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Investigatory Project

Proposal in Integrated
Science 1

Prepared by:
ØPESTAÑO, Camille (25)
ØPON-AN, Charlene Joyce (26)
ØNIÑO, Maureen Emily (23)

Can Water Harness Be
Determined through Soap
To see if it is possible to estimate the hardness of a
variety of waters from various wells and public water
supply sources solely by their bubble activity after
being mixed with soap and shaken.
vCan water
hardness be
through soap
• We think that if we will test the amount of
bubbles produced when a mixture of a
water sample and soap is shaken then we
can determine the hardness of water.
Ø Controlled Variables
§ Amount of water
§ Amount of soap
§ Amount of Calcium Chloride
Ø Manipulated Variables
§ Amount of bubbles
Ø Responding Variable
§ Water Hardness
• 5 1-liter containers
• 5 liters distilled water
• Calcium Chloride (Magnesium chloride can be
• Test tubes ( one for each benchmark solution and
one for each water sample tested)
• Pipettes
• Liquid hand soap
• Stoppers for the test tubes
• Black marking pen
• Test tube racks
• Tap water from various locations that could
include either a well or a public water supply
• Hard water test kit (drop titration kit)
• 1) Prepare 1 liter of each of the hard and
soft water benchmark solutions. The
benchmark solutions will be of 5 different
grades of distilled water containing the
calcium chloride-a soft water solution
(containing 0-17.1 mg/L), a slightly hard
water solution (17.1-60 mg/L),a
moderately hard water solution(60-120
mg/L), a hard water solution(120-180
mg/L), and a very hard water
solution(180+ mg/L).
• 2) Pour each solution into a separate test
tube, filling it 1/3 of the way up.
• 3) Drop 1 drop of liquid hand soap into
each test tube with the pipette. Cap the
tubes with the stoppers and shake
vigorously for 10 seconds each. Then use
a black marking pen to indicate the
highest point on the test tube that the
bubbles reached. These will become your
benchmark samples. Place them in a test
tube rack.
• 4) Take the first sample of tap water to be
tested and pour 1/3 of the way up in a
test tube. Drop 1 drop of liquid hand soap
into the test tube and shake vigorously for
10 seconds. Then, with the black marking
pen, indicate the highest point on the test
tube that the bubbles reached. Repeat this
step for each water sample.
• 5) Once all your water samples are tested,
compare the amount of bubbles generated
in each sample test tube with those of the
benchmark test tubes and match the
sample results with similar results
obtained from the benchmark group.
Record your observations. For example, if
one water sample produced the same
amount of bubbles as a benchmark tube
that contains minerals that are between
120-180mg/L, then record this
observation with your estimate that the
water in your sample is probably hard
• 6) Once you have compared all of your
water samples, perform the actual hard
water test on each sample with the test
kit. There are various test kits on the
market for this procedure. Probably, the
easiest one to use is a drop titration kit.
Follow the directions for testing hard water
that comes with the test kit. Record your
• 7) Now, compare the actual results with
the results you obtained from the bubble
test and note your results.
• 8) Graph the data.
Thank you for watching.