COUPLING
INERTIA SLITS
WINDING SLOTS
AND WEDGES
FIG. 6.16 Stiffness compensation
END BELL
Chapter 6
SLIPRING
TERMINAL STUD
-l'>
Q')
w
POLE SLOT
END WEDGE
POLE FACE
DAMPING WINDING
POLE FACE
ROTOR
-=:_1'':' ..
___ .,_ _, """ . _ /-, = I I
-7=---:-----
.;;
.,)
.;------
_)
-' J
"
1 "' '
Ill
Ill
)
')
,
....... .......-
'l)
::-_:,


'l
"l
..

-.:.:._. ---::;:_
WINDING
VENTILATION HOLES
BALANCING
PLUG HOLES
DAMPING
BARANDTAG
COOLING GAS FLOW
WEIGHT
FIG. 6.17 Rotor winding
END WINDING
SUPPORT BLOCK
-,
RADIAL AXIAL LEAD
CONNECTION
INSULATING TUBE
CONNECTING
RING
RADIAL
CONNECTION BOLT
EXCQTER It
END
L
INSULATING
SEPARATOR
--;
c
""'
Q:
:::l
Cll
I
co
Cll
:::l
Cll
Ol
.....
0
(')
0
3
"0
0
:::l
Cll
:::l
.....
(/)
.....
:r
Cll
""' 0
.....
0
""'
~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
The generator
FIG. 6.18 Rotor slot
EPOXIDE GLASS STR\PS
EPOXIDE GLASS
CAPPING
DOUBLE STRAP
COPPER COIL TURNS
NYLON PAPER
INSULATION STRIPS
BETWEEN TURNS
EPOXIDE GLASS
SLOT LINER
ring through its final few millimetres, and this also
locks it circumferentially.
The ring must be heated to about 300C to expand
it sufficiently for the shrink surface to pass over its
mating area on the rotor. The heat is applied by a
special cylindrical electrical heater. If a gas heater is
used, the ring surface is protected from the direct
flame by a thin metal cover.
The inner diameter of the ring is machined with
464
Chapter 6
a small taper to facilitate assembly and removal. It
is insulated from the end winding with either a
moulded-in glass-based liner or a loose cylindrical
sleeve.
The outboard end of an end ring is partially closed
by a shrunk-on annular steel disc which encloses the
end wnding. Clearance between the end winding and
the shaft allows hydrogen to pass into entry ports
in the winding copper. No contact between the out-
board end of the ring and the shaft is permissible,
since the shaft flexure could promote fatigue and
fretting damage at the interfaces. The end disc com-
monly contains facilities for adjusting the mechanical
balance of the rotor.
3.4. Wedges and dampers
The winding slot contents are retained by a wedge,
which must be designed to withstand the crushing
stress on its lands and the bending stress across its
width, bearing in mind that it contains holes or slots
through which hydrogen passes. It must also be non-
magnetic in order to minimise flux leakage around
the rotor circumference, and to ensure a reasonable reac-
tance value.
Extruded aluminium section is generally used, ma-
chined in the regions of high stress. If short axial
lengths are used, the potentiality for localised crack
initiation in the rotor teeth exists. One continuous
wedge per slot is therefore commonly used, although
these are more difficult to fit.
During conditions of rapidly changing flux, for ex-
ample, during system faults, or when an alternat-
ing flux links the rotor 'during unbalanced electrical
loading, when negative phase sequence currents and
fluxes occur, current is induced in the surface of
the rotor. Because the 'skin depth' of the magnetic
rotor steel is about 1 mm whereas that of the non-
magnetic wedges is an order of magnitude greater,
current flows preferentially in the wedges, which
form a 'damper winding' analogous to the rotor cage
of an induction motor. The wedges are of suffi-
cient cross-sectional area to carry the current cor-
responding to the expected unbalanced load, without
damage due to overheating, but the areas of current
transfer into the end rings (which act as the short-
circuiting rings) have to be carefully designed. Thin cop-
per sheets with 'tongues' fitting under the ends
of the wedges form an interleaved ring under the
inboard end of the end ring, and assist in the avoid-
ance of localised areas of preferential current transfer
and hot spots.
In pole faces having axial compensating slots, a
similar arrangement is provided. In those with cross-
pole slits, a few very shallow axial slots are cut to
accommodate copper damper strips, which are re-
tained by wedges, to transfer the surface current across
,, ,'
SEAL FACE
LANDING
STOP KEY
OUTBOARD
END
ROTOR SHAFT
VANE
Turbine-generator components: the rotor
BACK PLATE
INBOARD
END
KEY
VENTILATION
SLOT
BALANCE
WEIGHT
FIG. 6.19 Rotor fan
the slits, and prevent hot spots at the ends of the
slits.
3.5 Sliprings, brushgear and shaft earthing
Connections are taken from the D-leads in the bore,
through radial copper connectors (which may have
back-up hydrogen seals) and flexible connections, onto
the sliprings (Fig 6.21). For a 660 MW generator,
the rated excitation current is about 5000 A, and
sliprings must have a large surface area and run cool
in order to transfer this current satisfactorily. One
design uses two sliprings of the same polarity in
parallel. The ring surface is grooved and drilled to im-
prove its surface cooling.
The brushgear shown in Fig 6.22 is arranged with
several brushes and holders on one of several re-
movable brackets, each of which can be withdrawn
for brush replacement while running on-load, if spe-
cial precautions are observed (see Fig 6.22 inset).
Brush pressure is maintained by constant pressure
springs. A brush life of at least six months should
be obtained.
The brushgear is housed in a separate compart-ment
of the excitation housing, separately ventilated by a
shaft-mounted fan so that brush dust is not distri-
buted into other excitation components. Small leakages
of hydrogen past the connection seals which might
accumulate in the brushgear compartments during pro-
longed shutdown periods, are safely diluted by the
fan on start-up before excitation current is applied. Win-
dows in the cover permit easy inspection of the
brushgear.
465
The generator
Chapter 6
FIG. 6.20 Rotor end ring
Monitoring of excitation current and voltage and
rotor winding temperature by resistance measurement,
is simply achieved in a generator with sliprings, using
a current shunt and voltage connections in one of
the excitation cubicles. Rotor earth fault detection,
and the application of tests such as the recurrent
surge method for shorted-turn detection, are also
simply arranged.
Where no main excitation sliprings are fitted (Fig
6.23), signal may be transmitted from the shaft, via
telemetry. Alternatively, a set of light current slip rings
and brushgear may be provided for signal monitoring
and protection purposes.
466
It is normal for a large generator to produce an
on-load voltage of 10- SO V between its two shaft
ends, due to magnetic dissymmetry and other causes.
This voltage would drive .:urrent axially through the
rotor body, returning through bearings and journals,
causing damage to their surfaces, and insulation bar-
riers are provided to prevent such current circulation.
These need only be at one end, the exciter end, but
must be present wherever the shaft would otherwise con-
tact earthed metal, for example, at bearings, seals, oil
scrapers, oil pipes and gear-driven pumps. In
some designs, two layers of insulation are provided,
with a 'floating' metallic component between them,
.)>.
0)
-....1
SLIPRING
CONNECTION TUBE
O'RING
LOCKING PLATE
'0' RING ,
INSULATING
ROTOR SHAFT
SLIP RING
AXIAL LEAD TO
SLIPRING 'A' & 'D' ----
AXIAL LEAD TO
SLIPRING 'B' & 'C'
COMPRESSION RING
/
LOCKPLATE
, SLIPRING CONNECTION STRIP
SLIPRING CONNECTION RING
SLIPRING AXIAL LEAD
INSULATION UNDER SLIPRING
SEALING GASKET
COMPRESSION PLATE
METHOD OF CONNECTING SLIPRINGS IN PARALLEL TO AXIAL LEADS
Fie. 6.21 Sliprings and connections
LOCKING SCREW
PLUG
-i
c
...,
S!.
:::l
CD
I
<0
CD
:::l
CD
...,
QJ
....
0
0
0
3
"0
0
:::l
CD
:::l
......
(/)
......

CD
0
......
0
...,
The generator
BRUSHGEAR SUPPORT BRACKET
PLASTIC RING
j
WASHER
STEEL WASHER
~
INSULATING CAP
~
INSULATING CAP
FLANGED INSULATING BONDED INSULATING
\ BUSHES TUBE
- - - ~ - ---
NUT
STUD
METHOD OF SECURING BRUSHGEAR PALMS
TO BRUSHGEAR SUPPORT BRACKET
~ !
~ i
I
RUBBER GLOVE
INSULATED HANDLE
TUBE SPANNER
LOCKING SCREW
SLIPRING
FtG. 6.22 Slipring brushgear and brushes
468
Chapter 6
, . . . . . _ ~ _ _ _ . . . ~ MILLED RECESS
CARBON BRUSH
A MAIN GENERATOR
I ~ ROTOR SHAFT
I
I
FLEXIBLE
CONNECTOR
Turbine-generator components: the rotor
TOP NUT
R!NG NUT
"''
INSULATION
ROTOR SHAFT END
STUD CONNECTOR
FIG. 6.23 Brushless rotor connections
so that a simple resistance measurement between the
floating component and earth confirms the integrity
of the insulation.
While all the insulation remains clean and intact,
a voltage will exist between the shaft at the exciter
end and earth, and this provides another method
of confirming the integrity of the insulation. A shaft-
riding brush enables this shaft voltage to be moni-
tored, and an alarm is initiated when this falls below
a predetermined value.
It is important that the shaft at the turbine end
of the generator is maintained at earth potential,
and a pair of shaft-riding brushes connected to earth
through a resistor achieves this. Because carbon
brushes develop a high resistance glaze when op-
erated for long periods without current flow, a spe-
cial circuit passes a 'wetting' current into and out
of the shaft through the brushes; this circuit also
detects when brush contact is lost (Fig 6.24). A
different scheme, in which a current carrying contact
TURBINE
GENERATOR
JUNCTION BOX
RESISTORS ---------
MAIN EXCITER
VOLTAGE MONITOR BRUSH
JUNCTION BOX
FUSE HOLDER
LINK
1 OHM
STATION
EARTH
DIAGRAM OF EARTHING BRUSH CONNECTIONS
FIG. 6.24 Shaft earthing and monitoring
469
The generator
or rub anywhere a!ong the turbine-generator shaft
system can be d e t e c t e ~ , has also been used.
3.6 Fans
Fans circulate hydrogen through the stator and coolers.
Identical fans are mounted at each end of the shaft,
each ventilating half the axial length of the generator.
Fans are either of the centrifugal type, with many
vanes in one annular assembly, or of the axial-flow
type in which the propeller vanes may be separate
bolted-on components (Fig 6.25). The diameter over
the blade tips may exceed that of the stator bore,
necessitating the fitting of one fan after the rotor
has been threaded through the stator. Inlet and outlet
conditions are far from ideal, and though stationary
guide vanes are used to reduce swirl, the fan effi-
ciency is low. Noise reduction is not a major concern,
since the massive stator casing is an effective acoustic
barrier.
3.7 Rotor threading and alignment
The rotor must be inserted into the stator bore, which
is about 250 mm larger than the rotor diameter. This
is accomplished by supporting the inserted end of
the rotor body on a thick steel skidplate which slides
in the stator bore, while supporting the outboard end
from a crane (Fig 6.26). The skidplate spreads the
load over its area and prevents high local pressures
being applied to the stator core laminations. The
rotor and skidplate are pulled in using jacking ar-
rangements until the inboard end emerges and can
also be supported in a sling.
Other methods are also in use; short lengths of
extension shaft which are successively bolted onto
the inboard end enable the rotor to be supported by
Chapter 6
slings throughout the operation. The use of a support
trolley running on wheels of insulation material in
the bore is deprecated because of the core damage it
can cause. Adequate space for rotor insertion and
removal must be provided.
The whole turbine-generator line of rotors is non-
flexibly coupled together and must be allowed to
attain its natural catenary shape if the bearing load-
ings are to be satisfactory. The supports for the
generator (and exciter) rotors must be set up so that
these rotors form part of the catenary. Coupling
alignments are accurately set by the use of bridge
gauges and concentricity checks, and the stator is set
up so that the radial airgap is approximately constant.
The axial position of the rotor train is fixed by
the thrust bearing, which is located in the turbine.
Axial expansion of the turbine rotors downstream of
the thrust face, and of the generator rotor, due to
temperature changes, may amount to 25 mm or more,
and this must be accommodated in bearings, seals,
fan baffles, oil scrapers, etc.
3.8 Vibration
Rotors for generators of 500 and 660 MW operating
at 3000 r /min are relatively flexible, and pass through
two main critical speeds (natural resonances in bending)
during run-up to rated speed. Simple two-plane bal-
ancing techniques are not usually adequate to attain
the high degree of balance demanded at speed and
to maintain reasonable vibration levels during run-up
and run-down. Facilities for balancing are therefore
provided along the length of the rotor in the form
of tapped holes in the cylindrical surface, as well
as in the closing discs of the end rings, and in other
locations at the ends.
The rotor is balanced at speeds up to 3000 r/min
in the manufacturer's works. The winding is then
FIG. 6.25 Axial flow fans on rotor
470
Turbine-generator components: the rotor
:1


STAGE 5
11 !1
---.. -...... -..... -.-..-.-. .. --C
(f
I

STAGE 6
FIG. 6.26 Rotor insertion and withdrawal
heated and the rotor is run at 200Jo overspeed. This
subjects the rotor to stresses greater than it would
experience in service, and also causes the winding
and end rings to settle into their final positions.
Trim balancing is then carried out, if found to be
necessary.
Some rotors exhibit a relationship between vibra-
tion amplitude and temperature. A few degrees dif-
ference in temperature between one pole and the
other, due to inequalities in ventilation, for example,
can cause this. If the effect is consistent, it can usu-
ally be partially offset by balancing, so that conditions
at operating temperature are optimised (see Fig 6.27).
Imperfect equalisation of the stiffnesses (see Section
3 .I of this chapter) will cause 100 Hz vibration to
occur, superimposed on the normal 50 Hz. It is im-
portant to distinguish between these components when
presenting or analysing vibration amplitude readings.
A significant crack in the rotor will have a com-
paratively greater effect on the double frequency vibra-
tion component; 'run-down' traces are recorded and
analysed, to provide assurance that no significant
471
The generator
YIBRATION
AMPLITUDE
0
FIRST
CRITICAL
1000
SPEED, rimm
SECOND
CRITICAL
2000
(a) Typ1cal speed-v1bra11on curve
3000
Chapter .6
ORIGINAL HOT
OPERATING POINT
ORIGINAL COLD BALANCE
AFTER OFFSET BALANCE, COLD
(b) Veclor plol ol oltsel balanc1ng
VECTORS REPRESENT AMPLITUDE AND PHASE ANGLE OF
SHAFT DISPLACEMENT OR SINUSOIDAL VELOCITY
FIG. 6.27 Rotor vibration
change has occurred since the previous run down.
Oil whirl in bearings can cause vibration at 25 Hz.
Vibration amplitude and phase are recorded at
generator and exciter bearings by accelerometers
mounted on the bearing supports and by proximity
probes which respond to the shaft movements. Var-
ious degrees of sophistication, up to complete Fourier
analysis, are available.
The torsional resonance of the generator rotor
coupled to the turbine rotors is of the order of
13 Hz. It is important that this is significantly dif-
ferent from the frequency of torsional exciting in-
fluences, of which the excitation and steam governor
control (1-2 Hz), and transmission system resonances
are the most important.
Transient oscillations in torque occur during elec-
trical disturbances, e.g., during switching operations,
lightning strikes, imperfect synchronising events, etc.
Some of the torque cycles may be large enough to
cause plastic deformation in the turbine-end shaft
and at the generator/exciter coupling.
3.9 Bearings and seals
The turbine-end bearing is located in a common ped-
estal with the LP turbine outboard bearing. The ex-
citer-end bearing is either located in the endshield
or in a separate pedestal. The white-metalled bearings
are spherically seated for ease of alignment, are pres-
sure lubricated and are provided with jacking oil tap-
pings. They are similar to the turbine bearings (see
Chapter 1), except that the outboard and exciter bear-
ings are insulated (see Section 3.5 of this chapter),
472
and are connected to the same lubricating oil system.
Seals are provided in both endshields to prevent
the escape of hydrogen along the shafts. Most of
these seals are like small thrust bearings, in which
a non-rotating white-metalled ring bears against a
collar on the shaft (Fig 6.28). Oil fed to an annular
groove in the ring flows radially inwards across the
face into a collection space at frame gas pressure,
while the radially outward flow is collected in an
atmospheric air compartment. The seal ring must be
held against the rotating collar, and must therefore
be able to move axially to accommodate the thermal
expansion of the shaft.
Some machines have seals which resemble small
journal bearings (Fig 6.29), in which oil is applied
centrally and flows axially inboard to encounter the
hydrogen pressure and axially outboard into an at-
mospheric compartment. Such a seal does not have
to move axially, since the shaft can move freely inside
it. Details of the seal oil system are given in Section
5.3 of this chapter.
3.10 Size and weight
A rotor for a 660 MW generator is up to 16.5 m
long and weighs up to 75 tonnes. It is provided with
a cradle for transport. The rotor must never be al-
lowed to be supported on its end rings; the weight
must be taken by the body surface leaving the end
rings free. Lifting slings must only be used over the
body length. It must be protected from water con-
tamination, while in transit or storage, by the use of
a weatherproof container with an effective moisture
DIAPHRAGM OUTER
RETAINING RING
Turbine-generator components: the stator
INSULATING RINGS
\ .
\ DIAPHRAGM INNER
DIAPHRAGM \ RETAINING RING
\ I
\ I
OUTER END COVER
y
SUPPORT KEY
LOWER BEARING PAD
-JOINT SCREW
WHITE METAL
SEAL FACE ~ - -
FIG. 6.28 Thrust-type shaft seal
absorbent. If left inside an open stator, dry air must
be circulated.
Protection applied to journals, sliprings, etc., must
be removed before operation. Blanking tape and
collars, designed to prevent ingress of foreign ma-
terial into the winding, must also be removed before
operation.
4 Turbine-generator components: the
stator
The stator must carry the output winding, provide a
low reluctance path for the magnetic flux, and with-
stand the torque produced, both at rated load and
during faults.
When generators rated 300 MW and above were
first specified, it was found that the smallest prac-
ticable stator core, assembled into the lightest pos-
sible casing was too heavy for transport by road
in the UK, within the statutory limitation of that
time. Since it is not practical to design a core in
sections for on-site assembly, and complete core
building and winding on site has disadvantages, a
design evolved in which the core and windings were
assembled into a skeletal core frame, which could
be transported. The completed core and core frame
assembly was inserted into a substantial outer casing
for in-works testing c'md finally at site. Although
one-piece stators for 660 MW generators can now
be transported, the two-piece concept has been con-
tinued (see Fig 6.1).
4. 1 Stator core
The core provides paths for the magnetic flux from
one rotor pole around the outside of the stator wind-
ing and back into the other pole.
As the rotor rotates, carrying its flux distribution
with it, all points in the stator core experience a
sinusoidally-varying 50 Hz flux density. This would
induce a 50 Hz voltage of about 700 V axially in a
solid core, and to prevent large circulating currents
with their associated losses, the core is made of thin
steel plates coated with an insulating material; the
voltage induced axially in each plate is about 50 m V.
The sheet steel from which core plates are cut
conforms to BS601, which specifies dimensional lim-
its, magnetic properties, silicon content (normally 3 OJo)
and state of annealing, and test methods. Sheet thick-
nesses used are 0.35 and 0.5 mm, with a specific
473
The generator
GAS SIDE OIL --
WIPERS
SEAL HOUSING
SEAL RETAINING RING
SEAL CARRIER RING
SEAL OIL DRAIN
!GAS SIDE!
- AIR SIDE OIL FLOW
- GAS SIDE OIL FLOW
Chapter 6
SEAL
SHAFT
FIG. 6.29 Double-flow ring seal
total loss value at 1.5 tesla and 50 Hz of 3.55 W /kg,
or better.
Core plates are cut to form segments of an annular
ring, twelve segments per ring being common. Wind-
ing slots, location notches and holes for ventilation
(if required) are cut in one pressing operation. The
use of dedicated dies is justified, since nearly a quar.-
ter of a million core plates are used in each 660 MW
generator. The punched plates are ground to remove
edge burrs, and are then coated all over with one or
more thin layers of a baked-on insulating varnish.
With the core frame axis vertical, and one core
end plate in position at the lower end of the frame,
a ring of core plates is assembled, located on dove-
tail-shaped keys on the inside periphery of the frame.
The radial butt joint between plates has as small
a gap as possible to minimise magnetic flux distor-
tion. The next ring of core plates is assembled so
that its butt joints do not coincide with those of
adjacent rings (see Fig 6.30).
Gaps in the build-up of core plates are created,
474
where required, for the passage of cooling gas, by
building in a ring of thicker plates to which small
steel bars have been welded. These bars are aligned
in a mainly radial orientation, and serve to distribute
the gas through the ducts. Holes in the plates are
arranged to be in axial alignment and thus form axial
ventilation ducts in some designs. At intervals during
core building, heavy pressure is applied to consolidate
the assembly of plates.
When the build is almost complete, and with pres-
sure applied at the top end, the core is subjected to
a peripheral 50 Hz magnetic flux, which causes the
plates to shake down further, following which the
space created is filled with more core plates and the
top end plate is assembled and pulled down. Core
flux tests are also carried out on the completed core,
with a flux density in the back of the core 90-lOOOJo
of the rated value, in order to demonstrate freedom
from significant faults (Fig 6. 31). If sufficient acci-
dental contacts between adjacent plates occur, it is
possible for current to flow, causing local hot spots.
- ~
Turbine-generator components: the stator
FIG. 6.30 Stator core assembly
An infra-red camera is used to scan the stator bore
for areas of higher than normal temperature during
such a test.
Some designs include a bonding agent between
layers of core plates to ensure that individual plates,
and particularly the teeth, do not vibrate independ-
ently. Any wavyness in core build-up is corrected by
the use of suitable packing material.
Grain-oriented sheet steel, whose magnetic pro-
perties are deliberately made different in the two
perpendicular axes, is used in some designs (Fig 6.32).
Flux in a circumferential direction behind the winding
slots is arranged to coincide with the low loss orienta-
tion, which enables the back of the core to be op-
erated at a higher flux density than with non-oriented
core steel, for the same specific loss. The opposite is
true for the teeth, where the flux is radial and the
specific loss is higher than normal. A reduction in
outside diameter should be possible from magnetic
considerations, but the mechanical properties are ad-
versely affected. Core plates of grain-oriented steel
must be specially annealed after punching.
The net axial length of magnetic steel presented to
the flux is less than the measured stacked length by
a factor between 0.9 and 0.95, known as the stacking
factor. This is because of the varnish layers (and
adhesive if present), and the air spaces between core
plate layers due to uneven plate thickness and im-
perfect consolidation.
Slots for the stator winding conductors (bars) extend
radially from the bore. These slots have parallel sides,
so that the deep bars can be inserted radially, the
teeth between them therefore increase in section with
increasing radial distance. The flux density i ~ the
teeth is therefore greatest at the bore, at the tooth
tips, and is usually about 2 tesla for an acceptable
speci fie loss in the teeth. Since the slots and teeth
are roughly equally wide at the gap, the mean peak
flux density in the air gap is typically 1 tesla. The
peak flux density in the core back is typically 1.5
tesla. Some leakage flux in the end winding regions
penetrates into the ends of the core. The axial com-
ponent of this flux induces alternating voltages in the
teeth, and current flows around the teeth, as shown
475
---------------
The generator Chapter 6
FIG. 6.31 Flux test on completed core
(see also colour photograph between pp 482 and 483)
in Fig 6.33, causing unacceptable additional losses.
To reduce this effect, one or more radial slots are
punched in the teeth for a few centimetres at the
ends of the core, referred to as Pistoye slots.
The rotating magnetic field results in a rotating
radially-inward force being applied to the core across
a diameter, causing an ovalising distortion moving
synchronously. The strength of the core and core
frame assembly must be able to resist this force with
minimum strain, which is transmitted to the windings
and the outer casing as a 100 Hz vibration. It is also
important that the assembly has no resonances near
to the exciting frequency.
Hysteresis and eddy current losses in the core form
a significant proportion of the total loss. In UK
designs, the heat produced by these losses is removed
by hydrogen circulating radially in the ducts and
axially through holes, where these are provided (Fig
6.34). Thermocouples are built into the core, parti-
cularly in r e g i o ~ s expected to be hotter than average,
to ensure that the maximum detected core temperature
does not exceed the specified value. If a hot spot
exists, or develops in service, it is unlikely that there
will be a thermocouple sufficiently close to it to
provide an unambiguous alarm. An occasional flux
test, when opportunity occurs, offers a better chance
of hot spot detection. A deep-seated hot spot may
be detectable by observing the rate of rise of tern-
476
perature at the bore, as well as the final steady
temperature.
As noted earlier, if accidental contacts occur (at
the tooth tips or due to burrs at, or damage to, the
slot surfaces), a circuit may possibly exist for a cir-
culating current. The current level depends, inter alia,
on the contact resistances between the back of the
core plates and the core frame bars on which the
plates are assembled. In some designs, all these bars
(except one which earths the core) are covered with
insulating material, minimising the chance of current
circulation (Fig 6.35). In others, there is no insu-
lation, and the contact resistance is not only random,
but may vary with load as the torque reaction is
transferred, causing a hot spot in the core to 'switch'
on and off.
4.2 Core frame
The fabricated steel core frame is designed to be as
light as possible consistent with its required functions,
as previously explained. As well as the functions
already noted, it must be able to resist elastically the
axial pressure applied to the core.
A core end plate assembly consists of a thick disc
of non-magnetic steel, with (usually) separate non-
magnetic 'fingers' to support the teeth. Because bolts
DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION OF MAGNETIC FLUX
IN STATOR CORE, OPEN-CIRCUIT CONDITIONS
AREA OF
MODERATE
FLUX DENSITY
AREA OF
HIGH FLUX
DENSITY
ROLLING DIRECTION
GRAIN-ORIENTED
CORF SEGMENT
FIG. 6.32 Flux in stator core
j
t HIGH
MAGNETIC
LOSS
DIRECTION
passing through the core would have high voltages
induced in them, the only permissible axial members
are located outside the core back; these include the
core plate assembly bars. In order to apply pressure
uniformly over the core ends with such an arrange-
ment, the end plates are machined with tapered inner
faces, so that when they are pulled towards each
other they distort until they present a truly plane
surface to the core, at which point the design pressure
is being applied to the core (Fig 6.36).
The core plate assembly bars are loose as the
core is assembled, and are progressively welded to
the frame as core building proceeds, using location
plates. Thus, although the core frame may be stress-
Turbine-generator components: the stator
relieved, these additional welds are not.
Even though the axial frame members are outside
the core diameter, they link with the low level of
leakage flux existing in this area, and voltages are in-
duced axially along them. Near to the ends, elec-
tromagnetic end-effects tend to force the resulting
currents into the core and, if the assembly bars are
not insulated, core back burning and welding can oc-
cur. To prevent this, copper short-circuiting connec-
tions are fitted between assembly bars at the core
ends. Where the bars are insulated, the currents flow
into and around the core end plate.
The outer surfaces of the core end plates are
covered by conducting screens of copper or alumi-
nium, about 10 mm thick (see Fig 6.37, end plate flux
shield). Leakage flux impinging onto these screens
sets up circulating currents within them which prevent
the penetration of an unacceptable amount of flux
into the core end plate or the ends of the core. The
high conductivity and good surface exposure to
cooling hydrogen ensures that screen temperatures are
not excessive. The leakage flux is produced by a
combination of stator and rotor MMFs, and there-
fore varies with load angle, or, roughly, with power
factor, the effect on the screens being most intense
at leading power factors.
The core end plate assembly carries the end winding
support structure, and the design must ensure that
axial forces due to differential thermal expansion be-
tween core and winding do not force the end plates
into a position where core pressure is significantly
reduced.
The completed core and core frame assembly must
be jacked into position inside the casing, where it is
supported on feet with resilient mountings, or by flat
vertical support plates, either of which provide some
attenuation of vibration. The holding down bolts must
be designed to withstand the overturning torque pro-
duced during a sudden three-phase fault at the ter-
minals, which may be four to six times the full-load
torque.
4.3 Stator winding
The stator winding must be able to carry the rated
current without exceeding specified temperatures and
be able to withstand the voltage to earth induced in
it. The currents and voltages in the three phases
must be exactly the same, but with a 27r/3 time dis-
placement for balanced conditions, and so the wind-
ings associated with each phase must be identical
but separated by 27r/3 around the stator circumfer-
ence. It is convenient in large two-pole generators
to arrange each phase winding in two identical paral-
lel circuits, located diametrically opposite each other,
and, because they are influenced by rotor poles of
opposite senses, connected back-to-back with each
other (see Fig 6.10).
477
The generator
Chapter 6
COOLANT MANIFOLD
WINDING FLANGED JOINT COOLANT INLET
CORE
CORE FRAME CORE END LEAD WINDING LEAD1
PLATE CLAMP _,
I -
BLANKING I -,
PLATE
1
lie-,-:,
1 ==j-
I
I
I-
1
JC>-----Cr

li
li
AXIAL
EXTENT OF
PISTOYE
SLOTTING
,
I
MAIN
FLUX
SUPPORT
SADDLE
I
CURRENT
INDUCED BY
AXIAL FLUX
J
AXIAL VIEW OF
STATOR TEETH
FLEXIBLE HOSE
INSULATING SLEEVE
PISTOYE
SLOT
FIG. 6.33 Pistoye slots in stator teeth
Slots must therefore accommodate six similar
winding circuits, differing only in phase displacement;
and 42, 48 or 54-slot arangements are commonly used.
A two-layer arrangement is adopted, in which a
winding progresses from a top conductor (bar nearest
the bore) in a slot, bending in two planes after it
emerges from the core to span nearly a quarter of
the circumference. At this point it is connected to a
similar bar which continues the span but on a larger
conical diameter, and re-enters the core as a bottom
conductor almost opposite the first (not exactly op-
posite because of short-pitching). This bottom bar is
then connected, at its other end, to the top bar in
478
the slot next to the previous one, and the winding
continues in this manner until one-sixth of the slots
are filled. Because of short-pitching, some slots. con-
tain a top bar of one phase and a bottom bar of a
different phase.
A 776 MVA, 23.5 kV generator has a rated RMS
current of 19 080 A, i.e., a current of 9540 A per bar.
By cooling with water in contact with the conductor,
a current density of 8 A/mm
2
of cross-sectional area
can be achieved. With a slot width of about 45 mm,
and allowing for insulation, the effective conductor
width is restricted to about 30 mm. Sufficient area
must be allocated for satisfactory water flow, and
Turbine-generator components: the stator
a:
CJ
>-
<(
a:
w
z
w
(C)
w
I
>-
I
0
:::0
0
a:
I
>-
z
CJ
;:::
(.)
w
(f)
>-
a:
it
(f)
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oc.D
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UI
CfJ(f)
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zz
WUJ
00
n
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M
-o
0
.:
479
The generator
480
EARTHING STRAP
INSULATION
CLAMPING POSITION
DETAIL SHOWING CLAMPING AND EARTHING POSITIONS
VIEWED FROM TURBINE END OF CORE
FtG. 6.35 Insulated core frame bars
EARTHING POSITION
CORE
Chapter 6
CORE SUPPORT
B A R S ' ~
CORE
SIDE BEAMS
TRUNNION
MOUNTINGS
FRAME FEET
HOLDING-DOWN
BOLT HOLES
Turbine-generator components: the stator
LONGITUDINAL
BEAMS
JACKING
POINT
EXTENSIONS
FIG. 6.36 Core frame
the radial conductor dimension becomes about 40 mm,
with the overall radial bar dimension about 80 mm.
A current carrying conductor embedded in a nar-
row slot in a magnetic material drives magnetic flux
around itself, mainly confined to the magnetic teeth,
but completing its circuit by crossing the 'airgap'
represented by the slot width, further up the slot than
the conductor (Fig 6.38). If the conductor is viewed
as an assembly of separate strips, it can be seen that
the leakage flux density experienced by each strip
increases linearly with distance from the bottom strip.
This alternating leakage flux induces alternating volt-
ages along the lengths of the strips, in quadrature with
the main voltage, and varying as the square of the
distance of the strip from the slot bottom. If a solid
conductor were used, or if the strips were connected
together at the core ends, these unequal voltages
would circulate current around the bar, causing un-
acceptable eddy current losses and heating.
In order to minimise this effect, the conductor
is divided into strips, which are lightly insulated,
arranged in two or four stacks in the bar width. The
strips are transposed along the length of the bar by
the Roebel method (Fig 6.39), in which each strip oc-
cupies every position in .the stack for an equal axial
length, so that the eddy current voltages are equalised
and no eddy currents circulate between strips. The
effect is not quite nullified since leakage fluxes occur
in the end winding areas also, and some designs use
a transposition of greater than 360 in order that these
end effects shall not be additive.
A differential eddy current voltage still exists bet-
ween the top and bottom of each strip, and current
will flow around it. The loss due to this current varies
as the fourth power of the radial dimension of the
strip, so the incentive is to make the strip very thin.
However, the space required for insulation then
becomes excessive and compromise is needed. Water
is circulated in rectangular section tube, which must
have a considerable depth, and in some designs an op-
timised mixture of tubes and thinner solid strips is
used (see Fig 6.40).
Conductors are made of high conductivity hard-
drawn copper. Each strip or tube has a thin coating
of glassfibre insulation, and is cranked to enable
all the strips in a bar to be assembled with the
Roebel transpositions correctly made. The bar ends
are bent using formers to give the required shape of
end winding. The strips are bound together and the
main insulation is applied; a tape of mica powder
loaded with a synthetic resin, with a glassfibre back-
ing, is wound without breaks along the length of
the bar. The straight part of the bar is pressed in
a heated mould to cure the resin and obtain the
481
.--------------------------------------------
The generator
ENDPLATE -
FlUX SHIELD
CORE
ENDPLATE
STATOR INNER FRAME RIB
Fll>. 6.37 Core end-plate and screen
design dimensions, while the curved ends are con-
solidated using heat-shrinkable tape. Tests are carried
out to ensure that the insulation is properly canso-
D
D
D
SLOT
CONTAINING
IDENTICAL
CONDUCTORS
DISTANCE FROM
SLOT BOTTOM. X
(a) CURRENT BELOW X
(b) MMFAT X
Chapter 6
lidated and free from significant voids, and electrical
tests confirm the integrity of the insulation. The
insulation is very hard and the insulated bar has
little flexibility.
The slot length of each bar is treated with semi-
conducting material to ensure that bar-to-slot elec-
trical discharges do not occur, and a high resistance
stress grading finish is applied to the ends to control
surface discharge, particularly during high voltage
tests.
Bars carrying such large currents experience large
forces; in the slots these are directed radially out-
wards towards the bottom (closed end) of the slot,
and alternate at 100 Hz. The closing wedges therefore
are not required to restrain the bars against these
forces, but it is important that the bars do not
vibrate, and the wedges are arranged to exert a radial
force, either by tapered packers or by a corrugated
glass spring member. Some designs use a corrugated
glass spring packer in the slot side to provide side-
ways restraint. Packers of insulation material, se-
parators and drive strips, and layers of conformable
thermo-setting dough are also used in the slot fill
(see Fig 6.40). Support of the end windings and the
arrangement of connections are dealt with in later
sections.
The electrical loss due to the stator winding is
traditionally separated into the 1
2
R loss, using the
measured DC resistance of the winding phases at the
operating temperature, and the 'stray' loss, in which
are included components due to:
AC resistance being greater than DC resistance
(skin effect).
Eddy currents, as already noted.
(a) FLUX LINKAGE AT X
I b) EDDY VOLTAGE AT X
DISTRIBUTION OF
EDDY CURRENT
FIG. 6.38 Illustrating the variatioll" of eddy currents in stator conductors
482
FIG. 4.24 Heysham 2 condenser - modular construction
FtG. 6.31 Flux test on completed core
-
Ftu. 6.41 View of a 660 MW generator ;;tatur end-windings
I
I
I
u.. ...
'""'"
FrG. 6.90 C't!h'dltion ninnitor (NEI Parsons Ltd)
FIG. 6.97 Dinorwig motor-generator during site winding
Turbine-generator components: the stator
FIG. 6.39 Roebel transpositions
Currents induced in core end plates, screens, and
end teeth.
Harmonic currents induced in the rotor and end
ring surfaces.
Currents induced m frame, casing, endshields, fan
baffles, etc.
These individual losses have to be assessed so that
the appropriate cooling medium is directed to their
sources, in order to a ~ o i d ~ unacceptable localised hot
spots.
4.4 End winding support
In the end windings, bands of conductors are arranged
side-by-side, all carrying the same current although
not all in phase, and considerable electromagnetic
forces are produced, both at rated load and parti-
cularly when large current peaks occur during fault
conditions. The end turns must be strongly braced
to resist the peak forces and also to minimise the
100 Hz vibration.
The MMF produced in the end winding region by
the combined effect of the stator and rotor end wind-
ings produces a considerable magnetic flux in the
end regions. Paramagnetic material would tend to
concentrate the flux into itself, and electrically-con-
ducting material would have eddy currents induced
in it, causing both additional loss and potential hot
spots, Metallic inserts and fastening devices can be
caused to vibrate and loosen, or wear away their
surrounding medium. Consequently non-metallic com-
ponents are used, mainly moulded g!assfibre.
Substantial support brackets are bolted to the core
end plate and provide a support for a massive glass-
fibre conical support ring. The outer layer of end
turns is pulled onto a bedding of thermosetting con-
483
li
'i
The generator
484
EACH BAR COMPRISES
2 GROUPS OF
2 STACKS OF STRAPS
CROSSOVER INSULATION
ALTERNATE SOLID
AND HOLLOW
COPPER CONDUCTORS
RIPPLE SPRING
GROUP VERTICAL
SEPARATOR
ALL HOLLOW
COPPER CONDUCTORS
TOP COIL
CLOSING WEDGE
FIG. 6.40 Stator slot
BOTTOM INSULATION
PACKING STRIP AND
CONFORMABLE DOUGH
GROUP BINDING TAPE
ASBESTOS FINISHING TAPE
INSULATION PACKING STRIPS
AND CONFORMABLE DOUGH
BETWEEN COILS
MAIN INSULATION WRAP
STRAP INSULATION
PROTECTIVE DRIVING STRIP
Chapter 6
OPPOSED TAPER WEDGES
APPLYING RADIAL RESTRAINT
-
r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
formable material between i! and the support cone,
and packers between the bars arch-bind the structure
circumferentially. The inner layer is treated similarly,
with a ring of blocks pulled down onto the cone
by through-bolts, completing the very rigid structure.
Some designs use sheets of insulation material to
enclose any spaces and prevent the accidental ingress
of any foreign material. Magnetic material is parti-
cularly unwelcome, since it can be caused to vibrate
and abrade, or be heated by eddy currents and de-
grade the adjacent insulation (see Fig 6.33). Vibration
of the end windings must be minimised, since it can
promote fatigue cracking in the winding copper. This
is particularly serious if it occurs in a water-carrying
tube, since hydrogen will leak into the water circuit.
Resonances close to 100 Hz must be avoided, since
both the core ovalising and the winding exciting force
occur at this frequency. Accelerometers in the end
winding structure allow any increase in vibration due
to support slackening to be monitored. Vibration am-
plitude is highly current dependent. Any looseness
developing after a period in operation can be cor-
rected by tightening the bolts, by inserting or tighten-
ing wedges, and/or by pumping a thermosetting resin
into rubber bags located between conductor bars.
Figure 6.41 shows the stator core and end windings
for a 660 MW generator.
4.5 Electrical connections and terminals
Electrical connections between one conductor bar and
the next in series are made differently in different
designs. In one, a common electrical and water con-
nector is formed by a copper tube bent into a U-shape,
and brazed onto small copper waterboxes into which
all the bar subconductors are brazed. In another, the
electrical joint is made by a solid copper bolted joint,
with the water connections separate. It is common
practice to insulate the joint or to enclose it in a
rubber housing.
The conductor bars at the high voltage end (line
end) and the low voltage end (neutral end) of a phase
band are electrically connected to tubular connectors
which run circumferentially behind the end windings
at the exciter end, to the outgoing terminals, usually
with line terminals at the bottom and neutral ter-
minals at the top, although other arrangements do
exist. These connectors are internally water cooled,
and must be insulated for line voltage.
Terminal bushings (Fig 6.42) are proprietary paper-
insulated items, with internal water cooling from the
stator winding water system. Their insulation must
be capable of withstanding the hydrogen pressure in
the casing, with no perceptible leakage. It is common
practice to flange-mount the terminals on a plate of
non-magnetic material, and to arrange for a terminal
to be withdrawable from outside the casing. Current
transformers for instrumentation and protection sig-
Turbine-generator components: the stator
nals are housed on the external stems of the bushings.
The connections from the generator terminals to the
generator transformer are described in Volume D.
Phase isolated connections are always adopted, so
that an electrical fault at the connections must start
as a line-to-earth fault, which is much less damaging
to the generator than a line-to-line fault.
4.6 Stator winding cooling components
Water is the best of the commonly available media
for cooling the stator winding, and imposes only one
condition that would not also apply to other fluids: it
must be pure enough to be effectively non-conducting
(electrically). It is continuously degassed and treated
in an ion exchanger, with the following target values
being aimed for:
Conductivity:
Dissolved oxygen:
Total copper:
pH value:
100 JLS/m
200 j.tg/litre max (in some
systems > 2000 is acceptable)
150 JLg/litre max.
9 max.
At these levels, no aggressive attack on the winding
copper has been noticed after very many years' ex-
perience. Any erosion of copper is detected by the
monitoring equipment.
Water is passed into one or more inlet manifolds,
which are copper or stainless steel pipes running cir-
cumferentially around the core end plate. From the
manifolds, flexible PTFE h o s ~ s are connected to all
the water inlet ports on the stator conductor joints.
In a two-pass design, water passes through both bars
~ n parallel and is transferred to the two connected
bars at the other end, returning through similar hoses
to the outlet manifold which adjoins the inlet mani-
fold. This design minimises the number of hoses,
but requires a larger pressure head of water across
the winding (see Fig 6.43). In a single-pass arrange-
ment, hoses connect both ends of a bar to the
manifolds, which are located at opposite ends.
Thin metallic-sleeved components are crimped in-
side and outside the ends of the PTFE hoses, and
these are then attached to bosses on the manifolds
and winding connectors, using screwed-up olives,
0-rings or brazed joints. The casing hydrogen pressure
is everywhere greater than the water pressure in the
winding circuit, so that any leakage is of hydrogen
into water, rather than the reverse, which would be
damaging to the winding insulation.
The loss input into the water circuit at rated load
is designed to raise the water temperature by less
than 30C. With an inlet temperature of 40C, there
is plenty of margin before the\temperature at which
boiling would occur, 115-120C at the working pres-
485
The generator
486
Ftu. 6.4! View of a 660 MW generator ;tator end-windings
(see also wlour photograph between pp 4 ~ 2 and 483)
Chapter 6
CLAMP
FLANGE
CONNECTION
PALM
GAS SIDE
AIR SIDE
FIG. 6.42 Generator terminals
Turbine-generator components: the stator
2 GAS/WATER o RING SEALS.
SEAL
SEAL
TUBULAR COPPER
CONDUCTOR
MAIN INSULATION
EXCITER END
SEAL
CONNECTION PALM
OUTER STATOR
FRAME
ALUMINIUM
TERMINAL
PLATE
487
The generator
INLET TO
NEUTRAL
TERMINAL
PTFE HOSES
\
I
OUTLET FROM MAIN
TERMINAL
- INLET MANIFOLD
'- OUTLET MANIFOLD
TO NEUTRAL TERMINAL ____\
FROM INLET MANIFOLD
,
MAIN TERMINAL TO
OUTLET MANIFOLD
PHASE RINGS
Chapter 6
EXCITER END
~
DIAGRAMMATIC SECTION OF STATOR
COIL- TO-PHASE
RING CONNECTIONS
COIL-TO-COIL
CONNECTIONS
FIG. 6.43 Stator winding water cooling system components
sure. Monitoring the temperature of each bar by
thermocouples, either in the slots or in the water
outlets, enables a reduction or stoppage of water flow
in a bar to be detected.
4. 7 Hydrogen cooling components
The advantages of hydrogen cooling, and its para-
meters, are described in Section 5 of this chapter.
Hydrogen enters the generator casing through an
axially-oriented distribution pipe at the top, carbon
dioxide for scavenging being admitted through a simi-
lar pipe at the bottom.
The rotor fans circulate hydrogen over the end
windings and through the stator core, while a parallel
flow passes through the rotor. At rated load, the
hydrogen temperature increases by about 25C during
the few seconds taken to complete this circuit. Two
or four hydrogen coolers are located vertically or
488
horizontally inside the casing; they consist of banks
of finned or wire-wound tubes through which water
flows in one or two passes while hydrogen flows over
them. The coolers are arranged so that their headers
are accessible (for tube cleaning) without degassing
the casing. The tubes and the cooler frame must be
supported so as to avoid resonances close to the
principal exciting frequencies of 50 Hz and 100 Hz.
It is most important that moisture does not con-
dense on the stator end windings, since electrical
breakdown may then occur. The dewpoint of the hy-
drogen (at casing pressure) must be at least 20C
lower than the temperature of the cooled hydrogen
emerging from the coolers, and this is continuously
monitored by a hygrometer. In normal on-load op-
eration, the stator winding water maintains the wind-
ing temperature above 40C; if condensation occurred
it would be on the hydrogen coolers first. During
run-up, however, the stator winding water is likely
to be cold, and it is either pre-heated electrically, or
irculated for a lengthy period, to .warm the winding
fore the generator is excited.
8 Stator casing
.. e casing contains the stator core and core frame,
.nd must resist the load and fault torques. It must
:o provide a pressure-tight enclosure for the hy-
ogen. Historically, casings have been made strong
nough to withstand the pressure developed by an
'"1ition of the most explosive mixture of hydrogen
d air, without catastrophic failure.
Because any mixture of hydrogen and air within
he explosive range is not allowed to occur, attain-
of explosion pressure is not a credible condition,
___ d to specify the casing on the basis of withstanding
uch a pressure without leaks, as would be required
BS5500, is unrealistic. Consequently, the full re-
tirements of the pressure vessel code are not invoked,
hough some of them are applied. This pragmatic
mproach has been justified by worldwide experience over
'ty years.
Casings are fabricated steel cylinders of up to
mm thickness, reinforced internally with annular rings
td axial members which strengthen the structure and
rm passages for the flow of hydrogen (see
Figs 6.44 and 6.45). Internal spaces are provided with
Turbine-generator components: the stator
runners to accommodate the hydrogen coolers. At
the ends, thick rings provide facings for the separate
end shields. Internal supports for the core frame, in
the form of horizontal footplates or spring plate fix-
ings, are provided, and external feet support the
complete assembly. Lifting trunnions are usually made
detachable.
The design of the welded joints is carefully con-
trolled to avoid the presence of unfused lands wherever
possible. The main welds have to be leak-tight against
hydrogen at 4 bar, which is a very exacting require-
ment. The complete casing may be too large to be
stress-relieved in an annealing oven, in which case
it must be assumed that stresses up to yield. stress
exist il). the welds. In one design, the casing is con-
structed in two halves, which are stress-relieved before
being welded together.
The end shields are thick circular fabricated steel
plates, ribbed to withstand the casing pressure with
minimal axial deflection. They house the shaft seal
stationary components and, in some designs, the out-
board bearing. Leak-free sealing of the end shield/
casing joints against the hydrogen pressure, as with
all other casing joints, is effected by gaskets, 0-rings
and sealing compounds injected into grooves.
The completed casing assembly is hydraulically pres-
sure tested, and finally must be demonstrated to be
leak-tight to a level corresponding to a fall from

COOLER ENCLOSURE
POCKET
TURBINE END
JACK SUPPORT
BRACKET
COOLER SEAL
BARS,
FRAME RIB
PLATES
MAIN TERMINAL
ENCLOSURE
FIG. 6.44 Outer stator casing
\,
ROTOR
COOLING GAS
DUCTS
END
PLATE
JACK SUPPORT
BRACKET
489
'
. '
The generator
Chapter 6
FIG. 6.45 Core frame being inserted into casing
490
rated hydrogen pressure of not more than 0.035 bar
in 24 h. '
Some of the core vibration is' transmitted to the
casing, and rotor vibration is transmitted through the
end shield and the foundations. The casing assembly
must be designed to avoid resonances in the range
of these exciting frequencies.
Drains are arranged so that any oil or water col-
lecting in the bottom of the casing is piped to liquid
leakage detectors, which initiate an alarm. Distri-
bution pipes for hydrogen and C0
2
are built-in; a
temperature sensor at the C0
2
inlet initiates an alarm
if the incoming gas has not been adequately heated
and could chill the fal;>ricated casing locally. Electrical
heaters are fitted in the lower half of the casing to
maintain dry conditions during outages.
The casing is bolted down to the supporting steel-
work on packing plates which are machined after
trial erection to provide the correct alignment. Axial
and transverse keys prevent subsequent movement.
The weight of the casing, complete with core frame,
coolers and water, is up to 450 tonnes.
5 Cooling systems
A generator of this type has an efficiency of about
98.51Jio. Even though the. losses are low in terms of
the output, they amount to some 10 MW, all of
which must be removed by the cooling systems; the
heat lost by convection and radiation from the casing
is not significant.
In some stations, most of the generator (and exciter)
losses are transferred into the boiler feedwater system
by using condensate in the heat exchangers. While
such an arrangement can be economic, there is a
penalty in the form of added complication, and the
most modern stations do !not have this feature.
5.1 Hydrogen cooling
Hydrogen has several advantages over air as a means
of removing heat from turbine-generators:
The density of hydrogen is the lowest of all gases
and is one-fourteenth that of air. Even at the rated
pressure (4 or 5 bar) and with the allowable level
of gaseous impurities, it is still only half as dense
as air at normal temperature and pressure (NTP).
The large loss due to the gas being churned by
the rotor, and to its circulation through the fans
and cooling passages, is minimised by the use of
hydrogen as a coolant.
The heat transfer of hydrogen is up to
twice that of air in similar conditions, though, as
with all gases, it increases with increasing pressure.
Together with the several times higher thermal con-
Cooling systems
ductivity and specific heat of hydrogen, the effect
is that heat removal from heated surfaces is up
to ten times more effective, resulting in lower tem-
peratures. Coolers can also be considerably smaller.
The use of hydrogen imposes the need for herme-
tic sealing and condition control, which helps to
ensure that the original electrical clearances are
maintained.
More importantly: the degradation of insulation
by oxidation processes cannot occur in a hydrogen
atmosphere.
The disadvantages are:
Since concentrations of from to of hy-
drogen in air are explosive, hydrogen must not be
allowed to escape from the stator casing and its
associated pipework in significant quantities and
become trapped in potentially explosive pockets.
The casing and end shields have to be of rugged
construction and leak proof, demanding meticulous
welding techniques. Penetrations such as the rotor
shafts, and all outgoing connections, must be posi-
tively sealed, the former requiring a sophisticated
sealing system.
A comprehensive gas control system is required.
For generators rated much above I 00 MW, air cool-
ing is not practical; more than half the total loss
would be due to fan and rotor windage. At 500
and 660 MW, hydrogen pressures of 4 or 5 bar are
economic; higher pressures than this have little or
no advantage. The only practical alternative at
these ratings is complete cooling including
the rotor, which has not been adopted in the UK,
and only rarely elsewhere, because of leakage pro-
blems at the very high water pressures produced
by the rotation.
5.2 Hydrogen cooling system
It is necessary to ensure that potentially explosive
mixtures of air and hydrogen do not occur when filling
the casing with hydrogen, or when emptying it.
The usual method is to use carbon dioxide as a
buffer between the two other gases, in a process known
as scavenging, or simply gassing-up and degassing.
Carbon dioxide, stored as a liquid under pressure,
is expanded to a suitably low pressure above atmos-
pheric. It is also heated, because the expansion causes
it to cool and it would otherwise freeze. With the
rotor stationary, C0
2
is fed into the bottom of the
stator casing through a long perforated pipe, and
because it is more dense than air it displaces air from
the top via the hydrogen inlet distribution pipe to
atmosphere outside the station. Some mixing of gases
occurs at the interface. A gas analyser is used to
491
The generator
monitor the proportion of C0
2
in the gas passing to
atmosphere; when tllis is sufficiently high, the C0
2
inlet is closed (see Fig' 6.46).
High purity hydrogen from a central storage tank
or electrolytic! process is then fed through a bus main
at about 10 bar to the gas control panel, where its
pressure is reduced before being fed to the casing
through the top admission pipe (Fig 6.47). Being very
much lighter, it displaces the C0
2
from the bottom
of the casings via the C0
2
pipe to atmosphere, again
with some degree of mixing. When the proportion
of C0
2
in the vent is low enough, the proportion
of air left in the casing will be very low, and if the
casing is then pressurised with hydrogen to its pp-
erating pressure (say 4 bar), the proportion of air
will be reduced to a quarter of this low value. The
complete process normally occupies a few hours.
Separate procedures are followed to ensure that
other components, such as tanks, are properly scav-
enged, so that dangerous mixtures do not occur. The
reverse of the foregoing procedure, using C0
2
and
then dry compressed air, is followed to remove
hydrogen from the machine for inspection or for a
prolonged outage.
In one design of 500 MW generator, air is removed
from the casing by drawing a vacuum, using the
pump normally used to degas the seal oil. The shaft
seals are arranged to seal effectively under this unusual
operating condition. When the vacuum is as low as
can be achieved, hydrogen is admitted, the resulting
purity when pressurised being sufficiently high.
Normally, hydrogen purity remains high, since air
cannot leak into the pressurised system. Some air
may, however, be released from the shaft seal oil
flowing into the casing hydrogen space. Replacement
hydrogen to make up for leakage is usually sufficient
to maintain the required purity.
The differential pressure developed across the
rotor fans is used to circulate a sample of casing
hydrogen continuously through a katharometer-type
purity monitor, which initiates an alarm if the purity
falls below a p'reset value, typically 97o/o. The purity
monitor (and the gas analyser) can be calibrated with
pure gases from the piped supplies. A check on the
purity is also possible by monitoring the differential
pressure developed by the fans, which responds
markedly to the change in density produced by air
impurity.
A pressure sensitive valve admits hydrogen from
the bus main if the casing pressure falls below a pre-
determined level, while a spring-loaded relief valve
is set to release hydrogen to the outside atmosphere
if the pressure becomes excessive. It is important
that these two 1 pressures are not set so close that
wastage occurs, particularly as the gas temperature
and pressure changes when on-load cycling. Monitoring
of the hydrogen consumption is a recently introduced
feature on some units (see Fig 6.48).
The temperature of the hydrogen is normally moni-
492
Chapter 6
tored by several thermocouples, whose readings should
be averaged, at the inlets to and outlets from the
hydrogen coolers. Typically, hydrogen is circulated
at 30 m
3
Is which, with a full-load loss input of about
5000 kW, results in a temperature rise of the order of
30C. The cooled gas should not be hotter than 40C,
so the temperature of the gas entering the coolers
should not exceed 70C.
Water cannot normally leak into the casing from the
stator winding water circuit or the hydrogen coolers,
since the water pressure is lower than the gas pressure
in both circuits. It can be released from the shaft
seal oil, particularly if the oil is untreated turbine
lubricating oil which has picked. up water from the
turbine steam glands. It is important that the mois-
ture content of the casing hydrogen be kept low
enough to prevent condensation occurring on the
coldest component, which may be the water cooled
winding. The differential pressure is used to circulate
a flow of hydrogen continuously through a dryer,
typically of the twin-tower type, using activated alu-
mina, with automatic changeover and regeneration. A
motor-driven blower maintains the flow through the
rotor when the rotor is not running at speed (see Fig
6.49).
Continuous monitoring of the humidity of the cas-
ing gas is provided by means of a hygrometer. The
maximum permissible dewpoint is not less than 20C
below the cold gas temperature, measured at casing
pressure. It is important that this caveat is observed,
particularly if the dewpoint is being compared with
that of a sample drawn from the casing and measured
at atmospheric pressure.
Hydrogen is circulated by the fans through the
stator core and end wiQdings, the precise paths being
different in different designs. The rotor acts virtually
as its own fan, hydrogen being drawn through the
windings and exhausted into the airgap, again dif-
ferently in different designs. The hydrogen removes
the electrical loss in the rotor winding, the 'iron loss'
in the stator core, the windage loss produced by the
rotor and fans, and most of the electrical losses gen-
erated in the frame and end winding structures.
Because it is impractical to ensure that potentially
explosive mixtures of hydrogen and air never occur
in the small bore instrumentation pipework, those
instruments and devices containing electrical circuits
in contact with the gas, such as katharometers, must
be intrinsically safe in such mixtures. This means that
a sudden break in an electrical circuit must not be
capable of providing enough spark energy to ignite
the gas.
It is impossible to ensure complete freedom from
leakage of hydrogen over the lifetime of the plant,
and the areas near to potential leakage sources are
classified into zones of differing degrees of hazard,
described in detail in CEGB Code of Practice 098/34:
'Code of Practice for the Design Principles relating
to the use of Hydrogen in Large Generators'. Zones 0
I
l
[
I
i
I
!
I
Cooling systems
I

1 TURBINE ... PERFORATED ADMISSION PIPE ... ... EXCITER
I END GENERATOR STATOR CASING END
---------,
'1
I
t
,.
,_
-
-
t
I
I TO
f-M
t
ATMOSPHERE
.........

1--
....,__
.......
I
I
I I
.........
-
1-
I

f-M-
;
I
I
1--
'
I I...,.._ / ?
'
I I
LIQUID
f-M-
ALARM
1-M-
I I
CHAMBERS
I
I
I I
1----........ ----1---
---
--- _J
I
I I
I I
I I
- -
I
C0
2
KATHAROMETER
I
-o -Q-t>4-0-
-
.. Ill
I
:
00
GENERATOR GAS

DRYING SYSTEM
H
2
KATHAROMETER


I
I
o.;
r--
GAS CONTROL
o-
EMERGENCY PANEL
.
INTEGRATING
FLOW METER '---
FROM CO
I



I

-
1-
FROM
HYDROGEN LP
DELIVERY MAIN
I
s
;
l
l
----AIR
C0
2
;'\
I
FIG. 6.46 Generator gas system - displacing air with C0
2
493
I
The generator Chapter 6

PERFORATED ADMISSION P!PE

TURBINE
GENERATOR STATOR CASING
EXCITER
END
t
END
1
- - -
TO

ATMOSPHERE
.....
....
-

,.

........
-
-... ...
r-M- rM"
1--
cl'
LIQUID
ALARM

CHAMBERS
...
- -
- -

-
....
00
GENERATOR GAS

DRYING SYSTEM
H
2
KATHAROMETER

J.
494

a-
INTEGRATING .___H><r----------f
FLOW METER ..
.1
.,
--
GAS CONTROL
EMERGENCY PANEL
I
-
FROM C0
2
SUPPLY
FROM

DELIVERY MAINS
FIG. 6.47 Generator gas system - displacing C0
2
with H
2
..!'!
TURBINE
END
PERFORATED ADMISSION PIPE
GENERATOR STATOR CASING

FIG. 6.48 Generator gas system in normal operation
Cooling systems
EXCITER
END
495
The generator
DRYER H, INLET
VALVE
ISOLATING VALVE
BLOWER
DISCHARGE
VALVE
SECONDARY
~ ~ " " " "
~
Chapter 6.
PRESSURE GAUGE
co.
REGULATOR
FIG. 6.49 Gas dryer and blower
and 1, in which explosive mixtures exist continuously
or occur in normal operation, should not be present
if the principles outlined above are followed. Zone 2,
in which explosive mixtures are unlikely to occur
and, if they do will only exist for a short time, covers
:l,strumentation as previously noted; the hydrogen
dryer and blower, the detraining tanks, and the in-
terior of the control cubicle to which hydrogen is
piped. Also classified as Zone 2 are the areas into
which hydrogen may leak, through gaskets, seals, etc.,
knowing the normal pressure behind the gas and its
propensity for rapid upward movement. Sources of
ignition are not located in such areas. It is, however,
496
virtually impossible to eliminate some potential igni-
tion sources, such as the rotating shaft rubbing an oil
scraper ring, or sparking at brushgear.
Another potential source of ignition occurs where
currents are induced in pipework loops, as may be
the case when pipes are routed near to main con-
nections. Here, flanged joints are insulated to break
the possible current path.
If a serious rupture occurs, e.g., the break-up of
a shaft seal, hydrogen may escape very rapidly, and
if it encounters a source of ignition, say the shaft
rubbing, it will burn intensely in the ambient air. In
order to vent the casing to atmosphere outside the
station, and to admit C0
2
to the casing, duplicated
valves are provided, one set b e i ~ g located remote from
where any fire is conceivable (see Fig 6.50).
Hydrogen has been used universally for 50 years
for high speed generator cooling, and incidents such
as this have been very rare. The meticulous attention
to safety precautions both in design and operation
have been largely responsible for this good record.
5.3 Shaft seals and seal oil system
Seals prevent the escape of hydrogen where the rotor
shafts emerge through the casing end shields. What-
ever their design, they are located in the end shields,
and are inboard of the bearings. Two types of seal
have been commonly used: the thrust seal and the
journal seal.
5.3.1 Thrust type seal
In the thrust type seal (Fig 6.28), the seal ring acts
like a thrust face, bearing onto a collar on the shaft.
Turbine lubricating oil is fed to a central circum-
ferential groove in the white-metalled face of the
seal ring, at a pressure controlled to be greater than
that of the casing hydrogen. Most of the oil flows
outwards over the thrust face and drains into a well.
A small proportion flows inwards, against centrifu-
gal force and with only the oil/hydrogen differential
pressure behind it, into a drainage compartment which
is at casing hydrogen pressure. This oil can release
entrained air and water at this point, thus contami-
nating the casing hydrogen, as noted earlier, and it
is therefore important that the inward oil flow is
small.
The seal ring is attached to a housing which must
be free to move axially to accommodate the 30 mm
or so of axial movement imposed on the shaft by
thermal expansion of all the coupled rotors down-
stream from the turbine thrust bearing, as they pass
from cold to hot conditions. The housing is arranged
to move inside a stationary member, using rubber
sealing rings to contain the oil and to create an axial
pressure at the seal face.
In some designs, an additional chamber between
fixed and sliding components is fed with oil at a
separately controllable pressure so that the overall
pressure at the seal face can be varied. In another
variation, additional pressure is provided "by springs.
5.3.2 Journal type seal
Here the seal resembles a short journal bearing float-
ing on the shaft. In this case the shaft can freely
move axially through the seal, and it therefore does
not have to accommodate the thermal expansion of
the shaft. Again, oil is fed to a central annular groove
Cooling systems
in the white-metalled ring, and flows along the clear-
ances between the shaft and the bore of the seal,
both outwards to the drain and inwards to the hy-
drogen pressurised space. The inward flow rate is
much greater than that for the thrust type, because
it is not inhibited by centrifugal force, and it would
be capable of contaminating the hydrogen purity to
an unacceptable extent. To prevent this, all the oil
fed to the seals is subjected to vacuum treatment, in
which much of the air and water is removed. Against
this disadvantage, it is claimed that the journal type
seal is inherently better able to withstand disturbances
of the shaft by expanding to provide a larger clear-
ance for oil flow if it is heated by excessive shaft
movement.
More sophisticated versions of the journal type seal,
one of which has two separate oil supplies for inward
and outward flow, have been developed to avoid the
need for vacuum treatment (see Fig 6.29). It is also
possible to keep the oil supplies separate from the
main turbine lubricating oil supply, which is the source
of most of the entrained water.
5.3.3 Seal oil system
In the conventional seal oil system (sec Fig 6.51), the
main seal oil supply is taken from the shaft-driven
lubricating oil pump, with its pressure suitably re-
duced. The pressure is further controlled by diaphragm
valve which maintains a constant differential pressure
above casing gas pressure at the seals. The oil is cooled
in a water-cooled heat exchanger, and finely filtered
to prevent metallic particles gaining access to the small
clearances at the seal faces.
'
Because it is necessary to maintain the shaft sealing
oil at standstill, to prevent hydrogen escape, motor-
driven seal oil pumps are also provided; these act as a
back-up in emergencies, and are initiated by falling
seal oil pressure. They are commonly vertical pump-
motor units mounted on the top of the lubricating
oil settling tank with the pumps submerged. A battery
fed DC motor-driven pump may be provided as a
back-up in case of supply failure, but this would
be expected to operate only a few hours while the
hydrogen is scavenged.
The oil flowing to the casing side of the seal is
in a pressurised hydrogen environment and must be
collected in a 'break pressure' tank, which releases it
through a float controlled valve and enables it to be
returned to the drain tank. The possibility of hydrogen
entering the drain tank is recognised; low level alarms
give a first warning (some form of pressure loop is
usually provided) and a blower exhausts the gas above
the oil in the 'hydrogen section' of the tank to at-
mosphere. This blower aJso serves to reduce the
pressure in the bearing housings (communicated via
the half empty drain pipes) below atmospheric, thus
reducing egress of oil vapour at the bearings.
497
The generator
TURBINE
END
H
2
KATHAROMETER

-

o-
INTEGRATING '---- f-t><l---------i
FLOWMETER
'
I
----- H2
----co
2
Chapter 6
PERFORATED ADMISSION PIPE
GENERATOR STATOR CASING
EXCITER
END
TO
ATMOSPHERE
......
-I-
I--
-
i'-
-H-:
r'*
/ /
LIQUID
l-M-
ALARM
CHAMBERS
---------
-

......

!--

f-M-
00
GENERATOR GAS
DRYING SYSTEM
______ 1 ____
EMERGENCY PANEL
t- FROM C0
2
SUPPLY
FROM

DELIVERY MAINS
FIG. 6.50 Generator gas system - emergency scavenging
498
COCK !WITH L PORT!
ALARM ON GAS CONTROL CUBICLE
PRESSURE GAUGE
LIMIT SWITCH
TRANSMITTER
PRESSURE SWITCH
DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE
SWITCH
-----ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS
-- SEAL OIL SUPPLY
TO MAIN OIL TANK
I SEAL OIL SUPPLY
GENERATOR
CONTINUOUS
VENT RETURN
TO MAIN
OIL TANK
Q::J
I
'
COMPARTMENT
TO BARRING
GEAR INT,ERLOCK
FIG. 6.51 Seal oil system
DRAIN
Cooling systems
PRESSURE
ACCUMULATORS
499
L.
The generator
5.4 Stator winding water cooling system
Water in direct contact with the winding conductors
is the most effective and economic means of heat
removal, and is used throughout the range of gen-
erators under consideration (see Fig 6.52). Five main
criteria must be observed:
The conductivity of the water must be very low,
to prevent current flow and electrical flashover.
The means used to transfer water into the conduc-
tors must be of high integrity insulation material,
not easily degraded.
The velocity of the water must be low enough to
prevent erosion, and the design must not allow cor-
rosion to occur, either of which could lead to a
build-up of conducting material, causing an elec-
trical flashover.
The maximum water pressure must be lower than
the casing hydrogen pressure, so that if any leakage
occurs, it is of hydrogen into the water circuit, since
leakage of water into the winding insulation could
lead to an electrical breakdown.
The maximum temperature in the water circuit
must be low enough to provide an adequate margin
below boiling point (commonly about ll5C at
the pressure involved). The design aims for an inlet
temperature of just above 40C, with an outlet
temperature of 65 -70C.
Demineralised water is used, which is obtained ini-
tially, and made up, from the turbine condensate. A
proportion is circulated through a demineraliser (Fig
6.53) to ensure that the water quality described in
Section 4.6 of this chapter is maintained. All the
metal with which the water is in contact is either
non-ferrous or stainless steel. Even small components
made of mild steel are not permissible because of
the propensity for magnetite to form and be held by
electromagnetic forces.
Flexible hoses made of extruded PTFE (polytetra-
fluorethylene) are used to transfer water into and out
of the conductors. This material has good electrical
properties, is chemically inert and has a long life in
the ambient conditions, has an extremely low friction
factor so that particles are less likely to adhere, and
is partially translucent in the thicknesses used, so
that flow (containing bubbles) can be observed. The
low friction has a disadvantage in that attachments
are more difficult to arrange, but leak-free crimped
joints have been satisfactorily developed (see Fig 6.33).
The water is circulated by duplicated pumps, through
a water-cooled heat exchanger and fine filter, to the
generator inlet connection. Designs differ from this
point. In one, the main supply goes to a circular
manifold supported from the stator core end plate.
500
Chapter 6
From the manifold, PTFE hoses connect to the elec-
trical joint ('nose') between a top and bottom con-
ductor bar, through which the water flows in parallel.
At the exciter end, the water in each bar is trans-
ferred through the electrical connector to a return
bar, and thence via another PTFE hose to the outlet
manifold, located alongside the inlet manifold. A
small flow is tapped-off to cool the terminal bushings
and phase connections. This is a double-pass system,
requiring higher pressure than a single-pass system,
but half the number of hoses with their potential for
leakage.
In the single-pass arrangement, the manifolds are
at opposite ends, and the water flows through only
one bar in series. This system allows smaller water
passages in the conductors to be used because a
higher pressure drop per bar can be tolerated.
Other variations may be seen in obsolescent designs.
In one, all the conductors comprising a phase group
were brought to a common waterbox, consisting of a
large cast resin chamber with a bolted-on lid, inside
which electrical connections between conductors were
made. In another, the water passed through five con-
ductor bars in series before returning to the manifold.
This required a high pump pressure but minimised
the number of hoses.
If the flow is significantly reduced, the water tem-
perature rises rapidly. Reduction in flow is therefore
sensed, usually by differential pressure across an ori-
fice plate or across the stator winding itself, and is
used to bring in the standby pump, and to trip the
unit, if flow is not restored quickly.
Water pressure is determined by the height of the
header tank and the pressure developed by the pump.
These are not contr6!led, since it is expected that
the casing hydrogen pressure will not be allowed to
fall much below its rated value in operation. During
start-up, the hydrogen pressure must be established
before the water pump is started, to prevent a reverse
pressure differential.
The water circuit is tested initially to ensure that
it has a very low leak rate, but hydrogen will enter the
water in small quantities. lt is detected by arranging a
settling tank on the outlet side of the generator, before
the header tank connection, where gas will largely
detrain. It is collected in a chamber equipped with
timed release valves, and an alarm is initiated if the
release rate exceeds an acceptable level (see Fig 6.54).
Thermocouples in each winding slot provide a means
of detecting a low flow through one (or both) of the
conductor bars in that slot. More recent machines have
a thermocouple in each outlet hose, which provides a
more direct indication of incorrect flow. Water t1ow
does differ somewhat between different paths, and
outlet temperatures also differ; the best indication is
a departure from normal operational experience for
a similar condition of loading and primary cooling
water temperature.
CJ1
s
OVERFLOW
PIPE
SIGHT
GLASS
,_
_j---- - l
I t
FROM STATION'' r .,
DEMINERALISED
"'"' : '] :
-i i
SIGHT GLASS
i STATOR WINDING
M
TURBINE
END
GENERATOR
RESISTANCE COLUMNS
TO
DRAIN
' t
y
'
TO MAIN
TURBINE TRIP
RELAY CUBICLE
TO
ATMOSPHERE
_t_
TtRAIN
GAS TRAP
___ ___ ) :
I : :------ J
'
I
'
I
'
I
I
sl--------, j (
: ' y'
0\ ! ,--
,h_ .
(' r ------;coUNTER I
"fr-----J I I
1
4 ,, : : I I
'"___)- ---- __ j I
"'- - ' GAS ALARM AND I ,
L_ --1
TO
GENERATOR
GAS SYSTEM
,r,,,
T AUTOMATIC I
A
RELEASE CHAMBER '
{
=:=:--.J , I
-
________ __.J
--------l
r _ _L __
/ t

-,---J)- ---------,
: t (t )



DETRAINING 1'
1 CHAMBER
L_ J j
I
1
i I
DC EMERGENCY
STATOR COOLANT
PUMP
AC STATOR AC STATOR
COOLANT P COOLANT
PUMP 'A
EXCITER
END
!STATOR WINDING MANIFOLDS i
i
STATOH COOLANT
GAS RELEASE
DRAIN, PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE
CONTROL AIR
ELECTRICAL
VALVE
POSITIONER
-\-\-0 ,____..
TO GENERATOR AUXILIARIES
CW SYSTEM


I I I I I
L_____
f
FIG. 6.52 Stator winding water cooling system
()
0
Q_
;:::)
co
en
-<
en
.-+
co
3
en
_______________ ...._ ______________ .... _______ ,.
~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --
The generator
GASKET
TREATED WATER
OUTLE f VALVE
U-BOLT CLAMP--.____
,,
OUTLET PIPE
ASSEMBLY
I
!'
L
II
1:
DRAIN VALVE
502
- - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - ,
--
~ -
FIG. 6.53 Demineraliser
lOP COVER
UNTREATED WATER
INLET VALVE
RATE OF FLOW INDICATOR
DCMINERALISER COLUMN
AIR INLET VALVE
RFSIN
RESIN REMOVAL VALVE
BOTTOM COVER
Chapter 6
:;
r:
~ :
~ j
,.:
~ ~
~ :
~ ~
~ -
i;
f
,,
j;
"
lJ
~
"'
, .
~
f'
!I
t
f.
t
I;
}
*
f
~
t
f
{1.
a.
~
l
t'.
l;
1
i
r
Cooling systems
GAS OUTLET
FLOAT OPERATED
SWITCH
t
_ _ . I L - - - ~ BODY
SUPPORT
BRACKET
GAS INLET
FIG. 6.54 Gas-in-water detection chamber
As noted earlier, it is important that condensation
does not occur on the windings. Some machines have
an electrical heating element, or an automatic cooler
bypassing system, to prevent water that is too cold
from circulating in the windings during start-up and
early loading.
It is not easy to measure the insulation resistance
(IR) of a winding which has multiple high resistance
paths to earth through the water-filled hoses, and even
draining out the water does not ensure that the inside
surfaces of the hoses are dry. Attempts have been made
to use a specially designed resistance measuring device
which uses the water manifolds as 'guard rings', but
this is not always satisfactory. Fortunately, modern
epoxy resin insulation systems do not absorb mois-
ture, and a low IR is usually indicative of surface
contamination, which can be removed by warmed air
circulation.
5.5 Other cooling systems
Casing hydrogen is cooled by passing it through water-
cooled heat exchangers arranged horizontally or ver-
tically in the casing. The heat exchangers consist of
many tubes of non-ferrous metal with either metallic
strip fins or wire loops brazed to their outside sur-
faces (Fig 6.55). These coolers have a double-pass
503
The generator
water circulation, so that inlet and outlet water con-
nections are at the same 'end. They are equipped with
sealing devices so that access to the header box can
be gained for inspection, even though the casing is
pressurised. Some form of air venting system is also
provided. The coolers can be withdrawn from the
casing when it has been scavenged.
Water for these coolers (and other auxiliary coolers)
may be condensate or distilled water in a self-contained
system, or both; it is undesirable to use raw cool-
ing water because of the danger of corrosion. The
water pressure is arranged to be less than the rated
pressure of hydrogen in the casing, so that in the
event of leakage, hydrogen will leak into the water
circuit. In the latest machines, hydrogen detectors are
provided in the water circuit (Fig 6.56). Operation
is usually possible with one hydrogen cooler valved-
off; this provides some redundancy. Loss of primary
water is detected by rise of hydrogen temperature,
which may be so rapid that the protection is arranged
to trip the unit.
Air cooling systems are provided for the rotating
exciters, and for the slipring/brushgear or rotating
rectifier chambers. The rotating components
have a closed air circuit with a water-cooled heat
exchanger; the sliprings usually have open air venti-
lation.
EXCITER
END
SEALING GASKET
INLET AND OUTLET
WATERBOX DOOR
Chapter 6
6 Excitation
6.1 Exciters
6.1.1 Historical review
When the first AC generators were introduced a
natural choice for the supply of the field systems was
the DC exciter. These direct current commutator ma-
chines were not only used as main and pilot exciters
but later also as a control amplifier, known as a
rotating amplifier or amplidyne.
The DC exciter suffered from commutation and
brushgear problems but also offered certain advan-
tages; in particular, a capability for equal voltage
output of either polarity, which was used to improve
generator transient performance. The main exciter ar-
mature also provided a path for the commutation
of induced currents, regardless of polarity, which ap-
pear in the generator field winding during pole-slipping
and other severe system disturbances, thereby limiting
the induced voltage.
Gear-driven exciters were introduced to extend the
application of these machines, however, increased
demand for higher excitation currents paralleled by
advances in semiconductor technology brought about
CORNER MEMBER
COVER
PLATE
FLEXIBLE /
GASKET ,II!:.;;tr ,/,.

, (
-U , r
SMALL HOLE ' ,
SLIDING n
TUBEPLATE ' f /
SEALING
STATOR END GASKET
WALL
SEALING RING
FIG. 6.55 Hydrogen cooler
504
f
l
!
!
I
I


I
t
t
I
I
TREATED WATER SUPPLY
FROM HIGH LEVEL HEAD TANK
'
I

I
I
I
I
11
* ~
I ~
--1
I
I
I
I
TO STATION
DRAINS
TRENCH
ATMOSPHERE
----- DISTILLED WATER
----- BY-PASS
-..-..-.-- MAKE UP WATER
I
B
2 x I 00% EXCITER AIR/
RECTIFIER COOLERS
A
A
4 x 25o HYDROGEN COOLERS
c
A
2 x I 00% STATOR
WATER COOLERS
: B I
I I
r L-1-o--------------------J
Excitation
r -::LIARY COOLING
WATER OUTLET
AUXILIARY __.. ==='-'==:::::::!:U:
COOLING WATER INLET
FIG. 6.56 Distilled water cooling system
505
'[
The generator
the introduction of the rectified AC exciter. These
were either static diode rectifiers sup-
plying the generator field winding via sliprings, or
brushless systems which carry the diode rectifier on
the shaft. Developments have continued and excita-
tion powers now range from 70 kW for 20 MW gas
turbine-generators to 3500 kW for the 660 MW steam
turbine-generators.
Where generators are connected to the main
transmission system over long transmission links, it
is necessary to provide a high response excitation
system capable of satisfying system transient stability
requirements. In these circumstances, a static thyris-
tor excitation system capable of step changes in field
voltage is generally specified.
6.1.2 AC excitation systems
The excitation requirements of all CEGB 500 and 660
MW turbine-generators are provided by AC excitation
systems. A typical AC excitation scheme, showing the
shaft-mounted main and pilot exciters together with
associated brushgear is shown in Fig 6.57.
The CEGB currently operates 660 MW turbine-
generators with either static or rotating excitation
equipment. Detailed descriptions of these are given
in Sections 6.2 and 6.3 of this chapter respectively,
while this section concentrates on exciter plant which
is common to both.
To maximise plant availability under 'black start'
conditions, reliance on external electrical supplies is
kept to a minimum by using direct-driven perma-
nent magnet pilot exciters. For many years, DC pilot
exciters were used, but the low currents involved
introduced commutation problems due to brushgear
glazing and, as a consequence, they were superseded
by AC machines.
The pilot exciter provides power for the excitation
A VR control equipment which, on present 660 MW
plant, is of a salient pole design with ratings approach-
ing 100 kW.
Both the main and pilot exciters are air cooled
machines, cooling air being drawn through the ma-
chine by shaft-mounted fans. Temperature measure-
ments are taken at the inlet and outlet of the cooling
circuit to monitor performance.
6.1.3 Exciter transient performance
Exciters must operate over a wide voltage and current
range as ceiling requirements are considerably in excess
of rated full-load conditions. The exciter is required
to respond quickly to changes in excitation at its own
rotor terminals. This requirement for a fast response
characteristic is achieved by the use of a short air
gap and a laminated rotor body.
Exciter transient performance is characterised by
the exciter response ratio defined in BS5000 Part 2
as follows: '
506
Chapter .6
Exciter response ratio =
The average rate of increase in excitation
open-circuit voltage (V /s)
Nominal excitation voltage
Typically, exciters are required to increase output volt-
age from lOOo/o to 20007o in less than 0.3 seconds,
corresponding to a response ratio of 3.5.
The average rate of increase of the excitation open-
circuit voltage is given by the slope of AC in Fig 6.58.
Slope of AC = BC/ AB but .. AB = 0.5 seconds.
Hence AC = 2BC (average rate of increase of ex-
citer voltage) and the nominal exciter response ratio
is given by 2BC/OA.
6.1.4 The pilot exciter
A shaft-driven excitation system consists of a main
and pilot exciter, the pilot exciter providing the input
power to the AVR. A number of different types have
been developed including salient pole, inductor type
homopolar and heteropolar designs. System require-
ments for complete independence from external sup-
plies during 'black start' conditions have led to a trend
in favour of the permanent magnet generator (PMG)
pilot exciter design. The salient pole design has gained
favour on all recent 660 MW units and forms the
basis of the following discussion.
The salient pole PMG is a three-phase medium
frequency machine, providing an essentially constant
voltage supply to the thyristor converter and A VR
control circuits. A typical salient pole PMG is shown
on Fig 6.59.
The permanent magnet poles of the generator are
manufactured from high energy material, such as
Alcomax. The permanent magnet pieces are bolted
to a steel hub and held in place by pole shoes. The
bolts are generally made from non-magnetic steel to
prevent the formation of a magnetic shunt. In some
designs of PMG, the pole shoes are also skewed one
pole pitch over the stator length to improve the
waveform of the output voltage and reduce electrical
nOISe.
The stator core is constructed from a stack of low
loss sheet steel laminations, assembled within a fabri-
cated steel frame. Radial and axial cooling ducts are
provided at intervals along the core length to allow
cooling of the core and windings. To facilitate re-
moval, certain designs of pilot exciter can be split along
the horizontal centre line.
The stator winding is a two-layer design, each
stator conductor comprising a number of small dia-
meter copper wires insulated with polyester enamel.
The coils are connected together to give the rated
three-phase voltage output, and insulated with Class
F (BS5000 Part 2) epoxy glass material.
{]1
0
-...!
R ROTOR

SLIP RING
GENERATOR I
"T I
BEARING
PEDESTAL
I
MAIN EXCITER
ROTOR
BARRING GEAR
\
I
I
I
I -

-h- AI- I _
. .. : . - - i
.. r t'--'r';''l
1
c,,-rT!.u '--crrrce-- =''"'
l ,, : -ijf Ill =-=
rl ' . , I
MAIN EXCITER STATOR
\
\
MAIN EXCITER SLIPRING
BRUSHGEAR
BEARING PEDESTAL
FIG. 6.57 Section through main and pilot exciters
PILOT EXCITER
ROTOR
BEARiliG
PEDESTAL
BEAR IN' PEDESTAL I
PILOT EXCITER I
I I
MAIN OIL PUMP
m
><
(")
;:::-.
OJ
r+
c;
::J
The generator
EXCITATION
SYSTEM
VOLTAGE
ACTUAL BUILD UP OF
EXCITER VOLTS
_,/'
,/
t , , ; ~
// SLOPE
I
RATED FIELD VOLTAGE
0.5 TIME S
FIG. 6.58 Concept of the exciter response ratio
A steel enclosure is fitted over the PMG stator,
which provides mechanical protection and serves to
reduce the medium frequency noise emitted from the
PMG to an acceptable level, as defined in BS4999
Part 51.
Cooling of the PMG is achieved by drawing air
through mesh-covered apertures in the enclosure; the
air is then circulated by the rotor or shaft-mounted
fans.
6.1.5 The main exciter
The main AC exciter is generally of a four or six-
pole revolving field construction. The exception is the
revolving armature main exciter used in a rotating
rectifier scheme, which is described in detail in Sec-
tion 6.2 of this chapter.
The exciter magnetic circuit is designed to operate
on or near the unsaturated part of its characteristic.
This preserves a linear relationship between the con-
trolled excitation of the main exciter and the gen-
erator slipring voltage. The armature is designed for
low voltage operation, with comparatively high current
levels. A typical rotating field main exciter arrange-
ment is shown on Fig 6.60.
The stator core and windings are air cooled, the
ventilation circuit being formed by the end cover
and ducting in the stator casing. Thermometers are
fitted to the casing to measure inlet and outlet air
temperatures.
The core is constructed from a large number of
segmented plates stamped from core plate material of
high magnetic quality and low electrical loss. Each
508
Chapter 6.
layer of punchings in the core is made from a number
of these segments, coated with insulating varnish and
laid side-by-side to form a circle. All the joints on
adjacent layers are staggered.
The stator winding is of a three-phase, four or
six-pole design, formed by copper coils which are
contained in conductor slots in the core, and retained
in position by insulating slot wedges. Each coil is
made from individually-insulated copper strips, con-
tained within a moulded insulating tube. To restrict
eddy currents in the coil, the copper strips in each coil
are transposed.
The rotor consists of a hollow-bored alloy steel
forged shaft which carries the silicon steel laminations
forming the rotor core. The rotor body is generally
laminated to reduce paleface losses in the exciter.
The reduction of this loss is important, as in the ex-
citer, the ratio of stator slot opening/ gap length is
comparatively large, a short airgap length being ne-
cessary to lighten the burden on the main exciter ex-
citation system. The stator slots form indentations in
the air gap boundary; therefore, as the rotor flux moves
across the stator teeth, the changing permeance due
to the slot openings introduces medium frequency
pulsations. These pulsations induce harmonic voltages
in the surface of the stator teeth but due to the
laminated construction, the resultant losses are kept
to a minimum.
The rotor windings are retained in position by cylin-
drical rotor endcaps. A fan is mounted on a seating
machined in the balance ring to circulate cooling air.
At the exciter outboard end, two slipring units are
connected to the endwinding, via radial connections
and upshaft leads.
6.1.6 Exciter performance testing
Exciters are required to undergo a number of tests
within the manufacturer's works to ensure that all
of the functional requirements are fulfilled. These
include open- and short-circuit tests, overspeed bal-
ancing and HV testing. PMG exciters are stabilised
by applying short-circuits across the stator terminals
to ensure that there is no appreciable loss of output
voltage over the plant life.
The full exciter test requirements are contained with-
in BS5000 which covers routine and type testing.
6.1. 7 Pilot exciter protection
The pilot exciter is now invariably a permanent mag-
net generator with windings only on the stator. These
windings are insulated to 1.1 k V and tested at 3.2 k V,
50 Hz for 1 minute, which is well in excess of the
normal operating voltage of 220 V.
The pilot exciter is only ever called upon to deliver
its full current output during field forcing. Modern
A VR equipment is fitted with a time/current limiter
which allows the pilot exciter to deliver maximum
CLAMPING RING-
BAFFLE
MAIN EXCITER
END
OIL THROWER RING
CENTRE SECTION
BAFFLE
AIR SCOOP
Excitation
OUTBOARD
END COVER
STATOR CASING
FIG. 6.59 Salient-pole permanent magnet generator
current for a pre-set time, after which the current is
ramped back to a safe value.
The result of these measures is a pilot exciter having
a considerable design margin for normal duties. It is
not, therefore, CEGB practice to provide additional
pilot exciter protection.
6.1.8 Main exciter protection
The main exciter, like the pilot exciter, has con-
siderable inbuilt margin compared with its normal
duties, the AC windings being insulated for 3.3 kV,
even though normal working voltages are around 500
V. During ceiling conditions, this rises to approxi-
mately 1000 V.
The rated current is well below maximum current;
therefore, for reasons similar to those given for the
pilot exciter, no additional protection is provided.
6.2 Brushless excitation systems
6.2.1 System description
The development of the solid state silicon diode, with
its inherent robustness and reliability, made possible
the design of a compact rectifier system that can be
rotated at rated generator speed. This alternative to
the conventional slipring excitation system eliminates
509
The generator
GENERATOR
END
END WINDING
SUPPORT RING
SUPPORT RING
HAND HOLE COYER
THERMOCOUPLE
ACCESS DOOR
CORE KEY
EXCITER TERMINAL LEAD
TRANSFER HOLE LIFTING LUG
FERRULE
CONNECTING STRIP
EXCITER LEAD
SUPPORT CLEAT
OUTER END COVER
/ ~ DIVIDING PLATE
/ /STIFFENING STRAP
~ BAFFLE
Chapter 6
BAFFLE RING ASSEMBLY
/ STIFFENING RING
DIRECTION OF
ROTATION
FIG. 6.60 Main exciter
the need for brushgear maintenance and reduces the
overall unit size.
Basically, the brushless scheme consists of a re-
volving armature AC exciter supplying a rotating recti-
fier mounted on the same shaft, which itself is directly
coupled to the main generator shaft.
The rotating excitation system does not use field
suppression switches and discharge resistors. The inain
generator field is de-energised by suppressing the ex-
citer field which can be done rapidly by inverting the
thyristor bridge which supplies it. The exciter time
constants are short; therefore the time taken to sup-
press the generator field is only slightly longer than
in a conventional system.
All modern gas turbine units are fitted with brushless
excitation systems, where the pilot exciter, main exciter
and diode wheel are overhung; this arrangement means
the equipment is readily accessible for inspection. The
complete rotating system is balanced as a unit. The
rotating d i o d e ~ are connected in a three-phase bridge
arrangement, the bridge arm consisting of two diodes
in series, so that if one fails by going short-circuit,
the other diode will continue to operate and hence
510
the bridge operates normally. In the unlikely event
of two diodes failing in the same bridge arm, a moni-
toring circuit in the field of the main exciter detects
the fault and trips the machine.
Because of the high excitation power requirements
of a 660 MW generator, a number of diodes are con-
nected in parallel in each rectifier bridge arm. A fuse
is connected in series with each diode to isolate it
if it fails. Present CEGB requirements include built-
in redundancy of rectifier components so that, should
two of the parallel paths in each arm fail, full MCR
excitation requirements can still be supplied._ This
increase in components has meant the use of larger
diameter diode wheels. Diodes and their associated
components have therefore to be designed to with-
stand centrifugal forces in the region of 6000 g.
Measurements of essential quantities, such as ro-
tor earth fault indication, field voltage and current
are obtained via a telemetry link or instrument slip-
rings.
Recent designs of rotating diode wheel have taken
advantage of continued developments in semiconduc-
tor diode technology to reduce the number of com-
ponents. This has 'led to a simplified mechanical
arrangement.
6.2.2 The rotating armature main exciter
The main exciter is a brushless machine which, in
conjunction with the other units of the brushless ex-
citation system, supplies power to the main generator
rotor. By dispensing with commutators, sliprings and
brushgear, the brushless machine requires less main-
tenance than the conventional machine and there are
no sliding or rubbing electrical contacts to cause
sparking or carbon dust.
The machine is a three-phase rotating armature AC
generator driven directly from the main generator
through a solid coupling. The DC field system is
mounted in the stator and the AC winding is on the
rotor. A laminated pole construction is used, giving a
field circuit with a short time constant to produce a
fast response.
The AC output from the main exciter is rectified
by diodes on the shaft and, in order to reduce diode
commutation reactance, a fully interconnected damper
winding is fitted to the exciter palefaces. Figure 6.61
shows a typical rotating armature main exciter.
The stator consists essentially of a fabricated support
structure which carries the laminated magnet frame
and the associated field windings. The support frame
is formed from two steel end plates connected by
rectangular steel axial tie bars. The tie bars are equally
spaced around the bore to form a cage into which
the magnet frame laminations are assembled.
The stator core consists of a laminated magnet
frame with the laminated field poles bolted into the
bore of the frame. The magnet frame is built up from
segmental laminations of sheet steel. Each ring of
laminations is made up of six segments; the segments
in adjacent rings are half overlapped so that the
radial joints do not coincide. Ventilation spacers are
inserted during manufacture to form radial ventilation
ducts.
The field poles are laminated and assembled onto
key bars which allow the bolting of the poles onto
the bore of the magnet frame. The poles are built
up from T -shaped laminations clamped between end-
plates by axial rivets.
The exciter armature is formed from laminations
of low loss electrical sheet steel, shrunk onto a shaft
forged from annealed carbon steel. Each segment is
thinly insulated on both sides with a varnish, baked
on to give a durable insulation. The shrink-fit is such
that the stampings are always in contact with the
shaft. The laminations are clamped between heavy
endplates of non-magnetic steel with strong finger
supports for the armature teeth.
Radial ventilation ducts are formed by spacer plates
at intervals along the rotor body. Cooling air from
both ends flows axially along slots machined in the
shaft to feed air into the interpolar gap through the
Excitation
radial ventilation ducts.
The armature windings are held in place by wedges
driven into dovetail slots formed when the winding
slots are punched. The armature winding overhang is
cooled by axial vents in the teeth in each end packet.
The three-phase two-layer winding is secured in place
by wedges made from epoxy glass mat. In order to
minimise losses caused by eddy currents, the conduc-
tor is made from braided strips in parallel. A Roebel
transposition is used in the slot portion to reduce
eddy current losses.
Each of the phase ends of the three-phase winding
is connected to the appropriate_ phase conductor in
the AC shaft connection assembly by six laminated
copper connecting straps. A copper ring under the
outboard endwinding forms the neutral point.
The AC shaft connections between the exciter and
rectifier consist essentially of three cylindrical con-
centric conductor assemblies which pass through the
wall of the shaft. The conductor bars are insulated
from each other and from the shaft.
Figure 6.62 shows the rotating rectifier unit of a
660 MW generator which is mounted outboard of the
main AC exciter. Three-phase AC power is supplied
to the silicon diode rectifier from the main exciter
by conductors taken axially along the surface of the
shaft. The components within the rectifier are con-
tained against the high centrifugal forces by a steel
retaining ring.
The diode modules are accommodated within the
retaining ring in two circular rows, the complete
rectifier being a '3- 2-1 - 9' connection of 54 diodes.
The notation signifies three AC connections, two
DC connections, one d,iode in series per arm, and the
last number indicates that there are nine paths per
phase.
The rotating rectifier includes a 2007o standby ca-
pacity, this ensures continued unrestricted operation
in the unlikely event of diode failure. Anode-based
diodes are used in the positive arm and cathode-based
diodes in the negative arm of the bridge. The diodes
are of a compression bonded construction.
Individual diodes are protected by two HRC (high
rupturing capacity) fuses, connected in parallel, which
isolate the diode should it become faulty, leaving the
remaining healthy diodes to carry the full excitation
current. Each diode module has a resistance-capaci-
tance spike voltage suppression circuit and an indi-
cator fuse. The indicator fuse, in conjunction with the
blown fuse detector equipment, is designed to detect
the operation of the main diode protection fuses.
The rectifier retaining ring is shrunk onto the out-
side of the hub. A thick cylinder of insulation is
moulded onto the inside bore of the retaining ring,
and the circular rows of diodes are attached to it via
the diode module heat sinks.
The anode-based diode modules, situated at the
hub end of the retaining ring each consist of a heat
sink, diode, capacitor, capacitor fuse and main fuse.
511
The generator
AIR FILTERS
AIR TEMPERATURE
GAUGE
TURBINE
END ~
ARMATURE RETAINING
RING
DRAIN FROM COLLECTING
TROUGHS
Chapter 6
MAIN ENCLOSURE
- ~ ~
SHAFT
ANTI-CONDENSATION
HEATER
FIG. 6.61 Rotating armature main exciter
The cathode-based diode modules are situated at
the open end of the retaining ring, and in addition
to the anode based components have two indicator
fuses mounted on the heat sink. Figure 6.63 shows a
typical cathode-based module.
The DC output from the rectifier is connected to
copper alloy rings shrunk onto bushes on the shaft,
with insulation between the connection rings and the
512
bushes. Laminated copper straps connect the positive
and negative rings to insulated radial studs in the
shaft. These studs are screwed into the shaft bore
insulated D-leads.
With a rotating rectifier system, diode condition
monitoring is not as simple as it is on the equivalent
static rectifier scheme. A method of indirect measure-
ment is required to indicate a diode failure. The blown
Excitation
ANODE-BASED
DIODE MODULE
CATHODE-BASED
DIODE MODULE
INSULATION
CYLINDER
SCREWED DOWELS
INSULATED CLAMPING
BOLT
COUPLING
BUSH AND BOLT
VENTILATION
HOLES
INSULATION
CYLINDER
NEGATIVE RADIAL
TERMINAL STUD
-(UNDER)
RADIAL TERMINAL
STUD (POSITIVE)
COOLING-AIR FLOW
FIG. 6.62 Rotating rectifier
fuse detector performs this function; it consists of
two main units, an optical detector head and a ter-
minal unit containing the detection equipment, shown
diagrammatically in Fig 6.64.
The optical detector head consists of a unit con-
taining the three photoelectric cells associated with
three separate light sources, two on the bottom face
and one (the datum) on the top face. The light beams
on the bottom face pass over the path traversed by
the tips of the diode failure indicator fuses as the
513
The generator
D I O D E ~
INSULATION
SUPPORT PILLARS
CAPACITOR
CAPACITOR
FUSE
CONNECTION
STRAPS
Chapter 6
EPOXY RESIN
GLASS STEADY
STRAP
INDICATING
FUSES
METAL SUPPORT
PILLARS
INSULATION
PLATES
FIG. 6.63 Negative DC diode module
rectifier rotates. Under normal operating conditions,
these light beams remain unbroken and the light shines
continuously on the photoelectric cell immediately op-
posite, thus maintaining a constant signal. However,
should a diode fail, the associated indicator fuse op-
erates and ejects a striker pin which interrupts the
appropriate beam of light on each revolution. This
interruption produces a pulsed DC signal at the output
of the photoelectric cell which is fed to the blown fuse
514
detector circuit, where an alarm signal is generated.
To distinguish between the two rows (positive and
negative) of indicator fuses, the light beams from the
two probes are offset by an amount equal to half the
circumferential distance between fuses. Without this
arrangement, signals from the two rows of fuses would
be coincident and therefore unidentifiable.
To establish the angular position of a failed diode
on the rotating rectifier, a fixed datum point is con-
I
I
I
I
J
I
I
l
I
I
I
I
j
TUNGSTEN- HALOGEN
LIGHT SOURCE
LIGHT GUIDE
LIGHT BEAM
OPTICAL PROBE
INDICATOR
FUSE PIN
(BACK ROW)
DATUM
SIGNAL
DATUM
DETECTOR
CIRCUIT
BLOWN
FUSE
DATUM
REf
BLOWN
FUSt
SIGNAL
DETECTOR 1---------<
CIRCUIT
Excitation
OSCILLOSCOPE
REMOTE
ALARM
CIRCUITS
(FRONT ROW)
BLOWN FUSE
SIGNAL
INDICATOR
FUSE PIN
LOCAL ALARM
INDICATOR
LAMP
FJG. 6.64 Blown fuse detector system
tinuously scanned by the third photoelectric cell.
The datum detector output is compared with the
blown fuse detector signal and the relationship be-
tween the two establishes the position of the failed
diode.
Generators fitted with brushless exciters employ tele-
metry systems to provide measurement of generator
rotor winding quantities, including rotor current, volt-
age, temperature and most importantly earth fault
indication.
The equipment uses solid state electronics, some
of which are shaft-mounted and the remainder rack-
mounted within the A VR. The rotating units are com-
pletely encapsulated and accommodated in transverse
holes in the exciter shaft. Plugs and sockets are used
for connections. The power supply for the rotating
electronics is supplied from the stationary unit at me-
dium frequency via windings on the aerial assembly.
The overall schematic of the telemetry system is shown
on Fig 6.65:
Voltage measurement The field voltage is obtained
from a voltage divider circuit connected across the
field winding. This comprises resistors Rl and R2
which have a voltage output of 0.6 V corresponding
to the generator field voltage.
Current measurement A current shunt is built into
the rotor winding, giving a rriV output correspond-
ing to the 0-5000 A flowing in the field winding.
Earth leakage A DC supply is produced in the
rotating electronic equipment, the positive supply
of which is connected to the negative end of the
field winding via a resistor R3. The negative is con-
nected to the rotor shaft through a high value
resistor R4. Leakage to earth will result in current
flowing through these resistors which is measured
by the voltage drop across R3.
The output from the current channel is fed to a volt-
age controlled oscillator that produces a frequency
modulated (FM) signal, which is then conveyed to
the stationary unit by the aerial assembly. Voltage
and earth leakage signals are treated similarly. Values
of winding resistance and average winding temperature
are derived from the voltage and current signals.
The signal from the field voltage demodulator is
also fed to an active filter tuned to the exciter funda-
mental frequency. Should a complete rectifier bridge
arm fail, signals at this frequency appear in the field
winding causing the filter output to increase, initiating
an alarm.
515
The generator
ROTOR
EARTH
VOLTAGE
DIVIDER
FIELD
WINDING
SHUNT
EARTH LEAKAGE
LIMITING RESISTOR
ROTATING PARTS
VOLTAGE TO
R1
FREQUENCY
CONVERTERS
A2 VOLTAGE
CURRENT
FM
OUTPUT
FM
OUTPUT

AERIAL
ASSEMBLY
FIG. 6.65 Rotational telemetry
An alternative brushless exciter design cons1stmg
of a rectifier with a 3-2-2-8 arrangement of connec-
tions totalling 96 diodes is also in common use. The
notation signifies three AC connections, two DC con-
nections with two diodes in series and eight parallel
paths per bridge arm. The rectifier is designed to
maintain rated output following the failure of up to
two paths in any bridge arm.
A circular row of fuse modules and two circular
rows of diode modules are contained against the cen-
trifugal forces by a steel retaining ring. The diode
modules consist of anode and cathode units, which are
used in the positive and negative arm of the bridge. In
contrast to the mark 1 systems, the mark 2 is fused on
the AC side of the rectifier and advantage has been
taken of the improved peak inverse voltage capability
of modern diodes to eliminate the capacitor fuse cir-
cuits. A typical mark 2 diode module is shown on
Fig 6.66.
Fusing on the AC side means a reduction in fuse
size, as the elements are no longer subjected to the
high induced generator field voltages which occur
during system faults and pole slipping incidents.
516
--
--
FREQUENCY
TO VOLTAGE
CONVERTERS
VOLTAGE
CURRENT
9kHz
OSCILLATOR
STATIONARY PARTS
H

AMPLIFIER
overall schematic diagram

0-10V
DC
Chapter 6
VOLTAGE
CURRENT
BRIDGE ARM
FAILURE
EARTH
LEAKAGE
SIGNAL
OUTPUTS
ALARM
OUTPUTS
The need for the two diodes in series was deter-
mined from consideration of two diodes failing simul-
taneously in the same phase of the rectifier. If the
series diodes were not present, the result would be a
short-circuiting of the generator rotor.
Indicator fuses are connected in parallel with the
main fuses as a secondary method of determining
diode failures. When the generator is shut down, in-
spection of the indicator fuses readily identifies failed
diodes.
For cooling purposes, air is circulated in a closed
ventilation system which contains a water cooled heat
exchanger. Air from the outlet side of the cooler cir-
culates within the main enclosure. The self-fanning
action of the fuse and diode modules draws air from
the main enclosure through the rectifier.
6.2.3 Telemetry system
The telemetry system employed on this design of
rectifier makes use of the principle of frequency di-
vision multiplexing and includes a number of addi-
tional features. The most significant of these is the
LOCATION
KEYWAY
BALANCE WEIGHTS
DIODE
BASEPLATE
AND HEATSINK
LAMINATED
COPPER STR!1P
INSULATION
BASE
Excitation
HEAT
SINK
FIG. 6.66 Rectifier module (anode)
indication and phase location of up to three blown
fuses per phase, making a total indicating capacity
of nine blown fuses. The other changes are the use
of a single transmitter, directly modulated by the
field voltage, to which are added sub-carriers contain-
ing the rotor current, blown fuse and earth leakage
information.
Voltage
The field voltage measurement is taken differentially
at each end of the shaft, as shown on Fig 6.67.
Voltage measurement is made via a voltage divider
and differential amplifier 1. The output of this ampli-
fier is fed via the mixer unit 4 to the transmitter
10 to give direct frequency modulation of the trans-
mitted carrier frequency.
The transmitter output is transferred via the aerial -
to a carrier amplifier 16 and demodulator 17 to give a
mean output voltage proportional to the carrier fre-
quency. The output is then smoothed and scaled to
produce an output corresponding to the DC field
voltage.
Earth leakage detection
Rotor earth leakage is detected as a voltage devel-
oped across a resistor R6 which produces a frequency
517
(Jl
0)
PHASE
A
21-32kHz
lt n! :- e":" --: :
Rl
I I I I I I
I I I I I ; ; I
' ' I I
i I I I I I 1
I II I : I I
EIGHT SERIES I EIGHT SERIES
CONNECTED
I
CONNECTED
TRANSISTOR TRANSISTOR
SWITCHES SWITCHES
AND CURRENT 1 AND CURRENT
TRANSFORMERS I TRANSFORMERS
R3
R4
FIG. 6.67 Telemetry system
I I
t--J
C2
10
AERIAL
block diagram
y,,
l l'
I
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"
H DIVIDER
Y/1
,,
16
CAR FilER
AMF--LIFIER
[:0-W
DISPLAY

\
' L_.___ --
Jl I 33
17
CARRIER
[ 1EM00ULATOR
-I
::r
CD
co
CD
:l
CD
.....
OJ
.-+
0
.....
()
::r
OJ
"0
.....
CD
-.
en
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change at the output of a voltage-to-frequency con-
verter 3. This output is adcted to the voltage signal
in the transmitter input mixer 4. The earth leakage
signal is isolated from the carrier demodulator 17 out-
put by a band-pass filter 22 and processed to provide
an earth leakage alarm signal.
Field currem measurement
Field current is measured by means of eight series-
connected current transformers (Tl- TS) in phase A
of the main exciter output. Since each current trans-
former (CT) surrounds a conductor between the fuses
and the associated rectifier in one phase, the total
output from the current transformers corresponds to
the total phase current. The CT output modulates the
voltage-to-frequency converter 5 over a range of field
currents from 0-6000 A DC. The signal carrying the
current information is selected by a band-pass filter
20, demodulated and rectified to give field current
indication.
Blown fuse indication
Eight CTs (T9- T16) in each phase, identical to those
used for current measurement, are each loaded by a
transistor switch (TRS 1-TRSS), shunted by a resistor
( R 17- R24). The resistors are connected in series but
under normal operating conditions each one is shorted
out by its associated transistor switch. The resistance
of the circuit is therefore low. If a fuse operates,
the associated transistor switches off and the circuit
resistance increases; further fuse failures result in fur-
ther increases in resistance. This arrangement is re-
peated on each of the three phases and connected to
the summing unit 40 which, by supplying a current
to each of the circuits, provides an output voltage
proportional to the number of blown fuses in each
phase. The output of the summing unit controls the
output of the voltage-to-frequency converter.
The blown fuse information is selected from the
receiver carrier demodulator 17 by a band-pass filter
21. The signal is then recovered by the demodulator
24. The output waveform for the circuit corresponds
to the number of blown fuses so the waveform is
analysed to give the number of fuse failures. Phase
identification is carried out by a strobe generator 30
which produces three separate pulses that coincide
with the centres of each positive phase current period.
6.2.4 Instrument sliprings
An alternative scheme is shown diagrammatically on
Fig 6.68 and uses shaft-mounted sliprings. Connec-
tions are taken from the exciter upshaft leads through
the shaft bore to instrument sliprings mounted on
the permanent magnet generator shaft. These slip-
rings permit direct measurement of field voltage. The
rotor earth fault indicator relay is connected to one
Excitation
of these sliprings.
The brushes are designed to operate continuously in
order to achieve uninterrupted rotor earth fault pro-
tection. This arrangement is lightly loaded and would,
after a short period of operation at low current,
develop a high resistance contact film, resulting in
incorrect readings. To overcome this difficulty, a
constant current is circulated through the two brushes
('brush-wetting'). This continuous flow of current
Il.laintains the interface resistance constant at normal
levels.
A signal proportional to generator rotor current
is obtained from a search coil mounted in the
quadrature axis of the exciter field coils._ The output
signal is filtered and converted from a voltage to a
standard 4-20 mA current signal suitable for use
with the station central logging computer. The field
voltage signal is similarly conditioned and buffered
to protect the instrumentation from the high voltages
induced in the rotor field following incidents, such
as pole slipping. The current and voltage signals are
subsequently processed to provide an average rotor
winding temperature measurement.
Continuous monitoring of the rotating diode equip-
ment is considered unnecessary, given the proven
operational reliability of the equipment. This is the
simplest and most robust of the described schemes
to monitor essential rotor quantities. It has the added
advantage that generator rotor RSO (recurrent surge
oscilloscope) testing can be carried out, a facility not
available with equivalent telemetry schemes.
6.2.5 Rotating rectifier protection
The main exciter is protected, against the effect of
diode failure by the provision of fusing, either on the
AC or DC side of the rectifier. When a diode fails, it
usually fails to short circuit, blowing the high rupture
capacity (HRC) fuse, which in turn blows an ejector
pin indicator fuse to initiate an alarm. On the mark 1
system, the pin is detected by a photoelectric cell,
and an alarm is raised in the control room. In contrast,
the mark 2 system can identify up to nine individual
diode failures.
On the basis of the proven high operational relia-
bility of the rotating diodes, it is not now considered
necessary to continuously monitor the rotating system
for failure. Present practice is to examine the indica-
tor fuses on an opportunity basis and during planned
maintenance overhauls.
Should a major fault occur, such that a complete
bridge arm is either short- or open-circuited, major
damage can be caused to the excitation system. To
protect the unit in the event of such a failure, it is
CEGB practice to provide bridge arm failure protec-
tion. This device initiates a turbine trip on detection
of a failure.
The detector monitors the amount of ripple induced
in the main exciter field, which in a healthy rectifier
519
The generator
D
D
SIGNAL
CONDITIONING
UNIT
VOLTAGE
TRANSDUCER
ROTOR E::ARTH FAULT INDICATION RELAY
Chapter 6
AUXILIARY SUPPLY
110V 50Hz
4-20mA OUTPUT
TO DATA LOGGER
CURREN'!"
TRANSDUCER
4-20mA OUTPUT
TO DATA LOGGER
FIG. 6.68 Arrangement of instrument sliprings
is the sixth harmonic of the exciter fundamental fre-
quency. This ripple is associated with the normal
three-phase full wave rectification of the exciter ar-
mature voltage. Should a bridge arm fail (to either
open- or short-circuit), a component of ripple at the
exciter fundamental frequency appears in the exciter
field. This is detected by a band-pass filter tuned to
the exciter fundamental frequency. Once the input is
of sufficient magnitude to overcome an internal bias
signal, which is set to prevent spurious operation, a
relay is energised which initiates a Category B unit
trip.
6.3 Static rectifier excitation equipment
6.3.1 Introduction
Excitation systems based on the static semiconductor
diode bridge were the first alternatives to the DC
520
excitation system. Early equipment contained diodes
of relatively low rating, where up to three diodes were
required in series to meet reverse voltage requirements
during pole slipping. This, together with a cautious
design approach, resulted in high spare capacity.
The rapid development of semiconductor techno-
logy has resulted in a reduced number of simpler,
more compact devices, capable of operating at high
voltage and current levels. Equipment of this type
has a record of high reliability on the CEGB system,
and is currently in use on a number of 660 MW units.
With the introduction of the thyristor, the role of
the static rectifier has radically changed. The thyristor
rectifier plays an active role in the control of excita-
tion power to the generator field. Like the diode,
the thyristor conducts current in one direction only;
however, unlike the diode, the point at which con-
duction takes place can be controlled.
Excitation power modulation is achieved by con-
trolling the thyristor firing angle, eliminating the need
for a main AC exciter. As the time constant asso-
ciated with the exciter is the principal cause of delay,
its removal greatly the speed of excitation
system response, enhancing generator transient stability
margins.
A feature of all static excitation equipment is the
need for slipringS" and brushgear which require regular
maintenance. As this is carried out on-load, an inter-
lock system is normally provided so that access to
the slipring enclosure is prevented, unless a safety
procedure has been followed. No further mention of
sliprings or brushgear will be made here, as a detailed
account of the equipment is given in Section 3 of this
chapter.
6.3.2 General description of static diode rectifier
equipment
A static rectifier system is an assembly of diodes and
diode protective equipment. Typical 660 MW rectifier
units consist of up to four self-contained, three-phase,
full wave bridges. The number of diodes per section are
selected so that MCR requirements can be met with one
section out of commission. Each section is provided
with AC and DC isolators, and an interlock system
ensures that, during on-load operation, access can be
gained to one section only.
Diode rating is based on the continuous and peak
inverse voltages, together with the current/time rating
on overload. A typical rectifier bridge has a number
of parallel paths per arm (the diodes being specially
selected to ensure satisfactory current sharing) with
one diode in each parallel path.
To dissipate the heat generated during rectifica-
tion, the diodes are mounted on heat sinks. Cooling
is provided by either forced or natural air circula-
tion and alarms are generally provided to warn op-
erators of high temperature conditions which require
investigation.
Busbars are used for the AC connections from the
main exciter, and for the DC rectifier output to the
generator field winding. The busbar system, like the
exciters, is rated for llOOJo MCR and is capable of
withstanding the mechanical forces arising from the
worst overcurrent fault conditions.
All rectifier equipments supplied to the CEGB must
meet the requirements of BS4417 which covers both
routine and type testing.
6.3.3 Rectifier protection
Diodes are susceptible to overcurrent, which causes
excessive heating of the element, and to overvoltages
which can pierce the rectifying element and cause com-
plete breakdown. It is therefore essential for system
integrity that both the operating and ceiling voltages
are within the capacity of the diodes.
During generator pole slipping or asynchronous op-
eration, the peak voltages appearing at the slipring
are about 2000 V on a 660 MW machine. Since these
Excitation
voltages appear across the rectifier in the reverse
direction, it is CEGB practice to use diodes with a
peak inverse capability of 3.4-4.2 kV, thus providing
ample margin.
To protect the diodes against voltage spikes (caused
by diode commutation effects and external switching),
each diode is provided with a dV /dt suppression cir-
cuit, consisting of a capacitor and series resistor. In
addition, each rectifier section has a resistor-capacitor
suppression network connected across the DC output
to limit voltage transients coming from the DC side
of the rectifier to within the peak transient voltage
rating of the diodes.
The rectifier diodes are easily dama-ged by over-
currents and are therefore individually protected by
high speed, high rupturing capacity fuses, with micro-
switches for fuse failure indication. These fuses op-
erate for an internal fault to isolate the faulty diode
and allow continued operation of the remaining diodes
in the arm. The most severe fault experienced by the
diode is a short-circuit on the DC side of the rectifier;
this is cleared by HRC fuse operation.
Overcurrents due to system faults or slipring flash-
overs are cleared by DC circuit-breaker operation.
6.3.4 Static thyristor rectifier schemes
The thyristor has radically changed the role of static
rectifier equipment, as it no longer plays a passive
but an active role in the control of generator excita-
tion. One of the principal features of this form of
excitation control is its very fast rate of response
due to the elimination of a main exciter. A typical
thyristor excitation scheme is shown on Fig 6.69.
Excitation power is generally taken from an excita-
tion transformer which is connected to the generator
output terminals. With this arrangement, the trans-
former primary voltage follows the generator terminal
voltage during normal and fault conditions. Under
fault conditions the excitation power transformer must
be capable of meeting the field forcing requirements
at reduced terminal voltage, and of withstanding the
overvoltage experienced following a load rejection.
An alternative scheme, which is not subject to
system voltage variations, is the compound source
rectifier system. These static systems use both current
and voltage sources (generator terminal quantities) to
make up the excitation power source.
To ensure integrity under 'black start' conditions,
however, a scheme based on shaft-mounted exciters is
an attractive alternative. The exciter runs continuously
at ceiling output with low power factor, providing
the thyristor converter with a constant voltage source
of excitation power.
The thyristor rectifier unit is arranged in several
isolatable sections so that any one section can be ser-
viced while the remaining sections provide full MCR
excitation requirements. Thyristor free-wheel and pole-
slip crowbar circuits are generally included to protect
521
The generator
REVERSIBLE
CURRENT
INPUT
FROM STATOR
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Chapter 6
EXCITATION
TRANSFORMER
VOLTAGE FEEDBACK I
~ - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - ~ ~ - - - ~ ~
I CURRENT FEEDBACK
VT
I II_
I I I
VOLTAGE
REFERENCE
AUTO
SIGNAL
I
I
AUTO/MANUAL
CHANGEOVER
I
I
THYRISTOR
CONTROL
SIGNAL
AVR
GENERATOR/MOTOR
EXTERNAL PLANT
FIG. 6.69 Typical thyristor excitation system
the thyristors from excessive overvoltages. Direct cur-
rent voltage transformers (DCVTs) trigger the crow-
bar into operation on detection of an overvoltage
condition. Free-wheel thyristors provide a path for
stored energy in the rotor during thyristor commu-
tation and system fault conditions. The pole-slip crowbar
provides a path for the induced reverse direction pole-
slip current, so avoiding excessive pole-slip voltage
developing across the rotor terminals.
The DC output of the thyristor rectifier is provided
with voltage and current surge suppression circuits
which are designed to protect the thyristor from volt-
age spikes generated during thyristor commutation or
field circuit-breaker operation. In addition, individual
thyristors are protected against dV I dt breakdown by
a capacitor-resistor suppression circuit connected in
parallel (identical to the circuit used to protect diodes).
Overcurrent protection is provided by a series-connected
HRC fuse. In the event of an individual thyristor
drawing excessive current the series fuse will rupture,
ejecting a striker pin which initiates an alarm. Over-
current excursions are normally controlled by the A VR
to within the rotor heating limit; however, in the
event of a prolonged overcurrent condition, the ex-
citation is tripped through the field circuit-breaker.
To meet the high current requirements of large
turbine-generator excitation systems, it is necessary
522
to connect a number of thyristors in parallel. This
presents difficulties, since individual thyristors have
different forward path c,haracteristics, causing one to
conduct the majority of current; if allowed to con-
tinue, this would cause breakdown. Forced current
sharing, by the addition of a low value resistance or
inductance in series with each anode, is normally used
to obviate this.
Thyristor cooling is provided by a natural or forced
air scheme. Temperature detectors mounted within the
air circuit provide early warning of high temperature
conditions, allowing appropriate operator action to be
taken. On future large plant, the higher current ratings
and associated losses may make it necessary to use
water cooled thyristor equipment.
Thyristor excitation systems can improve the steady
state and transient stability limits considerably because
of their ability to change the generator field voltage
almost instantaneously. They are therefore finding gen-
eral application on generating plant which is connected
to the periphery of the main transmission system,
where the inversion mode of operation, in which the
field current is rapidly reduced by the reversal of
energy flow, is exploited to the full. The rapid field
suppression achieved following isolation from the sys-
tem under load rejection or fault conditions is illus-
trated on Fig 6. 70.
Excitation
-----------------------------------
GENERATOR FIELD
VOLTAGE VFD
t,
AC RECTIFIER
FIELD CURRENT
time _....
-VFD MAX
--------------------------
\iF
0
- FIELD VOLTAGE
T
1
- FIELD TIME CONSTANT
11- SUPPRESSION TIME FOR A THYRISTOR EXCITER
T2- SUPPRESSION TIME FOR AN AC RECTIFIER EXCITER
FIG. 6.70 Field suppression time
6.4 The voltage regulator
6.4.1 Historical review
Early designs of voltage regulator equipment had a
large deadband, were slow to respond to system changes
and required regular maintenance. This was due main-
ly to the use of moving mechanical components within
the automatic voltage regulator (A VR). To eliminate
these difficulties, A VR systems were developed which
made use of the cross-field generator or amplidyne.
The amplidyne was used as the regulator output stage
and controlled the field of the DC exciter.
The amplidyne and DC exciter were, in turn, super-
seded by the magnetic amplifier and AC exciter. In
this scheme, the magnetic amplifier was used as the
regulator output stage controlling the main exciter
field. The output from the exciter was rectified by a
diode bridge and taken, via slipring connections, to
the generator field winding. Schemes of this type were
successfully employed on all the CEGB 500 MW gen-
erators and continue to provide reliable operation.
The rapid developments in the field of semiconduc-
tor technology brought about the introduction of the
transistor amplifier and the thyristor output ampli-
fier, which have increased the speed of response and
improved the overall system performance. Subsequent-
ly, the discrete component operational amplifier has
been replaced by integrated circuit equivalents. A
typical modern dual channel arrangement is shown
on Fig 6.71.
Future developments in the field of A VR design will
centre around the use of digital microprocessor tech-
niques. These discrete time controllers offer a number
of potential advantages, most notably the introduction
of adaptive control strategies.
6.4.2 System description
The A VR is an essential part of the operation of a
modern electrical power system. It is at the heart of
the excitation control systems around which the re-
523
The generator
VT
8
VT
A
MONITORING
\/T
WJj LlW WJJ
rrm rrm rr:n
STATIC
RECTIFIER
Chapter 6
400Hz
ROTOR ANGLE
MEASUREMENT
UP-TO-FREQ
DETECTOR
CHANNEL
A
AVR
CHANNEL
B
AVR
OVERFLUX
EXCITATION
TRIP & ALARM
CHANNEL
A
CONVERTER
PILOT EXCITER
SUPPLY
CHECKING
ALARM/TRIP
CHANNEL
B
CONVERTER
TOTAL CURRENT
MAIN
RECTIFIER
ARM
O!C
FIELD
DISCHARGE
FIG. 6.71 Dual channel AVR
mammg equipment operates. The central function of
the A VR is to maintain constant generator terminal
voltage under conditions of changing load. There are,
however, a number of other functions which are
required from the A VR, if a large generator is to
operate satisfactorily under all operational conditions.
The CEGB currently specifies dual channel A VR
equipment complying fully with EES 1980 together with
manual back-up control on all 660 MW plant. This
provides maximum reliability as the loss of one chan-
nel does not inhibit operational performance. Facilities
are provided to repair the faulty channel while the
generator remains in service. On small gas turbine
plant, single channel A VR equipment is specified.
6.4.3 The regulator
The A VR is a closed loop controller which uses a
signal proportional to the generator terminal voltage
and compares it with a steady voltage reference. The
difference or error voltage obtained is then used to
control the exciter output.
If the load on the generator changes, the generator
524
terminal voltage also changes, increasing the error sig-
nal. The error is amplified by the regulator and used
to increase or reduce excitation, as necessary, to bring
the voltage back to its original value. The need for a
rapid, stable response following such changes is of
paramount importance and, since control systems us-
ing such high steady state gains would rapidly become
unstable, special signal conditioning networks are in-
cluded. These consist of phase advance and phase
lag circuits which have adjustable time constants al-
lowing accurate tuning of the voltage response. To-
gether, these circuits act as a notched filter, reducing
gain at generator electromechanical oscillation frequen-
cies, whilst permitting the high gains necessary for
accurate voltage control. The setting of the time con-
stants is of great importance, as transmission system
dynamic stability is sensitive to A VR settings. For
this reason, sophisticated analytical techniques (see
Section 6.7 of this chapter) have been developed and
applied in order to obtain optimal performance.
The A VR accepts the generator terminal voltage
signal via its own interposing voltage transformer.
The voltage signal is then rectified and filtered before
being compared with the r e f e r ~ n c e voltage. Provision
is made for the operator to .change the reference
voltage in response to system requirements.
In addition to the basic voltage control require-
ment, the A VR includes control loops which perform
other vital tasks. These controllers, which include the
MVAr limiter and overfluxing limiter, are discussed
in detail in Section 6.5 of this chapter.
6.4.4 Auto follow-up circuit
With a dual channel design, both regulator channels
can be active at the same time, each providing half
the total generator excitation requirements. An alter-
native arrangement allows for one channel to be active,
whilst the other follows passively. Should a channel
trip in either scheme, then the other picks up the
full excitation requirement of the generator in a
'bumpless' manner. This is achieved using follow-up
circuits which track the primary (or active) channel
and drive the standby channel output while a dif-
ference exists between the two.
6.4.5 Manual follow-up
This is similar to the auto follow-up but is used to
adjust the manual control system in response to
automatic channel changes. In the event of an A VR
failure, the manual control takes over in a smooth
bumpless manner.
6.4.6 Balance meter
A balance meter is provided in the power station
control room and in the A VR cubicle. This monitors
the difference between the automatic and manual
control output settings. During automatic control, the
follow-up circuits ensure this error is minimal, whereas
during manual control no such facility exists to adjust
the A VR, and a large discrepancy can therefore exist.
During manual operation and prior to selection of
A V R control, the balance meter is consulted and an
adjustment is made so as to avoid large MY Ar dis-
turbances following control changeover.
6.4. 7 A VR protection
The A VR plays a vital role in the unit overall pro-
tection scheme, as it controls suppression of the gen-
erator field after faults. In addition, it is necessary
to protect against A VR component failure which would
otherwise jeopardise generator operation.
The field suppression circuit accepts signals from
the main unit overall protection scheme, in addition
to signals from the overvoltage and transformer over-
fluxing relays. The circuit switches the A VR thyristor
'.:onverters to their inversion mode of operation and
"hen trips the excitation.
The overvoltage relay monitors the generator ter-
Excitation
minal voltage and, if it exceeds a safe level (normally
1.3 pu), the thyristor converter is immediately switched
into the inverting mode, which reduces the field cur-
rent in minimum time. This relay is only active during
unsynchronised operation.
The overfluxing relay is also only active during un-
synchronised operation, when there is a chance that
the generator transformer could be overfluxed if the
safe voltage/frequency ratio is exceeded. A special
relay detects this condition and initiates an alarm.
Control loops within the A VR will act to reduce this
to a safe level but, if the condition persists, the thy-
ristor converter is switched to the inverting mode and
the excitation is tripped.
Most faults within the regulator loop give rise to
either an over or under excitation condition. There-
fore comparator circuits are used to monitor regulator
and converter bridge input and output levels. Alter-
natively, a single comparator monitors the thyristor
output current and compares it with maximum and
minimum field current limits allowed. Transiently, these
limits are exceeded during system faults, but the chan-
nel is tripped if the condition persists beyond a few
seconds.
6.4.,8 Thyristor converter protection
In addition to the above, A VR channels are tripped
if any of the indicator fuses protecting the converter
thyristors rupture. The thyristor converter is further
protected by a temperature sensing device which op-
erates in the event of excessive heating.
6.4.9 Fuse failure detection unit
The regulator relies upon a signal from the generator
voltage transformers for its controlling action. Loss
of the signal is due in general to failure of the fuses
in the voltage transformers. A fuse failure detector
unit monitors the input to each channel and compares
it with that of a check or reference transformer. If
a fuse fails in the voltage transformer supplying the
reset voltage, the channel is tripped; a fuse failure
in the reference transformer initiates an alarm.
6.4.10 The digital AVR
The rapid development of the microprocessor has
brought about the increased use of digital electronic
techniques in a number of industrial control appli-
cations. While the present generation of solid state
A VRs meet all existing CEGB functional requirements,
there are advantages to be gained if microprocessor
schemes are considered.
High reliability, which has been a feature of pre-
sent A VR equipment, can be expected to improve
still further due to the reduction in the number of
components, since much of the control logic, at pre-
sent carried out by electromechanical relays, will be
525
The generator
software specified. Cost advantages are also envisaged
as standard memory circuits replace the present cus-
tomised printed circuit boards. However, the principal
motivation lies in the range of sophisticated control"
ler designs that the microprocessor makes physically
realisable. One class of controller is the adaptive
regulator, which (as the name suggests) is capable of
adjusting its structure to take account of changing
plant conditions. This type of regulator, shown sche-
matically on Fig 6. 72, consists of a recursive real-
time parameter estimator (based on a form of least
squares structure) which is used to identify the con-
trolled plant. The estimated plant model is then used
by the regulator to form the control law. A wide
choice of regulator I control law designs exists; typical
strategies include pole placement and minimum var-
iance. Both have a very flexible structure, making it
a simple matter to include additional input signals,
such as machine accelerating power (which has been
demonstrated to enhance transmission system dyna-
mic performance), and post-fault recovery.
Chapter 6
6.5 Excitation control
In addition to the basic voltage control loop, modern
excitation equipment includes a number of additional
limiter circuits. These limiters operate as parallel con-
trollers, in that their signals replace the generator
voltage as the controlled variable whenever those in-
put signals exceed predefined limits.
6.5.1 Rotor current limiter
All exciters are capable of supplying generator field
current well in excess of that required for normal
MCR operation. This field forcing capability or mar-
gin is necessary during system fault conditions, where
the additional reactive power provides the much needed
boost of synchronous torque. However, this current
must be restricted in duration because of the danger
of overheating the generator rotor which would cause
insulation system degradation. To prevent overheat-
ing, the exciter field current signal is applied to the
rotor current limit circuit which detects values of
field current in excess of ll007o MCR.
CONVENTIONAL
SPEED GOVERNOR
526
GOVERNOR
VALVE REF
DIGITAL TO
ANALOGUE
CONVERTER
OPTIMAL
CONTROL
SIGNAL
TURBINE
GENERATOR
GENERATOR
OUTPUT
- POWER
1--1-------------VOLTAGE
ANALOGUE TO
DIGITAL
CONVERTER
RECURSIVE
PARAMETER
ESTIMATOR 1 - - - - 1 1 _ _ , ~ COMPARATOH ~ 1 - - - - REF
~ - - ~ - - - - ~ l l ~ - - - - - - ~ r
ESTIMATED
SYSTEM
PARAMETER
CONTROLLER
WITH ADAPTIVE
GAINS
FIG. 6.72 Block diagram of adaptive excitation controller
During system fault conditions, the A VR reacts to
boost excitation; normally this situation lasts only
milliseconds before circuit-br'eaker operation clears
the fault. However, it is necessary to allow for the
longest back-up protection clearance times and hence a
delay of up to 5 s is specified. After this delay, the
rotor current limit circuit generates a signal which
opposes that from the A VR and ramps excitation
current back to a safe value.
6.5.2 MVAr limiter
~ 1 o d e r n A VR equipment is capable of controlling
generator operation at rotor angles of 130 to 140.
This mode of operation is not, however, tenable when
transient stability criteria are taken into account; it is
therefore customary to limit the generator operation
to a rotor angle of 75.
The permissible leading MY Ar varies with the square
of the generator terminal voltage, the limit line being
defined by the following equation:
MVAr + MW y
2
VI sin + VI cos v
2
The in-phase and quadrature components of stator
current are obtained from a form of phase sensitive
rectifier. The signals are then compared with the
generator terminal voltage bias and, if the limit set-
ting is exceeded, an output is generated which acts to
boost excitation and reduce rotor angle.
6.5.3 Overfluxing limit
In addition to the overfluxing protection circuit, mod-
ern A VR equipment includes overfluxing limiter cir-
cuits. This is a closed loop controller which monitors
the voltage/frequency ratio during unsynchronised op-
eration. Should a predefined ratio be exceeded, the
limiter generates a signal which acts to reduce ex-
citation and thereby prevent generator transformer
overfluxing.
6.5.4 Speed reference controller
In accordance with current CEGB functional require-
ments, this feature controls the application of excita-
tion during the turbine run-up sequence. This limiter
unit ensures that voltage is brought up to nominal and
the unit synchronised with the minimum delay.
6.6 The power system stabiliser
6.6.1 Basic concepts
Situations have occurred where groups of generators
Excitation
at one end of a transmission line oscillate with respect
to those at the other end. These oscillations, known
as power system oscillations, are load dependent and,
if not prevented, severely limit the MW transfer across
the transmission system. To obtain a solution to this
problem, an understanding of the basic machine tor-
que relationships is necessary.
For a generator to remain in synchronism following
system faults, it must produce a braking torque to
balance the accelerating torques introduced by changes
to the electrical transmission system. The braking tor-
que can be separated into two components:
The synchronous torque, which is in-phase with
rotor angle changes and is necessary to ensure res-
toration of rotor angle following displacements.
The damping torque component, which is in-phase
with rotor speed changes and provides damping of
rotor oscillations.
Where generating units are connected to the grid over
high reactance tie lines, fast response excitation sys-
tems are vital to maintain system transient stability.
This has the effect, however, of reducing the inherent
generator damping torque; consequently, under cer-
tain load conditions, generator rotor swings following
system changes will have little damping.
As the component of torque in question is strongly
associated with rotor speed, a logical starting point
for investigation is the generator torque speed loop
shown in Fig 6. 73 (a).
The introduction of an A VR, while enhancing syn-
chronising torque, has a deleterious effect on the small
inherent generator damping torque (the latter is ob-
tained by means of paleface windings or induced eddy
current effects). This presents some difficulty, as from
considerations of transient stability a fast response
high gain excitation system is necessary, however, its
implementation could result in reduced power system
damping and a consequential reduction in load trans-
fer capability.
To counteract this, a device known as a power
system stabiliser (PSS) has been developed. Figure
6. 73 (b) shows the addition of such a device to the
torque speed loop. A signal derived (in this case) from
shaft speed is used as the input to the stabiliser; this
is then processed and conditioned to provide sufficient
phase lead to compensate for the phase lags inherent
in the generator plant and transmission system. The
output of the stabiliser is superimposed onto the A VR
demand signal in order that an increased damping
torque component is produced.
A comprehensive linearised generator and power sys-
tem stabliser representation is shown on Fig 6.73 (c),
where it can be seen that the PSS signal is fed to the
block denoted as GEP. This represents the generator,
exciter and power system, detailed knowledge of which
is vital if the PSS is to compensate for the phase
527
The generator
Chapter 6
528
t>T
s
IWR
AND
EXCITER
SYNCHRONISING TORQUE
CONTRIBUTION
'-------------- !> E ref
(a)
-CHANGE IN MECHANICAL TORQUE
-CHANGE IN DAMPING TORQUE
-CHANGE IN SYNCHRONISING TORQUe
-GENERA TO"' DAMPING FACTOR
-CHANGE IN SPEED
.0,0
COMP
PSStn
w
0. E ref
SYNCHRONISING TORQUE
CONTRIBUTION
' \ T
AVR
AND
EXCITER
-CHANGE IN ROTOR ANGLE
-COMPARATOR
-POWER SYSTEM STABILISER
-ABSOLUTE MACHINE SPEED
- AVR DEMAND SIGNAL
E ref
(b)
t----'-------------- 1 PSSw(S) h
r--- ---,
I I
I I
I I
I I
I
I L __________ -----------------,
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I "E,
I
I
I
I

(c) COMPREHENSIVE LINEAR I SED
GENERATOR AND POWER SYSTEM STABILISER
'-\ E ref
K
1
-


K2- PARAMETER RELATING CHANGE IN ELECTRICAL
TORQUE FOR A CHANGE IN MACHINE FLUX
LINKAGE LlEq
K3- IMPEDANCE FACTOR
K4- DEMAGNETIZING EFFECT OF A CHANGE IN
ROTOR ANGLE
K
5
-
K
6
- CHANGE IN TERMINAL VOLTAGE WITH CHANGE
IN MACHINE FLUX LINKAGE t>Eq
Tdo- MACHINE FIELD OPEN CIRCUIT TIME CONSTANT
EXC(S)- VOLTAGE REGULATOR SYSTEM
FiG. 6.73 Simplified torque-speed loop diagrams
lag within GEP and produce a component of gen-
erator torque in phase with speed changes. This in-
formation can be obtained in a variety of ways, nota-
bly by on-load frequency response analysis, using pulse
injection techniques and by computer simulation tech-
niques based on representative system models.
6.6.2 Characteristics of GEP
Extensive system investigations are used to establish
the characteristics of GEP. All operating modes of
the plant are examined to identify the conditions
under which stability is marginal. In general, operation
at leading power factor during times of low system
demand are the most critical. However, in the case of
pumped-storage plant, which will generally be operat-
ing in the pumping mode during these periods, the
situation can be more critical because of the large
machine rotor angle with respect to the rest of the
system.
A series of simulation studies is then conducted,
using detailed plant representation (including the A VR
and PSS), the results being assessed by the analytical
techniques described in Section 6. 7 of this chapter.
The model PSS settings are adjusted until optimum
excitation performance is achieved at all critical op-
erating conditions. These settings are then used as a
basis for plant commissioning tests, thereby reducing
expensive on-site testing.
6.6.3 System modes of oscillation
Examination of the basic torque-speed-angle loop in
Fig 6.73 yields W
0
(natural frequency of electro-
mechanical oscillations) = )(wKie/M) rad/s. For
typical values of machine inertia (M) and synchron-
- ising torque coefficients (Kie), the frequency range of
interest is 0.2-4.0 Hz. Within this frequency range,
the oscillatory modes can be broadly divided into
three main components.
Inter-area or inter-tie oscillations
Inter-area oscillations range typically from 0.2-0.6 Hz
and occur where two generation groups are connected
by a weak tie line; they tend to be power transfer
dependent. Inadequate damping of these modes will
result in operational difficulties, since power transfer
capability is reduced. These low frequency inter-tie
oscillations have been initiated by random events oc-
curring during periods of high MW transfer over weak
transmission links and/or unusual load distribution.
Local mode oscillations
These occur where a single generator is exporting
power over a high reactance transmission link. In
these situations the need for static thyristor excitation
systems (because of transient stability requirements)
aggravates the problem of steady state stability which,
Excitation
if uncorrected, will result in prolonged rotor swings
in the region of 0.9-1.6 Hz.
Intra-plant modes
Intra-plant modes of oscillation occur between units
within the same power station. Unlike the above,
these are not power transfer dependent but result from
interaction between generator excitation systems. If
action is not taken, intra-plant interactions will limit
the available PSS gain and hence its effectiveness.
6.6.4 Principles of PSS operation
PSS action is inhibited during steady state trans-
m i ~ s i o n system conditions, as it has a detrimental
effect on voltage control. A steady state voltage offset
is prevented by the use of a washout circuit at the
PSS input. The washout circuit, shown on the PSS
block diagram on Fig 6. 74, is essentially a differen-
tiating circuit which attenuates low frequency changes.
The time constant of the circuit, Tw, is chosen to
washout low frequencies but not to interfere with
the signal conditioning networks at system electro-
mechanical frequencies.
The signal conditioning network provides the phase
compensation, so that a torque is produced in phase
with speed changes. This network essentially shapes
the PSS characteristic to provide the best damping
performance at all electromechanical modes. Generally
this is achieved by maximising stabiliser gain (within
the constraints imposed by the power system control
loop) and shaping the phase characteristic so that it
has a slightly lagging value at the particular inter-
area oscillation frequencies of concern. To prevent the
intra-plant interaction, tuning should ensure that the
overall phase characteristic is not greater than 90
lagging at frequencies up to 4.0 Hz.
It is important to emphasise that PSS action is
intended to improve the system damping following
small disturbances. PSS action following system faults
will degrade A VR performance, and hence system
recovery; therefore, the stabiliser output is limited, so
that A VR action is dominant during the first post-
fault cycles.
6.6.5 The choice of stabiliser signal
An obvious choice for the stabiliser input signal is
rotor shaft speed, measurements being generally made
at the HP turbine pedestal. The drawback with this
form of signal is its inherent susceptibility to shaft
torsional frequencies. This term refers to the reso-
nance conditions on the shaft line which cause one
section of shaft to oscillate with respect to another
with little natural damping. These frequences act
through the PSS and excitation system to set up elec-
tromechanical torques which tend to aggravate the
situation and, in the extreme, to cause shaft damage.
To eliminate this potential problem, detailed infor-
529
The generator
STABILISER
LIMITS
L1
STABILISER GAIN
.....____
K
STABILISER
OUTPUT
....----
-L2
COMP
ERROR
COMP
SIGNAL CONDUCTIVITY
(1 + T,S) (1 + T,S)
(1 + T,S) (1 + TdS)
AVR;EXCITER/GENERATOR
REFERENCE VOLTAGE
GENERATOR TERMINAL
VOLTAGE
Chapter 6
WASHOUT
POWER TRANSDUCER
T.s p
--
1 + T.s 1 + T
VT
CT
VT
I..A..Lv '-A..Lv
GRID
rY""'"V"\
FIG. 6.74 Power system stabiliser - block diagram
mation is required of the shaft torsional conditions
so that, if possible, speed probes can be mounted at
a torsional node and suitable torsional filtering can
be applied.
Because of these considerations, use is made of a
signal derived from generator electrical power which
is related to shaft speed by the following relationship:
where w is shaft speed change, P m is mechanical
input power, P e is machine electrical power and M is
the angular momentum. If the mechanical power is
assumed to remain constant, Equation (6.1) is sim-
plified to:
(6.2)
The major advantage of this form of stabilising signal
is its insensitivity to torsional oscillations and the
simplicity of measurement. Its adoption, therefore,
has both technical and cost advantages.
530
6.7 Excitation svs,tem analysis
Trends in modern generator design, with the empha-
sis on large thermally-efficient but electrically-remote
centres of generation, have combined to reduce trans-
mission system stability margins. As a consequence,
the primary responsiblity for power system dynamic
and transient stability rests with the generator excita-
tion system.
Dynamic stability refers to the system performance
following small load changes which, under conditions
of high MW transfer over long distances, can result in
sustained oscillations in the region of 0.5 Hz. If these
oscillations are not rapidly attenuated, severe limits
will be imposed on transmission system operation.
Transient stability is concerned with the ability of a
generator or group of generators to maintain syn-
chronous operation following system faults. Under
such operating conditions, the generator requires a
boost of synchronous torque. This is provided by the
transmission system in the form of a synchronous
component of the post-fault infeed. However, as the
reactance of the transmission line connecting the gen-
erator to the system increases,, the synchronous tor-
que component is reduced. Under these circumstances,
the A VR bucks and/ or boosts the generator field
current in such a way that the generator itself develops
the additional synchronising torque.
A properly tuned A VR therefore performs a vital
role in the maintenance of stable system operation
under all operating conditions, and this section is
concerned with the methods developed and employed
to analyse A VR performance, and hence to arrive at
tuned settings.
6.7.1 Frequency response analysis
Frequency response analysis is based on the injection
of a sinusoidal signal at the input to the A VR and
the corresponding measurement of generator terminal
voltage magnitude and phase shift. This procedure is
repeated over the range of frequencies necessary to
identify the plant, which in the case of the generator
excitation system is 0.2-4.0 Hz. Results are plotted
in the form of inverse Nyquist or Bode diagrams, from
which information on system stability and damping
can be obtained. These tests can be repeated for a
range of A VR settings until an acceptable system
response is established. Performance indices used in
this form of analysis are system gain and phase mar-
gins, both of which are measures of relative stability.
In general, a phase margin of 40 or more, and a
gain margin of 6 decibels is considered good design
practice for most feedback control systems.
An alternative approach is the injection into the
A VR summing junction of a short duration rectan-
gular pulse. The corresponding machine terminal volt-
age response is measured and harmonically analysed
by a computer, using a fast Fourier transform pack-
age. The results are then plotted in the form of an
inverse Nyquist diagram from which measurements
can be made of relative stability and damping. This
approach has a number of distinct advantages, par-
ticularly during on-load testing as, unlike variable
frequency techniques, pulse injection testing can be
undertaken without the risk of exciting power system
oscillations.
6.7.2 State variable analysis
l." A common method used to assess the performance
I and stability of feedback control systems is to track
the path taken by the roots or poles of the closed
I
loop transfer function. Changes in system parameters,
such as gain and time constants, cause these poles
to move. The path taken by the poles in response
to control system changes can be plotted and are
I
known as a root locus. Referring to Fig 6.75 any
, roots appearing on the right hand side of the S-plane
imply an unstable system. Roots on the real axis in-
1
dicate an exponential or overdamped response, and
~ mo" containing an imaginacy component imply an
Excitation
oscillatory response. It is possible to simplify the
interpretation of the root locus diagram by consider-
ing those poles which lie furthest to the right as
dominating the system response.
This approach is extended to the multivariable situ-
ation by making use of modern state variable theory.
The system considered is first linearised about the
operating point of interest and the equations of state
formed.
X
y
AX+ CV
DX + FV
Input equation
Output equation
where X is the vector of state variables, Y is the
vector of output variables, A is the state matrix and
C,D,F are the feedback, input and output matrices,
respectively.
A series of simulations is conducted over the com-
plete generator operating regime, using a detailed
model of the turbine-generator and excitation sys-
tem. The dominant poles (or equation solutions) are
plotted for a range of control settings, and those iden-
tified as providing optimal damping at the most critical
operating condition are selected for commissioning
purposes. This method of analysis therefore provides
advanced information regarding equipment settings
and plant performance, thus reducing expensive com-
missioning time.
6.7.3 Large signal performance investigations
The foregoing methods are based on the response of
the excitation system to small signals; hence non-
linearities can be ignored and the system assumed to
be linear.
It is equally important, however, to investigate the
performance of the turbine-generator plant following
substantial changes in operating conditions. In these
situations the non-linear characteristics of the plant
must be taken into account to obtain realistic results.
These large signal performance investigations pro-
vide a means of evaluating excitation system response
foll9wing a major transmission system disruption (gen-
erally a three-phase fault at the generator transformer
high voltage terminals is used for standard studies
and investigations), which could jeopardise system
transient stability.
Transient stability analysis is primarily concerned
with the effect of transmission line faults on genera-
tor synchronism. While certain simplistic approaches
exist dealing with the case of a single machine operating
onto an infinite bus (such as the equal area stability
criteria), a full multi-machine solution is generally
necessary requiring the use of digital computer simula-
tion techniques. These simulation packages represent
in detail the generator, transmission and excitation
systems, and solve the governing non-linear differen-
tial equations by numerical integration.
531
The generator
FORM OF TIME-DOMAIN
RESPONSE
MAGNrTUDE

X
LOCATION OF EIGENVALUE
OR ROOT IN S-PLANE
MAGNrTUDE

TIME
-6 -4
STABLE
Chapter 6
jW
UNSTABLE
MAGNITUDE

I 15


X
X
MAGNITUDE
J__..-/
TIME
-2
FIG. 6.75 S-plane showing possible root locations with corresponding time response
The ability to simulate these situations is essential
to the CEGB, because generator excitation system
performance under system fault conditions cannot be
demonstrated by test methods, due to the potential
risk to system stability.
7 Generator operation
In this section, the operation of the generator under
all common conditions is considered. Electrical and
other parameters are introduced as necessary in order
to describe the condition.
7.1 Running-up to speed
Before running-up to speed, the casing and other
components will have been scavenged of air and filled
with hydrogen to a pressure approaching the rated.
Hydrogen pressure increases with increasing tempera-
ture and the objective is to achieve rated pressure
when on steady load. The seal oil system must be
operating in order to contain the hydrogen. The stator
winding water system is established, taking care that
532
the windings are not than their ambient hy-
drogen. Cooling water to the hydrogen, distilled water,
winding water, seal oil and excitation heat exchangers
is established. The lubricating oil system (common
with the turbine) must also be operating, and also the
jacking oil system if the shaft is at standstill.
The run-up cycle is primarily determined by the
requirements of the steam turbine, and may be under
the control of an automatic run-up system. It is ad-
visable to pass through the first and second critical
speeds of the generator rotor (roughly, 800 and 2200
r/min) quickly to avoid subjecting the bearings to
the increased vibration amplitudes which may occur
at these speeds (see Fig 6.27).
As the rated speed is approached, excitation may be
automatically applied by the voltage regulator (or this
may be manually applied) by closing the exciter and
main field switches. The resulting voltage will be pre-
vented, by a voltage/frequency control device, from
being greater than would maintain rated voltage/fre-
quency, so as to prevent overfluxing of the generator
transformer. At rated speed, rated voltage should be
generated, with the machine on open-circuit, unless
some other voltage condition is required. Speed is
under the control of the turbine governor. Vibration
levels are monitored at all the qearing housings and
at the shafts adjacent to the genen;ttor bearings during
run-up.
7.2 Open-circuit conditions and
synchronising
Generators are usually operated at or near their rated
voltage, any departure demanded by the transmission
system being accommodated by the transformer tap-
changer. A generator voltage range of 5% is speci-
fied. For the same MV A output, a higher voltage
results in greater losses and temperatures in the core
but lower current in the stator winding, so the overall
thermal conditions are not much changed.
Since these large generators are invariably connected
to the grid through generator transformers, the rated
voltage of the generator can be determined by the
manufacturer to give the most economic design. Once
, the first of a new rating has been decided, a degree
of standardisation is imposed to allow generator trans-
former units to be made interchangeable, 22 kV being
standard for 500 MW units and 23.5 kV for 660 MW
units, on the CEGB's system.
The electrical phasor diagram for this excited, open-
circuit condition is shown in Fig 6.7, though, at this
stage, the machine is not running synchronously with
:he transmission system.
The open-circuit characteristic will have been es-
tablished during running tests in the manufacturer's
vorks. The rotor currents for several values of stator
mltage are measured and plotted (Fig 6. 76). The
relationship is virtually linear (the airgap line) up to
about 75o/o rated voltage, demonstrating that the air-
~ a p reluctance is constant, whereas the iron circuits
Jepart markedly from constant reluctance as the flux
density increases above the point at which saturation
tarts to occur. After a long shutdown, it is reas-
uring to check a few points on the open-circuit
characteristic with the unit on manual excitation. Note
'hat direct measurement of rotor current is not possi-
Jle on brushless machines.
Synchronising is effected either manually or by
means of an automatic synchroniser. The speed of
he unit is adjusted by controlling the speed governor
.mtil the generated frequency closely matches the
system frequency. The generator voltage is adjusted
y the setpoint of the voltage regulator until it closely
quais the voltage of the system, as monitored by a
voltage transformer with the same ratio as the
"enerator transformer, or directly where a low volt-
ge switch is used. The main circuit-breaker is closed
when the two voltage phasors are almost coincident,
and the generator will then pull into and remain in
ynchronism with the system. If the voltage phasors
ere significantly different in magnitude or angular
position when. the circuit-breaker is closed, the dif-
Generator operation
STATOR VOLTAGE %
FULL
LOAD
CURRENT
0 L - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ -
ROTOR CURRENT
FIG. 6.76 Open-circuit characteri.ltics
ference voltage would cause a large current to circulate
from the system through the stator windings, causing
high forces in the windings. If the frequencies were
significantly different, the sudden pulling into syn-
chronism would impose a large torque on the rotors.
A back-up check synchronising device inhibits the
circuit-breaker from closing if the voltages, angular
positions and speeds do not match within predeter-
mined tolerances.
Once synchronised, the speed is effectively con-
trolled by the transmission system and the steam ad-
mitted to the turbine produces just sufficient power
to overcome the mechanical and magnetisation losses.
7.3 The application of load
If the voltages and angular positions match exactly,
no current flows in the windings and no electrical
torque is produced. In order to generate load, an
imbalance in the phasors must be created.
The turbine steam inlet valves are therefore gradu-
ally opened further; the extra torque thus produced
starts to accelerate the rotors so that they move for-
ward relative to their no-load (direct axis) position,
though still in synchronism with the system. The volt-
age phasor difference created by this angular change
results in current circulating from the system through
the stator windings, producing an electrical torque
which balances the increased mechanical torque, re-
533
The generator
suiting in a new state of synchronous equilibrium at
a 'load angle' (see also' Section 2.6 of this chapter).
Because the generatea voltage effectively depends
on the system voltage and the load being generated,
action by the voltage regulator cannot change the
generated voltage directly. However, if the rotor cur-
rent is changed, the phase relation between the gen-
erated voltage and current is changed, and the required
power factor can be maintained by voltage regulator
action. These processes of control of generated load
and power factor continue to meet the requirements
of the transmission system, as long as the unit remains
synchronised. Phasor diagrams for various on-load
conditions are shown in Figs 6.8 and 6.9.
7.4 Steady state stability
The power produced by a synchronised generator can
be expressed as (VE sin b)/(Xd). For a given machine,
operating at a terminal voltage V, the synchronous
reactance Xd is a constant parameter, and if the
'internal voltage' E, or rotor current, is kept constant,
power varies as sin b. At rated conditions, b is about
45-55.
From this position, a sudden increase in steam
throughput, or (more likely) a sudden demand for
more power into the system, perhaps because of a
fault on the lines, results in an increase in b and in
generated power until a new equilibrium position is
reached (Fig. 6.77 (a)).
This is valid if o is less than 90 before the sudden
change. Once b is greater than 90, a demand for
more power cannot be met by an increase in load
angle, and the generator rotors cannot attain a posi-
tion of equilibrium (Fig 6.77 (b)). The rotor then
accelerates to just above synchronous speed and op-
erates in a non-synchronous mode ('pole slipping'),
with large power and voltage oscillations which are
unacceptable to either the transmission system or the
boiler controls. The situation may be retrievable if
the voltage regulator can initiate a rapid increase in
the field current, increasing E in the equation, to
prevent instability (Fig 6. 77 (c)).
Load angles approaching 90 are associated with
operation at leading power factor, which is not a
normal requirement in the UK. However, studies of
the transmission system under all credible conditions
of loading, line outages and faults are carried out to
ensure that the system will not fall into instability,
and the required values of synchronous reactance
and excitation response are based on these
which may recommend different values in different
locations. In practice, because of magnetic saturation,
Xd is reduced as the load angle moves towards 90,
the 'quadrature axis' position, so that the limiting
condition is ameliorated slightly. Values for CEGB
machines are about 1.8 per unit, falling to 1. 7 per
534
ROTOR ANGLE &
(a) Illustrating stable equrilbnum
51 90'
ROTOR ANGLE &
(b) lllustratrng mstabilrtv
ROTOR ANGLE S
(c) Marntaming stabrrily b; ,, , eas:ng excrtation
FIG. 6.77 Steady state stability
unit in the quadrature axis.
Chapter 6
180'
Operation at leading power factors requires re-
duced rotor current. Operation with zero rotor current,
at zero MW, and a leading reactive output = Rated
\
MYA/Xd (or strictly Rated MV.A/Xq where Xq is
~ h e quadrature axis synchronous rea,ctance), determines
the theoretical limit of stability. The practical values
of leading reactive outputs, allowing a margin for
overshoot, with different types of excitation control
(see Section 5 of this chapter), can be plotted on a
MW -MV Ar diagram. The example shown in Fig 6. 78
allows for instantaneous increases in MW of 40Jo at
rated load and I OOJo at zero load.
7.5 Capability chart
The capability chart is a MW-MYAr diagram, for
which the limits of leading MV Ar were discussed
above.
A constant MW limit can be drawn at the rated
power output of the turbine, though the maximum
power capability of the steam system may be signi-
ficantly greater than this. The circular locus of rated
stator current cuts the rated MW line at the rated
MY A and power factor point, but does not in prac-
tice impose a limit. The rated rotor current, also a
circular locus but with its origin at the 0 MW,
Rated MY A/Xq MY Ar point, imposes a limit at con-
ditions of MW and lagging power factor both lower
than rated. Such a capability chart is used as the
104%MW
THEORETICAL
STABILITY
LIMIT
PRACTICAL
STABILITY
LIMIT
0
Generator operation
scale of a vector meter, across which cursors travel
parallel to the axes, representing generated MW and
MVAr, the operating point being where the cursors
intersect. Permissible operating areas are indicated
on the instrument.
It can be seen that the capability chart is another
manifestation of the generator phasor diagram. Op-
eration at rated load and about 0.95 power factor
leading is possible, though rarely required.
7.6 Steady short-circuit conditions, short-
circuit ratio
Another relationship that is established during works
testing, is between the field current and the stator
current with the three stator line terminals short-
circuited (Fig 6. 79). In this condition, the voltage re-
quired to circulate, say, rated current through the wind-
ings is very low ( = xe, say 0.15 per unit) and there-
fore the flux is also very low and conditions are lin-
ear, since there is no magnetic saturation. Most of the
considerable magneto motive force (MMF) produced
by the rotor is required to counteract the armature
reaction MMF produced by the stator winding.
Running under these conditions in order to cir-
culate current through the windings to dry out the
RATED STATOR
C\,IRRENT
LAGGING
RATED CONDITIONS
RATED ROTOR
_.- CURRENT
-------RANGE OF MVAR FOR SYNCHRONOUS COMPENSATION - - - - ~ 1
MVAR
FIG. 6.78 Capability chart
535
The generator
STATOR
VOLTAGE
%
OPEN CIRCUIT
ROTOR CURRENT
FIG. 6. 79 Open- and short-circuit characteristics
STATOR
CURRENT
%
insulation is not a normal requirement for these large
generators. It may, however, be necessary to demon-
strate the capability of the connections between gen-
erator and transformer, in which case the short-
circuit would be applied at the transformer terminals.
Manual control of excitation is essential.
The open- and short-circuit characteristics enable
certain parameters to be established. Short-circuit ra-
tio (SCR)
Rotor current for rated voltage on open-circuit
Rotor current for rated current on short-circuit
Ifo
Ifs
This rough measure of steady state stability is nearly
the reciprocal of Xd; minimum values of 0.4 and
0.5 are specified for the 500 and 660 MW units, re-
spectively.
Synchronous reactance Xd may be quoted as the
reciprocal of short-circuit ratio, in which case it is
the value corresponding to the degree of saturation
at rated voltage on open-circuit (which is not the same
as that at rated load). It is of interest when discussing
operation close to the stability limit, in which case
its unsaturated value is appropriate and given by:
536
Rotor current for rated current on short-circuit
Rotor current for rated voltage on airgap line
Ifs
Ifg
Chapter 6}i
(Note that different considerations apply to a salient!.
f
pole machine, where the geometry of the magnetic.:)
paths is very different when operating near the quad"'j
rature axis from that in the direct axis, and Xd and i
Xq have dissimilar values.) .t,
):r
,;;
7. 7 Synchronous compensation
While operation in this mode is not foreseen fod
generators of this rating in the UK, a note here isl
included for completeness. A generator,
to the system, may be used to generate or absorb!
reactive MV A, while drawing its loss power from the;
system. By varying its cxcit<ttion, it can be
over the range shown on Fig 6.78, to meet the re-{
quirements of the system. It is not normally
to drive the turbine at rated speed with no steam flow, ;
and smaller generators operated in this way are de-
coupled from their turbines. At large values of
reactive generation, stator core end temperatures may;i
be high, because the axial components of MMF
both stator and rotor windings become more in
resulting in higher values of axial leakage flux.

:jl

7.8 Losses, efficiency and temperature
Many separate components of loss can be
some of which are substantially constant irrespective
of load; others can, for simplicity, be assumed ro:
vary approximately as (stator current)
2
These com-
ponents are listed below, with kW values given for a
typical 660 MW generator at rated conditions:
Constant losses Coolant loss,
fl

Fan loss Hydrogen 600

Rotor windage loss Hydrogen 350

;1
Other windage loss Hydrogen 150


Open-circuit core (iron) loss Hydrogen 950
j
Bearing loss Lub oil 600
Shaft seal loss Seal oil 100

!J
Rotating exciter constant loss Exciter air 100

Auxiliary system losses, e.g., motors 100
!'l
Variable losses Coolant loss, kW
Stator copper loss Stator winding water 1600
Eddy current loss in
windings Stator winding water 600
1
Additional core loss,
due to higher flux and
end loss
Loss in core end plates
and frame
Loss in rotor surface
Rotor copper loss
Variable excitation loss
Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Exciter air
1600
2400

i
!50
'i



' 1:
The total loss is typically 9300 kW, and the effi-
ciency is 98.60Jo. The efficiency is slightly higher at
about 80% than at 1000Jo MW load, and also im-
proves as the power factor increases towards unity.
' The losses shown in the list are removed by the var-
ious cooling systems described in Section 5 of this
chapter. The total loss removed by each system is
r therefore known, and the tlow rates are designed to
!; maintain an appropriate temperature. In the hydro-
gen system, 30 m
3
Is of hydrogen is circulated, being
cooled to about 40C by the heat exchangers, and
reaching about 65C on entry to the coolers. The
stator core will attain about 75C, except at the ends,
which are likely to be hot, but within the BS limit
of 120C. The rotor winding will reach an average
temperature of 105C with local hot spots perhaps
20C higher than this, which poses insignificant ther-
mal stresses on the insulation and creep conditions on
the copper and aluminium components.
In the stator winding water system, conditions differ
j' between single and double pass arrangements, but
t'" with inlet water cooled to 40C, the outlet water will
';,
1
not exceed 70C. Hence the winding copper will bare-
ly exceed 70C, and then only at the water outlet
end, and the winding insulation will nowhere exceed

" 100C. CEGB specifies Class F insulation with Class
B rises, which are very comfortably met in these
, ,., designs.
A considerable advantage of water cooled windings
is that the temperatures are inherently constrained to
be very low, thus maximising the intrinsic life of the
insulation. Also, since the temperature rises of the
"' core and windings are similar, problems associated
with differential thermal expansion are minimised,
;,;; and it has not been found necessary to incorporate
features in the end windings to accommodate axial

"[:



"t'

e


f1

Jf

movement.
7.9 Electrically unbalanced conditions
The amplitudes and phase displacements of the three-
phase voltages and currents in the transmission system
are usually symmetrical to within about 1 OJo, which
does not impose any significant difficulties in the
generator. However, it is possible for much larger
unbalances to exist, for example, if one phase of a
circuit-breaker remains closed while the others are
open for considerable lengths of time, then the ability
of the generator to withstand such conditions must
be established.
The well known method of resolution of unbal-

anced phasors into systems of symmetrical components
'" is used in the analysis shown in Fig 6.80. Because
generators are invariably connected to transformers
whose LV windings are arranged in delta, which there-
i,. fore do not have a neutral connection, zero sequence
voltages and currents cannot exist. The only campo-
Generator operation
nents of concern are the negative sequence components.
In order to circulate negative sequence currents
thr,ough the generator stator and transformer wind-
ings, a system of negative sequence voltages must be
produced by negative sequence flux, i.e., flux rotating
at synchronous speed but in the opposite direction of
rotation to the main flux. This cuts the rotor at twice
the rotational speed, and induces a 100 Hz voltage in
the rotor surface. 100 Hz current flows in the outside
'skin' of the rotor body, in the wedges and in the
top winding conductors, as if these components were
part of the squirrel cage of an induction motor.
Additional heating therefore occurs in these regions;
in particular, in positions where current transfers
from one component to another, such as at the wedge
ends, and at the endring shrink face-..
Because of the potentially damaging effect of this
extra heating, limits on the extent of unbalance have
to be established. These are conservatively set to ini-
tiate alarms when the negative sequence component
exceeds 50Jo of the rated current and to trip at above
IOOJo. The component is detected by a three-phase cir-
cuit designed to respond to negative sequence current.
In some designs, copper shims are placed in the
ends of the rotor slots, below the wedges, and extend-
ing outboard of the rotor body to form a continuous
ring, in order to assist circumferential current flow
and to minimise the small intense hot spots where
current transfer is concentrated. Where circumfer-
ential slots are cut into the pole faces (Section 3 of
this chapter), means for transferring surface current
across the slots are provided, usually in the form of
copper strips retained by wedges in shallow 'pole
face slots', to avoid overheating at positions of current
concentration. ,
The shallow surface current paths must also handle
the very much larger, short duration currents imposed
by unbalanced conditions during transient faults. A
rough criterion of acceptability is provided by assuming
that the heating is proportional to L:(I
2
)
2
t, where
1
2
is the negative sequence stator current (per unit)
and t the time (in seconds) for which the condition
persists. This is only approximately valid for times
short enough for heat dissipation to be ignored. Per-
missible values of (I
2
)
2
t of about 3 are usual for
500/660 MW generators, and 'instantaneous' trip-
ping is initiated if this value is exceeded (see Fig
6.81).
The surface current paths are also involved in any
condition in which the generator is connected to the
system but is not operating synchronously. This may
happen on total or partial loss of excitation, and
can usually be tolerated by the generator for a short
time, although slip frequency surges will occur on
the system. Because the induced currents are at slip
frequency, they are able to penetrate further into the
rotor, wedges and winding, and the thermal conditions
are not as critical as with the 100 Hz currents pro-
duced by unbalanced operation.
537
('
The generator
Chapter 6
1/ao
Va
Vb
Vc+
V
Vc
Vco
Vc-
UNBALANCED VOLTAGE SET
AN UNBALANCED VOLTAGE SET CAN BE
RESOLVED INTO THE FOLLOWING:
Va+
Vb-
Va-
VC+
Vb+
(a) Balanced
pos1t1ve-sequence
components
(b) Balanced
negattve-sequence
components
(C)
cornponents
(nurrnally negligible)
FIG. 6.80 Unbalanced phase conditions
7.10 Transient conditions
Changes in the load demand, system operation con-
ditions and the response of other generating units,
mean that conditions at the unit transformer terminals
are constantly changing. Increase in overall demand
causes a fall in frequency to which the speed gover-
nors of all the connected turbines respond. Their rate
of response depends on the settings of the individual
governors, some units being deliberately arranged to
act more responsively than others.
A highly responsive unit varies its steam inlet valve
position frequently, causing the steam throughput to
change and altering the torque equilibrium. The ro-
tors move forward or backward relative to their pre-
538
vious positiOn, i.e., o changes, so that the electrical
power generated changes to restore equilibrium. The
combined effect of similar load changes occurring in
many units acts to restore the system frequency to its
original value.
Coincident with the change of load will be a change
in system voltage, which causes the voltage regulator
to adjust the excitation to restore the original voltage
value. (A large voltage change may require a trans-
former tapchanging operation to maintain the gen-
erator terminal voltage near its rated value.)
Flux cannot change in the machine instantaneously,
and the rate-of-change is influenced by the transient
reactance Xd, . This depends largely on the flux paths
Generator operation
t-------------------------------------------
I
PeRMISSIBLE FAULT CURRENT
LMES MCR CURRENT
3 2
I
I
I
I
--
-t-
---
\ I
I.
I'
\
I
1\
\
I
I,
\
\
li _\


1\
I
I
i
i
I
I
I
I
I
-
f---
I
i
I
I
I
I
I
""'
--
FAULT CURRENT
..........
r-_
r--
"'-...
PHASE TO-EARTH FAULT
--
r--
-
30% CONTiNUOUSLY
r--....._ , CURRENT
r--
---
r--
17 J;J y
--
r-
-
-
10 20
I
30 40 so
TIME-S
60 70 80 90 100
FIG. 6.81 Duration oLfault currents
I
the stator winding slots, the airgap and

rotor slots, with a small component associated


.th the end windings, and is affected by the degree
f magnetic saturation. The normal value for un-
11, urated transient reactance is of the order of 0.3
unit.
It is this reactance which controls the initial rise-
l1' voltage when load is suddenly tripped off; typi-
.- ly the voltage rises instantaneously to 1.3 per unit
td finally reaches a value determined by the pre-
iling value of rotor current. Also, transient reactance
Jsed in calculations involving the stability of the
t with the system during a transient fault situation.
ch studies require accurate representation of gen-
parameters, and in this context it is important
t its specified value has been met (see Fig 6.82).
During conditions of massive change, such as those
Jt occur during a close-up fault, when the terminal
age may be suddenly reduced to half its rated
Je (or e\en to zero for a fault at the generator or
nsf'-1rmer low voltage connections), the \ery rapid
change of flux induces currents in the rotor surface
paths, and for the first few cycles, say up to 200 ms,
conditions depend more on a reactance linking these
surface flux paths with the stator winding. This is
referred to as the sub-transient reactance, Xct", with a
value of about 0.2 per unit. It is this reactance which
limits the current in the first few peaks after a fault.
For a three-phase fault at the generator terminals from
rated voltage open-circuit, the RMS value of the initial
current peak will be V !Xct", i.e., 1/(0.2) = 5 per unit.
The peak value is .J2 times this, and, if the par-
ticular phase experiences full asymmetry (depending
on the instant at which the fault occurred), it is pos-
sible for the first peak to reach 2.J2 x 5 = 14.14
times rated current. In practice, flux decay results in
the maximum current being about 9007o of this value,
but if the short-circuit is applied from a condition of
load, i.e., with increased flux and a 'internal'
voltage, the peak current could be greater.
Such peaks of current result in forces
on the stator windings in the slots and end \\in dings
539
!'
The generator Chapter 6
INSTANTANEOUS
RISE
100 +-------,,_----------l---------- _______ ...
VOLTAGE
%
ROTOR CURRENT FOR
RATED LOAD
L - - - - ~ ~ - - - - - - - ~ ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - -
ROTOR CURRENT TIME
OPEN"CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTIC ASSUMES NO VOLTAGE REGULATOR ACTION
FIG. 6.82 Voltage rise on rated load throw-off
(since force varies as current squared), and in the
connections, which would result in considerable move-
ment if the components were not adequately sup-
ported to resist them. It is therefore vital to establish
the value of sub-transient reactance. (It should be
noted that the thermal effects are not troublesome
because of the rapid rate-of-decay of current.)
Another reason is to ensure that the main circuit-
breaker (and low voltage switch, if fitted) is able to
withstand these very large through-currents and that
it can, if necessary, break them although, in practice,
it rarely breaks on the first peak of current.
To measure the transient and sub-transient re-
actances and their associated time constants, a three-
phase short-circuit is suddenly applied to the prototype
generator running at speed during the in-works tests,
while excited to one or more agreed voltage values, and
the resulting three-phase currents recorded. Figure
6.83 shows a typical trace and how the Xct' and Xct"
values are deduced, while Fig 6.84 shows how the
reactances vary with initial voltage due to saturation.
A generator terminal fault, though physically vir-
tually impossible, imposes the most severe of the
three-phase conditions, with the effective voltage 1.0
per unit, or higher. More likely is a fault on the
system which, because of the interposed reactance
of the generator transformer, imposes short-circuit
currents similar to those from a terminal fault at a
voltage equal to Xct II /(Xct II + Xe), where Xe is the
reactance of the transformer and that part of the
system between it and the fault.
A type of fault more likely to occur, particularly
inside the generator, is one involving a short-circuit
540
between two phases. Here, the phasors become highly
unbalanced, and the 'negative sequence reactance',
X
2
, helps to determine the peak current, which may
attain a maximum of 2v'2 x v'3(V /Xct" + X
2
) which
is of a similar magnitude to that in the three-phase
case.
In a line to earth fault, the 'zero sequence reactance',
X
0
, is involved, and the peak current may be 2v'2 X
v'3 (V /Xct" + X
2
+ Xp) usually considerably lower
than the three-phase value, depending very much on
the neutral earthing arrangement.
Works tests for X
2
and X
0
are not normally carried
out, even on prototype designs, since X
2
is easily
derived from the positive sequence reactances, and
the value of X
0
is not as critical as the others.
Another factor involved in transient stability repre-
sentations is the inertia of the rotating masses, usually
quoted as the 'inertia constant' H, with units of MW
seconds/MY A (or simply seconds). For these ratings,
H will be of the order of 3.0, of which the generator
contributes only about 0.8. The higher the inertia,
the longer the time taken to accelerate the rotors
into instability, allowing more time for corrective
action and hence a bigger margin.
7.11 Neutral earthing
The neutral ends of the three phases of the stator wind-
ing are connected together, outside the casing, by the
'star-bar', which may be located underneath the cas-
ing alongside the line connections, or above it in a
special enclosure. The star point is connected to earth
I
I
10
'/A LUES OF STATOR
f-'UL.l. LOAD
CURRENT AND ROTOR
7
I NO-LOAD CURRENT
I
SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT WAVES
2 4 6 8 10
INSTANT OF
40 50 1 00 200 300
I
I
I
Sf-IORT CIRCUIT
STAfOR AND ROTOR SHORT-CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS
WITH 1 00'1c ASYMMETRY
I1c . (J.83 Three-phase short-circuit current characteristics
EACTANCE
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
30
20
10
SUB-TRANSIENT
REACTANCE
50
INITIAL VOLTAGE ,
F:G. 6.84 Transient and sub-transient reactances
100
Mechanical considerations
through a neutral earthing device, designed to limit
the fault current in the event of a stator winding fault
to earth.
The neutral earthing device of earlier generators
consisted of a water resistor, designed to limit the cur-
rent 1n a llne to earth fault to a maximum of 300 A.
More recent machines use a small d:s-
tribution type transformer with its -:-onne;:ted
between the generator star point anc and its
secondary loaded onto a resistor. Th;, arrangement
limits the fault current to about 15 :\. and \\as ori-
ginally intended to allow an internal fault to be sus-
tained while load was reduced, rather than requiring
an instantaneous trip. Modern practice is to trip in-
stantaneously on fault detection, even \\ ith this form
of earthing. In both cases the sensitivity of protection
is such that a fault at less than 1 007o from the neutral
point is not detectable, and could persist, though the
low voltage to earth in this part of the winding makes
fault initiation less likely and fault current compara-
tively low.
7.12 Shutting down
The process of load reduction is the reverse of that for
load increase except that, when the load has reached
a low value, the main circuit-breaker (or the LV
switch, if fitted) is opened, and with it the turbine
steam valve and the excitation crcuit-breakers. The
unit runs down in a time determined by the inertia
of the rotors and the windage and friction losses. At
some stage, the motor-driven lub,rication pump is
switched in to take over from the shaft-driven pump.
The turbine must usually be barred for some hours
on shutdown, and lubricating oil must be maintained
to all the bearings during this process.
It is usual to leave the hydrogen in the generator
casing, unless a prolonged shutdown is envisaged or
access to the casing is required in order to avoid
wastage of gas. The pressure will fall as the tem-
perature drops, but it is not usual for the pressure to
be maintained exactly at rated value, nor for water to
be circulated in the coolers and windings. It is essential
that the shaft seals are supplied with oil both during
barring and when to prevent hydrogen leak-
age, and, because of the possibility of moisture ingress
from the seal oil, the blower may be run in order to
circulate hydrogen through the dryer.
8 Mechanical considerations
Some aspects of torque, stresses, vibration. etc., were
mentioned in Sections 3 and 4 of this chapter, and
these and other mechanical aspects are considered in
more detail in this section.
541
The generator
8.1 Rotor torque
At a constant load (eiectrical output and generator
losses) of P kW, the tor'que (Nm) experienced at the
turbine-generator coupling is 9545P divided by (r/min).
The coupling must be capable of transmitting the
torque associated with rated output continuously with-
out deformation. These couplings commonly have
four of their bolts closely fitted into both coupling
flanges, while the other bolts have smaller diameter
and a clearance in the coupling holes. The torque is
transmitted partly through the fitted bolts and partly
through friction between the flange faces. The full
torque must also be transmitted through the shaft
end at the turbine end, which must therefore be de-
signed to withstand it.
In the very much larger section of the rotor body,
shear stress due to torque is very much less than in
the shaft ends and is not of significant magnitude.
Also, the transmitted torque reduces in a linear man-
ner along the length of the rotor body, so that at
the exciter end, only the small torque required to
drive the rotating exciters (and any other coupled equip-
ment) has to be transmitted.
As noted previously, during electrical faults, stator
currents of many times rated value occur, and these
cause electromagnetic torques of a similar magnitude.
The torque reaction at the turbine to generator cou-
pling and in the associated shafts depends, among
other things, on the ratio of inertias of the turbine
and generator rotors, but can also be several times
rated torque. The specification requires that the shaft
and coupling shall be designed to withstand stipulated
fault conditions, without failure, though not neces-
sarily without permanent distortion of components
such as coupling bolts. It is not unknown for the
fitted coupling bolts to exhibit distortion after a severe
electrical fault.
Materials subjected to repeated high stresses ex-
hibit a lifetime, during which damage is accumulated,
and at the end of which failure occurs fairly rapidly.
Much effort has been devoted to establishing models
of turbine-generator shaft systems in order to be able
to predict their remaining 'life' (i.e., ability to with-
stand further faults), knowing the history of the faults
to which they have already been subjected. This has
been done analytically, knowing the torsional char-
acteristics of the rotor system, and computing the
shaft torques due to postulated electrical transients.
It was found that in the case of rapid reclosure of a
circuit-breaker following clearance of a faulty line,
the magnitude of the peak of torque depends very
critically on the timing of the instant of reclosure.
This has also been demonstrated, during transient
conditions, using values of stress obtained from strain
gauges fixed to the shafts. Devices which calculate
shaft torques from electrical inputs have also been
used.
It is difficult to relate measured or calculated torque
peaks accurately to damage caused, or to remaining
542
Chapter 6
life. Results from models do not scale accurately and
at the most extreme (and therefore most damaging)
stress, the highly non-linear effects of material damp-
ing must be considered.
In the UK, where high speed reclosure is not prac-
tised, sub-synchronous resonance due to the use of
series capacitors is not a problem and the operation
of the transmission system is under close control,
it is thought that the combination of very high stresses
and very low probability of occurrence results in an
acceptable risk for rotors designed to conventional
specifications, and that lifetime monitoring is not
justified.
The exercise has highlighted the need to avoid
stress raisers such as unnecessarily small radii, and to
ensure a high quality surface finish. It has also drawn
attention to the need to design the generator to ex-
citer coupling to withstand torques of the order of
the rated generator torque, since it has been shown
that these can exist during transient conditions.
The requirement for torque transmission places a
limit on the minimum diameter of the shaft and therefore
of the journal. An acceptable compromise between
the higher loss associated with a large diameter and
adequate hydrodynamic stability results in a bearing
somewhat shorter than its diameter for these ratings.
Bearing performance is described in Chapter 1.
8.2 Stress due to centrifugal force
All rotating components are subjected to stresses due
to centrifugal forces, and are designed so that the
yield stress of the material exceeds the stress at over-
speed by an adequate saf,ety factor. Usually the com-
ponents closest to the limit are the rotor teeth, rotor
wedges, end rings and outermost winding conductors.
The tensile stress in the rotor teeth was considered
as part of the rotor optimisation in Section 3 of this
chapter. It is greatest at the tooth root, but will have
local concentrations at the wedge dovetail. There will
also be a high local stress where the wedge transfers
the centrifugal force (CF) load of the slot into the
tooth. Detailed finite element analysis is carried out
to ensure that unacceptable stress concentrations are
avoided. These stresses are constant at constant speed,
so that the only cyclic factor is the number of stop-
start cycles, which is relatively few ( < 10
4
) over the
lifetime of the machine. Thus crack propagation by
high cycle fatigue from this mechanism alone is not
of concern.
Similar considerations apply to the slot wedges, in
which the loading pattern is similar to that in a short
beam in bending, uniformly loaded on its underside,
and with built-in ends. Aluminium alloy wedges are
commonly made from extruded sections, but have
the outermost layer (1 mm, or so) machined away
where stresses are high, so that the properties of the
parent metal are fully realised. It would be necessary
I
, I
to take the creep behaviour of, aluminium into con-
sideration at temperatures in of 100C, but
it is not usual for wedge temperatures to exceed this
value (see Fig 6. 85).
Pole face wedges are much less stressed, and are
commonly made of steel.
The most inboard of the field lead wedges may
be unusually highly stressed because of the extra CF
loading imposed on it by the section of connector
leading into the winding.
The shrink-fits of the end ring onto its seatings
on the rotor body and end disc reduce as speed
increases, and are greatest at standstill. There are
therefore large circumferential strains at the ends of
the rings, and correspondingly high stresses, at stand-
still. As speed increases, the centrifugal force of the
rotor end windings imposes a load and stress in the
central part of the ring, which combine with the
Mechanical considerations
rotational hoop stress due to the rotation of the
ring. At rated speed and overspeed, the stress at
the shrink-fits may be less than that in the centre.
There is also an axial stress due to the higher thermal
expansion of the copper in the end winding relative
to that of the steel ring. As noted in Section 3.3 of
this chapter, direct contact of the end disc onto the
shaft is not normal, since the flexure of the shaft
would transmit a small alternating stress onto the
highly stressed ring which could promote crack pro-
pagation by high cycle fatigue. Again, it is important
that the stresses under all conditions are analysed in
detail, and this may necessitate a three-dimensional
finite element computation in order to ensure free-
dom from high stress concentrations, particularly at
the sudden changes of section involved (see Fig 6.86).
In the rotor conductor nearest the wedge, it is the
compressive stress produced by the centrifugal force
J


\ / l/
I
I
I
I
I

I
'
II\ II\,( -
'-+5'"'/
:LJ I r- \I/ "-,V
------ v L! I "'+-- D
. / VV I I "> "'V \
/ VVI J \/
//VI I
/I I
/I
I
I
FIG. 6.85 Finite element mesh for tooth-wedge stress calculations
543
The generator
FIG. 6.86 End ring lug area - finite element mesh and
stress contours
of all the other conductors in the slot which is of
concern, particularly where the copper area is reduced
by ventilation grooves and slots. Some creep of the
copper may be observed at such slots after many yeqrs
in operation.
544
Chapter 6
8.3 Alternating stresses, fretting and fatigue
A stationary rotor sags under its own weight, causing
a compressive stress in the outermost fibres at the
top and at the axial centre of about 15 MPa, with
a corresponding tensile stress at the bottom of the
same magnitude. As the rotor rotates, each fibre ex-
periences a compressive/zero/tensile/zero/ compres-
sive stress cycle once per revolution. Since a rotor
operating at 3000 r/min accumulates 1.5 x 10
9
cycles
in a year, alternating stress due to bending has to
be considered in the design. Though its magnitude
is small, it is superimposed on the high steady stresses
in the rotor and wedges identified above, and can pro-
mote the growth of cracks by high cycle fatigue.
One source of crack initiation may be fretting. If
a once per cycle movement can occur, say at the gap
between two short slot wedges, the resultant localised
damage may be sufficient to intensify the local stress
field at a minute 'crack-tip', from which the alter-
nating bending stress can propagate. Such features are
avoided wherever possible, and particularly near the
axial centre where alternating bending stresses are
highest. The concepts of fracture mechanics are used
to study such crack tip stress intensification.
8.4 'Slip-stick' of rotor windings
One effect not mentioned in Section 3.8 of this chap-
ter is the behaviour of the rotor winding during a
loading cycle. The rotor is run up from cold, and
though the windings and rotor body are warmed by
gas friction, there is little differential in thermal effect
at this stage. At speed, the winding conductors are
locked together and to' the wedge by the centrifugal
force, unless an axial force can overcome the friction
between them.
When current is applied to the rotor winding, it
reaches a higher temperature than the rotor body,
and as the coefficient of thermal expansion of copper
is nearly twice that of steel, the conductors experience
an axial force directed outwards from the axial centre.
As the differential temperature increases, the axial
forces increase, until slippage occurs at a point where
the build-up of axial force is able to overcome the
friction. Because the 'bottom' conductor experiences
the least centrifugal load, it is most easily able to
overcome friction, and a shorter length of it rem_ains
frictionally-locked than those of coils further up the
slot. Slippage in most windings appears to occur in
small steps, apparently randomly, though possibly re-
peatably, so that the release of the axial forces does
not result in sudden changes in vibration of sufficent
magnitude to be significant. In some rotors, however,
due to higher frictional restraints having to be over-
come, the release of much larger axial forces appears
to cause the bending moment to change significantly,
resulting in a noticeable sudden change in vibration.
-.
One feature of this is that t h ~ rotor must usually be
,.... run down in speed before the changed vibration dis-
appears, when the cycle can be repeated.
Once the rotor is at speed and temperature, it does
not tend to suffer from high cycle effects. It is more
vulnerable to effects promoted by relative movement,
such as abrasion, when running at lower speeds and
\\'hile barring, when the centrifugal locking-up is
absent.
8.5 Noise
. The generator rotor, with its fans, generates very
' high noise energy at speed. The spectrum is wide, but
contains peaks at frequencies related to the number
of fan blades and slots.
The other main source of noise is generated by
. the stator core when magnetically excited. As pre-
viously noted, the magnetic forces 'ovalise' the stator
, core, causing vibration and noise at 100 Hz and mul-
tiples. The main component of magnetic noise, how-
ever, arises from distortions on a much smaller scale,
that of the magnetised iron crystals, in the pheno-
menon known as magnetostriction, at 50 Hz and
multiples thereof.
The robust stator casing acts as an effective sound
attenuator, and little can be achieved to reduce the
- transmitted noise further, for example, by the acoustic
treatment of the inside surfaces. In practice, the major
sources of high noise intensity tend to occur in the
driven components such as exciters, which have fans
operating in air and no heavy steel surround. Some-
times the complete line of driven units is housed under
an acoustic cover to attenuate these sources. Access
doors and windows must be provided, and these can
reduce the effectiveness of the covers.
A sound power level of 93 dBA is specified at
- 1 m distant from the plant. Legislation may require
this to be reduced for new plant in the future.
9 Electrical and electromagnetic aspects
__ Some electrical and magnetic aspects of generators,
not previously considered, are dealt with in this section.
9.1 Flux distribution on load
When, in previous sections, magnetic flux densities
have been mentioned, operation at rated voltage,
no-load has been assumed, where the load angle is
zero and the rotor operates in the 'direct axis'. In
. practical load situations, the load angle is 40-50
,md the effective f1ux level must be large enough to
overcome the leakage reactance voltage drop. The
first effect distorts the flux pattern markedly; the
Electrical and electromagnetic aspects
second increases the required flux magnitude; both
increase saturation, the effects of which are highly
non-linear (see Fig 6.87). One result of this is that
overall iron losses will be higher than those calculated
for no-load conditions, and their distribution will dif-
fer. Another is that the calculation of the required
MMF (rotor current) required for any load condition
cannot be accurately based on the simple phasor
diagram. Since the rotor is necessarily designed with
little margin, accurate calculation of the rotor current
needed for rated conditions is essential.
FiG. 6.87 Flux distributioq on load
A method previously used took as its basis the
simple no-load unsaturated phasor diagram, and de-
fined an imaginary reactance, the 'Potier' reactance,
empirically derived, which was used to define a 'Potier'
voltage drop, IXP, for the given load conditions. An
internal voltage required to overcome this voltage
drop, the 'Potier voltage' was thus established. The
MMF difference between the airgap and open-circuit
characteristics at the 'Potier voltage' was then pha-
sorially added to the unsaturated MMF phasor. In this
way, the increasing and non-linear effects of sat-
uration were taken into consideration (see Fig 6.88).
Present methods use finite element calculations,
which can be reduced to two dimensions for the
central part of the machine. Even so, the detailed
geometry and non-linear magnetic characteristic make
the calculation complex.
In the end regions, a three-dimensional approach
is almost essential, although various schemes have
been devised in which simplifications can be made.
In addition to the difficulties already noted, the thick
conducting plates in which non-linear eddy currents
545
mi
I
II
II.
.1'
II
ll
II
I
The generator
STATOR
VOLTAGE
ROTOR CURRENT
ADDITIONAL ROTOR
CURRENT REQUIRED
FOR POTIER REACTANCE DROP
Chapter 6
v
FtG. 6.88 Potier construction for on-load excitation current
are induced, and other conducting components,. must
be included in the modelling. It has reached the
stage of refinement where detailed changes, say, in the
thickness of magnetic screens, can be modelled in
order to optimise the design, and to indicate where
potential hot spots may occur due to unwanted flux
concentrations.
9.2 Control and calculation of reactances
The reactance of an inductive circuit determines its
voltage/current relationship. In a generator, different
reactances are identified in order to model or de-
scribe voltage (or flux)/ current relationships under
different circumstances.
The synchronous reactance, Xct, relates the arma-
ture reaction MMF (proportional to stator current) to
the MMF needed for rated flux in the air gap. For a
given design of machine, increasing the radial length
of the air gap proportionately reduces Xct and im-
proves steady state stability. This results in a larger
outside diameter, and a higher rotor current at full
load.
The stator leakage reactance, Xf, is not a specified
quantity, and its value is a matter of economic design.
The transient and sub-transient reactances, Xct' and
Xct", are specified. They describe the flux/current rela-
tionships during transient changes, and under these cir-
cumstances, the amount of flux encircling the sta-
tor slots, rotor slots and end windings are of impor-
546
tance. If higher values are required than the 'natural' ~
design produces, the leakage reluctance can be re- !
duced by making the slots narrower, and/or sinking
them deeper into the core. Again, this is extravagant
~ ~
and results in a larger design.
If lower values are required, it is not usually suf-
ficient to manipulate the slot geometry, and a more
basic change to the design might be needed.
Using computer programs similar to those men-
tioned in the previous section, more accurate repre-
sentation of the reactances can be made, over the
range of load conditions, than is possible by simple
calculation.
9.3 The cause and effect of harmonics
As explained earlier, stator winding distribution is
designed to minimise the generation of harmonic volt-
ages and currents.
The stator winding is invariably star connec.ted, so
that triple harmonics cannot occur in the line voltage
or current. Since one pole of the rotor is identical
with the other, it cannot produce second-order flux
harmonics, which would make the two halves of the
flux wave dissimilar. The only harmonics of signi-
ficant magnitude which will appear are those of order
S, 7, 11, 13, etc., with diminishing amplitudes, and
those near to the rotor slot pitch, e.g., 41 and 43
for a 42-pitch rotor slotting. The no-load rated volt-
age wave must not contain a greater total harmonic
]
l
i
content than that specified in RS5000, in which cer-
tain ranges of frequency are more highly weighted
than others because of their effect (in the transmission
system) on communications lines. This now rather out-
dated concept is still accepted as an agreed and useful
criterion, since high harmonic levels can induce high
local losses in parts of generator, e.g., the rotor
surface.
In practice, harmonics are generated by the con-
nected loads, a recent trend being the even-order
harmonic requirements of equipment using thyristors.
This must be supplied by the generators and must
therefore appear in the flux wave, causing rotor surface
losses similar to those produced by unbalanced load
conditions.
Rotor windings occasionally develop short-circuits
between adjacent turns in a coil, and while this is not
usually of great concern, the difference in flux pat-
tern from the two poles is detectable, using a small
flux coil mounted in the airgap. When the signal from
one pole is offset against the signal from the other,
differences reveal any abnormality. Another method
which has been suggested uses the presence of second
harmonics in the stator current, as noted above, but
this has to be able to reject those imposed by the load
requirements.
9.4 Magnetic pull
1
If the rotor is exactly centred in the bore of the sta-
i tor, the magnetic pull between one pole of the rotor
and the stator will be exactly balanced by that of
the other. If not centred, there will be an unbalanced
f pull acting as an attractive force on the pole with
" the smaller air gap. However, the air gap of these
large machines is so large (80 to 130 mm), in order
t to achieve the required synchronous reactance, that
J centring the rotor to a readily achievable accuracy
does not impose a magnetic pull at all comparable
1
with the gravitational force on the rotor.
1 Similarly, the net axial magnetic force on the rotor
is Lcro if it is axially centred in the stator, and this
is the condition normally achieved at rated load with
l the rotors at their normal temperatures. With the
i usual axial offset which occurs with the rotors cold,
the axial magnetic pull is only of the order of a few
t thousand Newtons and is not a significant additional
f load on the thrust bearing.
9.5 Shaft voltage and residual magnetism
The production of a voltage (predominantly at 50 Hz)
, from one end of the generator rotor to the other oc-
1
asymmetry, af tb.e ?asi.ti.arr
, = . .::> .... ,!"!e ,,ator. or some d1fference m mag-
T!"!is me-:hanism has a low effecti\e
Electrical and electromagnetic aspects
source impedance, and can circulate significant cur-
rent through bearings, seals, etc., causing eventual
break-up of white-metalled surfaces.
Voltages of the same frequency as the shaft-driven
excitation machines can be measured on the generator
shaft, but these are capacitively coupled, have a high
sour.ce impedance and will not sustain a large current.
The steam turbine rotors may develop a voltage
due to the electrostatic action of steam and water
droplets on the blades, and one function of the shaft
earthing brushes is to ensure that this is discharged.
A phenomenon which has occurred (rarely) on tur-
bines is that, where a rotor or rotors have a degree of
permanent magnetism and there are contacts of low
resistance between shaft and earth at suitable axially-
separated locations, the small generated voltage can
circulate a small current through the turbine casing,
which, in certain designs, can act as a partial 'turn'
of a winding encircling the shaft. This then produces
an MMF and therefore a higher shaft voltage, the
whole process building up until many thousands of
amperes circulate, causing damage at the contacts. It
is therefore important to ensure that deliberate con-
tacts, such as earthing brushes, have a resistance (say,
1 ohm) deliberately included in series, and that heavily
magnetised shafts are de-magnetised (see Fig 6.24).
The residual magnetism of a generator rotor will
normally produce a voltage of several hundred volts
at speed, even without external excitation; and access
to terminals, connections, etc., must not be allowed.
9.6 Field suppression
If an electrical fault occurs in ' the generator, the
connections, or on the generator transformer, the
protection will act to trip the main circuit-breaker.
This will extinguish the stator current within one
cycle of circuit-breaker operation but the flux cannot
be reduced so quickly. In all except brushless ma-
chines, a field circuit-breaker is connected in circuit
between the excitation source and the rotor winding.
If this were to be opened, the instantaneous reduc-
tion in current would induce a large (several kV)
voltage in the rotor winding, with the risk of insulation
breakdown.
Instead, a field suppression resistor is inserted in
series with the rotor winding, the excitation source
circuit being opened subsequently. The resistor has
an ohmic value of 1 to 3 times that of the winding,
and reduces the current (and flux) rapidly, without
imposing an excessive voltage. Thus the ability of the
flux to prolong the current in the fault is safely
minimised.
In brushless machines, direct suppression of the
rotor winding current is not possible. The exciter field
curre.rrt i..s ce.duce.d b':f the. (){
exciter field switch (this also applies in a non-brush-
less machine), or by invenion of the thyristors, but
547
!'
content than. that specified in R$5000, in which cer-
tain ranges of frequency are more highly weighted
,than others because of their effect (in the transmission
system) on communications lines. This now rather out-
l dated concept is still accepted as an agreed and useful
-'- criterion, since high harmonic levels can induce high
local losses in parts of generator, e.g., the rotor
surface.
_ In practice, harmonics are generated by the con-
nected loads, a recent trend being the even-order
harmonic requirements of equipment using thyristors.
\ This must be supplied by the generators and must
--.therefore appear in the flux wave, causing rotor surface
losses similar to those produced by unbalanced load
conditions.
- Rotor windings occasionally develop short-circuits
between adjacent turns in a coil, and while this is not
usually of great concern, the difference in flux pat-
.....:. tern from the two poles is detectable, using a small
flux coil mounted in the airgap. When the signal from
one pole is offset against the signal from the other,
differences reveal any abnormality. Another method
which has been suggested uses the presence of second
harmonics in the stator current, as noted above, but
this has to be able to reject those imposed by the load
requirements.
9.4 Magnetic pull
t If the rotor is exactly centred in the bore of the sta-
. l tor, the magnetic pull between one pole of the rotor
and the stator will be exactly balanced by that of
the other. If not centred, there will be an unbalanced
l pull acting as an attractive force on the pole with

smaller air gap. However, the air gap of these
large machines is so large (80 to 130 mm), in order
to achieve the required synchronous reactance, that
f centring the rotor to a readily achievable accuracy
does not impose a magrietic pull at all comparable
, with the gravitational force on the rotor.
j Similarly, the net axial magnetic force on the rotor
is zero if it is axially centred in the stator, and this
is the condition normally 'achieved at rated load with
f the rotors at their rionnal temperatures. With the
usual axial offset which occurs with the rotors cold,
the axial magnetic pull is only of the order of a few
Newtons and is not a significant additional
$ load on the thrust bearing.
9.5 Shaft voltage and residual magnetism
. The production of a voltage (predominantly at 50 Hz)
from one end of the generator rotor to the other oc-
. curs because of some asymmetry, either of the position
of the rotor in the stator, or some difference in mag-
\ netic properties. This mechanism has a low effective
l
Electrical and electromagnetic aspects
source impedance, and can circulate significant cur-
rent through bearings, seals, etc., causing eventual
break-up of white-metalled surfaces.
Voltages of the same frequency as the shaft-driven
excitation machines can be measured on the generator
shaft, but these are capacitively coupled, have a high
sour,ce impedance and will not sustain a large current.
The steam turbine rotors may develop a voltage
due to the electrostatic action of steam and water
droplets on the blades, and one function of the shaft
earthing brushes is to ensure that this is discharged.
A phenomenon which has occurred (rarely) on tur-
bines is that, where a rotor or rotors have a degree of
permanent magnetism and there are contacts of low
resistance between shaft and earth at suitable axially-
separated locations, the small generated voltage can
circulate a small current through the turbine casing,
which, in certain designs, can act as a partial 'turn'
of a winding encircling the shaft. This then produces
an MMF and therefore a higher shaft voltage, the
whole process building up until many thousands of
amperes circulate, causing damage at the contacts. It
is therefore important to ensure that deliberate con-
tacts, such as earthing brushes, have a resistance (say,
1 ohm) deliberately included in series, and that heavily
magnetised shafts are de-magnetised (see Fig 6.24).
The residual magnetism of a generator rotqr will
normally produce a voltage of several hundred volts
at speed, even without external excitation; and access
to terminals, connections, etc., must not be allowed.
9.6 Field suppression
If an electrical fault occurs in 'the generator, the
connections, or on the generator transformer, the
protection will act to trip the main circuit-breaker.
This will extinguish the stator current within one
cycle of circuit-breaker operation but the flux cannot
be reduced so quickly. In all except brushless ma-
chines, a field circuit-breaker is connected in circuit
between the excitation source and the rotor winding.
If this were to be opened, the instantaneous reduc-
tion in current would induce a large (several kV)
voltage in the rotor winding, with the risk of insulation
breakdown.
Instead, a field suppression resistor is inserted in
series with the rotor winding, the excitation source
circuit being opened subsequently. The resistor has
an ohmic value of 1 to 3 times that of the winding,
and reduces the current (and flux) rapidly, without
imposing an excessive voltage. Thus the ability of the
flux to prolong the current in the fault is safely
minimised .
In brushless machines, direct suppression of the
rotor winding current is not possible. The exciter field
current is rapidly reduced by the operation of the
exciter field switch (this also applies in a non-brush-
less machine), or by inversion of the thyristors, but
547
Tile gen?r:J tor
the rotor current has an effectively zero resistance
path through the rotating diodes, and decays with
the natural time constant of the winding (see Fig 6.89).
9.7 Voltage in the rotor winding
At rated load, the voltage required to circulate rated
rotor current is of the order of 500 V. During field
forcing, this may rise to almost twice this value for
a few seconds. The rapid decay of current during field
suppression may possibly induce 1500 V briefly in
the winding. During transient fault conditions, the
requirement of maintaining the previous flux level may
cause large currents to be induced into the winding,
with correspondingly high voltages (1500 V or so).
The highest voltages are likely to be applied during
asynchronous operation, during which the induced
alternating rotor current (at slip frequency) seeks to
reverse. This possibility is blocked by the excitation
diodes and high voltage peaks occur ( > 2000 V) at
the sudden changes in current.
The winding insulation of a new rotor is finally
tested .at 3500 V, having withstood higher test voltages
during manufacture. However, the arduous operating
conditions may cause insulation to become physically
damaged, displaced, or just oily or dirty from con-
tamination, and such high voltages are less easily
withstood in an older rotor.
When brushes are being changed with the generator
on-load, it is common practice to ensure that the
excitation control is on 'manual', so that the rotor
cannot be subjected to field forcing voltages, and to
disconnect the earth fault indication biasing voltage.
It may be thought to be advantageous to earth the
slipring being worked on deliberately, but if this were
done and an earth fault developed in the rotor wind-
SLIPRINGS
AND BRUSHGEAR
GENERATOR
ROTOR
WINDING
MAIN FIELD
SUPPRESSION
SWITCH
MAIN FIELD
SUPPRESSION
RESISTOR
;r

...
Chapter 6::.
'I
ing, a large fault current would flow, with danger to;\
the maintenance operator. It is considered prefer-;!
able not to apply an earth, but to ensure that thei[
operator is properly clothed and is using special in-:j
sulated equipment. '
9.8 Stator winding insulation
i
ln normal operation, the highest voltage to
occurs in the winding bar (and connection) at the highl
voltage ('line') end of each phase. This amounts to!
23.5/--./3 = 13.5 kV (RMS) for the 660 MW units.:
Voltage to earth on the other conductor bars is re-
duced through the winding to effectively zero at the
neutral end. The electrical stress in the insulation is
not high even on the line-end bars; all the bars are !i
similarly insulated. ,
The system of insulation has to undergo searching .
type tests before it is approved for general use,
even then, quality control tests on production bars
include the destructive cutting up of two sacrificial
bars per machine to ensure freedom from cavities in
the insulation, among other quality checks.
In operation, electromagnetic forces cause the bars
to vibrate at 100 Hz in the slots and end windings, I
to an extent limited by their restraining devices. If
bars become loose in their slots due to relaxation.
of ripple springs or wedges, the layers of insulation i
tape may become locally de-laminated, in spite of
the bonding resin. Electrical discharges can occur at
such sites which might eventually lead to electrical
breakdown of the bar to earth. Fortunately, in a hy-.
drogen atmosphere, carbonisation of the surfaces does"
not occur as readjly as it would in air, and break-
downs from this cause are uncommon. Discharge on
the bar surface, either in the slot, or across the end
BRIDGE
RECTIFIER
MAIN

FIELD
WINDING
FIELD
SUPPRESSION
SWITCH
FIG. 6.89 Field suppression circuits
548
Operational measurement, control, monitoring and protection
winding surfaces, may occur, particularly where the
semi-conducting shrface treatment layers become bro-
ken or damaged, but again this does not normally
lead to breakdown. Much more likely is mechanical
damage to the insulation by pieces of core punching
which become detached, magnetic debris (which can
cut 'wormholes' into the end winding insulation un-
der electromagnetic forces), and abrasion of packing
blocks into insulation. For these reasons, insulation
thicknesses have not been reduced to take advantage
of the superior electrical properties available with
modern insulation systems.
Considerable effort has been devoted to devising
means of detecting signs of insulation deterioration,
for instance, by observing discharge activity in a
permanently installed, capacitively coupled device, or
by radio frequency aerials inside the casing; both
methods are still being developed. Discharge energy is
predominantly in the 1 MHz range, whereas corona
discharge, which also occurs, is predominantly at a
higher frequency. Occasional 'fingerprint' measure-
ments can show whether either activity is increasing
with time.
Similarly, an overall measure of the insulation
integrity of a whole phase can be gained by mo-
nitoring the capacitative component of current at
various voltage levels, usually expressed as 'tan delta'
values, i.e., a measure of (very low) power factor.
Breakdown, however, is most likely to occur from
one local area of damage, as already noted, and the
poor results from this local area are swamped by the
better measurements of the rest, so that such methods
are relatively insensitive.
Stator insulation withstands more than twice its
rated line voltage, i.e., >2['\"'3 x maximum (phase)
operating voltage], and an insulation sample will with-
stand at least twice this again, so there is a huge
safety margin on intact insulation. Even so, testing
at high voltage is destructive, and repeat testing in
service is deprecated.
If an earth fault occurred at one of the phase
ends, the voltage at the neutral would be elevated,
and that at the other phase ends could rise to )3 x
normal. This condition would persist for only a few
seconds, at most, before the protection acted to trip
the unit and suppress the flux. In normal operation,
the maximum voltage a winding can attain is limited
to about 350Jo above rated, for example, if rated
load were tripped, but again this would quickly be
suppressed.
Surges arising from switching or other operations
on the system are greatly attenuated in the generator
transformer, and do not pose a significant hazard to
the generator winding. These large machines do not
haYe multi-turn coils, which are more at risk from
The surge withstand voltage is quoted at about
!'5 -90 kY. but surge withstand tests are never carried
out.
10 Operational measurement, control,
monitoring and protection
Many of these subjects have been mentioned in pass-
ing. In this section, each group is considered as a
co-ordinated whole.
10.1 Routine instrumentation
Provisions vary between manufacturers and have chang-
ed over the years, but the following is representative.
10.1.1 Temperature
Thermocouples are used to detect the temperature
in:
Stator core - in teeth, back of teeth, core ends
and axial centre.
Core end plates and end plate screen these are
permitted to attain higher temperatures than the
core if not in contact with insulation.
Hydrogen inlet to and outlet from coolers -
several, to allow averaging.
Stator winding, either one per slot or in water outlet
hose - basically to monitor water flow in in-
dividual bars.
Hydrogen seal faces - to detect rubbing, or oil
starvation.
Stator frame, at C0
2
inlet
to detect freezing.
Resistance elements or other thermometers are used
for:
Water inlet and outlet temperatures in all water
cooling systems.
Oil outlets from bearings and seals.
Seal oil at outlet from cooler.
Hydrogen to and from cooler, as back-up to ther-
mocouples.
An ohmmeter is used to display rotor winding _
temperature.
Temperatures are monitored during works tests
and during on-load commissioning, to ensure that
the specified limits have not been exceeded. The
alarm level would normally be set above the high-
est temperature attained at rated load with the
warmest ambient conditions, but recent thoughts
are that this practice may miss early warnings of
developing abnormalities. If a measured tempera-
ture is related to other parameters, such as current
549
The generator
and cooling water temperature, or even compared
to other similar' signals to see that its magnitude
in the established scatter pattern is correct, by using
a dedicated microprocessor, a more informative
indication can be provided to the operator.
10.1.2 Pressure
Pressures are monitored as follows:
Hydrogen in supply bus.
Hydrogen in casing.
Carbon dioxide in supply line.
Stator wiJ:tding water.
Seal oil (and thrust oil, if separate).
Vacuum in seal oil treatment plant (if used).
Differential pressures are monitored between:
Hydrogen and stator winding water.
Hydrogen and seal oil.
Fan inlet and outlet.
10.1.3 Flow
Flow rates of the following are measured:
Stator winding water, by flowmeter or by differen-
tial pressure across either an orifice or the winding.
Make-up hydrogen (in some machines).
Hydrogen through katharometer.
10.1.4 Condition monitoring
Purity of hydrogen (katharometer).
Humidity of hydrogen (hygrometer).
Humidity of exciter air (hygrometer).
Conductivity of stator winding water.
Composition of scavenging gases (katharometer).
Quantity of particulate matter in hydrogen (condi-
tion monitor).
Fig 6.90 srows a typical condition monitor console.
10.1.5 Electrical
MW, MVAr, voltage, current, power factor (in
control room).
Chapter 6
Vectormeter (on control desk).
Excitation voltage, current.
A VR indications (locally, on A VR panel).
Diode failure.
Shaft voltage.
10.1.6 Vibration
Bearing and shaft movement.
End winding vibration, using on sup-
port beams.
10.2 Logging and display
Transducer outputs are received as inputs to the com-
puter at intervals determined by consideration of what
event could have caused a signal different from nor-
mal, and in what time scale this could cause damage.
Readings may be logged only when outside the normal
range or, alternatively, readings within the range may
be logged at intervals.
The most modern stations display only the essen-
tial information continuously to the control room
operator. Some systems display 'by exception', i.e.,
when a parameter falls outside its expected range.
All information is available on demand, on VDU
screens or printers.
10.3 Control
The load and, excitation control systems have already
been described. The following quantities are common-
ly controlled automatically:
Hydrogen pressure, by spring-loaded valve, backed
up by spring-loaded overpressure valve.
Seal oil pressure, by pump pressure control and
differential control valve.
Stator winding water pressure, by spring-loaded
bypass valve.
Cooling water temperature, by heaters and bypass
valve.
Gas-in-water detection, by timed operation of
solenoid valve.
Regeneration of dryer, by timer and automatic
valves.
Other parameters, such as water temperature, are
commonly controlled manually, adjustments to valves
being made as necessary when indicated values exceed
given limits.
..
'

I
1.
I
Operational measurement, control, monitoring and protectiol}
0
I!
0
"'
"
ro 0 0 o;
~
CONDITION MONITOR
FIG. 6.90 Condition monitor (NEI Parsons LtJ 1
\S'<-"- ci.so;:, " - " ' ~ " ' " " - " "''"''"''='c.\,"'"'''""-"-"' .l,'<\1. '"''"'- .l,'i,',,
551
I
I
a
I
-
The generator
10.4 On-load monitoring, detection and
diagnosis
Detection of abnormal conditions is divided between
two sections: on-load detection techniques, described
here, and techniques which are applied off-load, at
standstill, or during maintenance, which are grouped
with Tests under Section 11 of this chapter.
Some equipment is provided so that on-load checks
can be carried out periodically on a routine basis in
order to ensure that previously established conditions
have not changed.
10.4.1 Air gap flux coil
A search coil monitors the rate of change of leakage
flux in the air gap as the rotor rotates (Fig 6.91).
The signal from one pole is subtracted from the signal
from the other; significant differences are indicative
Chapter 6
of one or more turns in a coil becoming short-
circuited. (In some machines, this condition may be
continuously monitored.) The condition normally re-
quires remedial action but it is prudent to check that
the situation is stable.
10.4.2 Core or condition monitor
In this device (Fig 6.90), hydrogen is drawn from
the casing through a chamber in which a radioactive
source emits a normally constant rate of electrons.
Ionised particles in the hydrogen stream, due to dust
or liquid aerosol droplets, cause the collected current
to fall, and initiates an alarm at a given level. It is, in
effect, a sophisticated smoke detector. The particles
may be from areas of overheating stator core (hence
the name) or from insulation; they can be trapped in
a filter and analysed.
FIG. 6.91 Airgap search coil and waveforms
1 552
.,
,
'!
t.[
"
:>I
~
~
: ~ ; ~
" ' ~
'"
' - ~
~
" ~ '
:j
' ~
l
i!
i
i
l
j
.j
a
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Operational measurement, control, monitoring and protection
30
23
15
VOLTAGE IV)
-8
--15
-23
3.0
2.5
VOLTAGE (V) 2.0
1 5 ~
1 0 ~
0 5
-0 5
b
~ FAULTED COIL
SEARCh COIL WAVEFORM
20ms
n ar1d b are the two s1des of the faulted co11
FIG. 6.91 (contd.) Airgap search coil and 11avelorms
10.4.3 Insulation discharge
These techniques were discussed in Section 9 of this
chapter.
10.4.4 Rotor winding earth fault indication
The rotor winding and its connected excitation circuits
are not earthed. In order to detect a low value of
insulation resistance while on-load, a biasing voltage
ol about 30 V DC is applied to the 'positive' end
of the winding through a current relay, causing the
entire circuit to have a negative voltage to earth (Fig
6. 92). If the overall insulation resistance to earth falls
h.'IO\\ I 00 000 ohm (the actual value depends on
r he po,ition of the 'fault' in the circuit), the relay
c1perate' to initiate an alarm. Operation of the rotor
111a\ be continued but it is recommended that the
_.n:: ,hc)uld be taken off-load as soon as comenient
and the condition investigated. If it is decided that
a calculated risk can be taken to enable generation
to be continued, a protection device developed in
1987 can be installed. This will initiate a Class 1 trjp
on the occurrence of a second rotor earth fault, and
minimise the damage from the high circulating current
that this would otherwise cause (see Fig 6.93).
10.4.5 Shaft current insulation integrity
In a machine with 'islanded' insulation (see Section 3
of this chapter), the integrity of it'i insulation can be
checked with a megger.
10.4.6 Stator winding water analysis
This water !l1Lht be checked for O.\ygc: and copper con-
tent at recommended inten-als.
553

-
I
I
I
I
I
I
The generator
I
-530V
'
EARTH
LEAKAGE
CURREtH
DETECTION
EXCITATION SUPPLY
SOOV 4000A DC It TYPICALLY <0.75mA
RELAY
-30V BIASSING VOLTAGE
STATION
EARTH
+
SWITCH OPEN K ~ V t
SWITCH CLOSED K
1
~
I '
v1 v
2
APPARENT CHANCE \I.\= K
1
- K
VOLTAGE V, ACROSS FAULT RESISTANCE R
1
o-.\K ve"' \K (\/., + V:
CURRENT It IN FAULT RE'SISTANCE ~ V
2
1
Am
FAULT RESISTMJCE R, ~ V
1
K IS ACTUAL
FAULT POSITION
K' IS APPARENT
FAULT POSITION
HENCE BOTH FAULT POSITION AND FAULT RESISTANCE CAN BE
COMPUTED AND COMPARED WITH PREVIOUS VALUES
FIG. 6.93 Second rotor earth fault protection
10.5 Protection
Protc:crion. here defined as equipment dc:signed to
trip the unit \\hen necessary. is classified by the speed
554
Chapter 6
of its trip initiation:
Class 1 protection mitiates a main circuit-breaker
trip as fast as can be arranged. Taking the trip
relay and circuit-breaker operating times into ac-
count, this means about 120 ms (6 cycles) after
initiation. With the most modern circuit-breakers,
this time may be reduced tu about 80 ms.
Class 2 protection initiates the closing of the tur-
bine stop and interceptor valves. The load reduces
to I U7o or less within a few seconds; this situation
is detected by a 'low forward power' relay which,
after a short delay, initiates a main circuit-breaker
trip. The process takes 4- 5 s from the original
initiation and is intended to prevent a possible speed
runaway if the overspeed governor does not func-
tion correctly on load rejection. Consequently, those
conditions in which a 5 s delay can be tolerated
before tripping are arranged to be protected by a
Class 2 trip.
10.5.1 Class 1 trips
Electrical failure damage propagates so quickly that
Class I tripping is essential. The following situations
are co111monly protected by C l a ~ s I trips:
Generaror transformer winding fault This causes
imbalance between currents in the HV side of the
transformer and the generator neutrals. (Note that,
for faults beyond the transformer, no damage in-
ternal to the generator and transformer is expected,
and tripping is not initiated.)
Unbalanced load (negative sequence) faults These
are described in Section 7. 9 of this chapter.
Stator winding earth fault With high impedance
neutral earthing fault current could be tolerated for
the 5 s of a Class 2 trip, but this condition has
been found to be the forerunner of a more serious
fault in the windings and Class 1 tripping is now
recommended.
High hydrogen temperature The most positive
method of protection against a complete loss of
raw cooling water to the generator cooling circuits
is to trip on high hydrogen temperature. Gas tem-
peratures and stator winding water temperatures
rise to a dangerous level so quickly that activating
an alarm to advise an operator to take action is
unlikely to result in action which is fast enough
to be effective.
Splir phase protection This is not yet fitted except
experimentally. It is intended to detect a difference
in the currents in the two parailel paths of a stator
phase \\'inding, which are normally equal. A bar-
to-bar fault in one path \\ uuld result 1!1 a detec:-
able imbalance, which could trip the unit before
the fault had time to develop into a more damag-
ing fault between p h ~ s e s .
Second rotor earth fault
10.5.2 Class 2 trips
Loss of stator winding water flow This is time
delayed to allow the standby pump to start.
Exciter rectifier bridge-arm failure This protects
against the loss of all the diodes in one arm of the
excitation rectifier.
Loss of excitation Detected by a mho relay after
the rotor has moved into a pole slipping mode.
High vibration This is described in Chapter 2.
Emergency pushbutton This is described in Chap-
ter 2.
11 Maintenance, testing and diagnosis
11.1 Maintenance and tests during operation
Sliprings and brushgear require regular maintenance
to ensure trouble-free operation. The selective pass-
age of more current through one particular brush
can lead to excessive wear on that brush, so that
even though an average brush life is 6 months, one
brush may wear to the point where spring pressure
is lost within 2 weeks. Facilities for on-load brush
changing are provided, and are necessary for base
load units. Occasionally, slip rings may require re-
surfacing by grinding, but this cannot be done on-
load and must await a shutdown. Shaft riding earthing
brushes, and the instrumentation brushes provided
on some 'brushless' units, also need regular attention.
There is little other maintenance work which can
be carried out with the machine on-load, apart from
keeping clean components such as pedestal and exciter
insulation shims, emptying drains when necessary, and
noting what they contain, cleaning or replacing filter
elements where possible, and ensuring that pumps,
control valves, etc., are functioning correctiy.
Apart from monitoring both the regular and more
specialised instrumentation, as described earlier, there
are few tests which can usefully be carried out. Cal-
ibrating checks can be made on the purity meter
by diverting pure hydrogen through it, and manual
sampling can provide samples of casing hydrogen for .
back-up monitoring of impurities and moisture con-
tent, and of stator winding water for pH value, oxy-
gen and copper content, and conductivity. In some
stations, means are provided for the on-load testing
of certain protection devices, for example, flow of
Maintenance, testing and diagnosis
stator water.
Any sudden departure from normal conditions
should be investigated. Changes in shaft or stator
winding overhang vibration should be correlated with
load and temperature, and changes in stator core or
casing vibration with voltage and temperature. Con-
dition monitor excursions should require samples to
be analysed. Such information may be invaluable
when assessing the condition of the machine at the
next major outage, or when planning remedial work.
11.2 Maintenance and tests when shut
down for a short outage
During outages as short as 2- 5 days, the casing would
not normally be scavenged, and the shaft would be
barred for much of the time. Therefore the generator
and its systems are not much more accessible than
when in operation.
Cleaning of brushgear and the slipring area can be
carried out to remove built-up deposits of carbon,
possibly soaked with oil, which can form electrical
tracking paths. It may be po,sible to grind the slip-
rings.
lf the brushes are lifted clear of the sliprings and
a pair of insulated brushes fitted, a test on the rotor
windings can be made with a recurrent surge oscillo-
scope (RSO). In this test, a steep-fronted pulse is
applied to one end of the winding. Any abnormality
in the winding, such as a short-circuit between turns,
will cause a smaller surge to be reflected back to the
source, just as if the winding were a transmission
line. Figure 6.94 shows typical waveforms of signals
reflected from each end.' By subtracting the signals,
an abnormality may be detected. Such tests can be
very sensitive, and must be interpreted with care.
11.3 Maintenance during a longer outage
If the outage is known to be longer than a week or
so, the casing can conveniently be scavenged. When this
has been properly carried out, access to the inside of
the casing can be gained by withdrawing a cooler,
or to the end winding area by taking off a cover
in the endshields.
Visual examination of the interior may reveal ex-
cessive amounts of oil, indicative of a malfunctioning
shaft seal, or of water, indicating a cooler or cooling
circuit leak. Signs of overheated insulation may be
evident, or of powdered glass or mica, indicative
of abrasion of insulation. Excessive burning or welding
between core bars and the core back may indicate
an embedded core fault. Loose packers, bolts or
hoses in the end winding may be apparent, and loose
debris may be visible. The effort involved in such
an inspection is worthwhile to preserve confidence
in the continuing good performance.
555
The generator Chapter 6
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TIME ,S
FIG. 6.94 Recurrent surge te;t
All such examinations of the interior must be sub-
ject to the rigorous enforcement of rules concerning
tools, the wearing of overshoes, etc., to ensure that
foreign materials are not left inside. The stator casing
heaters should be kept on once degassing has been
completed.
At these outages, seals and bearings may be dis-
mantled for inspection, both for signs of wear and
damage, and of electrical discharges due to the pass-
age of shaft current. The inside of exciters can also
be inspected, as can components in the various aux-
iliary systems.
A limited amount of testing can be carried out, e.g.,
the insulation resistance of the rotor winding, using a
500 or 1000 V megger, and the IR of the shaft current
insulation if islanded.
11 .4 Maintenance and tests with the
machine dismantled
If the outage is to be long enough for the rotor to
be withdrawn, much better access to both rotor and
556
stator is possible. Inspection of the rotor surface,
particularly where crack initiation sites are suspected,
such as the gaps between short wedges, should be
carried out. Inspection down the radial ventilation
holes to check that insulation packing has not moved
to block the gas cooling passages, is recommended,
following which the holes should be sealed with a
continuous strip of adhesive tape, to prevent the
ingress of debris.
Limited inspection of the end winding is also pos-
sible, and signs of fretting, looseness, distortion of
coils, or movement of insulation, blades or coils
should be looked for. If the pole-to-pole crossover
is visible, it is advisable to examine it for signs of
fatigue cracking.
End rings should be examined for surface cracking
and, by using ultrasonic techniques, for embedded
defects. The CEGB guidelines recommend that those
end rings which are not of 18118 material should be
removed after about 80-90 000 h in operation, and
skimmed to a depth of about 0.25 mm over the cyl-
indrical surfaces (but not the shrink face), following
which a fluorescent dye ('Zyglo' or equivalent) ex-

I

amination is made. Defects greater than 2 mm should
' be ground out, blending in the .ground area so that
' there are no discontinuities. Finally, the ring must
be re-treated with its protective finish before being
refitted. The whole operation requires great skill and
experience, and though it can be carried out at site,
it is better done at the manufacturer's works, fol-
, lowing which the rotor can be subjected to overspeed
i and balancing runs. These comments also apply to
; exciter end rings.
Examination of the stator core can be carried out
: by inspecting the bore for loose areas, which can
I be tightened by insertions of hard insulation, or by
' treating with an epoxy-based liquid having low sur-
' face tension which will penetrate between the la-
minations. Ventilation ducts should be inspected for
''debris, blockages and broken spacer bars. The back
. ' '0\ \.'D.'\. '\.'0'i.'\. L>'i 'Ct:>1'e \I)
core bars, or damaged core bar insulation, where
this is fitted. Some core back burning, and some
fretting products (e.g., 'cocoa dust') seems to be
innocuous. The core frame can be inspected for ob-
\ious signs of damage, and patches of overheated
paint or metal should be investigated.
E\ery stator slot wedge should be checked for tight-
along its whole length, using a tightness tester
de1 eloped in 1985, or by tapping with a coin or simi-
l>biect to observe the expected 'ringing', indicative
,,r .1 tight slot. Airgap flux coils can be fitted or
:en ell eel at this stage.
C.,r,nor end windings can be more thoroughly checked
a-; described in the previous section. Signs of
lc'O.,cncss of packings, fretting, slack fastenings, etc.,
a: c all indicative of movement. If there are unfilled
bags between coils, these can be filled with epoxy
resin at this stage. The surfaces should be cleaned using
a proprietary cleaner suitable for electrical windings,
but it is not recommended that repainting is under-
'1.11!' taken without the manufacturer's advice. If a 'worm-
lwlt:' (made by small conducting particles) is found,
the particle should be removed and the insulation
patched rather than left in, possibly to break through
'lllj'i: intL' the copper.
The state of the hoses and their connecting joints
should be checked. A leakage test on the stator wind-
in.;:. using vacuum or pressurised air with a tracer
gao. 1\ ill reveal any significant leaks. It may be
con.,idered prudent to renew all the rubber 0-rings,
bl'th :n these locations and elsewhere, if they have
in sen ice for several years. Care must be taken
lL' ,, ilo11 the assembly instructions meticulously, as
01 ercJghtening may damage the joints.
The opportunity should be taken to clean the sta-
tor casing. particularly at the bottom, noting if water
collected, and checking that the flow to the leak-
l
ae detector is unobstructed.
lnsulat1on res1stance tests should be carried out
on the rotor winding, using a 500 or 1000 V megger,
1
and on excitation windings. An RSO test could also
Maintenance, testing and diagnosis
be performed on the rotor winding, with slipring
brushes lifted.
If any hot spots in the stator core are suspected,
or as a reassurance exercise, a core flux test can be
carried out. This may take the form of an hour long
test with about rated flux in the core, using about
10 turns of 11 kV cable wrapped around the core
and fed from a suitable 11 kV source, and using
an infra-red camera to scan the bore to monitor its
temperature. Easier, but less positive, is a low flux test
using one turn of light current cable and a magnetic
imperfection detector.
It is not easy to ensure that the stator winding
is dry enough to make an insulation resistance test
meaningful, though a technique of applying a vacuum
to the winding has been used. A 2 or 2.5 kV motor-
ised megger should be used, monitoring one phase at
a l1me, ana mamtam'mg fhe test tor l 0 minutes so
that the polarisation index can be obtained. It is
not normal to apply a high voltage test, the only ex-
ception being after some damage has occurred, possi-
bly with partial replacement of the winding, when an
agreed HV test on the remaining bars gives some
reassurance.
11.5 Reassembly
With the rotor reassembled, checks such
as alignment, axial clearances and concentricity of cou-
plings, and of the rotor in the stator, arc carried out,
and that all locking plates and other cle\ ices are pro-
perly assembled. All jointing materials, 'uch as gaskets,
0-rings, jointing compound, etc., should be renewed,
and the appropriate leakage tests 'carried out.
It is so important that small metallic items do not
fall into, or get left inside, the generator, where they
could be drawn into the windings, that a strict ac-
counting system for such items is recommended.
Several expensive failures have occurred a short time
after a major maintenance outage, due to this cause.
11.6 Diagnosis
If the reading of any instrument has been outside its
expected limit, or caused concern in other ways, it is
sensible to investigate its possible causes during an
outage. It may be tempting to extend the operating
regime beyond its normal level, before such an out-
age, in order to observe the effects, but this is not
recommended, since a 'stable' fault hch been known
to become 'unstable' during such operation. causing
problems when the unit is recommissioned.
Specialised techniques, some in their de1 elopment
phase, may be a\ ailable to assist in ,uspected fault
location, and up to date advice should be sought.
Sometimes readings of more than one type may
be high, though not so high as to be alarming in
557
- 1
!
' amination is made. Defects greater than 2 mm should
- : be ground out, blending in the .ground area so that
' there are no discontinuities. Finally, the ring must
be re-treated with its protective finish before being
i refitted. The whole operation requires great skill and
\ experience, and though it can be carried out at site,
. it is better done at the manufacturer's works, fol-
' lowing which the rotor can be subjected to overspeed
!: and balancing runs. These comments also apply to
1
exciter end rings.
' Examination of the stator core can be carried out
' . by inspecting the bore for loose areas, which can
t be tightened by insertions of hard insulation, or by
treating with an epoxy-based liquid having low sur-
face tension which will penetrate between the la-
minations. Ventilation ducts should be inspected for
:debris, blockages and broken spacer bars. The back
:, of the core will reveal excessive welding of core to
core bars, or damaged core bar insulation, where
this is fitted. Some core back burning, and some
fretting products (e.g., 'cocoa dust') seems to be
:tinnocuous. The core frame can be inspected for ob-
vious signs of damage, and patches of overheated
paint or metal should be investigated.
Every stator slot wedge should be checked for tight-
ness along its whole length, using a tightness tester
developed in 1985, or by tapping with a coin or simi-
lar object to observe the expected 'ringing', indicative
of a tight slot. Airgap flux coils can be fitted or
. renewed at this stage.
Stator end windings can be more thoroughly checked
than as described in the previous section. Signs of
. .looseness of packings, fretting, slack fastenings, etc.,
.are all indicative of movement. If there are unfilled
:bags between coils, these can be filled with epoxy
resin at this stage. The surfaces should be cleaned using
a proprietary cleaner suitable for electrical windings,
but it is not recommended that repainting is under-
. taken without the manufacturer's advice. If a 'worm-
hole' (made by small conducting particles) is found,
the particle should be removed and the insulation
patched rather than left iu, possibly to break through
;'into the copper.
;, The state of the hoses and their connecting joints
.'should be checked. A leakage test on the stator wind-
, 1ng, using vacuum or pressurised air with a tracer
. gas, will reveal any significant leaks. It may be
:::considered prudent to renew all the rubber 0-rings,
in these locations and elsewhere, if they have
in service for several years. Care must be taken
ji'tb follow the assembly instructions meticulously, as
yovertightening may damage the joints.
The opportunity should be taken to clean the sta-
tor casing, particularly at the bottom, noting if water
:'has collected, and checking that the flow to the leak-
:age detector is unobstructed.
Insulation resistance tests should be carried out
'on the rotor winding, using a 500 or 1000 V megger,
,and on excitation windings. An RSO test could also
Maintenance, testing and diagnosis
be performed on the rotor winding, with slipring
brushes lifted.
If any hot spots in the stator core are suspected,
or as a reassurance exercise, a core flux test can be
carried out. This may take the form of an hour long
test with about rated flux in the core, using about
10 turns of II k V cable wrapped around the core
and fed from a suitable II kV source, and using
an infra-red camera to scan the bore to monitor its
temperature. Easier, but less positive, is a low flux test
using one turn of light current cable and a magnetic
imperfection detector.
It is not easy to ensure that the stator winding
is dry enough to make an insulation resistance test
meaningful, though a technique of applying a vacuum
to. the winding has been used. A 2 or 2.5 kV motor-
ised megger should be used, monitoring one phase at
a time, and maintaining the test for I 0 minutes so
that the polarisation index can be obtained. It is
not normal to apply a high voltage test, the only ex-
ception being after some damage has occurred, possi-
bly with partial replacement of the winding, when an
agreed HV test on the remaining bars gives some
reassurance.
11.5 Reassembly
With the rotor reassembled, mechanical checks such
as alignment, axial clearances and concentricity of cou-
plings, and of the rotor in the stator, are carried out,
and that all locking plates and other devices are pro-
perly assembled. All jointing materials, such as gaskets,
0-rings, jointing compound, etc., should be renewed,
and the appropriate lekkage tests 'carried out.
It is so important that small metallic items do not
fall into, or get left inside, the generator, where they
could be drawn into the windings, that a strict ac-
counting system for such items is recommended.
Several expensive failures have occurred a short time
after a major maintenance outage, due to this cause.
11 .6 Diagnosis
If the reading of any instrument has been outside its
expected limit, or caused concern in other ways, it is
sensible to investigate its possible causes during an
outage. It may be tempting to extend the operating
regime beyond its normal level, before such an out-
age, in order to observe the effects, but this is not
recommended, since a 'stable' fault has been known
to become 'unstable' during such operation, causing
problems when the unit is recommissioned.
Specialised techniques, some in their development
phase, may be available to assist in suspected fault
location, and up to date advice should be sought.
Sometimes readings of more than one type may
be high, though not so high as to be alarming in
-
--
-
The generator
themselves. Wheh judged jointly, clues may be ob-
tained which individual' might not have re-
vealed.
12 Future developments
12.1 Extension of present designs
The choice of 3000 or 1500 r/min for future turbine-
generators is made almost entirely from considerations
of the steam turbine and its steam cycle. ln general,
if a two-pole generator can be designed and manu-
factured at a particular rating, then so can a four-
pole generator, its overall dimensions will be a little
larger.
The present UK designs with water cooled stator
windings and hydrogen cooled stator core and rotor
can be extended to .at least 1300 MW by extrapola-
tion. Increases of the order of lOOJo to the rotor and
casing diameters, electrical loading (ampere conductors
per metre of circumference), magnetic densities and
voltage, and perhaps 25% on length over the pre-
sent designs, would be envisaged (see Fig 6.3). The
increased diameter and length of the rotor result in
the critical speeds and alternating bending stesses
being similar to those of the present machines. A
judgement would have to be made about the number
of parallel paths in the stator winding of a two-pole
machine. If only two paths are used, the number
of slots and bars is low, but the bar forces become
very large; if four are used the circuits cannot be
exactly balanced, and circulating currents and losses
are generated. Parameters, such as reactances and effi-
ciencies, would not be very different from those of
the present machines.
12.2 Extension of water cooling
Since water cooling has been used so effectively for
the stator winding, it may be wondered why it is not
used in the rotor winding where space is at such
a premium. Water cooled rotor windings have been
successfully operated; in the UK in a 500 MW unit
with an experimental rotor for a few months, and
internationally in a few units commercially.
The more intensive cooling provided by water means
that smaller winding copper sections can be used, but
this increases the resistance and therefore the l
2
R
loss. In a hydrogen cooled 660 MW rotor, this loss
is about 2.5 MW at rated load, so a worthwhile
reduction in section brings an expensive loss penalty.
There are difficult problems to be solved in feeding
the water into and out of the rotating rotor, but the
major concern is that the centrifugal force imposes
very high pressures (20 MPa) in the water circuit,
558
Chapter 6
which the plumbing and insulated connections have
to withstand with no detectable leakage. Stainless
steel pipes, with some welds having to be made in
situ, were found to be necessary in the UK experience.
Nevertheless, water cooling the rotor winding and
other parts, for example, the stator core, may be an
answer if unit ratings much above 1300 MW are en-
visaged. One difficulty, that of aqueous stress cor-
rosion of rotor end rings, has been removed with
the advent of 18/18 rings. A major advantage is
that in an all-water-cooled generator, hydrogen is
no longer necessary, and the casing can be of much
lighter construction. The rotor can operate in a partial
vacuum to reduce windage losses.
12.3 Slotless generators
The very large radial dimension of the air gap in the
660 MW design appears to be a waste of space, and
prompted much activity in the 1970s into the design
of generators with slotless stators and even slotless
rotors. In a slotless stator, winding conductors oc-
cupied a radial dimension of about half the stator slot
depth, and since there were no teeth, could occupy
twice the circumferential distance. This is economical
on outer core diameter, and because the conductor
bars are not embedded in iron slots, a more eco-
nomical design of insulation should be possible.
The idea has not been pursued, largely because
it was overtaken by the superconducting generator
concept, which promised greater economies of size,
better efficiency and the prospect of much larger unit
ratings than any other design.
12.4 Superconducting generators
The phenomenon of superconductivity can be applied
to DC circuits, but cannot sensibly be used with the
rapidly changing fluxes and currents involved with
50 Hz (see Fig 6.95). It is therefore used only in the
rotor windings, where it has two advantages:
The rotor I
2
R loss is reduced to zero.
The rotor current and MMF can be very large, so
that higher levels of flux density can be used than
are permitted by iron saturation.
The need to maintain the rotor winding at a tem-
perature of 10 K means that only that amount of
heat which can be removed by the refrigerant can
be allowed to pass into the rotor, so that elaborate
heat shields are necessary. Liquid helium is used as
the refrigerant, the windings being made of a ni-
obium-tin alloy embedded in a copper matrix. The
rotor body is made from a stainless steel forging.
-
-
-
DRIVE END
Other types of generator
LAMINATED IRON CORE
CONCRETE STATOR
STATOR WINDING
OUTER ROTOR
INNER ROTOR WITH
SUPERCONDUCTING WINDING
NON-DRIVE END.
TAIL BEARING
FIG. 6.95 Prototype superconducting 500 MW generator
At the higher flux densities envisaged, an iron core
offers no advantages and the disadvantage of the
magnetic core loss, so a cast 'concrete' core is en-
visaged. Some form of outer environmental screen
around the core is necessary to prevent leakage flux
from inducing currents in support steelwork, etc.,
this can take the form of an annular magnetic or
conductin,g copper scr.een.
Many problems remain to be solved, and develop-
ment is ongoing in seyeral countries. If the technique
reaches the stage where reliability is as good as for
conventional machines, it offers the possibility of up
to 5000 MW in one generating unit, a prospect not
available through any other known technology.
12.5 Auxiliary systems
The most likely other areas for new developments
are those of instrumentation, control and diagnosis.
New techniques are continually being investigated
for instrumentation, and in the environment of a gen-
erator, the means of communicating the signal non-
electrically in order to avoid the pick-up of spurious
electromagnetic signals and noise are very well worth
pursuing. Here, fibre optics are expected to be pro-
minent. Also, the use <;>f microprocessors to relate one
parameter to others, as previously noted, will become
more common. Perhaps automatic diagnostic tech-
niques will reach a stage where they can be used with
confidence, and selective recording of non-standard
signals will be introduced more widely.
It should be recognised that generator design and
manufacturing techniques are old-established. Ma-
'
chines from an established design achieve a settled
reliability of better than 990Jo, and operate at an
efficiency of better than 98.5%. Those breakdowns
which do occur are generally due to lapses in quality
control, or if in old machines, to practices long since
overtaken. Thus the impetus for embracing new ma-
terials and technologies is not great.
13 Other types of generator
Generators, other than the 500 and 660 MW turbine-
generators and direct coupled AC exciters for tur-
bine-generators, described in the previous sections, m
operation by the CEGB include:
e Turbine-generators of lower rating.
Water turbine driven salient-pole synchronous
generators.
Diesel engine driven salient-pole generators.
Induction generators.
A very brief survey of these groups follows.
13.1 Turbine-type generators of lower rating
Virtually all the steam turbine driven turbine-generators
now in operation are hydrogen cooled. At the lower
end of the range, machines of 60 MW have a rated
pressure of 0.1 bar, i.e., just above atmospheric.
Above 200 MW, water cooled stator windings are used,
559
The generator
though there are some units in which higher pressure
hydrogen is blown through the hollow conductors of
the stator winding. '
In other respects, the generators are very similar
to the larger, more modern units, except that they are
less intensively rated. In some cases, a degree of
refurbishment has been carried out to extend their
operating lives beyond the 25 years or so already
achieved.
There are also a number of gas turbine driven
generators intended for peak load and synchronous
compensation duty. These have ratings up to 70 MW,
and are usually air cooled. The single-piece stators are
of lighter construction than is necessary in hydrogen
cooled units, and the auxiliary systems are minimal.
In some cases they were designed for unmanned sta-
tions, so manual monitoring equipment and sophis-
ticated logging is minimal. Brushless excitation is
universal, for reasons of minimum maintenance, and
even the fuses protecting the excitation diodes have
been omitted.
A noteworthy feature of the most recent of these
units is the facility to disengage the prime mover,
or, in the case of the Quad-Olympus units (Fig 6.96)
in which the generator is driven at both ends, both
prime movers. Then, after a period of peak load gen-
eration, the synchronous clutches are disengaged, leav-
ing the generators operating as synchronous compen-
sators, with excitation controlled to suit the require-
ments of the system. When peak load or emergency
generation is next required, the gas turbines are run-
up to speed and the clutches moved into engagement.
13.2 Water turbine driven salient-pole syn-
chronous generators
There are only a few of these on the CEGB system,
but the most recent, the pumped-storage units at
Oinorwig, rate a brief description to complement the
water turbine section in Chapter 5.
The six generators are each rated at 330 MW, 0.95
power factor, 18 kV, 500 r/min, and have a motor
rating slightly lower when operating in the reverse
direction.
The very onerous requirements included:
Full speed, no-load to full-load, in I 0 s.
From rest to full-load in 100 s.
From full-load pumping to full-load generating in
90 s.
5000 stop/start cycles per year.
Multiple load cycling from 5007o to 100% for system
frequency regulation.
Availability of 9807o and mode change reliability of
99%.
560
Chapter 6
The comparatively low speed meant large diameters,
and 0 1 1 - ~ i t t : : assembly of the stators was essential (see
Fig 6.97). Air cooling was adopted, mainly for rea-
sons of reliability. Partly on account of this, the
stator winding bars were unusually deep, with a large
number of subconductors, necessitating a 540 Roebel
transposition. The core was stacked in situ, being com-
pressed with hydraulic jacks at intervals, and bonded
together for mechanical stability.
A fabricated steel spider surrounds the forged steel
shaft and carries the keyed-on laminated rim and poles.
Great care was taken to ensure the integrity of the
welds, which are subject to an unusual amount of
cyclic stressing.
Ventilation is provided by motor-driven fans blow-
ing cooled air onto the stator end windings top and
bottom, with some booster fans for the centre of the
core. Water cooled heat exchangers are mounted at
the outside diameter of the core.
The thrust bearing has an arduous duty, having
a load of 510 tonnes and requiring larger thrust
pads, at the specific loading, than had previously
been used at the specific loading and speed. Each
pad rests on a 'mattress' of coiled springs, and is
arranged to pivot centrally to allow for rotation in
both directions. Lubrication is by oil bath and natu-
ral oil circulation, with an immersed water cooled
heat exchanger.
13.2.1 Excitation and control
Two variable-frequency starting equipments are pro-
vided for the station, each rated at 14.8 MV A, consist-
ing of air cooled thyristor rectifier/ AC connector/
inverter banks.
On starting as a pump, the stator winding is fed
with low frequency AC from the starter, using forced
commutation at speeds below I 0% and natural com-
mutation thereafter. It is run to just above 500 r/min
and is synchronised as it runs down through syn-
chronous speed. There are also arrangements for start-
ing one unit as a pump from another, being driven
up to speed by its turbine.
Excitation power is taken from the generator ter-
minals, through a transformer to a thyristor bridge,
whose output is controlled by the A VR, and then to
the sliprings which are located at the top end of the
rotor shaft.
The synchronous operation of such machines fol-
lows very closely that of steam-driven turbine-gen-
erators. The electromagnetic loading is considerably
less, leading to a smaller radial air gap. The very
different magnetic path presented by a pole centre
line and an inter-pole gap results in marked differ-
ences in direct axis and quadrature axis synchronous
reactances, compared to a turbine-generator in which
they are almost identical; this is the 'saliency' effect.
By applying excitation in the reverse direction to
normal, an increase in the steady state stability can
Ul
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AIR INTAKE SPLITIERS
POWER TURBINE EXHAUST DUCTING
A C GENERATOR AIR
INTAKE FILTER HOUSE
OLYMPUS GAS GENERATOR
AUTOMATIC DRY ROLL TYPE
AIR INTAKE FILTERS
BYPASS DOORS
GAS GENERATOR INSTRUME
PANEL
GAS GENERATOR LUB. OIL
FUEL VALVE CABINET
GAS GENERATOR AIR
INTAKE FILTER HOUSE
GAS GENERATOR
ACOUSTIC CELL
TURBINE AND GENERATOR
LUB. OIL PACKAGE
POWER TURBINE ACOUSTIC SCREEN
A C GENERATOR
MAIN GENERATOR CONNECTIONS
BRUSHLESS EXC ,TEA
LUTCH AND BEARING ASSEMBLY
POWER TURBINE ASSEMBLY
CORNER BEND
FIG. 6.96 Quad-Olympus generator
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The generator
Chapter 6
FIG. 6.97 Dinorwig motor-generator during site winding
(see also colour photograph between pp 482 and 483)
be gained, i.e., operation further into the leading
reactive regime becomes possible.
13.2.2 Other features
Other features peculiar to these machines include the
continuing integrity of stator bar insulation in an air
environment, the continuing stability of the bonded
stator core and the built-up rotors, the vacuum ex-
traction of dust from the shaft brakes, and the very
high overspeeds possible; e.g., a transient value of 1.5
for Dinorwig.
13.3 Diesel engine driven salient-pole
generators
These machines, with ratings of a few MW, are in-
562
stalled in a few stations for emergency duty. The
generators are standard industrial units with proven
high reliability. The need for sudden run-up after long
periods at standstill means that brushless excitation
and casing heaters are essential.
13.4 Induction generators
These machines, rated usually at less than I MW,
are used in remotely controlled run-of-the-river hydro
plants, and in wind generators on an experimental
basis. Such machines do not operate synchronously,
but have a characteristic similar to induction motors
except that they run at above synchronous speed. A
greater input from the prime mover increases the
power output. Like all induction machines, they draw
their magnetising current from the system and there-
fore do not require an excitation supply.
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