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2002

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32.973.2-04420
681.327.8(03)
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93 . . .: , 2002. 528 .: .
ISBN 5-94723-180-8
, . ,
, ,
, , , , , .
, , ,
, .
, ,
.

, 2002
.
.
, , , . ,
,
, .
ISBN 5-94723-180-8

. 196105, -, . , . 67.
05784 07.09.01. 005-93, 2; 953005 - .
05.07.02. 70x100/16. . . . 41,28. 5000 . 714.
. . .
, .
197110, -, ., 15.


.11
............................................................................................................................13
1. LPT-.............................................................17
2. -...................................................48
3. ................................................................................78
4. USB FireWire........................................................87
5. SCSI ...................................................................................................... 114
6. ............................................................................ 145
7. .................................................................. 235
8. .... 310
9. ................................................................... 352
10. ............................................................... 405
11. ....................... 420
12. IBM PC- .. 454
13. , .. 505
..................................................................................................................... 516
.................................................................................................. 517

11.1. LPT-
1.2.
1.3. IEEE 1284
1.3.1. 1.3.1. Nibble Mode
1.3.2. 1.3.2. Byte Mode
1.3.3. 1.3.3. EPP
1.3.4. 1.3.4.
1.3.5. 1.3.5. -
1.3.6. IEEE 12841.3.7.
1.3.8. IEEE 1284
1.4. 1.4.
LPT-
1.5. 1.5.
PnP
1.6. 1.6. LPT-
1.7. 1.7. LPT-
1.8. 1.8.
2
2.1. 2.1. RS-232C
2.2. 2.2.
2.3. 2.3.
2.4. 2.4.
2.5. 2.5.
2.6. 2.6.
-
2.7. 1.7. LPT-
2.8. 2.8. -
2.9. 2.9. - n
2.10. -
2.10.1. 2.10.1.
2.10.2. 2.10.2.
2.10.3. 2.10.3. ,

3
3.1. 3.1. IrDA
3.2. 3.2. Bluetooth


4
4.1. USB
4.1.1. 4.1.1. USB
4.1.2. 4.1.2.
4.1.3. 4.1.3.
4.1.4. 4.1.4.
4.1.5. 4.1.5.
4.1.6. 4.1.6.
4.1.7. 4.1.7. USB .......................................................................101
4.1.8. 4.1.8. USB
4.2. IEEE 1394 - FireWire
4.2.1. 4.2.1.
4.2.2. 4.2.2. IEEE 1394
4.2.3. 4.2.3. 1394
4.2.4. 4.2.4. 1394
5
1.2. 5.1. SCSI
5.1.1. 5.1.1. , ,
5.1.2. 5.1.2.
5.1.3. 5.1.3.
5.1.4. 5.1.4.
5.1.5. 5.1.5.
5.2. 5.2. Fibre Channel
5.3. 5.3. - SCSI
5.4. 5.4.
6
6.1. ISA, EISA PC/104
6.1.1. 6.1.1.
6.1.2. 6.1.2. DMA
6.1.3. 6.1.3.

6.1.4. 6.1.4.

6.1.5. 6.1.5.
6.1.6. 6.1.6. /104
6.1.7. 6.1.7. ISA EISA
6.1.8. 6.1.8. Plug and Play ISA
6.2. PCI
6.2.1. 6.2.1. PCI
6.2.2. 6.2.2. PCI
6.2.3. 6.2.3. , -2
6.2.4. 6.2.4. ,
6.2.5. 6.2.5.
6.2.6. 6.2.6.
6.2.7. 6.2.7. , ISA DMA (PC/PCI)
6.2.8. 6.2.8. , PCI
6.2.9. 6.2.9. PCI
6.2.10. PCI

8_____________________________________________________________
6.2.11.

6.2.12. 6.2.12.
6.2.13. 6.2.13. PCI
6.2.14. 6.2.14. PCI BIOS
6.2.15. 6.2.15. PCI
6.3. 6.3. AGP
6.4. 6.4. LPC
6.5. 6.5.
6.5.1. PCMCIA, PC Card CardBus
7
7.1.
7.1.1. 7.1.1. FPM, EDO BEDO DRAM
7.1.2. 7.1.2. SDRAM DDR SDRAM
7.1.3. 7.1.3. Rambus DRAM
7.1.4. 7.1.4. VC DRAM
7.1.5. 7.1.5.
7.2. 7.2.
7.3. 7.3.
7.3.1. 7.3.1. ROM, PROM, EPROM
7.3.2. 7.3.2. EEPROM -
7.3.3. 7.3.3.
8
8.1.
8.1.1. 8.1.1. AT PS/2
8.1.2. 8.1.2. 8042/8242
8.1.3. 8.1.3.
8.2.
8.2.1. 8.2.1. MS Mouse PC Mouse
8.2.2. 8.2.2. PS/2
8.2.3. 8.2.3. Bus Mouse
8.3.
8.3.1. 8.3.1. Centronics, IEEE 1284, PNP
8.3.2. 8.3.2.
8.3.3. 8.3.3.
8.4.
8.4.1. 8.4.1. RGB TTL
8.4.2. 8.4.2. RGB
8.4.4. 8.4.4. P&D, DVI DFP
8.4.5. 8.4.5.
8.4.6. 8.4.6.
8.5.
8.5.1. 8.5.1.
8.5.2. 8.5.2.
8.5.3. 8.5.3. MIDI
8.5.4. 8.5.4.
8.6. Game-

_____________________________________________________________ 9
9
9.1.
9.1.1. 9.1.1.
9.1.2. 9.1.2.
9.2. /ATAPI (IDE)
9.2.1. 9.2.1.
9.2.2. 9.2.2. Serial
9.3.
9.3.1. 9.3.1. CompactFlash
9.3.2. 9.3.2. SmartMedia Card
9.3.3. 9.3.3. MultiMediaCard Sequre Digital
9.3.4. 9.3.4. Miniature Card
9.4.
10
10.1.10.1. Ethernet
10.2.10.2.
10.3.10.3.
11
11.1.1. I2C
11.1.1. 11.1.1. I2C
11.1.2. 11.1.2. ACCESS.Bus
11.1.3. 11.1.3. SMBus
11.1.4. 11.1.4. I2C, ACCESS.bus SMBus
11.2. 11.2. SMI
11.3. 11.3. SPI
11.4. 11.4. JTAG
11.5. 11.5. -
12
12.1. 12.1.
12.2. 12.2. -
12.3. 12.3.
12.3.1.
12.4. DMA
12.4.1. 8237
12.5. 86
12.5.1. 12.5.1.

12.5.2. 12.5.2.
12.5.3. 12.5.3. -
12.5.4. 12.5.4.
12.6. 12.6.
12.7. 12.7.
12.8. BIOS
12.8.1. Int 09h, Int16 h

10 ____________________________________________________________
12.8.2. 12.8.2............................................................................................................... int
10h
12.8.3. 12.8.3............................................................................................................... Int
13h
12.8.4. 12.8.4. Int 14h -
12.8.5. 12.8.5. Int17 h
12.8.6. 12.8.6. Int 1Ah Int 15h
12.8.7. 12.8.7. PCI BIOS
12.9. ROM BIOS
12.9.1. 12.9.1. ROM BIOS ISA PnP
12.9.2. 12.9.2. Expansion ROM PCI
13
13.1. 13.1.
13.2. 13.2.
13.3. 13.3. PC


. ,
IBM PC (1998 .),
- (,
, , ).
,
, ,
.
. ,

,
,
.

.
, ,
LPT
USB, Fire Wire, SCSI IrDA
Bluetooth.
PCI ISA,
( ISA ,
/104).
,

,
(, EEPROM),
.
,
, ( , ), , , .
, ( Serial ATA),
( ). Ethernet,
.
,
.

PC, SPI, JTAG.
,
()

IBM
PC-

( , -,

12 _______________________________________________

), , 86. BIOS,
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. (, ), , *
. , CSO#, #
(
). , ,
INSW ( ), DR ( ), ( ).

.
,
, . ,
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,
http://www.neva.ru/ mgook,
.
,
RUSNet (http://www.neva.ru),
.

. ,
,
.
mgook@stu.neva.ru ()
comp@piter.com ( ,
).
www.piter.com.



(interface) , ;
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( )
() ,
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.
( )
. PC
Centronics, LPT-, ATA,
SCSI .
, (, )
. (, RS-232C,
-, Fire Wire, SPI, JTAG),
(USB, 12).
.
. , , - ,
, LPT-. . ^
, , .
,
.
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. , ,
. , , , ( ),
.

14 ______________________________________________________________


90- DDR (Dual Data Rate).
(). ( ) ,
.
, , ,
.
( UltraDMA)
SCSI (UltralSO ), (DDR SDRAM),
(Pentium 4).
, ,
, . SCSI
( ,
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, PCI. ISA ,
, UltraDMA
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,
USB Fire Wire
. RS-232C
Centronics PC
( PC PC).
-

_________________________________

15

(Security devices), LPT-, .


, ,
.
(, Paraport)
(Iomega Zip), LPT-.
(IEEE 1284.3)
(Daisy Chain) ,
.
-,
,

Ethernet. USB Fire Wire
, ,
().
USB Fire Wire.
, , , .
, - LPT- PC,
(
).
,
, .
, ,
,
.
-; RS-232C
2 .
,
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, (. 13).

MIDI, , S/PDIF, Fire Wire,
Ethernet.
/ (Hot Swap), . -,

,
, , . -,
,
.
, ,
, SCSI
, .
USB Fire Wire
.

. , -

16 ______________________________________________________________________

, SCSI.
,
.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

,
.
, 3,3 .
( ).

PnP (Plug and Play


),
.
(PCI, USB, Fire Wire, Bluetooth),
.
- (, ISA, SCSI) PnP
,
(Plug and Pray ).
PnP (legacy) . ISA PnP
, SCSI .
. ,
, .
, (hardware)
,
(software),
(firmware), , ,
.
, (USB, RS-232,
PC ).
-.
,
.



.
( ).

( ) .
.

.

LPT-
PC
LPT- (Line PrinTer
). , , LPT- ( SPPnopm) ,
. LPT-
, , ,
,
.
, IEEE 1284.
8- , 5-
4- , - DB-25S. LPT- , - -.
. -
,
.
,
,
.
LPT- , -.
, 3BCh,
378h 278h.
, IRQ7 IRQ5.
DMA.
BIOS
POST Int 17h (. . 8.3.3)
( , ),
, .
( PCI- 486) LPT-. ISA
LPT-, -,

1. LPT-nopr

18

(FDC+IDE). LPT-
MDA ( ) HGC (
). PCI LPT-.
LPT- , , ,
, , .
,
(LapLink).

1.1. LPT-
, , LPT-
(Standard Parallel Port, SPP), SPP-,
,
Centronics (. . 8.3.1).
(. 1.1) Centronics.

1
DB-25S
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18-25
1

.1. LPT-


1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
2
4
6
8
10,12,14,16,18,
20, 22, 24, 26

I/O1
0/I
0(1)
0(1)
0(1)
0(1)
0(1)
0(0
0(0
0(0
I3
I
I
I
0/I
I
0/I
0/I
_

2
CR.OX
DR.O
DR.1
DR.2
DR.3
DR.4
DR.5
DR.6
DR.7
SR.6
SR.A
SR.5
SR.4
CR.1\
SR.3
CR.2
CR.3\
_

Strobe
DataO
Datal
Data 2
Data 3
Data 4
Data 5
Data 6
Data 7
Ack#
Busy
PaperEnd(PE)
Select
Auto LF# (AutoFeedW)
Error
lnit#
Select ln#
_

I/O (-) . O/I ,


; 6(1) ,
(. ).
2
\ (1
).
3
Ack# (10 ) +5 .

1.1. LPT- _____________________________________________ 19

SPP- 8- ,
-, BASE
(3BCh, 378h 278h).
Data Register (DR) , =5. ,
, Data[7:0]. ,
,
, ,
. Status Register (SR) ( ),
=5+1.' 5-
( SR.4-SR.7) . SR. 7
,
.
( ).
SR.7 Busy Busy (11):

.
SR. 6 Ack (Acknowledge) Ack# (10).
SR. 5 (Paper End) Paper End (12).

.
SR. 4 Select Select (13).

.
SR. 3 Error Error* (15).

.
SR.2 PIRQ Ack# ( PS/2).
, Ack# .

.
SR[1:0] .
Control Register (R) , =5+2,
. 4-
( 0-3) ;
.
. 0,1,3
.
.
CR [7:6] .
CR.5 Direction (
PS/2, . ).
. .
CR. 4 AcklNTEN (Ack Interrupt Enable)
Ack#
.

20______________________________ 1. LPT-

CR.3 Select In
Select ln# (17) ,
Centronics.
CR.2 In it
Init# (16) .
CR. 1 Auto LF
Auto LF# (14)
(LF Line Feed) (CR).
AutoFD AutoFDXT.
CR.0 Strobe
Strobe* (1) .
( IRQ7 IRQ5)
10 (Ack#)
CR. 4=1. 10
+5 . ,
. ,
BIOS .
Centronics
.
1. (1 IOWR#).
2. ( SR. 7
Busy).
- ( 1 IORD#).
3.
, . ,
(), , IOWR# IORD#.
, 4-5 -
( ,
).

. 100-150 /
, .

.
12 ( ),
, 5 . , Nibble Mode. ,
Hewlett Packard Bi-tronics, 4
, . ,
,
5 -.

1.2,

___________________________

21

LPT- . SPP- .
,
- (
- ),
.
.
,
,
. 50 .
30 .
,
1,5 ,
.
, .

. .

1.2.

, PS/2.
1 ( 1 parallel port) , PS/2.
. ,
CR. 5: 0 , 1 .
, enhanced bi-directional, .
' , CMOS Setup
PS/2 Bi-Di. ( 3 DMA parallel port)
PS/2 57,90,95.
. ,
, ,
, Centronics
.
LPT-*
Centronics , Fast Centronics.
FIFO- Parallel Port FIFO Mode. He
,
. ,
,
.
VLB. ISA,
.

22 ______________________________ 1. LPT-

1.3. IEEE 1284


IEEE 1284, 1994 , SPP, . 5
, ,
. IEEE 1284,
:
(Compatibility Mode) ()
Centronics. SPP-.
(Nibble Mode) ( 4 ),
.
,
.
(Byte Mode) ,
. ,
(Bi-Directional PS/2 1, . ).
( Mode) (

Enhanced Parallel Port).

.
.
( Mode)
RLE (Run Length
Encoding) FIFO- DMA ( Extended
Capability Port). .
( )
.
, , (PC), (
). ,
Centronics (Fast Centronics, Parallel Port FIFO Mode),
IEEE 1284,
.
LPT- SPP, ,
BIOS Setup.
SPP-.
.
:

, ;
, ;
Ptr ;
;
.

23

1.3. IEEE 1284

1.3.1. Nibble
Mode

. 5 ,
(nibble , 4
) . Ack#, ,
, 6 ,
.
. 1.2, . 1.1.
1.2. LPT-
SPP I/O

14

AutoFeed#

17

Selectln*

CR.1 HostBusy .
,
CR.3

10

Ack#

SR.6

11

Busy

II

SR.7

12

Select

SR.5

13

Error#

SR.4

15

SR.3

IEEE 1284 (
SPP )
PtrClk. ,
HostBusy
3, 7
2, 6
1, 5
0, 4

. 1.1.

:
1.
HostBusy.
2. .
3.
PtrClk.
4. HostBusy,
.

1. LPT-

24

5. PtrClk.
6. 1-5 .
,
50 / . ,
. ,
(, ).
, CD-ROM

.

1.3.2.
Byte Mode
,
CR.
5=1. , -
.
. 1.3, . 1.2.
1.3. LPT- -
SPP I/O

1 Strobe* HostClk
14 AutoFeed* HostBusy

17 Selectln* 1284Active

16
10

lnit#

lnit# PtrClk

Ack#

11
12

Busy
PE

PtrBusy
AckDataReq1

13

Select

Xflag1

15

Error*

DataAvail*1

2-9 Data [0:7] Data [0:7]

CR.O\ ( )

CR.1\

.
;

CR.3\


IEEE 1284 ( SPP )

CR.2

SR.6



Data [0:7].
HostBusy

SR-

SR.5

SR.4

SR.3

I/O DR[0:7] ( )

(. ).

1:3. IEEE 1284 -

_________________________________ 25

. 1.2.

.
1.
HostBusy.
2. Data [0:7].
3.
PtrClk.
4. HostBusy,
.
5. PtrClk,
6. HostClk.
1-6 . HostBusy PtrClk;
HostClk ( ,
Ack# Centronics).
.
,
PS/2,

( BIOS Setup - Bi-Di PS/2).

1.3.3. EPP
EPP (Enhanced Parallel Port )
Intel, Xircom Zenith Data Systems
IEEE 1284.
,
Intel 386SL ( 82360)
.
, IEEE 1284,
(. ). :
;
;

1. LPT-

26
;
.

. , .
. SPP
. 1.4.
1.4. LPT- -
SPP
1
Strobe
Write*

I/O

14

AutoLF#

DataStb*

17

Selectln*

AddrStb#

16

lnit#

Reset

10

Ack#

INTR#

11

Busy

Wait#

2-9

Data [0:7]

AD[0:7]

12

PaperEnd

AckDataReq1

13

Select

Xflag'

15

Error*

DataAvaiW1

____________________________________________
0 ,

0
.

0
.

0
( )
1
1 .
(
),
I/
O
( )
/
1

(. ).

- (. 1.5),
- 5-8 .
1.5. -

R/W

SPP Data Port

+0

SPP/EPP

SPP

SPP Status Port

+1

SPP/EPP

SPP

SPP Control Port

+2

SPP/EPP

SPP

EPP Address Port

+3

EPP

R/W

EPP Data Port

+4

EPP

R/W

. ()

()

1.3.

Not Defined

IEEE 1284

+5...+7

27

R/W
N/A


16-32-
-

- , , -
. . 1.3
, ,
( ).

.
.
(IOWR*) 4 ( Data Port).
Write* ( ),
LPT-.
Wait* .
( Wait* ).
- .
.
Wait*,

. 1.3.

. 1.4.
.
<
-.
(0,5-2 /). ,
, ,
ISA

28 _________________________

1. LPT-

(interlocked handshakes)
, , .

Wait*.
. ,
IEEE 1284 (. ),
, ,
, .
-
:
.

. 1.4.

, .
- PC,
, 15 .
(5 ), (
) .
, IEEE 1284,
: DataStb* AddrStb*
WAIT*. ,
( ).
1.7 ( Xircom).
82360. , IEEE 1284 ,
1.7, 1.7
1284.
- (.
. 1.5). , , 1 2
, ( Address
Port n EPP Data Port),
.
, -
. -

1.3. IEEE 1284 _________________________________________________ 29

, CR , 1 3,
Strobe*, AutoFeed* Selecting .

. (
Protect),
.

REP INSB REP OUTSB.
16/32- .
4-7
, 8 . 16 32-

, 4. ,
.
32 4
.
2 /,
, , CD-ROM.
.
,
.
.
.
- ,
,
. ,
, , . .
,
, , .

.

1.3.4.
(Extended Capability Port
) Hewlett Packard Microsoft
. ,
.
:
;
.
: RLC (Run-Length Count).

1. LPT-

30

() , The IEEE
1284 Extended Capabilities Port Protocol and ISA Interface Standard
Microsoft. ,
IEEE 1284:
- RLE;
FIFO ;
DMA -.
RLE (Run-Length Encoding)
64:1
, .
, , .

, . , //, ,
. SPP,
, ,
.
.
SPP (. 1.6).
1.6. LPT-
SPP
HostClk
1
HostAc
Strobe#
k
1
AutoLF

17

Selectln*

1284Active

16

lnit#

ReverseRequest#

10

Ack#

PeriphClk

11

Busy

PeriphAck

12

PaperEnd

AckReverse*

13

Select

Xflag1

I/O

,
PeriphAck
()
(/)
.
PeriphClk

0
IEEE 1284 ( SPP
0 )
.

I
, HostAck

I

HostClk .
/
I
.
ReverseRequest*
I

1.3. IEEE 1284


SPP
15

Error*

2-9

Data [0:7]

PeriphRequest*

Data [0:7]

I/O
1


()
1
I/O

(. ).


, .
. 1.5, :
.
HostAck: , .
RLE.
7 (): ,
0-6 RLE (0-127),
. . 1.5, .
, . 1.5
. ,
FIFO-. FIFO- DMA, -.
. , ,
.
:
1.
( ) ( ) HostAck.
2. HostClk,

.
3. PeriphAck.
4. HostClk,
.
5. PeriphAck
.
FIFO-, , , . 4,
HostClk .
.
, 3 4.
.

32

1. LPT-nopr

. 1.5. : ,

. 1.5 .
,
.
: ReverseRequest*,
AckReverse*.
,
,
FIFO, ,
.
:
1. ,
ReverseRequest*.
2.
AckReverse*.
3.
( ) ( ) PeriphAck.
4. PeriphClk,

.
5. HostAck.

1.3. IEEE 1284 _________________________________________________ 33

6. PeriphClk;
.
7. HostAck
.

1.3.5. -
IEEE 1284
Microsoft.
, . 1.7, Mode
ECR ( [7:5]).
1.7. -

0
SPP mode, ()
1
Bi-directional mode, ( 1 PS/2)
10
11

Fast Centronics, FIFO DMA


Parallel Port mode,

100 Parallel Port mode, 1


101
110 Test mode, FIFO
111 Configuration mode,
' Microsoft,
, CMOS Setup +.

(. 1.8)
ISA,
- 10
. , , Port, Port+400h,
Port+800h... Port,
0-3FFh. PC
, 0378h 0778
.
( 400-402)
. -,
,
-. -,

000-001 - .
( ) . ECR.
, , 000
001. .
, (010-111)
-

34 ______________________________ 1. LPT-

000 001.

FIFO-.
000 (SPP) SPP-.
001 (Bi-Di PS/2) PS/2
1. 000
CR. 5.

010
(Fast
Centronics)

FIFO- DMA.
Centronics .
FIFO-,
Ack# (
).
011 , ,
, , FIFO-
ECPDFIFO ECPAFIFO . FIFO

HostAck).
FIFO-
ECPDFIFO.
. ECPDFIFO
DMA.
RLE .
PAFIFO
, 7 RLC
( RLC-127 128 ),
.. ECPDFIFO .
( ), .

FIFO- . ,
DMA
.
100 () (
CMOS Setup).
110 (Test Mode) FIFO
. TFIFO
DMA .
.
( ).

.
.
111 (Configuration mode)
.
.
, (. 1.8).

35

1.3. IEEE 1284

1.8.

000
000
001
002
400
400
400
400
401
402

DR
ECPAFIF
O
SR
CR
SDFIFO
ECPDFIF
O
TFIFO

R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
ECPCFGA R
ECPCFGB R/W
ECR
R/W

1
000-001
011

010
011
110
111
111

Data Register
Address FIFO
Status Register
Control Register
Parallel Port Data FIFO
ECP Data FIFO
Test FIFO
Configuration Register A
Configuration Register
Extended Control Register

( 7-5
ECR).

DR (000 001).
SR
( SPP).
CR , SPP.
010,011 0,1 ( AutoLF* Strobe*) .
ECPAFIFO
( RLE, ?) FIFO-.
.
SDFIFO 010. ,
( DMA), FIFO
Centronics. ( CR. 5-0).
DFIFO 011 ().
, (
DMA), FIFO .
TFIFO FIFO-
110.
ECPCFGA
( [7:4]).
ECPCFGB ,
. .
ECR .
:
ECR[7:5] - MODE - ;
ECR. 4 ERRINTREN* (Error Interrupt Disable)
Error* (
);

36 ______________________________ 1. LPT-

ECR. 3 DMAEN (DMA Enable) DMA;


ECR. 2 SERVICEINTR (Service Interrupt)
, DMA (
), / FIFO- (
DMA) ;
ECR.1 FIFOFS (FIFO Full Status) ;
FIFOFS=LB ;
ECR.0 FIFOES (FIFO Empty Status)
; FIFOFS=FIFOES=1 FIFO
( ).
(000
001),
.
.
- : ( ECR)
. FIFO-
ECR,
.
. - ( )
( DMA),
.

1.3.6. IEEE 1284


IEEE 1284
.

(negotiation sequence).
, , IEEE 1284,
, . IEEE
1284 , ,
, .

(extensi bi 1 i ty byte),
(. 1.9).
(
, ). Xflag (Select
SPP) ,
, IEEE 1284.
Extensibility Link request
.

37

1.3. IEEE 1284


1.9.

[7:0]

Request Extensibility Link

1000 0000

0100 0000
00110000

RLE

RLE

00010000

00001000

0000 0100

0000 0101

6e3 RLE

00010100

RLE

00110100

0000 0010 .

0000 0001

0000 0000

(. 1.6) .
1. .
2. Selectln*
AutoFeed*, .
3. Ack# Error*,
PaperEnd Select. , 1284,
, .

38 ______________________________ 1. LPT-

4. Strobe*
.
5. Strobe* AutoLF*.
6. PAperEnd Error*,
.
, Select
, .
7. Ack#
,
.

1.3.7.

IEEE 1284
, .
,
, .

. (
) . IEEE 1284
. (Level I)
,
. (Level II) ,

. .
-0,5... +5,5
.
14 +2,4
(VOH) +0,4 (0)
.
R0, , 505
VOH-V0L-
.
.
() 0,050,4 /.
.
-2,0...+7,0 .
2,0 (VIH)
0,8 (VIL) .
0,2-1,2 (
).

1.3. IEEE 1284

39

( )
20 , +5 1,2
.
50 .
, Microsoft .
IEEE 1284,
. ,
. 1.7.
IEEE 1284 . A (DB-25)
(Centronics-36) ,
36- .

. 1.7. IEEE 1284: a ,

18 25 ,
GND.
, .
.
2 / 2 .
IEEE 1284 .

() .

1. LPT-

40

62 4-16
.
10 %.
(), 85 %
.
.
, , IEEE
Std 1284-1994 Compliant. 10 ,
. 1.10.
1.10. IEEE 1284

1 2

Type A Male Type A Male


AMAF Type A Male Type A Female

()
()

()
()

Type A Male Plug


()

Type A Male Plug


()

Plug Type Plug

Plug Type Plug

1.3.8. IEEE 1284


IEEE 1284.
IEEE P1284.1 Standard for Information Technology for Transport Independent
Printer/Scanner Interface (TIP/SI).

NPAP (Network Printing Alliance Protocol).
IEEE P1284.2 Standard for Test, Measurement and Conformance to IEEE
Std. 1284 ,
IEEE 1284.
IEEEP1284.3 Standard for Interface and Protocol Extensions to IEEE Std.
1284Compliant Peripheral and Host Adapter Ports
().
BIOS DOS.

,
.
IEEEP1284.4 Standard for Data Delivery and Logical Channels for IEEE Std.
1284 Interfaces
.
MLC (Multiple Logical Channels) Hewlett-Packard,
.

1.5. PnP _____________________________________

41

1.4. LPT-
LPT- (Int 17h, . . 8.3.3). POST
BIOS 3BCh, 378h 278h
BIOS Data Area
0:0408h, 040Ah, 040Ch, 040Eh. LPT1-LPT4,

. 0:0478, 0479, 047, 047 ,
- .

( ) (AAh
55h), .
, , LPT-;
BIOS Data Area.
. LPT4 BIOS
,
.

lnit#,
, .
lnit#
.

On-Line.
(, BIOS Setup)
Print Screen .

1.5. PnP
, LPTnop-, 1284 PnP.

, 1284.
PnP, 1284
, ,
. , PnP
.
,
.
, ,
.

.
PnP , , , -

42 ______________________________ 1. LPT-

. Windows PnP, , (
), . Windows
PnP,
. PnP ,
,
Selectln* ( 17 LPT
36 Centronics).

1.6. LPT-
LPT- (. . 8.3.1),
.
.
, .
10 .
. 1.11. PC
Interlnk MS-DOS
Norton Commander. , ,
. 1.3.1.
1.11. PC-PC (4-)
1, #1
2, #2

DR.O
DR.1
DR.2
DR.3
DR.4
SR.6
SR.7
SR.5
SR.4
SR.3
GND

2
3
4
5
6
10
11
12
13
15
18-25

15
13
12
10
11
5
6
4
3
2
18-25

SR.3
SR.4
SR.5
SR.6
SR.7
DR.3
DR.4
DR.2
DR.1
DR.
GND

XI 2 - DB25-P ().


( , ).
. 1.12 ,
(. [2] [5]) ( 13 15).

1.6. LPT- ______________________________________________ 43

PeriphRequest* ( 15).
(0,5-1 ),
,
. ,
.
Windows ,
PARALINK.VxD, - .
,
(www.lpt.com, www.lvr.com/parport.htm).
1.12. PC-PC
1

1
14
17
16
10
11
12
13
2,3...9

HostClk
HostAck
1284Active
ReverseRequest*
PeriphClk
PeriphAck
AckReverse*
Xflag
Data [0:7]

2

PeriphClk
PeriphAck
Xflag
AckReverse*
HostClk
HostAck
ReverseRequest*
1284Active
Data [0:7]

10
11
13
12
1
14
16
17
2,3..9

LPT- ,
(Bi-Di), .
, (
, ).
(Iomega Zip Drive, CD-ROM .),
-
.
SPP

: ,
( ) . (Bi-Di
PS/2 1) .
, .
LPT-
ISA- .
LPT-
(,LPT- IDE, LPT- SCSI, LPTPCMCIA). , IDE, LPT, SCSI (
).
. 1.13 LPT-
.

44

1. LPT-
.13. LPT- SPP,

I/O

SPP

ECP

EPP

0/I

CR.O\

Strobe#

HostClk

Write

0/I

DR.O

DataO

Data 0

DataO

0/I

DR.1

Datal

Datal

Datal

0/I

DR. 2

Data 2

Data 2

Data 2

0/I

DR.3

DataS

DataS

DataS

0/I

DR.4

Data 4

Data 4

Data 4

0/I

DR.5

Data S

Data S

Data S

0/I

DR.6

Data 6

Data 6

Data 6

0/I

DR.7

Data 7

Data 7

Data 7

10

SR.6

Ack#

PeriphClk

INTR#

11

SR.A

Busy

PeriphAck

Wait#

12

SR.5

PaperEnd

AckReverse*

__ 2

13

SR.4

Select

Xflag

14

0/I

CR.1\

Auto LF#

HostAck

DataStb*

15

SR.3

Error

PeriphRequest*

__ 2

16

0/I

CR.2

lnit#

ReverseRequest*

Reset

17

0/I

CR.3\

Select ln#

1284Active

AddrStb#

\ (1
).
2
.

1.7. LPT-

(Setup)
()
.
, .

, .
LPT- . ,
(), ISA
ISA+VLB, .
BIOS Setup.
, .
3BCh, 378h 278h. BIOS
, , LPT1, L PT2, L .
, MDA
HGC. 378h
278h.

1.8. ____________________ 45

: L IRQ7, LPT2
IRQ5. ,
.
( Fast Centronics)

.
DMA Fast Centronics
DMA.
:
SPP
- ;
PS/2, Bi-Directional SPP
( CR. 5=1);
Fast Centronics Centronics
FIFO- , , DMA;

SPP ;
SPP PS/2, ECR
,
ECR 100 ;
+ , , ECR 100
.
, Fast Centronics
,

.
,
.
. Windows (3.x, NT)
. DOS
.
, CD-ROM,
, .
;
.

1.8.

. ,
BIOS .
BIOS Data Area .

46

1. LPT-nopr

BIOS , ,
, .
: , ,
, .
(Loop Back) ,
,
( ) .
BIOS .
,
, .
, a BIOS ,
, (
- ). ,

.
DOS Windows 95 ( MS-DOS).
DOS .
, .

,
. (12)
(5) ,
.
(. 1.8).

. 1.8. LPT-: Norton


Diagnostics - Checklt,

LPT-
. , (Checklt,
PCCheck

1.8. _________________

47

. .). - .
DOS (
LPTn PRN ),
() ,
( ) Strobe*.
On Line,
, Busy.
, , (SPP)
, ,
IEEE 1284 (.
).
50-100 /, 1-2 /,
, , 2 .
PnP-
,
17 DB-25 36 Centronics.
, .
, (
) . ,
.
,
.
.
LPT- . DOS- PRINT ,
.
, , .
- (, NetWare)
.
, .
, ,
, , :

( ), .

-
- (Communications Port ) PC
. 1
RS-232C. -
. (UART),
i8250/16450/16550. - 8
8-
3F8h (COM1), 2F8h (COM2), 3E8h (COM3), 2E8h (COM4).
IRQ4 (
1 COM3) IRQ3 ( COM2 COM4).
,
, RS-232C. -
- (male ) DB25P DB9P,
(. . 2.1).

.

. 115 200 /.
1-COM4
( AT )
BIOS. BIOS Int 14h ,
( ) . Int 14h
110-9600 / (,
).
,
-
18250/16450/16550.

(, )
, .

: , , . -
,
. - .
PC , SDLC
V.35.

2.1. RS-232C

49

( PCI- 486) -.

(IrDA). ISA , LPT-,
(FDC+IDE).
,
-. ,
4,8,12 16 .
,
( ),
. BIOS
.
- - ,
.
FIFO- DMA,
,
.

2.1. RS-232C
RS-232C ,
( 00 ,
; DTE Data Terminal Equipment),
{; DCE Data Communication
Equipment). , ,
. .
.
. 2.1;
,
- (. 2.2).

. 2.2. RS-232C -

50 ________________________ 2. > -;

, , .
, - . RS-232C V.24/
V.28 2, .
RS-232C

(
, RS-422).
.
-12 -3 .
ON (),
MARK.
+3 +12 .
OFF (),
SPACE. -3 +3 ,
:
(. 2.3).
-12 -5 +5
+12 .
(SG)
2 ,
.
,
.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
.
( )
.

RS-232C .
( -)
-25 DB-9P.
,
( 25-
).
() DB-25S DB-9S.
,
,
.
9 25- (. 2.4).
, ()
- (Zero-modem, Zmodem), ,
, . 2.5.

51

2.1. RS-232C

. 2.3. RS-232C

. 2.4.

. 2.5. - : ,

2. -

52

- 100 %
, , .
, .
. 2.1 - (
). DB-25S
EIA/TIA-232-E, DB-9S
EIA/TIA-574. () ,
(-) .
2.1. RS-232C

PC

RS232

V.24
2

DB25

DB9

11

I/O

PG

101

(10)

(10)

(10)

SG

102

13

TD

103

RD

104

RTS

105 .

CTS

106

DSR

107

11

DTR

CD

108/2

20

14

DCD

CF

109

15

RI

125

22

18

1
2
3
4

8- .
16- .
.
25- .

RS-232C, ,
- PC.
, -
( RS-232 V.24).
, ()
( -3 )
,
( +3 ).
. 2.2.
- . 2.6.

53

2.1. RS-232C
2.2. RS-232C

PG

Protected Ground ,

SG

Signal Ground () ,

TD

Transmit Data

RD

Receive Data

RTS

Request To Send :
.

CIS

Clear To Send .
.

DSR

Data Set Ready (



)

DTR

Data Terminal Ready .

DCD

Data Carrier Detected


Rl

Ring Indicator ().



34

78

91

11 12 1314

DTR

. 2.6.

1. DTR .
2. DSR
.
3. RTS
.
4. CTS
.
5. CTS
(, )
.
6. CTS (
).

54 ________________________ 2. -

7. RTS (
),
.
.
8. RTS CTS.
9. RTS .
10. .
11. .
12. .
13. DTR,
( ).
14. DSR .

DTR-DSR RTS-CTS - .

2.2.


RS-232C , -
- .
UART ;
, ,
. (
)
. ,
, RS-232C, .
RS-232C
( )
.

. ,
. - RS232C . 2.7.
. , ,
.
:
20 .
-
Maxim Sypex; , ,
.
,
(-, , ).

2.2.

55

. 2.7. RS-232C: 1489 ( RS-232,


^ (), Y ); 1488
(, , Y RS-232, VDD = +12 , VEE = -12 );
(*1 )

( ), :
RS-422A (V.11, .27), RS-423A (V.10, .26), RS-485. . 2.8
,
(L) (V).
RS-232C RS-423A
,
RS-423A - .
RS-422A RS-485,
.
()
.

. 2.8.

56

2. -

EIA-RS-422 (ITU-T V.ll, X.27) EIA-RS-485 (ISO 8482)


,
.
. UA-UB>0,2
( - ) (space), UA-UB<-0,2 (
) (mark). |UA-UB|<0,2
(),
. UA UB
0 +5 () +1 +4 (),
1,5-5 .
100 .
, .

RS-485

. RS-422/485
RS-423. .
2.3, . 2.9.
, ,
.
( 10 ) (
25 ).
(1200 / - 25 , 9600 / - 30 , 115 / -250 ).
(1200 ) .
2.3. RS-422 RS-485
__________________________________ RS-422 ___________ RS-485 _____________
0,2
0,2
-6,8...+6,8
-6,8...+11,8
-7...+7
-7...+12
4
12
10060
60

, |UA-UB|,
, 1
, 1
,
,

, , R=100
,

32 (,

+10


)
1200 (100 /)
12(10/)

1200 (100 /)
12(10/)


<150Ha GND <250

-7...+12

57

2.2.

. 2.9. : RS-422, RS-485 ,


RS-485

RS-485 :
-. (. 2.9, )
(master),
.
. (slave)
,
. (. 2.9, )
.
RS485 RS-422 , .
RS-485, , ,
. , .

. (polling)
, ,
() .
( Ethernet).
,
.
( ).
, ,
(. 2.10).
RS-422
(, ). RS-485
.

, ,
.

58

2. -

( )
20 , .

- (
).

. 2.10. RS-422 RS-485

. ( ).
( ),
. ,
. , MIDI (. . 8.5.3)
.

, (
19 200 / ,
9600 / ).
.
,
(4- ).
,
XON/XOFF.
, ,
CTS
( ) ( ).

.

, .
-. .
, .
RS-232C,
. RS-232C
. 2.11
-

2.3.

59

. , -, .

. ( 9600 /
).

. 2.11. RS-232C

2.3.
- (-):
( ). . 2.12.
-,
, , ,
(). -,
. -
-,
. -,
( 0),
. ,
.
- ,
-. ,
.
,
.
, 8 , ,
, 5 %.

.
( ),
, . , .

60

2. -

. 2.12. RS-232C

.
, , , -
.
.
, -, ,
-.
,
.
.
.
: ,
,
- , -.
:
50,75,110, 150, 300,600,1200,2400,4800,9600,19200,38400, 57600 115200
/. / (baud),
.
,
( )
(/) ()
.
5, 6, 7 8 (5- 6-
). -
1, 1,5 2 (
).

2.4.
(Flow Control)
.
. (handshaking)
-

2.4. ____________ :_____________________________________________ 61

,

. .
RTS/CTS (hardware flow control)
CIS, ,
(. 2.13).
CTS. ,
, CTS (
).
.

, , ,
.
.

. 2.13.

, . ( ) RTS CTS.
CTS (
RTS CTS), .
IBM PC 8250/16450/16550 CTS
- ,
MSR (. . 2.5). RTS/CTS
BIOS Int 14h, .
, -, UART
( BIOS), CTS
.
CTS ( ),
CTS RTS.
(, 8251),
CTS . ,
, CTS ( ) . RTS/CTS ( XON/XOFF)
( FIFO) .

62

2. -

XON/XOFF
.
: , ,
, ,

-
XOFF
(13h).
, , .
,
XON (llh),
.
,
, (XON XOFF)
(. 2.14). ,
,
( ).

. 2.14. XON/XOFF


3 (. . 2.5, ).
,
( -
XON),
. (
) ,
.
,
, , .

2.5.

- UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter


). -

2.5. ________________________ 63

. - IBM PC
XT/ AT , U
ART i8250 8250/16450/16550.
,
,
. , :
8250 ( ), XT BIOS;
8250 ,
BIOS; AT,
9600 /;
8250 8250 8250,
XT BIOS; AT
DOS ( 9600 /).
8250
.

CPU.
AT UART
.
16450 8250 AT. 8250
XT BIOS .
16550 16450. DMA
. FIFO-,
.
16550 16- FIFO-
DMA. U ART
AT 9600 /
.
-,
.
UART 16550
, (
) DLAB ( 7
LCR). 8
. UART 16550A
. 2.4. 8250
FCR FIFO DMA.
2.4. UART 16550

/ R/W

DLAB
00
Oh
1
Oh
Oh

WO
RO
R/W

THR
RBR
DLL

Transmit Holding Register


Receiver Buffer Register
Divisor Latch LSB

-^

64 _________________________ 2. -
2.4 ()

DLAB

1h
1h
2h
2h
3h
4h
5h
6h
7h

DIM
IER
IIR
FOR
LCR
MCR
LSR
MSR
SCR

1
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

Divisor Latch MSB


Interrupt Enable Register
Interrupt Identification Register
FIFO Control Register
Line Control Register
Modem Control Register
Line Status Register
Modem Status Register
Scratch Pad Register

/ R/W
R/W
R/W
RO
WO
R/W
R/W
R/W
1
R/W'
R/W

.
.

H R ( ).
, ,
( ),
CTS. 0 ( ) .
8 .
RBR ( ).
, ,
RBR, .
,
. 8
.
DLL .
D L M .
D=115200/V, V , /.
1,8432
, 16- .
IER .
.
IER:
[7:4]=0 ;
3 Mod_I (
CTS, DSR,
Rl, DCD);
2 Rx L_I / ;
1 TxD_IE ;
0 RxD_I ( FIFO
-).
IIR FIFO (
). UART
.

2.5. _________________________ 65

( ): , , , .
UART ,
.
.
IIR.
[7:6] FIFO:
11- FIFO 16550A;
10 - FIFO 16550;
00 .
[5:4] .
3 - FIFO (
).
[2:1] ( ,
FIFO-):
11 / ,
;
10 , ;
01 ( THR ),
;
00 ;
.
0 (1 , 0
).
FIFO [3:1].
011 / .
.
010 .
.
110 - ( 4-
, ,
, ). .
001 THR . .
000 (CIS, DSR, RI DCD).
MSR.
FCR FIFO ( ).
FCR:
[7:6] ITL (Interrupt Trigger Level) FIFO, :
001 ( );
01 4 ;

66 _________________________ 2. -

10 -8 ;
11-14 .
[5:4] .
3 DMA.
2 - RESETTF (Reset Transmitter FIFO) - FIFO-
( ; ).
1 RESETRF (Reset Receiver FIFO) FIFO ( ; ).
0 TRFIFOE (Transmit And Receive FIFO Enable)
() FIFO .
FIFO- .
LCR ( ).
LCR.
7 DLAB (Divisor Latch Access Bit)
.
6 BRCON (Break Control) (
) BRCON=1.
5 STICPAR (Sticky Parity)
:
0
;
1 : EVENPAR=1
, EVENPAR=0 .
4 EVE N PAR (Even Parity Select) : 0
, 1 .
3 PAREN (Parity Enable) :
1 ( ) ;
0 .
2 STOP (Stop Bits) -:
01 -;
1 2 - ( 5- - 1,5
).
[1:0] SERIALDB (Serial Data Bits) :

00-5 ;
01-6 ;
10-7 ;
-8 .

2.5. _________________________ 67

MCR .
MCR.
[7:5]=0 .
4 LME (Loopback Mode Enable) :
0 ;
1 (. ).
3 IE (Interrupt Enable)
OUT2; MSR. 7:
0 ;
1 .
2 OUT1C (OUT1 Bit Control) 1
( ); MSR. 6.
1 RISC (Request To Send Control) RTS;
MSR.4:
0 (-V);
1 (+V).
0 DTRC (Data Terminal Ready Control) DTP;
MSR. 5:
0 (-V);
1 (+V).
LSR (, ).
LSR.
? FIFOE (FIFO Error Status)
FIFO ( , ,
). FIFO- 0.
6 TEMPT (Transmitter Empty Status)
( ,
THR FIFO).
5 THRE (Transmitter Holding Register Empty)
. FIFO
FIFO- .
.
4 BD (Break Detected) (
0 ).
3 F E (Framing Error) ( -).
2 (Parity Error) (
).

68 ________________________ 2. -

1 (Overrun Error) ( ).
,
FIFO,

.
0 DR (Receiver Data Ready) ( DHR
FIFO- ). .
[4:1]
LSR. FIFO FIFO-
. ( )
, , , FIFO
( ). FIFO
, UART
-.
MSR .
MSR:
7 DCD (Data Carrier Detect) DCD:
0 (-V);
1 (+V).
6 RI (Ring Indicator) RI:
0 (-V);
1 (+V).
5 DSR (Data Set Ready) DSR:
0 (-V);
1 (+V).
4 CIS (Clear To Send) CTS:
0 (-V);
1 (+V).
3 DDCD (Delta Data Carrier Detect) DCD.
2 RI (Trailing Edge Of Ring Indicator) RI
( ).
1 DDSR (Delta Data Set Ready) DSR.
0 DCTS (Delta Clear To Send) CTS.
( [3:0]) .
SCR (8 ), UART ,
( 8250 ).
( LME=1) UART
:
;
;

2.7. - ______________________________________ 69


;
DSR, CIS, RI DCD

DTRC, RISC, OUT1C, IE;


(
).
, ( ) , UART.

2.6.
-
- BIOS Int 14h,
:
( ;
) DTR RTS (
);
DTR RTS,
THR ;
DTR (RTS
), ;
( MSR LSR).
,
-. .
POST BIOS ( UART 8250 )
BIOS
Data Area 0:0400, 0402, 0404, 0406.
1-COM4.
. 47, 047D, 047,
047F , - .
2400 /, 7
(even), 1 -.
DTR RTS
( ).

2.7. -
1 COM4; AT .

(Setup)

70 _________________________ 2. -

() . -
. . BIOS Setup.
:
, 1-4
3F8h, 2F8h, 3E8h 2E8h. BIOS

1, COM2, COM3 COM4. COM3
COM4 3EOh, 338h 2EOh, 238h
. PS/2 -8
3220h, 3228h, 4220h, 4228h, 5220h 5228h .
: 1 COM3
IRQ4 IRQ11, COM2 COM4 IRQ3 IRQ10.

( ),
(, )
. , ,
,
. ,
, UPS .

( ), PC
.
- .
(
) .
, ISA,
.
DMA ( UART 16450/16550,
) DMA.
DMA - .

2.8. -
-
, , , ,
, RS-232C. (,
). .
Serial Mouse
.
DB-9S-DB-25P DB-25S-DB-9P.
-

2.8. - ________ ___ _____________________________7

, 1 IRQ4, COM2 IRQ3. ,


1 IRQ4,
,
. -
RS-232C.
;
.
(9-)
-, . 2.4.
( );

9-25,

,
() .
9600 / , -
UART 16550 .
FIFO- DMA
.
, ,
- - (. . 2.5). Norton Commander Interlnk MS-DOS
115,2 / .
Lantastic, ,
Windows.
- (Security
Devices),
. ( ), .
-
PC ,
(VT-52, VT-100 . .).
, BIOS
- (Int 14h), (Int 10h)
(Int 16h).
(, , Pentium),
BIOS , .
- ,
- (TD, DTP, RTS)
- (CIS, DSR, DCD, RI)
. , ,
(. .
11.5) . -286
- ,
PC, -.
PC .

72

2. -

2.9. - n
, -, PnP.
, ,
- .
. 2.15.
1. DTR=ON, RTS=OFF,
TXD=Mark (Idle).
2. (0,2 ) DSR,
, .
DTR-DSR,
. ,
DTR RTS
. , ,

.
3. 1200 /, 7 , , 1
-, 0,2 DTR.
DTR=1, 0,2 RTS-1.

.2.15. PnP

4. 0,2 .
(. ).
, (. . 5),
.
5. 0,2 (DTR-0 RTS=0),
(DTR=1 RTS=1).
6. 0,2 ,
(. ).
, DSR
Verify Disconnect ( DSR=0)
Connect Idle ( DSR=1).
7. Connect Idle DTR=1, RTS=0,
300 /, 7 , , 1 . DSR=0,
.
0,2 , 2,2 ,

2.10. - ___________________________ 73

256 . PnP
(28h 08h) (29h 09h),
.
16 ,
PnP. 0,2 ( 4 6)
, -,
, - ,
Connect Idle. ,
.
( Verify Disconnect) DTR=1, RTS=0
5 DSR. DSR=1
Connect Idle (. . 7), DSR=0
Disconnect Idle,
DSR .
Microsoft , PnP,

, PnP-. ,
Microsoft Mouse ( PnP)
ASCII- ( ).

2.10. -

- () .

2.10.1.
( ) .
, BIOS .
BIOS Data AREA
.
BIOS , ,
,
- . COM3
COM4: BIOS
3EOh, 338h, 2EOh 238h; 3E8h
2E8h. , ,
: 3F8h 3E8h,
1 COM2,
. 1 COM3
( 3E8h COM3),
COM3 , -

74 _________________________ 2. -

3E8h 0:402h BIOS Data Area,


COM2, COM3 (0:404h)
. , ,
,
BIOS Data Area (
).
, (, Port
Finder).
;
(ExternalLoopBacK).
,
(. UART)
( )
, .
.
,
, .
BIOS,
, LPT-: ,
. /
.
- ,
.
.
, .

2.10.2.
- (Checklt) . UART ( ) , ,
. ,
/, UART.
, - (; 2.16).
^ -
, .
.
RTS-CTS
. DTR
DSR, DCDNRI.

2.10. -

75

. 2.16. - (LoopBack Checklt Norton Diagnostics)

,
, , . . :
1. (
, / ,
,
).
2. TD, RTS DTR:
TD -12 (
, -5 ), RTS DTR .
,
. :
;
(
);
.
,
. . 2.1
10- -,
; -
.
.
, ( ). , ,
.
3. RTS CTS ( ),
- (, COPY
: \AUTOEXEC. COMl:).
.

76 _________________________ 2. -

RTS DTR ,
TD
5 . RTS DTR ,
. RTS ( CTS)
, COPY
, , CTS ( ). COPY ,
TD (
, ),
TD.
,
.
.
( ), ( , ). -, ,
BIOS SETUP,

- .
.
.
, , , . ( ) (56 115
/).

.
PC- () 58051 18251.
-
( USART Universal Asynchronous
Receiver-Transmitter). PC -
. ,
BIOS Int 14h, ,
.

2.10.3. ,

-
. DTR RTS ,
12 .

-

2.10. - ___________________________ 77

20 .
, . TD
,
.
- ( TD
, BRCON).

. , , ,
(
).
(+V DTR RTS, -V TD)
, -. ,

. ,
( ),

. .
5 ( ),
,
( ).

. +12
. -12
, -.

( Power Good,
). ,
. ,
.

(wireless)
,
, .

(IrDA) (Bluetooth) .

(. [3]).

3.1.
IrDA
()
, . IR (Infra Red) Connection
,
. -
, ,
.
. ,
:
(PDA), , . .
( 115,2 /), (1,152
/) (4 /) .
,
, ,
, . .
, . 1993
IrDA
(Infrared Data Association),
. IrDA 1.1,
Hewlett Packard
HP-SIR (Hewlett Packard Slow Infra Red)

3.1. IrDA

79

Sharp ASK IR (Amplitude Shifted Keyed IR).


:
IrDA SIR (Serial Infra Red), HP-SIR -9,6-115,2 /;
IrDA HDLC, IrDA MIR (Middle Infra Red) - 0,576 1,152
/;
IrDA FIR (Fast Infra Red) - 4 /;
ASK IR - 9,6-57,6 /.
- ,
880 ;
30. PIN-,
- 15. IrDA

, ,
-.
,
.
:
, ,
, ( )
. . IrDA
(Bit Error Ratio, BER) 10"9
1 ( 10 ).
,
,
.
( )
.
IrDA ,
.
, IrDA.
IrDA SIR 2,4-115,2 /

( -): - (), 8
- ().
3/16 (1,63
115,2 /), ( IrDA SIR-).
, ,
-. 1.1
IrDA SIR-B,
1,63 .
ASK IR 9,6-57,6 /
, :
500 , .

80 ____________________ _^__^_ ____________ 3.

IrDA HDLC 0,576 1,152 /


, SIR,
1/4- .
HDLC,
01111110,
(bit stuffing).
16- CRC-.
IrDA FIR (IrDA4PPM) 4 /
, .
- : 00 > 1000,
01 > 0100, 10 > 0010,11 >0001 ( 1
).

.
.
32- CRC-.
IrLAP (IrDA Infrared
Link Access Protocol) HDLC,
-.
: , ,
, .
. IrLAP ,
. 9600 /,

(9,6,19,2,38,4,57,6 115,2 /)
( ).
IrLAP IrLMP (IrDA
Infrared Link Management Protocol).
( IrDA
:
). IrLMP
, ,

. IrLMP ,
.
.
Tiny TP (IrDA Transport
Protocols) ,
( , . .),

( TCP).
IrTP.
IrCOMM -
:
3- RS-232C (TXD, RXD GND);
9- RS-232C ( -);
Centronics ( ).

3.1. IrDA ________________________________

81

IrLAN ,
Ethernet Token Ring. -
- IrDA,
() ,
(
).
IrOBEX (Object Exchange Protocol)
, PUT GET
.
Tiny . IrOBEX
, ,
GSM ( , , ,
. .), (
PDA).
, -. , (, . .)
880 , .
IrDA
;
( ), ,
.
(30 15 )
( 1 ).
115,2 / (IrDA SIR, HPSIR, ASK IR) UART,
16450/ 16550 .
( 115,2 /) COM2.
UART
,
. COM2 , CMOS
Setup (
COM2).
( ISA, PCI, PC Card);
-.
IrDA, DMA, .
UART ,
. IrDA FIR
;
, SIR.
IR-Connector
( )
(mini-DIN), -
. ,
,

82 _______________________________________ 3.

( ) .
; . 3.1.
, FIR SIR,
IRRX ( SIR) FIRRX ( FIR).
,
.
3.1.

IRRX(RX)
FIRRX
IRTX(TX)
GND
Vcc (+5B)
NC


FIR

/
12
3
4
1
5
3
2,7
4,6

3
5
4
1
2

3
1
2
5
4

3
4
1
2
5

- RS-232C
- USB. USB
FIR, - SIR. - IrDA
SIR - , : , 16-
(
UART -). -
. ASK IR

, TXD ;
.
IrDA

. Windows 9x/ME/2000 IrDA
.
( ,
); ;
; PDA,
;
,
.

3.2. Bluetooth
Bluetooth ( )
( ) ,

3.2. Bluetooth ___________________________________________ 83

. , 3Com, Agere Systems, Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Microsoft,


Motorola, Nokia, Toshiba. , Bluetooth Special Interest
Group, . Bluetooth
(www.bluetooth.com), ,
( 15 PDF-).
,
. (
).
, ,
.
,
2,4 .
,
, .
() ,
F=2402+k (), k=0
78.

(, , )
F-2454+k (k-0
22).


, .
, 1, 2,5 100 ,
.
,
.

(79 23 ).
, (
), (piconet),
2 8 .
7 . ,

:
( ) ,
,
.
(1-7);
(), .
(-
). ,
(scatternet).
, ,
( ,
). ,
.
, (
).

84 _______________________________________ 3.

- 625 ,
227. -
, (1600
).
. , 1 5
-. ,
, 625 ,
(
).
: ,
(
).

: .
( ) , SCO
link (Synchronous Connection-Oriented),
(, ).

, ( ),
.
.
. SCO
.
SCO
.
SCO .
, ACL link (Asynchronous
Connection-Less),

.
, SCO,
. ,
(
).
.

.
ACL.
,
0-2745 . ACL
CRC- (
) 1 ( ).
SCO CRC-, ,
.
. CRC-, .

3.2. Bluetooth ____________________________________________ 85

FEC (Forward Error Correction code). FEC 1/3


,
. FEC 2/3 ,
,
10- .
64 /
.
(- ) CVSD (Continuous Variable Slope Delta
Modulation - ).
G.711;
( ,
8- 8 /). CVSD
-
64 /,
4-32 .
() ,
(, )
.
723,2 /
( 57,6
/) 433,9 /
.
(link layer), , ,
.
SDP (Service
Discovery Protocol),
. , ,
(,
, . .).
RFCOMM (9- RS-232) L2CAP.
( -)
, - .
( .
),
. RFCOMM ,
(
IrDA), RFCOMM ,
TCP/IP,
. RFCOMM -,
(
).
- TCS BIN (Telephony Control
protocol Binary),
( ), L2CAP.
TCS.

86 _______________________________________ 3.

- HCI (Host Controller Interface)


-
. ,
.
- L2CAP .
:
(, PC Card), USB, -.
. HCI
, HCI .

USB
Fire Wire
,
1-2 .
, , USB FireWire
- .

. ,
,
( FireWire) .
,

. ,
USB ,
.
;
, , ,
.
,
.
.
USB FireWire,
PC- .
FireWire USB, , ,
, .
(127 USB 63 FireWire),
/
. , FireWire
. USB

. ,
FireWire .

PnP
(

/) ,
DMA .
.

88 ____________________________ 4. USB FireWire

USB , PC.
USB ,
USB 2.0 .
, PC ,
. USB
,
. , USB
2.0 PCI.
PC USB ,
.
FireWire ,
.
, .
1394
().


.
, , ,

.

4.1. USB
USB (Universal Serial Bus )
PC,
.
1.0 1996 ,
1.1, 1998 ,
. 2000
USB 2.0, 40-
. ( 1.0 1.1)
: FS
(full speed) 12 / LS (Low Speed) 1,5 /.
2.0 HS (High Speed) 480
/, ,
.
. ,
25 .
USB ( )
http://www.usb.org.

4.1.1. USB
USB -
(). USB,
(devices) , .
- (hub)

4.1. USB _____________

'_________________________________________ 89

.
-/^ (function) USB
, ISDN,
, . .
(compound device),
,
. USB USB,
USB,
( )
, . USB
- (host controller), -. ,
,
. USB -:
, , -,

. USB .
-, (root
hub), , . -,
.

; 5
( ).
, 6-
.
(downstream) (
) (upstream)
.
USB : -
.
(ISA, PCI, PC Card),
,
-, DMA,
USB
. ,
, USB.
AT
SCSI
, USB . USB
90
(+5 ),
5 .
3 ( ).
USB
(. 4.1, ). USB
(.
4.1, ).
, -

4. USB FireWire

90

. ,
( , . . , ,
). , 4.1,
(. 4.2, , , ).
.

, ,
.
USB . 4.1,
. 4.2. USB
.

. 4.1. USB: a ,
,

. 4.2. USB: , , ,,

4.1. USB

D+ D . , ,
D+ D-,
:
D-, D+.
HS

4.1. USB _________________________________________________________91


HS FS.
USB .
,
D+ D-,
. ,
.
(480 / 2 ,
Gigabit Ethernet)
.
. USB
.
FS LS, HS
, -
.
(LS, FS HS)
.

( , LS
). USB ,
, , USB 2.0

.
USB 1.1 FS LS,

. USB 1.1
,
.
: ,
, 8
.
,
-.
2.0 480 / ,
FS LS
( ).
, USB 2.0
.
( ), ,
HS -
. USB 2.0
1.1,
HS, ,
FS LS. 2.0
( ) , FS LS

92 ____________________________ 4. USB FireWire

. (1.1)
, .
, USB 2.0 ,
- ( 2.0)
2.0. 2.0
, FS.
( ,

), ,
.
() , USB
. , ,

. - , USB 2.0
. ( PCI- ).
USB 2.0
. FS
USB 2.0 ( ),
USB 12 /
, .
PnP USB.
:
,
;
,
, ;
,
;
,
;
, .
, .
( ) , , - (babble).
,
(-).
.
(downstream)
, ,
.
, ( )
(-).

4.1. USB ________________________________________________________ 93

() . :

;
;
;

(Software attention);

(Hardware attention).
(upstream)
( USB 2.0).
USB 2.0 FS,
HS .
. 4.3 ,
USB 2.0 ,
.
USB 1.1 2.0,
, 12 /
. , 480 /
(USB 1.0) 3x12=36 /. -
48 /,
- USB 2.0,
12 /. ,
,

( ,
) .
() USB 1.1
( ) () .

USB 1.1.
: , , , ,
. , ,
, USB, ,
USB - (, ).
USB.
, , .
, 100 .
( 500 ) .
, ,
, .
USB (suspended
mode), 500 .

.

94

4. USB FireWire

. 4.3.

(remote wakeup)
-,
.
.
.

4.1.2.
USB ( 127)
.
(endpoint, ),
- ( ) .

:

;
;
;
;
;
( ).

4.1. USB _________________________________________________________ 95

0,
,
.
.
(. ). , -
, .
,
15 15 (
). (
)
( ).
(pipe) USB . :
. (stream)
, .
.
: ,
. (message) ,
USB. ,
() ,
.
,
.
.
, (
, , . .). USB.
(Control Pipe 0),
, .

4.1.3.
() USB - .
,
- (token packet).
, USB .

( ) .
- ( )
( ,
). "
(handshake packet )?
. 4.4. -
. (
1,00,0005 ) - (frames),
(. 4.5).
SOF (Start Of Frame),

96 _____________________ 4. USB FireWire

, .
EOF (End Of Frame),
.
HS SOF (
1250,0625 ). ,
.
(bulk transfers).
() ,
.

. 4.5. USB


CRC-,
. ,
.
, .
USB .

4.1.4.
USB .

(control
transfers)


.
.
(bulk data transfers) .
,

4.1. USB ______________________________________________________ 97

. ,
.
. , , . .
(interrupt) ,
,
.
10-255
, 1-255 ,
125 . .
, ,
.
(isochronous transfers)
,

.
1,023 / ( 0,5 /), 70 %
( ).
24 / (192 /).

.
: , (
USB, ), -
(CD DVD). ( )
USB .
.
, ,
,
1
, .
USB
, ,
. USB
, ,
, .

4.1.5.

,
. USB,
USB ( ) USB ( ),
( ). : , ,
8 1 ( 64 /),
44,1 2x2 (176,4 /),
32 .
,

98 ____________________________ 4. USB FireWire

(master clock).
, (, 20 50
). ,
, ,
() ,
. USB
:
(sample rate) (source) (sink)
;
USB (1 )
(8 ) ( USB
() SOF);
,
USB .

:
(drift)
( );
(jitter) ;
,
(PLL).
,
, . USB
( ) , (, ),
USB.
SOF USB.
. ,
() USB, .

, () (
, ).
,
(. ).
- CD-
.
, .
, SOF ( 1 );

4.1. USB _________________________________________________________ 99

.
() () , .
,
SOF.

( ).

, .
.
,
. CD-
SRC (sample rate converter)
USB.

. - ().
-
(), -. , ()
, -.
,
.
USB , ,
, .
,
1 .

4.1.6.
USB ( !)
USB. .
USB
.
-,
, (
USB
). - ().
-
, (bus-mastering)
.
USB, -(),
,
.
USB

100 ___________________________ 4. USB FireWire

( , ). :
- HCD (Host Controller Driver) ,
,
USB
.
USB USBD (USB Driver)
(USBDI) USB.
HCDI (Host Controller Driver Interface) USBD HCD

USB

,
. HCDI;
USBDI. USBD
IRP (I/O Request Packet -),
.
, USBD
USB , (
). USBDI
; USB
.
,
USB :

( ), ,
. .
USB (
), USB.
( ),
USB. USB
- (
-) ,
USB.
:

USB;
;
;
;
-
USB, .

-
USB .

4.1. USB

.
USB, , . ,
BIOS USB,
Int 10h. USB

,
. USB
,
.
'2001 BIOS USB ,
USB. USB
.
() ,
.
.
.
, USB Default Address.

.
, ,
USB.
(control pipe) ,
.
,
, .
,
USB .
,
, . , .
, .

4.1.7. USB
, USB PC
. PC
LPT, MIDI.
USB 2.0
SCSI,
FireWire.

USB

/
, .
( 127) , ,
. - -

102^^ _________________________ 4. USB FireWire

. USB
( PCI). USB
( ):
, ,
Windows 98/SE/ME, Linux, MacOS, Unix
Windows 2000 N/A (Not Allowed
). USB , ,
- ( ,
). USB Windows
,
, .
, .
,
, . ,
,
, ,
.
, USB.
USB.
, , ,
. . USB
.
USB ,
USB ( ,
) ,
.
. USB 1.1 , LPT
, USB

(, ). USB 2.0

.
,
LPT , USB .
. USB SCSI
LPT-. USB 2.0
.
, ,
().
USB ,
.
( )
-
, .
-
( )
, (, )
.
,
()
.

4.1. USB^\ ______________________________________________________ 103

MIDI- USB.
USB
MIDI ( MIDI
).
- . USB 1.1
,
( ) (25-30
/) , ,
, . USB 2.0
( ).
USB ,
TV-.
. USB ,
xDSL,
(IrDA FIR) (115,2 /), .
Ethernet,
USB.
,
. ( )
USB
- (. ).

, USB
.
USB:
5 ,
( 5 ).
USB,
,
: Centronics IEEE 1284 (LPT-), RS232C ( UART 16550A -)
(RS-422, RS-485, V.35...),
Game-, AT A, ISA, PC Card
, . USB
-, 2- (3-)
LPT- - .

IBM PC,
. MS-DOS
-, , ,
DMA, MS-DOS,
USB ( Windows). MS-DOS
- .
,
PC '99 '2001.
USB LPT ,
LPT-, SPP.

104 ___________________________ 4. USB FireWire

, CD
DVD, USB 1.1
, LPT,
( , ).
USB 2.0
SCSI, .

USB

( -)
( ) ( 16256 , ).
-ATAPI
, ,
- 5" 3,5", 36 . -
SmartMedia Card CompactFlash Card.
(
), (
) (
?)
.
(
'99).
(ISDN).

, , . .
USB
. (
) USB DDC. USB
, , . .
, . ,
, . ,
.

USB.
- LPT-.
,
USB .
USB ,
(, ). ,
(
). ,
.
.
,

4.1. USB ___________________________________________________

105

. .
, 3"-. ,
, ,
. ,
( )
.
, (distance extender). ,
( ),
.
. ,
,
USB, 100 .
USB,
.

4.1.8.
USB
, USB
.
, USB
(LS, FS HS),
( , ).
. USB
MCS51, 6805, 6811
RISC-; ( ), , , . /, ,
. , . . , .
(firmware)
. USB,

;
EzUSB Cypress Semiconductor
USB -
. , ,
.
USB,
8/16-
(CS#, RD#, WR#...), ,
, DMA.
USB (RS-232, RS-422/485)
,

106 ___________________________ 4. USB FireWire

( EEPROM ). USB, , .
, .
(www.cypress.com, www.devasys.com,
www.iged.com, www.microchip.com, www.netchip.com, www.motorola.com,
www.semiconductor.philips.com,
www.natsemi.com,
www.intel.com,
www.ftdichip.com, www.gigatechnology.com).
-,
.
(,
- ).
, , USB

.

4.2. IEEE 1394 - FireWire


(High
Performance Serial Bus), IEEE 1394,
1995 . ,

( ).
FireWire, Apple Computer
SCSI Macintosh PowerMac. FireWire
( ) IEEE 1394,
1394.
iLink, Digital Link Sony
. MultiMedia Connection
, 1394 High Performance Serial Bus Trade
Association (1394TA).
1394
: 98,304, 196,608 393,216 /, 100, 200
400 /. S100, S200 S400
. , 1394-2000,
(S800, S1600 S3200) , 1394
USB, USB 2.0
480 /.
FireWire .
. . 63
().

( ), , ,
,
(CD DVD), ,
, (,
, )
.

4.2. IEEE 1394- FireWire __________________________________________ 107

.
(S100) (30
) -
CD.
.
. FireWire PnP.
()
.
/
. ( 1,5 )
.
PC,
.
FireWire VESA ,
.
(peer-to-peer),
USB.

4.2.1.
1394
(,
, ). ( )
.
,
. 27
,
. ,
:
16 ;
4,5 ;
72 (
);
,
.
1394 6-, ,
6- (. 4.6, ).
( )
,
(8-40 , 1,5 ).
, (
500 ) (
60 ).
4- (.
4.6, ), .

-). FireWire (. 4.2), .

108

4. USB FireWire

. 4.6. FireWire: 6- , 4-
4.2. FireWire

4-.

6-.

6-.

Power

GND

4-.

Power

GND

, 1394,
:
UTP 5 RJ-45
( ), 100
S100;
( POF
HPCF ) S200;
( 50 )
S3200.
, 1394,
. , ,
-
.

(jitter) , .
1394 : -
(Backplane). -
,

,
1394. ,
,
, ,
.
FireWire PC PCI
1394. 1394 .
, .

4.2. IEEE 1394 FireWire

109

4.2.2. IEEE 1394


1394 (. 4.7).
(Transaction Layer) ,
, . , ISO/IEC 13213:1994 (ANSI/IEEE 1212,
1994 .) CSR
(Control and Status Register) (, ,
). 1394
.
(Link Layer)
. .
.

. 4.7. FireWire

110 ___________________________ 4. USB FireWire

(Physical Layer)
. , ,
.
.
,
.
,

.
FireWire
PHY Transceiver
LINK Chip. , ,
IBM-Apple LINK-PHY.
;
.
64- 1394. 16 : 6 63 ;
10-
1023 ( ), .
() DMA.

, ,
. ,
.
.
,
, .
,
.
. , ( , ) ,
() (NACK),
. ( )
( ). , .
. 64 , ,
, .
CRC-. ,
.
- (, , )

.

4.2. IEEE 1394 FireWire111


.
,
. , ,
.
,
,
(. ).
,

.
.

.
, 125
.
32- ,
24,576 , , .

,
. ,
. ,
, .
, , .
,
.
,
. ,
,
. ,
. ,
, .
, 125-
6144. 20 ,
- (quadlet, 32- ) 1600
/.

. 25
,
4915 . ,
, 30 / (25 / 3-4
/ , ). S100
1800 , S200
900. ,
. , ,
.
,

112 ________________________

4. USB FireWire

, . .
(Bus Master) 1394,
.
,
. ,
(TopologyJMap Speed_Map),
,
, .
, ,
, .

4.2.3. 1394
PC- ( Macintosh) 1394
, USB.
FireWire ,
. 1394 PC
PCI 1394, PCI
FireWire. FireWire
. :
LINK chip ( ) PHY chip (
).
( S400 ,
S100 S200).

. . ,
VIA Fire II (VT6306)
S400 PCI, Card Bus (
).
1394
-, - ,
. ,
1394, FireWire
(, , )
- .
1394
CD DVD, AV- (,
).
1394-IDE, IDE-
5" 3,5". ,
CD DVD ( ),
.
SCSI- .
SBP-2 (Serial Bus Protocol), SCSI-3 1394.

4.2. IEEE 1394 FireWire] 1 1 3

4.2.4. 1394
1394
.

.

, , ,

. 1394
(
, ) ,
PC, . 1394

PC. ( ,
, MIDI , )
, .
( ,
, . .), () ,
. 1394
.
. -
(plugs) (sockets),
, .
, .
. ,
,
Digital Interface for Consumer Electronic Audio/Video Equipment
IEEE-1394, DVC (Digital Video
Consortium). Co ISO/IEC.
FireWire, -8940 Adaptec,
PC ( ), PCI.

( Pentium 133,32 256 ,
SCSI-).
1394 , Windows 98, Windows 95
OSR 2.1 . - (AVI)
, , Adobe Premiere, Asymetrix Digital Video
Producer, Ulead MediaStudio, MGI Video Wave. -
(DV), 1394, AVI-
Adaptec.

. ,
() ,
.
5 (5 : Sony, Matsushita, Intel, Hitachi
Toshiba) .

SCSI
SCSI (Small Computer System
Interface, )
: ( )
(), CO-ROM,
, ,
, , .
SCSI (SCSI Device) -,
SCSI - ,
(target controller),
SCSI.
( , ), (),
-. 8
() LUN
(Logical Unit Number), .
,, SCSI-1, ANSI
1986 (. 131-1986). 8-
1 5 /,
8 . 5 /,
, (199;1
SCSI-2 (.131-1994), .
Fast SCSI-2 -.10 MT/Cj SCSI-2
20 /, 16
Wide SCSI-2 (), 8- Narrow
(). 16- 16 . SCSI-2
32- ,
. ,
. SCSI-2
, CCS
(Common Command Set), ,
.
, ^ .
( 256 )
:
SCSI .
( )
( ) V / -^ (MT/s, Mega Transfer/sec).
, , .

SCSI __________________________________________________________ 115

, .
SCSI
.
SCSI-3 ,
,
PnP.
SPI (SCSI-3 Parallel Interface)
, -
100 /. SCSI-3
,
,
.
:
SPI (SCSI Parallel Interface) (,
);
SIP (SCSI-3 Interlocked Protocol)
, SPI;
FCP (Fibre Channel Protocol)
FC-PH
100 /;
SBP (Serial Bus Protocol) ,
1394 (FireWire);
GPP (Generic Packetized Protocol) ,
;
SSP (Serial Storage Protocol) ,
SSA (Serial
Storage Architecture).

SCSI-3.
SPI (1995 .) -
68- ,
SCSI-3. SPI Fast SCSI (Fast Wide SCSI
20 /). Fast-20,
Ultra SCSI (Ultra Wide SCSI 40 /).
SPI-2 (1999 .)

LVD. Fast-40 SCSI


Ultra2 SCSI (Wide Ultra2 SCSI 80 /).
SCA-2 (Single Connector Attachment)
(hot swap) 68-
VHDCI (Very High Density Connector).
SPI-2 - SCSI-2, - SPI.
,
SCSI, Fast-40.
SPI-3 (2000 .) ,
Fast-80DT (DT Double Transition),
UltraS SCSI Ultral60.
(16 ) .
() , 32- Q
.

LVD-,
REQ#/

116 __________________________________ . __________________ 5.


SCSI

#, CRC- ,
(Packetized Commands and Messaging) (Quick
Arbitration). ,
SCSI Fast-80DT HVD, SCAM (SCSI
Configured Auto-Matically
) 32- .
SPI-4 (2001 .)
Fast-160iDT, Ultra320 SCSI
( , 320 /).

5.1.
SCSI
SCSI ,
,
. SCSI
, 18 .
.
.

.
, ,
.
(single ended)
(differential) SCSI. ,
.
SE (Single Ended)
- .
() ,
. SCSI-1
, .

(. . 5.1.2). SCSI-2
(active negation).
,
.

, ;
. SCSI-3
SPI KMC-n(CMOS).
Diff, HVD,
, .
,
RS-485, ,
.
, PC .
HVD ( Diff) SCSI-2, SPI-3 (SCSI-3
1999 ) , Ultra2
.

5.1. SCSI

___________________________ 117

LVD
40, 80 160 / Ultra2, UltralGO Ultra320 SCSI
25 (8 ) 12 (16 ). LVD
SE
(Multimode LVD). LVD
DIFFSENS
LVD () SE
(). , ,
SE ,
SE, SE.
, /, ,
( ). SCSI 8
(Narrow), 5 /. (wide)
16 .
(. 5.1), 320 /.
,
, Western Digital 2000 .
Fast SCSI 10 /,
SCSI-2. Fast-20
Fast Wide SCSI (16 , 10 MT/s). Ultra SCSI
20 /,
SCSI-3. Fast-40 Wide Ultra SCSI
(16 , 20 MT/s). Ultra2 SCSI 40 /,
Fast-80 Wide Ultra2 SCSI (16 ,
40 MT/s). , SCSI-3,
.

LVD. SCSI-3 UltraS SCSI . Ultral60 SCSI
160 / (16 )
. ,
CRC-,
( Ultra DMA
ATA). 2001 Ultra320 SCSI 320
/.
5.1. (/) SCSI
,
Fast

Fast-20
(Ultra)

Fast-40
(Ultra2)

Ultra 160
(UltraS)

Ultra320

160

320

8 (Narrow)

10

20

40

16 (Wide)

10

20

40

80

Ultra2 SCSI
,
SCSI.

5. SCSI

5.1.1. , ,
.
, ,
. ; .
; ; , ; - (
10 ,
). , ,
.
, .
1.,5.2 .
-
,
, .
[ .
5. 2\ SCSI

(5 /)

(Single ended);

> L " '.


- ; ,.;'

(HVD)
-

(LVD)
>

Ultra
(20 /)
1,5
(8.),

25

Fast
(10 /)

12
(16.),
25
(8.)
-

Ultra 2
(40 /)
"_ ' "'

Ultra 160
(80 /)
_

UltraSZO
(160 /)
_

'*'''

(4.)
6
(16.),
25
(8.)
-

._...

12
(16.),
25
(8.)

12
(16.),
25
(8.)

12
(16.),
25
(.)

, SCSI,
, .
, (
; ). ,
.
D-25,
, , DB-50.
.
IDC-50 - (
, 40- IDC-40).
0,1" (2,54 ),
, (. 5.1, ).
(IDC-50M),
(IDC-50F).

5.1. SCSI

119

-50 Centronics,
( 50-).
0,085" (2,16 ) (. 5.1, ).
.
( SCSI-) (CX-50F),
(-50).
, ,
. SCSI-1 (SCSI-1 External).

. 5.1. 8- SCSI: IDC-50P, CX-50R DB-25P, HD50F

DB-25
D- ( LPT- ).
(DB-25F), (DB-25M);
(. 5.1, ).
(, Zip).
HD-50, MiniDSO (. 5.1, ),
D- ,
(High Density) 0,05" (1,27 ).
(HD-50F), (HD50M); ().
SCSI-2 (SCSI-2 External).
HD-68, MiniD68, , 68 .
(HD-68F MiniD68F),
(HD-68M MiniD68M).
, .
SCSI-3,
. . 5.2
, , .

120

5.
SCSI

. 5.2. 16- SCSI HD-68F

VHDCI-68 (Very High


Density Connector), Centronics 0,8 .
, SCSI-4
SCSI-5.
(Micro-centronics) Centronics,
. -68 -80,
SCA.
SCA (Single Connector Attachment)
. ,
(, , ,
). SCA-2
-80 (. 5.3).
(MCX-80F), (-80).
, , ^
(, . .).

.
,
( ).

. 5.3. SCSI SCA-80

Narrow SCSI , . 5.1,


Wide SCSI . 5.2.
D- SCA-2,
(. 5.3). SCSI .
-. 8- , 25 .
,
, 25 :
- SCSI-1 SCSI-2
IDC-50 (, . . 5.1, );
- SCSI-1 Centronics-50 (CX-50M, .
. 5.1, );
- SCSI-2 MiniDSOM (HD-50M, . .
5.1, ).
-. 16/32- SCSI-2.

5.1. SCSI

__________________________ 121

-. 8/16- 34 ,
.
SCSI-2/3, 8- 1-5,31-39,65-68
:
- SCSI-3 HD-68M ;
- SCSI-3 MiniD68M ;
- SCSI SPI-2
VHDCI-68M (
SCSI-4 SCSI-5).
Q-. 68- 32 , . Q-
, SCSI SPI-3 .
Mac SCSI. DB-25P (. . 5.1, ) 8-,
Macintosh ( . ),
(Iomega ZIP Drive).
, 25- -.
- (
) . . ,
, ( !) (. . 5.1.5). SCA
, ,
.
. 5.3-5.7.
,
.
, ()
( SE-).
5.3. - SCSI
IDC-50 / -50

/Diff

IDC-50 / -50

1/1

GND/DBO+

2/26

DBO#

3/2

GND/DB1+

4/27

DB1#

5/3

GND/DB2+

6/28

DB2#

7/4

GND/DB3+

8/29

DB3#

9/5

GND/DB4+

10/30

DB4#

11/6

GND/DB5+

12/31

DB5#

13/7

GND/DB6+

14/32

DB6#

15/8

GND/DB7+

16/33

DB7#

17/9

GND/DBPO+

18/34

DBPO#

19/10

GND/GND

20/35

GND

21/11

GND/GND

22/36

GND

5.
SCSI

122

5.3 ()
IDC-50/CX-50

IOC-50/ -50 UenbSE/Diff


23/12

25/13

24/37
26/38

TERMPW

27/14

28/39

29/15

GND

30/40

31/16

GND/ATN+

32/41

GND

33/17

GND

34/42

ATN#

35/18

GND/BSY+

36/43

GND

37/19

GND/ACK+

38/44

BSY#

39/20

GND/RST+

40/45

41/21

GND/MSG+

42/46

RST#

43/22

GND/SEL+

44/47

MSG#

45/23

GND/C/D+

46/48

SEL#

47/24

GND/REQ+

48/49

C/D#

49/25

GND/I/O+

50/50

REQ#
l/0#

5.4. - SCSI
. / . UenbSE/Diff

./.

1/1
3/2

GND
GND/DB8+

2/35
4/36

GND

5/3

GND/DB9+

6/37

DB9#

7/4

GND/DB10+

8/38

DB10#

9/5

GND/DB11 +

10/39

DB11#

11/6

GND/DB12+

12/40

DB12#

.13/7

GND/DB13+

14/41.

DB13#

15/8

GND/DB14+

16/42

DB14#

17/9

GND/DB15+

18/43

DB15#

19/10

GND/DBP1 +

20/44

DBP1#

21/11

GND/ACKB+

22/45

ACKB#

23/12

GND/GND

24/46

GND

25/13

GND/REQB+

26/47

REQB#

27/14

GND/DB16+

28/48

DB16#

29/15

GND/DB17+

30/49

DB17#

31/16

GND/DB18+

32/50

DB18#

33/17

TERMPWR

34/51

TERMPW

35/18

TERMPWR

36/52

37/19

GND/DB19+

38/53

TERMPW

39/20

GND/DB20+

40/54

41/21

GND/DB21 +

42/55

DB19#

43/22

GND/DB22+

44/56

DB20#

45/23

GND/DB23+

46/57

DB21#

DB8#

DB22#
DB23#

5.1. SCSI
. /. UenbSE/Diff

./.

47/24

GND/DBP2+

48/58 ";>

49/25

GND/DB24+

50/59

'">--'. :^-*-2#'
DB24*

51/26

GND/DB25+

52/60

DB25#

53/27

GND/DB26+

54/61

DB26#

55/28

GND/DB27+

56/62

DB27#

57/29

GND/DB28+

58/63

DB28#

59/30

GND/DB29+

60/64

DB29#

61/31

GND/DB30+

62/65

DB30#

53/32

GND/DB31+

64/66

65/33

GND/DBP2+

66/67

67/34

GND/GND

68/68

DB31#
'

DBP2#
GND

5.5. - SCSI

1
2

/Diff
GND/DB12+
GND/DB13+

35
36

DB12#
DB13#

GND/DB14+

37

DB14#

GND/DB15+

38

DB15#

GND/DBP1+

39

DBP1#

GND/DBO+

40

DBO#

GND/DB1+

41

DB1#

GND/DB2+

42

DB2#

GND/DB3+

43

DB3#

10

GND/DB4+

44

DB4#

11

GND/DB5+

45

DB5#

12

GND/DB6+

46

DB6#

13

GND/DB7+

47

DB7#

14

GND/DBPO+

48

DBPO#

15

GND

49

GND

16

DIFFSENS (GND)'

50

GND

17

TERMPWR

51

TERMPWR

18

TERMPWR

52

TERMPWR

19

53

20
21

GND
GND/ATN+

54
55

GND
ATN#

22

GND/GND

56

GND

23

GND/BSY+

57

BSY#

24

GND/ACK+

58

ACK#

25

GND/RST+

59

RST#

26

GND/MSG+

60

MSG#

27

GND/SEL+

61

SEL#
^

124
5

28
29
30
31
32
33
34

5,
.5 ()

UenbSE/Diff

GND/C/D+
GND/REQ+
GND/I/O+
GND/DB8+
GND/DB9+
GND/DB10+
GND/DB11 +

62
63
64
65
66
67
68

C/D#
REQ#
I/O#
DB8#
DB9#
DB10
DB11

DIFFSENS LVD.
.6. Mac SCSI (DB-25)

1
2

REQ#
MSG#

14
15

GND
C/D#

I/O*

16

GND

RST#

17

ATN#

18

GND

BSY#

19

SEL#

GND

20

DBPO#

DBO#

21

DB1#

GND

22

10

DB3#

23

DB4#

11

DB5#

24

GND

12

DB6#

25

TERMPWR

13

DB7#

DB2#

5.7. SCA-80

4enbSE/Diff

01
02

12 Volt Charge
12 Volt

41
42

12V GND
12V GND

03

12 Volt

43

12V GND

04

12 Volt

44

Mated 1

05

45

06

46

GND

07

DB11#

47

GND/DB11 +

08

DB10#

48

GND/DB10+

09

DB9#

49

GND/DB9+

10

DB8#

50

GND/DB8+

11

I/O*

51

GND/I/0+

12

REQ#

52

GND/REQ+

125

5.1. SCSI

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

C/D#
SEl#
MSG#
RST#
ACK#
BSY#
ATN#
DBPO#
DB7#
DB6#
DB5#
DB4#
DB3#
DB2#
DB1#
DBO#
DBP1#
DB15#
DB14#
DB13#
DB12#
5 Volt
5 Volt
5 Volt Charge

Auto Spin Up
SCSI I D 0
SCSI ID 2

53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80

UenbSE/Diff
GND/C/D+
GND/SEL+
GND/MSG+
GND/RST+
GND/ACK+
GND/BSY+
GND/ATN+
GND/DBPO+
GND/DB7+
GND/DB6+
GND/DB5+
GND/DB4+
GND/DB3+
GND/DB2+
GND/DB1+
GND/DBO+
GND/DBP1 +
GND/DB15+
GND/DB14+
GND/DB13+
GND/DB12+
Mated 2
5VGND
5VGND
Active LED
Delayed Start
SCSI I D 1
SCSI I D 3

5.1.2.
, SCSI
, .
(
SCSI), ,
.
SCSI :
;
.
, SCSI
,
-

126

5. SCSI

.
, .
() .
, SCSI, 85-110
. (
), .
SCSI,
,
. , ,
( SCSI),
.
, , ,

, .
,
.
(active negation),
.
( , )
.
, : ,
(, ), . SCSI ,
;
, .


. ,
SE LVD. LVD
SE ( );
LVD/SE.
: (
) LVD,
( SE).
SE,
(,
). , HVD (Diff)
LVD/SE .
SE LVD
. SCSI
: . SE
( );
. LVD
;

5.1. SCSI _____________________________________ 127

. SE LVD
. 5.4, :
. ( !)
; TERMPWR
(+5.).
SE (. 5.4, ) 132 ,

.
SCSI ( 5/10 /
/ ). Fast SCSI, Ultra SCSI
.
SE (. 5.4, ) 110 ,
Fast SCSI, ;

,() +2,85 , TermPWR.
,
.
, - .
FPTSE (Forced Perfect Terminator)
,
SE-.
LVD (. 5.4, ) 105
( 150 ).
112 (
).
L VD/SE SE, LVD,
( )
SCSI .

. 5.4. SCSI: SE , SE , LVD'

LVD/SE, '; /,
DIFSENSE; SE
"!,' , ^^ .
LVD ' 1,3 . HVD
-; '' 2,1 .
, ^0;) , ,
< -''! HVD,
). -''!

128 ____________________________________________________ 5.
SCSI

(, DS2117, DS2118
Dallas Semiconductor),
9 . 16-
(Wide SCSI) 3 .
,
.
( ),
( ).
.
(SCSI-1)
.
-

. (

).
, . , Ultra-Wide SCSI $1015. .
, , , LVD-. LVD- , , : ,
.
, .
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- LVD !

5.1.3.
. 5.8.
L-:
, #
. ()
+.
5.8. SCSI

BSY#
SEL#

Busy
Select (Select)
(Reselect)
C/D#
Control/Data ( )/ ( )
I/O
Input/Output :

. (Select) (Reselect)
: Selection

5.1. SCSI _____________________________

129

MSG#
Message
DB[0:31 ]# Data Bus
DP[0:3]#
Data Parity ,
. DPO# DB[0:7],... DP3# DB[24:31].

TERMPWR Terminator Power
ATN#
Attention ( )
REQ#
Request
ACK#
Acknowledge ( REQ#)
RST#
Reset
DIFFSENS (LVD) : 0,7 SE;
0,9-1,9 LVD; 2,4 HVD

SCSI, ,
, . 8-
0-7, 16- 0-15.
. .
SCSI ID,
.
, .
DBO#
(SCSI ID-00000001), 7 - DB7# (SCSI ID=10000000).

;
. ,
.

. (initiator),
(target) .
. : -
(), ().
, , .
: , ,
(Reseleci)
. ()
(Copy Master) ,
(
).
() , (REQuest) (ACKnowledge).
( ),
.
, ( SCSI-1
). .
. 5.9.

5. SCSI

130

5.9 SCSI

: , ;
WA: ;
3
SID: ,
SCSI ID;
* I: ;
5
: .
2

Bus Free
; .
BSY# SEL#.
Arbitration .
(Bus Free), BSY#
SCSI ID.
,
,
. , , SEL*
Selection Reselection. Selection ,
,
, .
ATN# ,
Message OUT. BSY#. I/O*
Reselection. BSY#,
( ). . , -, RST#.
Reselection , .
, .
, ,
, .
BSY#, I/O*
Selection. BSY#, .
5.1. SCSI _____________________________________ 131

Command, Data, Status Message


, MSG#, C/D# I/O* (.
5.10), .
( Message OUT) ATN#,
, MSG#, C/D#, I/O* BSY#.
5.10. SCSI


MSG# C/D#

l/0#

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

Data OUT
Data IN
Command
Status

Message OUT
Message IN

. 5.5.

REQ#/ACK#. , REQ# (
).
#.
.

. 5.5. (DI , DT )

Data OUT Data IN



, . 5.6.

# REQ#,
(REQ/ACK offset agreement).
, REQ# (. 5.6, ), ,
.
REQ#,

5.
SCSI

132

# .
# REQ#
( 2),
#.
,
.
, #
(. 5.6, ).

SCSI-1 , , ( )
( ) #. ,
, : REQ# ( )
.

. 5.6. : ;

16 .
,
.
.
,
,
, ,
.
,
, -

5.1. SCSI

____________________________ 133

.
( , ), (REQ#/ACK# REQB#/ACKB#),
.
Command . Status
. Data IN
Data OUT
. Message IN Message O UT
. Message OUT' Attention,
ATN#,
. Message .
BSY#, SEL#, REQ# #
,
C/D#, I/O#, MSG# .
ATN# RST# Attention Reset
, .
. ATN#
,
. RST# ,
Reset .
, ,
.
, ,
, . .
,
.
- :
Bus Free Arbitration Selection
Reselection. (Command, Data,
Status, Message), Message In,
Disconnect Command Complete,
BUS Free.
SCSI -
(saved SCSI pointers): ,
. ( ),
.
, ,
.
.
,
Save Data Pointer.
. ,
- .
Restore Pointers

-.

134
SCSI

5.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -,

.

5.1.4.
.

.
(SCSI ID) 0-7 ( Wide SCSI 0-15),
. -,
, 7 (15 Wide SCSI,

16-). , ,
8- 16-
.
BIOS SCSI ID=0.
(SCSI Parity).

,
. , ,
.
(Termination).

,
- .
. -
, ,
, .
,
.
, (
).
, .

/
.

(Terminator power)
( ) .
(SCSI synchronous negotiation).
, ,
.
, . , -

5.1. SCSI

135

, - .

, Enable TI-SDTR (Target Initiated
Synchronous Data Transfer Request Negotiation).
(Enable disconnection).

,
.
.
,
.
16- ,
Enable TI-WDTR (Target Initiated Wide Data
Transfer
Request Negotiation).
16- (Disable wide).

.
(Force SE).
LVD SE,
DIFFSENS.
(Disable U160).
UltraS SCSI Ultra2.
(Start on command),

(Disable Auto Spin up).



-,
. .
(Delayed Start)

(
).

5.1.5.
SCSI ,
.
SCSI, , ,
, -. SCSI

, ,
, .
SE LVD.

LVD HVD !

136

5. SCSI

LVD SE,
SE, Ultra2,

LVD.

LVD,

, , ( +)
; SE
GND.
LVD SE, DIFFSENS
LVD SE.
LVD
SE Force SE.
UltralGO Ultra2 ( ),
. UltralGO (
Ultra2) Disable U160.
,
( Mac
SCSI) ( Centronics) .
(. ), (
) SCSI ID, 0-7.
, (
!) .
TERMPWR ( -),
, .
, . -
. ,
LVD,
, .
0-15.
68- 50- .
,
. ,
.
( )
.
0-7 ,
8-15
(. ). SE-,
DIFFSENS LVD
SE. , , -, SE-
LVD.
, 16- 68- (46-
80-).

,

5.1. SCSI

137

Disable Wide.
,
( ).

.
0-7 ( ,
).
SCSI (. 5.7).
, PCI ISA,
. , ,
( ), (
, ).
.

. 5.7. SCSI: , , ;

:
( . 5.7, );
, ,
( TRM=ON)
(. 5.7, );

(TRM=OFF).
SCSI ,
, ,
, .
:
(. 5.7, ) (. 5.7, ) ,

138

5. SCSI

. , (. 5.7, ), .
, , .
.
/ (
SCSI Setup) . -
,
, (
), .
SCSI ,
, -. (. 5.8, ),
. ,
(. 5.8, ), .
-
( . 5.8, ), ,
,
.

. 5.8. SCSI

SCSI
SCSI,
. , ,
. , ,
CT-6BTS,

Ultra-Wide
SCSI,

(wide) ( . 5.8, ,
) .
Wide SCSI
: ! -

5.1. SCSI

139

, , , ^
, !
Wide SCSI
(, narrow) . CT-6BTS
68- Wide SCSI 50-
. (8-)
(16-),
. (
)
. ,
:
(TrmL) ()
. . 5.9, ,
(
). . 5.9,
(
) (!). ,
( .
5.9, ) .

. 5.9, SCSI: , ;

( ), SCSI
, . ,
. ,
. , ,

140

5. SCSI

( ) ( ).
( , ), , , . , Windows
NT, (Event Log),
, SCSI.

. , ,
.
, ,
. ,
, .

5.2. Fibre Channel


, SCSI-3
Fibre (Fiber) Channel, FCAL (Fibre Channel
Arbitrated Loop ),

(SCSI-3) .
( ),
. 1
100 /. 30 ,
10 .
126
( 8 16, ).
(200 /),
. Adaptec
2 / ( , ),
(1 /).
400 /.
126 , 10 .
FDDI
.
,
-,

.
8/10, 100 /
1,0625 /.
FCAL FC-O...FC-4,
(FC-0) ( )
. (FC-4)
,
(SCSI ), (802.2 IP).
36-2148 .
, .
,
(, SCSI IP). Fibre Channel
, ,

5.3. - SCSI _________________________________________________141

.
( , PCI).
FCAL (
, ). FCAL
,
()
.
(, , Ethernet)
,
, , ( )
.
FCAL
(, SCSI
). FCAL
, . , FCAL
,
, .

5.3. - SCSI
- , SCSI.
(, )
, ,
.
, [4, 9].
(
, , AT ).
, ,
. , ,
, .

,
.
SCSI (ISA, EISA, MCA, PCI,
VLB, PCMCIA, CardBus), USB FireWire LPT-.
SCSI-,
. , -,

SCSI.
- PCI. ,

. -
RAID-, RISC-
.

142 ____________________________________________________ 5. SCSI

- SCSI
.
-

BIOS,
,
POST. , -
, .
SCSI- :
ROM BIOS,
(
-, ROM BIOS
, -
);
;
- (I/O port);
IRQ ;
DMA ( ISA/EISA),
(bus mastering).
SCSI, -,
. BIOS ; Int
13h. , ASPI (Advanced SCSI Programming Interface),
.
SCSI.
,
.
,
(bus mastering); SCSI
.

5.4.

Message System,
. Message
IN/OUT (. ), .
.
Synchronous Negotiation. , ,
Synchronous Data Transfer Request
REQ/ACK.
, .

( -

5.4.

143

). . . - ,
. ,
Request Sense Inquiry.
Wide
Data Transfer Request.
Bus Device Reset ,
.
,
.
SCSI ,
, . SCSI-
,
.
(command descriptor block),
Command. ,
Data.
; , (
), , 10 12 .
SCSI
Read. ,

. ,
, . ,
. Selection ATN#,
Identify .
Command Read. PnP
, Data IN, ,
Status Good, Message
IN Command Complete,
( Bus Free). .
,
(Disconnect) . ,
Read, ,
, , Disconnect.
, , , (
Reselect) Message IN Identify.

, . ,
(,
), Save Data
Pointer, Disconnect.
,
. ,
, Restore Pointers
Save Data Pointers.

144

5. SCSI

. . .

, , .
, , Search Data,
, , .
Read,
.
Linked Command Complete (,
), ,
. ,
.
.
. , SCSI-1, (LUN)
, , (
) .
(tagged queue) SCSI-2 .
I_T_L (--) 256
. , ,
I_T_L_Q, Q (queue
tag). ,
.
, -,
: , Head Of Queue Tag,
.
, Simple Queue Tag,
' , . ,
Ordered Queue Tag,
. , .

, ,
. ,
.
,
, , ,
. .


(Expansion Bus)
:
PC -,
, . ,
, ,
( ).
(bus mastering)
.
( )
; ,
. ,

.
PCI;
AGP. ISA ,
,
, /104.
PCMCIA PC
Card Card Bus. LPC
.
.
MCA, EISA, VLB [1,2, 5].
,
, . . ,
. PC.
; , ISA,
PCI.
ISA, ,
PCI . , ISA, PCI
. -,
PnP.

6.

146

. 6.1 PC.
6.1.

Bus- ACFG2
, DMA Master /1

ISA-8
ISA-16
LPC
EISA
MCA-16
-32
VLB
PCI
PCI-X
AGP
1x/2x/4x
PCMCIA
Card Bus

4
8
6,7
33,3
16
20
132
132/264
532/1064
266/532/1064

10/20
132

7
7
7

+
+
+

8
16
8/16/32
32
16
32
32/64
32/64
32/64
32

20
24
32
32
24
32
32
32
32/64
32/64

8
8
33
8,33
10
10
33-50(66)
33/66
33/66
66

+
+

8/16
32

26
32

10
33

+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+

+
+
+

. 2

, .
. ISA PnP
,
.

6.1. ISA, EISA PC/104


ISA Bus (Industry Standard Architecture) ,
PC ,
XT 8 20 .
AT 16 24 .
, . 6.1,
2,54 (0,1 ).
ISA-8 62- ( , ), IS-16
36- ( , D). /104,
PC,
ISA . EISA 32-
ISA ,
ISA.
ISA ( )
. -
(Prototype Card),
.
,
. ,
.
, ,
.

6.1. ISA, EISA PC/104

147

. 6.1. ISA

-, ( ) -. ISA 8- 16-
, - .

UM (-FFFFFh). ISA-16 CMOS Setup
15- 16- (
15 ). ISA
-
, -FFh
( ). PC 10-
-, [15:10]
. , IS
lOOh3FFh. 12 ( lOOh-FFFh).
10- ,
[9:0]
12- ( 10-
12- ). 16-
EISA PCI.
ISA-8 6 , IS-16
11.
PCI.
ISA-8 8- DMA. 16 16- 8- .
.
.
-
DMA.
, ,
.
, ,
, . ,
, .
IRQx DRQx

.
,
, .
. (
) PC
.

6.

148

, , PnP.
ISA EISA . 6.2
6.3. 6.2. ISA-8, ISA-16 EISA


GND
Reset

1
2

IOCH
SD7
+5
3
SD6
IRQ2/9'
4
SD5
-5
5
SD4
DRQ2
6
SD3
-12
7
SD2
OWS#2
8
SD1
+12
g
SDO
GND
10
IOCH
SMEMW#

AEN
SMEMR#
12
SA19
IOWR#
13
SA18
IORD#
14
SA17
DACK3#
15
SA16
DRQ3
16
SA15
DACK1#
17
SA14
DRQ1
18
SA13
REFRESH
19
SA12
BCLK
20
SA11
IRO7
21
SA10
IRQ6
22
SA9
IRQ5
23
SA8
IRQ4
24
SA7
IRQ3
25
SA6
DACK2#
26
SA5
TC
27
SA4
BALE
28
SA3
+5
29
SA2
Osc
30
SA1
GND
31
SAO
1
4: XT=IRQ2, AT=IRQ9.
2
8: XT-Card Selected.

6.1. ISA, EISA PC/104 __________________________________________________ 149


6.3. ISA-16
EISA

MEMCS16#
IOCS16#
IRQ10
IRQ 11
IRQ12
IRQ 15
IRQ14
DACKO#
DRQO
DACK5#
DRQ5
DACK6#
DRQ6
DACK7#
DRQ7
+5B
MASTER*
GND

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18


SBHE#
LA23
LA22
LA21
LA20
LA19
LA18
LA17
MEMR#
MEMW
SD8
SD9
SD10
SD11
SD12
SD13
SD14
SD15

ISA Intel
( 8080). ISA-8 .
-
.
SD[7:0] . Data D.
SA[19:0] (Addr[19:0], A[19:0]) - .
AEN (
DMA).
IOW# (IOWC#, IOWR#) - .
IOR# (IORC#, IORD#) - .
SMEMW* (SMEMWR#, SMWTC#) (
0-FFFFFh).
SMEMR* (SMEMRD#, SMRDC#) (
0-FFFFFh).
, .
IRQ2/9, IRQ[3:7] .
.

, ( ) -

150 ______________________________________ 6.

. IRQ2/9 XT
2, AT 9.
DRQ[1:3] 8- DMA (
).
DACK[1:3]# 8- DMA.
DMA.
, , .
IOCHRDY (CHRDY, I/OCHRDY) ,
( 15 ).
BALE (ALE) .

SA[0:19]

.
REFRESH* (REF#) ( XT
DACKO#).
15 ,
.
# , NMI CPU
( 061h, 062h).
RESET (RESDRV, RESETDRV) (
).
BCLK (CLK) 8 .
,
.
OSC 14,431818
( ).
+5, 5, +12 -12 .
, 16-, , , .
SD[15:8] .
SBHE# SD[15:8].
LA[23:17] ,
BALE.
. ,
BALE.
IRQ[10:12], IRQ[14:15] .
DRQ[5:7] 16- DMA (
).
DACK[5:7]# 16- DMA.
DRQO DACKO* 8- DMA,
.

6.1. ISA, EISA PC/104

___________________________________ 151

.
EMCS16#(16#) 16-
.
IOCS16* (I/OCS16*, 16#) 16 .
.
MEMW# (MWTC#) 16 .
MEMR# (MRDC#) 16 .
OWS# (SRDY#, NOWS#, ENDXFR)
.
MASTER* (MASTER 16#) , 16 DMA .
DACK [5:7] Bus-Master .
EISA ( ISA)
32 ,
,
.

6.1.1.
-,
-.
( )
, .
-
( ) (
) . , ,
.
-
. 6.2. CMD*
:

SMEMR#, MEMR# ;
SMEMW#, MEMW# ;
IOR# -;
IOW# -.

( )
, AEN . ,
, , AEN
. SMEMR* SMEMW*
MEMR# MEMW# ,
-FFFFFh. SMEMR* SMEMW*
MEMR# MEMW* 5-10 .

152

6.

. 6.2. ISA

:
SA[19:0] SBHE#
; 1_[23:17] ,
.
, ,
, .
, ( -)
. , ,
,
.
LA[23:17] (
FFFFFh),
-, BALE
. ,
, ,
. -
1_[32:17] .
(), () . , ,
,
.
2 ,
, .
2 , m ,
. n=m+l:
( -

6.1. ISA, EISA PC/104 ________________________________ 153

) 2n"m"1 ,
- (alias). -
( ) Kx2m+1,
. ,
.
, -
2 ( ),
.
,
.

. IBM PC/XT
, ISA 8-,
. IBM PC/AT286 ( 386-SX)
16-, 32- 64 ISA 16 . ,
,
.
SBHE#, SAO, IOCS16* MEMCS16*. 16-
IOCS16* MEMCS16* .
IOCS16# , MEMCS16*
. ()
, .
16 . 16-
1.
32- ,
, ,
,
(32 ). 16-
1 ()
IOCS16* MEMCS16*,
. 32- 2
(16+16), 3 (8+16+8) 4 (8+8+8+8) ,
. , (
), ( , ),
.
. 6.4 ISA
-,
.
1

L-H , Intel.

154 ______________________________________ 6.

16- OUT DX,AX ( DX


,

; AL , ), 8-

OUT DX,AL. ( ) 3 6

, , ,
,
. 16-
( ),
.
/
6.4. 8- 16- ISA
()

1. 16- 16-

SBHE#
L
SA
DX(AO=0)
D[15:8]

D[7:0]
AL
IOCS16#
L
2. 16- 16- 1,5,
xxx9,xxxD
SBHE#
L
H
SA
DX(AO=1)
DX+1 (A0=0)
D[15:8]
AL
0
D[7:0]
AL
AH
IOCS16#
L
L
3. 16- 16- ,7,
xxxB.xxxF
SBHE#
H
L
SA
DX+1 (A0=0)
DX (A0= 1)
D[15:8]
0
AL
D[7:0]
AH
0
IOCS16*
L
L
4. 16- 8-
SBHE#
L
L
SA[1:0]
DX(AO=0)
DX+1(AO=1)
D[15:8]
AH
AH
D[7:0]
AL
AH
IOCS16*
H
H
5. 16- 8- 1,5,
xxx9,xxxD
SBHE#
L
H
SA[ 1:0]
DX (A0= 1)
DX+1 (A0=0)
D[15:8]
AL
0
D[7:0]
AL
AH
IOCS16#
H
H

6.1. ISA, EISA PC/104 ________________________________________ 155


()____________ 1 _____________________ 2 ______________________
6. 16- 8- ,7,
xxxB,xxxF
SBHE#
H
L
SA[1:OJ
DX+1(AO=0)
DX(AO=1)
D[15:8]
0
AL
D[7:0]
AH
AL
IOCS16#
H
H
7. 8- 16-
SBHE#
H
SA[1:0]
DX(AO=0)
D[15:8]
0
D[7:0]
AL
IOCS16*
L
8. 8- 16-
SBHE#
L
SA[1:0]
DX(AO=1)
D[15:8]
AL
D[7:0]
0(AL?)
IOCS16*
L

SD[15:0]
/, . ()
(IOR#, MEMR#, SMEMR#)
( ).
()
(IOW#, MEMW#, SMEMW#). -
.
-
; ,
.
IOCHRDY
,
(wait states).

( -, , ).
,
15
. OWS#
, .
IOCHRDY OWS# ,
.

IOCHRDY ( )
.

156 ________________________________

6.

BIOS Setup (wait states).


, ,
-.
:
16- , ,
. , BIOS Setup
ISA -,
8- 16- . ,
(recovery time)
-
. BIOS Setup
8- 16- .
, ,
, SD[7:0] SD[15:8].
74ALS245 (15336) 8-
.
# (Output Enable ),
, .
;
IOR#,
-, MEMRD*,
. ,
( )
, .
8- 16- ;
, 16-
AT A 8- COM, LPT, GAME
.
IOCS16* MSC16* .
8- (
IOCS16* MSC16*),
SD[7:0], SD[15:8] (
) .
16-, IOCS16* MSC16*,
SBHE* SAO.
SD[7:0] SAO=0, SD[15:8]
SBHE#=L.

.
(, 8255, 8250, 8253 . .)
SD[7:0]
IOCS16* MSC16*.
( ) .

-: , , 8

6.1. ISA, EISA PC/104 __________________________________________ 157

, = FFh.
. .
,
RO (), RO+1, R+2 (
) .
AA55h, IN AX, R0
AL=55h, AH=AAh.
, IN , R0+1,
AL=AAh ( RO+1, !),
a AH=FFh ( ).
, : (, ...) .
( SA1
, ),
AH=55h, RO
- RO+2.

, ,
,
. -
(, BIOS
1^ 16- PC/AT).

6.1.2. DMA

DMA, . DMA

, .
.
DMA :
DRQx DACKx#,
. . 6.3
( 8- ) ( 16-)
DMA.
.
1. DRQx DMA
(
).
2.
IOR#, DACKx* MEMW#. ,
LA[23:17], (
), BALE=H . DACKx#
, , a IOR#
( IOW#).
IOR# ( IOW#
) , ,
DMA,

158

6.

AEN . , ,
.
3. 1-2
DRQx,
.
(Terminate Count),
.

. 6.. DMA

( ) ,
IOR# MEMR#, MEMW*
IOW#.

DMA.
DMA, ,
IOCHRDY ( OWS# ).

, DRQx,
.
16- ISA 7 DMA: 8- (
0-3) 16- (5-7),
. 4
( ). 8- 8 ( XT 3 0
).
,
. 12.4.

6.1. ISA, EISA PC/104

____________________________________ 159

, 8- DMA
64 ,
( , . . 12.3.2 12.5). 16 64 ,
, . DMA
, ,
15 ( ).

6.1.3.

(bus mastering)
- ,
DMA. ,

, ,
, DMA (
). , ,
.
,

- .
ISA , 16 .
, DMA DMA ( 5-7).
, , DRQx
(x=5...7), DMA
. ,
AEN (
) DACKx. ,
MASTER*,
DMA AEN .
, ,
DRQx. ISA
, ( ).
15 ,
(. ). ( ),
, IOCHRDY,
.

6.1.4.

, ,
, , ,
(refresh) .
,
-

160 ______________________________________ 6.

.
15 (
REFRESH*), DMA,
.
, (
. IBM PC.
). ISA
DMA ( ).
15 REFRESH*,
AEN=H BALE=H,
MEMR#, SA[7:0]
. DMA,
REFRESH* ,
.
- 15
, . 15
REFRESH*,
. ,
,
SA[7:0] MEMR*, AEN=0
BALE=1 . ,
, ,
, ,
, .

, ,
, .

6.1.5.
ISA
. IRQ2IRQ7 , IRQ9-IRQ15
. 4 (IRQ2/9) IRQ2
/. ( AT)
IRQ9, ( 8-)
IRQ2.
IRQ9...IRQ15 IRQ3...IRQ7.
(. . 12.4),
/
(IF) . .
, .
.
. -

6.1. ISA, EISA PC/104___________________________________________ 161

, - , , . , .
. 12.4.
, ISA,
, , ,
,
( ) .
# (NMI),
- .
,
, . NMI
3 (EIC) 06lh,
, NMI #,
6 (IOCHK) .

6.1.6. /104
/104, , ISA. 104
, ISA.
ISA /104
:
, .
MEMCS16#, IOCS16*, MASTER* OWS#
20 , 4 .
/104 . 6.4, . 6.5
6.6. /104 -. /104, .
/104 (
), (.
6.4, ).
10 19 , ;
. ,
.
. 0,6"
( ). ^ !
ISA-8, J2 ISA-16;
(2,54 ),
, 2,5 ( !).
, , , D
( J2 ,
).

6.

162

. 6.4. /104: ,

Pentium
PCI, PC/104-Plus (
. 6.4). PCI
2 . /104
ISA, PCI ;
-,
(ISA, PCI) (PC) .
6.5. J1/P1 PC-104

IOCHK#
SD7
SD6
SD5
SD4
SD3
SD2
SD1
SDO
IOCHDRY
AEN
SA19
SA18
SA17
SA16

1 GND
2 RESET
3 +5
4 IRQ2/9
5 -5
6 DRQ2
7 -12
8 OWS#
9 +12
10
11 SMEMW#
12 SMEMR#
13 IOWR#
14 IORD#
15 DACK3#

163

6.1. ISA, EISA


PC/104

SA15
SAM

16
17

DRQ3
DACK1*

SA13

18

DRQ1

SA12

19

REFRESH*

SA11

20

BCLK

SA10

21

IRQ7

SA9

22

IRQ6

SA8

23

IRQ5

SA7

24

IRQ4

SA6

25

IRQ3

SA5

26

DACK2*

SA4

27

TC

SA3

28

BALE

SA2

29

+5

SA1

30

OSC

SAO

31

GND

GND

32

GND

6.6. J2/P2 PC-104

GND
SBHE
LA23
LA22
LA21
LA20
LA19
LA18
LA17
MEMR#
MEMW#
SD8
SD9
SD10
SD11
SD12
SD13
SD14
SD15

0
1

GND
MEMCS16#

IOCS16*

IRQ10

IRQ11

IRQ12

IRQ15

IRQ14

DACKO*

DRQO

10

DACK5*

11

DRQ5

12

DACK6*

13

DRQ6

14

DACK7*

15

DRQ7

16

+5

17

MASTER#

18

GND

19

GND

164 ______________________________________ 6.

6.1.7.
ISA EISA
, - ISA EISA

-,
,
. , , ,
.

DMA. ,

, , , DMA .
- .
, .
ISA
( , EEPROM), .
,
. :
(Software Configured), (jumperless). ,

-. ,
.
( )
.
, ( ),
( ).
, .

.
MCA, PCI EISA, ISA . EISA
AEN (
-) ,
ISA, EISA. EISA
,
EQU (EISA Configuration
Utility); ISA
EISA. ISA
ISA PnP
.
BIOS PnP BIOS.
ISA

6.1. ISA, EISA PC/104 __________________________________________ 165

PnP BIOS, / ISA PnP ,


PnP .

6.1.8. Plug and Play


ISA
- Plug and Play ISA Specification
Intel Microsoft 1994 .
ISA, ,

. PnP,

{Legacy Cards).
,
PnP .
PnP .
1. .
2. CSN (Card Select Number
), , (Assign a handle),
PnP.
3.
. ,
.
4. () ,
.
( ).
POST ( BIOS
PnP) . PnP BIOS
,
,
. BIOS PnP
,
, ,
. ,
ISA PnP.
,

,
.
PnP 8-
(. 6.7), ,
- . PnP
12- -, 10, ISA.

166
6.7.

_________________ 6.
ISA PnP

ADDRESS
WRITE_DATA
READ_DATA

0279 (Printer status port) OA79h (Printer


status port + OSOOh)
0203h-03FFh

APDRES5 PnP
(.
) WRITE_DATA READ_DATA.

. ,

LPT-.
WRITE_DATA READ_DATA
PnP. WRITE_DATA 10 ,
, - .
READ_DATA PnP
.
PnP.

PnP. ,
(, , DMA).

, (
). ,
, , , ()
.
,
PnP. PnP
, ,
.
PnP, ( );
(
) .
PnP
ISA.
(. ). PnP .

Wait for key ( )


( ) .
,
PnP.

.

167

6.1. ISA, EISA


PC/104

Sleep () ,

Wake [CSN], ,
. CSN CSN .
CSN CSN

.
Isolation() Serial Isolation
(. ),
CSN. PnP .
Config () ,
PnP, .
.
, .


,
PnP (Initiation key).

ADDRE S 5 (279h). , ,
LFSR (Linear Feedback
Shift Register), . 6.5.
1 , 2
ADDRESS. , ,

LFSR ( 6Ah).
ADDRESS.
ADDRESS.
( 32 )
LFSR ,
( config)
.
hex- :
6, 5, DA, ED, F6.. FB', 7D, BE, DF, 6F, 37, IB, 0D, 86, , 61, 0, 58, 2. 16. 8. 45, 2, D1,
8. 74, , 9D, , 7, 73. 39

:
1

. 6.5. LFSR PnP

168 _________________________

6.


(Serial Identifier), PnP.
72 ,
32- 8- ,
LFSR. 32-
.
.
, Ethernet
-.
,
. ,
( ?) , ,
.
, 0 7 .
1 LFSR
, 2 Serial
Isolation (. ).
.
, . 72
READ_DATA.

.
,
55.
,
01
D[l:0] ( 55h).
AAh,
10.
, , , .
, ,
.
72 .
.
PnP ( 06) CSN,
.
CSN (
).

IOCHRDY,
.
.

6.1. ISA, EISA PC/104

______________________________________ 169

,
, .
55h AAh, ,
.
.
55h AAh
, READ_DATA -
. ,
READ_DATA .
,
PnP (
CSN).
1 250
. ,
.
, , .
CSN, PnP.
CSN
.


PnP.
PnP - WRITE_DATA READ_DATA .
PnP
, ADDRESS.
PnP, , ,
. PnP
,
.
PnP
(. ) (. 6.6).
, ,
Logical Device Number,
.
PnP , , :

;

ISA;

6.

170

,
, , ,
.

. 6.6. PnP (* )

,
(. 6.8).
6.8. PnP


. [7:0]
Set RD_DATA Port OOh,
[9:2] READ_DATA.
WO

Isolation

Serial Isolation
01 h, RO
[2] CSN 0. [ 1 ]
Wait for Key. [0]
Config Control
02h,WO

,
CSN. ,

, CSN
,
03h,WO
Sleep Config (
).
CSN Isolation.

Wake[CSN]

6.1. ISA, EISA PC/104

Resource Data
Status
Card Select
Number
Logical Device
Number

Card Level

Card Level,
Vendor Defined

171


04h, RO

. ,
Status
05h, RO
. [0]

06h, RW
CSN,

Wake[CSN].

07h, RW
,

, -
. ^ ,

08h-1Fh

20h-2Fh

WAKE [CSN]
CSN 3.
CSN Config (),
Sleep.
(
, )
.
,
ISA (
).
Wait for key ( ). PnP
,
32- .
PnP ,
.
CSN ,
, - ( ISA), - (Docking Stations)
.
(. 6.9)

ISA -.
,
- 55h AAh
0 . ,
.

172 _________________________________

6.

6.9. PnP
_______________
Activate

30h,RW

____________________________________________
. [0]
ISA.
[7:1 ] ,
.
-

I/O Range Check

31 h, RW

-.
[7:2] ,
. [ 1 ]
. [0] :
0 AAh, 1 55h

Logical Device
Control

32h-37h

Logical Device
Control Vendor
Defined

38h-3Fh


. .
24- (4) 32- (4) .


.
(24-) 32- .
- (8).
-
. ,
Resource Data.
(2).
(
). IRQ2/9 ISA
9.
.

4 ( ,
).

PnP . 6.10.
6.10. PnP

40h-5Fh (24-)
40h, RW

0: , [23:16]

41h, RW

0: , [15:8]

6.1. ISA, EISA PC/104 __________________________________________173



42h, RW

0: . [1 ] : 0 8 ,
1 16 . [0] (RO) : 0
, 1

43h, RW

0: , [23:16].
,
( );
)

44h, RW

0: , [15:8]

45h-47h

()

48h-4Ch

( )

4Dh-4Fh

()

50h-54h

2 ( )

55h-57h

()

58h-5Ch

3 ( )

5Dh-5Fh

()

60h-6Fh -
60h, RW

61 h, RW

0: , [15:8].
10- ,
[15:10]
0: , [7:0]

62h-63h, RW

1 ( )

64h-65h,RW

2 ( )

66h-67h, RW

3 ( )

68h-69h, RW

4 ( )

6Ah-6Bh, RW

5 ( )

6Ch-6Dh, RW

6 ( )

6Eh-6Fh,RW

7 ( )

70h-73h
70h, RW

0. [3:0] IRQ Interrupt

71 h, RW

0. [1 ] : 1 ,
0 . [0] : 1 , 0 .
, RO

72h, 73h RW

1 ( ) 74-75


74h, RW

0 DMA. [2:0]
(001 DMA0....111 DMA7)

75h, RW

1 DMA ( )

76h-A8h 32-
76h, RW

32- 0: , [31:24]

77h, RW

32- 0: , [23:16]

78h, RW

32- 0: , [15:8]

79h, RW

32- : , [7:0]

174 _____________________________

6.

6.10 ()

7Ah, RW
32- . [7:3]
,
. [2:1] : 00
8- , 01 16- , 10 , 11 32 . [0] (RO) : 0
, 1

7Bh, RW
32- 0: ,
[31:24]
7Ch, RW
32- 0: ,
[23:16]
7Dh, RW
32- 0: ,
[15:8]
7Eh, RW
32- 0: ,
[7:0]
7Fh
()
80h-88h
32- 1
89h-8Fh
()
90h-98h
32- 2
99h-9Fh
()
A0h-A8h
32- 3

( )
Resource Data , , . 6.10.
, config.
,
PnP.
Wake [CSN], 8
, ,
, LFSR
.
.

PnP.

.
, , PnP, .
, ,
PnP.
, , , . .

6.2. PCI

175

6.2. PCI
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) local bus

. Pentium,
486. PCI
.
PCI 1.0 1992 . PCI 2.0 (1993 .)
. 2.1 (1995 .)
66 . PCI 2.2 (
1998 .),
2.1.
PCI Local Bus Specification. Revision 2.2 18.12.1998,
PCI SIG (Special Interest Group).
PCI (mezzanine bus)
ISA, :
(),
.
- (ISA/EISA ), ISA- XBUS LPC,
(ROM BIOS, , , DMA,
LPT, ), PCI
.
PCI ,
,
.

() CLK.
33 ,
( 486 20-33 ).
41,5 (
83 ). 2.1
66 .
32 ,
64 . 33
132 / 32-
264 / 64-; 66
264 528 .
, -
.( -)
.
PCI
-, ,
.
.
DMA PCI ,
',
( ), .
, , DMA
AT , PCI

176 _______________________________________ 6.

IDE (. . 9.2.1). PCI



.
().
-
.
-,
, -.
,
, -
0 (. . 6.2.12).
, .

6.2.1. PCI
PCI : , ,
.
(. . 6.2.12).

, (
-) .

-,
. AD
.
IDSEL
PCI ,
PCI
IDSEL, .
, ( 1 8)
.
256 (. . 6.2.12).
,
.
0 ,
( 1-7).
() , ,
, 0.
PCI (. . 6.2.2),
(,
). PCI,
PCI (. . 6,2.10).
, ;
( ).
(PCI bus number).
; .
,
; :
, .
:1:2 (, Unix) 2
1, (0) PCI.

6.2. PCI ________________________________________________________ 177

PCI
. (device number
dev) AD,
IDSEL : KADU -devO(MOCT),AD12-devl,...AD31 dev20. PCI, ,
; (
- ).
, 20.
; PCI
( dev,
). PCI,
, . ,
.
PCI ,
, IDSEL
(, 4-
Ethernet), PCI,
IDSEL, .
PCI,
.
-, ( ) (
,
PCI).
, . .
. 6.2.6, , ,
4,
.
, (
).

: PCI
( )
PCI, POST.
PCI,
( CMOS
Setup).
, ,
(Windows)
(
).

6.2.2. PCI
( )
(initiator) , (master) ,
(target) (), (slave). PCI
: ,
.
. 6.11.

178

6.

AD[31:0]
/[3:0]#
FRAME*

6.
11 PCI
.

Address/Data /.
,
Command/Byte Enable / . ,
,

. ( ),
,

Device Select (

DEVSEL*
)
IRDY*
Initiator Ready
TRDY*
Target Ready
STOP*

LOCK*
.
,
PCI
REQ#
Request
GNT#
Grant
PAR
Parity AD[31:0] /[3:0]#
PERR*
Parity Error ( , ).
,
#
Power Management Event ,
( , PCI 2.2)
CLKRUN*
Clock running .

( )
PRSNT[1,2]# Present ,
.
GND,
RST#
Reset
IDSEL
Initialization Device Select

SERR#
System Error .
, .
PCI NMI
REQ64*
Request 64 bit 64- . 64-
, FRAME*.
( RST*) 64- ,
64- . 64-.
, 32- ,

64*
64- . 64- ,
, DEVSEL*.
32-
INTA#, INTB*, Interrupt , , , D , ,
INTC#, INTD* , (
)
CLK
Clock . 2033 ,
PCI2.1 66
M66EN
66MHz Enable 66

6.2. PCI

SDONE

SBO#

TDI
TOO
TMS
TRST

179

Snoop Done .

. ,

Snoop Backoff
. ,

Test Clock JTAG
Test Data Input JTAG
Test Data Output JTAG
Test Mode Select JTAG
Test Logic Reset

, .
REQ# GNT*
.
( FRAME*)
GNT*. GNT*
, (. )
.
,
. (, ,
) .
AD.
/[3:0]
.
FRAME*, AD
, /# ().
DEVSEL*.
IRDY#,
DEVSEL*.
, TRDY*.
AD IRDY#
TRDY*.
, . . 6.7
, , .

, 32
, .
,
IRDY*
FRAME*. FRAME*
. ,

( STOP* TRDY*).

180

6.

. IRDY#, (PCI Idle)


FRAME* IRDY# .
, FRAME*
IRDY#. (Fast
Back-to-Back) , .
PCI,
. ( ) 7
(. . 6.2.12). ( )
( 9
), .

. 6.7. PCI

(), ,
,
AD[31:0] PAR (address/data stepping). .
(continuous stepping)

- (FRAME# , IRDY#
TRDY# ).
.
(diskrete stepping)
, (, ),
. ,
.
(. 7
), .
FRAME*, ,
.

6.2. PCI ________________________________________________________ 181


.
()
: AD[31:0] /[3:0]# ,
PAR (
, PAR, ). PAR
AD
/#. PERR* (
).
,
( /#). , , .
,
( FRAME* IRDY#
).
, .
.
( Camletiori)
.
- (Time-out) ,

( GNT#) , Latency
Timer. ,

. ( - )
GNT#
. (Master-Abort),

(DEVSEL*).
; STOP*. .
(Retry) STOP* TRDY*
. , -
(16
).
.
(Disconnect) STOP*
. STOP*
TRDY* ,
. STOP*
TRDY*, .
,
.
(Target-Abort) STOP*
DEVSEL* (
STOP* DEVSEL* ).
. ,
, .

182-: __________________________________________________________ 6.

,
.

6.2.3. ,
-
, .
.
(target initial latency),
TRDY* FRAME*,
16-.
, STOP*,
. ,
.
16 ,
(Delayed Transaction). ,
(Incremental Latency
Mechanism),
(target subsequent latency) 8 .
, .
,
, 16 8 ,
.

FRAME* IRDY* (master data latency)
8 .
(, ,
),
. (maximum
complete time) 10 334 33 668
66 ,
.

, . ,
,
,
. ,
, .
,
,
(Latency Timer), ,
.
FRAME*, .

FRAME* GNT* .

6.2. PCI ________________________________________________________ 183

FRAME*
, .
GNT#
, ,
FRAME*.
.
GNT# ,
(
) (
) .
(arbitration latency)
REQ#
GNT#. ,
( , )
.
,
.
,
(Max_Lat) ,
(Mi n_GNT).
.

, . 5 /
, , 4 .
32 .
, ,
.
,
(
, ,
).
Fast Ethernet
( 10 /),
64- , .
,
,
. 8 ( 0,25
33 ), MIN_GNT=1.
10 / 3,2
, AX_L = 12 (
0,25 ).

6.2.4. ,
,
. -

184 ______________________________________ 6.

4 ( ),
(. ). AD,
, /[3:0]#
.
. ;
, .
ISA, PCI
32- .
PCI (
, 8255, 8-
),
, 32-
AD.
, .
, ,
AD[31:2]; AD[1:0]
:
00 ;
(4 32- 8
64- ).
10 Cacheline Wrap mode,
-.
,
, .
,
, . , 16
32- , xxxxxxOSh,
,
xxxxxxOCh, xxxxxxOOh, xxxxxx04h; xxxxxxlSh, xxxxxxlCh,
xxxxxxlOh, xxxxxx!4h.
(. . 6.2.12).
Cache Line Size,
;
01 11 ,
(Disconnect) .
-
AD[31:0]. AD[31:2]
, ,
AD[1:0] ,
/[3:0]#. AD[1:0]=00
/[3:0]#

1111,
[1:0]01-/[3:0]#
=
011111,[1:0]=10-/[3:0]# = 011 1111, AD[1:0]=11
/[3:0]# = 0111 ( 3) 1111 (
). ,
.
/ (

) IDSEL;
AD[10:8], ( )
AD[7:2], AD[1:0]=00.

6.2. PCI ________________________________________________________ 185

PCI /# (.
6.12).

. ,
.
AD , ( )
. PC
8- 0
( TRDY#).
( ,
86 , ).
,
. ,
, , Master
Abort ( 6 ).

.
AD[15:0], AD[31:16]
, .
,
. OOOOh, 000lh 0002h
(Shutdown), (Halt)
8,
. 0003-FFFFh .
- ,
(. . 6.2.11),
.
-
. AD ,
ADO AD1 ( , #).
PCI 16- 32-. PCI
32 , 86
16 .
, ,
-, ( ), .

(. . 6.2.12).
.
, ,
.
- (. . 6.2.11).
,

32- ( ).
,

-.

.

186 ______________________________________ 6.

32-
64- . 32
, , 32 . PCI 64-
- ( 86 , PCI
).
6.12. PCI

/[3:0]

0000

Interrupt Acknowledge

0001

Special Cycle

0010

I/O Read -

0011

I/O Write -

0100

0101

0110

Memory Read

0111

Memory Write

1000

1001

1010

Configuration Read

1011

Configuration Write

1100

Multiple Memory Read

1101

Dual Address Cycle (DAC)

1110

Memory-Read Line

1111

Memory Write and Invalidate

6.2.5.
PCI
, , , . : 32 , 33
. ,
132 /,
4 (33x4=132).
. PCI
- ,
PCI.
86 32-,
PCI, 4
, .
() ,

, ,
.

6.2. PCI _______________________________________________________ 187

PCI (
)
. ( Pentium)
64- ,
32- 64-.
, 32- ,
.
,
. , ,
PCI MOVSD,
REP.
LODSW, STOSW ( ).

, , , ,
.
,
, , , (
32-
,
, . . 6.2.10).
PCI,
. , ,
(
), .

4 .
(8 ) (16 ),
( PCI).
- (INSW, OUTSW
REP), -
(PIO), ,
PCI.
, ,
: FRAME*
1 , .
, IRDY*
TRDY*.
,
PCI (target) .
,
,
( STOP*), ,
. , , ,
PCI, ,
( 3
) 7 ,

188 ____________________________________ 6.

33 32 33x4/7=18,8
/. 4 (
FRAME* IRDY*) 3 .
MOVSD 8 (33x4/8=16,5
/). PCI-,
FPGA Altera,
.
PCI REP MOWSW 19-21
( 33x4/20=6,6 /).
( 8
FRAME*), ,
.
, (
), 64-
PCI,
.
. 6.7,
( ) .
( 1)
AD. , (turnaround), 2,
TRDY* .
( 3),
. 1
AD ( 4). ,
(4 ) 4 30 (33 ).
(
), 33 /
. AD
, .
, ,
66 /.
, , , 3 1
. , 4 7
(V- 16/(7) / - 76 /), - 5 (V= 16/(5x30) / =
106,6 /). 16
112 /, 125 /.
, . GNT#,
, ( FRAME*
IRDY* ); . ,

, .
, .
,
, .

6.2. PCI ________________________________________________________ 189

,
PCI ,
.
PCI, , ,
.
66 64 ,
. , ,
( , ,
- .),
.
, , -
. , Fast Ethernet (100
/) 13 / (10%
), 26
/. Gigabit Ethernet
(
), 64 /66 .

6.2.6.
PC- PCI
8259,
(. . 12.4),
. PCI
ISA. PCI
(
) INTA#, INTB#, INTC# INTD*.
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
. PCI PCI-
.
(. . 6.2.12). ,
,
,
. ,
,
,
PCI
.
PCI
, (
) .
, INTA#, INTA#
INTB#, .
4 -

190 ________________________________ 6.

4 ,
. - ,

. PCI-
( IDE, , ,
).
() POST,
. CMOS Setup (PCI/PNP
Configuration) ,
PCI. BIOS : INTA#...INTD# ,
PCI
ISA PnP ( Legacy ISA).
POST INTA#...INTD#
.
,
PCI .
PCI
, .
PCI .
, BIOS PCI 14 15 (
IDE, ), 3 4 (-).
( ), PCI,
, (, ),
Interrupt Line.
(255 ),
(. . 12.4).
POST. Interrupt Pin
(!) ,
(1_...1_4) . , ,
Interrupt Pin
,
( 4
), BIOS .
POST
; ,
Interrupt Line. ,
, ,
, (
, PCI BIOS).
. 12.4.1.
.
,
PCI
( ). , ,
.
PCI
, (PCI Message-Based Interrupts).

, ,
.

6.2. PCI _______________________________________________________ 191

, APIC.
APIC.
ICH2 82801 FEC00020h,
0-23L
; APIC,
8259 , .

6.2.7. , ISA
DMA (PC/PCI)
, PCI

8237 ( ISA).

, (PCI Bus
Master).
.
(
) CPU. CPU
,
, .
( ) * ,
CPU.
(DMA). DMA
, . . ,
DMA ISA/EISA.
, ,
, CPU
.
PCI PC-
PCI Intel
PC/PCI DMA, REQi# GNTi#
, DMA.
( PCI) DRQx#
DACKx# , ISA (. . 6.1),
REQi# GNTi#
. DRQx ( ),
REQi#
DRQx, CLK. CLK
- REQi#,
DRQO, DRQ1 DRQ7,
REQ#. GNTi#
, -,
, DACK*
.
, . PC/PCI
DMA .

192 _______________________________________ 6.

6.2.8. ,
PCI
PCI (CMOS),
: 5
3,3 . ,
. 6.13.
( ) ,
(33 66 ).
,
, ,
.
,
. ,
. ,
,
.
FRAME*, TRDY#, IRDY#, DEVSEL*, STOP*,
SERR#, PERR#, LOCK#, INTA#, INTB#, INTC#, INTD#, REQ64* ACK64*
( 2,7
5 8,2 3,3 ),
.
6.13.

,
,
,
Vcc,

-0,5<UIL<0,8
2<UIH <Vcc+0,5
UOL<0,55
UoH^O,8
4,75<Ucc^5,25

3,3

-0,5<UIL<0,3 xVcc
Vcc/aSUiH S Vcc +O.S
UOL<0, 1 xVcc
UOH>0,9xVcc
3,3<Ucc<3,6


: 2 PCI 4 4
2 . ,
PCI -.
, .
,
. -
PCI
.
PCI ,
0,05 . ,
ISA/ EISA MCA. PCI
. PCI-
( )
ISA-.

6.2. PCI

___________________________________________________ 193

(shared slot),
ISA, PCI.
PCI 5
3,3 , . PCI ,
PCI- :
5 , 3,3 . ,
.
12,13 50, 51. 5
50, 51; 3,3 12, 13. PCI
50,51 (5 ) 12,13 (3,3 );
.
.
, +V I/O:
5 +V I/O +5 ;
3,3 +V I/O +(3,3-3,6) ;
5 +5 ;
3,3
+(3,3-3,6) ;


5 3,3 , ,
.
+3,3, +5, +1212 . PCI 2.2
S.SVaux +3,3 ,
# .
5- 32- , 62/62; 64- , 94/94. 64- 32- , ,
, , 32- .

. 66
M66EN. ,
, 66 (
49), , 33 .
, PCI,
(66 33 ). ,
, 64- 66 , 32 33. 33 40-50
, .
. 6.8 32- (Long Card),
(Short Card) 175 ,
. (),
ISA ( MCA
IBM PS/2). .
6.14.

6.

194

. 6.8. PCI
PCI

6.14.


-12

GND

3,

TDO

+5 8

+5

INTB#

INTD#

PRSNT1*

10

PRSNT2#

11

GND/ 3,3 12
GND/ 3,3

13
14

GND

15

CLK

16

GND

17

REQ#

18

+VI/O

19

AD 31

20

AD 29

21

GND

22

AD 27

23

AD 25

24

+3,3

25

C/BE3#

26

AD 23

27

TRST#
+12

GND/M66EN1
GND/ 5

49
50

AD9
GND/ 5

TMS

GND/ 5

51

GND/ 5

TDI

AD 8

52

/*

+5

AD 7

53

+3,3

INTA#

+3,38

54

AD6

INTC#

AD S

55

AD4

+5

AD3

56

GND

GND

57

AD2

+VI/O

AD1

58

ADO

+VI/0

59

+VI/Q

GND/3,3

ACK64#

60

REQ64*

GND/ 3,3

+5

61

+5 8

3.3Vaux2

+5

62

+5

RST#

32-

+VI/0

63

GND

GNT#

GND

64

/7*

GND

/6*

65

/5*

PME#2

/4#

66

+VI/O

AD 30

GND

67

PAR64

+3,3

AD63

68

AD62

AD 28

AD61

69

GND

AD 26

+VI/O

70

AD60

GND

AD59

71

AD58

AD 24

AD57

72

GND

IDSEL

GND

73

AD56

+3,3 8

AD55

74

AD54

195

6.2. PCI

GND

28

AD 22

AD 53

75

+VI/O

AD 21

29

AD 20

GND

76

AD 52

AD 19

30

GND

AD 51

77

AD 50

+3.3

31

AD 18

AD 49

78

GND

AD 17

32

AD 16

+VI/O

79

AD 48

/2#

33

+3,3

AD 47

80

AD 46

GND

34

FRAME*

AD 45

81

GND

IRDY#

35

GND

GND

82

AD 44

+3,3

36

TRDY#

AD 43

83

AD 42

DEVSEL*

37

GND

AD 41

84

+VI/O

GND

38

STOP#

GND

85

AD 40

LOCK#

39

+3,3

AD 39

86

AD 38

PERR#

40

(SDONE#)

AD 37

87

GND

+3,3 8

41

(SBOFF#) 3

+VI/O

88

AD 36

SERR#

42

GND

AD 35

89

AD 34

+3,3

43

PAR

AD 33

90

GND

C/BE1#

44

AD 15

GND

91

AD 32

AD 14

45

+3,3

92

GND

46

AD 13

93

GND

AD 12

47

AD 11

GND

94

AD 10

48

GND

64-

1
2
3

M66EN PCI 2.1 3,3 .


PCI 2.2 ( ).
PCI 2.2 (

5 ).

PCI
JTAG ( , TDI, TOO, TMS TRST#).
,
,
. , JTAG,
TDI-TDO.
PCI
Media Bus, ISA.
PCI ,
ISA.

6.2.9. PCI
PCI ;
www.pcisig.org (,
).

196 ______________________________________ 6.

Low-Profile PCI PCI


, .
( riser card)
(, 19" 2U).
3,3 ( 5
).
Small PCI (SPCI) PCI ,

SFFPCI
(Small
Form-Factor).

,
, , ,
PCI. 32-, 64-
, 33
132 /. PCI/
(bus mastering).
CLKRUN,
.
SPCI PC Card Card Bus,
. SPCI
108-
2 .
,
0,8 . SPCI
(
)
Card BUS (
). SPCI :
5 , 3,3 5/3,3 .
( ) . SPCI
(
),
( Card Bus).
Mini PCI Specification
PCI
(2,75"xl,81"xO,22"). PCI (32 ),
CLKRUN
JTAG. - .
PCI-X ,
1 /: 133 64 .

PCI,
66
33 . ,
(, ),
.
1995 Compact PCI. Compact PCI (cPCI)
PCI 2.1.
PCIMG (PCI
Industrial Computer Manufacturers Group).
: 8 4. 4
.

6.2. PCI _________________________________________________________ 197

32- 64- ( ). 33
133 / 32 266 / 64 (
). 66 .
PnP. ,
, (
) .
J1 GAO...GA4,
.
,
( PnP
,
). Compact PCI
3U (100 160 ) (J1) 6U (233
160 ) (Ji n J2). 7--
2 , -
, . :

, , .
.
(J1), 32-
. 64-
. -
,
.
, . J2
, J1 J2 95 J3. J2
(,
).
+5 , +3,3 12 .
Compact PCI National Instruments
PXI (PCI extensions for Instrumentation PCI
) . PXI
, Compact PCI ,
. Trigger Bus (8 )
( PCI)
.
, .
10 PXI_CLK,
( )
. PXI ,
. 13 ,
, ( 48 )
. (
), .
PXI :
Windows NT/95,
-

198 _______________________________________ 6.

. , .
PXI Compact PCI, Compact PCI
PXI.
PXI PXI.

6.2.10. PCI
PCI
PCI (PCIBridge).
(Host Bridge) PCI
( ), (Peer-to-PeerBridge)
PCI.
PCI
. ,
.
( )
PCI,
. PCMCIA, CardBus, MCA,
ISA/EISA, X-Bus LPC ,
PCI
().
, . (
PCI-PCI)
.

-, .
()

.
, PCI (routing)
. ,
, ,
.
DEVSEL*. , PCI,
, , ISA/EISA.
. PCI ( )
, ,
(
-). .
(positive decoding)
, ,
. -
(subtractive decoding) ,
. (
) , .
,
.

6.2. PCI _________________________________________________________199

,
-. ,
1 (. . 6.2.11): ,
. PCI
, :
REQx#


GNTx#;
;
;

( IDSEL
PCI);
REQ64*

64- ( ).
, , , PCI. ,
, ,
.
PCI

Concurrent PCI Transferring
PCI Concurrency. ,
PCI
PCI.
, PCI, ,
.
, AGP (
PCI, . . 6.3),
PCI , ,
PCI
.


. ( ) CMOS Setup.
( ) (, ISA)
(delayed transaction).
. ,
( ),
, , .
-

200 ______________________________________ 6.

STOP*
( ),
.
( ). ,
, ,
, .

,
. -
, .
(discard timer),
.
, ,
.
,

.
( Pref etchable).
, , ,
, . ,

. , . . ,
( , , ).
, ,
(posted write). ,
,
.
. , ,
. ,
.
.
,
, - .
- ,
, . ,
, ,
.

6.2. PCI ________________________________________________________ 201


. , , . , 0, 4,
Ch (write combining)
, (
8) /[3:0]# .
(byte merging)
. , , 3,
1, 0 2 ,
.
(
),
.
.
(
) , , . PCI

, .
,
Prefetchable.
PCI VGA Palette Snooping
VGA,
-.
PCI AGP,
PCI. VGA-
(Palette Registers),
-.
,
VESA Feature
Connector ( ),
, .
,
( PCI AGP),
, (
ISA). CMOS Setup PCI VGA Palette
Snoop. -
,
, .
. PCI.
, DEVSEL* TRDY*
,
ISA. ,
.

202_______________________________________ 6.

6.2.11.


PCI ,

, -.
. PC ,
2.2 (Configuration Mechanism #1).
, ,
PCI BIOS.
(
PCI), IDSEL
( ).
. IDSEL
,
AD (
32- ).

, . ,
IDSEL.
1 - 32 OCF8H OCFCh, .
CONFIG_ADDRESS
(RW, CF8h) 32- ,
. 6.9, . CONFIG_DATA
(RW, CFCh)
. CONFIG_ADDRESS 31
.
, ,
.
, (
), 0 ( 1:0=00).
,
AD[31:11 ]; , 1:0=00
(. 6.9,). 0
AD11, 1 AD12, 20 AD31.
, ,
AD11 0 .
PCI, ,
21-31, AD .
IDSEL PCI-
. , , AD31
( ), PCI, ,
, AD12 ( ), .
0 ,
.

203

6.2. PCI

, ,
1.
CONGIG_ADDRESS PCI, (31:24)
1:0 01 (. 6.9, ). ,
, ,
(
) AD[1:0].
3
1

30

24

23

16 15

(0)

1 10
1

10
00

31

IDSEL
)

1 10
1

1 10
1

10
00

31

24
0

23

16 15

10
00

. 6.9. : CONFIG_ADDRESS,
0, 1

,
:
( Master Abort) .

() FFFFFFFFh (
,
).
(peer buses), ,
.
,
PCI BIOS,
( ,
).
CON FI G_DATA,
CONG I G_ ADDRESS [15:8] , [7:0] ,
, , [23:16].

(
),
.
, 0
. -

204 _______________________________________ 6.

, ; 1,
. 1,
,
. ,

CONG I G_ADDRE S 5 CONFIG_DATA,
.
2 -
8- OCF8H OCFAh, .

PCI COOO-CFFF -.
(4 )
PCI,
. CSE (Configuration Space Enable)
OCFSh 7:4 :
-CFFFh
-,
. [3:1] ,
. 1
(Special Cycle Enable, SCE).

COOO-CFFCh
, [2:7]
AD[2:7] ,
[11:8] ( IDSEL)
AD [31:16]. AD[10:8]
CSE, AD[1:0] .
(Forward Register) OCFAh,
( ).
, 1 (. . 6.9, ),
CSE, 4
(AD15=0),
( AD[1:0]=01 AD[31:24]=0 ).
CSE
, 111 SCE=1,
CFOOh.
0
1 (. ).

6.2.12.
( - ).
( )
BIOS PnP.
PCI
256 (8-),
,

6.2. PCI ________________________________________________________ 205

-. Configuration Read Configuration Write,


.
, , .
,
.
,
. ( )
PCI ,
.
IDSEL
. ,
( POST),
.

-.
, , ,
.
.
, , ,
.
, ;
40-FFh.
. 6.10. ,
.
.
Devi ID , .
Vendor ID PCI,
PCI SIG. FFFFh ;

.
Revi si on ID , .
Devi ce ID.
Header Type ( 6:0),
10-3Fh
( 7=1). 0,
PCI. 01 PCIPCI; 02 CardBus.
Class Code , ,
(. . 6.2.13). (
OBh) , ,
( ).

206

31

23

24

16

15

Device lD

Vendor ID

OOh

Status

Command

04h

ClassCode
Header Type

BIST

Latency Timer

Revision ID

08h

Cache Line Size

OCh

Base Address Registers

10h
24h
28h

CardBus CIS Pointer


Subsystem ID

Subsystem Vendor ID

Expansion ROM Base Address

30h
Capabilities
Pointer

Max_Lat

Min_Gnt

2Ch
34h
38h

Interrupt Pin

Interrupt Line

3Ch

. 6.10. PCI

,
, .
Command (RW) ,
PCI. , .
( )
. :
010 Space

-;
1 Memory Space
;
2 Bus Master (
);
3 Special Cycles ;
4 Memory Write& and Invalidate enable
(
, );
5 VGA palette snoop
;

6.2. PCI ________________________________________________________ 207

6 Pari ty Error Response


(
PERR#) (
,
,
);
7 Stepping Control
(address/data stepping) ( ,
, 1,
1);
8 SERR# Enable
SERR# ( , 6=1);
9 Fast Back-to-Back Enable ()

( ,
);
10-15 .
Status , .

, . , RO,
.
. :
" 0-3 ;
4 Capabili ty List (RO, )
( 34h );
5 66 MHz Capable (RO,)66
;
6 ;
7Fast Back-to-Back Capable (RO, )
(fast back-to-back)
;
8 Master Data Parity Error (
) ,
6 , , (
) ( ) PERR#;
10:9 DEVSEL Timi ng : 00 , 01
, 10 (
DEVSEL* , Configuration Read Configuration
Write); 11 Signaled Target Abort
, ;
12 Received Target Abort ,
;
13 Received Master Abort
, (
);

208 _______________________________________ 6.

14 Si gnaled System Error ,


SERR#;
15 Detected Parity Error,
.
Cache Line Size (RW) (0-128,
2, 0). ,
( ,
).
.
.
Latency Timer (RW) (. . 6.2.4)
. (
, 8
).
BIST (RW) .
:
7 BIST;
6 : ,
(
2 );
5:4 (0);
3:0 : 0 .
Card Bus CIS Pointer ()
Card Bus PCI+Card Bus.
Interrupt Line( RW)
(0-15 IRQO-IRQ15,255
).
Interrupt Pin (RO) , : 0
, 1 - INTA#, 2 - INTB#, 3 - INTC#, 4 - INTD#, 5-FFh - .
Mi n_GNT (RO) ,
33 ,
0,25 .
Max_Lat (RO)
, 0,25 (0
).
Subsystem ID ( ) Subsystem Vendor ID (
PCI SIG) ,
(

Devi ID Vendor ID). 2Ch
PCI (
0, , ).

6.2. PCI ________________________________________________________ 209

Capability Poi nte (CAP_PTR)


(), ( 1:0=00).

(CAP_I D, PCI SIG),
(
), .
.
Base Address Registers -^ . 0=0. 2:1 : 00
32- , 10 64- (
4- ),
01 11 (01
). 3 (Prefetchable) ,
,
[3:0]#
( ); .
31:4 . 0=1; 1 -0 ();
31:2 .

.

( ),
FFFFFFFFh .

( 3:0 1:0 ), 32-


( 31:16 ).
, 2"
.
Expansion ROM Base Address
. 0 ; 1-10
; 11-31 . ,
(. ).
( 1 ).

6.2.13. PCI
PCI
(3 Class
Code). , ,
( ).
,
PCI BIOS.
(, 01:01:80 IDE 07:00:01
16450)
.
PCI SIG, www.pcisig.com.
, , .
80h .

210 ______________________________________ 6.

6.2.14. PCI BIOS


PCI
BIOS, ,
. ,
PCI,
, ,
, (. ).

-, ,
BIOS ,
. PCI BIOS
, ,
, PCI BIOS.
PCI BIOS
.
,
,
.

,

-.
PCI BIOS 16- , V86 16 , I nt lAh.
.
OOOFFE6EH
( I nt lAh)
. 32-
,
32- ,
CF . 32-

PCI. ( 1024 ). PCI BIOS:

- BlOlh PCI BIOS;


- B102h ;
- ;
= 106h PCI;
= BIOS, B109 BlOAh ,
PCI;
= 10, 10, BlODh ,
PCI.

6.3. AGP __________________________________ 211

6.2.15. PCI
PCI ,
PCI-
. ,
.
PCI, ,
,
.
.
PCI
. PCI
(target transactions),
.
,
DMA . (host initiated DMA),
(target initiated DMA),
.
,
, .
www.plxtech.com,
.
PCI
FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array ).
PCI-,
10-15 (.
www.xilink.com, www. altera.com). FPGA 20, 30
40
, FIFO . .
ISA PCI
- PCI-ISA (., , www.iss-us.com).

6.3.
AGP

PCI, 66 32
264 /.
.

,
, .
, .
,
.
-

6.

212

, .
, .
Intel PCI 2.1
AGP (Accelerated Graphic Port
). 1996 ,
2.0 (1998 ),
4. 2000 . Intel
AGP8X,
, ;
.
AGP 32- 66
, PCI.
PCI, AGP ,

,
PCI.
100 , AGP 2.0, AGP8X
66,6 (
PCI). :
;
(2) (4)
( );
.

. 6.11,
PCI AGP. PCI
( ). AGP
,
.

. 6.11. PCI AGP


66 533 (2) 1066 / (4), 32 .
, ( ATA Ultra DMA).
2 4 ,
, .
6.3. AGP

_____________________________ 213

()
.
AGP 8
SBA (SideBand Address), ,
.

AGP, AD.
AGP
, SD- (

). AGP
,
AGP ( )
( )
PCI. AGP 64-
Pentium .
,
PCI. Intel AGP
6, AGP
Pentium.
, AGP

. AGP
-:
,
PCI (Fast Write);
, ,
;

, .
AGP PCI AGP. , AGP,
AGP,
AGP+PCI.
AGP ( AGP )
PCI (
. .);
PCI. AGP .
PCI ,
- .
PCI, ,
FRAME* PCI (. . 6.2).
, AD ,
,
,
.

214

6.


, .

. (
PCI) ,
PCI.
AGP ( AGP)
; AGP
,
.
. AGP
- PCI,
PCI. , AGP,
PCI,
FWXFast Write),
AGP (2 4),
AGP, PCI. FW

.
AGP . 6.12. AGP
:

IDLE ;
DATA ;
AGP AGP;
PCI PCI.

. 6.12. AGP

IDLE PCI (
, ) AGP (
). PCI PCI ,
. A GP
(
PIPE* SBA), ;
. DATA
, ,
. ,
. PCI (
) GP (

6.3. AGP ______________________________________ 215

), AGP. AGP ,
.
AGP, (REQ#
PCI)
. AGP
PCI.
, .
.
,
, PCI. ,
8 , 8- .
PCI;
/[3:0]#
.
.
.
, , PCI.
AGP ( ),
,
.
AD[31:0] /[3:0] PIPE#,
CLK
.
(sideband) SBA[7:0].
,
AD.
(1, 2 4).
AD PIPE*
AGP () /[3:0], AD
( AD[31:3]) ( AD[2:0])
. :
0000 (Read) (+1) ( 8 )
, ;
0001 (HP Read) ;
0100 (Write) ;
0101 (HP Write) ;
1000 (Long Read) (+1)4 ( 256
);
1001 (HP Long Read) ;
1010 (Flush) ,
( AGP ,
;
, , );

216 _______________________________________ 6.

1100 (Fence) ,
;
1101 (Dual Address Cycle, DAC) 64-
: AD
, ( AD)
( /[3:0]).
SBA[7:0] 16-
. ,
. :
1: ALLL (LLL)
([14:03]>;
2:10 CCRA ()
([23:15]);
3: 110R ([35:24]);
4:1110 ,
64- .
(NOP);
SBA. R . 2,3 4
(sticky) , ,
.
1, ,

2-4.
.
SBA .
1 CLK;
( ) , 1111111lb,
.
CLK (
).
2 SBA SB_STB,
, .
( ) CLK,
CLK.
4 ()
SB_STB#. SB_STB,
SB_STB#. ,
CLK, CLK .
, ( ) NOP 10, 5 2,5 CLK
1, 2 4 .

6.3. AGP ________________________________

217

AGP ,
AGP /.
AGP ( ),
.
A GP , DA
TA. , AGP
/. AGP ( ),
.
AD
ST[2:0] ( GNT#, 100-110
):
000
, (
);
001
;
010
;

;
111
AGP ( 1#) PCI ( FRAME*).
, . ,
, (
). (, , 6) AGP . 4
( , ,
, ).
;
,
. (
) .
(
, ).
AGP ,
PCI. AGP
, , , .
, AGP 256 .
PnP
( )
. ,
( , ),
- (
).

218 ______________________________________ 6.

AGP , PCI,
, PCI. AGP
1 PCI,
(
). 2 4
.
1 (4 AD[31:0])
CLK,
66,6 4 = 266 /.
2 AD_STBO AD_STB 1
AD[0:15] AD [16:31] .
, ,
. CLK,
66,6 2 4 = 533 /.
4 ()
AD_STBO# AD_STB1#. ,
. , CLK,
66,6 2 2 4 = 1066
/.
AGP
, .
RBF# (Read Buffer Full)
(
). WBF# (Write
Buffer Full)
(Fast Write, FW).
AGP ,
PCI,
(. . 6.2.12). AGP-
IDSEL
AD16,
AGP AD16=1.
POST
, AGP . AGP
, AGP:
, , 4 ,
.
AGP,
AGP,
.
( ).,
AGP :
, , ,
4 , 1, 2, 4.
AGP , CAP_PTR,
CAP_ID=02 ( [7:0]) AGP (
[23:20] , [19:16] ).

6.3. AGP

219

AGP ( CAP_PTR+4) :
[31:24] RQ, ,
: 0 1 , 255 256 ;
[23:10] - (0);
9 SB A, ;
[8:6] (0);
5 4G, 4 ;
4 FW, ;
3 (0);
[2:0] RATE, AD SBA: 0
1, 1 2, 2 4.
AGP .
AGP ( CAP_PTR+8) :

[31:24] RQ_DEPTH, ;
[23:10] - (0);
9 5BA_ENABLE, ;
8 AGP_ENABLE, AGP;
[7:6] (0);
5 4G, 4 (
4- SBA);
4 FW_Enable, ;
3 (0);
[2:0] DATA_RATE, : 0 1, 1
2, 2 4 ( ).
AGP
, ,
AGP. AGP PCI (. 6.13),
( EISA)
.
, PCI.
AGP
: 3,3 1,5 ( RST# CLK
3,3 ).
. 1 2
, 4
1,5 . 2 4
Vref. 3,3 0,4xVddq, 1,5
0,5xVddq.
. 66 (Vrefgc)
, 66 (Vrefcg) ()
AGP.

220

6.

. 6.13. AGP: 3,3 ,1,5,

AGP : 3,3
, 1,5 , ,
. 3,3
22-25 ( , . . 6.13, ,
); 1,5 42-45.
,
.
TYPEDET* 3,3
, 1,5 .
Vddq
(3,3 1,5 ). .
AGP . 6.15,
3,3/1,5 .
, ,
, . -
VCC3.3, 4,
( 1
). 3,3Vaux,
#
.
6.15. AGP

12V
TYPEDET

1
2
3

OVRCNTff
5.0V
5.0V

Vddq
AD22
AD20

34
35
36

Vddq
AD21
AD19

USBGND

4
5

USB+
GND

GND
AD18

37
38

GND
AD17

INTA*

INTB#

AD16

39

C/BE2*

RST#

CLK

Vddq

40

Vddq

GNT#
VCC3.3

8
9

REQ#
VCC3.3

FRAME*
/ 1,5

41
42

IRDY#
3,3Vaux/IOii04 1,5

221

6.3. AGP

ST1

10

STO

GND/fc04l,5B

43

GND/ 1,5

11

ST2

/ 1,5

44

/ 1,5

PIPE

12

RBF#

./1,5

45

./1,5

GND

13

GND

TRDY*

46

DEVSEL#

14

STOP*

47

Vddq3.3

SBA1

15

SBAO

48

PERR#

VCC3.3

16

VCC3.3

GND

49

GND

SBA3

17

SBA2

PAR

50

SERR#

SB_STB#'

18

SB_STB

AD15

51

C/BE1*

GND

19

GND

Vddq

52

Vddq

SBA5

20

SBA4

AD13

53

AD14

SBA7

21

SBA6

AD11

54

AD12

3,3 /

22

3,3 /

GND

55

GND

3,3 B/GND

23

3,3 B/GND

AD9

56

AD10

3,3 /

24

3,3 B/3,3Vaux

C/BE0#

57

AD8

3,3 B/VCC3.3

25

3,3 B/3,3Vaux

Vddq

58

Vddq

AD30

26

AD31

AD_STBO#1

59

AD_STBO

028

27

AD29

AD6

60

AD7

VCC3.3

28

VCC3.3

GND

61

GND

AD26

29

AD27

AD4

62

ADS

AD24

30

AD25

AD2

63

AD3

GND

31

GND

Vddq

64

Vddq

32

AD_STB1

ADO

65

AD1

33

AD23

Vrefgc2

66

Vrefcg2

AD_STB1#
/*
1
2

3,3 ( 4).
1.

AGP, AGP USB,


( USB+, USB- OVRCNT*,
+5 ,
).
#
(Power Management Interface). 3,3Vaux
.
A GP Pro ,
4 , .
: AGP AGP
Pro, . AGP Pro
AGP (. 6.14) GND
3,3 12 , . 6.16.

AGP Pro
. AGP Pro 1-2 PCI:
( -

6.

222

), , PCI.

. 6.14. AGP Pro ( 1,5 ): ,

6.16. AGP Pro

VCC3.3
VCC3.3
VCC3.3
VCC3.3
VCC3.3
VCC3.3
VCC3.3
VCC3.3
PRSNT2*
PRSNT1*

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

VCC3.3
GND
VCC3.3
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND

GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND

1
2

GND
GND

12
13

VCC12
VCC12
VCC12
VCC12
VCC12
VCC12
VCC12
VCC12
VCC12
VCC12
VCC12

GND

14

VCC12

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

6.4. LPC

223

AGP Pro 110 ,


3,3 ( 7,6 ) 12 ( 9,2 )
AGP, AGP Pro -
PCI. AGP Pro (High Power, 50-110 )
2 PCI, (Low Power, 25-50 ) 1 .

. , .
PRSNT1 #
( ), a PRSNT2* ( 50
, 110 ).
AGP8X :
AD SBA 8,
2,132 /;
;
(
);
1#;
, GART;
,
.
; AGP;
, GART;
.

6.4. LPC
LPC (Low Pin Count )
, X-Bus
ISA: , , ,
, BIOS . .
ISA
. , ISA:
- -, DMA (bus
mastering). .
ISA/X-Bus 24- ,
16 , LPC 32-
, 4 . 16-
64 .
PCI,
.
ISA/X-Bus, - .
LPC - PCI.

224 _______________________________

6.

. LPC 1.0
, .
FIFO
DMA. LPT-
2 / 47 % .
4 / (11,4 %).
( , -, ) ,
75 % .
, ISA/X-Bus LPC
, .
7 :

LAD[3:0] ;
LFRAME* , ;
LRESET# , , RST# PCI;
LCLK (33 ), , CLK PCI;

LPC:
LDRQ* DMA/Bus Master ;
SERIRQ ( ),
, IRQ ISA;
CLKRUN* , (
), ,
DMA/BusMaster , PCI;
# (Power Management
Event), , PCI;
LPCPD# Power Down,

;
L.SMI* SMI# -.

LFRAME*

LAD[3:0]

(
) LCLK. LAD[3:0]
.
LPC . 6.15.
LFRAME*, LAD[3:0] START.
LFRAME* LAD[3:0],
START
. LFRAME*
LAD[3:0] CYCTYPE. LFRAME#
, ( START)
. LFRAME*
(, -),
.

3.4. LPC

225

. 6.15. LPC

START :
0000 ;
0010 0;
1;
1111 (abort).
.
CYCTYPE . 0
(0 , 1 ), [2:1] (00 , 01
, 10 DMA, 11 ), 3 (0).
TAR (Turn-Around) LAD[3:0],
2 . 1111,
.
ADDR . 8
(32 ), - 4 .
( ).
DATA . 2 ,
.
. SYNC
, .
( ):
0000 ( ), DMA
;
0101 ( );
0110 ;
1001 DMA (
);
1010 : , ,
PCI ISA SERR* # ( DMA
).

226 ______________________________________ 6.

,
-. , . , ,
, . ,
, 8
-.
,
. SYNC
, ,
- -. ( )
SYNC .
. 6.16
( , ).
. ,
5 SYNC ( EPROM 120 ),
21 (0,63 ), 1,59 /.
, .
SYNC 1 , 17 (0,51
), 1,96 /.
(1 SYNC)
13 (0,39 ), 2,56 / .
| START

CYCTYPE

ADDR

TAR

lsyNc

DATA

TAR

| START

CYCTYPE

ADDR

DATA

TAR

SYNQ

TAR

. 6.16. : ,

DMA
LDRQ* ,
.
DMA , . 6.17.
-,
ACT: 1 ( ) , 0 .
4 ( 100) (
DMA).
.
, SYNC. ,
DMA (. 6.18) ,
. :
SIZE : 0000 1 , 0001 2 ,
0011 4 , ;
CHANNEL DMA (
[2;0])
(, 3).

227

6.4. LPC

. 6.17. DMA

START

CYCTYPE

CHANNEL

SIZE

DATA

TAR

,SYNC TAR |

START

CYCTYPE

CHANNEL

SIZE

TAR

SYNC

DATA

TAR

. 6.18. DMA: a ,

, (1, 2 4 ),
( DMA) 11,18 32
(0,33, 0,54 0,96 ), 3,03,
3,70 4,17 / . 11,14 20
(0,33, 0,42 0,60 ),
3,03,4,76 6,67 /.
, 2 4 .
,
, 4 (100).
, START ,
(. 6.19).
( , PCI). 2 4- ,
,
PCI . 6
( , ) SYNC,
( , ) 25,27 31 (0,75, 0,81 0,93
), 1,33, 2,47 4,30 /.
21, 23 27
(0,63, 0,69 0,81 ), 1,59,
2,90 4,94 /.
| START

TAR CYCTYPE

ADDR

SIZE

TAR

SYNC

DATA

TAR

| START

TAR CYCTYPE

ADDR

SIZE .

DATA

TAR

SYNC

TAR

. 6.19. (Bus Master): a ,


()

LAD[3:0], LFRAME#, LDRQ#


SERIRQ PCI 2.1 3,3 .
5 ,
3,3 .

228 ______________________________________ 6.

LPC
PCI ISA PnP, LPC
BIOS. LPC
LPC.

6.5.

,
. , . 6.17.
6.17.

PC Card

Small PC Card

85,6
54,0
3,3/5,0/10,5

68
, -, CardBus

45,0
42,8
3,3/5,0/10,5

68
, -

PCMCIA.
PC Card. (
) -
(. . 9.3).
PC Card
-, PCI ISA. (1-2
) 3" ;
-.

6.5.1. PCMCIA, PC Card CardBus


90- PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card
International Association
)
,
. PCMCIA Standard Release
1.0/JEIDA 4.0 ( 1990 .), 68-
: I II PC Card.
.
CIS (Card Information Structure),
,
PnP.

6.5. ___________________________ 229

PCMCIA 2.0 (1991 .)


-, ,
. 2.01 PC
CardATA, III,
AIMS (Auto-Indexing Mass Storage)
(Card Services Specification). 2.1 (1994 .)
(Card and Socket Services
Specificaiton) CIS.
PC Card (1995 .) ;
: 3,3 , DMA 32-
CardBus.
.
PCMCIA PC Card 68- ,
.
, , ,
.
8- 16- 100
, 10 20 /
. -
255 , 3,92/7,84 / 8-/16-
. CardBus
, PCI, .
33 32
132 /,
(bus mastering).
, PCI (
).
,
, ( )
(PWM).
PC Card
(. . 9.2.1).
4 PC Card: 54 85,5 ,
( ):
PC Card Type I 3,3 ;
PC Card Type II 5 -, ,
;
PC Card Type III 10,5 ;
PC Card Type IV 16 ( www.pccard.com ).
Small PC Card 45 42,8
.
(, , -) PCMCIA Miniature Card (. . 9.3.4).

6.

230


. 6.18, -
. 6.19. CardBus
, , PCI (.
. 6.2.2).
6.18. PC Card


16

32

16
Mem

l/O+Mem

32
CardBus

Mem

l/O+Mem

CardBus

1
2

GND
D3

GND
D3

GND
CADO

35
36

GND
CD1#

GND
CD1#

GND
CCD1#

D4

D4

CAD1

37

D11

D11

CAD2

D5

D5

CAD3

38

D12

D12

CAD4

D6

D6

CAD5

39

D13

D13

CAD6

D7

D7

CAD7

40

D14

D14

1#

CE1#

CCBEO*

41

D15

D15

CAD8

10

A10

CAD9

42

CE2#

CE2#

CAD10

OE#

CAD11

43

VS1#

VS1#

CVS1

10

11

A11

CAD12

44

IORD#

CAD13

11

A9

CAD14

45

IOWR#

CAD15

12

A8

CCBE1*

46

A17

A17

CAD 16

13

13

A13

CPAR

47

A18

A18

14

14

A14

CPERR#

48

A19

A19

CBLOCK#

15

WE#

WE#

CGNT#

49

A20

A20

CSTOPff

16

READY

IREQ#

CINT#

50

A21

A21

CDEVSEL*

17

Vcc

Vcc

VCC

51

Vcc

Vcc

Vcc

18

Vpp1

Vpp1

Vpp1

52

VPP2

Vpp2

Vpp2

19

A16

A16

CCLK

53

A22

A22

CTRDY

20

A15

A15

CIRDY*

54

A23

A23

CFRAME#

21

A12

A12

CCBE2#

55

A24

A24

CAD17

22

A7

A7

CAD 18

56

A25 .

A25

CAD 19

23

A6

A6

CAD20

57

VS2#

VS2#

CVS2

24

A5

A5

CAD21

58

RESET

RESET

CRST#

25

A4

A4

CAD22

59

WAIT#

WAIT#

CSERR#

26

A3

A3

CAD23

60

INPACK*

CREQ#

27

A2

A2

CAD24

6t

REG#

REG#

CCBE3*

28

A1

A1

CAD25

62

BVD2

SPKR#

CAUDIO

29

CAD26

63

BVD1

STSCHG*

CSTSCHG

30

DO

DO

CAD27

64

D8

D8

CAD28

31

D1

D1

CAD29

65

D9

D9

CAD30

32

D2

D2

66

D10

D10

CAD31

33

WP

IOIS16

CCLKRUN*

67

CD2#

CD2#

CCD2#

34

GND

GND

GND

68

GND

GND

GND

6.5.

231

6.19. -

I/O

[10:0]
I
BVD1.BVD2 I/O
STSCHGff
I/O
SPKR#

CD1#,CD2#

1#,2#

D[15:0]
INPACK

I/O
0
1
1

IORD#
IOWR
#
OE#
RDY/BSY
# IREQ#
INTRQ
REG#

11
00
1

RESET
VS1#,VS2#

WAIT

WE#
WP

0
1

IOCS16#


Battery Volt Detection
() RDY/BSY* Write
Protect.
Card Config and Status Register
() ( )
Card Detect ( ),
,
(, Mem) Card Enable ()
. 2# ,
1 # , 2#.
8- 16-
D[7:0]
( 8- D[15:8] )
() Input Acknowledge ,
IORD* (
)

(
)
, CIS
( )
( ) ( )
(Mem).
-. IDE
( Vcc )
( )
Voltage Sense .
VS1 #
3,3
( )
( IDE
, Vcc)
Write Protect ( ),

16-

-
.
#, .
#,
WE#. ,
,
,

232 ______________________________________ 6.

REG#, # .
- IORD* IOWR#;
REG#.
16-
IOSC16* ( ISA).
INPACK*,
#. ,
.
PC Card
(DMA). DMA ,
, ,
ISA. PCI
CardBus, ,
.
ZVPort (Zoomed Video),
-.
VFC
,
( ), . ZV Port
[25:4], BVD2/SPKR*, INPACK* IOIS16#
4
. 4 ,
16 .
ZV CCIR601,
NTSC
VGA.
, MPEG.
,
,
. (Card Information Structure, CIS). (, ).
MFPC (Multiple Function PC Cards)
( ) .
,
FAT MS-DOS, -
.
, , XIP (eXecute In Place),
(
).
(Card Services),
(,
-

6.5.

___________________ 233

) .
(Socket Services), ,
- , ,
.
,
, PC Card.
PCMCIA (AIMS)
(,
) - .
15-
(15-pin Shielded Modem I/O connector)
7- (7-pin Modem I/O connector).
JEDIA Small Block Flash
Format, . SISRIF (Still Image,
Sound and Related Information Format)
.
.
PnP
.
, ,
.
CD1 # CD2# (Card Detect)
, .
,
.
-
+5 . (3,3 )
, 3,3 ,
5 . , 43 (VS1#) 57
(VS2#) . 5
; 3,3 VS1# , a VS2# .
, ,
.
, ,
.
(),
.
PC Card ,
, , ,
, . ., ,
. PC Card
-,

234 ______________________________________ 6.

.
.
PC Card ;
PCI PCI-PC Card.
Small PCI (SPCI, . . 6.2.9),
.

PC,
, -, ,
, , .
,
.

7.1.
D&4M(Dynamic RAM)
,
, .

,
( )
.
,
(
).
DRAM
.
MA (Multiplexed Address) RAS#
(Row Access Strobe) CAS# (Column Access Strobe).
. 7.1.
7.1.

RAS#

Row Access Strobe .


; .
( )
, RAS (TRP RAS precharge time)

236 _________________________________ 7.
7.1 ()

CAS#

MAi

WE#

Column Access Strobe .


; ()
.
( ) ,
CAS (TCP CAS precharge time)
Multiplexed Address .
RAS# , CAS#
.
. 4
11 11
12x10
Write Enable .
CAS# WE# (Early Write , ),
WE# CAS# (Delayed Write ). WE#
CAS# ,
EDO DRAM

Output Enable .


DB-ln
Data Bit Input ( ) DB-Out
Data Bit Output (
).
RAS#, CAS#, OE# WE#;
.
EDO CAS#.

DQx
Data Bit
(
)

N.C.

No Connection

,
( ) RAS# CAS# (
). WE# CAS#.
. 7.1.
,
( RAS#) , TRAC,
. DRAM
, ,

CMOS Setup.
^ (RAS Access Time)
RAS (.
). ,
,
(-7 -70
70 ). 40-100 .

237

7.1.

. 7.1.

(cycle time)
(Twc TRC ).
75-125 .
( CAS#)
(Page CAS Time - . . 7.1.1).
RAS# CAS# TRAS TCAS
( ) (.
).
RAS CAS TRP, (RAS CAS Precharge
Time)
.
RAS# CAS# TRCD (RAS to CAS Delay).
CAS# (TCAC).
. .
7.2 ,
.
CMOS Setup,
,
.
7.2. DRAM

-5
-6
-7

TRC,

75
100
104
110

40
50
60
70

15
20
25
30

)
6
8
10
12

6
8
10
12

238

7.

, , SDRAM, DDR
SDRAM Rambus DRAM ,
.
( )
, (Memory Refresh )
( ) .
,
CAS#, ROR (RAS Only Refresh
RAS#). CBR (CAS
Before RAS),
. RAS#
CAS# (
). - ROR
, CBR
. (hidden refresh)
CBR.
CBR Auto Refresh. Self
Refresh Sleep Mode
.

7.1.1. FPM, EDO


BEDO DRAM
, . 7.1,
,
.
RAS#
, ,
.
FPM (Fast Page Mode), (Page
Mode), . 7.2.
(row),
RAS# .

, ,
. FPM
, (Std).

. 7.2. DRAM (FPM)

7.1.

239

EDO DRAM (Extended Enhanced Data Out) (data latch) ,


.
CAS#,
.
-
# (Output Enable), CAS#
RAS#, WE#, CAS#
( PC # ).
EDO- . 7.3;
(Hyper Page mode).
CAS#
.
CAS#,
CAS#.
,
40 %.

. 7.3. EDO DRAM (HPM)

EDO DRAM
,
. ,
.
EDO-
WE#,
CAS# (. 7.4, ).
RAS# (. 7.4, ).

. 7.4. EDO DRAM

240

7.

,
EDO . EDO-
(
486).
BEDO DRAM (Burst EDO) - , CAS#,
.
(. 7.5), 2-,
3- 4- CAS# .

CAS#,
, .

. BEDO- SIMM-72 DIMM,
.

. 7.5. BEDO DRAM

. , RAS# CAS#, -
( ) .
, .

7.1.2. SDRAM DDR


SDRAM
SDRAM (Synchronous
DRAM) .
SDRAM :
,
RAS#, CAS#, WE# ( ) CS# ( )
(. 7.3).
,
.
RAS CAS,
FPM.

7.1.

241

7.3. SDRAM

CLK

I/O

CS#
RAS#,
CAS#, WE#
BSD, BS1
BAD,
BA1
[0:12]

DQx
DQM

Vss,VOD
VSSQI VDDQ

I/O

Clock Input,
Clock Enable ( ).
Power Down, Suspend Self
Refresh
Chip Select ( ).
,

Row Address Strobe, Column Address Strobe, Write Enable ,
( )
Bank Selects Bank Address ,

Address . Bank Activate


. Read/Write [0:9] 11

. 10 Read/Write
( 10=1), Precharge A10=1
( BSO, BS1)
Data Input/Output
Data Mask .
( 2
).
, ( )

.


WR. .

. , CAS Latency (CL),
.
.
SDRAM . 7.6. WR,
RD ,
ACT. PRE.
2, CL - 3.
( CBR
) REF,
(idle) .
SDRAM .
(burst length=l, 2, 4, 8
), (wrap mode: interleave/linear
/) .
(normal), (Multiple
Burst with Single Write).
WB, WT-.

242

7.

, ,
(, burst length=4

).

. 7.6. SDRAM:
RO/CO RO/CO+1, D , RO/C1 RO/C1 +1

( ) . , ( ).
Wri te

DQM.
.
SDRAM ,
.
(Self Refresh)

, .
(Power Down Mode)
NOP INHBT.
.
,
.
CKE=L,
Clock Suspend Mode,
( )
.

243

7.1.

SDRAM :

;
CL (Cas Latency) (2 3);
TRCD RAS-CAS, (2 3);
TRP RAS;
TRC ;

SDRAM, PC , : 66 (
, ),100133
66,6, 100 133 .
. 7.4. SDRAM
; , ,
. -10
66 . -8
100 , , ,
. , , Micron
-8...-8 100 CL = 3, a -8D -8 CL =
2. , .
SDRAM, , , ,
.
7.4. SDRAM
CL TRCD

66

3
2

2
2

3
2

8
7

100

3
3
2

3
2
2

3
2
2

8
7
7

PC 133

3
3
2
2

3
2
3
2

3
2
2
2

9
8
8
8


100 100 /
1 . SDRAM DIMM 8- , 800 /.
133 1064
/.
,
. -
, , .
-

244

_______________________ 7.

,
SDRAM,
. ,
, , FPM EDO DRAM.
DDR SDRAM SDRAM.
(Dual Data Rate ),
DDR SDRAM
(.
7.7). 100 DDR SDRAM
200 / , 8- DIMM
1600 /. (100 )

.
.

CLK CLK# (Differential clock inputs).


.
DQS. :
DQS ,
().
,

DQS.
DQM.
DQS (CLK)
DLL (Delay Locked Loop)
DQS CLK.

( DOS CLK)
.
DDR SDRAM DLL;
.
DLL ( ).
DLL DQS
CLK, , ,
.
SDRAM,
, DDR SDRAM (
DQM) (write latency). CAS
Latency (CL = 2, 2,5, 3).
DDR-II SDRAM,
.

7.1.

245

. 7.7. DDR SDRAM: a , CL =


2, 4; , 4, D1

SDRAM
.
,
. CL (CAS Latency) ,
, ,
CL, , . DDR
SDRAM CL,
. DDR SDRAM - DLL
.

SDRAM SIMM;
DIMM (
) . DDR SDRAM
SDRAM.
. SDRAM 90-
, DDR SDRAM
.

7.1.3. Rambus DRAM


RDRAM (Rambus DRAM) ,
.
- ,
.
() RDRAM ,
. DDR SDRAM,
RDRAM
. RDRAM (16 )
, ,

246

7.

,
.
.
64- 8 , 256- 32 .
,
.
( )
, (
). 16
128 144 ( ) . 1/8
,
RAS CAS. RDRAM
40-53 .
RDRAM (Rambus Channel) - .
, , ,
.

.
400 ,
. ,
800 /. 30
RSL (Rambus System Logic) 4 ,
.
. 7.8. 32 ,
.
,
DEVID. (Device Enumeration)
,
-.
SCK, CMD SIO.

. 7.8. Direct RDRAM

7.1. _______________________________________________ 247


(Clock To Master).
, ( ).
, CFM (Clock From Master)
, .
,
.
DLL (Delay Locked Loop)
DQS CLK.
.
RSL : 0
VTERM = 1,8 , . 1 1,0
. N-
.
, (
). VREF = 1,4
VTERM.
, CTMN
CFM, CFMN . , .
: 3- ROW[2:0], 5 4:0] (2x9 )
DQA[8:0] DQB[8:0]. (
RDRAM) .
, 4 (8
) (10 ). 8 ;
24 , 40 16 8 9 .
( ) ( BEDO SDRAM)
. .
. 7.9,
SDRAM ,
(SDRAM) . ROW ,
.
: ROWA COLC,

. ,
.

, , ,
.

, COLC. ,
, .
.

248

7.

. 7.9. RDRAM

(. 7.10)
.
DRAM SDRAM,
, RDRAM COLC TCWD
( ).
COLC ( ).

( SDRAM CAS Latency 2-3 10
). ,
.
,- 1-5
.
.

. 7.10. RDRAM

RDRAM ,
, . ( D)
,
- (sens amp) (retire)
. ,
( ).
TRTR , TRCD,
.
RDRAM
.
ROW COL ,
-

7.1. ______________________________________________ 249

. , SDRAM.
, ;
.
RDRAM .
,
100-
250- .
RDRAM ( 100 )
; .
.
SCK, CMD SIO

(PDN NAP).
.
,
,
, .
, .
. .
, .
, SIOO SI01
. CMD
,
SIO .
(SDEVID) ,
.

( ) .
SIO,
.
,
DLL.


.
(DEVID),
SDEVID ( ).
RDRAM
. ,
, ,
. , ,
-

250 ____________________________

7.

. RDRAM
Rambus. RDRAM
6 (, 1820, 1840), Pentium 4 (1850 32- ,
RIMM) .
RDRAM
RIMM, .
RIMM (
64, 96, 128 256 ). Intel

. -
Continuity module. RIMM, ,
, Rambus.
, RIMM.
,
(. ).

7.1.4. VC
DRAM
(VirtualChannel Memory
Architecture, !)

.
:
.
.
,
-,
VC DRAM.
VC DRAM 128
, DIMM VC DRAM.
( ) VC DRAM
SDRAM, .
4,8 16
, .
( ) 8 8 ,
8 2
. 16
, 2 .
2
. PRF (Prefetch
) RST (Restore ),
, .
ACT
( ).
( ) , ( PRFA RSTA) ,
- .

7.1. _______________________________________________ 251

(READ WRITE), ,
DRAM SDRAM.
,
(1,2,4,8 16 ),
.
(Read Latency) 2 ,
.
PFR (
ACT) .
4- ,
PRF () READ.
VC DRAM , SDRAM,
REF (
),
, SELF.
, VC DRAM
SDRAM,
. - ,
VC DRAM , SDRAM: SDRAM
, CL (CAS Latency), 2-3 , VC DRAM 4
. VC DRAM
.
.
VC DRAM ,
SDRAM. VC
DRAM , , VIA SiS,
Intel .
VC DRAM DRAM.
(POST) VC DRAM
, EEPROM
, .
VC DRAM

.
SDRAM RDRAM DDR SDRAM.

7.1.5.

1, 2,4 8 ,
- . ,
.
SIPPH SIMM-30 ,
486- .
SIMM-72-pin 4- ,
486 Pentium.

252 _________________________________ 7.

DIMM-168 8- Pentium .
, . DIMM 168-pin
Buffered (1- ), ,
DIMM 2-
( ).
SDRAM.
:' Unbuffered,
Buffered Registered.
DIMM-184 8- DDR SDRAM 6-7
.
RIMM 2- RDRAM 6-7
.
SO DIMM (72 144-pin) 50 RIMM
( ).
AIMM (AGP Inline Memory Module), GPA Card (Graphics
Performance Accelerator) 66- 32- 16-
SDRAM, ,
.
, SIMM
DIMM- : SIMM-30 pin 89
, SIMM-72 108 . DIMM-168 DIMM-184
134 (5,25"), 168- , 184 ( ); , DIMM-184
, . RIMM ,

. RIMM
. , ,
DIMM.
() DIMM-168, 100-Pin
DIMM, AIMM, SO DIMM-144,
( ).
1,4 8
. ,
.
( Parity) 8,32 64

CAS#.
(Parity) 9, 36 72
,
.
(Fake Parity, Parity Generator, Logical
Parity) ,
.
.

253

7.1.

36,40,72 80 .
,
CAS#,
.
ECC-Optimized , .
, .
ECC-on-Simm (EOS) .

, .

.
(Kill Protected Memory) ,
.
( , )
.
SIMM
.
. 7.5,
.
7.5.

1,

SIMM-30.SIPP
SIMM-72

8(9)
32 (36)

0,25-4
1-32

FPM, EDO

5
5

60,70, 80
50,60,70

DIMM-168-I

64(72,80)

8-256

FPM, EDO,
BEDO
FPM, EDO

50, 60,70

DIMM-168-II

64 (72, 80)

8-512

FPM, EDO

5,3,3

50,60,70

DIMM-168-II

64 (72, 80)

8-1024

SDRAM

3,3

66,100,133

DIMM-184

64 (72, 80)

128,256...

DDR SDRAM

2,5

1600,2100

32

SDRAM

3,3

166

100-Pin DIMM

32

4-128

SDRAM

3,3

100,125

100-Pin DIMM

32

4-32

FPM, EDO

3,3

50, 60

SODIMM-72

32(36)

4-32

FPM, EDO

3,3

50, 60

SODIMM-144

64(72)

32,64

FPM, EDO

3,3

50, 60

SODIMM-144

64(72)

32-256

SDRAM

3,3

66,100,125,133

RIMM

16(18)

64,96,
128,256

RDRAM

2,5

600, 700, 800

.
( ).
SDRAM ,
-

254 ________________________________ 7.

( , , ,
CL). 66, PC 100 PC 133
( 66
),
Intel. DDR SDRAM
(/): 1600 (8 , 2 100 ),
2100 (8 , 2 133 ). RDRAM (600, 700 800)
(2 300, 2 356 2 400 )
RDRAM. ,
1200, 1424 1600 /.
SDRAM, Intel, PCXabc-defY, X , ; - CL (Cas Latency, ), b - Trcd
( RAS-CAS), = ( RAS), d - (
), (SPD), f
, Y (R
;
). ,
. SDP
, . , 100-322-620
100 CL - 3 = 60 , SPD 1.2.
PC 100-322-60120. PC100-322-620R ,
.
, SIMM
(SIMMVerter, SIMMSaver). , ,
SIMM-30 SIMM-72 SIMM-72
.
( ),
. ,
, 4- SIMM-30
16- SIMM-72.
,
.



, ( )
.
SIPP
SIMM-30 IBM.
, ( )
. SIMM-72
4 ( - 5),
,
. ,

7,1. ______________________________________________ 255

. SO DIMM-72 7 ,
DIMM-168 10, .
DIMM-168 , SO DIMM-144,
DIMM-184 (Serial Presence
Detection).


12, .
JEDEC, 256
32 32
, 64 (.
7.6). , ,
, . 12
,
, 4-10 .
DIMM-168 3 SA[0:2],

. ()
. SO DIMM-144 ,
,
.
128-255 .
(, ) PC.

0-127
.
.
7.6.


0

1
Serial PD (
: 12 , 2 4 , ODh 8 )
2
: 00 , 01 Std FPM, 02 EDO, 03 Pipelined Nibble (BEDO),
04 SDRAM
3
1 ( 0-3) 2 ( 4-7) 16
( , 1 1 16,2 2 17 . .) ,
4-7
4
( )
5
( )
6-7
( 255, 7 0)
8
: 7TL/5B, 01 LVTTL ( 5 ),
02 HSTL 1.5,03 SSTL 3.3,04 SSTL 2.5
^

256 ________________________________ 7.

7.6 ()
________________________________________________________________
9

DRAM RAS Access time ( ). SDRAM


(Tclk) CL ( BCD-)

10

DRAM CAS Access time ( ). SDRAM


()

11

: 00 Non-Parity, 01 Parity, 02

12

() : 00 Normal ( 156 ),
01 Reduced 0.25 (39 ), 02 Reduced 0.5 (78 ), 03 Extended 2x (313), 04
Extended 4x (625 ), 05 Extended 8x (125 ). 7
( 6:0 )

13

, . 7 1,
. ,
7

14

, ()

15-30 SDRAM
31

( ): 4 , 18 , 7 512 ,
() 32-35

36-61
62

SPD ( BCD-)

63

0-62 256


64-71

JEDEC

72

73-90

(ASCII)

91-92

93-94

(wwyy , )

95-98

99-127

126

( Intel) DIMM SDRAM. 66 66,


(100 = 64h)

127

SDRAM 100 ( Intel)

SIMM-30, SIPP, SIMM-72


SIMM (Single In-Line Memory Module) SIPP (Single In-Line Pin
Package)
. SIMM (
) ,
. Single () ,
(
). SIPP
(pin );
SIMM (

7.1. _______________________________________________ 257

- SIMM). SIPP

.
SOJ TSOP,
.
.
, (byte-write);
CAS# .
5 ,
. 7.7.
7.7. SIMM
,

30-pin

72-pin

30-pin

2569
19

256 8
18

49

16

32

64

256

256 36
51236
1 36
236
436
836
1636

4 8
-

72-pin
-

256 32
51232
132
232
432
832
1632


.
()
,
. ,
(single side double side).
,
,
( ).
.
.
, SIMM 30-pin, SIMM ( ) 30
(. 7.11) .
IBM ( IBM PS/2)
.
1 : IBM (2 ),
.
SIPP 30
SIMM 30-pin (SIMM-30).
32-
. SIMM-30 SIPP
. 7.8.

7.

258

. 711. SIMM-30
7.8. SIPP SIMM 30-pin

STD

IBM

STD1

IBM2

+5

+5

16

DQ4

DQ4

CAS#

CAS#

17

MAS

DQO

DQO

18

MA9

19

RAS1#

20

DQ5

DQ5

DQ1

DQ1

21

WE#

WE#

22

GND

GND

23

DQ6

DQ6

GND

GND

24

N.C.

PD(GND)

10

DQ2

DQ2

25

DQ7

DQ7

11

26

PB-Out

PD(1M=GND)

12

27

RAS#

RASO#

13

DQ3

DQ3

28

CAS-Parity#

N.C.

14

29

PB-ln

PB-(ln/Out)

15

30

+5B

+5B

1
2

STD- SIMM (SIPP).


IBM - SIMM IBM.

, SIMM 72-pin (SIMM-72), SIMM 72


(. 7.12, . 7.9) 4-
CASx#.
, DQ[0:15]
RASO# RAS1 # , DQ[ 16:31]
RAS2* RAS3*.
(1,4,16,64 1 )
RASO* RAS2#, (2,8, 32 2 )
RAS#. ,
RAS# .
1-
, - . -
32 , 36 , 36 40
. -36 -40 (ECC-optimised)
32- .

259

7,1.

. 7.12. SIMM-72
7.9. SIMM 72-pin

32,
Parity/ECC1

32,
Parity/ECC1

GND

37

PQ1/DQ19

DQO/DQO

38

PQ3/DQ20

DQ16/DQ1

39

GND

DQ1/DQ2

40

CASO#
2

CAS2#/MA10

DQ17/DQ3

41

DQ2/DQ4

422

CAS3#/MA11

DQ18/DQ5

43

CAS1

DQ3/DQ6

44

RASO#

DQ19/DQ7

45

RAS1#

10

+5

462

(OE1#)/DQ21

112

(CAS-Parity#)/PD5

47

WE#

12

482

Reserved/ECC

13

49

DQ8/DQ22

14

50

DQ24/DQ23

15

51

DQ9/DQ24

16

52

DQ25/DQ25

17

53

DQ10/DQ26

18

54

DQ26/DQ27

19*

10/#

55

DQ11/DQ28

20

DQ4/DQ8

56

DQ27/DQ29

21

DQ20/DQ9

57

DQ12/DQ30

2,2

DQ5/DQ10

58

DQ28/DQ31

23

DQ21/DQ11

59

+5B

24

DQ6/DQ12

60

DQ29/DQ32

25

DQ22/DQ13

61

DQ13/DQ33

26

DQ7/DQ14

62

DQ30/DQ34

27

DQ23/DQ15

63

DQ14/DQ35

28

642

DQ31/DQ36

DQ15/DQ37

29

MA11(OEO#)/DQ16

65

7.

260
7.9 ()
32,
Parity/ECC1

32,
Parity/ECC1

30
31

+5
8

662
67

(OE2#)/DQ38
PD1

32

68

PD2

RAS3#/NC

69

PD3

342

RAS2#/NC

70

PD4

35

PQ2/DQ17

71

(OE3#)/DQ39

36

PQO/DQ18

72

GND

ECC .
,
RASx# CASx#.
. DQ[36:39]
-40. IBM.

SIMM (. 7.10)
.
PD[1:5]. ( )
() .
JEDEC SIMM-72 (0
, 1 ):
PD[1: 2] ( 67,68) , :
00=4,11=8,01=16, 10=32;
PD[3:4] ( 69,70) - , : 00=100, 10=80,
01=70,11=60;
PD5 - (
).
7.10. SIMM

MAi

DQx

Multiplexed Address . RAS#


, CAS# .
SIMM 16 (square )
11 11 12x10
Data Bit ( ) PQx

Parity Bit -
PB-ln,
Parity Bit Input, Output ( SIPP PB-Out SIMM30).
, .

WE# Write Enable . CAS#
. WE# CAS#
EDO DRAM
RASx#

. RASO* RAS1 # [0:15]


[16:31] , RAS1#nRAS3# [0:15] [16:31]

7.1. ______________________________________________ 261


7.10. SIMM

CASx#

, : CASO# DQ[0:7], PQO;


CAS1# DQ[8:15], PQ1; CAS2# DQ[16:23], PQ2; CAS3# DQ[24:31], PQ3. ECC CASO* CAS1 #

CASParity*

( )

Output Enable .
,
RAS#, CAS# WE#. SIMM

PD[1:5] Presence Detect ( ) N.C.


No Connection

DIMM-168 DIMM-184
DIMM-168 (Dual-In-line-Memory Module) 168
, ( 184 , 85-168 ).
8 ,
- .
JEDEC 21-.
() ,
()
. 3,3 5 .
. 7.13.
SOJ 9 , TSOP - 4 .
SIMM-72,
, , CAS#.
,
4-
(Bank Interleaving).
64, 72 80 , 72-
(
), ; 80-
.
DIMM ( IBM)
(FPM, EDO BEDO);
SIMM-72.
8
(Presence Detect pins).
,
.
, (FPM EDO),

262

7. '

(SDRAM). ,
, .
DRAM;
SDRAM.
,
(, -72, -80).

. 7.13. DIMM: DIMM-168,


, ,
DIMM-184

CASx# (. 7.11),
. 7.12.
. SDRAM
DRAM. SDRAM
* RAS#, CAS# WE#,
.
. 7.13, DRAM . 7.14, SDRAM
. 7.15.

7.1.

263

7.11. DIMM-168

7.12.
DIMM-168

7.13. DIMM-168 DIMM-184

*?

264 _________________________________ 7.
7.13 ()

SDRAM RAS[0:3]#
( ) S0#, S1#, S2# S3#;
CAS[0:7]# DQMBO-DQMB7; WE2#,
OEO# 2# .

265

7.1.
7. 14. DIMM-168 DRAM

1
2

VSS
DQO

85
86

VSS
DQ32

43
44

VSS
OE2#

127
128

VSS
DU

DQ1

87

DQ33

45

RAS2#

129

RAS3#

DQ2~~

88

DQ34

46

CAS2#

130

CAS6#

DQ3

89

DQ35

47

CAS3#

131

CAS7#

VCC

90

VCC

48

WE2#

132

DU

DQ4

91

DQ36

49

VCC

133

VCC

8
9

DQ5
DQ6

92
93

DQ37
DQ38

50
51

CB10
CB11

134
135

CB14
CB15

10

DQ7

94

DQ39

52

CB2

136

CB6

11

DQ8

95

DQ40

53

CB3

137

CB7

12

VSS

96

VSS

54

VSS

138

VSS

13
14

DQ9
DQ10

97
98

DQ41
DQ42

55
56

DQ16
DQ17

139
140

DQ48
DQ49

15

DQ11

99

DQ43

57

DQ18

141

DQ50

16

DQ12

100

DQ44

58

DQ19

142

DQ51

17

DQ13

101

DQ45

59

VCC

143

VCC

18

VCC

102

VCC

60

DQ20

144

DQ52

19

DQ14

103

DQ46

61

NC

145

NC

20
21

DQ15

104
105

DQ47
CB4

62
63

DU
NC

146
147

DU
NC

22

106

CBS

64

VSS

148

VSS

23

VSS

107

VSS

65

DQ21

149

DQ53

24

108

CB12

66

DQ22

150

DQ54

25

109

CB13

67

DQ23

151

DQ55

26

VCC

110

VCC

68

VSS

152

VSS

27

WEO#

111

DU

69

DQ24

153

DQ56

28

CASO#

112

CAS4#

70

DQ25

154

DQ57

29

CAS1#

113

CAS5#

71

DQ26

155

DQ58

30

RASO#

114

RAS1#

72

DQ27

156

DQ59

31

OEO#

115

DU

73

VCC

157

VCC

32

VSS

116

VSS

74

DQ28

158

DQ60

33

117

A1

75

DQ29

159

DQ61

34

A2

118

A3

76

DQ30

160

DQ62

35

A4

119

A5

77

DQ31

161

DQ63

36

A6

120

A7

VSS

162

VSS

37

A8

121

A9

78
79

NC

163

NC

38

A10

122

A11

80

NC

164

NC

39

A12

123

A13

81

NC

165

SAO

40

VCC

124

VCC

82

SDA

166

SA1

41

VCC

125

DU

83

SCL

167

SA2

42

DU

126

DU

84

VCC

168

VCC

266

7.

7.15. DIMM-168 SDRAM


1
2

VSS
DQO

3
4
5
6
7
8

DQ1
DQ2
DQ3
VCC
DQ4
DQ5

9
10

DQ6
DQ7

11
12

DQ8
VSS

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

DQ9
DQ10
DQ11
DQ12
DQ13
VCC
DQ14
DQ15

1
VSS
8
9
VCC
we#

28
29
30
31
32

DQMBO
DQMB1
S0#
DU2
VSS

33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

A2
A4
A6
AS
()
1
VCC
VCC

42

NC

DU-

85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126

it !

VSS
DQ32
DQ33
DQ34
DQ35
VCC
DQ36
DQ37
DQ38
DQ39
DQ40
VSS
DQ41
DQ42
DQ43
DQ44
DQ45
VCC
DQ46
DQ47
CB4
CBS
VSS
CB12
CB13
VCC
CAS#
DQMB4
DQMB5
S1#
RAS#
VSS
A1
A3
AS
A7
A9
BAO
A11
VCC
CK1
A12

43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84

VSS
DU2
S2#
DQMB2
DQMB3
DU2
VCC
CB10
CB11
CB2
CB3
VSS
DQ16
DQ17
DQ18
DQ19
VCC
DQ20
NC
Vref
CKE1
VSS
DQ21
DQ22
DQ23
VSS
DQ24
DQ25
DQ26
DQ27
VCC
DQ28
DQ29
DQ30
DQ31
VSS
CK2
NC1
WP
SDA
SCL
VCC

127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168

VSS
CKEO
S3#
DQMB6
DQMB7
A13
VCC
CB14
CB15
CB6
CB7
VSS
DQ48
DQ49
DQ50
DQ51
VCC
DQ52
NC
Vref
REGE
VSS
DQ53
DQ54
DQ55
VSS
DQ56
DQ57
DQ58
DQ59
VCC
DQ60
DQ61
DQ62
DQ63
VSS
CK3
NC
SAO
SA1
SA2
VCC

Tvl.

, ,
(PC)
()
( EEPROM 2402), .
168-pin Unbuffered DIMM ,
(
).
,
. (1-4)
DIMM ,
. DRAM SDRAM.
51 . 8-512 .
168-pin Registered DIMM (SDRAM),
, . DIMM
EEPROM
-.
, .
, ,
. .
, (PLL),
. . ,
,
, PLL (
PLL , )
( ). 64 PLL
[0:3] .
( 66
), REGE .
66 .
DIMM-184 DDR SDRAM.
DIMM-168,
(. . 7.13, ) .
64 72 (),
( Registered DDR SDRAM) .
2,5 . .
DIMM SDRAM,
. 7.16.
DQSx 4 (DQS8
DQS17 ).
,
DLL.

268

7.

7 .16. DIMM-184 DDR SDRAM

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

VREF
DQO
VSS
DQ1
DQSO
DQ2
VDD
DQ3
NC
RESET*
VSS
DQ8
DQ9
DQS1
VDDQ
DU
DU
VSS
DQ10
DQ11
CKEO
VDDQ
DQ16
DQ17
DQS2
VSS
A9
DQ18
A7
VDDQ
DQ19
A5
DQ24
VSS
DQ25
DQS3
A4
VDD
DQ26
DQ27
A2
VSS
A1
CBO
CB1
VDD

47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92

DQS8

CB2
VSS

BA1
DQ32
VDDQ
DQ33
DQS4
DQ34
VSS
BAO
DQ35
DQ40
VDDQ
WE#
DQ41
CAS#
VSS
DQS5
DQ42
DQ43
VDD
DU
DQ48
DQ49
VSS
DU
DU
VDDQ
DQS6
DQSO
DQ51
VSS
VDDID
DQ56
DQ57
VDD
DQS7
DQ58
DQ59
VSS
WP
SDA
SCL

93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138

VSS
DQ4
DQ5
VDDQ
DQS9
DQ6
DQ7
VSS
NC
NC
A13
VDDQ
DQ12
DQ13
DQS10
VDD
DQ14
DQ15
CKE1
VDDQ
BA2
DQ20
A12
VSS
DQ21
A11
DOS11
VDD
DQ22
A8
DQ23
VSS
A6
DQ28
DQ29
VDDQ
DQS12
A3
DQSO
VSS
DQ31
CB4
CBS
VDDQ
CKO
CKO#

139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184

VSS
DQS17
A10
CB6
VDDQ
CB7
VSS
DQ36
DQ37
VDD
DQS13
DQ38
DQ39
VSS
DQ44
RAS#
DQ45
VDDQ
S0#
S1#
DQS14
VSS
DQ46
DQ47
DU
VDDQ
DQ52
DQ53
FETEN
VDD
DQS15
DQ54
DQ55
VDDQ
NC
DQ60
DQ61
VSS
DOS16
DQ62
DQ63
VDDQ
SAO
SA1
SA2
VDDSPD

7.1. ______________________________________________ 269

RIMM
RIMM (Rambus Interface Memory Module), no
(. 7.14),
RDRAM. 30- ,
RDRAM
BGA. (. 7.17)
Rambus, L (Left) R (Right)
. RIMM
16 RDRAM, ( )
. .
SIMM DIMM, 2,
RIMM RDRAM
.

. 7.14. RIMM
7.17. RIMM

*?

7.

270
7.17 ()

LCFMN

96

I RSL
(-)
( )
VREF
RSL (1,8 )
LCTMN
IRSL (-)
LCTM
IRSL ( )

(+)

LROW2...LROW IRSL ( )
(
O
)
LCOL4... LCOLO I RSL (
)
LOQB8...LOQBO I/ORSL

40,124
12
14
98,16,100
18,102, 20,104,22
114,30,112,28,110,
26,108,24,106
120

36
83,167, 81,165,79,
163,77,161,75
159
157
73
71
155,69,153
67,151,65,148,63
139,55,141,57,143,
59,145,61,147
134

LCMD

ICMOS (
).

I CMOS

LSCK
(
)
RDQA8...RDQAO I/O RSL
RCFM
IRSL
(+)

( )
RCFMN
IRSL
(-)
RCTMN
IRSL ( )

(-)

)
RCTM
IRSL

(+)

RROW2...RROW IRSL ( )
(
O
)
RCOL4...RCOLO I RSL (
)
RDQB8...RDQBO I/ORSL
RCMD

50

RSCK

46

SCL

ICMOS (
).

I CMOS

(
)
I CMOS

271

7.1.

47

SDA

131,130

SA1.SAO

43,44,127,128

VT

I/O CMOS


ICMOS

(1,4 )

SO DIMM-72 pin
72 pin SO DIMM (Small-Outline-Dual-Inline-Memory Module)
( 2,35" 60 ) 72 ,
, (. 7.15, . 7.18 7.19).

DRAM TSOP, 2-32 ,


32 36 ( ). 36-
PQx.

- . , , , :
PD7 : 1=, 0= ;
PD6, PD5 - : 00=50 , 10=70 , 11=60 ;
PD[4:1] .

. 7.15. SO DIMM-72 pin


7.18. SO DIMM-72
CAS#

CASO#



0
1

DQ[0:7], PQ8

RAS #:
RAS1*

CAS1#
CAS2#
CAS3#
DQ[9:15],PQ1 DQ[18:25],PQ2 DQ[27:34], PQ35
; RAS2#
RAS3#

272

7.

7. 19 SO DIMM-72 pin
.

1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55'
57
59
61
63
65'
4
67
69
71

VSS
DQ1
DQ3
DQ5
DQ7
PD1

1
A3
5
10
DQ9
DQ11
DQ13
DQ15
11
8
RAS3*
DQ16
DQ18
VSS
CAS2#
CAS1#
RAS1#
WE#
DQ20
DQ22
DQ24
PQ26
DQ28
DQ31
VCC
DQ33
PQ35
PD3
PD5
PD7

DQO

4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20'
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
361
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72

DQ2
DQ4
DQ6
VCC
A0
A2
A4
A6
PQ8
DQ10
DQ12
DQ14
A7
VCC
A9
RAS2#
PQ17
DQ19
CASO#
CAS3#
RASO#
A12
A13
DQ21
DQ23
DQ25
DQ27
DQ29
DQ30
DQ32
DQ34
PD2
PD4
PD6
VSS

' 32- .

SO DIMM-144 pin
144pin SO DIMM ( 2,35" 60 )
144- (. 7.16, . 7.20), 8-64
, 64 72 .
CAS[0:7]#, RASO*
0, RAS1 # 1 ( ). 5
3,3 ,
59-60 61-62. -

273

7.1.

, .
. DRAM,
SDRAM, 8-256 .
7.20. SO DIMM-144 pin
1

1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19

VSS
DQO
DQ1
DQ2
DQ3
VCC
DQ4
DQ5
DQ6
DQ7

2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

VSS
DQ32
DQ33
DQ34
DQ35
VCC
DQ36
DQ37
DQ38
DQ39

71
73
75
77
79
81
83
85
87
89

RAS1#
OE
VSS
CB2
CB3
VCC
DQ16
DQ17
DQ18
DQ19

72
74
76
78
80
82
84
86
88
90

NC
NC
VSS
CB6
CB7
VCC
DQ48
DQ49
DQ50
DQ51

21
23

22
24

VSS
DQ20

92
94

VSS
DQ52

95

DQ21

96

DQ53

28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46

VSS
CAS4#/
DQMB4
CAS5#/
DQMB5
VCC
A3
A4
A5
VSS
DQ40
DQ41
DQ42
DQ43
VCC

91
93

27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45

VSS
CASO#/
DQMBO
CAS1#/
DQMB1
VCC

A1
A2
VSS
DQ8
DQ9
DQ10
DQ11
VCC

97
99
101
103
105
107
109
111
113
115

98
100
102
104
106
108
110
112
114
116

47

DQ12

48

DQ44

117

49
DQ13
50
51
DQ14
52
53
DQ15
54
55
VSS
56
57
CBO
58
59
CB1
60


61
DU/CLKO
62
63
VCC
64
65
DU/RAS*
66

DQ45
DQ46
DQ47
VSS
CB4
CBS

119
121
123
125
127
129
131
133
DU/CKEO 135

DQ22
DQ23
VCC
A6
A8
VSS
A9
A10
VCC
CAS2#/
DQMB1
CAS3#/
DQMB3
VSS
DQ24
DQ25
DQ26
DQ27
VCC
DQ28
DQ29
DQ30

120
122
124
126
128
130
132
134
136

DQ54
DQ55
VCC
A7
A11
VSS
A12
A13
VCC
CAS6#/
DQMB6
CAS7#/
DQMB7
VSS
DQ56
DQ57
DQ58
DQ59
VCC
DQ60
DQ61
DQ62

VCC
DU/CAS#

137
139

DQ31
VSS

138
140

DQ63
VSS

67
69

NC/CKE1
NC/A12

141
143

SDA
VCC

142
144

SCL
VCC

25

26

WE#
68
RASO#/SO# 70

DRAM/ SDRAM

118

7.

274
60.0

. 7.16. SO DIMM-144 pin

DRAM cards-88 pin


88 pin DRAM cards (3,37"2,13",13"
85,5x 54,3 ) PCMCIA (PC
Card). 88- ( PCMCIA!), 18, 32 36
, 2-36 . DRAM
TSOP. .
SIMM-72. 5 3,3
. ,
.

7.2.
SRAM (Static Random Access Memory),
,
(
).
.
,
.

.
(Asynchronous SRAM, Async SRAM),
, , SRAM
, .
, , CS#, # WE#.
CS# (Chip select),
# (Output Enable)
, WE# (Write Enable) .
. 7.17.

# ( 1), WE# ( 2).
CS#
, CSO#, CSt

7.2.

275

CS2#
0,1,0 .


SRAM 12,15 20 ,
2-1-1-1 ( )
33 .
3-2-2-2.

. 7.17.

, Sync Burst SRAM,


(burst) ,
-.
(
). ,
(, , CS#, OE# WE#),
CLC (Clock)
ADSP#, CADS* ADV#. CADS*
(Cache ADdress Strobe) ADSP# (ADdress Status of Processor),
- ,
.
, (single)
(burst), ADV# (ADVance)
. ,
#,
CLK. ,
.

. , SDRAM,
, : {
Intel) ( Power PC).
- , SRAM (Pipelined Burst
SRAM), (
, ).
, ,
,

276 _________________________________ 7.

75 .
SRAM
4,5-8 ! , Sync Burst SRAM,
( -
),
.
SRAM Sync Burst SRAM.

7.3.
(NV Storage)
, ( ).
, .
: ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, Flash Memory,
FRAM,

,
,
. ,
,
, . ( )
,
.
,
, ROM (Read Only
Memory ) (
).

, ,
() , .
. ( )
. ( ) ( ),
. ,
, ().
( ,
).
(12-26 ), () ( )
.
,
( )
, (, )
-

7.3. __________________________________________ 277

. , ,
(, , ).
, ,

.
, , ,
.

.
,
, ( )
PROM (Programmable ROM).

-.
, ,
( ) EPROM(Erasable PROM
).
. .
,
, (! Programming). ,

EPROM UV-EPROM(Ultra-Violet EPROM).


() EEPROM
(ElecricalErasable PROM).
, ,
, ISP ISW
(In-System Programming In-System Write).
NVRAM FRAM,
-
EEPROM.
NVRAM (Non-Volatile Random Access Memory)
.
,
, , .
FRAM , , EEPROM.

,
( ). -
, ,
,
.

FRAM
(Ferroelectric
RAM)

,
.

-

278 ____________________________

7. ;

. FRAM DRAM,
(
), .
,
. -,
PDA (personal digital assistants
). Hitachi
Ramtron (www.ramtron.com) Matsushita
Symetrix.
4-256 ( 0,35 )
( SRAM) 70-120 ,
PC. FRAM
, ,
FM573 FM574,
8- '573 '574,
. FRAM ,
5 , 2,7 . -,
(
), FRAM
1010 . FRAM
, PC FRAM
.

7.3.1.
ROM, PROM, EPROM
ROM
( 30-70 ).
PC
( );

CGA, MDA, HGC.

PROM
( )
BIOS
.
,
. ,
(
),
(, ).

TMNEPROM -
BIOS , ,
.

7.3. __________________________________________ 279

27xx-tt 27Cxx-tt CMOS.


: 2708 1 8 ,
2716/32/64/128/ 256/512 2/4/8/16/32/64 ,
27010 27020 -128 256 . tt 50250
. (, 27001 27002
64 128 16- ) PC .
EPROM ,

( ,
).
.
.
,
.
, (
).
10 .
2764 5 .
.
,
(
).
, , ( ).
( ),
, - . EPROM 27.
(CGA, MDA, HGC)
, ( )
BIOS Boot ROM
.
EPROM - LPT- PC
( ISA).

. 50
.
8 (2764) .

PC (, -
2400 )
.

280

7.

. () Vpp ,
EPROM 12-26 (
). ,
EPROM , .
VPP 5 ()
,
ROM. BIOS,
.
PC EPROM DIP PLCC
(. 7.21), .
7.18 7.19.

. 7.18. EPROM DIP: a DIP-24, DIP-28, DIP-32

. 7.19. EPROM TSOP PLCC: TSOP32, PLCC-32

281

7.3.
7.21. EPROM


2716 28

2732 48

DIP-24

7.18,

20 = #; 21 = Vpp

DIP-24

7.18,

2764 88

20 = OE#/Vpp,21=A11

DIP-28

7.18,6

1 = VPP, 22 = OE#; 26 = NC, 27 = PGM#

27128 168

DIP-28

7.18,6

1 = VPP, 22 = OE#; 26 = A13, 27 = PGM#

27256 32 8

DIP-28

7.18,6

1 =VPP,22 = OE#;26 = A13,27 = A14

27512 648

DIP-28

7.18,6

1 = A15, 22 = OE#/Vpp, 26 = A13,27 = A14

27010128 8

DIP-32

7.18,8

30 = NC

27010 128 8

TSOP-32

7.19,

6 = NC

27010128 8

PLCC-32

7.19,6

30 = NC

27020 256 8

DIP-32

7.18,

27020 256 8

TSOP-32

7.19,

27020 256 8

PLCC-32

7.19,6

EPROM . 7.22.
7.22. EPROM

#

Chip Enable .
,

# Output Enable . #
.
VPP
DQx

Data Input/Output .
# (
, )

Address . 9 (12)
( = 0) ( = 1),

PGM#

Programm (
, # Vpp) Vpp

( ) Vcc

(+5 )

EPROM.

.
.
,
,
.

282 ____________________________

7.

(5 )
Vpp ( ).
.

7.3.2. EEPROM -
( ) EEPROM, E2PROM
(Elecrical Erasable PROM), .
( )
,
/ ,
(
).
(Page Write),
,
.
( , ),
, , (4-32
128-256 ).
,
/ , (
), . ,
,
.
(12 )
.
EEPROM -.
EEPROM -,
(, ). (106
) EEPROM, . EEPROM
( 100
). -
,
( 10 ).
EEPROM ,
(Serial EEPROM) PC, SPI
(Parallel EEPROM) (
EPROM).
- EEPROM (
), .
- (
).
(). -
( 30 %
DRAM), , ,
-

7.3. __________________________________________ 283

, . Intel 1988
, .
- ()
. ; 8 16 ( ).
() ; () . , ,
. .
; . - , (-
) .
() ,
, .
, , EPROM EEPROM.
, -
.
- ,
(SRAM),
ROM/PROM/EPROM. ,
, ,
12. 5 ,
VPP = +12
. +5 .

2,7-3,3 1,65-2,2 , a VPP 5, 3,3, 2,7 1,65 .
0,3, 0,22,
0,18 ( , ).
(1990 .) 10 000, 100 000.
- 35-200 .
( ) 90-
1-2 , () 10
. .
(. ).
()
.
, .
,
.
, .

284 ________________________________ 7.


:
Bulk Erase (BE) ;
;
;
Boot Block (BB) ,
,
;
Flash File
,
(Symmetrical Architecture,
SA).
BE ,
( EEPROM
).
(
),
.
(SA), ,
64 ; (
) .
64-
8 8 .

,
.
(BIOS),
(Boot Block) ,
(, )
-. ()
(Bottom), Boot- ,
. ,
( , 86, Pentium),
, ,

.
, 28F001- (28F001BN- ),
-BIOS PC, :
(Main Block) 112 (OOOOOh-lBFFFh);
(Parameter Block) 4 (1 COOOh-1
CFFFh IDOOOh-lDFFFh);
(Boot Block) 8 (lEOOOh-lFFFFh),

.

7.3.

___________________________ 285

; ,
ESCD PnP.
, MT28C3214P2FL
- 2 16 SRAM 256 16.
NOR NAND.
NOR
,
- (NOR Not OR).
,
- ( )
. NAND
, -
(NAND Not AND),
.
- ( ) (1 , 0
).

4 , .
Intel StrataFlash,
128 (16 ).
-
, . , , AMD
(
-).

(Page Mode). 4 8 ;
70 .
, (
) 20 .
.
(Burst Mode)
() .
CLK.
ADV# ( CLK).
3 ,
.
- ( ), SDRAM.
66 (, MT28S4M16LC 1 16 4 ),
133 .
, (
).

286 _________________________________ 7.

- DRAM ( )
, RAS# CAS#.
SIMM DIMM,
. , ,
PostScript
. , ,
,
POST ,
.
BIOS,
.
, ,
-. SIMM DIMM
, +12
, , ,
, .
16-
,
, ( OFFh) .
BIOS -
LPC, (firmware hub).

. , Intel
(One-Time-Programmable).
64- ,
( )
.
Intel Wireless Flash Memory
, ,
(wireless ).
(
): 1,85 ,
. .

,
-
- . DIP, (E)EPROM -.
PLCC, TSOP TSOP-II.
FBGA (Fine Pitch Ball Grid Array) 6x8
0,8
, . ,
SmartMedia,
KGD (Known Good Die).

7.3.

287

. 7.20-7.22
- ( ).

().
()
-.

. 7.20. - 8-
DIP PLCC: DIP-32, PLCC-32

. 7.21. - 8-
TSOP: TSOP-32, TSOP-40

7.

288

. 7.22. - 8/16-
TSOP-44: TSOP-44, TSOP-48, TSOP-56

- . 7.23;

.
7.23. -

#

Chip Enable .
, .
, (1 # 2#),

Output Enable . #
. (12)
Boot-
( , - )

WE#

Write Enable . #

#.
, -
. WE#
#, .

DQx

Data Input/Output .
# (
, ).
WE# # ,

7.3.

289

BYTE*

8/16-
. 8- , 16-
. BYTE*
DQ[0:7], DQ15/A-1
, , DQ[8:14]

Address . 9 (12)
( EPROM) (0=0)
(0=1),
RP#
Reset/Power Down, PWD# (PowerDown).
(PWD#)
(Deep Powerdown) ( ) .

( 0,3-0,8 ), .
(12)
Boot-
WP#
Write Protect . WP* Boot-

(12) RP*.
RY/BY# Ready/Busy* ( )
.
(WSM)
. # *.
28F016SA , ,

3/5*
,
,

- , . ,
,
EPROM EEPROM. EPROM,
.

- Intel AMD .
, ,
.
- Intel 28F,
(. 7.24),
:

5, , , BR - Boot Block 5 ;
Boot Block 3 ;
F3 Boot Block 3 , ;
J3 J5 StrataFlash (SA) 3 5 ;
S3 S5 Flash File (SA) 3 5 .

290 _________________________________ 7.

- AMD
:
Am29BDS 1,8 , ,
;
Am29DS 1,8 , ;
Am29SL- 1,8 ;
Am29LV-3B;
Am29DL 3 , ;
Am29BL 3 , ;
Am29PL 3 , ;
AmSOLV - 3 , UltraNAND;
Am29F-5.
,
(, D), :

boot sector, ;,
boot sector, ;
, ;
L , ;
U ( ) ;
J40 100 %- ( UltraNAND).

, , ,
.
7.24. -

256
512
010
020
001
002
004
008
016
200
400
800
160
320
640
1

328
648
1288
256 8 BE
1288
2568
5128, SA
18, SA
2 8 , SA
2568/12816
5128/25616
10248/51216
28/1 Mx16SA,
4Mx8/2Mx16SA
8Mx8/4Mx16SA

BE Bulk Erase ( ), Boot Block ( ), SA


Symmetric Architecture ( ).
.

7.3. __________________________________________291

- PCMCIA (PC Card)


PC. -
PC Card IDE (ATA)
, .

. - PC Card
.
Credit Card,
( PCMCIA) . ,
, .

- Intel
- Intel.

(28F256,28F512,28F010,28F020)
, (bulk erase).

WSM (Write State Machine).
- VPP
12 ,
WE#.
,
, -. # () WE# ().
(W),
(R) (. 7.25).
( )
WE#,
WE#. ( ,
);
.

.
.
Read Memory ,
, EPROM.
Read ID .

0 M_Id (Manufacturer Identifier


, 89h), 1 D_Id (Device Identifier
, 8F256,28F512,28F010,28F020
B9h, B8h,B4h BDh ).
.

9 ( EPROM).

292 _________________________________ 7..


7.25. - Intel

1
R/W

R/W

Read Memory

Read ID

Set-up Erase/Erase

Erase Verify

Set-up Program/Program 2

() 1

90h

0(1)

MJd (D_ld)

20h

20h

EVD

40h

PD

Program Verify

COh

PVD

Reset

FFh

FFh

X , M_Id D_Id
, EA , , EVD ,
( FFh), PD
, PVD , .

Set-up Erase/Erase .
WE#

(Stop Timer).
. ,
,
Reset.

,
( 10 ).
.
Erase Verify .
,
.
6
. (Quick-Erase)
( )
, .

. FFh,
( 10 ),
.
3 000,
.
.
Set-up Program/Program .
,
,
10 .

7.3. _________________________________________ 293

Program
Verify

),

.
6 .
(Quick-Pulse Programming)
10
.
( 25 ),
.
Reset ,
. ;
.
, , PROM
EPROM. -
EPROM . VPP
(0-6,5 ) ,
EPROM.

, (
Boot Block Flash File).
,
.

,

, .
, WE#.
RP# (
PWD#)
.
. (
Boot-) RESET*
,
.

. . 7.26.
, ,

().
SR (Status
Register),

.

294 _______________________________ 7.

SR ;
. .
SR. 7 WSMS (Write State Machine Status)
:
0 Busy ( );
1 Ready ().
SR.6ESS (Erase Suspend Status) :
0 ;
1 .
SR. 5 ES (Erase Status) :
0 ;
1 .
SR. 4 PS (Program Status) :
0 ;
1 .
SR.3 VPPS (VpP Status) VPP
:
0 ;
1 , .
S R [ 2 :0 ] .
7.26. - Intel

() 1

R/W

R/W

Read Array/Reset

FFh

Read ID
(DJd)

90h

0(1)

MJd

Read Status Register

70h

SRD

Clear Status Register

50h

Erase Setup/Erase Confirm

20h

BA

DOh

Erase Suspend/Erase
Resume
Program Setup/Program

BOh

DOh

40h

PA

PD

Alternate Program Setup/


Program2

10h

PA

PD

X , M_Id D_Id

, SRD , , PD

, .
2
; 2,4 8
.

7.3. _____ -

________________________________ 295

.
Read Array/Reset ( ,
EPROM) .
Read ID .
Read Status Register .
Clear Status Register .
Erase Setup/Erase Conf i rm .
, ,
( , ),
.
(SR. 7=0)
. ,
,
( SR. 7=1).
3, 4, 5 (
).
Erase Suspend/Erase Resume / .
( )
. Erase Suspend
( BOh) (SR.
6=1), , Read Array,
. Erase Resume
( DOh),
.
Program Setup/Program .
,
. ,
.
,
( SR. 7=1).
VPP, ,
VPPLK)
.
Vcc 2,5 .

# # ( ).
Boot-
, VHH (
, +12 ) PWD#
.
, #
.
Boot- ,

296 ________________________________ 7.

ES PS,
.
Flash-file ,
() (Symmetrical Architecture, SA),
28F008SA
VPP.
Boot Block (
Boot-).
28F016SA ,
( 28,6 /
) .
256 . - 32
64 , .
8- BSRx
(Block Status Register).
2 1 8 !6 .
BSR .
BSR. 7 BS (Block Status) :
1 ;
0 .
B5R. 6 BLS (Block-Lock Status) :
1 ;
0 .
BSR.5 BOS (Block Operation Status) :
1 ;
0 .
BSR. 4 BOAS (Block Operation Abort Status)
:
1 ;
0 .
BSR. 3 QS (Queue Status) :
1 ;
0 .
BSR. 2 -VPPS(VPP Status)- VPP:
1 , ;
0 VPP .
BSR[1:0] .

7.3. ___________________________________

297

GSR (Global Status Register)


. GSR
, 4 2
8 !6 . GSR
.
GSR.7W5MS (Write State Machine Status)
( ):
1 ;
0 .
GSR.6 055 (Operation Suspend Status)
:
1 ;
0 .
G5R. 5 DOS (Device Operation Status) (
):
1 ;
0 .
G5R. 4 DSS (Device Sleep Status) :
1 (Sleep);
0 .
GSR.3 QS (Queue Status) :
1 ;
0 .
GSR. 2 PBAS (Page Buffer Available Status)
:
1 ;
0 .
GSR. 1 PBS (Page Buffer Status) :
1 ;
0 WSM.
GSR.0 PBSS (Page Buffer Select Status) :
1 1;
0 0.

CSR (Compatible Status Register),
28F008SA Boot Block.
. (. 7.27),
.
.

298 _________________________________ 7.

.

. (
) - .
.
8- .

,
WSM. WSM
.
-
.
.

WP#.
.
.
RY/BY*.
,
(
), .
(Sleep)

.
7.27. 28F016SA

7.3.

299

300 _________________________________ 7.
7.27 ()

BA - Block Address , - Page Buffer Address , RA Extended


Register Address (BSRx GSR), WA - Write Address
-. 8{
BYTE*):
- , ; 1 - .
AD - Array Data , PBD - Page Buffer Data , WD (L,H) Write
Data (Low, High) , BSRD - BSR Data
, GSRD - GSR Data .
WC (L,H) - Word Count (Low, High) . WCL-0
. 256 WCH-0. BC (L,H) - Byte Count (Low, High) - . WCL-0
. 256 WCH-0.

28F032SA
28F016SA . #
# 1 #, # 2#.
,
SmartVoltage, VPP
12 , 5 .
. , (3,3
2,7 ) Vcc, ,
.
WP# (Write Protect).
,
. WP#
(12 ) RP#.
VPP ( ), 5 ,
12 .
( ) Vcc ,
.

- AMD
AMD -.
- Intel

7.3. ________________________________________________________________

301

(Bulk Erase, 12 ): Am28F256/512/ 010/020.


Intel, Am28F256/512
^-, .
Am28F256A/512A/010A/020A
,
Intel ,
.
3-6 ,
(. 7.28).
,
, (
, Intel).
Data# Polling Toggle Bit. Data# Polling
D7 .
,
. ( 1). Toggle Bit
,
.
- ,
7. D5 Exceeded
Timing Limits
.
Am29Fxxx
5 (Sector
Erase), ( Flash File) (Boot
Block), () () Boot-.

( Intel
AMD ).
JEDEC -
.
. ,
Am29F010, (Erase
Suspend) , a Am29F080/016
.
7.28. - Am29F010

1- Addr
Data
2- Addr
Data

Reset/Read

Autoselect

Byte Program

Chip Erase

Sector Erase

5555h

5555h

5555h

5555h

5555h

AAh

AAh

AAh

AAh

AAh

2AAAh

2AAAh

2AAAh

2AAAh

2AAAh

55h

55h

55h

55h

55h

&

302

7.

7.28 ()
Reset/Read
3- Addr
5555h
Data
FOh
4- Addr
Data
5- Addr
Data
6- Addr
Data
-

Autoselect
5555h
90h
XXOOh/XX0
1h
01h/20h
-

Byte Program
5555h
AOh
PA1
PD2
-

Chip Erase

Sector Erase

5555

5555

80h

80h

5555

5555h

AAh

AAh

2AAAh

2AAAh

55h

55h

5555h

SA3

10h

30h

PA " .
PD - .
3
SA - ( 16, 15 14).
1

15, 16 .
.
Reset/Read .

( ) .
t s I t (=0),
(=1) ( 16-14
, 2-1, ).
Olh, OOh.

9 .
Byte Program .
,
.
Chi Erase .
( ,
) .
Sector Erase .
80
.
, 80
. ,
.
( ) .
DQ3 Sector Erase Timer
(
, 3=0).
- Am29LVxxx
(3,0 ) .

7.3. __________________________________________303


EPROM.a
. ( 5-7,
), ( RY/BY*).
, .
NOR.
Am30LV0064D 64 (8
8)

UltraNAND,

.
512 16 , , ,
-. (
528- ) 7 ,
20 / (50 /).
, 65 .
( )
,
200 . ,
430 20 (NOR) -
( 2,3 /). 8
2 ( 600 ). 3 .
1 . 10 ,
104 , 106
. ,
, . .

-
- .
, , ,
. AMD, Fujitsu Corporation, Intel Corporation Sharp
Corporation 1996 CFI (Common Flash
Memory
Interface
Specification),


-.
, ,
-.
- QUERY.
55h 98h
( ,
98h). , ,
. (
).
.
:
- QRY;
(2 )
;

304 _________________________________ 7.

( );
,
( );
(
);
- ( )
(, , );
;
;
.
Read Ar ray FFh (FOh)
.
,
Intel AMD, ,


. ,
28, , Intel, 29 - AMD.

(Fast Page Write)
. (
) .

2 6 ,
( AMD).
, .
,
.
- Micron Intel
, MT28F. ,
: MT28F321P2FG - 2 16 Page Flash Memory, MT28F322D18FH 2 16 Burst Flash Memory.
Silicon Storage Technology
- .
SST YY zzz ttt,
:
28 , ;
29 (
,
).

7.3. __________________________________________ 305

YY :
EEPROM-, , Vcc = 5 ;
LE - , , Vcc " 3 ;
VE - , , Vcc - 2,7 ;
SF Super Flash Command Register, VCc = 5 ;
IF- , SF, Vcc-3 ;
W7- , SF, Vcc = 2,7 ;
DM Disk Media ( -, ), Vcc =
5 ;
LM , DM, Vcc ~ 3 ;
-, DM, VCC = 2,7B;
PC PCMCIA ( ), Vcc = 5 .
zzz :

572 - 512 (64 8);


070-1(1288);
040-4(5128);
050 - 8 (1 8);
016-16(28);
032 - 32 (4 8).

ttt .
SST29EEQ10,29LE010 29VE010,
-BIOS, 1024 128
.
. ,

. Toggle Bit
Data# Polling.
29011,29LE011,29VE011
Winbond.

7.3.3.

, , . , (. 7.23, 7.24,
. 7.29). EEPROM, FRAM
-. EEPROM -
;

7.

306

.
(). FRAM
( RAM). ,

( , ROM).
-: WP#
Write Protect, WC Write Control, PP Programm Protect.
[0:2],
CS#,
.
S[0:2], (51)
.
7.29.

24001.2401
2402.24164
24F016
24F128
X76F041
FM24C04.FM24C16
, FM24C64,
FM24C256
FM25040.FM25160,
FM25256

16x8,128x8
2568, 28
28
168
512x8
5128,28,
88,328
5128,28,
648

7.23,
7.23,
7.23,6
7.23,
7.23,
7.24

1. 1, 2, 3,7 =
NC
I2C !

12
SPI

7.246

. 7.23. EEPROM I2C: 24, 24F016,


24F128, X76F041

EEPROM 24C02 12 256


DIMM-168
, DIMM-184 SODIMM-144.

7.3.

307

. 7.24. FRAM: FM24C256, FM25640

12 (Security Devices).
, X76F041, 4
128 , 64- , .

( ).
( )
( , ,
,
). ,

. ,

.
; ,
, , , . IBM PC
PC
( SMBus,
. . 11.1.3).
(,
FPGA Altera), ,
PC. ( ,
) (
) .
,
,
, LPT.
PC, SPI (Microwire)
, 2-, 3- 4- (
, ).

( ),
.

308

7.

I2
PC (. . 11.1.1)
( 100 400 /).
12 .
7.25. Start, ,
, RW .
8-
, (
256 ).
, Stop,
,
.

( ) ,
Stop. ,
, .

. 7.25. I2

, ,
RW=1. ,
.
; ,
. ,
, .
,
( ).
Stop, .
-

7.3. . __________________________________________309

, ,

(S ) , .
(
). , PC

.
.
, , , PC. , ,
Atmel AT24C01 128
: 7- PC,
.
,
. , 128
7- .
256
PC 8 .
512,1024 2048 1, 2 3
256-- .
7- , PC,
( , ).

SPI
SPI (. . 11.3)
5 /. , CS#,
SI 8- .
, .
,
SO . ,
, / . SPI
,
.
(/),
( ).
.

, (, , , ) ( ) ( ).

8.1.
PC

.
(enhanced) AT PS/2, 100
. 84- AT
XT. XT AT
, ,
AT .
( AT
XT/AT). PS/2 AT
, .
,
, ,
.
-.
. (typematic delay)
(typematic rate) AT .
1 3 -.
USB ;
, USB.
USB . USB
BIOS;
.

8.1. . ____________________________________________ 311

8.1.1. AT PS/2
, KB-Data
KB-Clock.
+5 .
(),
.
( )
. 8.1. 5 DIN ( AT) miniDIN (PS/2).
+5 .

. 8.1. ( ) : AT PS/2

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ,
, . ,
, ,
.
.


8042 - ,
.
60h, -.
-
IRQ1,
( ).
, -,
,
,
. ,
.
. 8.2, ,
, ,
.
.
-

312 _________ 8.

, . ( ) KB-Data KB-Clock,
.
KB-Clock 0- KB-Data,
KB-Clock.
KB-Clock. 8
, .

KB-Clock, (Ack).
2 ,
-.

. 8.2. : ,


(. 8.2, ).
KB-Clock 250 -
( ) .
11 KB-Clock.
,
.
(9- ) - (10-) 11-
(Ack).
KB-Clock (60 ),
.
20 , ,
-. ,
15
, -, 2
0.
PC/XT 8042 ,
()
,
18255.
IRQ1,
60h. 7 6 61h
.
XT KB-Clock.

8.1. _____________________________________________ 313

8.1.2.
8042/8242
18042, (keyboard
controller), ,
, ,
.
,
, .
( BIOS)
; ,
.
,

. -
-
Gate A20, ,
.
18242, ,
PS/2-Mouse.
( ) PS/2 AT,
. AT

, .
BIOS Setup.
8-
. CS# ,
0060h 0064h;
SA2 . IORD* IOWR#,
IN OUT. ,
- CPU 60h (
) 64h ( ),
. 8.1. ,
, ,
.
, ,
, .
, .
( ,
- ) ,
.
. / 1
( 064h).

314 __________ 8.
8.1.
, R/W
060 RW
8042
064 R
8042 (R/O): 7
; 6 - / -1; 5 -
/ (MouseJDBF)1; 4: 0
; 3:1 , 0 ;
2: , 0 , 1
( Reset OK);
1:1 , 0
/; 0:1
(DBF)
064 W
8042
1

i8242B,
PS/2-Mouse.

, , GateA20,

.
- PC;
.
1,
(
CPU). KBData, KB-Clock, MS-Data MS-Clock
. PS/2 KB-Clock MS-Clock
1, AT 1 KB-Data.
1 C0h; PS/2
:
7 (Keylock): 0
;
6 : 0 (Color), 1
(Mono);
5 : 0 ;
4 : 0 256 , 1 512
;
3, 2 ;
1 MS-Data;
0 KB-Data.
0,1 7; AT
1 .
(2), Dlh D0h
, :
7 KB-Data;
6 KB-Clk;

8.1. _____________________________________________ 315

5 (IRQ12),
AT ;
4 (IRQ1);
3 MS-Clk, AT ;
2 MS-Data, AT ;
1 20 (Gate A20, . . 12.3): 0 20
, 1 ;
0 ( INIT,
).
,
- ( )
OBF=1, IRQ1 (
).
( -, . .) (60h).
XT AT
(. ) - 60h.

us_0F-1,
IRQ12 ( ).
60h. To

( D2h) ( D3h),
IRQ1 IRQ 12.
, ,
OBF=1,
IRQ1 ( ).
( 60h).
,
.

( 064h).
1 64h
.
[2, 8].
, , (
BIOS), BIOS
.

8.1.3.

BIOS

, ( )
. , ,
-

316 ________ 8.

IRQ1 ( 09h).
,
Int 16h
.
Ctrl+Alt+Del, PrintScreen (SysRq)
, .
,
(, ),
IRQ1, Int 09h.
-
.
POST (
) .
,
NumLock ( BIOS Setup).

-
F1 . ,
(, -
), F1
.
AT XT, .
()
(POST F1),
CMOS Setup.

BIOS (BIOS Data Area):
0:0417,0:418 ;
0:0419 Alt-;
0:041 (Buffer Head),2 (
);
0:041C (Buffer Tail), 2 (

);
0:041E-0:042D (16 ).

8.2.
, . (, ).
: Bus Mouse, Serial Mouse PS/2-Mouse.
USB, (
USB, USB).

8.2. ____________________________________________

317

Serial Mouse PS/2-Mouse .


, , , .
PS/2 ,
+5
GND. RS-232C, Serial Mouse,
(. . 2.1) +3 -3 ,
- ( GND)
.
PS/2 ,

, . Serial Mouse
.
, ,
. (!),
.
, , ,
. ,
Serial Mouse PS/2-Mouse.
Macintosh,
, PS/2.
PC ,
, .

8.2.1. MS Mouse
PC Mouse
Serial Mouse ,
9- 25- - (. 8.2).
,
. RS-232C.
,
, RS-232,
. Serial Mouse ,
-
(IRQ4 1 IRQ3 COM2). , ,
1 IRQ4,
, , ,
,
. MS Mouse (Microsoft Mouse)
PC Mouse (Mouse Systems Mouse) -

318 _________ 8.

, MS/PC.
1200 /, -
.
MS Mouse: 1 , ( ),
X
, Y .
,
. 3D- .
PC Mouse: 8 , ,
X , Y
.
.
: ,
Windows 95 ( ) ,
PC Mouse ( ,
).

.
8.2. Serial Mouse

DB9

DB25

Data
GND
+V()

2
5
7,(4)

3
7
4, (20)

-V ()

-
RxD
GND
RTS,
(DTR)
TxD


( Int ),
. BIOS ,
BIOS Setup. ,
IRQ4 IRQ3
1 COM2 .

8.2.2. PS/2
PS/2-Mouse , PS/2.
6-pin mini-DIN (. . 8.1) ,
, 8242 (. . 8.1.2).
PS/ 2-Mouse
(. 8.3). PS/2
(ISA)
-. PS/2 :
8242 ,

8.2.

__________________________ 319

, , 60h
( , ) 64h
D4h.

. 8.3. PS/2-Mouse

.
(stream mode) ;
(remote mode)
. (wrap mode),
, .
Mouse_OBF
IRQ12, 8242.
- PS/2 ( PS/2)
BIOS,

(
). (
74h IRQ12),
,
. BIOS Int 15h
C200-C209h.

8.2.3. Bus Mouse


Bus Mouse ( ) , .
,
( ISA). 9, (. 8.4),
PS/2-Mouse.
, , .
ISA (COM-, LPT- GAME-nop-),
Bus Mouse. Microsoft
, , Bus Mouse
MS-Mouse,
.

. 8.4. Bus Mouse

320 _________ 8.

8.3.
, (
) , .

Centronics

IEEE 1284,
0,15-2 /,
(. ).
.
LPT-
, SPP- IEEE 1284 (. . 1.3).

Centronics,
, IEEE 1284.

, LPT-.
, ,
Centronics.
IEEE 1284 ( ),
LPT- SPP .
MS DOS .
RS-232C,
RS-422 ,
11 / (115 /), 1 / (9600
/). -
.
USB,
: USB .
(
), BIOS Int 17h
LPT-,
, USB ,
USB .
, USB 1.0 12 /
1,5 / (12:8) -
. USB 2.0, ,
50 / ( 480 /),
. ,
USB 2.0, (USB 1.0)
.
SCSI ( ),
, Ethernet
(10 100 /).
,
. Fire Wire
.

8.3. __________________________________ 321

8.3.1.
Centronics, IEEE 1284, PNP
Centronics
.
LPT- .
PNP-. Centronics
, 36-
. . 8.3,
. 8.5.
8.3. Centronics

. 8.5. Centronics


Busy. ,
-

322 ________ 8.

, Busy.
.
() Ack#,
(
- , ). Ack#
,
.
, Ack#
Strobe* Busy.
Select, Error*, PaperEnd ,
, .
lnit# (
). , ,
, AutoLF* . Selectln*
.
(LPT) Centronics
, (SPP),
150 / .

(Fast Centronics), 2 /
.
IEEE 1284,
(. . 1.3.4).
Centronics,
.
18--
SPP. 2 ,
Strobe* Busy .
(Fast Centronics, )
,
.
Centronics, 17 PC
36 .
, 1284,
.
,
.
Windows.

.
,
( ) . (
, ) ( ).
,
, IEEE
1248. 2 /
10 .

8.3.

323

. 8.4 XI
(DB25-P) PC 2 (Centronics-
() . (GND)
(. ). (18-
) GND .
,
( . 8.4
PC ,
). (GND)
; 1-17
GND 19-35.
8.4.
1, PC
1
Strobe
DataO
2
Data1
3
4
Data2
DataS
5
Data4
6
7
DataS
8
Data6
9
Data7
10
Ack#
11
Busy
12
PaperEnd
13
Select
14
Auto LF#
15
Error#
16
lnit#
17
Select ln#
18
GND(1)
19
GND (2 3)
20
GND (4 5)
21
GND (6 7)
22
GND (8 9)
23
GND(11 15)
24
GND(101213)
25
GND(141617)

X2, PRN X2, PRN


15
1
2
6
3
7
4
8
5
9
6
10
11
7
12
8
13
9
3
10
1
11
5
12
2
13
17
14
4
32
14
31
16
36
33
19
24 25
20 21
26 27
22 23
28 29
24 25
30 31
26 27
19 22
29
20 21 23
28
32 34 35
30

( ) PNP
(IFSP ROBOTRON). Centronics, .
.
.

324

8.

( )
: 220 +5 330 .
,
PC.
.
PNP LPT-,
. , ,
(, ).

8.3.2.
RS232C -.
RS-422,
- .
, ,
.
, ( , - -,
) : XON/XOFF
RTS/CTS. -
, ,
. 8.6 8.7.
- . ,
,
-. , , DOS MODE. , DOS (
COPY PRINT) .

. 8.6. RTS-CTS

, , . 8.8.
-
-

8.3.

325

. , -, .

. 8.8. 20 -

8.3.3.
LPT (SPP)
Centronics BIOS.
(Fast Centronics, ECP)
. BIOS Int 17h
, .
Int 17h
.
PNP
.
(Print Screen)
BIOS Int 0 5 h.
( ) LPT1.
0050:0000 : 00
, 01 , FF
-. -

326 _________ 8.

Int 05h (Int 09h), PrintScreen (PrtSc).

8.4.
() /, (RGB)
.
: (MDA,
CGA, EGA) VGA
(DVI, P&D, DFP).
VESA (www.vesa.org).
, .

Fire Wire, USB 2.0.
VFC VAFC
.
( ) (AGP, PCI, ISA), 6.

8.4.1. RGB TTL


RGB TTL
MDA, HGC (Hercules), CGA EGA.
DB-9 ( ),
. 8.5.
Video (/ ) Intens (
). CD (ColorDisplay) CGA

. 16 .
ECD (Enhanced Color Display)
EGA : RED, GREEN, BLUE
Red, Green, Blue
. 64 .

H.Sync V.Sync. MDA HGC,
(720x350 ),
. CGA (
). EGA
.
V.Sync:
.

8.4. _________________________________ 327


8.5. (RGB TTL)

Mono
Color
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

GND
GND
Intens.
Video
+H.Sync.
-V.Sync.

GND
GND
RED
GREEN
BLUE
Intensiv.

+H.Sync.
-V.Sync.

Enhanced Color/Mono
GND
Red
RED
GREEN
BLUE
Green/lntens.
Blue/Video
+H.Sync.
-(+)V.Sync.

8.4.2. RGB
RGB Analog
.
8-
, 16,7 (True Color).
,
(Return).
.
,
+0,7 (
). ,
.
RGB ( RGB TTL) . 8.9.
R, G, , ,
(
,
).
. VESA DMT (Discrete Monitor
Timing, 1994-1998 .)
. VESA
GTF (Generalized Timing Formula Standard)
,
:

(, 800x600);
(overscan borders);
(non-interlaced) (interlaced);
: , .

, -

328

8.

^ .
(
).
. 8.6. ,
,
.

. 8.9. RGB: a , ,

8.6.

329

8.4.

VESA

Fv


, ,

Fh

Abcdefgh

1280x1024
75.0
SXGA(75Hz)

79.9

1280x1024
85.0
SXGA(85Hz)

91.1

1600x1024
(60Hz)

60.0

63.6

1600x1024
(85Hz)

85.0

91.4

1600x1200
(85Hz)

85.0

106.3

1920x1200
(60Hz)

60.0

74.5

1920x1200
(85Hz)

85.0

107.1

2048x1536
(75Hz)

75.0

120.2

2304x1440
(80Hz)

80.0

120.6

Fp

135

PGA IBM,
9- DB-9S (. 8.7).
, VGA, 15 (. 8.8).
,
15- 9- (. 8.9).
PGA (Composite Sync)
(H+V)Sync.; .
8.7. PGA ( DB-9S)

1
2

Red
Green

Blue

(H+V)Sync

Mode Control

Red Return

Green Return

Blue Return

GND

330

8.

DDC Return, SDA SCL DDC.


9 DDC (+5 ).

(H+V)Sync (Composite

Sync).
8.9. 9-15
DB9

15

1
2

Red
Green

1
2

Blue

H.Sync

13

V.Sync

14

Red Return

Green Return

Blue Return

GND

10,11

( ) D- , 15 ,
, (
, 9-). , ,
, .
Macintosh , VGA,
DB-15P ( , Game- PC).
. 8.10.

8.4. __________________________________________ 331


8.10. VGA Macintosh

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Red Return
Red
Comp.Sync
IDO
Green
Green Return
ID1
He
Blue
ID2
Sync. GND
V.Sync
Blue Return
H.SyncGND
H.Sync

, , . ,
. , PnP,
.

IDO-ID3,
IBM. GND,
.
ID1,
.
Red Blue.
VESA DDC (Display Data Channel).
PC (DDC2B) ACCESS.Bus (DDC2AB),
- SCL SDA. DDC1

SDA ( 12), V.Sync
( 14).
V.Sync 25 (
). DDC2
; SCL
( 15). DDC2AB ,
, ,
ACCESS.Bus (. . 11.1.2).

332 _________ 8.

EDID (Extended
Display Identification)
DDC (. 8.11).
8.11. EDID

, ,

0
8
18
20
35
54
126
127

8
10
2
15
19
72
1
1

( EDID)
( )
EDID


( 4-18)


VESA DPMS (Display Power Management Signaling)
V.Sync H.Sync (. 8.12).
8.12. (VESA DPMS)

H.Sync

V.Sync

On

Standby

Suspend

Off

, SVGA,
.
150 ,
.

BNC-
.
DB-15,
. 3-5 75-
BNC:
3 ,
(composite sync) ;
4 ;
5
.

10-15 .

333

8.4.

(
USB Fire Wire)
VESA 1995 . EVC
(Enhanced Video Connector). 1998 . ,
P&D-A (Plug&Display-Analog) ,
.
RGB DDC2, P&D-A
(EVC) ,
, USB Fire Wire,
.
:
30 (. 8.10, . 8.13).
, ,
2 . . 75-
500
2 %. 1-4 5 ()
R, G,
Clock. (
),
.
, (
, ,
).
8.13. P&D-A (EVC)

Audio Output,
Right
Audio Output,
Left

11

Charging power
input, +
Charging power
input, -

21

Audio input, left

22

Audio input, right

Audio Output,
Return

13

Video input, Y
composite in

23

Audio input, return

4
5

Sync Return

14

Video input, return

24

Stereo sync (TTL)

Horizontal
Sync (TTL)

15

Video input, in

25

DDC return

Vertical Sync
(TTL)

16

USB Data +

26

DDC Data (SDA)

17

USB Data -

27

DDC Clock (SCL)

18

28

+5

1394TPA-

19

USB/1394 common
mode shield
1394VG

29

1394TPB+

10

1394TPA+

20

1394VP

30

1394TPB-

R (.)

C3

PX Clock

G (.)

C4

(.)

12

C5

GND ( R, G, B)

334

8.

. 8.10. / P&D ()

, ,
USB 1394 .
(S-Video , PAL NTSC)
DDC2.
: , . DDC,
.
,
, ( , ,
) .
-. EVC
, , ,
. , ,

.
P&D-A/D, . EVC
,
. EVC
( ),

, .

8.4.4. P&D, DVI DFP


.

. . ,
() , ,
. , ,
, .
( TFT) ,

.
.
: , 150
-

8.4.

335

24- (True Color)


3,6 / (450 /).

Panel-Link, 1996 . (FPDI-2) VESA.
. 8.11. 3
(Data[0:3J) Clock.

T.M.D.S. (Transition Minimazed
Differetial Signaling). ,
, ,
. 8
. ,
,
:3],
. ,
8 10- ,
.
DE
, .
,
. 165 ,
1280x1024 (24
).

. 8.11.

. (12
),
50 +3,3 , 500 .

(

8.

336

), .
P&D, DVI DFP,
DVI (
) DFP ( ).

. P&D
EVC DVI.
(T.M.D.S.)
.
VP&D (VESA Plug-and-Display, 1997 .), P&D,
, EVC (. . 8.10).
, , ,
.
: .
P&D-A/D (. 8.14)
(RGB ),
, .
P&D ;
( EVC P&D-A) (
).
P&D P&D-A (EVC).
8.14. P&D-A/D

Data 2+

11

Data1 +

21

Data 0-

Data 2-

12

Datal-

22

Data 0+

13

23

Sync Rtn

14

Clock+

24

Stereo Sync TTL

H.SyncTTL

15

Clock-

25

DDC Return

'V.SyncTTL

16

USB Data+

26

DDC Data

Clock

17

USB Data-

27

DDC Clock

CHRG+

18

13943KpaH/CHRG-

28

+5V

1394TPA-

19

1394VG

29

1394TPB+.CLOCK+

10

1394TPA+

20

1394VP

30

1394TPB-.CLOCK-

R (.)

C3

PX Clock

G (.)

C5

GND ( R, G, B)

C4

(.)

DFP (Digital Flat Panel, 1999 ., www.dfpgroup.org) MDR (mini-D ribbon)


(. 8.12), 3
,
, (+5), DDC2 (. 8.15)
(HPD). -

8.4.

337

85 (
). (?)
1280x1024 (24 ).

. 8.12. DFP
8.15. DFP

1
2

1 +
1-

11
12

2+
2-

SHLD1

13

SHLD2

SHLDC

14

SHLDO

15

16

GND

17

NC

+5V

18

HPD

NC

19

10

NC

20

DDC_DA
T
DDC
CLK

D^(Digital Visual Interface) DDWG (Digital


Display Working Group ,
www.ddwg.org) 1999 .
( ) ,
:
. DVI
VGA-.

(DataO-2).

. -
.

. , -
,
, , ,
. ,

. ,

338

8.

(
), ( )
() . DVI
,
, ,
.
,
,
, .
3 (Data3-5),
.
, (R), 1 (G) 2 (),
3,4 5,
330 (165x2).
: 8
^), 3,4 5
( ) , 1 2 ().
T.M.D.S. DVI VESA
DDC2: DDC Data DDC Clock, +5 , DDC, .
, ,
. HPD (Hot Plug Detect),
/ .
,
/ . , DVI
PnP.
DVI (VESA) ,
640x480/60 ( 22,175 ). 2048x1536 ( 330 ).
(DPMS).
DVI . 8.13,
. 8.16.
1 2

. 8.13. DVI (): ,

339

8.4.
8.16. DVI

1
2

Data2Data2+

9
10

DatalData1 +

17
18

DataODataO+

2/4

11

1/3

19

0/5

Data4-

12

DataS-

20

DataS-

Data4+

13

Data3+

21

Data5+

DDC Clock

14

+5

22

Clock

DDC Data

15

GND ( +5 , HSync VSync)

23

Clock*

VSync(TTTI)

16

HPD

24

Clock-

C3

(.)

C5

GND ( R, G, B)

C4

HSync ()

R (.)

G (.)

8.4.5.
, ,
,
. (), MPEG.
.
VGA 26- VGA
Auxiliary Video Connector ".
VESA Feature Connector (VFC) (. 8.17),
,
. VGA SVGA

640x480 256 .
.
, Data Enable,
; Sync Enable

; PCLK Enable
.
1024x768 High Color True Color
VAFC VESA Advanced Feature Connector(. 8.18)
, 0,05" ".
16/32 37,5
150 /. 16- VAFC
56 , 32- 80- .
7". GRDY VRDY
( )
,
EVID#.

8.

340

8.17. VFC

GND
GND

2
4

1
3

DataO
Datal

GND
Data enable

Data 2

DataS

Sync, enable

10

Data 4

PCLK enable

12

11

Data S

(Vcc)

14

13

Data 6

GND

16

15

GND

18

17

PCLK

GND

20

19

BLANK

GND

22

21

HSYNC

(Vcc)

24

23

VSYNC

(GND)

26

25

GND

i Data 7

32-
VESA Media
Channel (VM Channel). (),
,
.
8.18. VAFC

RSRVO

41

GND

Ground

RSRV1

42

GND

Ground

GENCLK

Genclock input

43

GND

Ground

OFFSETO

Pixel offset 2

44

GND

Ground

OFFSET1

Pixel offset 1

45

GND

Ground

FSTAT

FIFO buffer status

46

GND

Ground

VRDY

Video ready

47

GND

Ground

GRDY

Graphics ready

48

GND

Ground

BLANK*

Blanking

49

GND

Ground

10

VSYNC

Vertical sync

50

GND

Ground

11

HSYNC

Horizontal sync

51

GND

Ground

12

EGEN#

Enable genclock

52

GND

Ground

13

VCLK

Graphics data clock

53

GND

Ground

14

RSRV2

54

GND

Ground

15

DCLK(PCLK)

Video data (Pixel) clock

55

GND

Ground

16

EVIDEO*

Video data direction control

56

GND

Ground

17

PO

Video data 0

57

P1

Video data 1

18

GND

Ground

58

P2

Video data 2

341

8.4.

19
20

Video data 3
Video data 4

59
60

GND
P5

Ground
Video data 5

21

GND

Ground

61

P6

Video data 6

22

Video data 7

62

GND

Ground

23

Video data 8

63

P9

Video data 9

24

GND

Ground

64

P10

Video data 10

25

11

Video data 11

65

GND

Ground

26

12

Video data 12

66

P13

Video data 13

27

GND

Ground

67

P14

Video data 14

28

15

Video data 15

68

GND

Ground

29

16

Video data 16

69

P17

Video data 17

30

GND

Ground

70

P18

Video data 18

31

19

Video data 19

71

GND

Ground

32

20

Video data 20

72

P21

Video data 21

33

GND

Ground

73

P22

Video data 22

34

23

Video data 23

74

GND

Ground

35

24

Video data 24

75

P25

Video data 25

36

GND

Ground

76

P26

Video data 26

37

27

Video data 27

77

GND

Ground

38

28

Video data 28

78

P29

Video data 29

39

GND

Ground

79

P30

Video data 30

40

31

Video data 31

80

GND

Ground

8.4.6.
( ),
. - , , . PAL, SECAM
NTSC .
( ).
Composite Video
1,5 (75 ).
RCA ().
, ,
.

.
S-Video (Separate Video)
: Y (luminance+sync,
-

342 _________ 8.

) . , (burst signal). Y
1 , NTSC 0,286 ,
PAL/SECAM 0,3 . 75 .
4- S-Video mini-DIN (. 8.14, )
,
S- VHS Y/C.
;
.
7- mini-DIN, 4
, 3
( ). S-Video
(. 8.14, );
,
. , .

. 8.14. S-Video: a ,

() YUV (professional video), :


U V .

8.5.
,
, MIDI
.
USB Fire Wire (. . 4.2).

8.5.1.
, , CD-ROM.

- (jack) 3,5 , .
( ),
(
),

8.5. ________________________________________ 343

. 6- ,
, ,
- .

RCA, ,
. ,
, .
- :
, () ,
.
, .
(
).
6-
.
() .
,
, .
Line In , , ,
. . 0,1-0,3 .
Line Out
, 0,1-0,3 .
Speaker Out .
,
, .
In , 3-10 .
, (
), ( )
.
. ,
, . CD-ROM
, , , . ,
. . . 8.15.
,
(
). - ,
,
-

344

8.

, , .
-CD
.

. 8.15.

8.5.2.
S/PDIF (Sony/Philips Digital Interface Format)
( ) (DAT, CD-ROM . .).
AES/EBU (Audio
Engineers Society/European Broadcast Union). AES/EBU
110 ,
XLR, 3-10 , 12 .
S/PDIF 15 , RCA
BNC, 0,5-1 , 2 .
S/PDIF (
) .
CD-ROM,
S/PDIF. S/PDIF
(1:1),
.
, .
,
.
( ) .

.

S/PDIF Toslink, EIAJ -1201
(660 ).
, .
(POF) 1,5 ,
3 . ,
. 8.16.
,
-

8.5.

345

. HCT74U04 (6
);
Toslink, (220 )
( ).

. 8.16. S/PDIF
(Toslink)
S/PDIF
-,
( -).
,
(, MPEG -3).
, .
16, 20 24
, .
S/PDIF ,
- 32, 44,1 48 .

ADAT TDIF,
.
DVD
I2S.

8.5.3. MIDI
MIDI (Musical Instrument
Digital Interface)
31,25 /. , 1983 ,
, ,
, ,
.
MIDI ,
,
. MIDI
, [1].
16 ,
.
5 ( 10
) () .
, ( )
( ).

346

8.

: MIDI-In, MIDI-Out MIDI-Thru.


MIDI-In ,

2 .
.
MIDI-Out ,
.

5 . .

, .
MIDI-Thru
, .
.
5- DIN,
,
. 8.17.

. 8.17. MIDI

MIDI ( )
(12 15) (DB-15S).
MIDI
, (
). ,
. 8.18. PC
5- MIDI.
MIDI UART MPU-401. MPU-401
Roland PC MIDI,
. MPU MIDI
Processing Unit MIDI.
(UART),
MIDI,
PC . MPU-401
UART mode,
;
MPU-401 .

8.5.

347

. 8.18. - MIDI

- MPU-401 MPU
( ) MPU+1.
DATA ( MPU+0) ,
MIDI.
MPU (
MIDI).
STATUS/COMMAND ( MPU+1) /
( ).
:
7 D5R (Data Set Ready) (DSR=0)
( ,
);
6 DRR (Data Read Ready) (DRR=0) UART
( ,
).
MPU-401
, UART
3Fh. MPU-401 (-
) RESET ( FFh),
MPU (FEh).
, MPU
. 3Fh MPU
( ).
DSR
. MPU UART
.
, , DSR-1 (
).

348 ________ 8.

DRR,
.
MPU-401,
MIDI, ,
MPU-401 UART;
.
, UART, -,
BIOS SETUP MIDI.
MIDI
USB. , , Roland 64 S-MPU64, USB 4
4 MIDI.
4 USB,
256.

8.5.4.
MIDI- (Daugterboard Connector).
(. 8.19) MIDI- (,
) ,
,
. (AG)
(DG). MIDI (
). WT (Wavetable) Connector,
Waveblaster Connector.
8.19.

1
3

DG
DG

2
4

MIDIJDut*

DG

+5

DG

MIDI_ln# ()

DG

10

+5

11

DG

12

13
15

14
AG

+5

16

17

AG

18

+12

19

AG

20

Audio (R)

21
23

AG
AG

22
24

-12
Audio (L)

25

AG

26

Reset*


MIDI- . -

8.6. Game- __________________________ 349

,
/MIDI . , , .

8.6. Game
,
,
. IBM PC
Game port,
.
4 (XI, 2, Y1 Y2),
, 4 .

. XI
-, Y1 -, 2 , Y2 . XI , Y1
, 2 ( Y1).

.
()
USB
-. ,
(
).
Game- -
20 lh,
.
.
. 8.19.
, ,
( ,
). ,
.
, ,
(. ), .

(20lh), 0-3 .

0-3,
. GND
, .
-.
0-100

()=24,2+1 1().

350 _________ 8.

,
( 1,12 ) .
- ,

.

. 8.19.

- DB- 15S.
. 8.20.
+5 , GND (. 8.20).
5-7.
, ,
GND, , + 5 .
( ) Y- . Game
MIDI-, ,
(. . 8.18). MIDI
12 15, GND
+5V. MIDI

MIDI.
8.20. MIDI

7
#2
6
#1

#2

#1

Y- (Y2)

13

- (2)

11

Y- (Y1)

- (1)

GND

4,5,(12)

+5

1,8,9,(15)

MIDI In (Rx) ( )

15

MIDI Out (Tx) ( )

12

14
10

8.6. Game-

351

. 8.20.

BIOS Int 15 h
AH=84h. DX :
DX=0 , AL[7:4]
( 20lh);
DX=1 X, Y ( , ) ( ,
DX). DX CF-1.
Windows.

(
, ), CD DVD,

.
()
- , .
,
, 500 / ( 60
/). 1000 /,
2,88 , .
( ).
(
MFM RLL),

,
,
.

, () ESDI,
1 /.
,
( ,
), ,
.
AT , 1988 .
. ,
, ,
, 1996 . AT API.
,
,
SCSI. 100 / (Ultra DMA
Mode 5).
137 , AT API SCSI 32-
, 2 ( 512-- ).
Serial ATA;
,
, .
, SCSI,
(FCAL). SCSI
-

9.1.

________________________________________ 353

,

. AT A, SCSI
.
USB, Fire Wire,
LPT-.

9.1.
()
.
, - , .
( ). , , , -
.

9.1.1.
, .
.

.
, .

(1-1,5 ),
+5 .

.
5"- ,
(
).
. , Drive Sel
Motor On.
DSO...DS3, ,
.
. ,
,
.

Step; Direction:
( )
( ). ,
Track 00.
Side 1.
Index,

354

____________________________ 9.

. (MFM) (
-) Read
Data. Write Gate,

Write Data. , ,
Write Protect. ,
HD DD QD,
Reduce Write, Low Current FDHDIN.
( 2,88 )
FDEDIN. ,
(
FDEDIN , ).

, PC- ,
.
- ,
.
, CMOS Setup, .
Reduce Write ( )
, CMOS HD (High Density
, 1,2 1,44 ), DD
QD (360 720 ).
, 300 / ( 360/720 1,2 ).
720 1,44
HD,
3,5" ,
QD.
HD Disk Changed,
.
. HD ED
(Extra High Density, 2,88 ),

. PC
DC (Disk Change).
, RY, RDY
SR, PC .
, , .
, .
Index
,
( ).
(. )
TrackOO. , PC,
34 :
5" 3,5".
PC - 7
10-16 (. 9.1).
, .

355

9.1.

: : ,
: . ,
, ,
. ,
. . 9.1
, .
(I/O -) .

. 9.1.
9.1.

1
FDHDIN (Reduce
2

4
FDEDEIN
6
Index
8
Motor On A
10
Drive Sel 1
12
Drive Sel 0
14
Motor On
16
Direction
18
Step
20
Write Data
22
Write Gate
24
Track 00
26
Write Protect
28
Read Data
30
Side l
32
Disk Changed
343
1

I/O

I
1
1

:
1
2
Low Current
4

6
FDEDIN
8
Index
10
DSO
12
DS11
14
DS2
16
Motor2
18
Direction
20
Step
22
WData
24
WGate
26
00
28
WProt
30
RData
32
Sidel
343
DC

:
1
Low Current
2

4
FDEDIN (DS3)
6
Index
8
Motor2
16
DS2
14
DS11
12
DSO
10
Direction
18
Step
20
Wdata
22
Wgate
24
TROO
26
WProt
28
Rdata
30
Side l
32
DC
34

1 -33 . 5" 4-5 6-7.


, FDD (Motor On Drive Sel 0 :
Motor On
Drive Sel 1 :). 3
34 XT .
2

356 _____________________________________ 9.

, PC,

Drive Sel 0 Motor On : Drive Sel 1 Motor On
:.
, DS 1 ( 12 ).
DSO / DS1 / DS2 / DS3,
DS1. DS1 / DS2 / DS3 /
DS4, , DS2.
,
. PC
-.
DS0,
, , .

9.1.2.
FDC (Floppy Drive Controller), ,
DMA .
(.
[4,8,9]). ,
, BIOS Int 13h (. 12.8.1)
. BIOS
. .
, IBM PC,
NEC PD765,
i8272. FDC ;
250 / (
SD, DD QD 5"), 500 /
HD (1,2 1,44 ), 300 / SD, DD
QD HD 5". ,
ED (2,88 ), 1000 /.
, 250/300,500 1000
/, 1, 2 4. 1
9 ( 512 );
300 / 250 /, 360 / -300 /.
2 300 / ( HD 3,5")
18 , 360 / (
HD 5") 15 . 4, ,
.
,
.
, , (
10 %) ,
.

9.1. ______________________________________________

357

AT :
FDC #1 ( ) 3FOh3F7h ( FDC XT);
FDC AT#2 () 370h-377h.
IRQ6 (BIOS I n t
0E h) .
DMA2.
. 9.2.
FDC 3F7 (377) HDC
( ), FDC HDC,
, . (
)
7 .
9.2.
(R , W )
3F2 (372) RW: DOR (Digital Output Register) : [4:7] , ,
, D: 1 ; 3:1 DMA2 IRQ6; 2:0 , 1
; [1:0] 0-3. AT 6,7 1

3F3 (373) RW: TDR (Tape Drive Register) : [1:0] ,


. 00,
( : )
3F4 (374) R: MSR (Main State Register) : 7 (DQM) : 1
/ ; 6 (DIO) : 1 FDC -> CPU; 5 (NON
DMA) DMA: 1 DMA ; 4(CMDBSY): 1
; [0:3] :, :, :, D: ( AT
0,1)
3F4 (374)1 W: DSR (Datarate Select Register) : 7:1
( ); 6:1 ; 5:1
( 0); [4:2]
(000 ); [1:0]
(00 500/,01 300 /, 10 250 /, 11 1 /)
3F5 (375) RW: DR (Data Register) /
3F7 (377) W: CCR (Configuration Control Register) (AT):
[7:2] ; [1:0] (00 500 /, 01300
/, 10 250 /, 111 /)
3F7 (377) R: DIR (Digital Input Register) ( AT): 7:1 =
( DC); [6:0] ,

1

DSR 18272;
- CCR,
.

; TDR (Tape Drive Register),


,
( ).

358 _________________________________ 9.

,
DR (3F5) MSR (3F4).
DR
MSR=10xxxxxxb, MSR=llxxxxxxb. /
,
MSR,
-. DOR (3F2)
/ , CCR (3F7) DSR (3F4)
.
DMA,
. ( DMA)
.
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

( DOR).
( CCR).
.
( 0,5 ).
.
DMA.
/.
. ,
,
. ,
-.
9. ,
, . ,
DMA /.
(3) ,
, DMA
/. ,
.

, .
(BIOS Data Area, 0:0440)
( ),
(0:043F). ( DOR
)
, ( 2 ).
IRQ0 (BIOS Int 08h)c
55
( DOR). ,
, .
, , BIOS
,
.

9,2. /ATAPI (IDE)

_____________________________________ 359

.
1. . DQM=1 DIO-0,
. DR
,
.
DQM .
DQM
. ,
, R, N
DTL, EOT, SC,
GPL .
2. ,
DMA,
(). DMA DRQ DACK#
. DMA ,
DQM .
( ST0),
.
3. DQM=1 010=1,
DR, DQM=1
010=0, .

MSR BSY=1.
( ) DOR DSR.
, DQM=1
010=1, DR.
DR , 80h (
).
FIFO 16 ,
( )
DR; 18272 FIFO .
DR .
, .
,
. DR ,
(16-) . OR
,
, .
, DR
. DR

MSR ( FIFO ).

9.2. /ATAPI (IDE)


ATA (AT Attachment for Disk Drives) 1986-1990
.
IBM PC AT ISA. ,
10, -

360 ________________________________ 9.

40-
. (
PC/AT) ,
IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics).
AT ,

. .
-
.
- .
- -.
(Master) ,
Device- ( 0).
(Slave) ,
Device-1 ( 1).
- -, .
-. , , (DEV)
(drive/head register). DEV4), ,
DEV=1 .
, .

,
- ,
.
, ,
.
AT API, ,
(Package
Interface, PI).
SCSI.
.
: (cylinder), (head) (sector)
CHS.

.
,
(, ,
).
.
.
CHS 267 386 880 (65
536x16x255) (), 512 136
902 082 560 ( 137 ).

9.2. /ATAPI (IDE) ________________________________________ 361

LBA (Logical Block Addressing),


() 28- , 268
435 455 (228) ( , CHS). AT ,
CHS, LBA,
L ( 6) D/H;
. ATAPI SCSI 32 , 2 (
512- ).
, .
, , .
( ) .
(. ),
.
- .
. . , ,
, - . IDE, () .
-4 ,
.
IDE .
, AT-BUS, 16-
AT. 40-
4-
AT. (2,5" )
44- , .
PC Card ATA 16- 68- PC Card
(PCMCIA) PC. XT IDE (8 ), XTBUS, 40- , ,
.
MCA IDE (16 ) 72- ,
PS/2.
-2 . 2 , 4
, PIO Mode 3, Multiword DMA Mode 1, Block mode,
8 , LBA CHS.
Fast -2 Multiword DMA Mode 2 (13,3
/), PIO Mode 4.
-3 -2. ,
,
SMART (Self Monitoring Analysis and Report
Technology).
ATA/ATAPI-4 -3, Ultra DMA
33 / ATAPI.
.

362 ___________________________

9.

ATA/ATAPI-5 ATA/ATAPI-4:
,
. Ultra DMA 66 /.
ATA/ATAPI-6 ATA/ATAPI-5:
/ - , ,
Ultra DMA 100 /.
Serial ATA .
E-IDE (Enhanced IDE) ,
Western Digital. PCI VLB.
4 ( ), CD-ROM
(ATAPI). Mode 3, Multiword DMA Mode 1,
8 , LBA CHS.
-2.
ATA IDE, E-IDE, -2, Fast -2, -3^ ATA/ATAPI-4,
ATA/ ATAPI-5 ATA/ATAPI-6 .
(
).
, - .
ATA/ATAPI
13
(NCITS).
ANSI. ATA/ATAPI-6
,
Serial ATA.

9.2.1.
,
:
2,4 ( 400 ,
DMARQ 500 ), 0,5 ( 4
, DASP 12
);
2,0 ,
0,8 .
40-
,
20.
.
-,
0,46 (18"),
35 .
( -),
()
, -
. -

363

9.2. ATA/ATAPI (IDE)

. 9.3, . 9.2.

. ()
, . 9.3. 28
, 28 (CSEL)
-, .
, .
9.3. ATA (IDE)

RESET#

DD7

1
I/OTS

1
3

2
4

I/OTS

GND
DD8

DD6

I/OTS

I/OTS

DD9

DD5

I/OTS

I/O TS

DD10

DD4

I/OTS

10

I/OTS

DD11

DD3

I/OTS

11

12

I/O TS

DD12

DD2

I/OTS

13

14

I/OTS

DD13

DD1

I/OTS

15

16

I/OTS

DD14

DDO

I/OTS

17

18

I/OTS

DD15

GND

19

20

DMARQ

OTS2

21

22

DlOWtf/STOP3

23

24

DIOR#/HDMARDY#/HSTROBE3

25

26

IORDY/DDMARDY#/DSTROBE3

OTS2

27

28

I/O

( )
GND
GND
GND
SPSYNC/CSEL7
GND
IOCS16#8
PDIAG#/CBLID3

DMACK#

29

30

INTRQ

OTS2

31

32

OK

DA1

33

34

I,O>

DAO

35

36

CSO#

37

38

DASP#

I/O OK5

39

40

DA2
CS1#
GND

+5 (Logic)

41

42

+5 (Motor)

GND

446

3
4
5
6
7
8

43

: I , , I/O , TS
,
. - I .
(
).
, /, Ultra DMA (AT A-4).
' , .
.
41-44 .
-3 - CSEL.
-3 .

364

9.

. 9.3.

ATA/ATAPI-4 1 . 28
, . ,
-
( . 9.3).
, 40-
- (
).
Ultra DMA 80- ,
(GND). UltraDMA
2 ( 33 /).
, 40- ,
80 .
,
( EVN GND ODD
GND ).

9.2. /ATAPI (IDE) ________________________________________ 365

( 80
). 80-
34 GND
; (CBLID).
34 ,
PDIAG* .
80-
.
- ,
34 .
.
0 ,

.
.
1 ()
, 28 .
.
, 0 1
.
40- ,
4- (. 9.4),
44- .

. 9.4. ( ): ,

40- 2,54 . ,

( ).
AT A/ AT API ,
. 9.5, .
() , 1-40 (.
. 9.3), - (. 9.4)
. 50 2 (. 9.5, ), 144 . 9.3, A-D . 9.4 (
,
). 50-
IBM Thinkpad/Travelstar:
10 +5 ;
: 0,
1;

366 _________________________________ 9.

:
Standby, Idle;
D 28 (CSEL) 10
+5 .
, , , . Toshiba

( +5 47 ), GND, D
( 1).

. 9.5. : SFF8057,
SFF8058, SFF8212 (50- )
9.4.

SFF8057

SFF8058

SFF8212

Toshiba (1996)



Master
Master Slave
Slave

-
E-F
G-H
G-H,E-F
-

A-F
A-B
E-F
E-F
C-D

A-D
B-D
A-B

A-D
B-D
C-D

-
HP 36, ATA/ATAPI .
- ,
CompactFlash Association.
. ATA/ATAPI4.
RESET* (Device Reset) (
). 25
.

.

.2. /ATAPI (IDE)

____________________________________367

DA[2:0] (Device Address) ,


.
DD[15:0] (Device Data) 16-
. 8-
D[7:0].
DD7 - 10
GND.
:
BSY .
DIOR* (Device I/O Read) -.
.
DIOW# (Device I/O Write) -.
.
IORDY (I/O channel Ready)
.
.
Mode 3 . - 1
.
IOCS16* 16- .
, , 8-. Mode 0,1,2
16-, 8-.
Mode 3,4 DMA 16-,
( 512- )
. ATA/ATAPI-3 .
DMARQ (DMA Request) DMA
(). ( )
. DMARQ,
-
DMACK*, DMARQ.
. Multiword DMA
.
, DMA
(0 1) . -1
, .
DMARQ . -
GND 5,6 .
DMACK# (DMA Acknowledge) DMA.
- .
DIOR* DIOW*.
DMA IOCS16#, CSO# CS1# ,
16- .
INTRQ (Interrupt Request) .
, ( )
-

368 _________________________________ 9.

,
n IE N Device
Control. RESET*, SRST
Devi Control,
. PIO
(
). : Format Track, Write Sector(S),Write
Buffer Write Long
. DMA
. -
10 GND.
CSO# (Chip Select 0)
(Command Block Registers).
- !FOhlF7h ( CS1FX*).
CS1# (Chip Select 1) (Control Block
Registers).
- 3F6h-3F7h (
CS3FX*).
PDIAG* (Passed Diagnostics) .
,
.
( DASP#),
31 6
. ,
7 .
,

. ( -4
CBLID*).
CBLID* (Cable assembly type identifier) .
80- 34 -
GND, 34 ,
- .
10 .
( PDIAG* )
80- .
DASP# (Device Active, Slave Present) :
.

10 +5 . RESET*
1
, 400
.
-

9.2. /ATAPI (IDE)

_______________________________ 369

450 .
31 (
).
.
.
SPSYNC/CSEL (Spindle Synchronization/Cable Select)
. ,
. SPSYNC
( RAID-);
,
ATA/ATAPI-3 . CSEL

28

( ). -
, ,
.
10 . ( ) 31
RESET*.
Ultra DMA
.
STOP (Stop Ultra DMA burst) Ultra DMA.
DDMARDY* (Device Ultra DMA ready)
Ultra DMA ( ).
DSTROBE (Host Ultra DMA data strobe)
. DSTROBE.
HDMARDY* (Host Ultra DMA ready)
Ultra DMA ( ).
HSTROBE (Host Ultra DMA data strobe)
.
HSTROBE.
IDE 68 PCMCIA (PC Card), . 9.5.
.
SELATA* (Select 68-pin ATA) ,
, PC Card ( ) (
, ).
. 19
, .
, .
, PC Card
.
CD1 # CD2# (Card Detect)
.
CS1# (Device chip select 1) ,
( 42), .

9.

370

DMARQ, DMACK* IORDY .


M/S# (Master/Slave) CSEL. M/S#
CSEL , .
GND

. CSO#, CS1#, RESET* SELATA*
.
9.5.68- PC Card (PCMCIA)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

GND
DD3
DD4
DD5
DD6
DD7
CSO#

35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
SELATA* 43
44
CS1#
45
46
47
48
49
INTRQ
50
+5
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
DA2
61
DA1
62
DAO
63
DDO
64
DD1
65
DD2
66
67
GND
68

GND
CD1#
DD11
DD12
DD13
DD14
DD15
CS1#
DIOR#
DIOW#

+5

M/S#
CSEL
RESET#
IORDY*
DMARQ
DMACK
DASP#
PDIAG*
DD8
DD9
DD10
CD2#
GND

9.2. /ATAPI (IDE) _______________________________________ 371

8- ,
XT-IDE, XT-Bus. [2,5], AT , 40- , 16- AT
. XT-IDE AT ,
.
XT/AT ( Seagate
).


, - (CSO#, CS1#, DA2, DA1, , DIOR* DIOW#).
(. 9.6) ,
CSO# CS1#, ( , )
. -
IBM PC- .
DMACK* .

.

.
BSY
.
BSY=0 DRQ=0, .
,
,
.
9.6.


(0 , 1 )
CSO# CS1#
DA2 DA2 DA1

(R , W )

(
)

3FX 37

X
X

(
)
Control Block Registers
X

3F6

376

3F6

376

3F7

377

(
)
(
)
R: Alternate Status (AS)

W: Device Control (DC)

R: Drive Address (DA)


( )1
^

372 _________________________________ 9.
9.6. ()


(R , W ) (0
, 1 )
1
2 CSO# CS1# DA2 DA1 ______________________________________________
1FX 17 Command Block Registers
1F 170 0
1
0
0
0 R/W: Data (DR)
1F 171 0
1
0
0
1 R: Error (ER)
1F 171 0
1
0
0
1 W: Features (FR)
1F 172 0
1
0
1
0 R/W: Sector Count (SC)

2
1F
3
1F
4
1F
5
1F
6
1F
7
1F

173 0

174 0

2
0 /LBA[7:0]

175 0

2
1 [15:8]

176 0

2
0 /1-[23:1 ]

177 0

2
1 /1_[27:24]

177 0

R/W: Sector Number (SN)


R/W: Cylinder Low (CL)
R/W: Cylinder High (CH)
R/W: Device/Head (D/H)
R: Status (SR)
W: Command (CR)

, .
, LBA
.
2

AS ( 3F6h,
376h) , (. ),
.
DC (3F6h, 376h)

. .
DC
Sleep. DC:
[7:3] ;
2 SRST (Software Reset) , ,
(
);
1 n IE N (Interrupt Enable)
(
INTRQ );
0 - 0.
DA (3F7h, 377h)
,
.
(
)

9.2. /ATAPI (IDE) _______________________________________ 373

, .
, DD7
,
. -
, ()
. DA:
7 (HiZ) ,
;
6 nWTG (
);
[5:2] nHS [3 :0] ( );
[1:0] nDS [1:0] ( ): 10
0, 01 1.
DR (IFOh, 170h) 8- 16 , .
(
DMACK* ), ( Out)
, PI ( In) . DMA
,
DMARQ DMACK*, CSO# CS1# .
ER (IFlh, 171h)
.
ERR .
ER:
7 ;
6 UNC (Uncorrectable Data Error) ;
5 (Media Changed) (
,
);
4 IDN F (ID Not Found)
;
3 MCR (Media Change Requested)
( Door Lock
ERR MCR, MCR
Door Unlock, Medi a Ej ect );
2 ABRT (Aborted Command) ,
;
1 TK0NF (Track ONot Found) ,
Recalibrate ;
0 AMNF (Address Mark Not Found)
.

374 _________________________________ 9.

Execute Device Diagnostic


. , 2 (ABRT), .
FR (IFlh, 171h) .
Set Features .
.
-2
- .
SC (lF2h, 172h) ,
.
( 256 ).
.
, ,
. Initialize
Device Parameters Write Same
.
.
S N (1 F3h, 173h)
L (1 F4h, 174h) (lF5h, 175h)
(CHS LEA).
-,
,
.
D/H (IFGh, 176h)

.
D/H:
7 5 -3 , AT A/ AT
API -4 ;
6 L
LBA, CHS;
4 DEV (Device) , DEV=0 ,
DEV=1 ;
[3:0]
, CHS , LBA
.
(5,1_), D/H
-,
, .
-2 ,
,
. S R (l F7h, 177h)
: ,
, .

.

9.2. /ATAPI (IDE)

______________________________________375

SR .
7 BSY (Busy) ,
. BSY=1
,
. BSY=0
, DRQ,
RR
( IDX, DRDY, DF,
DSC CORR). ,
. :
;
, DRQ;
, DRQ;
DMA.
6 DRDY (Device Ready)
. ,
. DRDY=0
Execute Device Diagnostic
Initialize Device Parameters,
ABRT ERR
.
. AT API
Execute Device Diagnostic. AT
A, . AT API
,
Device Reset Execute Device Diagnostic.
5 DF (Device Fault) .
4 DSC (Device Seek Complete)
. , , SERV
(Service Required) .
3 DRQ (Data Request)
.
2 CORR (Corrected Data)
.
1 I DX (Index) , .
0 ERR (Error)
.
.
ERR, ,
,
, ,
. PacketnService
.
ATA/ATAPI-4 4 5
, 1 2 .

9.

376

CR (lF7h, 177h) .
,
. Devi ce Reset AT API
BSY DRQ, Sleep.
[4,5,9].


,
- IN OUT.

INSW/OUTSW DMA. ( DMA)
.
, DMA .
. 9.7.
9.7.

, /

mode 0
mode 1

600
383

3,3
5,2

mode 2

240

8,3

mode 3

180

11,1

E-IDE, -2
( IORDY)

mode 4

120

16,6

Singleword DMA Mode 0

960

2,08

E-IDE, Fast -2
( IORDY)

Singleword DMA Mode 1

480

4,16

Singleword DMA Mode 2

240

8,33

Multiword DMA Mode 0

480

4,12

Multiword DMA Mode 1

150

13,3

-2

Multiword DMA Mode 2

120

16,6

Fast-2

Ultra DMA Mode 0

120'

16,6

ATA/ATAPI-4

Ultra DMA Mode 1

80'
601

25
33

ATA/ATAPI-4

Ultra DMA Mode 2


Ultra DMA Mode 3

451

44,4

ATA/ATAPI-5

Ultra DMA Mode 4

66,6

ATA/ATAPI-5

Ultra DMA Mode 5

201

100

ATA/ATAPI-6

ATA/ATAPI-4

Ultra DMA ,
, .
.

(Programmed Input/Output)
.

9.2. ATA/ATAPI (IDE) ________________________________________ 377

, , Mode 0-4.

.
- REP INS REP OUTS
( ) .

.
AT ,
( ISA IOCHRDY). 0,1
2 , -.
-2 ( Mode 3 )
, IORDY.
, .
DMA -
.
,
( ).
DMA ISA -
.
. DMA
.
Singleword DMA
DMARQ DMACK#,
. Multiword
DMA DMARQ ,
DMACK*. ,
DMARQ,
.
.
ATA/ATAPI-4 Ultra DMA,
16,6 /,
.
, ,
DMA ( !). -4
3 Ultra DMA (0,1 2), ;
Set Features. Ultra DMA
DMARQ DMACK* ,
DIOR#, DIQW# IORDY (Ultra DMA Burst)
. , , . 33
/, 8,33 "1 (
Mode 4 Multiword
DMA Mode 2). CRC-,
- .
, .

378 __________________________________ 9.


, .
, (DDMARDY* HDMARDY*).
( )
( STOP).
STOP DMARQ .
. READ DMA,WRITE DMA, READ DMA QUEUED WRITE
DMA QUEUED ER 7 (ICRC) 2
(ABRT). REQUEST SENSE ( )
SR ()
(Sense key) OBh ( ).

04h ( ),
REQUEST SENSE 5/5 08h/03h ( CRC
). ,
. ,
( Ultra DMA).
- ( ),
,
. , ,
BIOS Setup.
Ultra DMA Mode 3 80-
,
. , ,
() 3 4
40- ( ).

, ,
.
[4].
-, -
CBLID*.

Identyf (Packet) Devi 1.
1 -3
PDIAG#/CBLID# , .
,
(
). ,
- 80-
CBLID*.
, 40-
80-.

9-2. /ATAPI (IDE) _______________________________________ 379

PDIAG#/CBLID# -
0,047 20 %.
.
Identyf (Packet) Device
1, ( PDIAG*).
0. 30

, 20-30
13 93. +5
10 , . 40 , -
. 80-,
PDIAG*/CBLID*
, . , 40-
80-, .
,
80- 40-.

- CBLID#, (
). 80- ,
.
1 80-
(,
).
. Mode 0,
. ,

, . Set Features
.
.
, .
BIOS ,
Setup. , ,
PIO. ( AT)

.
.
.
(, PIO Mode 1 3)
(PIO Mode 1).
( IDE)
CD-ROM.

BIOS.

380 _________________________________ 9.

DMA .
,
.
PIO .
DMA, , ,
.
(, DMA
UltraDMA);
. UltraDMA
DMA ;
UltraDMA
( ).
.
1. ,
S Y. ,

.
2. , D/H
, DEV .

AT :
.
3.
, (DRDY=1).
4. .
5. .
6. BSY .
, .
, , ( 7)
. , BSY
( ).
.
BSY 6 7
, ,
.
, ,
.
7. ,
DRQ. ,
. BSY
( ).
8. BSY ( ),
, .

9.2. /ATAPI (IDE) _______________________________________ 381

9. DRQ,
PIO ( ).
, .
:
8
, BSY
7;
,
DRQ .

, BSY.
, PIO,
6 .
7. AT,
DRQ ( )
B5Y. , .
8. BSY, .
9. DRQ,
PIO .
10. :
, DRQ,
,

( );
, BSY
.
11. , :
,
B5Y ,
;
,
, ;
,
.
12.
DRQ, BSY .
13. BSY ( )
.
14. DRQ,
, 11.

382 _________________________________ 9.

DMA ,
.
PIO .
DMA ,
DMARQ .

.


.
IDE.
- ;
DMA.
, .
.
(. 9.8).
DMA3, 8, 16- DMA.
DMA
.
9.8.
CSO
1
2
3
4

1FOh-1F7h
170h-177h
1E8h-1Efh
168h-16Fh

CS1
3F6h-3F7h
376h-377h
3Eeh-3Efh
36Eh-36Fh

IRQ
14
15 10
12 11
10 9

PCI
, 1 2.
- ,
.

.
, (
):
46 ,
35 .
.
ATA/ATAPI-6 .
DIOR#, DIOW# IORDY ( );
CSO# CS1# (
, ).
, Ultra DMA.

9.2. /ATAPI (IDE)

383

Ultra DMA 0,1 2 ( 33 /)


DMACK#.
Ultra DMA 3 (44-100 /)
.
RESET*, INTRQ, DA(2:0), CSO#, CS1# DASP#,
.
-, Mode
/.
.
.
AT , PCI (bus
mastering) DMA Ultra DMA.

.
DMA
UltraDM A Mode 1 Mode
4 (. . 9.7). DMA
,
().
( )
, Mode.

Bus-Master,
( , ). PCI IDE .
MS-DOS DMA ( ) .
(Windows 9x/NT/2000, OS/2, Unix, Linux, NetWare...)

( ). ,
DMA .
Ultra DMA ( Multiword DMA),

, ,
( )
.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

UltraDMA ,
(,
).

32- PCI,
.
32- PCI
16- . 32-
IDE 32-bit Transfer
(Enable/Disable) BIOS Setup.

384 ______________________________

9.

( ) - . RAID- -.
BIOS.
( CD-ROM). 3 4.
, BIOS
POST . BIOS
,
.
, .
HDD XT
, , LPT-.
, AT A/ AT API
USB. USB 2.0
.

PCI IDE
PCI IDE
( ,
ISA- ). PCI IDE Controller Specification
1994 , ,
. ,

( ).
Programming Interface for Bus Master IDE Controller,
DMA
. PCI;

PCI.
:
(compatibility),

- ;
PCI (native-PCI),

.
. 9.9.
PCI,
PCI-PCI
. PCI
.
.
( ) ,

.

9.2. /ATAPI (IDE) _______________________________________ 385

,
. :
7 (bus mastering)
;
6:4 000 ( , PCI
IDE Controller Specification);
3
( 2);
2 : 0
ATA IDE, 1 - PCI IDE;
1
( 0);
0 : 0 ATA IDE, I PCI IDE.
9.9. PCI IDE

: PCI:
(

)
12
12
1FOh-1F7h 170h-177h
10h
14h
3F6h
376h
18h
1Ch
14
15

01:01:80h
.
-,
AT A/ AT API .
PCI (bus mastering),
DMA.

(3,3-16,6 /), DMA 8237 (2-16,6 /)
UltraDMA (16,6-100 /).
PCI,
.
POST,
AT A/ AT API DMA/UltraDMA.

-
BIOS Setup.
POST
DMA ( DMA).
,
REP IN5/OUTS.
DMA
, .

386 __________________________________ 9.

16- ,
-. 20h ( 16
). . 9.10,
BMI (Bus Master IDE)
(Primary) , S (Secondary) ;
( ).
9.10. PCI IDE
, /
J _______ 2 _______________________________________________________________________
0
8
1
BMICP/BMICS (RW) : 0:
1 , 0 ; 3 : 0
, 1 ; 1 -2, 3-7 (0)
1
9
1
(0)
2
OAh
1
BMISP/BMISS : 0 (R/O)
; 1 (RWC) PCI;
2 (RWC) ; 3-4
(0); 5 (RW) 0 DMA;
6 (RW) 1 DMA; 7
(1,
)
3
OBh
1
(0)
4

4
BMIDPTP/BMIDPTS(RW)

BMICx, ,
.
0 ,
. ( )
ATA/ATAPI ( ).

. ,
.
BMISx 1 2 ,
.

. 5 6
, POST
.

PCI. I DPTx
,
.
(gathered read),
(scatter write).
-

9.2. /ATAPI (IDE) _______________________________________ 387

EISA-,
, DMA 86. 8 :
0-3 ( ) ();
4-5 () (, 0000 65 536);
6-7 () ( 15), 0-14
(0).
(
ISA) ,
64 .

, 64 .
, .
, ;
.
,
.
, .

:
0,1 ,
;
1,0 ,
( );
1,1 ,
, ( );
0,0 ( 1), ,
.


. . XT AT
. Seagate, ,
: (16 ,) X XT (8 ),
AT/XT .

.
CS (Cable Select ).

CS,
(. . 9.3). ,

388 __________________________________ 9.

, -, 28.
28 (
RAID-). .
,

, .
, ,
.
, (. . 9.2). CS
, ,
. ,
(0/1), , AT ,
(
DASP#).
, IDE.
M/S (Master/Slave /) .
,
. ,
. C/D ( :/ D:),
IDE .
IDE- 1 , 504
(0
1) . IDE
* .
SP (Slave Present), DSP (Drive Slave Present), Master but Slave is not ATAcompatible Master but Slave uses only PDIAG-signal
.
, , POST
. ,
DASP*.
Single Drive , ,
( Western Digital).
.
ACT (Drive Active) , DASP*
.
0, .
HSP , DASP* (,
ACT). 1
( ).
AT-
.

.

9.2. /ATAPI (IDE) ________________________________________ 389

, ,

Disk Manager.
, ().
, ,
(. . 9.5).
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ,
. , ,
-, .

9.2.2. Serial
,
100 / UltraDM A Mode 5.
(, ,
,
)
.
,
( ),
, .
(
137 ). Serial ATA
1.0 2001 . www.serialata.org.
Serial ATA II

.
1.0.
Serial ATA -,
,
,
, .
, , ,
.
( ) ,
.
Serial ATA ,
ATA/ATAPI-5. Serial ATA (
) . -
, ,
. Serial ATA
: - (Shadow
Registers),
. .
.

390 _________________________________ 9.


, ,
. . , (Frame Information Structure, FIS).

8/10 (8 10- )
-,
NRZ ( ).
,
.
.
Serial ATA
1500 /, 8/10 150
/ ( ).
,

, .
- ,
Serial ATA.
.
PARTIAL SLUMBER ,
(10 ).
, ,
. PIO DMA
(legacy DMA) .
-
( FIS
,
). D
DMA, (First-party DMA)
Serial ATA. DMA
,
, (. .
9.2.1). , ,
,
, Serial ATA.

DMA -
. ;
- ( )
, . - ,
,
,
.

9.2. /ATAPI (IDE) ________________________________________ 391

Serial ATA
, , . 1 , ,
- .
-
.
' , .
7 (S1-S7), 15 (1-15);
1,27 .
. 9.11. ( 36 )

. (
4- ).
. 9.6.
,
4 12,
, 7 13 ( ),
.
9.11. Serial ATA

51
52

GND
+

53

54

GND

55

56

GND

57

1
2

V33
V33

3,3
3,3

V33

3,3 ,

GND

GND

GND

V5

5 ,

8
9

V5
V5

5
5

10

GND

11

12

GND

13

V12

12,

14
15

V12
V12

12
12

392__________________________________ 9.

. 9.6. Serial ATA: a ,


, ,
-,

Serial ATA
, Serial ATA,
,
(. . 9.2.1) , .

; PCI-

.
, , (AS
, DC ).
SC, SN, CL 16 ,
. LBA SN, L
[24:31], [32:39] [40:47] .
D/H DEV (
DEV ). ,
D/H LBA[27:24],
SN.
SCR (Serial ATA Status and Control registers)
16 32- SCR0-SCR15,
3 ( ).
SStatus (SCR0)
( ).
[3:0] DET, :

0000 , ;
0001 , ;
, ;
0100 (
).

9.2. /ATAPI (IDE) ________________________________________ 393

[7:4] SPD, :
0000 (
);
0001 1- .
[11:8] IPM, :

0000 , ;
0001 ;
0010 PARTIAL;
0110 SLUMBER.

.
SError (SCR1) ,
. ,
. ,
(
).
[15:0] ERR, ,
:
9
( ,
);
11 , - (
,
);
0 I (
, , ,
);
1 (
, ,
);
10 ,
(
);
8 ,
.
[31:16] DIAG, :

19 10/8;
21 CRC ;
20 D (Disparity);
26 F FIS (,
CRC-);
17 I ;

394 _________________________________ 9.

16 N ;
22 (
, , D);
23 S
;
24 ;
18 W Wake.
.
SControl (SCR2) (
).
[3:0] DET,
:
0000 ;
0001 (
);
0100
Offline.
[7:4] SPD,
:
0000 ;
0001 1- .
[11:8] IPM, :

0000 ;
0001 PARTIAL;
0010 SLUMBER;
0011 PARTIAL SLUMBER.

9.3.

,

,
,

(GPS), .
-,
NAND (. . 7.3.2).
- ,
(256 512 ), . ,

,
, .
- (
), ,

9.3.

395

, , , , .
: ()
( ), .
, - ( 105),
- ,
.

, .
, Miniature
Card, (
).
,
(FRAM), .
-
() 3" ,
.
;
. 9.12.
9.12.
CompactFlash

SmartMedia
Card

MultiMedia
Card

Sequre
Digital

Miniature
Card

36,0

45,0

32,0

32,0

33,0

43,0

37,0

24,0

24,0

38,0

3,3/5,0

0,76

1,4

2,1

3,5

50

22

60

.
: PC Card (
), USB ( )
.
(). ,
,
.
(, . .)
() ( ).

AT . DOM (Disk On
Module) , 40-
, . ,
: 4-256 ,
1,6 /,
$1,5 . -
NAND , .

,
.

9.

396

9.3.1. CompactFlash
CompactFlash (. 9.7), CFA (Compact
Flash association), :
, , -,
, , ,
, , . 42,8 36,4
3,3 (4 ) 50- ( ,
1,27 ).
. 9.13. 50 68-
PC Card Type II III,
.
4 1 , 5
3,3 . :
(Mem), - PC Card (I/O), IDE (ATA).
,
PC Card. IDE
(. . 9.2.1), ,
. IDE
ATA_SEL#.
[2:0] ( );
8 , 16.
CSO# CS1#
. PDIAG#, DASP#, CSEL#,
RESET* IORDY . CSEL#
: 0 (master),
1 (slave);
. REG# WE#
(Vcc). CD1# CD2#
( , ). .
9.14 ,
Compact Flash (IDE),
.

. 9.7. CompactFlash

397

9.3.
9.13. CompactFlash
I/O

IDE

CD1#
D11

CD1#
D11

CD1#
D11

28

D12

D12

D12

29
30
31
32

D13
D14
D15
CE2#

D13
D14
D15
CE2#

D13
D14
D15
CS1#

A10
ATA_SEL#

33
34

VS1#
IORD#

VS1#
IORD#

VS1#
IORD#

A09
A08

A09
A08

35
36

IOWR#
WE#

IOWR#
WE#

IOWR#
WE#

IDE

Mem

I/O

1
2

GND
DOS

GND
DOS

GND
DOS

26
27

D04

D04

D04

4
5
6
7

DOS
D06
D07
CE1#

DOS
D06
D07
CE1#

DOS
D06
D07
CSO#

8
9

A10
OE#

A10
OE#

10
11

A09
A08

12

A07

Mem

A07

A07

37

RDY/BSY

IREQ

INTRQ

13. VCC
14 A06
15 A05

VCC
A06
A05

VCC
A06
A05

38
39
40

VCC
CSEL#
VS2#

VCC
CSEL#
VS2#

VCC
CSEL#
VS2#

16
17
18

A04
A03
A02

A04
A03
A02

A04
A03
A02

41
42
43

RESET
WAIT*
INPACK*

RESET
WAIT#
INPACK*

RESET#
IORDY
INPACK#

19
20

A01
AGO

A01
AOO

A01
AOO

44
45

REG#
BVD2

REG#
SPKR#

REG#
DASP#

21

DOO

DOO

DOO

46

BVD1

STSCHG#

PDIAGtf

22
23
24

D01
D02
WP

D01
D02
IOIS16*

D01
D02
IOCS16*

47
48
49

D08
D09
D10

DOS
D09
D10

DOS
D09
D10

25

CD2#

CD2#

CD2#

50

GND

GND

GND

9.14. CompactFlash Card ATA


ATA, .

CFC, . CFC, .

2
11

GND
DOS

1
2

9
7
5
3
37
GND1
GND'
GND1
GND1
GND1
+5V2
GND1

D04

DOS
D06

4
5

D07
CSO#

6
7

A10
8
ATA_SEL# 9
A09
10
A08
A07

11
12

VCC

13

A06

14

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

ATA, .
CD1#
D11
D12

10
12

D13

14

D14
D15

16
18

CS1#
VS1#

38
-

IORD#
IOWR#

25
23

WE#
INTRQ

+5V2
31

VCC
CSEL#

+5V2
283
&

9.

398
9.14 ()
, .
1

CFC, .

CFC, .

ATA, .

GND
GND1
GND1

05
04

15
16
17

40
41
42

VS2#
RESET*
IORDY

1
27

36

02

18

43

INPACK#

33

01

19

44

REG#

+5V2

35
17
15

DOO
D01

20
21
22

45
46
47

DASP#
PDIAG#
D08

39
34
4

13

D02

23

48

D09

32

IOCS16#

24

49

D10

CD2#

25

50

GND

GND'

1
2
3

GND 2,19,22,24,26,30 40 ,
.
+5V .
, GND :
, .

9.3.2. SmartMedia Card


SmartMedia Card, PCMCIA,
, CompactFlash.
,
( 22) , .
-
NAND. 2 /,
10. . 9.8, . 9.15.
5 1632 (2 4 ). 3,3
16, 32 64 (2, 4, 8 ); 17
Vcc. SmartMedia
PC Card Type II. FlashPath
(!) 1,44 .

. 9.8. SmartMedia: 5 , 3,3

9.3. ______________ 399


9.15. SmartMedia Card

22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12

VCC(5 B)
#
RE#

1
2
3

Vss
CLE
ALE

R/B

WE#

GND
Power Detect

5
6

WP#
1/01

I/08

I/02

I/O?

I/O3

I/06

I/O4

I/O5

10

Vss

Vcc

11

vss

9.3.3. MultiMediaCard Sequre Digital


MultiMediaCard (MMC) Secure Digital (SD)
32x24 1,4 2,1 SD.
, 7- 9-
SD. , ,
. SD
4 ,
. SD ,
, , ,
( SD ).

(, ). SD
, CompactFlash;
(eBook).
:
, , ,
. SD ( ) , .
SD Toshiba, Matsushita (
Panasonic) SanDisk,
SDA (Secure Digital Association), ,
.
; SD
( ).
SD (. 9.9) 32x24x2,1 ;
(WP),
. SD -
NAND, SD- . 9-
SD (. 9.16) 1-7 . SD
/ .
10 000 -. 200
000-300 000 --

400 _________________________________ 9.

3 . , .
SD 2 /, 8-512
; 2002 . 10 / 1
, 2004 20 / 4 .
$3 1 ,
$1 1 ( !) .

. 9.9. SD ( )

SD ( )
:
(SD-Rewritable)
(SD-Read Only);
ISO 9293;

(SD-Audio), (SD-Picture), (SD-Voice),
(SD-Video) .
9.16. SD

1
2
3
4
5

Command
Vss
Vdd
Clock
Vss


6
7
8
9

Data
Datal
Data 2
Data3

(Security),
SD. SD
CPRM (Content Protection for Recordable Media
)
/,
IBM, Intel, Matsushita (Panasonic) Toshiba. SD-Audio
SDMI1 (Secure Digital Music Initiative)
.
SDMI RIAA (Recording Industry Association of
America) (
UMG, , EMI, WMG, SME),
.

9.3.

401

SD :
,
.
, -
(, ).
,
: , .
,
(
).
SD ;
SD,
. (, ) ,
, , ,
.
SD . SD-
; SD
(FAT),
/ .
.
, , SD -
. (
) SD,
( ).
- SD- (
).
SD-, - (SD I/O
card). Bluetooth,
,
SD, , .

9.3.4. Miniature Card


Miniature Card
-,
(. 9.10).
64
. 16-
.
8- (
, BS8# ).
DRAM -;

PC.
, ( DRAM!) .
,
: GND, VCC CINS* (, -

9.

402

). ,
CD#.
5 3,3 ;
VS1 #, VS2#. Miniature Card
PC Card 2.
GND CINS#

Vcc

. 9.10. Miniature Card: ,

DRAM [12:0]
RAS#, CASH* CASL# (
), WE#.
Veer .
- [24:0]
# (), WE# (), # 1_# (
).

9.4.

BIOS
. BIOS

,
.
BIOS Int 13h .
BIOS ( )
.
Int 13 h ,
(physical drive).
,
IBM PC/XT. 528
(. [1,4,9]). ,
( ),
, ,

9.4. _____________________________ 403

8,4 .
BlOSlnt 13hc ,
.

, BIOS, .
, ,
, (logical drive),
(:, :, :,..., Z:).
() .
(MBR
), .
.

, .
,
, (
). , ,
Set Max Address ( ).
, , , BIOS.
BIOS Int 13h
, (
40h), 8,4 (
) 528 ( ).

,
.
DOS,
, ,
/ .
( 0)
, ,
, .
FAT ,
, , .
,
, ,
, .

FAT ( ,
).
,
.
, ,
: ,

404 ________________________________ 9.

(
). ,
, .
CD-ROM ( )
( ), CD-ROM
. CD-ROM,
BIOS,
CD-ROM (, ) BIOS .
CD-ROM
, .
CD-ROM Phoenix IBM
El Torito Bootable CD-ROM Format Specification, 1.0
1995 .
CD-ROM BIOS (
). :
(Boot Catalog),
CD-ROM;
CD-ROM
;
( );
BIOS ( LBA)
;
DOS Windows,
Int 13h.

ATAPI SCSI.

BIOS,

10


(
) . Ethernet
10,100 1000 /, 10 /.

()
. .
ARCNet, Token Ring, l OOVG- Any LAN
, . Ethernet,
[3].

10.1. Ethernet
Ethernet ,
XBaseY, X
, / (10, 100, 1000...); Base
( ); Y
. Ethernet
.
( , hub)
(switch). .
,
.
lOBaseFP.
(media converter),
. ,
.
Ethernet 10 / .
10Base5 RG-8 (50 )
, 500 .
AUI,
- (4 )
, .
(, , ).

406 _______________________________ 10.

10Base2 RG-58 (50 )


, 185 .
BNC
( AUI ). ( )
; .
WBaseT 3 (2 ),
100 ( 5 200
, ).
RJ-45 ( ).
,
- .
5 100
1000 / ( ).
WBaseF FOIRL ( ).
AUI,
.
( 850 ) 1 .
( )
(1310 ),
( 2 ).
Fast Ethernet 100 /
.
100BaseTX 5 (2 ),
100 . RJ-45.
(/)
.
1000 / (
).
100BaseT4 3 (4 ),
100 . RJ-45, .
100BaseFX ( ).
(1310 ),
( 2 ).
.
lOOBaseSX
(850 ), 300 .
lOBaseF,
(10/100).
Gigabit Ethernet 1000 /
.
lOOOBaseCX ( 25 )
STP .
lOOOBaseT 5 (4 )
100 . RJ-45.
lOOOBaseSX ,
200-500 ( ).
lOOOBaseLX ,
50 ( ).

10.1. Ethernet ___________________________________ 407


, (
) ,
[3].
,

( ). 10-
Ethernet .
5-4-3: 5
4 , ()
3 .
( )
4 ().
: (
)
5 .
1024 (
30-50).
Fast Ethernet .
205 .
II,
I.
Gigabit Ethernet ,
.
: ST, SC,
MT-RJ .
( N BNC ). ,
50
.
,
BNC- , .
,
.
RJ-45 (. 10.1),
( MDI) . 10.1.
lOBaseT, 100BaseTX 100BaseT4 MDIX,
RX .
( MDI-MDIX, . 10.2, )
(. 10.3, ),
(MDI-MDI, . 10.2, 6)
(MDIX-MDIX)
(. 10.3, ). , ,
MDI-MDIX .

10.

408
10.1. RJ-45 Ethernet
10BaseT/100BaseTX

100BaseT4

1000BaseTX

1
2

+
-

Tx D1 +
Tx_D1-

BlD1 +
BlD1-

RX+

Rx_D2+

BlD2+

BI_D3+

B!_D3+

BI_D3-

BI_D3-

Rx-

Rx_D2-

BI_D2-

BI_D4+

BI_D4+

BI_ D4-

BI_ D4-

. 10.1. RJ-45: a ,

. 10.2. 10BaseT/100BaseTX: ,

. 10.3. Ethernet: ,

10.1. Ethernet ___________________________________ 409

, , , . ,
-' .
, . , 4,
5, 7 8 100BaseT4 lOOOBaseTX, lOBaseT
100BaseTX , .
Gigabit Ethernet lOOOBaseTX .
Fast Ethernet (
). Gigabit Ethernet
, 100BaseTX.
Ethernet
(autonegotiation),

() .
( ).
,
. :
,
100BaseTX
,
100BaseT4,100BaseTX
, lOBaseT , lOBaseT .
(
), . (, Fast Ethernet 10/100), 100BaseT4
.
, - , . , , ,
.
Ethernet (10 /) AUI (Attachment Unit
Interface ),
()
. ,
. AUI .
10.2, DB-15 ( ,
).
10.2. AUI -
Ethernet
1
2
3
4

Collision
Collision +
Transmit +
Receive ()
^

410

10

10 .2 ()

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Receive +
DC Power GND
He
He
Collision Transmit Transmit ()
Receive DC Power (+12B)
DC Power ()
He

Fast Ethernet (Media Independent


Interface , ).
4-
( 2,5 25
10 100 ) ( 10 /).

, ( , ),
SMI (. . 11.2),
.
(40- ),
.

10.2.
,
(Network Interface Card, NIC).
,
. :
()
,
( , CRC-),
.
. , ,
, ,
, .
(promiscuous mode),
.
( , CRC).

.
, ,

10.2. _____________________________ = ____________________________ 411

, .
, .
.
PC ISA, EISA, MCA, VLB, PCI,
PC Card. , LPT-
PC;
(, . .) (
),
( 10 /).
USB.
.
, , .
,
.
(DMA), - (), .
8- ISA
2 /, 16- 4 /.
(1514 ) 1,3 2,6 .
12 , Ethernet,
. Fast Ethernet,
1,2 ,
.
- (),

(bus mastering)
ISA/ EISA, ( 8 / ISA 16
33 / EISA). 100 /
ISA .
PCI, 32-
33 132 /.
Gigabit Ethernet - , , PCI
: 66 64 ,
. ,
, PCI.
PCI, .
.

,
,
.
ISA/EISA :
( )
64 ,
,
. PCI
( ) 100 /

412 _______________________________ 10.

2 . Gigabit
Ethernet (256 ).

.
, .

.

(?) 100 /, ,

. ,
NE2000 16-
ISA Novell-Eagle.
PCI.
10/100 /
.
Boot ROM,
(remote wake up), DMI
ACPI. 3-
, .

( +5VSB),
.
,
(Magic Packet) no .
,
;
DMI.
, ,
, .

PCI32/64 33/66 ,
EISA .
,
.
802.3.
802.1,
,
(tagged VLAN), Fast IP, IP. ,
, ,
.
(Resilient Link)
.
- , .
, . (Self-Healing Drivers)
-

10.2. ________________________________________________ 413

()
. ,
, . ( )
SNMP RMON. ( ,
4 ) ,
, .
PCI ( EISA
). 100
/, Gigabit Ethernet
.
:
BNC 10Base2;
AUI DB-15 ()
lOBaseS, 10Base2, lOBaseT, lOBaseF, FOIRL;
RJ-45 8-
( ) lOBaseT, 100BaseTX /
100BaseT4;
SC (), ST
100BaseFX, lOOOBaseSX, lOOOBaseLX.
10- BNC+AUI RJ45+AUI, Combo 10-
BNC/AUI/ RJ 45. 10 100 /
RJ-45 .
(, BNC RJ-45)
.
RJ-45
lOBaseT 100BaseTX.
,
.
.
- , 4-32
, 10- ( ISA) 16- (EISA,
PCI) .
,
, .
(IRQ3,5,7,9,10,11,12 15),
, ,
( - ).
,
.
(DMA)
ISA/EISA; (bus mastering) ISA
16- 5-7.
(adapter RAM)
ISA
(UMA), AOOOOh-FFFFFh.
PCI ,
.
.

414 _______________________________ 10.

(adapter ROM)

ROM BIOS, 4/8/16/32 COOOO-DFFFFh.


(Boot ROM)
.

PC . ,
, .
(), .
ISA.
, .
(NVRAM,
EEPROM),
ISA.
(jumperless),
.
, () .
,
EISA ,
(ESCD EISA).
ECU (EISA Configuration
Utility) EISA.
PnP ISA PCI.
.
() . ,
PnP . PnP, ,
.
.
( )
. 10Base2 (BNC) ,
305 185.
, ,
.
,
.
.

10.3.

(dial-up lines)
,
. ,
( ).
(
)

10.3. 415

3,1 (300-3400 ),
, .

, ,
.
4- , .
10.4, .
. ,
.
RJ-11 6--
, (. 10.4,
).

.

. .
1-1,5 . , , ( ).

. 10.4. : ,


. 10.5. (idle)
60
700-1500 .
(on-hook) KT
(),
.
120 25 .
.
(off-hook) (
), 150-600 .
,
.
.

, .
(425 )
. ( -

416

10.

)
5-15 ,
( ) . ( , on-hook)
.
(pulse dialing). ( )
-1.
-2 , (
, 010 ).
-1
. (60 ) (101 /)
.

.
(busy) 425 ,
0,35 (1 , 3 ),
, . . 10.6.

. 10.5. ( )

. 10.6.

(tone dialing)
, .
16 , 10
-

10.3.

417

( #, *) .
( 40
) , .
,

.
-,
.
- ,
-.
()
.

.
1
2. ,
,
. (/ )
(
,
, ).
,

. :
( ).
() ,
:
, .
,
.
.
() , . , . 10.7.
,
, 24 ,
250-275 .
500 100 .

, 7-
. 40
(700,900,1100, 1300, 1500 1700 ).
0-9 .
, ,
(
). ( -

418

10.

) , , , . .
( ) , 5-15 . .
(
)
(Caller Id),
. .

. 10.7.

, - . ( ),
,
. , (
) 250 , ( )
50 .
: 40 ,
90 ,
. - , ,
,
. - (
200 )
.
:

. (
), .

(. 10.8),

10.3.

419

. ,
, ^ ( RJ-11).
, .

. 10.8.

, ( ).

11


, , ,
. PC
DIMM,
.
SMBus, PC.
,

.
CNR ( )
- .
PC, VESA DDC1/2B,

( ). DDC
15- VGA, EVC
P&D, DVI DFP.
DDC1/2AB

ACCES.Bus , (
).
(, ), , - . .
ACCESS.Bus, PC,
DEC ,
( VESA DDC),
(Smart Battery) . . PC
(firmware) ()
. PC
100 400 /,
RS-232C 115 /
, /
PnP. PC
, 3,4 /,

.

11.1. I2C ________________________________ 421

SMI ,
Fast Ethernet,
(
). SPI JTAG ,
,
(
).
,
.

11.1. I2C
PC, Philips
,
.
, ,
. PC
.
,
.
PC ACCESS.bus SMBus,
( PC . . 7.3.3).

11.1.1. I2C
Inter 1C Bus ( ), , , PC,
,
. 8-
. ,
, . ,
, , N-,
+5 , (3,3 ).
PC, ,
.
.
,
, PC,
.
PC , 1.0 1992 .
() , (
) . (Low speed),
Standard Mode (5)
0-100 /. 1.0
Fast Mode (F) 0-400 /
.
10- . 2.0 1998 .,
PC -

422

11.

, .
High speed (Hs),
3,4 /. FH
,
F/S.

2 . 2.1 (2000 .)
,
Hs. PC
2.1, www.philips.com.
. 11.1.4,
SMBus ACCESS.Bus.
PC : SDA (Serial Data)
SCL (Serial Clock).
(master) (slave).
, .

( ).
F/S . 11.1.
,
.
( ),
SCL .
:
, , ,
. (Idle,
) . ,
, ,
.

. 11.1. I2C

Start
, , (
SCL SDA). Start ( S)
SDA SCL
SDA
SCL Stop ( ),
. SDA
SCL,
SCL
,

11.1. I2C ________________________________ 423

Stop, repeated Start ( , S ).


S Sr .
8 , ( MSB
),
.
Ac k, ,
.
, SCL
. F/S
, SCL
, .
SCL , SCL:
, ( )
, , SCL
( ).
. SCL ,
. SCL
:
,
, ( );

.
() , ( ) , , ( ) . SCL SDA
. , ( ),
SDA ( ),
SCL SDA (
SCL ).

. ,
. ,
, (
Ethernet). , ,
,
,
.
, , .
, () ,
.
( )

.
. ,
Stop,
. ,
,
.

424 __________ 11.


SDA SCL, S
r.

PC. , .
S S
(. 11.1).
, Start,
;
, 5.

7 , 10- ,
7-.
7-, 10- .
7- S (Sr)
7 ([6:0] [7:1]) RW (
RW=1 , RW=0 ).
, .

Philips. , , 7-
: 4 [:3]
(EEPROM 1010), 3 [0:2]
. PC
, 1 0
, ,
.
,
, RW=0.
(=0),
,
.
, RW=1.
(),
.
, .
, ,
.
, , (Sr),
.
, PC
( )

. ,
.
.

11.1. I2C
11.1. I

425

[7:1 ] 0 (RW)
0000000
0000 000

0
1

General call address

0000 001

CBUS ( )

0000 010

0000 011

0000 1

Hs

1111 1

1111

10-

Start

, . 11.1, .
,
, (. ).
Start
PC ( ,
). S t a r t .
SDA (. 11.2)
,
PC.
()
.
CBUS ( PC)
PC .
10- [2:1]
, 10- .

. 11.2. Start

, , . =0 , ,
, ( 00000110) ()
.
. ,
( ). =1
.
7 ( ,
),

426___________ 11.

, . ( , ) ( ),
.
, , , ,
. :
( ) ,
( )
,
.
10- :
7-
112 , 10- 1024 .
10- :
S (S ) 2:1 , 0
RW=0; 8 ,
. .
,
RW
. 10-
:
10- 2 ,
. Sr
10- (RW=1) .
, 2 , 5,
.
, 7- .
:
10- , Sr
. ( 5) 7- 10-
. 10-
, 7-,
( 8
). (Hs)
3,4 /,
Hs (-F/5).

,
.
SDAH SCLH;
Hs SDA
SCL ( F/S
). Hs
F/S;

11.1. I2C ________________________________ 427

(
),
. SCLH (2:1).

. Hs
( 5) 0000 1,
. (
F/S)
,
. Hs
, Hs
( 000 ),
.
Hs,
.
Hs
(S ). , F/S,
. Hs
, S r,
Hs ,
F/S.

11.1.2. ACCESS.Bus
ACCESS.Bus (Accessory Bus)
DEC
,
, (, -),
(
VESA DDC). ACCESS.Bus 1991 .;

, ,
(Smart Battery) . .
SM (System Management),
SMBus,
PC.
125 ( ).
PC ACCESS.Bus
,
. /
.
ACCESS.bus Specifications Version 3.0
ACCESS.bus Industry Group 1995 .,
.
PC
( 100 /) 7-
. .

ACCESS.bus

428 __________ 11.

, . ,
() (). SMBus

5.
, .
(Off-board ACCESS.bus),
, 4- (MOLEX SEMCONN AMP SDL),
. 11.2. -
5 50-1000 . ( ),
I ()
().
( 1000 )
. (125 )
. ( )
10 . PC SDA
SCL ( ).

SDA SCL
51 . ,
GND +5 .
11.2. ACCESS.bus

GND

SDA

+5 ( )

SCL

VESA ACCESS.Bus
, 5- ACCESS.Bus;
. 11.3.
11.3. ACCESS.Bus (VESA)

GND
1

2
3

SDA

+5 ( )

SCL

11.1. I2C _________________________________ 429

(On-board ACCESS.bus)
(350 );
.
.
1995 .,
SMBus,
, SMBus.
ACCESS.bus 3.0 :
(Programmable Address)
FA . ( ,
) .
;
FA SM- (System Management).
FA SMBus, ,

. SM Write Word
(. ).
(. ). ACCESS.bus -:
;
- (. ).

0110 111;
.

( ).
, . 11.3.
DestAddr (
PC). SrcAddr
( ,
). : =0
(Device Data Stream); P=l
/ (control/status). Length
( ); (Body) .
Checksum
XOR ( )
.
XOR .
.
4, 131 (127
4 ).
, .
,
.
, , PC 7-
RW, ACCESS.bus. 50h
-, 10h SM-.
6Eh

430

11.

,
. 02-4;
52-GCh; 70-FEh 125 ,
SM- .

. 11.3. ACCESS.Bus

ACCESS.bus 9 ( =1),

().

.
.
Reset
. FOh.
, .
, .
Identification Request .
Flh.
Assign Address ,
, . ( 30)
F2h, 28- ,
.
Capabilities Request
. F3h 16-
.
,
( ),
.
Enable Application Report .
F5h : , 01
Presence Check .
F7h ( ).

11.1. !2 _________________________________ 431

.
Attenti on (
). EOh.
Identification Reply .
( 29) Elh, 28-

.
Capabilities Reply .
( 3-35) E3h, 16-
(. ) (0-32 ).
, .
,
,
( -1).
Resource Requeset ( ). E5h
- .
;
; ,
; (
); .
Resource Grant , . F4h
.
Application Hardware Signal
-. AOh
:
1 Reset ;
2 Halt ;
3 Attention ( ).
Application Test
( Blh).
Application Test Reply
. Alh (0
, ) 0-30 .
Application Status Message
( ). A2h ,
2 . :

00 ;
01 ;
02 ;
03 ;
04 (, ).

432 __________ 11.

Device Power Management Command


. F6 :

00 Run;
01 Standby;
02 Suspend;
03 Shutdown;
04 ;
05 ;
06 .

. ,
=0.
ACCESS.bus 28
(protocol revision), 7 (module revision), 8-
(vendor name) (module name), 32 (device number).
( ,
), , (
). , ,

(Capabilities) ( ) .
.
:
,
. , .

, (
). -
Attenti on,
.
ACCESS.bus
-.
ACCESS.bus Manager ,
, . ,
, -
MPD; ,
. ,
( -).
,
.
( ) ,
,

11.1. I2C _________________________________ 433

. - MPD (Mini Port Driver)


-.

. ACCESS.bus
(Device Driver, Mini Port Driver),
, (Locator), ,
.

11.1.3. SMBus
SMBus (System Management Bus )

, .

.
,
SMBus Smart Battery System
Specifications ( ).
, , (Smart Battery System)
() ,
-, . ( , ), (
-) .
, . SMBus
1995 ., 1.1 1998 . 2.0 2000 .,
.
System Management Bus (SMBus) Specification Version 2.0,
(SBS,
www.sbs-forum.org),
, Intel.
(OSI),
.
SMBus 12,
. 11.1.1.
( ) . PC

(. . 11.1.4), .
, PC,
. SMBus BIOS
. SMBus,
,
,
( ) .
, BIOS
, BIOS .

434 __________ 11.

(1- OSI)
. (
) .
(low power)
SMBus ;
. (high power)
SMBus (,
PCI).
, .

, .
.
(10 ), (100 );


. -,
, ,
. PC
.
SMBus .
SMBSUS* .
;
( ) SDA SCL ( PC)
(
).
SMBALERT#
,
.
. ,
0001 100,
(
).
(2- OSI)
, PC: S, P, Sr; ; 7-
RW , 5 (5). PC,
,
; ( Sr).
SMBus .
,
.
.
NACK ,
.

( ).
NACK . NACK
( ).
, , NACK
.

11.1. 1 _________________________________ 435

(3- OSI) SMBus


.

SMBus
SMBus (host) ,
.
,
.
; 7- (. 11.4),
, PC. 10-
. .
SMBus WG
(Purpose-assigned addresses). , Smart Battery
0001 011, 0001 001.
SMBus,
. SMBus
, .
,
. , ,
SMBus ,
,
www.smbus.org. -
- . SMBus 2.0
,
.
11.4. SMBus
[7:1] 0 (RW)
0000 000
0 General call address
0000 000
1
Start
0000 001
X
CBUS ( )
0000 010
X

0000 011
X
,
0000 1
X

0101000
X
ACCESS.bus
0110111
X
ACCESS.bus
1111
X
10-
1111 1
X

0001 000
X
SMBus
0001 100
X
SMBus
1100001
X SMBus
1001

X -

436 __________ 11.

SMBus ,
.
, .
11 , SMBus.
1.1 SMBus
PEC (Packet error checking). PEC
CRC-,
, .
;
, .
, .
NACK, ,
.
:
;
.
. ,
,
,
.
SMBus PC 7-
.
Quick Command, , ;
RW .
Send Byte, ,
(RW=0) .
, .
Receive Byte, ,
(RW=1) .
, .
Write Byte, Write Word, /,
(RW=0) ,
1 2 (, ) .
.
Read Byte, Read Word, /,
:
(RW=0),
. , 5
, RW=1, 1 2
.
() .
Block Write, ,
(RW=0) , ( ) .
.
; ;
32 .

11.1. PC _________________________________ 437

Block Read, , :
(RW=0), .
, S
, RW=1, - ,
.
() .
.
Process Call, , Write Word
( ) .
, ,
.
,
.
Block Write-Block Read Process Call
.
,
.
, ( ), (SMBus
host notify protocol): RW=0 ( )
, ( )
. ;
SMBALERT* (. ).


SMBus
/ PC.
, 2.0,
().

. ,
, (
) , .

, .
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol).
( )
SMBus ( PC).
, . PSA (Persistent Slave
Address),
.
, .
SMBus.

438 __________ 11.


-
(
PnP). UDID
(Unique Device Identifier) 128- ,
, , , ,
.
(Device Capabilities),
, .
ARP
SMBus.
,
. (
) , .
, ,
.

:
00 ,
;
01 (persistent) PSA;
10 (volatile) ;
11 ,
.
, .
.
UDID 32- ,
.
, ( ),
, ( )
.
, ARP, :
AR (Address Resolved) ARP
;
AV (Addres Valid) ,
( AV=0
, ).
AV=AR-0
ARP ( ). AV=1 AR=0
, ARP.
AV=AR=1 ,
.
(
). AV=0 AR=1 .

11.1. I2C ________________________________ 439

ARP .
Get UDID (general)
1100 001 3. ,
ARP, 17 ,
. 16 UDID, 17-
( ). AV=0,
1111 111.
AV AR.
Assign address
1100 001 4 17 ,
. 16 UDID, 17-
( ). ,
UDID ,
AV=AR=1.
Get UDID (directed)
1100 001,
.
, ,
17 , . 16
UDID, 17- (
). AV AR.
Reset device (general)
1100 001 2, .
AR AV
(PSA- AV ).
Reset device ARP (di r ted)
1100 001 (
), .
AR AV (PSA-
AV ).
Notify ARP master ARP
0001 000 1100 0010,
.
ARP ,

.
ARP-, ,
.
ARP- ARP- .
:
ARP-
UDID , , .

ARP-,
. ARP

440 __________ 11.

.
, ARP- . ARP- .

SMBus BIOS ACPI


SMBus, ACCESS.bus,
BIOS. ,
SMBus ACPI.
1995 . SMBus BIOS
System Management Bus BIOS Interface Specification,
.
-.
BIOS :
( V86), 16- 32-.
BIOS Int 15h (
V86), ,
. ( )
BIOS Int 15h; Int 15 h
( ).
, .
.
SMBus BIOS -
: -
,
.
, Wri te Word.
,
7 (

).
.
SMBus ,
SMI (System
Management Interrupt )
. - BIOS ,
SMI .
, SMI, SMM,
,
, BIOS SMBus.
SMBus:
SMBus Installation Check (Olh) ;
SMBus Real Mode Connect (02h) ;
SMBus 16-Bit Connect (03h) 16-
;

11.1. I2C ________________________________ 441

SMBus 32-Bit Connect (04h) 32-


;
SMBus Disconnect (05h) ;
SMBus Devi Address (06h)
SMBus;
SMBus Critical Messages (07h) ,
.
SMBus
, SMBus
.
, ( )
.
BIOS;
,
.
;
.
SMBus:
SMBus Request (10h) ;
SMBus Request Continuation (llh) ;
SMBus Request Abort (12h)
;
SMBus Request Data and Status (13h) .
SMBus ACPI.
SMBus ACPI SMBus CMI
System Management Bus (SMBus) Control Method Interface
Specification Version 1.0, 1999 .
SMBus
.
.
ACPI
- (
).
SMBus.
1.0 1.1
SMBus
.
. Smart Battery System
Implementers Forum (SBS-IF)
Windows /2000, http://www.sbsforum.org/smbus/.
CMI
. , SMBus, CMI,
, SMBus BIOS. ,
, (
80h).

442 __________ 11.

11.1.4. I2C, ACCESS.bus


SMBus
, ; ,
.
(. 11.5) ,
(5 ) (Vdd
).
11.5. I2C, ACCESS.bus SMBus


. 0,

. 1,

. 0,

. 0,


,
,

12

ACCESS.bus

ACCESS.bus

SMBus

SMBus

1,5,,

0,3Vdd

0,3VM

0,8

0,8

3,0 0,7Vdd

0,7Vdd

0,7VM

2,1

2,1

0,4 0,2Vdd

0,6

0,6

0,4

0,4

Vdd<2
3

0,35

0,35

400

1000

400

400

0-100,0-400,
0-3400

0-100

0-100

10-100

10-100

' .

ACCESS.Bus (),
, (5 ) ;
.
, .
ACCES.Bus
,
.
ACCES.Bus SMBus
, 50 .
SCL
2 . PC .
SMBus

, ACCESS.Bus ,
40 . SMBus ,
,
(
, ).
11.2. SMI

443

11.2. SMI
IEEE 802.3u Ethernet 1995 .
(Media Independent Interface ,
),
(PHY) .
SMI
(Serial Management Interface),

PHY. PHY
; ,
. , ,
,
. SMI
( MDC, GND),
16-
. 5-
, 32
. 32 .
- ,
, .
MDC,
( )
. , ,
.
;
() ,
(+5 +3,3 ). MDC,
, 2,5 ,
.
. 11.4. ,

MDC, .
.

. 11.4. SMI: a ,

444 __________ 11.


32 .
Start
01, Cmd: 10
01 . 5-
(PhyAd), 5- (RegAd).
(turnaround)
.
10, 16
(WData) .
,
,
. 16
(RData) .
( ); ,
.
: 1 .

11.3. SPI
SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface), Microwire,


.
(, FPGA
Altera), .
12 SPI .
5 (
);
, .
,
.
,
,
. . 3
:
SCK (Serial Clock) ,
;
MOSI (Master Output Slave Input)
;
MISO (Master Input Slave Output)
.

445

11.3. SPI

, SS#
(Slave Select, CS# Chip Select):

MISO ;
MISO .
SS#,
,
.
: SCK, MOSI MISO , SS#
( ).

. SS#
, ,
. ,
,
MISO .

.

. 11.5. SPI

.
(SPI Mode 0... SPI Mode 3),
. . 11.5
. ,

. , SS#.
( )
SS#,
.
() SCK, SS# .

-

446 __________ 11.

, . SPI, ,
. ,
: MOSI
; .
,
MISO.
SS#,
.

11.4. JTAG
JTAG (Joint Test Action Group)
, .
IEEE 1149.1 Boundary Scan Architecture
,
,
. JTAG -
( ),
.
JTAG.
(Test Clock) ;
. 16
.
IMS (Test Mode Select) .
.
TDI (Test Data Input) ,
( ).
(Test Data Output) ,
.
TRST (Test Logic Reset)
, .
( ), , (Test Access Port),
().

,
, .

, JTAG.
(. 11.6).

( , , JTAG).

11.4. JTAG

447

. 11.6. JTAG

. 11.7,
, ,
(, ) .
B/S
,
(boundary) . -
.
Boundary Scan, .
-
,
, ,
( ). JTAG
,

, .
, , JTAG,
:
( );
-, ;
IR (Instruction Register),
TDI (
,
);
,
: PR (Bupas Register), DID (Device Identification
Register) BSR (Boundary Scan Register).
, . ( )
TDI, ( ) .
.
R .
,
.

448

11.

. 11.7.

BSR ,
,
. ( ),
,
, ,
. , 6 BSR
159 .
DID 32 ,
, - ,
.
IR .
.
BYPASS, IDCODE, SAMPLE EXTEST.
BYPASS ( )
,
;
. TDI
, JTAG
.
.

11.4. JTAG ________________________________________________ 449

IDCODE ( 10)
DID, (
).
SAMPLE/PRELOAD ( 01)
. - Capture-DR (.
),
.
.
Update-DR
( ),
( ) EXTEST.
.
EXTEST ( 00)
( ).
,
BSR, .

BSR.
1149.1
INTE5T, .
(TAP-controller)
,
. TMS (Test
Mode State), .
. 11.8.
TMS .
Test-Logic-Reset

TMS, .
Test-Logic-Reset
TRST. ,
.
Run-Test/Idle
. .
Capture-DR EXTEST
SAMPLE/ PRELOAD
.
Shift-DR TDI
.
Pause-DR
.
Update-DR
' .
Capture-IR
SAMPLE.

450

11.

. 11.8.

Shift-IR TDI
, .
Pause-IR
.
Update-IR
, TDI-TDO .
,
, ,
. Select-DR-Scan, Exti1-DR,
Exit2-DR, Select-DR-Scan, Exit1-IR Exit2-IR.
JTAG
BSDL (Boundary Scan Description Language).
-

11.5. - 451

( ) .
JTAG ,
,
. JTAG
PCI, (
, ).
JTAG ;
( ),
(probe mode, . [6, 7]).

; ,
JTAG,
.

11.5. -

PC, SMBus, SMI, SPI JTAG
:
.
.
. 11.9 I2C, SMBus
SMI LPT-. SCL ( MDC SMI)
Strobe;
CR (
LPT_BASE+2) ( ) ().
SDA ( SMI) :
1 CR (LPT_BASE+2) ,
.
( ), ()
7 SR (LPT_BASE+1).
. - 310 311; , ,
( ).
DOS Windows 9x

. (UNIX, Linux,
Windows NT/ 2000) LPT-
API.
.

452

11.

( ).
( ) RS-422
. 2 , ,
LPT-,
.

. 11.9. LPT-

-.
DTR RTS
CIS, DSR, DCD RI.
RS-232C
( , Maxim,
Sypex), .
SPI JTAG LPT-,
. SCK MOSI
(SPI), TCK, TMS, TRST (JTAG)
, MISO (SPI), TDI (JTAG) .
100-150
,
.
(20-30 ), .
,
(, 74244 15565).
-' ,
. -

, . ByteBlaster,
Altera
. SPI (
), JTAG
Serial Passive.
.

50-150 / LPT- . 1-2 /,

11.5. - 453

( ). ,
PCI
ISA, . USB Ethernet. ,
, .

12


IBM PC-

, , IBM-PC-
.
,
. 8 , - . DMA,
, BIOS
()
IBM PC.

12.1.
PC
(), .
AOOOOh-FFFFFh Upper Memory Area
(UMA), 384 , IBM PC
. UMA
(E)ISA (, ) (BIOS
). UM.

ROM BIOS.
BIOS
ROM BIOS EOOOOh-FFFFFh FOOOOh-OFFFFFh. ,
BIOS
, 86
(FFFFOh - 8086/88, FFFFFOh 80286 386SX, FFFFFFFOh - 386DX 32- ,
FFFFFFFFOh - 6 36- ).
-286 386SX 24-
FDFFFFh ( 15,9 ).

12.2. - _____________________________________

455

FEOOOOh-FFFFFFh ROM BIOS,


ROM BIOS OEOOOOh-OFFFFFh.
386DX 32-
4 , BIOS
FFFEOOOOh-FFFFFFFFh. 6+ 36-
64 BIOS
FFFFEOOOOh-FFFFFFFFFh.
, ROM BIOS,
(E)ISA PCI (AGP).
, ISA,
UMA AOOOOh-EFFFFh AOOOOh-DFFFFh (
ROM BIOS).
BIOS (. . 12.7.1). ISA FEOOOOhFFFFFFh, (
^) .
ISA ( ) CMOS Setup Memory Hole
At 15-16,
15 .
ISA 24- ,

(ISA Bus Master) (


)
16 (000000-FFFFFFh). To
DMA,

ISA ( ).

PCI 32- ,
1. PCI
, , ROM BIOS ISA.
, PCI,
.
PCI
.

12.2. -
- IBM PC, 86,
. , 32-,
- 16- (
-FFFFh). PC 16
10 (0-9),
0-3FFL ,
, .
, 378h, 778h, B78h F78h,
. ,
, , ISA
. ISA, Legacy Card
( ),
1

4 36 PCI
64- .

12. IBM PC-

456
1

.
12- ISA,
10- .
PCI
16 . -
PC . 12.1.
10- . ,
,
, .
12.1. - AT
PS/2

PC/XT

000-OOF
010-01F
020-021

020-021

040-05F

040-043

(PC/XT: 8253, AT: 8254)

060

060

POST ( )

060-063
060,064

8255
AT 8042

061
070-07F
080

NMI
CMOS NMI
-

080-08F
090-097

000-OOF

DMA #1 8237
PS/2 DMA#1
#1 8259

080-083

DMA
PS/2 ,

NMI
#2 8259

OAOOBF
OCOODF
OFO-OFF

DMA #2 8237-5
80287

100-1EF

PS/2

170-177

#2 (IDE#2)

1FO-1F7
200-207

#1 (IDE#1)
200-20F

210-217
238-23F
278-27F

278-27F


COM4
LPT2 (LPT3 MDA)

2CO-2DF

22-2
2CO-2DF

4acbiMSM48321RS
EGA #2

2-27

COM4

2E8-2EF

COM4

2F8-2FF
300-31F

2F8-2FF

COM2

320-32F

XT
COM3
<,
#2

378-37F

LPT1 (LPT2 MDA)

338-33F
370-377
376-377
378-37F

IDE#2

12.3.
AT PS/2

PC/XT

380-38F

380-38F

3AO-3AF

-9

BSC#1

(MDA)

3BC-3BF

LPT1 MDA

4-9
3BC--3BF

SDLC/BSC #2

PS/2

3CO--3CF

3CO-3CF

EGA#1

3CO-3DF

3CO-3DF

VGA

3DO-3DF

3DO-3DF

CGA/EGA

-7

COM3

3E8-3EF

COM3

3FO-3F7

3FO-3F7

3F6-3F7
3F8-3FF

457

#1
IDE*1

3F8-3FF

, , ,
, .
( )
. Oh-OFFh
. ( )

.
(ISA, PCI)
BIOS .

12.3.
, . 86 [6,7].
,
. (NMI)
( NMI );
2. PC
.
NMI ,
ISA (IOCHK) PCI (SERR#). NMI
1 7 070h,
061h:

2 R/W ERP SERR# PCI;


3 R/W EIC ISA;
6 R IOCHK ISA ( #);
7 R SERR* PCI.

458

12. IBM PC-


IF ( LI , STI
). , ,
() ,
.
,
, ,
.
,

.
,
IF,
. ( I RET)
, IF,
.
( ),
STI. ; STI ,
( ) .


EOI (End Of Interrupt).
. , 8259.

. AT
. 8259#1
, 1, 3-7;
. 2 8259#2,
8-15.
8-15
1 3 ,
. XT
, 8259 8 .
18259 [1, 7];
,
. 20-21h (8259A#1) AO-Alh
(8259A#2), -.
( POST )
(
),
IRET.

.
, ( 21h
8259#1, Alh 8259#2), -

459

12.3.

(. . 12.2) .

(
)
.
I (End Of Interruption), :
1- 20h 20h;
2- 2Oh AOh (EOI
), 20h 20h (EOI
).

. , . ,
( ).

(, , CMOS-, ),
.
, , ISA/EISA. IRQx
(. 12.2).
PCI.
. ,
,

.
.
12.2. ( )
(1)

NMI

02h

IRQO

08h

#1/1h

,
( XT )
( 8253/8254)

IRQ1

09h

#1/2h

IRQ2

OAh

#1/4h

IRQ8

70h

#2/1 h

XT , AT
( IRQ8-IRQ15)
CMOS RTC

IRQ9

71h

#2/2h

IRQ10

72h

#2/4h

IRQ11

73h

#2/8h

IRQ12

74h

#2/10h

PS/2-Mouse ()

IRQ 13

75h

#2/20h

460 _____ 12. IBM PC-


12.2 ()

(1) /
IRQ14
IRQ15

76h
77h

#2/40h
#2/80h

HOC

IRQ3
IRQ4

OBh
OCh

#1/4h
#1/10h

COM2, COM4
COM1,COM3

IRQ5

ODh

#1/20h

XT HOC, AT LPT2, Sound ()

IRQ6

OEh

#1/40h

FDC

IRQ7

OFh

#1/80h

LPT1

0,1,8 13 .

PCI 4
, INTR , , , D.
, (
).
IRQx
. IRQx, PCI,
ISA. ,

CMOS Setup, PnP. ISA Legacy IRQx
ISA ( ), a PCI/PnP
PCI PnP ISA ( ).
. 12.1.

. 12.1.

, ,
.
: -, , ,

12.3. ___________________________________________ 461

( ). -, ,
, . PnP
ISA PCI,
CMOS Setup.
.
(level sensitive) ,

( ISA ) DRQx.
(
EOI )
DRQx,
.
(edge sensitive) ,

( ISA ) DRQx.

,
.
IRQx
, ,
.
,
(spurious interrupt),
(IRQ7 IRQ 15
). ,

.
ISA
. :
, -, ,
, -,
(. ),
.
(Level) (Edge)
,
ISA
.
, , 8259.
8259.
,
POST, .
,
.
Pentium
APIC (Advanced Programmable

462

12. IBM PC-

Interruption Controller).
APIC, ,
APIC.
8259 .

12.3.1.

, , , , (shared interrupts).
() , ( , ), .
, . ,
,
;
.
. -,
-,
.
, . -, ,
. ,
, ( ,
).
.
(, ),
,
.
, , , ,
.
; ()
();
.
( )
,
.
, . 1
, ( ) 2,
.
: 1

12.4. DMA ' __________________________________ 463

, . ,
.
, ISA
.
8259
,
ISA . ,

.
CMOS Setup,
.
PCI, ,
, ,
,
.
,
PCI,
.
, ,
.
PCI ,
INTR . PCI
, , . 12.1,
.
, .
PCI, ,
,
. AGP
PCI.
.
( ). ( , ,
) . ,
. , .

12.4. DMA
(Direct Memory Access, DMA)
,
. , DMA, .
, Slave DMA,
DMA, .

464

12. IBM PC-

, Bus Master DMA,


(
, ). DMA
, (. 6).
DMA ,
.
DMA ,
,
, .
DMA, ,
, . DMA
,
,
( , PCI, ISA
). DMA
-,
.
DMA ,
- ().
, DMA
. DMA
-,

DMA
.

DMA

,
ISA. DMA
: DRQx DACKx*.
PC/AT 7 DMA 8- ( 0-3) 16 (5-7),
. 4 (
). PC/XT 8- , 0 . DMA
i8237, PC/XT AT.
. 12.3.
12.3.
DMA*

MRFR -

XT

42

FDD
FDD

HDD
-

64
10OOh

128 ,
2000h

816-23

717-23

087 083
000 002

081
004

082
006

08F 08 089
4 8

087

001 003

005

007

' 0 XT
(MRFR). 2 4 PS/2 .

12.4. DMA ________________________ ;________________ 465

16- DMA 5-7


ISA (bus mastering),
DMA .
, DMA,
ISA/EISA ( , LPT ECP wjm Fast Centonics, ).
DMA,
ISA.
, ISA,
DMA PCI.
DMA: PC/PCI DDMA.
PC/PCI (. . 6.2.7) Intel
ISA ,
- PCI. DDMA
(Distributed DMA DMA)

PCI.
PCI ISA,
( )
CMOS Setup.

12.4.1. 8237
8237, PC AT,
,
. (8237#2)
,
. 8237 16-
,
64 .
DMA, , . 12.4.
.
.
( 008 ODO) BIOS
POST; XT
0, .
ISA 008 ODO .

-. 16-
/ .
OOCh (OD8h )
, .
, ,
.

466 _____ 12. IBM PC-


12.4. DMA 8237A 8237#1

,
(/),
(), . 8237
16-,
(DMA page register),
8237. 8237
DMA

. PC/AT [23:16] 8-
[23:17] 16-. PC/XT
4 [19:16]. 16-
1 ,

12.4. DMA ___________________________________ 467

. 16- 0=0 (
). 16-,
64 ( 8- ) ( 16 ). ,
, FFFF 65 534
(216). (
) ,
.
, , ,
DMA.
,
- ()

.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

- FFFFh OOOOh, , , .
, 64 ,
. 80x86 ,
, 16-
( 10h), 10OOOh.
,
, DMA,
( ) .
16- , . 5-7 64
, 20000h.

DMA
16- ,
.
.
(single transfer mode)
DACKx#, DRQx,
DMA .
, .
(block transfer mode)
DACKx#, DRQx,
DMA
. ,
DRQx.
,
.
(demand transfer mode)
DACKx#, DRQx
, .
DMA
.
, DMA ,
,
.

468 _______ 12. IBM PC-


---------------------------- ---------------- ------------------------------------
DMA , , ,
15 .

DMA ISA 8

. 1,125 .
DMA 1 / 8-
2 / 16- ( 1 ).
DMA
; 8237
.
BIOS Setup.

12.5. 86
IBM PC-
, 86.
(),
() -,
. 86, ,
, -
, -
( -) ( , ). ,
( , PCI, ISA).
,
( ) .
-
( ), ,
().
()
. : , ,
, .
4- .
(supervisor), , (user),
.
,
, .
, -
86 [6, 7],
.

12.5. 86 __________________________________________________ 469

12.5.1.

PC
86
.
8086/88 1
-FFFFFh, 20-
16- Addr =
Segxl6 + Offset, Seg (CS, DS, SS
ES), a Offset ,
.

() 64 .

, .
, Seg = FFFFh n Offset = FFFFh
lOFFEFh, 20-
OFFEFh. ,
.
80286 24 ,
(Protected Mode),
16-
.
16-
. 16-
( ) 24-
.
, 80286 ,
, 8086 ( ).
, 8086/88, -
20,
8086/88, ,
1
OFFEFh. 8086/88
PC 20 GateA20,
, 20
.
, (64 -16) .
(. . 8.1.2) .
J5 32- , 80386,
(16-),
, ,
232= 4 .
.
(), (
),

470 ______ 12. IBM PC-

, , . ,
.
, .
, . , ,
(16 -2) ( ),
4 .
, (CS, DS, SS, E5, F5
GS).
- 32-
, 4 .
,

.
80286 ( 16- ),
.
( ) 32- ,
32- 86.
32- ( )
32- 36- ,
. ,
(),
.
,
.
,
. , ,

, , .

,
( ) .
(Demand-Paged Virtual Memory),

. , , , .
, , 4 ,

, .
( ) ( )
.

4 . Pentium
4 ( PSE).

12.5. 86 __________________________________________________ 471

6 36 ,
6 ,
4 2
. Pentium III
PSE-36, 4-
36-
4- .

.
32-
, 80286, -lOFFEFh, Gate A20 .
,
64 .
16 32- , ,

32 .
64- -' .
,
. , .
EMM386
UMA.
, , 32- 86, (unreal),
(big real) . ,
4- (
) . ,

-
. , ,
.
,
, (CS, DS, SS,
ES, FS GS) .

, 64 .
16- ,
,
64 . ,
, 4

,
,
.

472 _____ 12. IBM PC-

F.S GS,
,
. 32 , BIOS ( DOS)
. ,

. , ,
, CS,
64- .
,

. ,
DOS-,
.
, 32- , . , . (flat) ,
( , ),
4 ,
( )
.
, .
, ,
.
.
4 ( ?),
.
, , ,
.

12.5.2.
( )
, , ,
. , ,
( ) ( UMA).

, ,
. ( ) ,
(
- ). -
( ^
).


( ).

12.5. 86 __________________________________________________ 473

,
DMA, ISA PCI,
.
DMA ,
,
.
, DMA,
( , ).
,
,
(
) . 4
,
,
DMA.
DMA (scatter write)
(gather read). DMA
( ).
, , .
, , PCI IDE (. .
9.2.1). DMA
, (. . 12.4).
, DMA.
, ,
.
;
.
. ,
( )
,
.

12.5.3. -
-
: IN ( ), OUT
( ), INS (
) OUTS ( ).
, 80286,
REP,
. ,
-,
PIO(Programmed Input/Output -).

(DMA), , DMA PIO
.

474

12. IBM PC-

, -, 8, 16 32 .


. ,
/ . ISA IORD* IOWR*
; -
,
MEMRD* MEMWR*. PCI
-
, ,
.

16- , 32-
.
.
,
( ) .
, ,
.
-. ,
, 16- ,
-
.
AT .
1FO (1 ) 16- ,
8- 1F1.
Serial ATA 16-
( ) 2, 3, 4
5, 8-.
. 32- ( V86)
-,
( 64 ),

. (
Permission Bitmap)
(TSS).
,
. -
( ...
). ,
,
-.
- -

12.5. 86 __________________________________________________ 475

. , Windows 9x
-; , , DOS-
, ,
.

12.5.4.
86 , . ; ,
( )
SMI (SMM).

,
Int N (N=0-255). ,
, BIOS DOS.
,
(,
). 0-31,

NMI, BIOS. 8086/88 ,
.
;
.
.
,
( ).
, , (16-
). ,
.
;
.
. 8- . , . , , ,
,
. (
).

. ( ) ,
, -

476 ______ 12. IBM PC-

[6,7]. , Windows 9x MSDOS


,
MS-DOS.
, ,
,
( , MS-DOS).

12.6.

IBM PC/AT .
- -, 18254 ( XT
8253), :
0: (IRQO) 54,936
( 18,206 ),
( 40:006 BIOS Data Area);
1 ;
2 .
16 ,
8- .
(LSB), (MSB)
(LSB/MSB), , .

. . 12.5. 1,19318
. .
0 1 . 2
GATE, , (T2G, R/W)
AT (061h). 2
(20, 5 ). 2
(
SPK, R/W, 1 061h).
12,.5. - ,
R/W
040 RW

0 . 011, LSB/MSB, Binary,


0 ( 65 536)

041 RW

1 . 010, LSB, Binary,


12h (18)

042 RW

2 , . GATE 0
8255 (061). 011, LSB/MSB, Binary,

12.6. _____________________________ 477


, R/W _____________________________________________________________________
043 W
. 7,6 0,1,2. 5,4
, : 00 ; 01 LSB ; 10
MSB ; 11 LSB/MSB , .
3-1 : 000 ; 001
(, 8254 8253); 10
; 11 ; 100
; 101 . 0 0=Bin ( ), 1
=BCD (- )

- CMOS RTC
146818 , IBM PC/AT
.
(32,768 ), :
- (, , , , , );
, , ;
,
( , 1024 ).
CMOS RTC (IRQ8).
,
.
OBh.
CMOS RTC - 070h
( ) 071h (). , 7 70h
NMI (. . 12.4), CMOS
0-7Fh.
, -
.
, 0-9, .
7 OAh.

.
CMOS RTC, ,
. 12.6 ( . [1]).
12.6. CMOS RTC

00h-09h, 32h BCD-: 00 ; 01 ;


(37 PS/2)
02 ; 03 ; 04 ; 05 ; 06
; 07 ; 08 ; 09 (2 ); 32h -1 (2
); 37h -1 (2 ) PS/2

478 _____ 12. IBM PC-


12.6 ()

OAh

RTC Status Register ( ): 7


( ); [6:4] ( 32,768 010);
[3:0] 0110 1024

OBh

PTC Status Register ( ): 7


( ); 6 (
); 5 ( ); 4
(0 ); 3 (.
OAh) (0 ); 2
BCD/BIN (0 BCD); 1 12/24- (1 24-); 0
/ ( )

OCh

RTC Status Register ( ):


: 7 IRQF ( ); 6 PF
( ); 5 AF ( ); 4 UF
( ); [3:0]

ODh

RTC Status Register D ( D): 7 (1 ,


0 ); [6:0]

BIOS ( .
[1,8,9]). BIOS Int I Ah
( 40:006Eh BIOS Data Area ),
, CMOS RTC.
BIOS Int 15 h CMOS RTC
( 7
). ,
(
), 70 .
Pentium,
.
64- TSC (Time Stamp Counter),
( RESET*).
.
RDTSC, , TSD
CR4 ()
( ).
, 3,
.
, . ,
-
, . , ( ).

12.7. ______________________________________ 479

12.7.
-
() .
,
. ( ) POST (
) ROM BIOS,
. POST (
ROM BIOS ),
ROM BIOS .
POST ( ),
(),
. ,
,
: ,

.
( ).
, ,
( config.sys,
autoexec.bat . . ).
. .
,
BIOS, POST.
,
,
.
,
, .

(, , ),
(. . 9.3).
.
DiskOnChip
,
, M-Systems.
, 8/16- ,
ISA ( ). Millenium Plus
32 - NAND,
SRAM (1 ), ,
.
8-
CSOOO-EFFFFh.
- SRAM;
,

480

12. IBM PC-

() . *
, POST
BIOS. -
( ), ( ).
( Int 13h),c
.
4 , 128
,
( ).

.
750 /, 2,4 /. /
20 /.
, (),

().

12.8. BIOS
BIOS ,
-
. BIOS
V86
(Int xx).
(
ROM BIOS) (CAL L f a r)
(
). BIOS 16-
, , V86
16- .
386+ 32 .
BIOS (, )
, Phoenix 32-
BIOS32. BIOS32 ,
: OEOOOO-OFFFFFh
( 4 ) - "_32_"
( 325F5F33H) ,
. .
,
.
, BIOS, .
.

12.8. BIOS _____________________________________ 481

:
Int 00h 0;
Int 01h ;
Int 03h ;
Int 04h ;
Int 06h 286+;
Int 07h NPU.
:

Int 02h ;
Int 08h - 8253/8254;
Int 09h ;
Int 0Ah - IRQ2/9;
Int 0Bh- IRQ3;
Int 0Ch-IRQ4;
Int 0Dh IRQ5;
Int 0Eh IRQ6 ;
Int 0Fh-IRQ7;
Int 70h - CMOS-;
Int 7Ih IRQ9 ( Int 0Ah);
Int 72h- IRQ10;
Int 73h IRQ11;
Int 74h IRQ 12 ( PS/2);
Int 75h IRQ 13 ;
Int 76h IRQ14 ;
Int 77h-IRQ15.

Int 70h-77h AT.

ROM BIOS (16- ):


Int 05h (FOOO:FF54h) - ;
Int 10h ;
Int llh ( BDA 0040:001 0h),
:
15:14 LPT-: 00 0,... 11 3;
13 ;
12 ;

482 ______ 12. IBM PC-

11:9 -: 000 0,... 111 7;


8 DMA;
7:6 : 00 1,... 11 4;
5:4 : 00 , 10 80-
, 01 40- , 11 ;
3:2 ( 00);
1 ;
0 ;

Int 12h ;
Int 13h ( -);
Int 14h -;
Int 15h - ( ,

/):
00-
( - !) PC;
4fh ;
53xxh (Advanced Power
Management);
8300h , ;
830 lh ;
84h (. . 8.6);
86h ;
87h ;
88h ;
89h V86;
COh ,
(CF=0, AH=0) ES:BX
;
80-82h, 85h, 90h, 91h (BIOS

);

Int 16h -;
Int 17h LPT-;
Int 18h
( - ROM-Basic);
Int 19h ( Bootstrap);
Int lAh , , 16-
PCI;
Int IBh Ctrl+Break;

12.8. BIOS _____________________________________ 483

Int I C h User Timer Interrupt, , I n t


0 8 h 55 ; BIOS (IRET),
;
( NMI).
Int ;
Int 4Ah ,
BIOS Int lAh(6); ,
,
; BIOS (IRET);
Int 67h - EMS-.
:

Int
Int
Int
Int
Int
Int

IDh ;
lEh ;
IFh GA;
41h HDD 0;
46h HDD 1;
43h EGA.

12.8.1. Int 09h, Int16 h


.
, , BIOS Int 9h. - ( )
. ( ,
ASCII- - ) , .
. ,
.
( )
, .
. Ctrl, Shift,
Alt ,
.
Ctrl+Alt+Del, PrintScreen (SysRq)
,
.

BIOS (BIOS Data Area):
0:0417,0:418 ;
0:0419 Alt-;

484 ______ 12. IBM PC-

0:041 (Buffer Head), 2 (


);
0:041 (Buffer Tail), 2 (
);
0:041E-0:042D (16 ).
- BIOS IntlSh AH=4Fh, AL -.
Int 15h(4Fh) CF=0,
,
- - (
AL), CF=1. BIOS
,
Int 15h(COh).
USB ,
, Int 9h
.
: - Int 15h(4Fh)
, .
BIOS Int 16h.
.
,
.
= OOh ( )
( ).
. , AT
Int 15h ( 90), ,
, .
,
Olh.
83- .
= Olh , (
).
ZF.
= 02h ( AL 0:417h, . ).
= 03h : BL
(00=250, 01=500,02=750,03=1000 ), - (. .
9.2.1).
= 05h (
). AL=Q, ,
AL=1.
= 10h AH=*llh , Olh,
101/102-
.
, -84,
, OOh Olh.

12.8. BIOS ___________________________________

485

AH=12h . (
KbdShif tFlagslOlRec), ,
i 02h ( 0:417h), 0:418h.
:

0 Shift () ;
1 Shift () ;
2 Ctrl () ;
3 Alt () ;
4 Scroll Lock;
5 Num Lock;
6 Caps Lock;
7 Insert;
8 Ctrl () ;
9 Alt () ;
10 Ctrl () ;
11 Alt () ;
12 Scroll Lock ;
13 Num Lock ;
14 Caps Lock ;
15 SysReq .

(00 10h) AL ASCII-


, -. ,
( Alt-), -. Alt

Alt, Alt.
AL=0 ASCII- (Extended ASCII
Keystroke). 101/102
10h-12h EOh -,
83/84-
.
(05h), ,
.

(In t 9h),
,
.
ASCII- , , [1, 7].
( )
()
.

486 _____ 12. IBM PC-

12.8.2.

int 10h

Int 10h .
(BIOS Video
Mode), . BIOS

()

.
.

,
, ,
. ,
.
.
Int 10h ,
.
( ),
Int 10h(0Eh). AH=OEh, AL
, BL ( ).
, ,

. (CR,
ODh), (LF, OAh) (BEL, 07h).
,
(, BIOS,
,
). ,
, .

12.8.3.

Int 13h

Int 13h.

(diskette) (fixed disk). (. 7.8)
,
. :
0-7Fh ( 0-3),
80h-FFh.
,
BIOS, Int 13h,
. IBM PC/XT
, BIOS ,
POST, Int 13 h,
( BIOS)
Int 40h.
BIOS,

12.8. BIOS _______________________________________ 487

Int 40h
. clnt 13h,
( DL) 7Fh.
(Int 13h)c ,
Int 0Eh ( IRQ 6) Int 76h
( IRQ 14).
IRQ 15 ( 77h). XT
IRQ 5 ( ODh).
.
( )
. BIOS ,

( IRET).
BIOS (
) .

. :
, ,
,
.

BIOS
16- ,
.
CHS .
Int 13h,
:
3Fh;
DL ( 7 = 0
);
(-1023) (8)7:6] (
2 );
(0-255) DH;
(1-63) CL [ 5 :0];
, , 8 AL (0255);

(address of buffer) S: ;
: F = 0
, CF = 1 (
,
40:4lh, 40:74h);
(DPT)

0:78h, (HDPT) 0:104h 0:118h.

488

12. IBM PC-

. 12.7,
[4, 9].
,
Olh.
12.7.

12.8. BIOS

1
2
3

.
.
.

,
1024 256 63 = 16 515 072 ( 8,4 ).
, ,
. 15 481 935
(. ).
528 . ,
, Int
13h, 4- ( BIOS 6 ).
, 16-
( BIOS 10 ). ,
( )
.
, ,
528 :
(210 = 1024 ) (24
- 528 482 304 .

16 ) (26 - 1 = 63 ) 512 =

528- ,
, BIOS . -

490 ______ 12. IBM PC-

(
) :
(216 = 65 536 ) (24 = 16 ) (28 - 1 = 255 ) 512
= - 136,9 .
BIOS (8,4 ),
Int 13h,
, * ,
-. , ( 8),
,
Int 13h .
, : (
S) ( 8) (LBA, Large Disk,
5).[1,4,9]

BIOS
BIOS 8,4
, .
BIOS, Enhanced Disk Drive Services (EDD),
Phoenix Technologies LTD,
BIOS .
, 264 ,
IA-32 IA-64.
(LBA).
,
, .

(, USB IEEE1394),
.

.
15-20 .
BIOS Int 13h Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows
2000. ,
(FDISK, FORMAT),
32- . BIOS Int 13h
DOS ( ), Windows 3. lx, Windows NT, Novell NetWare,
OS/2 Warp, Linux, Unix. :
(fixed disk access subset) 4144h,47h 48h;
(device locking and ej ecting subset)
41 h,45h, 46h, 48h 49h;
1

,
, .

12.8. BIOS

____________________________ 491

(enhanced disk drive (EDD) support subset)


41h 48h.
, ,
I n t 13 h 3Fh ( );
( DL) 80h-FFh.
,
(device address packet).

.
BIOS ,
( 41h).
( ),
, .
.
, , (42h, 43h, 44h 47h)
.
/,
(45h, 46h 49h).
(48h).

, , BIOS.
(4Eh)
(, DMA),
().
CD-ROM BIOS Int 13h
:
/ (4Ah/4Bh),

(4Ch);
(4Dh); 41-48h
CD-ROM (
LBA 2048 ),
.
[4].

12.8.4. Int 14h -


- BIOS Int 14h,
.
( ,
AL; ). DTR
RTS ( ).
Olh AL ( ).
DTR RTS, THR
.
, - .

492 _____ 12. IBM -,

02h ( ).
DTR (RTS ),
, AL.
,
-.
03h ( SRLSR).

- -.
I n t 14h , (0-3)
DX (0 1, 1 COM2...). 0,1 3
( LSR), AL
(MSR). 2
7 AL;
7 ,
3. ( ) :
7 - ( 2
);
6 ( );
5 (
);
4 ;
3 ( -);
2 ;
1 ( );
0 .
( AL 0,1,3)
:

7 DCD;
6 RI;
5 DSR;
4 CTS;
3 DCD;
2 RI;
1 DSR;
0 CTS.

AL :
[7:5] :
000=110; 100=1200; 001=150; 101=2400;
010=300; 110=4800;011=600; 111=9600 /;

12.8. BIOS _______________________________________ 493

[4:3] :
01 ;
11 ;
0 10 ;
2 -: 0 1 , 1 2 ( /
1,5 -);
[1:0] : 00 5 , 01 6 , 10 7 , 11 8
.
POST BIOS ( UART 8250 )
BIOS
Data Area 0:0400, 0402, 0404, 0406.
1-4.
. 0:047, 047D, 047,
047F , - .
2400 /, 7
(even), 1 -.
DTR RTS
( ).

12.8.5. Int17 h
BIOS I n t 17 h: ,
, LPT-.
, LPT- DX.
= AL Centronics (
). , ,
( Busy),
.
= Olh (
, lnit#,

).
= 02h ( ).
,
SR [7:3] -.
6 3 , ,
. :
7 ( Busy); ,
( Off-Line, );
6 ( Ack#); ,
;

494 _____ 12. IBM PC-

5 ( PaperEnd);
4 ( Select); ,
Off-Line;
3 ( Error*);
;
2:1=00 ( );
0 -,
, Busy ,
- ( BIOS Data Area);
Centronics .
Int 17h
.
PNP
.
, ( Int 17h
LPT- PNP ), .

.

12.8.6. Int 1Ah Int 15h


BIOS Int I Ah
, ,
CMOS RTC.
.
1. =0 ( 40:006Eh
BIOS Data Area, 0 8253/8254 55 .
POST ).
, , DX . 1_=0,
24 .
AL ,
40:0070h ( ).
2. =1 ( , DX
) ()
40:0070h. CF=1.
3. =2 RTC. BCD-
( ), (CL), (DH)
/ (DL=1 , DL=0 ).
CF=0.
BIOS CF .
4. =3 RTC,
2.

12.8. BIOS _______________________________________ 495

5. =4 RTC. BCD-
( ), (CL), (DH) (DL).
CF=0.
BIOS CF .
6. =5 RTC,
4.
7. =6 RTC.
BCD- ( ), (CL)
(DH). ,
CF-1.
Int 4Ah.
8. =7 .
BIOS Int 15h CMOS RTC , ( , DX ).
.
,
70 .
.
9. AH=86h .
.
7 BDA 0040:.
, CF=1 (
CF=0, AL , 8259#2).
10. AX=8300h ,
7 , ES: .
CF=0; ( ) CF=1 AL=0.
, .
, ,
830 lh (-, ; -,
,
, ,
).
. AX=8301h .

12.8.7. PCI BIOS


PCI BIOS PCI ,
(. . 8.2).
,
,
. 16- , V86 16-
, PCI BIOS Int lAh;
.
-

496

12. IBM PC-

OOOFFE6EH (
Int lAh) .
CF=0 =0; CF-1
:

81h ;
83h ;
86h ;
87h PCI.

( 1024 ). 32-
,
32- (. ),
CF .
32-
PCI. PCI BIOS :
- 101 PCI BIOS. PCI BIOS
CF=0, =0 EDX=20494350h ( "PCI ");
. AL

PCI:
0 1
;
1 2
;
2:3=00 ();
4 1;
5 2;
6:7=00 ().
BL (BCD), CL PCI,
( +1, ).
EDI 32-
BIOS. BIOS (
EDI); EDI
.
= 102 .
, DX
, SI ( ) .
, BL[7:3] ,
BL[2:0] .
, SI
0 86h.

12.9. ROM BIOS ___________________________________________ 497

AX = B103h . [23:16]
, [15:8] , [7:0]
, SI ( ).
, BL[7:3] ,
BL[2:0] .
- B106h PCI. BL
, EDX .
= 108h
PCI. , BL[7:3]
, BL[2:0] , DI (-FFh).
CL .
= B109h
PCI. , BL[7:3]
, BL[2:0] , DI (-FFh,
). .
= 10Ah
PCI. , BL[7:3]
, BL[2:0] , DI (-FFh,
4). .
= 10Bh
PCI. , BL[7:3]
, BL[2:0] , DI (-FFh),
CL .
= 10
PCI. , BL[7:3]
, BL[2:0] , DI (-FFh,
), .
= BWAh
PCI. , BL[7:3]
, BL[2:0] , DI (-FFh,
4), .

12.9. ROM BIOS


ROM BIOS, ,
( ) .
,
(ISA, PCI, PCMCIA),
Additional ROM BIOS (
ROM BIOS), Expansion ROM. ,
.

PC. ROM
BIOS EGA/VGA/SVGA,
, SCSI, .
ISA
CSOOOh-

498

12. IBM PC-

F4000h. POST 2
BIOS (
).
BIOS (EGA, VGA, SVGA...)
(
). PCI

, POST,
ROM BIOS ,
2- ,
. 12.8.
12.8.

0
2 ( ): 0=55h, 1=
2
1 , 512
3
3 , Ret Far
( Far Call POST).
JMP,
6-17h

18h
2 PCI ( PCI), . .
12.9.1
1Ah
2
ISA PnP, .
. 12.9.2

3 ,
PCI ISA PnP . ,
55 ( )
( 256)
( ,
, , ).
POST (Call Far)
, 3- . . ,
BIOS. Bootstrap (Int 19h),
, , ,
(Remote Boot Reset).
, (
, - ,
,
POST.

, ,

12.9. ROM BIOS ___________________________________________ 499

. ,
, , ( - ). .
, ,
, , ROM BIOS,
DDIM (Device Driver Initialization Model
). POST
( )
(), .
( ) ( 3).
, DDIM, ,
: ( )
DDIM ( ).
, , ,
. DDIM ( ),
.
, ( )
,
.
- ,
. ,
, ,
POST. POST
( )
( , 4 ), . POST, ,
( UMA)
.

UMA ( ,
). ,
( ,
POST),
. , ,
(
). ISA
DDIM , (. );
DDIM PGI.
DDIM
, ( ),
POST .
Big Real Mode, 32 (. . 12.3.1).
Phoenics Intel

500

12. ' PC-

(POST Memory Manager Specification), 1.01


1997 .
BIOS, , ,
.
, a BIOS 32-
( ).
32- (handle),
. ( FFFFFFFFh)
.
(Int 19h), Gate A20 .
BIOS
, .
,
BCV, PnP (. ). ,
BEV, ,
Bint 19h.
, - $
EOOOO-FFFFOh.

http://www.phoenix.com/techs.

12.9.1. ROM BIOS ISA PnP


PnP PnP BIOS
(Expansion Header Structure).
, . 12.9.
(
), .

.
.
, ,
.
12.9. ROM BIOS ISA PnP

Oh

, $PnP ( ASCII)

04h

(01 h)

05h

( 16 )

06h

(OOOOh, )

08h

(0)

09h

OAh

PnP

OEh

(0, )

10h

(0, )

12h

12.9. ROM BIOS ___________________________________________ 501


15h
16h
18h
1Ah
1Ch
1Eh


BCV (Boot Connection Vector) 0,
(Disconnect Vector) 0,
BEV (Bootstrap Entry Point) 0,
(0)
(Static Resource Information
Vector) Real/Protected mode (0 )


PnP, . ,
,
.
:
7 (Device
Driver Initialization Model);
6 ;
5 ;
4 ;
3 (0);
2 (IPL-);
1 ( );
0 ().
BCV (Boot Connection Vector, Interrupt Connection
Vector) ,
,
( Int 9h, Int 10 Int 13h ),
, .
0,1 2 Int 9h, Int
10hInt 13 ( ), ES: DI
PnP BIOS (System BIOS PnP Installation Check
Structure), BX (CSN) ISA PnP (
FFFFh); DX ISA PnP (
FFFFh).
, .
BEV ,
,
Int 13h. BIOS
Int 19h.
, , (Remote Programm
Loading, RPL) .

502 ______ 12. IBM PC-

, ( , ISA PnP).
1024 ES: DI .
, 3
, PnP (
),
.
S: DI PnP
BIOS, CSN ISA PnP ( FFFFh); DX
ISA PnP ( FFFFh).

BDA BDA,
Int 9h, Int 10h, Int 13h
BDA EBDA.
:
8 ,
INT 13h;
7 ,
( ) INT 10h;
6 , I NT 9h;
5:4 : 00
, 01 , 10 ( RPL
), 11 ;
3:2 (
);
1:0 (
).
,
BIOS
BIOS
BIOS
.
ISA PnP.
,
BIOS PnP. ,
PnP
BIOS.
ISA PnP , BIOS
PnP, .
: PnP BIOS
, INT 19h,
PnP BIOS ,
BIOS .

12.9. ROM BIOS ___________________________________________ 503

12.9.2. Expansion ROM PCI


BIOS, PCI,
,
ROM BIOS. ,
PCI (. 12.10).
,
PCI.
PCI PC,
. ,
.
(
) . ()
, BIOS .
, , IBM PC, Power PC.
12.10. PCI

0
4
6
8
Ah
Ch
Dh
10h
12h
14h
15h
16h

4
2
2
2
2
1
3
2
2
1
1
2

, "PCIR"


1
(),
(0 )


/
: 0 86 -, 2 HP PA-RISC
: 1 , 0

PCI 2.2 Vital Product Data (


).

PCI ,

. , 2- ,
. POST
, (
3). ,
, . ,
PCI ( 10h), ,

( ,
). .
PCI .

504 _____ 12. IBM PC-

PCI
DDIM(. ). POST Expansion ROM
Base Address
.
,
55. , POST (

PCI) ( COOOO-DFFFFh),
. (
Expansion ROM Base ^Address),
( 3). POST (
), (AL[7:3]) (AL[2:0]),
.
, ( 2,
),
. , , 2. (
2), , , .
VGA ( )
COOOOh.
PnP BIOS ,
PnP , 5: DI,
.

13


,
. , , GND.
,
.
PS/2 (+5 ), USB (+5 ) Fire
Wire (8-40 ).
LPT- ( 5 ) - (, 12 ),

.
,
.
,
( )
, .

, .

13.1.


, .

(. 13.1).


. ,
(
-

506

13. ,

). ,
, - .
, (. 13.2):
,
, 220 .

. 13.1.
-220

. 13.2.

,
1 ,
, :
=220 , F=50 ,
. =0,01
0,7 . , .
() , ,
,
,
.

13.1.

507

. ,

, , .
,
.
, ( ) .
.
()
(. 13.3), .

. 13.3.


,
,
INUL (. 13.4).
, (
-) .
... ENUL
( ) ,
( ).
IINT
:

ENUL = INUL*RNUL; INUL = P/220, RNUL


, RINT
, , ,
( = 2 + ).
,
, , .

508

13. ,

, . ,
. .

INUL
. 13.4.

,
( ).
,
. . ,
190 ,
.
/ ,
.
: ( ) ,

.
(. 13.5),
.
, ,
. ,
( ).
,
. , , .

13.1.

509

. 13.5.


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( ),
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. [3].

13.2.

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-

13.3. PC

___________________________________ 511

-) . 1-1,5 , .
- , , ,
MIDI. ( )
,
. Fiber
Channel, Ethernet ( ),
- (S/PDIF).
, .
.
,
,
,
. -
, .
,
,
. , , 0,5-2,5 .
(
Ethernet
), Fibre Channel,
, (S/PDIF).
,
, .
Fire Wire.
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,
.

(110-240 , 50-60 ),
( , ).
(,
-) ;
.

13.3. PC
PC
.
PC
;
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-

512 ______ 13. ,

+5 .
,
.
() ,
. PC (50 60 )
.
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110-127 . ,
, 220
. ,
Autoswitching Power Supply,

110230 .
PC
.

.
. ,
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.
,
.

100-150 350-500
.
( ) +5 10-50 ; +12 3,5-15
; -12 0,3-1
; -5 0,3-0,5 (
, ISA Bus).
P.G. (Power Good)
. 3-6 0,10,5 .

,
. ,
+5 .

CMOS .
Reset
P.G. .

13.3. PC

513

(. 13.7).
, .
,
+5 +12 , , ,
. , ,
3"
.
PS-8, PS-9
, GND .
, .
:
GND ;
-12V ;
+5V ;
-5V ;
+ 12V ;
P.G. ( ).

. 13.7.

7
,
. +3,3
(Standby)
+5VSB.
10 ( 2.01) .
,
(, ,
).
720
,
.
PS-ON, +5, +3,3, +12, -12 -5
(. 13.8).

514

13. ,

PS-ON .

.
PW-OK (Power O'Key),
P.G. .
.

. 13.8.


(. 13.9, ).
, ,
.

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.
() , . 13.9, . FanM

,
. FanC
0...+12 20 .
+10,5 ,
. +1
.
. FanC
+12 , ,
,
. 1394V (+)
1394R (-) 8-48
IEEE-1394 (FireWire). +3.3V Sense
+3,3 .

13.3. PC

. 13.9.

- ( GND );
+5V ;
+12V;
-5V - ;
-12V ;
+3.3V ;
+3.3V Sense ( 11);
+5VSB ;

PS-ON ;

PW-ON-.
:
+3.3V Sense ;
FanC ;
FanM ;

1394V ;
1394R .

515


1. . IBM PC: . 2- . .:

, 2001.
2. . IBM PC: . .: ,
1998.
3. . : . .:
,'
2000.
4. . . .: , 2001.
5. . : . .: , 1999.
6. ., . Pentium 4, Athlon . .: ,
2001.
7. ., . Pentium III, Athlon . .: ,
2000.
8. . :
. - .: , 2001.
9. . . .: , 2002.


lOOOBaseCX, 406
lOOOBaseLX, 406
lOOOBaseSX, 406
lOOOBaseT, 406
100BaseFX, 406
lOOBaseSX, 406
100BaseT4, 406
100BaseTX, 406
10Base2, 406
lOBaseS, 405
lOBaseF, 406
lOBaseT, 406
168-pin Registered DIMM, 267
168-pin Unbuffered DIMM,
267
A20, 313,315
ACCESS.Bus, 331,427
Additional ROM BIOS, 497
AGP, 211 Ix, 218 2x,
218 4x, 218 , 212
, 219 , 213
AGP Pro, 221 AGP8X, 223
APIC, 461 ASK IR, 79
ATA, 359
Bus-Master, 383 PIO
Mode, 377 Ultra
DMA, 377 ,
382 , 388
,
387 , 383

, 387 , 380
, 371
, 376 DMA,
377 PIO, 376 ,
363,366

ATA ()
Master Slave,
360
, -, 360 ,
,
362
-2, 361
-3, 361
ATA/ATAPI-4, 361,362
ATAPI, 360
ATX, , 513
AUI, 409

BEDO 240
Bi-tron'ics, 20
BIOS
32- , 480,
/
-, 69,491,493
IntOSh, 325
Int 08h, 358
Int09h, 316,325
IntOEh, 357
Int 13h, 403
Int l4h, 48
Int 15h, 478
Int16h, 316
Int17h, 17,320,325
Int 19h, 498
Int 1 Ah, 210,478
Int 33h, 318
PCI, 210
SMBus, 440
, 486
, 484
, 316
, 318
, 325
, 497
, 481

, 487 BIOS Int 15h, 495
BIOS Int 16h, 484,493 BIOS Int
1Ah, 494 BIOS Int 9h, 483
BIOS32, 480 Bluetooth, 82 , 332

518
Bootable CD-ROM,
404 Boundary Scan,
447 bus mastering,
411,465 Bus-Master,
360,383 Byte Mode,
24

DRAM, 235
BEDO,
240 EDO,
239
DTE, 49
DVI, 337

Caller Id, 418


CardBus, 229
CAS Latency, 241
CD-ROM
, 404
,
404 Centronics, 321 CHS,
, 360 CMOS
RTC, 477
,
477
,
478,495
, 477
-,
70
UART 8250/16450/16550, 63
, 70
, 70

, 73
, 76
BIOS, 69,493
, 52
Compact PCI, 196
Composite Video,
341 cPCI 196 CR,
321

E-IDE, 362 ECP,


22,29,322 EDD,
490 EDO, 239
EEPROM, 164
EISA, 146,151,164
El Tonto, 404 EOI,
459 EPP, 22,25
Ethernet, 405 AUI,
409 7^j 410
, 412 AUI/
413 BNC, 413
Combo, 413 ,
413
, 413
, 414
, 413 ,
412 ,
410 , 405
, 407
, 405
, 407
, 410
,
409 EVC, 333 expansion
bus, 145 Expansion ROM,
497,503 Extended ASCII
Keystroke, 485

, 49
DDC1, 331
DDC2, 331
DDC2AB, 331
DDC2B, 331
DDIM, 499
DDMA, 465
DDR SDRAM, 267
DFP, 336
dial-up, 414
DIMM, 261
DiskOnChip, 479
DMA, 21,70,157,463 '
16- , 465
8- , 464
LPT-, 21
PC/PCI, 465
, 464
,
473 DPMS, 332

fast ATA-2, 361


Fast Centronics, 21
Fast Ethernet, 406
Fast IP) 412
Fast SCSI, 117
Fast Wide SCSI, 117
FCAL 140
FDC, 356
Feature connector, 340
Fibre Channel, 140
, 141
, 141
, 141
,
141 , 141

519


FireWire, 106
, 112
, 110

, 111
,
111
, 110
, 113
, 107
, 112
, 111
, 109
, 107
USB, 87
,
112 Flow
Control, 60
FOIRL, 406
FRAM, 305
Game-, 349
GateA20, 315,469
Gigabit Ethernet, 406
H
Handshaking, 60
HP7SllMAf
, U
I
PC, 331,421
i8042, 313
IDE
ATA, AT-BUS, 361
XT, 371
,
361 IEEE 1149.1, 446 IEEE 1284,
22,322
ECP, 29
EPP, 25
LPT-, 22
PnP, 41
, 24
, 40
,
23 IEEE 1394, 106,109
IN, 376
Infra Red Connection, 78
Int05h, 325 IntO8h, 358
Int09h, 316,325 IntOEh,
357,487 Int 10h, 71
Int13h, 142,403

Int I3h ()
, 487
00-24h, 487 4149h, 491 4A-4D, 491 Int
u^ 4g59,71,491 Int 15h'
478 Int 16h, 71,316
Int17h, 17,320,325 Int
19h, 498 Int lAh, 210,478
Int33h, 318 Int 40h, 486
Int 76h, 487 Int 9h, 484 Ir
TP, 80 IR-Connector, 81
IrCOMM, 80 IrDA, 78
FIR, 79
HDLC, 79
MIR, 79
SIR, 79
,
81 IrDA4PPM, 80
IrLAN, 81 IrLAP, 80
IrLMP, 80 IrOBEX, 81
IRQ 15, 487 IRQ 6, 487
IRQ11, 70 IRQ4, 70
IRQ5> 20 IRQ7, 20 ISA,
146
bus mastering, 159
Bus-Master, 360
legacy card, 165
PnP, 165
DMA, 147

, 164
, 146
, 164
PnP, 165
, 147,160
, 147

159
,
157
,
147
, 159
, 149
, 148
, 146
ISO_8482,
56

520

JTAG, 446
jumperless,
164,414
LapLink, 18 LBA,
, 361
Legacy Card, 455 LF,
321 Loop Back, 46
Low-Profile PCI, 196
LPC, 223 LPT-,
17
Fast Centronics, 21
IEEE 1284, 22
, 21
, 42

, 323
, 44
, 21

, 21
, 42

,
18 ,
20 , 19
, 45
BIOS, 41

Magic Packet, 412


Master, 360
MDI, 407
MDIX, 407
Ml-PC, 232
Microwire, 444
MIDI, 345,350
Mil, 410
Miniature Card, 229,402
, 400
mouse
Bus, 319
MS Mouse, 317
PC Mouse, 317
PS/2, 318
Serial, 317 MPU401, 346
MultiMediaCard, 400
N
Nibble Mode, 20,23
NIC, 410 NVRAM,
277

OFF-Line, 321
OUT, 376
Output Enable,
156
P&D, 336 P&DA, 333 P&DA/D, 336 PC
Card, 229
, 229
, 228
PC/104, 161
PC/PCI, 465 PC/PCI
DMA, 191 PCI, 175
BIOS, 210
concurrency, 199
posted write, 200
, 204
, 183
, 179
, 177
, 181
, 209
, 185

, 202
, 198

, 177
, 176
, 199
,
198
, 189
, 177
, 192193

, 198
/ 182
, 176
, 193
, 175
,
192
DMA, 191
PCI Bridge, 198 PCI
IDE> 384 PCI-X, 196
PCMCIA, 228 Peer-toPeer Bridge, 198 PIO,
376,473 PIO Mode, 377
PnP BIOS, 500 PS/2, 21
pulse dialing, 416 PXI,
197

RC, ,
341 RDRAM,
245,269
, 249
, 246
, 247
refresh, 238 RGB
Analog, 327 RJ-11,
415 RAM, 22,30
ROM BIOS, 454,500
RS-232C, 49,55,389

RTS/CTS, 61
UART, 63

XON/XOFF,
62 RS-422, 55,56,57 RS-423
55 RS-485, '55,56,57
S-VHS, 342
S-Video,
341 S/PDIF,
344 SBA,
213 SCAM,
116 SCSI
SPI, 115
,
129 , 116
,
116 , 129
, 118,120
, 134,142
, 116

LVD, 117
,
135
-50, 119
DB-25, 119
HD-50, 119
HD-68, 119
IDC-50, 118
MiniDSO, 119
MiniD68, 119
SCA, 120
VHDCI-68, 120
, 118,121
, 143
, 125
, 116

SCSI ()
, 142
129
-, 141
, 129
, 114,134,142
SCSI.2> SCSI-3, 115
SD 4(
SDRAM, 240,245,262
Secure Digital, 400
Self-Healing Driver,
412 Serial ATA, 389
Setup, 44 SIMM, 257
SIMM-30, 257 SIPP,
256 Slave, 360
SmartMedia Card, 399
SMBus, 433 SMI Mil,
443 SPCI, 196 SPI,
115,444 SPP, 18
SRAM, 274
Tagged VLAN, 412
TinyTP, 80 tone
dialing, 416
Toslink, 345 lype l,
21

UART, 63
8250/16450/16550, , 63 MPU-401, 346 RS232C, 63
Ultra DMA, 361,362,377
Ultra SCSI, 117
Ultral60SCSI, 117
Ultra2SCSI, 117
Ultra320 SCSI, 117
unreal, 471
USB, 88
,
101
, 99

, 98
, 89
(HS),
88
, 97 ,
90 , 95

522
USB
(
) , 95
, 94
, 96
(LS), 88

, 96
, 91
(FS), 88 ,
95

, 103
, 97
101 , 95
, 97
, 98
, 95
FireWire, 87
, 94
, 93
, 96
, 88 , 89
, 92 , 89,99 , 100 > 88

PCI, 204
USg 1Q1
, 204

, 382
bus master, 411
Ethernet, 410
Fibre Channel, 141
,
, 43

CHS, 360
LBA, 361
-, 223
, 30
,
216,223
, 491 ,
49

, 342 ,
417 , 49
,
415
, 50

V.11, 56
VESA, 332
VESA DDC, 331
VESA Feature connector, 340
VGA Palette Snooping, 201
VP&D, 336
VT-100, 71
VT-42 71

, 24

528 , 489

, 513
PC, 511
, 505
, 512
,
417

w
Wide Ultra SCSI, 117
Wide Ultra2 SCSI,
117

, 24
, 24
,
23 -
, 473
10/12 , 455
, 473

, 474
, 456
20, 315
,
486 ,
341 , 341
, 470
, 412
, 387

X27 56
XON/XOFF 62
Y
Y/C, 342
z
ZV Port, 232

52<$

,
58,510 , 198
, 89

LPT, 21
, 24
, 24 , 349

, 486

, 490
, 490
BIOS, 486
, 490 ,
487 BNC, 332 VESA Feature
Connector, 339 VGA Auxiliary
Video Connector, 339
, 331
DDC, 331 RGBTTL, 326
RGB , 327
, 341

, 332

SCSI, 116
, 412
, 14
, 506
, 507
,
469 ,
348

,
161
, 331
,
402
ACCESS.bus, 442
AUI, 409
DDC, , 331
DFP, 336
DVI, 337

()
Ethernet, 405 PC,
421,442 IrDA, 78
JTAG, 446 LPC, 223
microwire, 444 ,
410 P&D, 336
RGBTTL, ,
326 RGB , 327 RS232C, 55 RS-422, 55 RS-423, 55
RS-485, 55 S-VHS, 342 S-video,
341 S/PDIF, 344 . SCSI, 116
Serial ATA, 389 SMBus, 442 SMI,
443 SPI, 444 USB, 90 Y/C, 342
, 342 , 344
, 78 , 341
,
15 PNP, 323 ,
311 , 326 ,
316 , 353,354
, 13
Centronics, 321
LPT-, 17

, 13
MIDI 345
RS-232C, 49
, 59
, 78
, 324
, 57
, 61
, 320
, 415
, 57 , 14
, 394
, 410
, 39
, 78
PNP, 323

524

, 39
Fire Wire, 106
IDE ATA, 363
MIDI, 345
SCSI, 120
STP, 406
USB, 88,89,333
UTP, 108
, IEEE 1284,
40
, 355
, 39
, 326
-, 70
, 505
, 323
,
387 ATA, 383

AGP, 212
CompactFlash, 396
ISA, 44,81
, 400
PC Card 81228
PCI, 18,81
PCMClf 228,399
SD, 400
SmartMedia Card, 399
,
146
,
60 ,
311
Alt-, 485
ASCII-, 485
Int09h 316
Intl6h, 316,483,484,493
Int9h, 483,484,493
483
, 311
, 484
BDA, 483
, 483
XT, AT, PS/2,
311
ASCII, 485
-, 310
Fibre Channel,
141 ,
414 , 30,34

DMA 8237, 465


.
FDCAT, 356
PCI IDE, 384

,
356 , 357
8259, 456


, 44,89
, 387
-, 70
jumperless, 414
LPT-, 44
SCSI, 134,142
Ethernet, 414 ISA,
164 Fibre
Channel, 141

SCSI, 116

, 414

, 70
Fibre Channel,
141
, 458 ,
341
Fibre Channel, 141
PCI, 198
, 198
,
198 , 70

, 43
, 24
,
43
, 353,354
, 356
, 356
, 357
" 56
, 356
, 354
,
457

, 14
, 14
, 14

, 459
, 198
, 49 .
,

DDR SDRAM, 244


DRAM, 235

525

()
NVRAM, 277
RDRAM, 245
SDRAM, 240
, 245
, 240
, 241
SIPP, 256
,
254 , 454
, 470
, 236
, 235
BEDO, 240
EDO, 239
FPM, 238
, 238
, 236
, 251
, 240
,
254
DIMM, 261
DIMM-184, 267
DRAM cards, 274
ECC, 253
RIMM, 269
SIMM-30, 257
SIMM-72, 258
SIPP 257
SO DIMM-144, 272
SODIMM-72, 271
, 252
, 257
, 254,255
, 257
, 252
, 252
, 252
,
253 , 238
CBR, 238
ROR, 238
, 238
CAS, 238
, 238

I2C, 308
SPI, 309

, 305
, 242,249
, 274
, 274
,
275 , 454

()
,
276 EEPROM,
277,282 EPROM,
277,280 FRAM, 277
PROM, 277 UVEPROM, 277
, 278
,
278 , 279
, 276
, 278
EPROM, 279 1
282
,
13 Centronics, 321 SCSI 116

, 43 , 43
, 43 , 23
, 23
, 14
,
13,49,59,78 , 60
ISA, 461 LPT-, 20
NMI, 457 PCI, 460
, 20,457,459,481
, 483
, 460
, 463 , 461
, 458
,
461 , 462
, 459
, 461
86, 468
, 411,465
,
463,465

, 15,510
, 511
, 510
,
511
AT, 363
-, 52

526
()
DFP, 337
DVI, 337
EVC. 333
FireWire, 107
Game-, 349
LPT-, 42,43
MIDI, 346
P&D, 336
P&D-, 333,336
RCA, 341
RS-232C, 52
SCSI, 121
USB, 89
VAFC, 326
VFC, 326
, 342
ATX, 514
, 334
XT, AT,
PS/2, 311
, 354

, 513
, 513
LPT-,
21
DMAATA, 377
, 471

, 376
, 376
,
471

, 494
, 495
, 494
LPT-,
42 , 360
, 506 , 34

,
14
,
476 , 43
,
55
AGP, 219
AGP Pro, 221
ISA, 27,44,137
PC Card, 228,229
PCI, 113,137
PCMCIA, 145
Small PCI, 234
, 476

CMOS RTC, 477


, 478,494
, 476
, 476


, 417
, 417
, 416
, 415
, 418
,
416
, 414
,
415
SCSI, 125
, 45
-, 73
LPT-, 45
, 57,58
, 14

, 490 , 70
-,
476
SCSI,
142 ,
369
RTS/CTS, 61
, 60
, 61
XON/XOFF, 62
, 93,332
, 307
,
486 -, 282
boot block, 284,293
bulk erase, 284,291
data polling, 301
flash file, 284,296
NAND, 285
NOR, 285
PCMCIA, 291
smart voltage, 300
toggle bit, 301

, 284
, 284
, , 286


-
()

, 287
, 288

DRAM, 286
LPC, 286

, 285
, 293

AMD, 301
Intel, 283
-, 141
ATA, 360
SCSI, 141

ACCESS.Bus, 427
CardBus, 229
Compact PCI, 196
EISA, 146,148,151
IEEE 1394, 106
ISA, 146
DMA,
147 ,
147

()
, 147
,
147
, 149
, 148 Mini
PCI, 196 Miniature
Card, 229 PC
Card, 228,229
PC/104, 161 PCI,
175
, 204
, 185
, 198
, 193
PCI-X, 196
PCMCIA, 228
PXI, 197
SCSI, 114,134,142
Small PCI, 196
SMBus, 433 USB,
88 ,
145,146

,
506

, 510 ,
506