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By MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

By

MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim

Q1

A

branch of

criminology

dealing

with

prison

management, and the deterrence and

reformatory treatment of criminals.

  • a. Corrections

  • b. Penology

  • c. Punishment

  • d. Rehabilitation

Q2

Period in history where offenders may seek

refuge in the church.

  • a. 13 th Century

  • b. 16 th Century

  • c. 17 th Century

  • d. 19 th Century

Q3

Children and lunatics were exempted from

punishment on ground that they are not capable

of knowing the effects of their criminal acts intelligently.

  • a. Classical School

  • b. Neo Classical School

  • c. Positivist School

  • d. Eclectic School

Q4

A

harsh

code

that

provides

the

same

punishment for both citizens and the slaves.

  • a. Code of Hammurabi

  • b. Justinian Code

  • c. Code of Draco

  • d. Burgundian Code

Q5

A correctional institution used to detain persons

who are in the lawful custody of the

government (either accused persons awaiting trial or convicted persons serving a sentence); a

British term.

  • a. Ergastulum

  • b. Underground cistern

  • c. Mamertine Prison

  • d. Gaols

Q6

An

early

prison

which

was

built

in

1556

in

London

for

the

employment and

housing

of

English prisoners.

  • a. Bridewell Institution

  • b. Sing Sing Prisons

  • c. St Michael Prisons

  • d. Borstal Prison

Q7

A prison reformer responsible for the abolition

of death penalty

punishment.

and

torture

as

a

form

of

  • a. Cesare Bonesana Marchese de Beccaria

  • b. Charles Montesquieu

  • c. Voltaire

  • d. William Penn

Q8

This penal farm

hectares.

occupies a total

of 16,408.5

  • a. Davao Penal Colony

  • b. Iwahig Penal Farm

  • c. New Bilibid Prison

  • d. Sablayan Penal Colony & Farm

BACK

Q9

Following are the principal purposes of prison in

the past, EXCEPT

  • a. Vengeance

  • b. Punishment

  • c. Deterrence

  • d. Reformation

Q10

Term being used to sentenced prisoner.

  • a. Convict

  • b. Inmate

  • c. Intern

  • d. Prisoner

Q11

Agency that exercises supervision and control of

institution and community based corrections.

  • a. Department

of

Government

Interior

and

  • b. Department of Justice

Local

  • c. Supreme Court of the Philippines

  • d. Department of Social Work & Department

Q12

Also

known

as

insular

prisoners

and

are

sentenced to more than 3 years imprisonment.

  • a. City prisoners

  • b. Municipal prisoners

  • c. National prisoners

  • d. Provincial prisoners

Q13

It refers to the requirements for admission in

any of BUCOR facilities.

  • a. Carpeta

  • b. Commitment order

  • c. Mittimus

  • d. Per capita

Q14

It

is

a

unit

where a

prisoner is

examined to

determine individualized treatment program.

  • a. Admission Unit

  • b. Assignment Unit

  • c. Classification Unit

  • d. Reception and Diagnostic Center

Q15

Habitual delinquents and escapees are housed

in

  • a. Minimum security

  • b. Medium security

  • c. Maximum security

  • d. Super maximum security

Q16

A newly arrived inmate committed for the first

time is classified in the BUCOR as

  • a. 1st Class Inmate

  • b. 2nd Class Inmate

  • c. 3rd Class Inmate

  • d. Colonist

Q17

The law that governs correctional system in the

Philippines, otherwise known as Prison Law.

  • a. Civil Code of the Philippines

  • b. National Internal Revenue Code

  • c. Revised

Administrative

Philippines

Code

of

the

  • d. Revised Penal Code of the Philippines

Q18

Following are the occasions inmates may be allowed to go out, EXCEPT a.Medical examination b.Treatment or hospitalization c. View remains of a deceased relative d.Therapeutical leave

Q19

In general, a detainee is not required to work

except if necessary for cleanliness and orderliness.

Full credit of period of preventive detention is given if detainee agreed in writing to abide with the same regimen with sentenced prisoners. If detainee does

not agree, he will be entitled to

  • a. 1/5 of detention period

  • b. 3/4 of detention period

  • c. 4/5 of detention period

  • d. 5/8 of detention period

Q20

Crime is no longer defined as an attack on the

state and a violation of law but rather an offense

by one person against another and a violation of relationships.

  • a. Punitive Justice

  • b. Rehabilitative Justice

  • c. Restorative Justice

  • d. Retributive Justice

Explanations

Rights of Inmates

To

receive

performed

compensation

for

labor

he

To be deducted GCTA from sentence as long as there are no infractions warranting non- deduction under the law

To send and receive correspondence To practice his faith or religion

Explanations

Rights of Inmates

To receive authorized visitors on designated time and place

To

air

grievances

channels

through

the

proper

To receive death benefits and pecuniary aid for injuries

Explanations

Detainee

not

required

to

work

only

necessary for cleanliness & orderliness

Full credit of period of preventive detention if detainee agreed in writing to abide same regimen

with sentenced prisoners;

recidivist

not

allowed to

4/5 agree

of

detention period

if detainee does not

Explanations

Female inmates assigned to jobs suitable to their physical condition & age

Inmates over 60 yrs old excused from mandatory prison labor

Maximum

security

inmates

not

allowed

to

work

outside maximum-security compound

 

Compensation may be received 6 mos after being

permanently assigned to work

Explanations

All/part

of

compensation

may

be

paid

for

supplies & equipment lost or damaged due to

his fault Compensation how given ½ to buy his needs

½ paid only upon release

NEXT Q

Explanations

Inmates Allowed to Go Out upon Approval of Sec of DOJ on the ff occasions:

Medical examination Treatment or hospitalization

Explanations

View

remains

of

a

deceased

relative

(for

minimum or medium security prisoners only):

Wife or husband Child Brother/sister Parents Grandchild Grandparent

Explanations

NOTE:

privilege allowed if radius by road;

remains is

w/in 30-km

viewing is no more than 3 hrs; and

may be granted

even for more than 30-km

provided inmate can return during daylight

hours of same day

Explanations

Transfer of Inmate to Prison &

Penal Farm

upon recommendation of Classification Board,

Director of Corrections may transfer inmate if:

Physically & psychologically fit Assignment is therapeutically beneficial

NEXT Q

Explanations

Law Governing Correctional System Sections 1705 1751 of Revised Administrative Code of the Philippines

Mode of Treatment of Prisoners Section

1725

» Humane » Youthful offenders separated from adult convicts » Female inmates separated from male

NEXT Q

Explanations

Classification of Inmates in BUCOR Detainee have other pending cases 3rd Class Inmate previously committed for 3 times or more demoted from higher class

Explanations

2nd Class Inmate newly arrived inmate committed for 1st time demoted from higher class promoted from lower class 1st class Inmate

Earned thru his character & credit for work while still in detention

Promoted from lower class

Explanations

Colonist 1st Class Inmate for at least 1 yr Served w/ good conduct, at least 1/5th his maximum sentence

Has served 7 yrs in case of life sentence

Privilege

of

colonist:

Act

No.

2489,

Industrial Good Time law

NEXT Q

Explanations

Classification: Determine (1) security status, & (2) privilege entitlement

Classification Board:

Chairman Penal Superintendent V-Chairman Chief, RDC Member Medical Officer Member Chief, Education Section Member Agro-Industries Section Member Chief Overseer

Explanations

Maximum security inmates death, 20 yrs minimum sentence

Remand inmates or detainees w/ 2o yrs minimum sentence

Sentence under review by SC, Sentence under appeal, With pending cases, Recidivists,

Explanations

Maximum security inmates Habitual delinquents & escapees,

Under disciplinary safekeeping,

punishment

or

Criminally insane or with severe personality or emotional disorders dangerous to others

Inmates still confined at RDC

Explanations

Medium security inmates Less than 20 yrs

Remand inmates below 20 yrs

18

yrs

old

&

sentence,

below

regardless

of

case or

2 or more escape records but have served 8 yrs since recommitment,

Life imprisonment who have served at least 5 yrs upon recommendation of Superintendent

Explanations

Minimum security inmates

With severe physical handicap

65

yrs

old

&

above &

not

on

appeal or w/out

pending case Who have served at least ½ of minimum sentence

Who

have

served

1/3

of

maximum

sentence

 

EXCELUDING

good

conduct

&

time

allowance

(GCTA)

 

W/

only

6

mos

to

serve

before

expiration

of

maximum sentence

NEXT Q

Explanations

RDC for admission of new prisoners. Prisoners will be Studied Classified Purpose of RDC:

For individualized treatment program

Explanations

Death sentence prisoners not admitted in

RDC; directly placed on death row, awaiting

automatic review of their cases

Female

inmates

(more

than

3

yrs)

Correctional Institute for Women in Mandaluyong City & undergo classification at RDC there.

Explanations

Upon Admission: inmate with pending case,

quarantined for a minimum of 5 days

the ff:

for

Physical & mental examination; sick brought to NBP hospital.

Orientation on prison rules Private interview

Explanations

Within 2 mos: tests for individualized treatment:

  • 1. Psychiatric

5.

Educational

  • 2. Psychological

  • 6. Religious

  • 3. Sociological

  • 7. IQ test

  • 4. Vocational

  • 8. Other test

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Explanations

Mittimus and Commitment Order

Per capita literally means per head.

This

is

being applied to the budget per prisoner per day which is P30.00.

Explanations

Contents of Carpeta:

Pre-Parole Questionnaire/Pre-Executive Investigation Report Prison Record

Report/Pre-Parole

Clemency

Mittimus/Commitment Order of Court warrant issued by a court bearing its seal &

signature of judge, directing jail or prison

authorities to receive inmates for custody or service of sentence imposed therein.

Explanations

Contents of Carpeta:

Fiscal’s Information & Court decision Certification of detention, if any

Certification that case is not on appeal, or if appealed (decision of appellate court)

Certification prisoner,

from

reason(s)

warden

for

confinement

if

national

his

continued

Explanations

Contents of Carpeta:

Detainee’s manifestation (R.A. 6127)

Estafa, swindling & illegal recruitment case:

certification of no pending case

NEXT Q

Explanations

Classification of Prisoners

National Prisoners Provincial Prisoners Municipal Prisoners City Prisoners

Explanations

3

agencies

of

DOJ

exercising

supervision

&

control

of

institution

&

community

based

corrections:

 

Bureau

of

Corrections

(BUCOR):

rehab

of

national prisoner Board of Pardons & Parole

Parole & Probation Administration

Explanations

Other agencies:

DILG & Provincial Local Government Unit municipal, city & provincial prisoners

DILG: District, City & Municipal Jails nationwide Provincial Local Government Units: Provincial Jails

DSWD youth offenders

Operates Regional Rehabilitation Centers, located in 10 sites nationwide

NEXT Q

Explanations

Changes in Prison Terminologies:

Convicts: changed to inmates

Inmates: there are moves to change it to interns, as if they are now the same as medical students doing practical training in hospitals;

Bureau of Prisons: changed to Bureau of Corrections

Confinement

quarters:

named

dormitories,

like

college students boarding and lodging at the facility;

Imprisonment: now called

confinement, like being

confined in a hospital for treatment of an illness; &

Prison: now called penal facility or simply facility.

NEXT Q

Explanations

7 Penal Colonies of the Philippines:

  • 1. San Ramon Prison and Penal Farm

  • 2. Iwahig Penal Farm

  • 3. Correctional Institution for Women

  • 4. New Bilibid Prison

  • 5. Davao Penal Colony

  • 6. Sablayan Penal Colony & Farm

  • 7. Leyte Regional Prison

Explanations

Other prison or related institution:

Old Bilibid Prison Reception & Diagnostic Center Manila Office

Provincial Jail System

NEXT Q

Explanations

 

Prison Reformers

Name

 

Contribution

William Penn

first leader to prescribe imprisonment as correctional treatment for major offenders responsible for the abolition of death penalty and torture as a form of punishment

Charles

French historian and philosopher who analyzed law as an

Montesquieu

expression of justice

Voltaire

believes that fear of shame was a deterrent to crime

Cesare Beccaria

presented the humanistic goal of law

Explanations

 

Prison Reformers

Name

 

Contribution

Jeremy Bentham

greatest leader in reform of English Criminal Law believes that whatever punishment designed to negate whatever pleasure or gain criminal derives from crime, crime

rate would go down Devised panoptical prison

John Howard

Sheriff of Bedfordshire, England; recommended:

maintenance of facilities for children & women

provision of sanitation facilities

adequate salaries for jailers

Manuel

Director of prison in Valencia, Spain in 1935

Montesion

Divided prisons into companies

Appointed prisoners as petty officers in charge

Explanations

 

Prison Reformers

Name

 

Contribution

Llemetz of

established agricultural colony for delinquent boys in 1839

France

appointed house fathers as in charge of delinquent boys

Alexander

former superintendent of British penal colony at Norfolk Island

Maconochie

governor of Birmingham Borough Prison

  • substitute for corporal punishment

introduced Mark System

  • prisoner: required to earn a number of marks by good

behavior, labor & study

  • enable prisoner to earn ticket of leave or conditional

release, similar to parole

Sir Walter

director of Irish Prison in 1854

Crofton

introduced Irish System a.k.a. progressive stage system

father of parole in various European countries

Explanations

 

Prison Reformers

Name

 

Contribution

Zebulon R.

"Father of prison reform" in the United States

Brockway

first superintendent of Elmira Reformatory Institution introduced a program of education, training in useful trades, physical activity, indeterminate sentences, inmate classification, and an incentive program believed that primary reason to have a prisoner in custody was to rehabilitate and not simply just to punish first introduced “good time” system: reduction of sentences thru good marks earned thru good behavior

Sir Evelyn

director of English Prison

Ruggles Brise

opened Borstal Institute after visiting Elmira Reformatory in

 

1897

James V. Bennett

director of Federal Bureau of Prisons

wrote about closing of Alcatraz Prison

Explanations

 

Prison Reformers

Name

 

Contribution

Fred T. Wilkinson

last warden of Alcatraz Prison

Jean Jacques Villain

pioneered classification to separate women or children from hardened criminals

   

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Explanations

 

Early Prison Systems

Prison

 

Description

Bridewell Institution

first house of correction established in 1556 in Bridewell, England; a workhouse for vagabonds, idlers, and rogues vagrants and prostitutes were given work while serving their sentences forerunner of prison industry program superseded by banishment

Sing Sing Prisons

floggings, denial of reading materials and solitary

volume of water on the head of a locked naked offender

confinement shower bath was a gadget so constructed as to drop a

force of icy cold water hitting head of offender caused so

much pain and extreme shock that prisoners immediately sank into coma due to shock and hypothermia or sudden drop in body temperature

Explanations

 

Early Prison Systems

Prison

Description

St. Michael Prisons

first established in the year 1704 at the Hospital of St. Michael during the reign of Pope Clement

XI

divided into cells

prototype of reformatories for juvenile offenders concepts:

  • - Rehabilitative concept

  • - Segregation of prisoners

  • - Forced silence for contemplation of prisoners

  • - Many practices were adopted in Auburn system

Explanations

 

Early Prison Systems

Prison

 

Description

Borstal Prison

Now known as HM Prison Rochester

Male Young Offenders Institution, located in the Borstal

reformatory type set up in 1902

area of Rochester in Kent, England Founded in 1870

Was then an experimental juvenile prison of the

First detention center of its kind in the UK

Word "Borstal" became synonymous with other detention centers for youths across the country, and elsewhere

Alcatraz Prison

Located at Alcatraz Island (the Rock) in San Francisco Bay A military fortification, a military prison, and a Federal Bureau of Prisons federal prison until 1963 Considered a National Historic Landmark in 1986

Explanations

 

Early Prison Systems

Prison

 

Description

Panopticon

type of building designed by Jeremy Bentham in the late 18th century purpose: allow an observer to observe (-opticon) all (pan-) inmates of an institution without them being able to tell whether or not they are being watched.

Elmira Reformatory

opened in 1876

first penal institution with philosophy on reformation and treatment educational and vocational program: to treat lack of skill to survive; forerunner of modern penology

parole started in U.S. in 1876 at Elmira Reformatory

Panopticon
Panopticon

Explanations

 

Early Prison Systems

Prison

Description

Walnut Street Jail

first American penitentiary located in Philadelphia solitary confinement caters education, athletics, military, vocational & religious trainings for developing good citizens

Newgate Prison

not a real prison but abandoned copper mine of Simsbury, Connecticut inmates: confined underground (black hole of horrors) superseded by Wethersfield Connecticut in 1827

Explanations

 

Early Prison Systems

Prison

 

Description

Auburn System

located at Auburn, State of New York

a.k.a. “congregate system”

 

solitary confinement

tiny cells for individual prisoners

absolute silence

prisoners allowed to work during daytime

Pennsylvania System

rival of Auburn system

a.k.a. “solitary system”

 

Walnut Street Jail in 1790

Western Penitentiary in 1826

Eastern Penitentiary in 1830

concept of solitary confinement and rendering labor

cell: exercise area

work area for prisoner to work during the day

solitary confinement coupled with Bible reading

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Explanations

Gaol is an old term which simply means jail.

Ergastulum is a Roman prison used to confine slaves;

they were attached to workbenches and forced to do hard labor in period of imprisonment. Underground cistern is a reservoir for storing liquids; especially an underground tank for storing rainwater. This was also used as prison in ancient times.

Mamertine

Prison

is

an

early

Roman

place

of

confinement which is built under the main sewer of

Rome in 64 B.C.

NEXT Q

Explanations

  • 1. Code of Hammurabi (1760 B.C.) oldest code prescribing savage punishment. Its core principle: Lex Taliones a.k.a. “an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.

  • 2. Justinian Code written by Emperor Justinian of Rome in 6 th C.A.D.

  • 3. The Twelve Tables (XII Tabulae) represented the earliest

codification

of

Roman

law

incorporated into the Justinian Code.

Explanations

  • 4. Code of Draco a harsh code that provides the same punishment for both citizens and

the slaves

  • 5. Burgundian

Code

specified punishment

according to the social class of offenders.

  • 6. Code of Kalantiao promulgated in 1433 by Datu Kalantiao

  • 7. Maragtas Code by Datu Sumakwel

NEXT Q

Explanations

Theory

 

Description

Classical

Emphasis on crime not offender

Punishment: retributive & punitive; proportional to crime

Man has free will

Psychological hedonism

Punishment (pain) must exceed thought of committing crime (pleasure) Punishment All: regardless of age, mentality, social status & other personal circumstances

Neo

Essentially agrees with Classical School

Classical

Children & lunatics should not be punished: cannot calculate pleasure & pain

Positivist

A.k.a. Italian School Crime: social phenomenon Criminal: sick person needing treatment not punishment Proponents of parole, probation, juvenile court, experiments with youthful offenders, & other measures

Explanations

Eclectic means selecting what seems best of various styles or ideas.

This is true in our RPC:

Classical:

Imposition

of

capital

punishment

or

greater penalty on heinous crimes

Neo-classical: Exempting circumstances

Positivist: Compassionate on economic & social crime

NEXT Q

Explanations

Period

13

th

Century

16

th

Century

17 th

18

th

Century

Practice

Description

Securing Sanctuary

Criminal seeks refuge punishment

in

church

to

avoid

After 40 days, he is compelled to leave by a road

or path assigned to him

Transportation

Death Penalty

Practiced in England Russia and other European countries followed at the end of 16 th century Partially relieved overcrowding of prisons Abandoned in 1826 Became prevalent as a form of punishment

Explanations

GOLDEN AGE OF PENOLOGY: 1870 1880

National

Prisons

Association

was

organized

in

Cincinnati in 1870 First International Congress in 1872 at London

International Penal & Penitentiary Commission was

established

in

headquarters

1875; Hague, Netherlands: first

Elmira Reformatory was established in NY in 1876

Separate

institution

Massachussetts

for

women

in

Indiana

&

NEXT Q

Explanations

CORRECTIONS

& PENOLOGY are somewhat

related in that both are concerned with the REHABILITATION of prisoners but PENOLOGY is the branch of criminology.

CORRECTIONS is the more preferred term in the modern era as it implies more of rehab than PENOLOGY which infers punishment.

Explanations

The term PENOLOGY came from:

PENO

Greek

word

PIONO

and

Latin

word “POENA” which means PUNISHMENT.

LOGY

came from Latin word LOGOS

means science.

Explanations

PUNISHMENT is something someone is made

to do to compensate for a wrongdoing,

especially for crime.

Synonymous to penalty suffering inflicted by state for transgressing of law.

Theories justifying penalties:

  • 1. Prevention

  • 5. Justice

  • 2. Self-defense

  • 6. Retribution

  • 3. Reformation

  • 7. Expiation/Atonement

  • 4. Exemplarity

  • 8. Deterrence

Explanations

Early forms of punishment:

  • 1. Death

  • 6. Fines

  • 2. Physical torture

  • 7. Forfeiture of property

  • 3. Mutilation

  • 8. Banishment

  • 4. Branding

  • 9. Transportation

  • 5. Public humiliation

10. Imprisonment

Explanations

Forms of Death:

1. Crucifixion

  • 6. Stoning

  • 2. Beheading

  • 7. Drowning

  • 3. Hanging

  • 8. Burning at stake

  • 4. Impaling

  • 9. Guillotine

  • 5. Strangling

10. Poisoning

Explanations

Forms of Physical Torture:

Flogging Dismemberment Rack

Starvation

Explanations

Forms of Public Humiliation:

Stocks

Pillory Ducking stool Furca

Explanations

Forms of Imprisonment:

Confinement in dungeons Galleys Hulks

Jails Houses of corrections Workhouses & penitentiaries

Explanations

Trends of Punishments:

1. Developments of exemptions 7. Fines suspended sentence 2. Pardon & commutations 8. Probation 3. Decline
1.
Developments of exemptions
7. Fines suspended sentence
2.
Pardon & commutations
8. Probation
3.
Decline
of
severity
of
9. Conditional pardon or
punishment
4.
Growth
of
modifications
of
release
10. Short sentences
imprisonment
5.
GCTA
11. Fines
6.
Indeterminate sentence

Explanations

Contemporary Forms of Punishment:

  • 1. Imprisonment

  • 2. Parole

  • 3. Probation

  • 4. Fine

  • 5. Destierro

Explanations

3-Fold Purposes of Penalty in RPC

Retribution or Expiation Correction or Reformation Special Defense

Explanations

Rehabilitation the restoration of someone to

a useful place in society. This is a generic term

applicable to the treatment of offenders in modern times.

Related Terms

Penal Management: refers to the manner or practice of managing or controlling places of

confinement as jails or prisons.

Correctional Administration: the study and practice of a system management of jails or prisons and other institution concerned with the custody, treatment and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

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Prevention

The state must punish the criminal to prevent or suppress the danger to the state arising

from the criminal acts of the offender

Back

Self-Defense

The state has the right to punish the criminal as a measure of self-defense so as to protect

society from the threat and wrong action inflicted by the criminal.

Back

Reformation

The object of punishment in criminal case is to correct and reform the offender.

Back

Exemplarity

The

criminal

is

punished

to

serve

as

an

example to others to deter from committing

the crime.

Back

Justice

That crime must be punished by the state as

an act of retributive justice, vindication of

absolute right and moral law violated by the criminal.

Back

Retribution

Personal vengeance

Back

Expiation or Atonement

It

is

the execution of

punishment visibly or

publicly for the purpose of appeasing a social

group. Expiation is group vengeance as distinguished from retribution.

Back

Deterrence

Cesare Becarria, the exponent of the Classical

Theory

contended

that

punishment

is

to

prevent others in committing a crime.

Back

Impaling

Killing by piercing with a spear or sharp pole

Back

Burning at Stake

A form of executing death by tying the victim in a vertical post for burning

Back

Guillotine

Verb:

Kill

guillotine.

by

cutting

the

head

off

with

a

Noun: Instrument of execution that consists of a weighted blade between two vertical poles; used for beheading people.

Back

Rack

A form of torture in which pain is inflicted by

stretching the body

Back

Stocks

Instrument

of

punishment

consisting

of

a

heavy timber frame with holes in which the

feet (and sometimes the hands) of an offender could be locked.

Back

Pillory

Instrument

of

punishment

on

a

post with

holes for the wrists and neck; offenders were

locked in and so exposed to public scorn.

Back

Ducking Stool

Instrument of punishment consisting of a chair in which offenders were ducked in water.

Back

Furca

V-shaped

yolk

worn

around

the

neck and

where the outstretched arms of convict were

tied to.

Back

Dungeon

A

dark

cell

(usually

underground)

prisoners can be confined

where

Back

Galley

A

large

medieval vessel with a

single deck

propelled by sails and oars with guns at stern

and prow; a complement of 1,000 men; used mainly in the Mediterranean for war and trading

Back

Hulks

Decrepit (worn and broken down by hard use) transports, former warships used to house prisoners in the 18 th and 19 th century.

Abandoned warships converted into prisons, also called “floating hells”.

Back

Retribution/Expiation

The penalty is commensurate with the gravity of the offense.

Back

Correction/Reformation

As by the rules which regulates the execution of the penalties consisting of deprivation of

liberty.

Back

Special Defense

As shown by its inflexible severity to recidivist and habitual delinquents.

Back

EXPLANATION? or NEXT Q

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or NEXT Q

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or NEXT Q

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Hedonism

An ethical system that evaluates the pursuit of pleasure as the highest good

BACK

EXPLANATION? or NEXT Q

EXPLANATION?

or NEXT Q

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Parole

Privilege similar to parole:

Alexander Maconochie’s Mark System where prisoner can earn ticket of leave or conditional release

Advocates of parole & similar privileges

Positivist Criminologists

When & where started

In 1876 at Elmira Reformatory

Parole

Agencies in Phils taking charge of parole:

Board of Pardons & Parole

Parole • Agencies in Phils taking charge of parole: – Board of Pardons & Parole –

Parole & Probation Administration Board of Pardons & Parole

Under DOJ

Established in 1933 in compliance with Act No. 4103, Indeterminate Sentence Law

(ISLaw)

Parole

ISLAW Creation of Board of Indeterminate Sentence;

Later renamed as Board of Pardons in 1937 by Executive order No. 83, series 1937;

Board becomes adviser of President on matters of executive clemency; Renamed Board of Pardons & Parole on

October 4, 1947 by Executive order No. 94,

Reorganization Law of 1947

ISLAW

Parole

Act No. 4103 was amended by R.A. 4203 on June 19, 1965. It provided:

Qualification Term of office, Composition Compensation of members of Board

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Probation

Advocates of probation & similar privileges

Positivist Criminologists

Father of Probation:

John Augustus a Boston shoemaker; interceded with courts to suspend sentence & bail out youthful offenders

& alcoholics

Other personalities in probation:

Father Cook a Bostonian; followed the steps of Augustus Edward N. Savage the first government probation officer; former Chief of Police of Boston Teodulo C. Natividad Father of Probation in the Philippines

Probation

Year when Probation Law was first passed in Massachusetts: 1878

Agency in Phils taking charge of probation:

Parole & Probation Administration under DOJ

Probation System

Dr. Torsten Eriksson, UN Interregional Adviser on Social Defense recommended in 1971: (1)

strengthening of CJS, & (2) adoption of probation

system

Probation

Probation System

Probation for Adult offenders: P.D. 968:

Can be availed of only once For first time offenders For penalties of imprisonment not more than 6 yrs Except: rebellion, subversion, sedition & other political crimes; A privilege, not a right; Offender must apply for it before court that convicted him/her; and Depends on discretion of judge to grant

Probation

Probation System

First implemented during Commonwealth period thru Act No. 4221, Probation Act:

For 1st time offender 18 yrs old & above; Abolished after 2 yrs being unconstitutional as a class legislation; and Unconstitutional provision: operable only in cities & municipalities which are given

appropriation for said purpose by congress

Probation

Parole & Probation Administration (PPA):

Exercises general supervision of all parolees & probationers

Promotes correction & rehab of offenders outside prison institutions

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Regional Rehabilitation

Centers for Youth

National

Training

School

for

Boys

a.k.a.

Philippine Training School for Boys; located at

Sampaloc, Tanay Rizal

 

National

Training

School

for

Girls

a.k.a.

Philippine Training School for Girls; located at Marillac Hills, Alabang RRCY in Barangay Ugong, Bauang, La Union RRCY in Barangay Ayala, Magalang Pampanga

Regional Rehabilitation

Centers for Youth

RRCY in Nueva Valencia in the Island Province of Guimaras

RRCY in Barangay Candabong, Argao, Cebu RRCY in Barangay Sto. Niño, Leyte RRCY in Barangay Anastacio Polanco, Dipolog, Zamboanga del Norte RRCY in Gingoog City RRCY in Barangay Bago Oshiro, Davao City

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San Ramon Prison and Penal Farm

Established in 1869

Constructed

near

southern

tip

of Zamboanga

peninsula nearby Zamboanga City

Originally intended for confinement of convicted Moro insurrectos.

Banishment

site

for

political

from Luzon & Visayas

non-conformists

Named in memory of its founder, Ramon Blanco, a Spanish captain in the Royal Army

Land area: 1,524.6 hectares

San Ramon Prison and Penal Farm

Products: Copra, one of the biggest sources of

income of the Bureau of Prisons, rice, corn,

coffee, cattle, & livestock Houses: maximum, medium & minimum security prisoners Accepts convicts who were directly committed by

courts in the area but are later sent to the

Reception and Diagnostic Center in the Central

Office in Camp Sampaguita in Muntinlupa City for study and diagnosis.

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Iwahig Penal Farm

Established in 1904 in Iwahig, Palawan on orders of governor Forbes, then Secretary of Commerce

& Police;

Establishment was suggested by Governor Luke E. Wright designed for incorrigible offenders;

From incorrigible offenders to well-behaved & pliable convicts to convert 38,611 hectares of

lands into production areas for: (1) revenue, & (2)

rehabilitation of prisoners;

Iwahig Penal Farm

One of the most open penal institutions

in

the

world;

Prison without Walls;

 

Divided

into

4

sub-colonies

where

each

is

autonomous under a penal supervisor: Sta Lucia, Inagawan, Montible, & Central

Tagumpay Settlement 1,000-hectare land given to released prisoners. Each released prisoner is given 6-hectare farm lots as homestead;

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Correctional Institution for Women

Established

under

Republic

November 27, 1929;

Act

3579

on

18-hectare land in Mandaluyong City;

Run

by

guard;

female personnel except perimeter

Houses special accommodations for pregnant inmates; and

Infant may be allowed to stay with mother for not more than 1 yr

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New Bilibid Prison

Established in 1941 in Muntinlupa City at the boundary of Laguna province;

Proclamation No. 414

in

1931, an

enabling

order to Commonwealth Act No. 3732; also

the official basis for Davao Penal Colony Designed to confine only 3,000 prisoners; 552 hectares;

Supposed to be site for city of Manila’s Boys Training School;

New Bilibid Prison

Actual transfer was in 1941;

Main NBP compound houses: (1) maximum security prisoners, including death convicts death convicts; (2) central officers of Bureau of corrections;

One

of

the

biggest prisons in

the world in

terms of prison population; Became the National Penitentiary;

New Bilibid Prison

Facility

for

workers:

hardwood

shop

of

Prison

Industries Office

pinpointed as source of deadly

weapons used by rioting prisoners;

 

3 Satellite Prisons (outside the compound & within reservation)

Camp Bukang Liwayway minimum security camp; name implying coming release of prisoners

Camp Sampaguita medium security prisoners and Youth Rehabilitation Center

Reception

&

Diagnostic

Center

receives

newly

committed prisoners from jails nationwide except those committed by courts within Zamboanga provinces: Basilan, Sulu & Tawi-Tawi

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Davao Penal Colony

Established

in

January

21,

1932

by

virtue

of

Republic Act No. 3732 & Proclamation No. 414, series of 1931, same authority creating NBP; Gen Paulino Santos (ret.), Prisons Director at that time, led first contingent of prisoners in colony; 18,000 hectares; World War II: used by Japanese for POW;

Destroyed by Japanese;

Davao Penal Colony

Reestablished in 1946;

Houses:

(1)

prisoners;

medium

&

(2)

minimum

security

Prisoners work in open fields by colony custodial force;

The

largest

Prisons;

source

of

revenue

for

Bureau

of

Products: abaca, banana, rice, kenaf, copra, cattle & other farm products;

Biggest abaca plantation in the country;

Davao Penal Colony

Major banana producer with venture agreement with Tagum Development

Company in a 3,000-hectare banana plantation;

Sub-colonies:

Panabo Sub-Colony under penal supervisor Kapalong Sub-Colony under penal supervisor

Tanglaw Settlement for homesteaders.

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Sablayan Penal Colony & Farm

Established

by

Proclamation

No.

72

on

September 27, 1954; Sablayan, Occidental Mindoro; 16,408.5 hectares;

Purpose

of

establishment:

to

population of prisoners;

meet

increasing

First prisoners were from Iwahig Penal Colony; and

Main product: rice for inmate of colony and for

NBP

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Leyte Regional Prison

Located in Abuyog, Leyte

Established

in

January

16,

1973

on

orders

issued under Martial Law by President Ferdinand E. Marcos

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Old Bilibid Prison

First penal institution in the Philippines. Constructed sometime 1847 in Bilibid district of City of Manila.

Located at back of what is today, Central Market along Quezon Boulevard.

Designated as an insular penitentiary by Royal Decree in 1865.

Old Bilibid Prison

Cells:

Radial

shape

like

spokes

of

wheel,

Commanding

tower

at

center

of

spokes,

&

Brigadas Brigadas:

bldgs

made

of

very

strong

adobe

stones; term is still being used today; withstood even bombings by Americans and Japanese; &

being used as jail by City of Manila: Manila City Jail

Transferred to Muntinlupa City to be known as

New Bilibid Prison; reasons for transfer: (1)

commercial developments of the area, & (2) increase in prison population

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Reception & Diagnostic Center

Established in 1953 by virtue of Administrative Order No. 11 by Secretary of Justice; &

Purpose: to enable BuCor conduct effective rehab of prisoners thru scientific & diagnoses of each prisoner

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Manila Office

Originally

as

a

holding

facility for prisoners

working as orderlies in different offices of DOJ

at Padre Faura, Manila;

Converted

to

regular

penal

institution

following riots in NBP in 1958; &

Relocated site of hardwood shop

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Provincial Jail System

Established in 1910 under American regime; &

Every

province

is

mandated

to

establish

provincial jails under its own supervision & control

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Board of Pardons & Parole

Recommends the President who are qualified for:

Parole Pardon Other forms of executive clemency

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Parole & Probation Administration

Exercises general supervision of all parolees & probationers

Promotes

correction

&

rehab of offenders

outside prison institutions

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National Prisoners

One whose maximum sentence is more than 3 yrs or a fine of more than 5,000 pesos,

One sentence for violation of custom law or other laws under Bureau of Customs,

One violating immigration & election laws

One sentenced to serve 2 or more sentences total exceeding 3 yrs

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Provincial Prisoners

6 mos & 1 day up to 3 yrs & sent to serve in

provincial jails.

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Municipal Prisoners

up to 6 mos & sent to municipal jail where

offender is convicted.

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City Prisoners

convicted in city courts & sentenced to maximum of

3 yrs & sent to serve in city jails; and

combination of municipal & provincial jails

NOTE: There is no mistaking with other prisoners

because this prisoner is CONVICTED BY CITY COURT.

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Good Conduct Time Allowance

A prisoner has

the

right

to deducted GCTA

from sentence

as

long

as

there

are

no

infractions

warranting

non-deduction

under

the law Granted by Director of Corrections Granted under Art. 97, RPC

Good Conduct Time Allowance

GCTA also available to detainee who agreed to abide with regimen similar to sentenced

prisoners

GCTA not available to inmate whose sentence is life imprisonment and on appeal

Good Conduct Time Allowance

1st

2

yrs

5

days

for each month

of

good

behavior

 

3rd