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# G. H.

RAISONI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, NAGPUR Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering Branch:-6thSemester[Electronics And Telecommunication] Subject: - Communication Electronics List of Experiment

## 19. 20. 21.

Generation of PAM signal using switching CMOS IC 4016 on breadboard and observation of single polarity and dual polarity waveforms on Digital Storage Oscilloscope. Simulation of Pulse Code Modulation In MATLAB. Observation of Frequency spectrum of Amplitude Modulation on Spectrum Analyzer

Experiment No.: - 01 Aim:- Generation of Amplitude Modulation using transistor BC 548 and compare the

results with simulation results in MATLAB.Calculation of modulation index for different values of modulating amplitude.

Equipments required:CRO, CRO probes, Function Generator (2 nos.), Power supply, Breadboard, connecting wires.

## Components:- Transistor: - BC548/549 (1 nos.),Resistor: - 330 (2 nos.),

Inductor: - 1mH (1 nos.)

Theory:In amplitude modulation, the amplitude of the carrier voltage varies in accordance with the instantaneous value of modulating voltage. Let the modulating voltage be given by expression, Vm = Vm cos wmt Where wm is angular frequency of the signal & Vm is the amplitude. Let the carrier voltage be given by expression, Vc = Vc coswct On Amplitude Modulation, The instantaneous value of modulated carrier voltage is given by, V = V(t) cos wct V(t)=Vc + ka Vm cos wmt V=Vc[1+ ma cos wm t] cos wct Where ma is modulation index and the modulation index is defined as the ratio of maximum amplitude of modulating signal to maximum amplitude of carrier signal. ma= K Vm / Vc % modulation is defined as, %ma=Vm/Vc

Circuit Diagram: -

## Simulation Result In MATLAB: -

Procedure: 1. Assemble components and make connections on the breadboard. 2. Adjust the function generator to obtain the sine wave of frequencies 2 KHz and 1 MHz respectively. 3. Apply the sine wave of modulating signal and carrier signal to the ckt. 4. Observe the resulting amplitude modulated signal on CRO. 5. Calculate Vmax and Vmin from the obtained AM wave and hence calculate modulation index. 6. Vary amplitude of modulating signal to get overmodulation, 100% modulation and undermodulation condition. 7. Draw the waveform for overmodulated, 100% modulated, and undermodulated AM wave on graph paper. 8. Write a MATLAB program to generate AM wave. 9. Take the printouts of simulation results. 10. Note the similarity /Differences in the observations and comment on the results.

Observation Table: Table (1): Sr.No. Voltage signal Modulating signal Carrier signal Table (2): Sr. No. Vmax Vmin Modulation index % of modulation index Frequency Amplitude (Vs )

## Result: When Vm = When Vm = When Vm = ma =. ma =. ma =.

Conclusion: Thus the amplitude-modulated signal is generated and modulation index for different values of modulating amplitudes is calculated. The program to generate AM wave is written in MATLAB and the two results were compared.

Viva Questions: 1. What are the advantages of AM over FM? 2. What are the advantages of FM over AM? 3. What are the disadvantages of over modulation? 4. What is the bandwidth of Am signal?

Experiment No: - 2 Aim: - Generation of AM demodulator using envelope detector and to write MATLAB
code for amplitude demodulation.

Equipment Required: -CRO, Probes, Connecting wires. Components: - Diode OA79 (1 no.), Resistor 10 K (1 no.), capacitor 0.1 F (1 no.) Theory: Envelope detector is also called as linear diode detector. The envelope detector operates over linear region of the dynamic current voltage characteristic of the diode. Envelope detector utilizes the rectification characteristics of a diode. The modulated carrier voltage is applied to the series combination of diode and the load impendence consisting of resistor R in shunt with capacitor C. During the positive half cycle the diode conducts thereby charging the capacitor C to the peak value of the carrier voltage. During the negative half cycle the diode does not conduct and hence discharges the capacitor through R. Thus the output voltage is spiky in nature but it almost traces the envelope of the modulated carrier voltage and hence it is nothing but original modulating voltage. The departure of this output voltage from the envelope may be reduced by proper choice of R and C depending upon the modulation frequency and depth of modulation.

Circuit Diagram: -

Fig: Circuit diagram of Envelop Detector Procedure: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Assemble the components on the breadboard as shown in the circuit diagram. Apply the amplitude modulated signal to the input side. Observe the output on CRO. Draw the Amplitude modulated signal and demodulated on graph paper. Write the MATLAB code for AM demodulation.

Simulation Result: 4 2 e d u t i l p m A 0 -2 -4 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Time Demodulated signal 700 800 900 Amplitude modulated signal

## 400 500 Time

600

700

800

900

Observations: AM signal: Carrier frequency= Vmax= Vmin= Demodulated Signal: Frequency= Amplitude=

Result: The demodulated signal at the output of envelope detector was found to be equal to the modulating signal.

Viva Questions: (1) Why envelope detector is also called as linear diode detector? (2) How by proper choice of R and C the performance of the envelope detector can be improved?

## Experiment No.3 Aim: -A) Generation of Frequency modulation using XR 8038.

B) Program to generate FM in MATLAB.

Equipments Required:- Breadboard ,CRO , function generator, power supply, CRO probes, connecting wires. Components:-IC:-XR 3038, Resistors:-100K(2),5.6K,Capacitors :-0.1f(NO. 2) Theory:Frequency modulation consists in varying the frequency of the carrier voltage in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating voltage.Thus the amplitude of the carrier does not change due to frequency modulation. Let the modulating voltage be given by expression: Vm=Vm coswmt. Where wmis angular frequency of the signal & Vm is the amplitude. Let the carrier voltage be given by expression, Vc=Vcsin ( wct+) On frequency modulation, the instantaneous value of modulated carrier voltage is given by, Vc=Vcsin Where =wct+; =wct+kfVm1/wmsinwmt+1; Hence the frequency modulated carrier voltage is given by, V=Vcsin[wct+kfVm/wm sinwmt] The modulation index is defined as the ratio of frequency deviation to frequency of modulating signal mf=d/fm where deviation f(fmax=fmin)/2.

Procedure:Study the circuit diagram provided in the manual. Study the pin configuration of IC-XR8038. Adjust the function generator to obtain the sine wave of frequency 1KHZ. Apply the sine wave modulating signal to the circuit. Adjust the amplitude & frequency of modulating signal to get the frequency modulated output. 6. From the carrier sidebands chart find the highest order sideband corresponding to obtained modulation index. 7. Change the amplitude of modulating signal & repeat step 5 & 6. 8. Draw the waveform on graph paper. 9. Write a MATLAB program to generate FM signal. 10. Take the print out of the simulation result. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Circuit Diagram:-12v
R0 5.6K R3 100K R1 5.6K

7 8
C1 0.1 f C2 0.1 f

5 XR8038

6 2 12
R4 100K

10

11

FM O/P

V1

-12v IC 8038 Sine Adjust Sine out Triangle out Duty Cycle/Freque ncy Adjust 1 2 3 4 11 5 Vcc F.M. Bias 6 7 10 9 8 14 13 12 NC NC Sine Adjust GND Timing Capacitor Square out Sweep Out

## Observation:Table1:Sr no. 1 2 Signal Modulating Signal Carrier Signal Amplitude Frequency

Result:- when Vm=.then B.W.= Conclusion:Thus by changing the amplitude of modulating signal the amount of deviation will change, but it remains constant for any change in modulating signal frequency. Any slight change in deviation for change in modulating frequency was due to the change in amplitude of generator output.

Viva Questions:1)What is frequency deviation in FM? 2)What are the advantages of FM over AM? 3)What is Carsons rule for BW calculation of FM signal?

Experiment No.4 Aim;-To perform Frequency Demodulation using IC 565 PLL and compare the results with simulation results in MATLAB. Equipment required:IC 565, Function generation ,CRO.

## Component required:R1=560 (2 NO.),R2=10K ,C1=470Pf,C2=0.001f,C3=0.1f,C4=0.01f.

Theory:The process of FM Demodulation is to exact the original modulating voltage from the frequency modulated voltage. This detection should be done efficiently and linearly. Further it is desirable that the detector circuit should be in sensitive to amplitude changes and should not be too critical in its adjustment and operation. The FM demodulator performs the detection process in two steps:-1)it converts the frequency modulated voltage into corresponding amplitude modulated voltage using one or more tuned circuits .2)it rectifies this amplitude modulated voltage in linear diode demodulator to extract the original modulation frequency voltage. The FM demodulator may be of the following types: i) The slope demodulator. ii) The balanced slope demodulator. iii) Phase difference discriminator iv) Ratio detector v) Foster seeley discriminator vi) PLL. PLL -Phase-locked loop principal has been used in application such as FM modulation ,FM demodulator FSK. The PLL IC 565 is used as FM Demodulator IC and it performs its demodulation operation.

Circuit diagram:-

10k

0.01 f Fm i/p

7 8
560

5 565 1 11
590 470pf

6 2 12

7 5 4 Audio o/p

10

-5v

Procedure:1) The output of FM is forward to the input of demodulator. 2) Set deviation control R1fully clockwise for maximum deviation .Also set the generation frequency control to be 200HZ. 3) Connect your oscilloscope to pin 7 of the 565 phase locked loop .set the time/cm control to 2ms/cm and the vertical input to 0.5v/cm.At this point ,you may or may not have an audio output signal displayed on the oscilloscope. You must adjust the 565 PLL to the correct operating frequency .To do this adjust R2 until you obtain a sine wave output on the oscilloscope. 4) Using the generation frequency control and R the deviation control, verify that the output of the phase locked loop is directly proportional to the modulating signal.

## Result:The demodulated signal was found equal to the modulating signal.

Viva Question:
1. What is Frequency Discriminator? 2. What is the advantage of using PPL for FM Demodulation?

Experiment No.: -5 Aim: Generation of pre-emphasis circuit on breadboard system & to plot pre-emphasis
curve.

## Equipment Required: Breadboard system, dual channel CRO, function generator,

CRO probes, connecting wires.

Components: Theory:

## Resistors of 10 K, 2.7 K. Capacitor of 0.1 f. Inductor 0.2 mH.

The noise has greater effects on higher modulating frequencies than on lower ones. Thus, if the higher frequencies were artificially boosted at the transmitter and correspondingly cut at the receiver, an improvement in noise immunity could be expected, thereby increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. Frequency modulation is more immune to noise than amplitude modulation & is significantly more immune than phase modulation. Natural tendency of audio is that the amplitude of high frequency signal is lower as compared to amplitude of low frequency signal. The S/N ratio reduces as the audio frequency increases. In turn the S/N ratio is not same over the entire spectrum of audio signals. Thus in order to reduce the effect of noise the higher frequency signals are boosted before transmission. This is called pre-emphasis. When these signals are recovered at the receiver in order to restore the original amplitudes of higher frequency signals they are suppressed. This is known as deemphasis.

Circuit Diagram:-

Procedure:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Assemble components and make connections on breadboard as shown in fig. Apply AF input. Observe the waveform on CRO. Vary the AF i/p frequency between 20-20KHZ. Observe the variation of o/p amplitude with respect to input frequency.

## Observation:Sr no. Fin Vin Vout Gain=Vout/Vin

Result:
As the I/P frequency increases the O/P amplitude increases in case of pre-emphasis.

Conclusion:The gain offered by the pre-emphasis circuit increases with increase in frequency.

Viva Questions:
1. Why FM is more immune to noise than AM? 2. What is pre-emphasis? 3. What are the applications of pre-emphasis?

Experiment No.: -6 Aim: Generation of De-emphasis circuit on breadboard system & to plot De-emphasis
curve.

## Equipment Required: Breadboard system, dual channel CRO, function generator,

CRO probes, connecting wires.

Components: Theory:

## Resistors of 10 K, 2.7 K. Capacitor of 0.1 f. Inductor 0.2 mH.

if the higher frequencies were artificially boosted at the transmitter and correspondingly cut at the receiver, an improvement in noise immunity could be expected, thereby increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. Frequency modulation is more immune to noise than amplitude modulation & is significantly more immune than phase modulation. Natural tendency of audio is that the amplitude of high frequency signal is lower as compared to amplitude of low frequency signal. The S/N ratio reduces as the audio frequency increases. In turn the S/N ratio is not same over the entire spectrum of audio signals. Thus in order to reduce the effect of noise the higher frequency signals is boosted before transmission. This is called pre-emphasis. When these signals are recovered at the receiver in order to restore the original amplitudes of higher frequency signals they are suppressed. This is known as de-emphasis.

The noise has greater effects on higher modulating frequencies than on lower ones. Thus,

Circuit Diagram:-

Procedure:1. Assemble components and make connections on breadboard as shown in fig. 2. Apply AF input. 3. Observe the waveform on CRO.

4. Vary the AF i/p frequency between 20-20KHZ. 5. Observe the variation of o/p amplitude w.r.t. i/p signal frequency. 6. Plot the graph between gain and frequency.

## Observation:Sr no. Fin Vin Vout Gain=Vout/Vin

Result:
As the i/p frequency increases the o/p amplitude decreases in case of de-emphasis.

Conclusion:The gain offered by the de-emphasis circuit decreases with increase in frequency .Thus suppressing the high frequency component there by improving the signal to noise ratio for higher frequencies.

Viva Questions:
1. How do pre-emphasis and de-emphasis affects the S/N ratio of audio frequencies? 2. What is de-emphasis? 3. What are the application of de-emphasis?

Experiment No.:- 7 Aim: - Generation of DSB-SC using IC 1496 on breadboard and compare the results
with simulation results in MATLAB

Equipment Required:- Function Generator, CRO, Connecting wires. Components: - IC 1496 (1 nos.), Resistors: 1K (3 nos.), 100 (2 nos.)
The amplitude-modulated signal is simple to produce but has two practical drawbacks in application to many real communications systems: the bandwidth of the AM signal is twice that of the modulating signal and most of the power is transmitted in the carrier, not in the information bearing sidebands. To overcome these problems with AM, versions on AM have been developed. These other versions of the AM are used in applications were bandwidth must be conserved or power used more effectively. If the carrier could somehow be removed or reduced, the transmitted signal would consist of two information-bearing sidebands, and the total transmitted power would be information. When the carrier is reduced, this is called as double sideband suppressed carrier AM or DSB-SC. Instead of two third of the power in the carrier, nearly all being the available power is used in sidebands.

Theory: -

## Circuit Diagram: +12

Carrier Signal 100 100K 1K

4
Modulating signal

10 XR1496 1

12 6
1F

1K

1
C2 0.1 f

14

O/P

1K

-12v

Simulation Results:1 0.5 e d u t i l p m A 0 -0.5 -1 0 100 200 300 400 500 Time DSB-SC signal 600 700 800 900 Modulating signal

## 400 500 Time

600

700

800

900

Procedure: 1. Assemble components and make connections of the breadboard. 2. Adjust the function generator to obtain the sine wave of frequencies 2 KHz and 1

MHz respectively. 3. Apply the sine wave of modulating signal and carrier signal to the ckt. 4. Observe the resulting DSB-SC signal on CRO. 5. Draw the time domain and frequency domain representation of DSB-SC on graph paper.

Observation: Table(1)Sr. No. Signals Modulating signal Carrier signal Frequency Amplitude in Vs

Result & Conclusion: The Balanced modulator IC 1496 can be used for the generation of DSB-SC signal. The frequency domain representation of DSB-SC signal shows that DSB-SC signal do not contain the carrier component and it consists of two symmetrically placed sidebands.

Viva Questions: 1. What is the bandwidth of the DSB-SC signal? 2. How SSB signal could be generated from DSB-SC signal? 3. What is ring modulator?

Block diagram:-

## Loud Speaker IF amplifier Limiter FM Detector AF amplifier

RF amplifier

Frequency Mixer

Local Oscillator

Theory: The block diagram of FM radio receiver is shown in the diagram. The constituent stages of the FM receiver are as follows. (1) R.F.Amplifier: It increases the level of the signal level appreciably before the signal is fed to the mixer and it also helps images frequency rejection. In FM broadcast the signal bandwidth is large being 150 KHz therefore the RF amplifier must be designed to handle this large bandwidth. (2) Frequency mixer: It performs the usual function of mixing or heterodyning the signal frequency voltage and the local oscillator voltage to produce the difference voltage and frequency voltage which is the intermediate frequency voltage. Since FM broadcast takes place either in VHF or UHF band single transistor frequency converter is not used. Separate local oscillator is always used and another transistor serves as a frequency mixer. The IF used in FM receiver is higher than that in AM. Typical value of intermediate frequency is 12MHz. This high IF helps in image rejection. (3) Local oscillator: A separate local oscillator is always used. At ultrahigh frequencies it is preferred to keep the local oscillator frequency smaller than the signal frequency by an amount equal to the IF. (4) IF amplifier: A multistage IF amplifier is used to provide large gain. Further this IF amplifier should be designed to have high overall bandwidth of the order of 150 KHz. Double tuned circuits may be used but it is preferred particularly at the higher frequencies

in the UHF range, to use stagger tuned single tuned circuit which are found to produce more gain bandwidth product than the conventional double tuned circuits. (5) Limiter: The IF amplifier is followed by limiter which limits the IF voltage to predetermined level and thus removes all amplitude variations which may be incidentally caused due to changes in the transmission path or by manmade static or natural static. (6) FM detector: This extracts the original audio modulation frequency voltage from the frequency modulated carrier voltage. A discriminator is used as a frequency detector. (7) Audio amplifier: The output of the FM detector is fed to an audio frequency small signal amplifier and one or more audio frequency large signal amplifiers. The output audio voltage is then fed to the loud speaker. In FM broadcast, the maximum modulating frequency permitted is 15 KHz and hence the audio frequency must be designed to accommodate such large bandwidth. Similarly the loud speaker must be capable of reproducing all high frequency tones up to 15 KHz. Often two or more loud speaker are used each reproducing a limited range of frequencies.

Viva Question:
1. What is Super heterodyne principle? 2. What are the functions of RF amplifier?

Experiment No.:-9 Aim:-A) Generation of Frequency shift keying using XR 2206 and observe the mark
and space frequencies . B) Program to generate FSK signal in MATLAB.

## Requirements:- Breadboard , CRO dual channel, function generator, power supply,

CRO probes, connecting wires.

Components:-IC:-XR2206, Resistors:-22K,1K(2),100K(2),220Capacitors-1f,10f Theory:Frequency shift keying is the digital system of frequency modulation .Digital signal generated in system like telegraphy is not transmitted as it is instead they are transmitted using keying techniques .In FSK the nominal unmodulated carrier frequency .Corresponding to mark condition and space condition is transmitted for logic level 1 and logic level 0 respectively.

Circuit Diagram:-12v

1 2 3

16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

NC NC

-12v

0.1 f
R3 1K
1K

5 6 7 8
R1 100
R4

XR 2 2 0 6

R3 220

-12v NC

R1 100K

C1

10 f

Sq.wave o/p

## Simulation result in MATLAB:-

Procedure:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Assemble components and make connection on breadboard as shown in fig. Get it checked before turn on the power supply . Apply square wave input. Observe the waveform on CRO & note down mark & space frequencies. Write a MATLAB program to generate FSK signal. Take the print out of the simulation result.

Observation:The standard mark frequency f(mark)= 1/R1C3 Space frequency f(space)= 1/R2C3 Observe I/P square wave Frequency= Amplitude = Observe O/P sine wave Mark frequency= Space frequency=

## Result:Mark frequency is . And Space frequency is

Conclusion: Mark frequency is greater than space frequency. FSK system is used for digital data transmission.

Viva question:1) What is FSK? 2) What are mark and space frequencies? 3) Which component in the circuit governs the mark and space frequencies?

Experiment No.10 Aim:-Generation of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signal using IC555. Equipment required: Breadboard, CRO, function generator, DC power supply, CRO Probes, connecting wires.

## Components:-IC:-555, Resistors:-18k (2 no.), Capacitors:-0.01f (1 no.), 10f

In Pulse modulation, continuous waveform is sampled at regular intervals and the information collected at the sampling times together with synchronizing pulse if any is transmitted. Pulse width modulation is analog pulse modulation type. In pulse width modulation, each pulse has fixed amplitude & starting time but the width of each pulse is kept propotional to the magnitude of the modulating signal. In this system carrier is used as a square wave. Basically sampling theorem is used for this system ,which states that in any pulse modulation system if the sampling rate exceeds twice the maximum signal frequency ,the original signal can be reconstructed in the received with minimal distortion .

Theory:-

Circuit Diagram:-

## Simulation Result in Microcap:-

Circuit Description:Pulse width modulation may be generated by applying trigger pulse(at the sampling rate ) to control the starting time of pulse from a monostable multivibrator and feeding the signal to be sampled to control the duration of the pulses. The circuit diagram of monostable multivibrator using IC555 is shown in the above figure .Trigger pulses are applied to pin 2 and the modulating signal is applied to pin 5. Pin 5 is control voltage pin, which varies the pulse width depending on instantaneous modulating voltage. Observed the square waveform (PWM wave) at pin no. 3.

Procedure:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Study the circuit and pin configuration of IC555. Assemble components and make connections on the breadboard. Apply a sine wave modulating signal of around 5V, 80-150HZ to the pin 5. Observe the waveform on pin no.3 (output pin) on CRO and note down the amplitude and time period .Note the change in width of pulses .This is the pulse width modulated wave. Vary the frequency and the amplitude of the modulating signal and observe the corresponding changes in the width of pulses. Design the same circuit using Microcap simulation software, simulate it and repeat all the observations. Note the similarly /differences in the observations and comment on the same in results. Draw modulating signal ,carrier signal and PWM signal on graph paper.

## Carrier wave:Sr no Amplitude

Ton

Toff

Frequency in HZ

Conclusion:Thus the width of the pulses varies in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal.

Viva questions:1. Explain pulse duration modulation? 2. Describe the method of demodulation of PWM? 3. What are the drawbacks of PWM over PPM?

Experiment No.11
circuit in micro cap.

Aim: - To generate Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) using IC 555 and to simulate the Equipment Required: - Breadboard, CRO, Signal generator, CRO probes,
connecting wires.

Components: - IC 555 (1 no.), Resistors:- 18K (2 no), 10k (1 no), 1K (2 no.), Theory:Capacitors- 0.1F (2 no.), 10 F (1 no.).

Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) is the type of pulse modulation in which the amplitude and width of the pulse is kept constant but the position of each pulse in relation to the position of a recurrent reference pulse is varied by each instantaneous sampled value of the modulating wave. PPM has the advantage over PWM of requiring constant transmitter power output but has the disadvantage of dependence on transmitter receiver synchronization. PPM may be obtained from PWM. In PWM each pulse has a leading edge and a trailing edge but the location of the leading edges are fixed whereas those of trailing edges are not but are dependent on the pulse width, which in turn is dependent on the signal value at that instant. Thus, we may state that the trailing edges of PWM pulses are position modulated. Thus PPM may be obtained from PWM by simply getting ride of the leading edges and flat tops of PWM pulses.

Circuit Diagram: -

Simulation Result: -

Procedure: 1. Study the circuit diagram and the pin configuration of IC 555. 2. Assemble the components on the breadboard to build the circuit of PPM as given in circuit diagram. 3. Apply sine wave modulating signal to pin number 5 of IC 555 and observe the same signal on CRO and note down its amplitude and frequency. 4. Observe the PPM signal on CRO. 5. Simulate the circuit to generate PPM in microcap. 6. Draw the modulating signal and PPM signal on graph paper.

## Observation Table: Sr.No. Signal Amplitude Frequency

Result:PPM signal is generated using IC 555 and observed on CRO. The same circuit is simulated in microcap. Both PPM waveforms were compared and were found same.

Conclusion:PPM signal can be generated by first generating PWM by using differentiator and diode clipper.

Viva Questions: 1) What is the advantage of PPM over PWM? 2) What is the difference between pulse modulation and CW modulation?

## Experiment No.:-12 Aim:-A) To construct a Pulse Duration Modulator.

B) To construct 3 channels Time division multiplex generator which uses pulse duration modulation (PDM). C) To measure the characteristics of Time Division Multiplexed generator and verify its operation.

Equipments Requirement:-Dual Trace CRO, Connecting wires. Components: IC 4017, IC 555, Diode IN 4149 (4 no.), Variable resistor 100k (2 no.), Variable resistor 50K (1 no.), Resistors 1K (1 no.), 1M (1 no.), 100 K (1 no.), 39 K (1no.), Capacitors 22F (1 no.), 0.01F (1 no.), Power supply 15V DC.

Theory:Multiplexing is the process of transmitting several separate information channels over the same communication circuit simultaneously without interference. There are two basic types of multiplexing time division multiplexing (TDM) and frequency division multiplexing (FDM). In TDM, several information channels are transmitted over the same communication circuit simultaneously using a time sharing tech. As an example , PAM waveform is can be generated that have a very low duty cycle .This means that if a single channel is transmitted , most of the transmission time would be wasted .instead this time is fully utilized by transmitting pulse from other PAM signal during the intervals. A PAM TDM waveform for 3 channels is shown in fig .The 1st pulse is a synchronizing pulse which is used at the receiver in demultiplexing. The second pulse amplitude by channel 1, the 3rd by channel 2 and the 4th by channel 3. This set of pulses is called a frame. The primary advantages of TDM are that several channels of information can be transmitted simultaneously over a single cable, a single radio transmitter. Where as telephone systems uses PCM-TDM.

Circuit Diagram:-

+15 V

+15 V

16

100K

5.1M

14

2 4
100K 50K

+15 V

IC 4017

7
100K

3 10 15
1K 3.9K

7 2 6 555

3
O/P

0.01

Procedure:-

1. Study the circuit configuration given in the manual. 2. Set R1, R2, and R3 to midrange. 3. Connect your oscilloscope to pin 3 the 555 IC. Adjust the triggering control to obtain a table display. If you cannot stabilize the display, connect the oscilloscope external trigger input to pin 3 of the 4017 IC. Now switch your oscilloscope to external triggering. This should trigger the oscilloscope on the TDM waveform sync pulse. 4. Observe the o/p on CRO. Note that the sync pulse is a relatively short duration pulse 5. While channels 1, 2, 3 are approximately equal turn potentiometer R1 fully clockwise. 6. Return R1 to midrange .Now adjust R2 alternately clockwise and counter clockwise. 7. Return R2 to midrange. Adjust R3 fully clockwise and then fully counter clockwise.

## 8. Turn off your experiment.

Results & Conclusion: When the IC 555 o/p goes low, pin no. 13 on the 4017 steps the counter to the next pulse. In this case R1 becomes the timing resistor, therefore when R1 is adjusted the 1st pulse duration is changes. This is channel 1. Also when R2 is adjusted channel 2 pulse duration changes. The same is true for R3 and channel3 Thus, this circuit is a time division multiplex generator with the i/p signals being the position of R1, R2 and R3.

Viva Question:1. What is the difference between TDM and FDM? 2. What are the applications of TDM?

Experiment No.:-13 Aim: - To study Pulse Width Demodulation and to observe the changes in demodulated
output with respect to modulating i/p signal. Patch cords.

Equipment Required: -Pulse width modulator, pulse width demodulator, CRO, Components: -R1=560 , R2=1K, R3=100 , R4=1K+1M pot, R5=2.7K, R6=10K,
Q1=Q2=BC 148, C1=C2=0.1F, C3=C4=0.22F.

Theory: In PWM, the width of the pulses of the carrier pulse train is varied in accordance with the modulating signal. The pulse width demodulator circuit can be formed by using transistorized circuit with OP-AMP low pass filter. A PWM i/p signal is applied to the base of Q1 and demodulated o/p is obtained from OP-AMP o/p. The transistor Q1 works as a inverter. Hence during the time interval when the PWM is high, the input to the transistor Q2 is low. Therefore, during this time interval the transistor Q2 is cut-off and the capacitor C1 gets charged through resistor R4. During the time interval when the PWM i/p is low the input to the transistor Q2 is high and it gets saturated. The capacitor C1then discharges very rapidly through Q2. The collector voltage of Q2 during this interval is then low. Thus the waveform at the collector of Q2 is more or less a saw-tooth waveform whose envelope is same as the modulating signal. This signal is then passes through OP-AMP low pass filter to smooth the shape of envelope and finally it gives o/p whose envelope is nearly equals to the modulating i/p signal.

Circuit Diagram:-

Procedure: 1. Study the circuit provided in the manual switch on the power supply. 2. Apply a PWM i/p to the base of the transistor Q1. 3. Connect one channel of CRO to observe modulating signal and other to demodulated o/p. 4. First verify and note the PWM i/p signal. 5. Adjust the amplitude and frequency to obtain the demodulated o/p whose envelope is nearly equals to the modulating signal. 6. Vary the amplitude and frequency of modulating i/p and observe the corresponding change in demodulated o/p.

Result: The envelope of the sawtooth waveform can be set equals to the modulating signal hence through OP-AMP IC 741 low pass filter we obtained demodulated o/p equals the modulating signal the circuit can be used for pulse width demodulator.

Experiment No.:-14
Demodulated output with respect to modulating i/p signal.

Aim:- To study Pulse Position Demodulation and to observe the changes in Equipment Required: -Pulse Position Modulator, CRO, Patch cords. Components : -C1=0.1F, C2=C3=10F, C4=0.001F, R1=10K, R2=15K pot,
R3=5.6K, R4=R5=R6=2.7K, IC 3140, IC 555.

Theory: In Pulse Position Modulation the analog AF input signal is converted into the PPM output which means amplitude and duration of pulse remains constant. While the position of the pulses relative to reference pulses changes in accordance with the modulating signals. The pulse position demodulator is a circuit which gives the original modulating signal at the output. When the pulse position modulated signal is applied at the input side then, the original signal at the received at the receiver. The pulse position demodulation circuit consists of two parts. First part is a IC 3140 comparator which gives the AF output with noise. This noise can be eliminated by the filter using IC 741, which is the second part of the circuit. IC 3140 is a comparator with two input i.e. pin no. 2 and 3 and output pin no. 6.Output depends on the input comparision. Pin no.3 is kept at fixed voltage while output of the PPM is applied at the pin no.2 of IC 3140. Depending on the voltage at the pin no. 2 the output of the IC 3140 is changing. Since input is a PPM output the output is an AF output with some noise. This noise is then removed with the help of low pass filter. A pure AF output thus obtained at the output of the IC 741.

Circuit Diagram:-

Procedure: (1) Study the circuit provided in the manual. (2) Apply PPM input. Keep the modulating frequency between 70-500 Hz. (3) Connect the CRO at the output of IC 741 to get a Pulse Position Demodulated output. (4) Now vary the frequency and amplitude of modulating i/p & observe the corresponding change in PPM demodulated output. (5) Draw the above observation on the graph paper.

Conclusion: By adjusting the amplitude and frequency of the modulating signal and passing through op-amp 741, low pass filter we obtained demodulated output equals to the modulating signal.

Viva Questions:1. What are the applications of PPM? 2. What is the concept behind demodulating the PPM signal?

Experiment No.:-16 Aim: - To generate and to observe Phase Shift Keying (PSK) using IC1496. Equipment Required: PSK kit, Function generator dual channel, CRO, Digital multimeter, IC1496.

Theory: The original source of information, text, speech, the most commonly used coding scheme is binary sequence such as 0011101011. For transmission purpose this has to be converted to a continuous electrical waveform, conversion process is referred to as the modulation .The o/p of the PCM system is also a binary data. If they are to be transmitted over copper wires, they can be Directly Transmitted as two voltage levels +v and v. But if they are to be transmitted through space using antenna, Phase Modulation is used. As the modulating signal consists of only two levels the modulation technique is known as Phase Shift Keying. Phase Shift Keying is a modulation in which the phase of the carrier signal changes with respect to the digital signal. The binary signal to be transmitted changes the phase of the sine wave carrier depending upon whether 0 or 1 is transmitted. It is also called as Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK). The BPSK can be implemented by using a Balanced Modulator. IC1496 is used as a Balanced Modulator for implementing BPSK. The circuit diagram is shown in the manual. The carrier is applied to pin no.8 and Modulating Binary signal is applied to pin no.1 The BPSK O/P is taken from pin no. 12.IC 1496 internally consists of differential amplifier configuration .its carrier suppression is rated at a minimum of 5db with a typical value of 65db at 500khz.

Circuit Diagram:-

8 10 4

2 1 IC 1496 14

12 6

Procedure: 1) Study the circuit provided on the front panel of kit. 2) Apply the sine wave of 400Hz to pin no. 8. 3) Apply the square wave i.e. non linear binary data minimum 200Hz pin no.1 4) Connect CRO at the o/p i.e. pin no. 12. 5) Switch ON the power supply. 6) Observe the PSK O/P on the CRO. 7) Draw the observed waveform on the graph paper.

Observation Table: Sr. no. Carrier signal Amplitude (V) frequency (KHz) Modulating signal Amplitude(V) Freq(KHz)

Result: -

The carrier signal changes phase as Binary signal changes its state from logic 0 to logic 1.

Viva Questions:-

1. What is the advantage of PSK over FSK? 2. What is the difference between PSK, FSK and ASK?

Experiment No.17 Aim: - To study the phase shift keying demodulator circuit. Equipments Required: PSK generator, CRO and connecting probes.

Theory: Demodulation of BPSK signal is done with a balanced modulator. The balanced modulator is constructed using IC for better resolution and sensitivity, while it could be constructed using diode and transformer. The BPSK signal and carrier signal is applied to the balanced modulator IC for demodulation of the binary signal that is embedded into the carrier signal. The key to demodulating BPSK is that a carrier with the correct frequency and phase relationship must be applied to the balanced modulator along with the BPSK signal.

## Circuit Diagram: Balanced Modulator PSK I/P Low Pass Filter

Data O/P

Frequency Multiplier X2

## Band Pass Filter

Phase Detector

VCO

Frequency Multiplier X2

Procedure: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Study the circuit given on the front panel of the kit. Provide a PSK signal at the input terminal of the kit. Connect the CRO probe at the output terminal for the kit. Switch on the circuit. Vary the rate of digital data in order to check the output from the CRO, which reproduces the data that is being transmitted.

Result: The PSK Demodulator circuit gives the original binary transmitted data at the o/p. And as the bit rate at the I/P of PSK modulator changes the O/P also changes accordingly.

Viva Questions:
1. What is Binary PSK? 2. What is the advantage of QPSK over PSK?

Experiment No.:-18 Aim: - To perform Quadrature Phase Shift Keying and verify the results on CRO. Equipment Required: -QPSK kit, Function generator dual channel, CRO, Digital
Multimeter.

The Digital symbol outputs of the bit splitter fed to digital modulating inputs of two balanced modulators. The first bit into the splitter is presented to the upper balanced modulator & the second bit to the lower one. The reference carrier frequency (fc) is applied to the input of the Top balanced modulator & to the lower one through 90 degree phase shifter .The Phase shifter uses the Lag characteristics of resistor, capacitor circuit to generate a signal, that is designed to lag the input by 90 degree. The output from the balanced modulators, which will be in Phase with their respective fc signal for a logic 1 binary input & 180 degree out of phase for logic 0,are fed to a linear summer. Linear summing avoids developing sum & difference frequencies normally generated by a nonlinear circuit used for standard radio modulators. A bypass filter rejects unwanted signal produced by the summer. The result at the output is a vector sum of the output of the two balanced modulators.

Theory: -

## Circuit Diagram:Data I/p 011001

Balanced Modulator
R1

R3

Din Clock

## 2 Bit Spli tter

I/ P fc

900 Shifter
R2 R4 QAM O/P

Clock I/P

Balanced Modulator

Procedure: 1) Study the circuit provided on the front panel of kit. 2) Apply the carrier signal to the kit at given socket. (1600Hz) 3) Connect CRO at the o/p i.e. pin no. 12. 4) Switch ON the power supply. 5) Observe the O/P on the CRO. 7) Draw the observed waveform on the graph paper.

Observation Table: Sr. no. Carrier signal Amplitude (V) frequency (KHz) Modulating signal Amplitude(V) Freq(KHz)

Result: The carrier signal changes the phase as the Binary signal changes its state from logic 0 to logic 1.

Viva Questions:
1. What is the difference between PSK and QPSK? 2. What is DPSK?

Experiment No.19 Aim: - Generation of PAM signal using switching CMOS IC 4016 on breadboard and observation of single polarity and dual polarity waveforms on Digital Storage Oscilloscope. Equipment required:-PAM kit, dual channel CRO, signal generator.
C1=0.01f,C2=0.01f,C3=1f,IC1=555,IC2=4016 CMOS switch.

## Component required:-R1=39K, R2=18K, R3=R4=10K,R5=10K pot Theory:-

In pulse modulation some characteristics of pulse (carrier) is change in accordance with the sample of the modulating signal .Such type of modulation is called as Pulse Modulation. It is applied in many types .But some of common types are Pulse Amplitude modulation (PAM) ,Pulse width modulation (PWM),and Pulse position modulation (PPM).If the characteristics of pulse such as amplitude ,duration(width), position is change in accordance with the modulating signal than it is called as PAM,PDM or PWM and PPM respectively. Pulse Amplitude Modulation the amplitude of the pulse is varied in accordance with the modulating signal then it is called as pulse Amplitude modulation .Its waveform is shown in fig 1.PAM gives dual polarity (AC type) PAM output called as natural PAM sampling .But If DC level is introduced to the modulating signal then it results single polarity PAM.

Circuit Diagram:
+Vcc +12V 1K 39K 4 8 I/P

+Vcc +12V

2 6

5 IC 555 3

1K

16

## PAM O/P 0.01F

13
Modulator IC 4016

Procedure:1. Assemble components and make connection on breadboard as shown in fig. 2. Switch on the power supply and note the amplitude and frequency of sample pulse internally generated by IC555 connect the same at pin 13 of CMOS IC by using patch cord. 3. Apply a sine wave modulating signal of around 5-VPp, 70 Hz at the point marked as I/P 4.Connect dual Channel CRO for at i/p and o/p side. 4. Adjust the amplitude and frequency of modulating i/p to get Dual polarity PAM output. 5. Note DC voltage V2 given potential divider R3 and R4 now introduced DC voltage V2 by shorting points A and B by patching repeat. In the above step keep CRO in DC mode. 6. Vary the input frequency and amplitude of the modulating signal and observe the corresponding change in PAM output.

Conclusion:As the amplitude of sampling pulse is changed in accordance with the modulating signal so it is called as pulse amplitude modulation (PAM). By introducing DC voltage it gives single polarity PAM output.

Viva Questions:1. What is the difference between single polarity and dual polarity PAM signal? 2. How single polarity PAM signal is generated from dual polarity PAM?

Experiment no.20 Aim: -To study the Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) and to simulate PCM in MATLAB.

Requirements: -MATLAB software. Theory:In PCM, the total amplitude range of the signal is divided into a number of standard levels at equal intervals. These levels are transmitted in a binary code. Hence the actual number of these standard level is a power of 2 such as 16,32,64,128.The signal is continuously sampled and quantized ,each sample magnitude being converted to the nearest standard amplitude .The quantized number is coded using binary code ,converted into corresponding back-tofront binary number and then sent. If adequate quantizing levels are used, the result closely resembles the corresponding analog transmission.

Output Signal

Viva Questions:
1. What is sampling? 2. What is Quantization?

Experiment No.21 Aim: - Observation of Frequency spectrum of amplitude modulated (AM) signal on
Spectrum Analyzer.

## Components:Transistor BC 548/549 (1 no.), resistor 330 (2 no.), Inductor 1mH (1 no.)

Theory: In amplitude modulation, the amplitude of the carrier voltage varies in accordance with the instantaneous value of modulating voltage. Let the modulating voltage be given by expression, Vm = Vm cos wmt Where wm is angular frequency of the signal & Vm is the amplitude. Let the carrier voltage be given by expression, Vc = Vc coswct On Amplitude Modulation, The instantaneous value of modulated carrier voltage is given by, V = V(t) cos wct V(t)=Vc + ka Vm cos wmt V=Vc[1+ ma cos wm t] cos wct Where ma is modulation index and the modulation index is defined as the ratio of maximum amplitude of modulating signal to maximum amplitude of carrier signal. ma= K Vm / Vc % modulation is defined as, %ma=Vm/Vc

Circuit Diagram: -

Procedure:1. Assemble components and make the connections on the breadboard. 2. Adjust the function generator to obtain the sine wave of frequencies 2 KHz and 1 MHz respectively. 3. Apply the sine wave of modulating signal and carrier signal to the ckt. 4. Observe the resulting amplitude modulated signal on CRO. 5. Observe the same signal on spectrum analyzer. 6. Draw the frequency spectrum on graph paper.

Result: The sinusoidal voltage on being amplitude modulated by a single sinusoidal modulating voltage consists of three frequency components- the difference components called as lower sideband (LSB), the sum component called as upper sideband (USB) and carrier component. The LSB is mirror image of the USB.

Viva Questions:
1. What is the bandwidth of AM signal? 2. What is the advantage of AM over FM?

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