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# ,

2004
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- .

-
5.05.2004. ( 6)
.. .

1. .
. , (,)
, (1,1) , (3,4)
3 4. (x,y) (z,t)
: (x,y)=(z,t), x=z y=t.
, : {x,y}={y,x},
(x,y) x y, , y,
(x,y) (y,x). , {x,x}={x} ,
(x,x) - () .
:
A B A B A B={(x,y) x
A, y B}.

.
1) [1;3] [2;5] :

## 2) A={1;2}, B={u, v, w}, A B={(1,u), (1,v), (1,w), (2,u), (2,v),

(2,w)}.

. B A ,
A B B A.
, A=B: A A={(x,y)x, yA}.
A2=A A. A2
A.
.
R2=R R .
D={(x,x)xA} A2:

## (x, y, z), (a, b, c, d) .,

n (x1, x2,, xn).
n :
A1 A2 An={(x1, x2,, xn) x1A1, x2A2,, xnAn}.

A
A ...

## A ={(x1, x2,,xn)x1, x2,,xnA}

, An=

n- .
.
Rn=R R n- .
2*. .
,
, () ,
A
.

.
, yB,
A {y}A B (
A y
B
A y)
A B. xA
y

x B={x} BA B

x B
(. .).

, A B

:

= y = x.
y

,
: ( y)(x )=( x,y).
pr1=prA: A B pr2=pr: A B,
pr1(x,y)=x pr2(x,y)=y, ,
( )
( ). ,
pr1 A y: A y
pr2 x : x .
3. .
. " "
- S, , "x y", x, yS
:. x y ,
{x,y},
. (x,y), . .
S2=S S, , x y,
S2 ,
.
: X , Y
. " a
L". ,
(a, L)X Y, aL.
A B (,
, : A=B=S)
, A B,
(x,y), xA, yB, x y.
. ()

A B (A, B, ),
A B. . A=B,
A. xA
yB, x y. ,
x y (x, y) .
A=B=S, x y x y,
A=X, B=Y, =, (.. a L aL).
:
1) =(A, B, A B) .

.

2) =(A, B, ) ;
.

## 3) =(A, A, D), DA2 (. 1).

x y x=y.

4) 12 12 ,
5)

.
.
"": x<y R .

<

6)

<
,
y=x:
f R
f=(R, R, f), f : (x,y)f y=f(x).

. , ,
R, , ,
:

, .
,
() " x, y, z", n
(n+1)- .
. (A1, A2,, An, ), A1 An,
n- (n-) . n=2,
. A1=A2==An=A,
n- A.
: "x
y z".

.
4. .
A B ,
. ,
()
. ,
.
, A B ,
, .. ,
, .
, .
, .
, (
).
A B,
.
A,
B. x y, x
y:
.
. A=B, .. -
A, ,
A (
A). , x
y, x y. , x y y x,
.
, a , a a.

.
1) . x y " x
y".
( ):

, , ,
.
:

4
2) , , x
y :

(B,C) (C,B) BC
.
5*.

. , =(A, B, ) P(B)
.

P(B),

( x)= pr ( (x ) ). ( x)
x. , ( x) = {y | ( x,y) }, ..
y ( x) x y.
, ( x) ,
x.

x ( x) , :
, , () ( x)
x .
,
x , ( x)
( ) .
, , : () ,
, {( x) x} ,
,
=( , ,

), =

x ( x) .

, x
(x).
CA

( C ) = ( x ) .
xC

, ( )= pr ( ( ) ). ,

10

( ), , , :
( ) .

( )

, , =(, , (x))
.
. ,
, . ,
(x) x. ,
:
. ()= ( )
( ).
6*.

1. - .
,
- ,
.
= ( , , ), = ( , , ) .
= ( , ,
), = ( , , ), \ = ( ,
, \ ). =( , ,
), =( )\ .
,
: =

. > = .
=.
>. =
. ,
<, =: <, =.
. , x Cy ( x y), .. x Cy
, x y .

11

,
(

).

2. . , ,
= ( , , ) = ( B, C, ).
= ( , C, ),
: x( ) (x)= ( (x)). ,
x( ) z y x y y z.

x
, x :
,
()
.

: ( ) = ( ).

3. . , = ( , , ), -1=( B, A,
-1), x y y -1x. , (y,x) -1 (x,y) .
, =, -1 2
D. , -1
.
, : L
L, -1 L -1 L . ,
> < R.
, ( -1)-1= . , ,
( )-1 = -1 -1.
7*. .
2, ,
. ,
, .
= ( , , )
( ), x
y , x y (,

12

, y= (x)). ,
x

( x) .
= ( , , ) . , :
, .. ,
, .
, , ( ) x (x),
.. .
: -1=( B, A, -1)
( ). ,
y -1(y).
, :
: , y -1(y)
, ; ,
, ; ,
.
, , , -1 .
-1 , , .
id : ,
id (x)=x, (, , D).
8 .

( ), .. = (, , ).
1. ,
x x x, ..
. ,
: D
: (x)D x .
, =, , , ,
, >, <, ( ), xy=1 R
.
2*. ,
:
x , x x. ,
: D=

: (x) D = x .
, , >, <, ,
xy=1 R
.

13

3. ,
x, y , x y,
y x: x, y ( x y y x ). ,

.
, =, , ( ), , xy=1
R , >, <, , .
4*. A ,
x, y ( x y y x x=y), .. x y x y,
y x . ,

2,
.
, =, >, <, , , ( )
, ,
, .
5. ,
x, y, z , x y
y z, x z:x, y, z ( x y y z x z).
x1x2 ,
x1 x2. x1x2, x2x3,, xn-1xn
() , x1xn ( )
.
, ,
:

xn-1
x1

x2
xn

, =, >, <, , , , ( )
, , , xy=1 R .
6*. ,
x,y A x y y x:
x,y ( x y x y y x ). , -1
2\D
.
, <, , >, , R ,
N .

14

9. .
,
, ,
.

,
. , ,
. ,

,
, .. .
,
.
, .
. 1) ={x}
{A}={{x}}. , .
2) A={x,y} : {A }
{{x},{y}} .
3)
.
4)
.
5) :
,
: , , ..,
.
6)
R, .. .
7) , ,
, .
8)* f: AB . {f-1(y)yf(A)}
A . , P = {C } A
: , (x) = C , xC . ,
P .
10. .
.
P : x y
, x y P. ,
, x y x y
. , ,
,
.

15

,
.
. x
[x] ={yA x y}
x. , [x] , x
. , : x y x
, y, [x] x.
, , ,
,
. , ,
.
,
,
.

.

1.

=(, , 2)
{A} .

2.

=(, , D)
{{x} x } .

3.

N : x y x
, y, N
, , .. .
4. ,
.
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
:

a
x

..

11*. .
.

/ .
, / ={[x] | x }.

16

: / , ( x)=[x] ,
(. 8, 9).
, . ,
, x y (x)= (y).
: .
(
): (a,b) (c,d) a+d=b+c. ( )/

[(a,b)] a-b, :
N

2
1
-4

-2

-1

,
. , :
x1 x2 f(x1)=f(x2) ,
f 1(y)
y(). : / - .
f : / ( ) ([x] )=(x) (,
, .. x
). ()
. , in:
() , = in :

( , , in ).

17

12*. .

, , ,
, ,
. (, )
.
,
, .
, ( )
={x,y} :

{x}

M
{y}

(,
)

, , ..
x, y x y, y x (
, ).
. ,
. ,
,
.
, , ,
.
:
1) >, < (, ) () R.
2) ,
() .
3) R R g xR ((x) g(x))
.
4) N,
Z (,
).
5) ,
.
6) , (,
).
7) A
, , .

18

.
1.
{1;2}?
2. (a;b)=(c;d)? {a;b}={c;d}?
3. xA B?
4. A B= ?
5. , A B= .
6. , {(t,1),(m,5),(k,8)}?
={(t,1),(m,5),(k,8)}?
7. [-1;3] {-2;1;3}. *
? ?
8. .
, 6 5 ?
.
9. 3, 0, 5, 7?

.
10. A B, k ,
n ?
11. - , .

.
12. , x2+y2=1
R.
13. ()
.
14. ={0;1}. 3.
15. , (A B)( D) = (A ) (BD)?
16. (A B)( D) = (A) (BD)?
17. , Y. (A B) , A , B B.
18. * f: XY f . ,
: f(A) = pry(prx1
(A) f) BY : f-1(B) = pr x(pry-1
(B) f).
.
19. ={, , , , , }, ={, , ,
, , }.
: x y x y.
.

19

20. x M ,
{1,2,3,4,5}, {{1},{1;2},{2;5},{3}}.
21. x y

..

*-

.*-

*-.

, {, ,, } ,
. ?
. ?
22. ={0;1},
. :
*.
.

, (+) ()
. ?
.
23. k , n .
? ?

24. *

## (. 5*), ()=pr( ( )), =(, , )

. , ()
: A (B).

25. =(, ,

) . , :
) (prA )=pr B .
) (LM)= (L) (M) L, M A
) (LM) (L) (M) ,
.

*.
26*. =(, , ), = ( , , ) . ,
( )()= ( ()) .

20

## 27*. (.6*) ( ) = ( ) ( )-1 = -1 1

.
28*., =(, , ) = ( , , ),
) ( )-1= -1 -1.
) ( )-1= -1 -1.
) ( )-1=( -1).
29*. .
) , = idA = =
.
) -1= ?
30*. , : . ,
= .
31*. =(, , ) . ,
) prA =A -1(LM)= -1(L) -1(M) L, M .
) prA =A, pr =; (PQ) = (P) (Q) P, Q
A
-1(LM) = -1(L) -1(M) L, M .
32*. x 1y x=y2 x 2y x+y=0 R
-1
-1
1 , 2 i j, i, j =1, 2.
33*. 4, 6.
.
34*. <, , < < <, < = <
.
.

35.

36.

={2;4;6;8}.
) ,
. .

) .

) ( , ).

) ? ?
,
) , , , , -1,
;
) ,
, ,
, -1
; , .
) idA
, \idA ;

;
) = -1;
) , = ;

21

e) -1 idA;
) 2 , 2 = ;
) , 2 = .
) ,
pr1 pr2 = , ;
) , ;
) , -1
;
)
, ( -1) idA = .
37. x y x2+y2=1 Z.
?
38. , .
, , ?
.
39.
40.

41.
42.
43.
44.

.
?
:
, ,
.., .
?
4 : , ,
, . ?
33 . 15 , 15
15 . ,
?
, - :
) ;
) .
A={3,13,5,15,7,17}. A
.

45. ,
A={1,2,3,4,5}, 1 2
2 3. .
46. 4 , . " "
?
47.
? ?

22

48. x y
x y 5 ?

## 49. ={1;2;3}, P(M) .

X,YM X Y X Y .
, P(M).
.
50.
, {{1},{2,5},{3},{4,6,7}} {{1,7},{2,4,5,6},{3}}
.
.
51.
{C }
. , {C C }
.
52.
x y x-y 3
={4,5,6,7,8,9,10}. ,
.
53.
,
. : ,
.
?
54.

R?
:
) {(n,n+1) nZ};
) {[n,n+1] nZ};
) {[n,n+1) nZ}.
55*. - , {U },
{V } . ,
{U V } ,
.
56*., (, ) (,d) ad=bc N N
.
(N N)/ ?
57*. f: R R, f(x)=cos x, in (. 11).
.*
58*. =" , ", =" , "
a2, b3, c3, d4, e4, f5,
.
. ?
? (: ?)
59*. . X Y X=Y, X,YM
X,Y- , ?

23

## 60*. f: R R a b f(a) f(b) R.

f, ( )
. ,
.
61*., .
62*.
.
63*. - C.
64*.
?
65*. n .
66*.
.
67*. R[x] f g
deg(f)<deg(g), f g deg(f) deg(g), deg ,
? (: ?).

,
.
1. R2 A B :
A={(x, y)R2 4x+(-1)p(p+1)y p+1}
B={(x, y)R2 y (-1)p - 4x/(36-p)}.
p . R2
, AB, AB, A\B, B\A,
A ( ).
2. (. ,
1), , 3,
={p+4, p+5,, p+11}, p .
1= 2=. 3,
1 2 .
, .
(, p=0 ={4, 5,, 11}, 1={5, 7, 11}, 2={6, 9}, 3={4,
8, 10}.)

1. ........................................................................4
2*. ..................................................................................5
3. ..............................................................................................6
4. .......................................................8
5*. ...................................10
24

6*. .............................................................11
7*. .......................................................................................12
8 .............................................................................13
9. .............................................................................................15
10. ............................................................15
11*. .............................................................................16
12*. .........................................................................18
......................................................................................19
...................................................................................24

25

. .

. . .

.-. .

200 .

167001. , ., 55

26