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Non-finite forms of the verb


(Infinitive, Gerund, Participle)
I-II ,

- 2010

1
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Non-finite forms of the verb


(Infinitive, Gerund, Participle)
I-II ,

- 2010

2 -

Non-finite forms of the verb (Infinitive, Gerund, Participle). I-II , . .: - , 2010. 63 .


Infinitive, Gerund, Participle I, Participle II, (supplementary exercises) . , , , . 1-2 (Upper Intermediate).

. . , . . .. : . . , . .. - . , . . ..

, 2010

3 CONTENTS Infinitive: grammatical categories and syntactic functions4 Infinitive constructions..17 Gerund: grammatical categories and syntactic functions 23 Gerundial complex.25 Gerund versus Infinitive.30 Participle I: grammatical categories and syntactic functions ...38 Predicative constructions with Participle I.43 Participle II: its verbal and adjectival features 48 Predicative constructions with Participle II49 Supplementary exercises53 Tests56 References..62

4 Verbals The various forms that a verb can take fall into two main divisions: finite and non-finite (verbals). The latter are the infinitive (to discuss), the gerund (discussing), participle I (discussing), participle II (discussed). General characteristics: a) non-finite forms possess the categories of voice, perfect and aspect; b) non-finites are not restricted in number and person by any grammatical subject; c) they combine the characteristics of a verb with those of some other part of speech; d) verbals cannot form a predicate by themselves but they can function as part of a compound verbal predicate: She suddenly began to speak; They were caught stealing the jewellery. All non-finites may be part of the so-called predicative constructions: I didnt expect you to come; He found her crying bitterly; I had the piano tuned. I. Infinitive The infinitive names a process in a most general way. It combines verbal features (morphological and syntactical) with those of the noun. Split infinitive In all its forms and functions the infinitive has a special marker, the particle to. It is occasionally separated from the infinitive by some other words, more often an adverb or emphatic particles: They were seen to just touch each others hands. This separation is acceptable only to give special emphasis to the verb. Bare infinitive The infinitive is used without to in the following cases: after auxiliary verbs; after modal verbs (except ought to, have to, be to) and modal expressions had better, would rather, would sooner: Shed sooner die than forgive; after verbs of sense perception (see, hear, feel, watch, notice, observe, listen to, etc.) in the construction Complex Object: I heard him arrive. However, in passive sentences with these verbs we use a to-infinitive: He was overheard to say that he hoped Mike would reject the offer; She was noticed to hesitate; after causative verbs let, make, have (also in the construction Complex Object): The boss is not going to let me stay; They made me reduce my expenditures (But! - He was made to rewrite his introduction letter); after the verb to know in the meaning to experience, to observe (usually used in the perfect form): Have you ever known him tell a lie?; after phrases with but (cannot but, do anything but, do nothing but, couldnt but): He cannot but accept it;

5 in why-not sentences: Why not let me help you?; if two infinitives are joined by and or or, the to of the second infinitive can be omitted: I want to call Mr Smith and fax or send him a message. Remember fairly idiomatic phrases: hear tell, make believe, and let (it) slip: I never heard tell of it! (= was never told/ had no idea); He made believe that he had settled everything himself (= pretended); She let (it) slip that she's getting married (= said it unintentionally). Notice also the phrases make do and let go: Mary borrowed my trendy summer dress, so I had to make do with the old one (it wasn't the one I wanted); Let go of my hand! (relax grip on). To-infinitive Remember the verbs after which the to-infinitive is used: (can/cant) afford, agree, aim, appear, arrange, ask, claim, consent, decide, decline, demand, expect, fail, hesitate, hope, hurry, learn, manage, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, seem, tend, threaten, volunteer, want, wish, etc.: He threatened to dismiss the strike leader; The shop refused to accept the customers credit card; would like, would love, would prefer (to express specific preference): Id love to live in a more spacious apartment. Some verbs may be followed either by a to-infinitive or an object + toinfinitive: I prefer to cook/ I prefer you to cook (= you do the cooking). Other verbs like this include can bear (in negative sentences and in questions), need, hate, help, like, love, want, wish. Notice that after help we can use either a to-infinitive or bare infinitive: He helped me (to) net a handsome profit. The to-infinitive is also used after certain nouns: What a surprise to see him there! Its a great chance to talk to him; after too/enough constructions: I was foolish enough to believe her; with it + be + adjective + of: It was nice of Joe to congratulate us on our anniversary (see Syntactic functions). Repetition of the particle to For the sake of emphasis or contrast the particle to may be repeated before each of the infinitives: Its such a delight, you know, to go into the field and to pick up a sweet spring flower! The particle to is sometimes used without any infinitive if the latter is clearly understood from the previous context: You can stay if you want to! It is common after the verbs to want, wish, mean, try, allow, be going, ought, have (as a modal verb), should (would) like.

6 Ex.1. Complete the following sentences paying attention to the use of bare infinitive. 1. During the flight you must but you dont have 2. When in a tight corner dont hesitate 3. When a child, I used to make my younger brother 4. Id rather than . Id rather not tonight. 5. Wed better now. 6. Why not tomorrow? 7. Can you help me . ? 8. Unfortunately, his chief couldnt but Ex.2. Underline all the infinitives adding to where it is required. Two friends, Jane and Mark, are talking. J: Mark, where were you last night? I tried find you but couldnt see you anywhere. James says he didnt see you come in to the party. M: Yes, thats right. Im sorry. My parents wouldnt let me come out last night. I wanted see you honestly I did. J: Why did your parents make you stay in? They usually allow you go out in the evenings, dont they? M: Yes, but I hadnt finished doing my homework. And they refused let me go out until I had. J: Oh dear, poor you. Oh well, never mind. Lets do something tonight instead. M: OK. Actually, Id like see that new film. J: Would you? I suppose it might be quite good but Id rather just go out to the cafe. I was hoping have a chance talk to you properly. M: Well, why not do both? We could go to the early showing of the film and then go to the cafe. J: Im not sure I can afford go to the cinema. M: Thats all right. Ive got some money. J: So what time would you like meet, then? M: Six oclock I suppose in the cinema. Ill try get there a bit earlier and buy the tickets. Ex.3. Report the sentences using one of these verbs and a to-infinitive. Use each verb once: agree encourage intend invite advise promise refuse volunteer threaten expect hesitate manage tend fail Model: You cant borrow the car! He refused to lend me the car. 1. Ill phone you soon. He...

7 2. Im looking forward to seeing him. Weve arranged to meet on Sunday. I 3. Im going to quit my job. I 4. It wasnt easy but we drove home in two hours. We 5. They were not able to hand in their essays in time. They 6. Okay, Ill come with you. He... 7. Im not sure whether I should I tell you the truth. I . 8. Would you like to go out for dinner? He... 9. No problem, Ill work at the weekend. He... 10. Dont go out without an umbrella. He... 11. Believe me, well expel you! cried the principal. The principal 12. You really should continue the course. He... 13. She is in the habit of being late for appointments. She Ex.4. Open the brackets using the infinitive with or without to: Mark and Emma are at the railway station. Emma is going away for the weekend. Mark: Are you sure youll (be) all right? Emma: Yes, of course. Im not a child. I can manage (look) after myself. Mark: OK, sorry. Emma: Some friends have invited me (visit) them. Im not going to the North Pole. Mark: Youll be glad (see) your old friends again. I just know youre going (have) lots of fun. Let me (buy) you a magazine (read) on the train. Emma: I cant (read) when Im travelling. It makes me (feel) sick. Id rather just (look) out of the window. Mark: OK. Youd better (get) in. I think its about (leave). Oh, did I remind you (change) at York? Emma: Yes, Mark, you did. Dont worry, I wont (forget). I know perfectly well how (get) there. Ex.5. There is at least one mistake in each sentence. Suggest appropriate corrections: 1. Very reluctantly, he consented her to lend some money to Janet. 2. My parents always encouraged work hard at school. 3. I think we should let them to stay until the weekend. 4. Sam promised to show me how fish for salmon, but he didnt manage finding the time. 5. Hospital workers had to make to do with a 1.5% pay increase this year. 6. They let me to borrow their car while they were on holiday. 7. Id rather to stay in tonight. 8. They allowed leave their luggage in the lounge.

8 9. His stepmother made him to do all the household chores. Ex.6. Translate into English. 1. . 2. . 3. (to let). 4. . 5. . 6. ! 7. , ! 8. ! 9. . 10. , ! 11. , . 12. . 13. . 14. ! 15. , . 16. , ! 17. ? 18. , . 19. , , . The grammatical categories of the infinitive
Perfect Non-perfect Aspect Common Continuous Perfect Common Continuous Active voice to discuss to be discussing to have discussed to have discussing been Passive voice to be discussed _____ to have been discussed _____

1. Revise the grammatical meanings of perfect, aspect and voice

categories. What does the perfect infinitive used after the verbs expressing hope, expectation, intention (in the past tense forms) indicate? Retroactive infinitive. The active form of the infinitive may have a passive meaning: There was only one problem to solve. It can be replaced by the corresponding passive form: He is to forgive He is to be forgiven; Shes not to blame Shes not to be blamed. The active infinitive thus used is called retroactive. NB!
Active pattern: Verb + object + to infinitive Mr Price taught Peter to sing. passive Peter was taught to sing (by Mr Price).

9 Other verbs in this pattern include advise, allow, ask, believe, consider, expect, feel, instruct, mean, order, report, require, tell, understand. In some contexts it is possible to make both verbs passive: Changes to the taxation system are expected to be proposed; She was required to be interviewed. Some verbs followed by an object + to-infinitive in the active have no passive forms: Susan liked Tom to be there (but not *Tom was liked to be there). Other verbs like this include (cant) bear, hate, love, need, prefer, want, wish. NB!
Active pattern: Verb + to infinitive + object His colleagues started to respect Tim. passive Tim started to be respected (by his colleagues).

Other verbs in this pattern include: 1) appear, begin, come, continue, seem, tend; 2) agree, aim, attempt, hope, refuse, struggle, try. The verbs in the first group (and start) have corresponding meanings in active and passive sentences, but the verbs in the second group do not. Compare: People came to recognize her as the leading violinist of her generation (active). It corresponds to She came to be recognized as the leading violinist of her generation (passive); but (see verbs from Group 2): The team captain hoped to select Kevin (active) does not correspond to Kevin hoped to be selected by the team captain (passive). Ex.7. Write the appropriate form of the infinitive. Model: She fell asleep (She seems) to have fallen asleep. 1. He failed 6. She is typing 2. She has been crying 7. He was dancing 3. I had finished 8. It was settled 4. They have been warned 9. He will deliver 5. It was fixed 10. They will be sleeping Ex.8. Translate the sentences into Russian and comment on the grammatical categories of the infinitives. 1. He has a great desire to be invited to Nicks stag party. 2. Paul seems to have finished his work. 3. They were to have turned up yesterday. 4. The sky seems to be brightening up. 5. The question is difficult to answer. 6. I hoped to have met him there. 7. The leaves begin to be growing yellowish. 8. She was born to be admired and adored. 9. There was only one message to send. 10. I am glad to have been speaking to you. Ex.9. Put the verbs in brackets into the perfect infinitive. Use to where necessary. 1. Please come in. Im sorry (keep) you waiting.

10 2. They cant (know) what was going to happen. 3. The children are very pleased (finally meet) their uncle. 4. Ann claimed (invite) to Toms wedding while she was in Scotland. 5. I expect (collect) 3,000 by this time next year. 6. If Id known he was in hospital, I would (visit) him. 7. I was disappointed (miss) such a good opportunity. 8. His music seems (influence) by the rock culture of the seventies. 9. Why are you laughing? You must (hear) something funny! 10. Lots of people could (tell) the newspapers what had happened. 11. I consider myself lucky (be) to that marvelous exhibition. 12. The hotel is heavily booked. You should (make) a reservation beforehand. Ex.10. Fill in the gaps using infinitives (some may be continuous or perfect.) Use the verbs: come, find, hang, have, invite, leave, take. Helen: Hello, Nick. You managed (1) your way then? Nick: Yes, in the end. Its a bit complicated, isnt it? Helen: Well youre here now. Do you want (2) your coat up? Nick: Thank you. Helen: Im glad you decided (3) to our party. Everyone seems (4) a good time. We tend (5) lots of people to our parties. Nick: Is Tom here? Helen: No, he couldnt come. Hed already made an arrangement (6) somebody somewhere in his taxi. Nick: And Rita? Helen: Er, she was here, but she appears (7) early. I dont know where shes gone. She was with someone. Ex.11. Fill in the correct form of the infinitives (pay attention to the use of Active and Passive Voice). 1. His greatest ambition is (choose) to take part in the Olympics. 2. Stop pretending (eat) your food just finish it up, please. 3. I dont like (interrupt). 4. The suspect claimed (watch) TV at the time of the robbery. 5. Were waiting for his first novel (publish). 6. She has nobody (speak). 7. Listen carefully, I dont want (misunderstand). 8. He is pleased (appoint) to this position. 9. She is lucky (find) such a nice place (live) in. 10. He is a very touchy person. He cant bear (joke). 11. It was so dark outside that nothing at all could (see). 12. This is the book (skim) before the tutorial starts. 13. (instruct) by an excellent specialist was a great advantage. 14. I believe she deserves (know) the state of her sick cousin. 15. I hate

11 (bother) you, but the students are still waiting (give) books for their work. 16. We intended to camp in one of the inlets (find) round that tiny shore. Ex.12. Correct these sentences if necessary. 1. Ken was wanted to be the leader of the party. 2. I had been taught to be played chess by the time I was four. 3. Monica is considered to be the best student in the class. 4. Derek is hated to be away from home so often. 5. Jane is preferred to ride her bike where her parents can see her. 6. The window appeared to crack in a number of places. Ex.13. Make passive sentences beginning with the underlined word(s). Does your sentence have a corresponding meaning to the original, or a different meaning? 1. The Japanese visitors struggled to understand James. 2. The questions appeared to confuse David. 3. The teacher tended to ignore the girls at the front. 4. Lesley refused to congratulate Tim. Ex.14. Translate into English: 1. , . 2. . 3. To, , , . 4. ( ). 5. , . 6. -
( ). 7. ( ). 8. . 9. . 10. , . 11. , . 12. , . 13. , . 14. ! , . 15. .

Syntactic functions of the infinitive the infinitive as subject: To succeed in this job requires more time and energy than I actually have; Its hard to take a decision; the infinitive as part of the predicate:

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1. as predicative in compound nominal predicates:

Our aim is to master English; Your duty will be to fetch the kids from school, to feed them, to help them do their homework. Abstract nouns that can function as the subject of a compound nominal predicate with an infinitive-predicative:
advice aim ambition attempt business desire difficulty duty experience habit hope idea instruction intention job method need object plan principle purpose reason task thing wish, etc.

The function of the subject may be also performed by the pronoun all or the substantivized superlatives the most and the least with an attributive clause attached to them: All she wanted was not to be punished; The least he can do is to sort out these papers; 2. the infinitive as part of a compound verbal predicate: She ought to have warned me; You had better stop fighting (as part of a compound verbal modal predicate); They continued to talk shop; He began to think we had forgotten about him (as part of a compound verbal phasal predicate); 3. as simple nominal predicate: Me to accept your proposal! Why not leave her alone? the infinitive as object: The assistant managed to sort out the problem; I hesitate to say this (after the verbs which take only one object); All parents should encourage their offsprings to study hard at school (after the verbs which take two objects the 1st is a noun or a pronoun and the second an infinitive). The infinitive may function as object after certain adjectives (adjectivized participles) which can be divided into two groups: Group 1 Group 2
determined, difficult, eager, easy, free, inclined, interested, keen, powerless, prepared, ready, reluctant, slow, worthy, etc. The infinitive denotes actions simultaneous with or posterior to the states expressed by the predicate, and cannot therefore be used in perfect forms: Shes inclined to turn down the offer. annoyed, astonished, frightened, glad, grateful, happy, pleased, proud, scared, sorry, surprised, thankful, etc. The infinitive denotes an action slightly preceding the state expressed by the predicate, and can have both non-perfect and perfect forms: He is proud to have achieved the highest results.

Remember some rather common phrases used with the infinitive-object: can afford, cant bear, make sure, make up ones mind, take care, take the trouble. NB: the infinitive as object after the introductory it: verb + it + adj/ noun +
to-infinitive 1. find it difficult/ hard/ interesting/ pointless/ etc. to do smth

think it impolite/ foolish/ ones duty/ etc. to do smth

13 consider it reasonable/ tactless/ an honour/ etc. to do smth I find (that) it (is) impolite to interrupt people. I find it impolite to interrupt people. He thought (that) it (was) his duty to help her. He thought it his duty to help her. B. make it a point / a rule to do smth make it painful/ difficult/ necessary (for smb) to do smth He makes it an invariable rule not to give anything to beggars. My mothers illness made it impossible for her to walk. the infinitive as attribute: Its not a thing to trifle with (mind that an attributive infinitive often retains the preposition); The amount to be paid includes the cost of packing; He was always the first to offer help. the infinitive as adverbial modifier of several types: In order to get a pay rise she began to work overtime (of purpose); He turned up at the party to hear that his girl had already left (of subsequent events: = He turned up and heard ... ; the infinitive denotes an action that follows the one expressed by the predicate and is used in the non-perfect non-continuous forms); Paul was too exhausted to get down to his work (= He was so exhausted that he couldnt get down to his work); Hes tall enough to reach it; I am not such a fool as to withdraw this offer (of consequence); She was driven away, never to revisit this place again (of attendant circumstances: the infinitive is used in the non-perfect, common aspect, active form and denotes other actions that take place at the same time as the action of the predicate); She moved her hand as if to stop him (of comparison or manner; it is introduced by than, as if, as though); Ill thank you to keep it secret (of condition: =Ill thank you if you keep; What can I do but tender my resignation? (of exception; it is introduced by the prepositions but and except); My great-grandmother lived to be ninety-nine (of time); They are so careless not to check everything before they leave! (of cause or motivation: the action denoted by the infinitive serves as a cause or a motivation on which the characterization of peoples behavior, intellectual qualities, etc. is based). Infinitive phrases 1. Infinitive may form part of a conjunctive infinitive phrase which is used in different functions in a sentence: What to do was beyond him (subject); He completely forgot how to handle a loom (object); His difficulty was how to break the silence (predicative); He knew no one with whom to start a new business (attribute). NB! After what, which, whose, how many and how much we can use a noun: Sarah and Mark were discussing what colour to paint the walls; We wondered whose story to believe both drivers said it wasnt their fault.

14 We can use whether but not if: Well have to decide whether to go ahead with the project (or not). NOT Well have to decide if to go ahead. Before the question word we can also use the adjectives clear, obvious and sure and the expressions have an idea and make up your mind: I wasnt sure who to ask for help. A preposition (e.g. of) can come before the question word: I have a good idea (of) how to get the treasure; Theres the question of who to invite to the function. 2. Infinitives also occur in so-called parenthetical phrases: To tell the truth, were going to conceal our policies and objectives.
to cut/make a long story short to tell the truth to say nothing of not to mention to put it mildly to be quite frank to make matters worse to say the least of it to begin with to sum up to crown it all to be more precise strange to say needless to say Remember some common phrases with the infinitive: leaves much to be desired, hard to please, pleasant to look at, difficult to deal with.

Ex.15. Define the functions of the infinitives. 1. They met to have a good gossip. 2. It was impossible to dissuade him! 3. She was the last to reach the shore. 4. To expect too much is a dangerous thing. 5. Tom was impatient to start. 6. He ought to have supported her. 7. Tell him to keep silence. 8. To occupy her mind she took the job offered. 9. Her granny lived to be 87. 10. I had nothing to do but leave the surgery. 11. Im glad to be invited to wedding receptions. 12. Lily was too feeble to set off with us. 13. He was determined to sort out the problem. 14. To give is more blessed than to receive. 15. Here is something to warm you up. 16. She has a baby to look after. 17. Your duty will be to send and receive messages. 18. Youll soon learn to read, sonny. 19. Her son to descend to this?! 20. He hurried to the house only to find it empty. 21. Would it be better to escape from the country? Ex.16. a) Paraphrase the sentences according to the model in order to get an infinitive-subject. Model: Supporting the campaign for equal political and social rights for women is useless. Its useless to support the campaign 1. Making the same mistake twice is unforgivable. 2. Living on one income/ being on welfare is shameful. 3. Arriving home after a long absence is always a pleasure. 4. Killing animals to make fur coats is cruel. 5. Travelling in the rush hour is awful.

15 b) Make up your own sentences. Model: be difficult It was difficult to leave the parental shelter and set up my own household. Be important/ necessary be always a delight be a relief be polite/ impolite be dangerous/ unsafe be absolute/ sheer madness Ex.17. Translate into English using infinitives as adverbial modifiers. 1. ! 2. , . 3. , . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , . 7. . 8. , !
Ex.18. Complete the sentences using infinitives as attributes. Model: He has no desire - He has no desire to propose to her; We have the power - We have the power to veto their project. 1. All citizens must enjoy the right 2. There are three reasonable ways 3. Do you see any reason 4. A food processor is a very useful gadget 5. I have no intention 6. My niece/nephew has always had the ability 7. Please, give me something 8. Im often the last 9. Im sure youll be the first Ex.19. Translate the sentences.

1. ?! ! 2. , ? 3. , , . 4. ! 5. ! (pretend). 6. . 7. . 8. , , , , , . 9. , (sure). 10. . 11. ! 12. ! 13. , . 14. , (fail). 15. , . 16. , . 17. , . 18. , . 19.

16 ! , ? 20. . 21. , (the best). 22. , . 23. , (tend). 24. , . 25. , , (Would you be ). 26. . Ex.20. Complete the sentences using infinitive phrases with connectives where, how, why, etc. and define the function of these phrases. Make the sentences true for you. 1. When I was young I used to show other children 2. .. appeared to be the biggest problem I had ever faced. 3. After graduation no one could explain to me 4. I have always wanted to know 5. Im absolutely convinced that every school-leaver should be taught 6. When I meet new people I dont know 7. Ive already made up my mind 8. was our main problem. Ex.21. Complete the paragraph about a man coming out of prison. Use infinitive phrases. Add some more tips appropriate in this situation. How should he start a new life? What can he expect? What should he do? Who can he contact? This man will have problems when he leaves prison. He needs advice on how to start a new life. After a long time in prison, he isnt sure / has no idea / doesnt know . But he wont be completely alone. A social worker will advise him so hell know if he needs help. Ex.22. Give the English equivalents for the following infinitive phrases and use them in the sentences of your own. , , , , , , , , , . Ex.23. Translate the sentences. 1. , , . 2. . . 3. , - . 4. . , , . 5. ,

17 , . 6. . 7. , . 8. , . 9. , , . 10. , ! 11. . 12. : , , . , , .


Ex.24. Write a letter to your soulmate. Share your joys and sorrows with him/her (use infinitives and infinitive phrases): Model: Dear Valeria, To begin with, Id like to thank you for your understanding and support. You were the first to give me a hand when I got into trouble. The photo I found in your letter is cool! You seem to have lost weight and become much more attractive than before! I know I should have answered earlier, but .

Infinitive constructions For-to-infinitive construction The preposition for may introduce the construction in which a noun (in the common case) or a pronoun (in the objective case) has an infinitive attached to it: The best thing will be for me to close up shop; This article is easy enough for you to translate (mind that the following sentence is wrong: *This article is easy enough for you to translate it). The construction is used when the doer of the action (or the bearer of the state), expressed by the infinitive, is different from that of the predicate. Compare: I have closed the window not to catch cold. I have closed the window for you not to catch cold. In the sentence the for-to-infinitive construction performs the functions of subject, predicative, object, attribute, adverbial modifier of purpose and consequence and is generally rendered in Russian by a subordinate clause. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction (Complex Object) This construction, in which the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun (in the common case) or a pronoun (in the objective case), forms a complex object of some verbs. It is used in the following cases: after verbs of sense perception (see, hear, feel, watch, observe, notice and some others) and the verb listen (to). The infinitive is used in the nonperfect common aspect active voice form without particle to: They felt the boat shudder; I noticed him throw something into the wastebasket. NB: the verbs to see, to notice in the meaning to realize and to hear in the meaning to learn = to know cannot be followed by this construction, only subordinate object clause is possible in this case:

18 Compare: I heard him come downstairs I hear (= know) you have dropped the idea of changing the place of residence; NB: after the verbs to see, to notice instead of the complex object with the infinitive to be we use a subordinate clause: The inspector noticed that the parcel was torn; after verbs of mental perception (know, think, suppose, believe, consider, expect, understand and some others). The infinitive is always used with the particle to: I believed her to be examining a patient in the next room; I consider Jane (to be) an expert with her needle; We expect the contract to be abrogated tomorrow; after verbs of emotion, wish and intention (like, love, hate, dislike, cant bear, want, wish, desire, intend, mean, would like, would love). After these verbs non-perfect common aspect forms of the infinitive with the particle to are used: The strikers wanted the head to satisfy their demands within a week; She hated her son to be separated from her; after verbs of command, request, permission ( have, make, let, get, order, ask, command, cause, induce, allow, suffer ( , ) and some others, of which the first three take a bare infinitive): I cannot allow this matter to go any further; He asked for the file to be copied; I wont have you speak like that!; I got the assistant to type all my papers. The subjective-(or nominative)-with-the-infinitive construction (Complex Subject) The subject of a sentence is sometimes expressed by a noun or a pronoun and an infinitive which follows the predicate. Although these two parts do not stand together they are closely connected and form one syntactic unit a complex subject: The crew is reported to have landed safely. Remember three common patterns with this construction: Pattern A noun/pronoun passive verb (predicate) to-infinitive The verbs used in this pattern as predicate are verbs of sense perception (hear, see), verbs of saying and reporting and verbs of mental perception (say, report, announce, declare, state, rumour, acknowledge, allege, expect, know, suppose, think, understand, believe, consider): She was seen to slap his face; The criminals are said to be hiding in the woods; The actress is rumoured to have been poisoned (, ). Pattern B noun/pronoun active verb (predicate) to-infinitive

19 The verbs used in this pattern are: seem/ appear; happen/ chance ( ; , ); turn out/ prove (after these two verbs the infinitive is mostly nominal, i.e. presented by to be + noun/ adjective): They seem to have withdrawn their claim; I happened to see Jack on my way to work. Pattern C noun/pronoun link verb + certain/ sure/ to-infinitive likely/ unlikely Use this pattern to express your attitude towards the future or to talk about past possibility: The resignation of the managing director is certain to arouse new fears about the future of the company; Shes likely to have had some sort of cosmetic surgery. She looks much younger; Clare is unlikely to take a hasty decision. NB: She seems to know this rider. They are likely to succeed. (seem = give the idea or effect of (likely = probable, expected) being) , . , . Its possible to use there with appear and seem followed by to be or to have been: There appears/ seems to have been a default on payment. In order to make a negation you can use any of the structures below (the first one is more common in informal English): These manufacturers dont seem to know any eye-deceiving tricks. These manufacturers seem not to know any eye-deceiving tricks. Absolute Infinitive Construction It consists of a noun in the common case and an infinitive and is generally used in juridical texts and business documents: The buyers ordered 90 cases of vegetable oil, delivery to be made in May ( ). Ex.25. Define the syntactic functions of the for-to-infinitive constructions and translate the sentences into Russian: 1. It is necessary for the goods to be packed in strong cases. 2. They were waiting for the moon to rise. 3. He stepped aside for us to pass. 4. The water was too cold for the children to bathe. 5. It is an easy plan for us to fulfil. 6. Its important for the children to learn to get on with each other. 7. Anna was a suitable child for the Smiths to adopt. 8. He had said enough for me to get alarmed. 9. For him to be so rude was unforgivable. 10. The doctor gave the patient anaesthetic for him not to feel such acute pain. 11. I bet its wrong for him to be entrusted with such a challenging task. 12. I was anxious for him to pick up a bargain at the sale.

20 Ex.26. Paraphrase or combine the sentences to get for-to-infinitive constructions. Model: He doesnt normally complain. Its unusual for him to complain. Im enclosing a list of my proposals. You can consider them before our next meeting. Im enclosing a list of my proposals for you to consider them 1. Nowadays women often have managerial jobs. 2. Her suggestion was that the contract should be signed without any delay. 3. Crime, poverty and other problems should be dealt with. The world community is anxious. 4. Passengers should reserve seats on this train. 5. Rainforests should not be cut down. 6. They must get extra funding for the project. 7. Steve rarely went out to dinner. 8. I locked the door and took the phone off the hook. I didnt want to be disturbed. 9. It is essential that we maintain high standards. 10. Her son is going to take swimming lessons. She has found a good coach (use arrange). 11. James sent his children to the village so that they could be safe there. 12. Can two blue-eyed parents produce a brown-eyed child? 13. Hes the expert you should consul with. 14. He proudly held out his trophy. He wanted us to admire it. 15. Weve set a trap in our cellar. We expect the mice to get into it. Ex.27. a) Paraphrase the following sentences using make, have, get, let. 1. The president told his advisors to arrange a press conference. 2. High temperatures can cause the motor to burn out. 3. The policemen forced the smuggler to give away his accomplices. 4. Ill see to it that you dont swear in front of the children. 5. I tried to persuade him to do scuba diving but it was all in vain. 6. You may stay up late just this once. 7. Why do you think you have a talent? 8. I hope Angela will persuade her husband to arrange a mortgage. 9. Mikes parents got angry with him so he was not allowed to join us. 10. They caused me to wait for an hour before my suitcase came round on the conveyor belt. 11. The policeman told me to empty my pockets. b) Make the sentences passive. 1. The leader made the rebels act violently. 2. He had the gardener mow the grass. 3. He got his son to take a seat in the first row. 4. The mediator had them sign the agreement. 5. I got Dick to help me with the computer software. 6. Tom made his son follow in his footsteps. 7. She let the applicant demonstrate all his skills. 8. I had John reduce the prices. 9. She had the assistant prepare all the financial reports. 10. I let him order some new articles of furniture. Ex.28. a) Complete the answers using seem and an infinitive in the correct form.

21 Vicky: Have Nick and Jane got over their quarrel? Daniel: I think so. They seem to have got over it. 1. Rita: Is Claire in love with Henry? Sarah: Probably not. She in love with him. 2. Tom: Do Mike and Harriet really believe theres life on Mars? David: Well, yes. They there is. 3. Victor: Has Olgas English improved? Emma: Yes, quite a lot. 4. David: Rita is keen on skateboarding, isnt she? Tom: I dont think so. She it much. 5. Natasha: Is Daniel working hard, do you think? Rachel: Yes, I think so. He hard. 6. Sarah: Has Trevor made a good job of those shelves? Laura: Not really. He a very good job of them. b) Open the brackets using the infinitive in the correct form. Underline the Complex Subject in each sentence. 1. Yesterdays meeting appears (hold) in a friendly and cordial atmosphere. 2. The new safety procedures have so far proved (be) satisfactory. 3. She is unlikely (remain) coolheaded in a crisis. 4. The constable chanced (be) in the bank when the incident happened. 5. The burglar happened (break) into the house when the police arrived. 6. She happened (turn down) several offers of promotion. 7. Mark seems (reach) a turning point in his career. 8. Our competitors (still seem/ keep) the details of their new project a secret. 9. His affairs turned out (be) in perfect order. 10. The radioactive material is likely (release) during the fire yesterday. 11. We chanced (wait) at a busstop when our workmate drove past. 12. Paul seemed (run) he was out of breath. 13. Gordon Allison is reported (work on) a new program for workoriented immigrants these days. 14. Beethoven is known (continue) writing music after he lost the ability to hear. 15. The scandalous novel is expected (republish) in April. 16. She is certain (not/ give) you any further information. 17. Several shoppers were alleged (injure) by the explosion. 18. The rate of inflation appears (fall) gradually since the beginning of the year. Model: Ex.29. Paraphrase the sentences using Complex Subject. 1. The inspector saw the car disappear in the tunnel. 2. Judy considers her cousin a perfect example to follow. 3. They heard the judge announce the verdict. 4. The heads of these states will no doubt discuss the burning issues again at the next conference. 5. We know that the goods sold under Contract 20 were shipped on the 10th of June. 6. It seemed that Jack knew the subject inside out. 7. The government state that the price of flour has risen by 7.8 per cent. 8. It appears that the performance has made a great impression on the audience. 9. Probably this feature wont be published in the local newspaper.

22 10. The organizers expect many people to attend the seminar for entrepreneurs.11. George might recover from the shock. Ex.30. Complete the sentences using infinitive constructions. 1. Tina blew out the candle 2. Did you notice one of your employees 3. The manager had his subordinates 4. The garden gate was heard 5. There appears . Theres a lot of debris everywhere. 6. Walter has a drinking problem. He doesnt seem 7. Oil prices are certain 8. You have to pull on the respirators 9. The lady turned out 10. Ive never heard the receptionist 11. She didnt want her marriage plans 12. The lecturer raised his hand 13. From the window we could see 14. I spotted the thief 15. The shopkeeper felt 16. The recruits are impatient (for) 17. I consider this newsreader 18. Modern TV channels are said Ex.31. Translate into English using infinitive constructions where possible. 1. . 2. , . 3. , , , . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , . 7. , . 8. , . 9. : , . 10. ( ) ? 11. , , , . 12. , , . 13.
. 14. , . 15. , . 16. , . 17. , . 18. (hate), . 19. , . 20. , (slam) . 21. , . 22. , . 23. , . 24.

, . 25. ,
, . 26. , . 27. , . 28. . 29. .

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Ex.32. Choose one of the topics suggested below and write a story using parenthetical phrases and infinitive constructions. 1. Life is not all cakes and ale. 2. Every mother thinks her own gosling a swan. 3. Friendship works wonders. 4. Some people live to work, others work to live.

(use one of these statements to sum up your story) II. Gerund The gerund is formed by adding the suffix ing to the stem of the verb. This non-finite possesses verbal and nominal features and its grammatical meaning is that of a process. Morphologically the verbal character of the gerund is manifested in the categories of voice and perfect and syntactically in its combinability (it combines with a noun/ pronoun as object, adjective/ noun as predicative and with an infinitive; it can be modified by adverbs and prepositional phrases). The nominal character of the gerund reveals itself syntactically, mainly in its syntactical functions (as subject, object, predicative, see Syntactic functions of the gerund below), partly in its combinability (like a noun, it may be preceded by a preposition and it combines with a possessive pronoun, a noun in the genitive case and the negative pronoun no in the idiomatic constructions of the type: There is no mistaking what hes aiming at ). Study the tables below: The grammatical categories of the gerund
Perfect Non-perfect Perfect Active taking having taken Passive being taken having been taken

They carried on discussing the project enthusiastically; He remembered being offended by the spokesman; Im sorry for having raised these groundless objections; Laura recalled having been taken to Disneyland when she was a child. NB: The non-perfect gerund is commonly used to denote a prior action thanks to the lexical meaning of the verb or the preposition suggesting priority (after verbs of recollection, gratitude, blame, reproach, punishment and reward and preposition on, that suggests immediate priority, and after): He admitted spreading the confidential information; After choosing a gift and paying for his two items he left the store. NB: There are some verbs (need, want, require, deserve) and the adjective worth which are followed by an active gerund with passive meaning: The parquet needs polishing (to be polished also possible); The gunman deserves to be locked up = The gunman deserves locking up.

24 Syntactic functions of the gerund the gerund as subject: Denying everything wont give any results; Taking risks is an integral part of our job; Working full-time was extremely difficult; Its no use/ good arguing; Theres no point in revising the matter twice; Its worth (while) trying; Theres no getting out of it (theres no telling/ knowing/ escaping/ mistaking, etc.); the gerund as part of the predicate: 1. as predicative: Helens passion is buying accessories for all her dresses; 2. as part of the compound verbal predicate with phasal verbs like begin, burst out, continue, finish, give up, keep on, quit, stop, , etc. : On hearing the joke everybody burst out laughing; the gerund as object:
Gerund as direct object after: admit enjoy anticipate escape appreciate excuse avoid fancy delay feel like deny forgive detest involve discuss mention cant stand mind cant help miss consider postpone practice put off recall recollect resent resist risk suggest understand ! also after the adjectives busy and worth Gerund as prepositional object aim at dream accuse of about/of apologize for hear of assist in help in blame for insist on complain about/ forgive for of have no congratulate on difficulty in consist in learn of count on look forward depend on to (dis)approve of object to discourage from persist in praise for prevent from punish for put up with rely on result in sentence for stop from succeed in suspect of threaten with worry about

Gerund as prepositional object after adjectives, statives and past participles: be afraid be annoyed at be furious about/over be aware be anxious about/for/over be grateful for be (in)capable be astonished at/by be keen on be conscious of be certain about/of be opposed to be fond be charged with be preoccupied with be ignorant be content with be responsible for be proud be delighted at be right in/*about be sure be devoted to be selfish (in) be absorbed in be (dis)pleased with/at/about be sorry about be/get accustomed to be engrossed in be surprised at be amused at be excited about be tired of be angry at be fed up with be/get used to

*Compare: You were right in applying for a pass ( , ) You were right about his applying for a pass ( ); He suggested discussing my chances of promotion; Are you accusing me of spreading the rumours? Mark was suspected of being a spy;

25 the gerund as attribute: 1. after nouns, mainly abstract nouns, followed by a preposition:
apology (for) art (of) astonishment (at) chance (of) custom (of) disappointment (at) excuse (for) experience (in/of) fear (of) habit (of) harm (in) hope (of) idea (of) importance (of) intention (of) interest (in) means (of) method (of) necessity (of) objection (to) opportunity (of) plan (for) pleasure (of) possibility (of) precaution (of) preparation (for) problem (of) process (of) prospect (of) reason (for) risk (of) right (of) skill (in) surprise (at) thought (of) way (of)

It was my first experience of sharing with total strangers; We had no objections to ordering such machines; This is an airplane for transporting goods; The barometer is an instrument for measuring the pressure of the air (after concrete nouns it expresses the purpose or the destination of the object mentioned); 2. gerund may be used as a premodifying attribute: a dancing hall, a dining table, a spending habit, writing paper, etc. the gerund as adverbial modifier of several types: Only on/after hearing the request he decided to make a donation (of time); In refusing to work abroad she missed an excellent job opportunity (of time or reason); But for meeting Alex, I might have chosen another way in life; The order will be accepted subject to receiving your confirmation within 10 days (of condition); I didnt object in spite of their moving in the wrong direction (of concession). Gerundial complex The gerund can have its own subject different from the subject of the sentence and form a gerundial complex. This complex consists of a noun or a pronoun and a gerund attached to it. Formal English: possessive form + gerund I have no objection to his helping you with the project; We are concerned about the companys trading in oil. Informal English: object form + gerund They approved of him reorganizing the working day; We are worried about Jane working so hard. NB: 1) If the noun or pronoun refers to things or animals, we never use a possessive form: I remembered the horse winning the race (not: *the horses winning); I insisted on the parcel being delivered promptly (not: *the parcels being delivered); 2) If the gerundial complex is the subject of the sentence, only the possessive form is used with reference to people: Jims failing Physics was not unexpected.

26 Ex.33. Open the brackets using the gerund either in the active or passive voice form. 1. The decorator insists on (pay) for his work done. 2. Henry is looking forward to (give) the leading part in the play. 3. Joan is very secretive. She avoids (ask) any personal questions or (ask) any even by her closest friends. 4. Why do celebrities avoid (meet) journalists? 5. The nurse showed no sign of (hurt). 6. The matter is not worth (speak of). 7. The tutor was annoyed at (interrupt) every other moment. 8. She cant stand (remind) people of their duties and (remind) of hers. 9. Paul had never thought of security because he had no idea of (kidnap). 10. The food mixer needs (repair). 11. After (examining) by the doctor I was given a sick leave. 12. We did not want to speak to the correspondent and tried to avoid (interview) by him. 13. The evidence seemed overwhelming, but Mason denied (commit) the murder. 14. Persuasion is the art of (get) other people to do something or to believe something without (compel) to do so. 15. Specialists organized their considerable resources in an effort to prevent data from (take) from International Financial Statistics. Ex.34. Complete the sentences using the gerund as subject. 1. has been a rewarding experience. 2. makes my neighbour upstairs unbearable. 3. is one of my greatest satisfactions. 4. There that this has been a difficult year for the company. 5. Personally, I think is the most popular form of recreation nowadays. 6. keeps you up to date with current events. 7. only complicated my life. 8. cant be a weighty argument. 9. will only make things worse. Ex.35. Study the pattern theres no + gerund. Translate the sentences into Russian. Write sentences about your city and university with the patterns given below. Theres no telling/ knowing = its impossible to tell/ to know theres no denying/ escaping/ mistaking = its certain (that) 1. There is no knowing what the eventual cast will be. 2. There is no escaping the fact that our department wont be able to complete these orders without extra staff. 3. There is no telling what future will hold for her. 4. There is no denying that this will be a serious blow to the shareholders. 5. Julia is very unpredictable so theres no knowing how shell react to the news. 6. Theres no mistaking whose children these triplets are. Ex.36. Comment on the following situations using the phrases: Its no good (use) , Theres no/I cant see any point in , Whats the good (use) of ? Whats the point in (of) ? Model: I know you are overworked and underpaid. I know you are overworked and underpaid. But I cant see any point in magnifying your difficulties.

27 1. The government has decided to ban tobacco advertising. 2. The editor is unlikely to respond to public pressure. 3. He should have replied to the threats by going to the police. 4. These days she can barely earn enough to support herself. 5. Babies grow out of their clothes so quickly. 6. The company has reputation for a low pay and bad conditions. 7. In criticizing the boss she risked losing the position. 8. These old frames are of little value. 9. People wear flamboyant clothes when they want to be noticed. Ex.37. a) Combine the sentences using the gerund. 1. Send your application today. Dont delay! 2. I have to pay an enormous income tax. I resent this. 3. His assistant always buys a thing or two in a dutyfree shop. She cant resist this. 4. Jerome had given us the false information. He admitted his fault. 5. Liz doesnt eat convenience foods. She avoids this. 6. My son is always going on a spending spree on his payday. I resent this. 7. You shouldnt take advantage of peoples weakness. Its no good. 8. I posted your letters. I clearly remember that. 9. Both companies had discharged a lot of toxic waste. They denied that. 10. I have to get Marks permission for everything I do. I cant stand this. 11. Mike to push people around?! I cant imagine that! 12. b) Combine the sentences. Use gerunds preceded by prepositions.
Model: Jim was denied admittance. He was angry at being denied admittance. 1. Bob asked Monica to pay all the expenses. He should be ashamed 2. Charles was elected president of the association. He was content 3. Rita was not treated with much respect. She was not used 4. Nick was refused the visa. He was very much annoyed 5. Andrew betrayed their friendship. She cannot forgive 6. You graduated from the State University! Let us congratulate you 7. As youre trying to keep fit, dont consume much sugar. You should refrain 8. Dont disturb him: hes busy brushing up for his exam. Hes preoccupied 9. The police stopped the motorist after he exceeded the speed limit. The police charged the motorist 10. As the child was sleeping we were speaking in a whisper. We were speaking in a whisper for fear

Ex.38. Specify what kind of adverbial modifier the gerund is and write similar sentences. 1. In writing the essay about Spanish culture, I understood the country better. 2. On returning home from the bank I spotted a small statuette on the mantelpiece. 3. I bumped into a man. Without looking up I apologized and proceeded on my way. 4. That morning my father said to me: In sending you to this college, Henry, Im making a sacrifice. 5. The band disappointed thousands of fans by cancelling the concert. 6. We lost ourselves through not knowing the way. 7. After studying the case attentively the solicitor changed his mind. 8. You are making a mistake in dissuading him from sending the reply. 9. They took the suspect to the station for questioning. 10. Without seeing the pictures, I cant judge how good they are. 11. I have had a lot of depressing

28 thoughts since leaving the office. 12. In standing on the table, John banged his head on the ceiling. Ex.39. Fill in the gaps with prepositions. 1. The media can be blamed imposing lots of negative views on gullible young people. 2. She often complains not feeling appreciated at work. 3. If you persist causing the trouble, the company may be forced to dismiss you. 4. Ted is accustomed catching a 6 oclock suburban train. 5. Who will help me hanging the blinds? 6. The girl showed her skill designing clothes for pets. 7. He was absorbed studying the manuscript. 8. The principal got tired making reprimands. 9. We have difficulty installing the new equipment. 10. The loader agreed to assist us shifting the furniture. 11. Dont be sorry missing the first scene. 12. He is suspected having a love affair with a married woman. 13. Masons disability prevented him walking. 14. Her failure in the first interview may discourage her applying to other universities. 15. The workers threatened the boss going on strike. 16. choosing her coronation stamp Queen Elizabeth examined sixty-three designs. 17. Theres no point contradicting women, is there? 18. Jake seems to feel the need pouring out his heart. 19. You should have seen her face being caught red-handed. Ex.40. I. Complete the sentences. Add the necessary preposition. 1. Anyone travelling without a passport runs the risk 2. I have been out of work for eight months. Im anxious 3. They put out the fire 4. The people tend to criticize the government 5. Bill can no longer afford to go to Cyprus for holiday. He misses 6. Allen had an active lifestyle. He was in the habit 7. Large companies generally welcome the idea 8. His overprotective wife took the precaution 9. The children were allowed to stay up late. She didnt see any harm 10. You are a Jack-of-all-trades. Why not try your hand ? 11. Im just stating facts, Im far 12. You would like to learn the nitty-gritty of running a small business? So dont be frightened 13. Helen is mad about cooking oriental dishes. Just imagine the amount of time she loses II. Make up sentences about yourself and your family using gerunds preceded by prepositions. I think Im hopeless My younger brother/ sister is excited I really cant blame people My parents are looking forward I want to succeed My father is pleased My relatives tend to complain Ill never put up My mother says shell never I cant recall get accustomed Luckily I had no difficulty Mum has never tried to stop me Im (in)capable

29 I tried to discourage my friend Just imagine my surprise It was my first experience Its difficult for me to resist

Ex.41. I. Open the brackets using the gerundial complex. Write both the possessive and object form where possible. 1. (He, demand) our withdrawal proved the impossibility of reaching a compromise. 2. The shareholders agreed to (we, close down) the factory. 3. The new proposals involve (I, work) longer hours. 4. Diana resented (this photograph, publish) without her approval. 5. I cant imagine (my husband, grumble about) clothes he doesnt care what he wears. 6. (The boy, tell a lie) upset everyone. 7. The proprietor was not aware of (new guests, arrive). 8. They had no objection to (we, share) the duties. 9. I can think of no reason for (she, say) that. 10. Do you mind (I, leave) the light on? 11. I was told of (she, not/ be) well. 12. (He, sell) the apartment with antiques and family library was a shock to everyone. 13. The board objected to (Mr. Marlin, resign). 14. (More money, go) to the underdeveloped nations will definitely make things worse. 15. Theres a lot of evidence of (new models, test or compare). 16. I dont mind (you, pay) the total sum in five monthly instalments. 17. We know of (wood, use) as structural material in prehistoric times. II. Complete the sentences using the gerundial complex. Add the preposition where necessary. 1. Johns children are not likely to pass the entrance exams with flying colours. The father cannot count 2. Why do you pretend to be eating? Im not going to put up 3. Personal matters are often discussed in public. I strongly object 4. I prefer my children to take independent decisions. I hate 5. The guards were watching every step of yours! How did you manage to get out ? 6. She can hold her tongue. Theres no danger 7. Bob appeared here all of a sudden! Just fancy 8. The twins should be vaccinated this year but their parents are against 9. I have nothing to do with him as he has broken our engagement. After 10. Why are you always pushing me into doing things? I cant stand Ex.42. Translate into English. 1. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. . 5. , . 6. , . 7. , . 8. , (to be devalued)? 9. , . 10.

30 , ? 11. , . 12. , , . 13. , . 14. , . 15. (excused). 16. - . 17. . 18. , , . 19. , . Gerund versus Infinitive The basic difference in their meaning is that the gerund is more general, whereas the infinitive is more specific and more bound to some particular occasion: Kate began singing when a child. Kate went over to the grand piano and began to sing; I like diving but I dont like to dive today; I hate doing my expenses, but I like to get them in on time (like to usually refers to habitual preferences). The action of the infinitive often refers to the subject of the sentence, whereas the action of the gerund may refer to some other doer: Mary doesnt like to trifle with serious things. Mary doesnt like trifling with serious things. Some verbs take to-infinitive or gerund without a change in meaning: 1. begin, start, continue, intend, bother, cant bear : She began to rub/rubbing at the spot with all her might. However we dont normally have two ing forms together: The days are beginning to get shorter (but not: *The days are beginning getting shorter); NB: In spoken English, a gerund is more frequent after bother, cant stand, like, love, hate, start, and to-infinitive is more frequent after begin, cant bear, continue, intend, prefer; 2. the verbs advise, allow, encourage, permit, recommend, require when followed by an object or in passive forms take a to-infinitive. They take a gerund when there is no object following them: He is not permitted to leave the ward; The receptionist allows smoking in the waiting room. The gerund is not used: 1) with the verbs to understand and to see (in the meaning to understand): She began to understand how they had duped him; 2) when the subject denotes a lifeless object: The click began to strike. Verbs (or verbs + adjectives) taking to-infinitive or gerund with a change in meaning:
+ to-infinitive be afraid + infinitive /of + not to have courage/desire to do something: Im afraid to drive gerund over that old bridge. + gerund to be afraid that what is described by the gerund may happen: The baby is afraid of staying in the dark alone.

31
be ashamed + infinitive /of + to feel ashamed because one to feel ashamed because of will have to do something: Im something one has already gerund ashamed to borrow money. done: Im ashamed of making so many mistakes. something slips your memory the action is forgotten after it forget and the action doesnt take takes place: She forgot sending place: I totally forgot to turn the message and sent it again. off the cooker. something is done after to continue doing the same go on something else is finished: thing: Although she asked him After the interval, Pavarotti went to stop, he went on tapping his on to sing an aria from Tosca. pen on the table. to hate what one is about to do: be displeased/feel sorry for hate I hate to bother you, but the what someone is doing: I hate matter is urgent. making people feel uneasy. to have a false or wrong idea to form a picture or idea in your imagine about something (imagine mind: I cant imagine Sarah smb/smth to be smth): I was running her own business. surprised to see the farm. I had imagined it to be much bigger. to say that we intend(ed) to to say that something involves do something: He means to doing something else: If we mean phone you next week. want to get there by 12.00, that means getting up early. (is used with an impersonal subject only!) to feel sorry about having to to feel sorry about something regret say something negative: I that has already happened: It's regret to inform you that your too late now, but I'll always application has been regret giving him advice. unsuccessful. to mean that remembering comes to recall a past event: I remember before the action described: remember going to the bank, Remember to buy a TV guide on but nothing after that (I your way home. (first remember, remember that I went there). and then buy it) be sorry regret: Im sorry to hear he has apologize: Im sorry for been expelled. lending him the instrument without your permission. pause temporarily for some finish, cease doing some action: stop purpose: He stopped to eat a She stopped buying glossy couple of sweets (made a pause magazines (she doesnt buy and ate sweets), them any longer). try make an attempt, make an do something and see the effort: Lets try to boost sales results, do something as an experiment: Try restarting the this year. computer.

Ex.43. I. Put the following verbs into the correct columns.


apologize, arrange, approve, avoid, consider, decline, delay, demand, discourage, dream, enjoy, expect, finish, help, hope, imagine, end up, enquire, insist, intend, invite, learn, would like, look forward, manage, mind, miss, object, plan, pretend, prevent, refuse, remind, seem, succeed, suggest

A. Verb + (person) + infinitive

B. Verb + preposition + gerund

C. Verb + gerund

II. Open the brackets using either the gerund or the infinitive. 1. The BBC suggested (televise) the coronation, but the Prime Minister said no. 2. If you delay (pay) your rent any longer, youll be evicted. 3. Phil still hopes

32 (include) in the university basketball team. 4. My tutor has always encouraged me (have) confidence in myself. 5. The nicest thing about Rick is that he doesnt mind (criticize). 6. In Edwardian England, women used (carry) fans made of ostrich plumes. 7. He claims (see) the accident. 8. She demanded (speak) to the manager who refused (give) her a six percent pay rise. 9. The teachers of this primary school encourage (develop) individual interests. 10. Would you ever consider (get) married to someone twice your age? 11. So far, the police have failed (catch) this criminal, and they would be very happy (receive) any information that could lead to his arrest. 12. (Be) honest, there is little chance of the scheme (approve). 13. I dont see why we should postpone (talk) it out. 14. He expects (call) on the Browns at 5 oclock. 15. Its not easy to learn (play) the trumpet. 16. Dont hesitate (call) us if you need help or a good piece of advice. 17. There has been a gas leak in central London. The police advise everybody (stay) clear of the area. You are recommended not (travel) by tube as the service has been suspended. Wed recommend (take) the bus, but only if your journey is essential. The police require any members of the public with any information relating to this incident (come forward). 18. Whenever we met, she avoided (look) at me. 19. City life is too hectic for me. I really miss (live) in the country. 20. A quarter of workers admit (take) time off when they are not ill. III. Write your own sentences using the verbs from the table above. Ex.44. Complete the sentences using an infinitive or gerund.
I. afraid, anxious, ashamed, interested

Complete the conversation. Put in a to-infinitive or a preposition + ingform. Laura: I'm ashamed (admit) it, but airplanes terrify me. I get really anxious (fly). I'm afraid ... (buy) a plane ticket. I can't stand being on a plane. I'm afraid (get) killed. I feel ashamed (be) so silly. Sarah: Aren't there things you can do to overcome your fear? Laura: Well, I was interested (read) in the paper recently that you can go on a course that helps you. I'm anxious (book) a place on it very soon. II. used to do and be used to doing Put in a to-infinitive or to + ing-form. 1. When I was a child, I used (dream) of being a flight attendant. 2. I'm terribly nervous. I'm not used (speak) to a large audience. 3. It took us ages to get used (live) in a block of flats. 4. Lots of trains used (stop) here, but not many do now. 5. Didn't Nick use (work) on a building site? 6. There didn't use (be) so many soap operas on television. 7. I'll have an orange juice, please. I'm not used (drink) alcohol. 8. David doesn't seem to mind being in hospital. I suppose he's got used (be) there. 9. When Laura was at college, she used (have) a picture of Elvis Presley on her bedroom wall.

33 III. a) This is an advertisement for the book Winning in Business. Open the brackets using either the gerund or the infinitive. Are you fed up with (be) a failure in your job? Wouldn't you rather (succeed)? Do you want (earn) more money? Are you anxious (get) ahead? Do you believe in (make) the most of your talents? Do you sometimes dream about (reach) the top? If the answer is yes, read on. Just imagine yourself (run) a big successful company. And now you can do something about it instead of (dream). It'll happen if you want it (happen). Make it a reality by (order) your copy of the best-selling 'Winning in Business'. It has a ten-point plan for you (follow). Do it and you're certain (be) a success. You'll know what (do) in business. You can make other people (respect) you and persuade them (do) what you want. Experts recommend (b u y) this marvellous book. You'd better (order) your copy today. b) Write a similar advert for any book that gives advice on how to become a successful entrepreneur. Ex.45. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first one, using the word given. Model: Its very kind of you to give me a lift. appreciate I appreciate you giving me a lift. 1. Parking is not permitted here. (park You are ) 2. Winning the football pools meant we could buy a car. (enabled Winning the ) 3. Does using the hotel sauna cost extra? (pay Do you have ) 4. It is compulsory for all students to leave a cash deposit. (required All students ) 5. Calling Jim is pointless, because his phone is out of order. (use Its no ) 6. It was resolved that the matter would be brought up at the next meeting. (bring They resolved ) 7. The police were told that the use of unnecessary force was forbidden. (not The police were instructed ) 8. There is a risk that he will miss the plane if he waits. (risks He ) 9. I believed you were the murderer because of this clue. (led This clue ). 10. Joe doesnt like it when his wife puts on airs and starts pushing him around. (resents Joe ). Ex.46. I. In each sentence underline the appropriate verb form. 1. What does he mean doing/to do with all that money? 2. Im sorry hearing/to hear he has been injured. 3. Ill never forget sailing/to have sailed through that storm in the Atlantic. 4. Did you see that lovely old car go/going past a moment ago? 5. The doors began to creak/creaking. 6. If I take the new job, it will mean to be working/working a lot harder! 7. I remember him to have borrowed/borrowing the scissors, but not to have returned/returning them. 8. I know the suitcase is heavy but try to carry/carrying it, please. 9. He claims having met/to have met lots of famous people and having seen/to have seen

34 many strange things in his life. 10. Even if they didnt believe him, nobody would risk to say/saying so. II. Complete the letter. Dear Ms Walters, Thank you for your application for the diploma in tourism but I regret (inform) you that this course is now full. Should you wish to take the course elsewhere, I would advise you (apply) to Central College. They started (run) a course in tourism a year ago and I would recommend you (consider) (enroll) on that course rather than (wait) another year to do a course here. If you would prefer (wait) for this course, then I would encourage you (try) (find) some work related to tourism so that you can start (acquire) some relevant experience. Ex.47. Choose the correct verb from the box and put it in the appropriate form.
look forward to dare spend die arrange stay cross consider become face feed grow play come appear intend

1. He was promoted in 1990 and went on a company director. 2. Being a criminal means most of your life in prison. 3. Has she ever taking a year off work? 4. They to have received complimentary tickets! 5. I hardly ask how much it costs! 6. I didnt like the accommodation at first, but I to love it eventually. 7. We are all our holiday in Australia. Its going to be such an adventure. 8. Jim and I to meet at 7.00 but he didnt turn up. 9. I cant wait for Saturday! Im really to see you! 10. What do you doing after this course has finished? 11. The band went on even after the lights had gone out. 12. The traffic was so bad that I was afraid the road. But it got easier. 13. I cant getting up at 5.30 tomorrow morning! Ill catch a later train. 14. Why is the baby crying? I think he wants 15. Im going to try very hard out of trouble. 16. Although it was hard at first, she to enjoy working for the airline. Ex.48. Think of appropriate verbs to complete the sentences and use them in the correct form. 1. Passing the kitchen, he stopped 2. To help me to sleep, I tried 3. This place looks familiar, I remember 4. My course mates couldnt help laughing when they saw Id forgotten 5. The kids were shouting and screaming, but he went on 6. Remember your answers before handing in your exam paper. 7. After working with her for so long, I came her patience and efficiency. 8. The handle came off when I tried 9. You could see the neuropathologist today but as you havent got an appointment it would mean 10. Before the interview, I was required 11. Kristina has been training so hard recently that she deserves 12. He kept .. while we were talking.

35 Ex.49. Complete the dialogues so that they make sense and act them out. 1. - Hurry up! Were going to be late! - Did you remember 2. I hate these cash machines! I just cant make them work! - Lets see. Try 3. - How are you getting on with your new boss? - Please, dont ask me! I regret 4. - I feel horrible. I have headaches every day. - I think you should stop 5. Hello, dear! Whats up? - Heres the money I owe you. I meant Ex.50. Complete the questions using an appropriate non-finite form (either gerund or infinitive). Interview your friends and relatives about their working experience and report back to your class. 1. Does your employer allow staff from home? 2. Does your boss ever remind you time off work? 3. Does your boss insist on graduates from the best universities? 4. Have you ever been made guilty for taking a holiday? 5. Would you ever get a colleague a white lie for you? 6. Do you remember the top manager of your company for the first time? 7. Should employers encourage staff a healthy lifestyle? Ex.51. Make up sentences using the following combinations: Encourage me/study, remind me/wear, avoid/answer, enjoy/do the puzzle, warn me/not go, allow me/pay in cash, offer/lend, keep/take photos, hope/recover, consider/change, remember award a medal, regret/not take advantage of, mean/bring up, go on/break the law, be used to/approach, be sorry/not to congratulate, forget/arrest, beg me/give one more chance. Ex.52. a) Write a short story on the topic What kind of person am I?. Describe your personality, habits, preferences, etc. Use gerunds and infinitives. Models: I always forget to .. . Ill always remember -ing . Ive never tried -ing in order to .. . I used to when I was a kid but I stopped when I grew up. Ill always regret -ing because I bet theres no point in . b) Write a description of your university teacher(s) using gerunds and infinitives (look at the prompts given below). Mr. X. is so inspiring as he always encourages his students ... He doesnt object (to) but he strongly disapproves (of ) During the examination period he makes us and as a rule insists (on) Most of his former students have succeeded (in) and now can afford

36 Ex.53. Translate into English. 1. . 2. , . 3. , . 4. . 5. , . 6. , . 7. , , . 8. , , , . 9. , , . 10. . , , . Revision Ex.54. I. Use the verbs in brackets in the correct form. Add the missing prepositions. I think Ill never forget (go) for an interview for the first time. Everything went wrong then. I hadnt remembered (set) the alarm clock before (go) to bed and overslept. So, I didnt have time (wash) my hair or (press) my clothes as I was going to be terribly late. I rushed out of the house without even (stop) (look) at myself in the mirror. As it turned out later I forgot (remove) one of the curlers from my hair, which made me (look) utterly ridiculous. I tried so hard (look) cool and confident, but I couldnt as I kept (think) that there might be a fire in my flat. The thing is I didnt remember (turn) off the gas and thought that I had forgotten (do) it. When I walked into the office apologizing (be) late, the employer went on (talk) on the phone without (pay) any attention to me. Obviously he meant (teach) me a lesson. I was so ashamed (be) late and felt so embarrassed that I was afraid (sit) down and carried (stand). At last my would-be employer stopped (talk) and invited me (sit) down. He asked me several questions and was particularly interested if I knew that (work) for their firm would mean (look) my best to keep up the corporate image. At that moment I bitterly regretted (get) up so late and (dress) in a hurry. Of course I didnt manage (get) the job. The interviewer said the usual phrase: I regret (tell) you that your qualifications do not reach the required standard. I remember (be) terribly discouraged and (think) that next time I would try (set) two alarm clocks in case something goes wrong with one of them. II. Write a letter to a friend about any frustrating/ frightening/ thrilling experience you have had. Use words followed by gerunds or infinitives. Ex.55. Complete the sentences using a pair of verbs. Use the past simple for the first verb and a passive form (either infinitive or gerund) for the second.

37 avoid/ run down seem/ design appear/ crack deserve/ give not mind/ photograph deny/ pay resent/ ask tend/ forget Model: He an award for bravery. He deserved to be given an award for bravery. 1. The tin-opener for left-handed people. 2. He any money for giving his advice to the company. 3. Sheila to make tea for everyone at the meeting. 4. Many reliable methods of storing information when computers appeared. 5. I narrowly by the bus as it came round the corner. 6. The parents with their children. 7. The window in a number of places. Ex.56. Complete the sentences in the dialogue using infinitives and gerunds. Helen has been called to the office of her boss, Andrea. A: Take a seat, Helen. Would you like (have) some coffee? H: Er, no, thank you. A: I asked (see) you (talk) about your work. I think there are a few things that we need (discuss). H: Oh, is there some problem? I do love (work) here and I seem (get) better at (do) the job. A: Youre right, Helen, but sometimes you are rather slow (learn). In a hotel of this reputation, we cannot afford (make) mistakes and Im sorry (say) that you have made rather a lot. There are some things you are brilliant at, like (welcome) the guests, (talk) to them and (give) them any help they require. H: Thats true. I was rather shy when I first started (work) here but now Im much better at (communicate) with the guests. They have often said to me that it is nice (see) such a friendly face at the reception. A: Thats good. Its true (say) that you have learned (deal) with people. But you do not pay enough attention to (ensure) that the administrative part of your job is carried out efficiently.
H: (Keep) the record is not my favourite part of the job, I must admit. A: But its essential (do) that properly. Its no use (be) nice to all the guests if you are creating problems for them by (fail) (carry out) your job efficiently. I know there is a lot of work (do) at the reception, but last week you made three mistakes with the billing. Thats not good enough. H: Yes, Im sorry about that, but sometimes the bills are very complicated (work out). A: I know, but we cant make mistakes and thats that. And what about you (accept) that booking for the penthouse suite at the weekend when we were using it for a conference? It was very careless of you (do) that. I had to do a lot of (apologize) (calm down) those guests. They were furious. H: Yes, it was terrible. I do try (get) everything right but I cant help (make) mistakes sometimes. I just dont know what (do) about it. A: Well, I do. Youve got a month (prove) to me that you can do the job properly, and if you cant, youll have (start) (look) for another job.

38
II. Write a conversation between a boss and a worker using gerunds and infinitives. The boss is praising the worker as the latter has been doing the job efficiently and has contributed to the prosperity of the company. Act out your dialogue in front of the class.

Ex.57. Translate into English. 1. . 2. , . 3. , . 4. ? 5. . 6. , . 7. , . 8. . 9. , . 10. , ? 11. , . 12. ! ! 13. (anticipate). Participle I Participle I possesses verbal and some adjectival and adverbial features and is formed by adding the suffix ing to the stem of the verb. Morphologically the verbal character of Participle I is manifested in the categories of voice and perfect and syntactically in its combinability (it may combine with a noun/pronoun as object; with an adverb or a prepositional phrase as an adverbial modifier; with a noun/adjective as a predicative). Participle I is used as a pure verb form in the formation of the continuous aspect forms. The adjectival and adverbial features of Participle I are manifested in its syntactic functions as attribute and adverbial modifier (see Syntactic functions of Participle I below). The grammatical categories of Participle I
Perfect Non-perfect Perfect Active arriving publishing having arrived having published Passive being published having been published

Look at the woman counting the money; Having picked up some Italian words, she could give directions to strangers; Being illustrated with attractive photos, the article caught my eye; Having been sent to the wrong address, the letter didnt reach him. The perfect form of Participle I invariably expresses priority, whereas nonperfect Participle I varies in its meaning according to the context, expressing

39 either a prior or a simultaneous or even a posterior action, immediately following the first action: Lizzy left the room, banging the door shut. Non-perfect Participle I passive may denote process: Have you heard anything of the conference being held at the University? (The phrase the conference held at the University is ambiguous, because it might be understood as the conference that has been held or was held or is being held). Syntactic functions of Participle I Participle I as attribute: 1. a single participle used as attribute generally functions as a premodifier (Participle I active of intransitive verbs): Dont tease the barking dog! 2. a participle phrase used as attribute follows the modified noun. It may be non-detached or detached: We went along the street leading to the shore; Once a month Tommy, arriving separately, came in for a brief drink. NB: When a prior action is meant no Participle I can be used as attribute, only an attributive clause is used: The diplomat addressed the students who had filled the lecture hall ( , ). Compare: , , The woman who had been standing on the porch went into the house (the action expressed by the participle is prior to that of the finite form); , I addressed the woman standing on the porch (simultaneous actions); Participle I as adverbial modifier of several types: He contracted malaria while travelling in Africa; Being left alone, Demy and I kept silence for some time (of time); Hes very conceited, you know, having parades and things all the time; Not being an expert, I cant advise you on the course of action to take (of reason); Deb was silent, fidgeting with the spoon in her saucer (of attendant circumstances: denotes a parallel action or event); Florence rushed downstairs gasping for breath (of manner: characterizes the action of the finite form); He kept shaking his head as if saying, Dont trust her (of comparison); Although admitting his inefficiency, he still refuses to cooperate with us (of concession); Helen ought to be there and her absence might be resented, but being there she wouldnt know what to say (of condition). In some cases, however, the functional meaning is not so obvious. For example, there may be a combination of causal and temporal meaning as in: Seeing the prosecutor, she stopped (she stopped because she saw the prosecutor or when she saw him). NB: Participle I of the verb to be is not used as adverbial modifier of time. Thus the sentence , should be translated While in Petersburg (or: While I was in Petersburg) I visited the Hermitage several times.

40 Participle I as part of the compound verbal predicate: Participle I non-perfect of verbs expressing motion (run, dance, pour, race, rush) combined with a verb to come in the past tense forms is a special type of a compound verbal predicate. In some cases the verbs to come the lexical meaning of which is greatly weakened serves to give perfective meaning to the action denoted by the participle: As I walked through the gate, the dog came racing towards me ( ). Participle I as predicative: ! Although keeping the form of the participle, it is treated as an adjective. The participle in this position gives the qualitative characterization to the person or thing used: His behavior is annoying; The cartoon we saw yesterday was really amusing! The most common participles used as adjectives or predicatives
alarming amazing amusing annoying astonishing boring charming comforting confusing depressing disturbing disappointing discouraging embarrassing exciting fascinating frightening frustrating humiliating interesting irritating pleasing promising satisfying shocking surprising tiring worrying

Participle I as parenthesis: Strictly speaking, these actions are illegal; Allowing for our financial status, we cant hire more staff. Ex.58. Open the brackets using the correct perfect form of Participle I. 1. He found himself in debt, (invest) in a badly run railroad. 2. (hunt) close to extinction, the rhino is once again common in this area. 3. (complete) all our preparations we hired a taxi and hurried off. 4. By this time (get used) to the atmosphere of the big city, he no longer felt a stranger. 5. (see) so little of the country, I am afraid I cannot answer all your questions. 6. Never (experience) such difficulties before she was at a loss. 7. (arrive) two days before the conference he had a lot of time to explore the surroundings. 8. She left (tell) us all she had found out. 9. (make) redundant, hes going to move to Brazil. 10. The snake, (bump) about in the hot sun all afternoon, was not in the best of tempers. 11. (buy) a pair of gloves we moved to the shoe department. 12. I felt refreshed (sleep) for eight hours. 13. three times seriously (wound), he was no longer fit for active service. 14. A person (bring) good news is always welcome. Ex.59. I. Match the sentence halves and join them using a participle, e.g. doing or having done. Identify the function of the participle phrase. Model: Not wanting to be late, Vicky ran to the bus stop. As she was a doctor, so it needed some bright lights. The room had been painted in dark colours, I decided to go out and celebrate.

41 Because she didn't want to be late, Harriet turned on the heating. Because he had studied the map, Vicky ran to the bus stop. She felt cold, so Sarah was exhausted. Because he didn't know French, Trevor knew which way to go. As she had worked hard all day, Dan found it hard to communicate. As I was happy with my results, she could squeeze through the opening. As she was slim, she knew what side effects the medicine could have. II. Match the sentences in the most likely way using a participle. He gestured towards the box. He was dressed in protective clothing. Some wooden beams hold up the roof. They decided to go on strike. Some teachers attended the meeting. They are dangerous. Some people were driving past. She is Jack's daughter. A man was operating the equipment. It was lying on the table. A girl is waiting for the bus. They have been damaged. Some steps lead down to the river. They waved to us. Ex.60. Complete the sentences with the appropriate participle form of one of these verbs. prefer arrive drive put climb spend glance take work 1. the wrong bus, Tony found himself in an unfamiliar town. 2. tree, Lee was able to see a way out of the forest. 3. as a clerk, painter and bus driver, Neil decided to go back to university. 4. all morning working in the garden, Betty took a short lunch break. 5. early for his appointment, Ron spent some time looking at the magazines. 6. not to go out tonight, I made an excuse. 7. five hours to the meeting, Don learnt that it had been postponed. 8. over his shoulder, he could see the dog chasing him. 9. on a serious face, she began to tell the story. Ex.61. Paraphrase the following sentences using Participle I where it is possible. Define the syntactic function of participles. Model: The prisoners who are being released are all women. The prisoners being released are all women. 1. As I havent seen all the evidence, I am reluctant to make a judgement. 2. I pulled off the sheets which covered the furniture. 3. The boy who met with an

42 accident has been discharged from hospital. 4. As she turned over in bed, Helen groaned, Ill get up in an hour or so. 5. The policeman fired and wounded one of the robbers. 6. He stood at the counter and hesitated, he did not know what to choose. 7. The massive gold watch, which had belonged to his father, still lay on the table. 8. The conference, which is being held at the University, is devoted to ecological problems. 9. I couldn't ring them up as I hadnt found their telephone number. 10. We went to see our friends who had just returned from a voyage. 11. He had acquired the money through hard work, so he was reluctant to give it away. 12. Marie left work early because she didnt feel too well. 13. Indiras mother died in a car-crash and left her an orphan at the age of nine. 14. The man who made a report yesterday came back from Austria. 15. Unable to attend the conference that took place a month ago, we asked for the typewritten reports. 16. Denis was shocked as he had never heard his friend speak that way about a woman before. 17. After we had got to the beach, we found a parasol to sit under. 18. He locked and bolted the door carefully and went down to the cellar. 19. As the residents were warned well in advance, they had enough time to get ready for the storm. 20. I tore my sweaty clothes off and jumped into the shower. 21. Sugary food can stick to your teeth and cause decay. 22. The old womans blunt questions embarrassed him and made him momentarily tongue-tied. 23. The glass roof collapsed onto the crowd and caused horrific injuries. 24. As we were very tired, we refused to get on with the discussion. 25. When he crossed the bridge, he saw a small village which was situated at the foot of a hill. Ex.62. Paraphrase the sentences using, where possible, participle phrases preceded by conjunctions. Translate the sentences into Russian. NB: While is used to emphasize that the action in the main clause is simultaneous with the action in the adverbial clause. When is often used to talk about recurrent actions. Model: Always exercise caution when you are handling radioactive substances. Always exercise caution when handling radioactive substances. 1. When you use a spell-check program, you can still make spelling mistakes. 2. When he was returning from an expedition to a French fort, George Washington fell off his raft and nearly drowned. 3. When I was driving home I got caught in the rush hour traffic. 4. Jack accidentally shot himself while he was playing with the gun. 5. We take strict precautions when we treat AIDS patients even though the risk of infection is very low. 6. She stood in front of the mirror as if she were speaking to herself. 7. When he was a student he used to study at the library revising for his exams. 8. She kept smiling and saying nice things as if she were trying to make me forget what had happened. 9. When you use a dictionary, you need to be able to understand the symbols and abbreviations it contains. 10. When she was travelling in Africa, she kept a diary that was to provide valuable material for her first novel. 11. We need to know the language

43 of comparison and contrast when we study tables and other statistical information. 12. When I make a complaint, I prefer to be friendly and polite, instead of being aggressive and rude. 13. When David was in Hungary, he called on his ex-wife. 14. Two youths were killed when they were running to help people injured in the bomb blast. 15. Although I fully understand your problem, I cant allow you to break the rules. Ex.63. Rewrite the sentences about a detective using Participle I. Think of an ending to this story. Mitchell picked up the phone and dialled a number. He let it ring for five long minutes and then slowly replaced the receiver. He took a gun out of the drawer and put it in his briefcase. He left the office and then had to wait a while for the lift. He reached the ground floor and hurried outside to a taxi. Begin: Picking up the phone, Mitchell dialled a number. Ex.64. Translate into English using Participle I. 1. , , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , - , . 5. . 6. , . 7. , . 8. , . 9. . 10. , . 11. , , . 12. - 25 , , . 13. , , . 14. , , - . 15. , . 16. , , . 17. , . 18. , , . 19. , . Predicative constructions with Participle I The Objective Participial Construction This construction consists of a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case and Participle I forming a syntactical complex Complex

44 Object. The objective participial construction is used with verbs of sense perception (see, hear, feel, watch, notice, find, catch, smell, discover, etc.), with various verbs of causative meaning (have, get, keep, leave, set, start) and occasionally with verbs expressing wish (want, like): We overheard them talking about the closure of the factory; Can you start that engine going? NB!
infinitive We saw oil prices rise this year (suggests a single or complete action) I observed him cross the street, and then I dialed the indicated number. We watch, hear, etc. the whole action, from start to finish Lily heard him come downstairs and call the police. Homogeneous infinitives denote actions in succession participle We saw oil prices rising this year (suggests a repeated, incomplete or ongoing action) I could watch them building a new car park from my office window. We watch some of the action, but not from start to finish I saw her bodyguard watching her and smiling to himself. . Homogeneous participles suggest simultaneous actions

Participle I as part of Complex Subject In this construction Participle I follows verbs of sense perception and also some causative verbs, such as keep, leave, catch in the passive voice: Linda was heard telling her son off; I was left standing on the stage. The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction Sometimes the participle (in any of its forms) has a subject of its own expressed by a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case: The rain having ruined my hat, I had to buy a new one. Although this construction is formally independent of the sentence it is logically connected with it, serving as an adverbial modifier to the predicate: She sat looking out, the feeble sun shining full upon her (adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances); Weather permitting, well take a boat trip (adverbial modifier of condition); This being settled, they shook hands and left (adverbial modifier of time). Sentences with a nominative absolute participial construction are translated by complex sentences with the corresponding subordinate clauses: The professor being ill, the lecture was cancelled , . NB! There are nominative absolute constructions without participles: Dinner over, they withdrew to the study. Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction It is introduced by the preposition with and is not necessarily set off by a comma: The officer sat with his long fine hands lying on the table perfectly still; The guy crawled into the hut with his knees bleeding. Note the ways of translating this construction into Russian: With more and more people losing their jobs, the situation in the labour market is becoming

45 extremely tense () , , , ; Just now, with the harvest coming on, everything looks its richest , , ; The total value of Japans export increased considerably, with foodstuffs occupying an important place in the exports of the country , ( ) . Participle I versus Gerund The difference between the two lies in their non-verbal characteristics, that is in their syntactic functions and non-verbal combinability. Unlike gerund, Participle I cannot be used as subject or object and is never preceded by a preposition. When used as an adverbial modifier, the gerund is more varied in its application then the participle because it is used with different prepositions. The participle and the gerund are interchangeable when used as adverbials of time characterizing the verb through simultaneous or prior events: Discussing the plan/ In discussing the plan we heard a lot of helpful suggestions; After discussing the program/ Having discussed the program we started carrying it out. The difference between the two is most evident in their function of a predicative and an adjective: 1. Participle I denotes an action that the person or thing performs or experiences: the falling snow, a smiling girl, a burning house, whereas the gerund reveals the meaning of the modified noun; it suggests the destination of the object or a persons occupation: a sleeping bag, a walking stick, a writing career, etc.; 2. As predicative Participle I gives qualitative characteristics to the subject, thus tending towards an adjective: The sound of the thunder was deafening; the gerund does not qualify the subject, it rather identifies the subject by revealing its meaning: Her favourite pastime is embroidering fabulous personages. Note that there are cases, especially among predicative constructions, where the ing form may be treated either as a participle or a gerund, the difference between them being neutralized: The host didnt like me leaving so early. Ex.65. Paraphrase the sentences using find, catch, leave; have difficulty, have a hard time, spend/ waste time, energy, money. Model: Most of his life he tried to look mature, capable and responsible. He spent most of his life trying to look mature, capable and responsible. When Jill came into the room her son was setting fire to the curtains. Jill caught her son setting fire to the curtains.

46 1. It was very hard to transform waste land into farms and parks. 2. When he went out she was screaming hysterically. 3. I managed to clear the blocked sink but it was difficult. 4. A lot of water is wasted if you wash vegetables under running water in the sink. 5. Larry looked grave and distressed when I saw him. 6. She eventually learnt to live without electricity and hot water, but she had a hard time. 7. When she came in, her husband was kissing their young tenant. 8. When Tom left she was sitting on the riverbank. 9. Youll be in a lot of trouble if a policeman stops you and finds out that you have no driving license. 10. It was difficult for me to persuade him to let me pay my share of the expenses. 11. The government succeeded in putting down the uprising. It took them three weeks. Ex.66. Complete the sentences with participial constructions (use one of the two verbs given in brackets in the correct form). Model: a) She coming into class late. b) I her carrying a big suede bag. (recall/ notice) She was noticed coming into class late. b) I noticed her carrying a big suede bag. 1. a) I them taking apples from my garden. b) They stealing apples from the farmers fields. (catch/ not mind) 2. a) As he fell into the pool, he himself shouting for help. b) Jones shouting at Mr. Balham before the robbery. (imagine/ hear) 3. a) I waiting for at least an hour. b) I getting caught in the rain without an umbrella. (dislike/ keep) 4. a) We the bills waiting for us when we got home. b) They entering the building with knives. (find/ dread) 5. a) We the birthday presents that Uncle Joseph sent. b) The children playing football in the park this morning. (see/ like) 6. a) He the engine running. b) She standing on the stage. (start/ leave). Ex.67. Identify the Nominative Absolute Participial Constructions. Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. That being the case, the cabinet decided to resign. 2. The business of the meeting being finished, the secretary put away her papers. 3. The criminal being found, the search came to an end. 4. When the child heard the shots, he pressed against the wall, his whole body trembling with fear. 5. The tour having been postponed, we stayed at home. 6. Weather permitting, well spend the whole weekend in the open air. 7. Charles stopped and stared at great piles of chocolate, his mouth watering like mad. 8. With her eyes sparkling brightly, Kate sat quietly studying the illustration on her drawing board. 9. With his voice breaking and his hands shaking, Maxim tried hard to defend himself. Ex.68. a) Complete the sentences with the Nominative Absolute Participial Constructions. Add the necessary elements. 1. Jennifer hurried away (heels/ crunch) in the snow. 2. Margo stood listlessly (head/ drop upon) her breast. 3. Pale, with his teeth clenched and (heart/ beat

47 fast), Chris looked at the jailer. 4. Mr. Stanford was standing silent (a bitter smile/ curl) his lips. 5. He carefully spread the paper on the desk, (Linda/ thoughtfully watch). 6. (That/ understand) the conference was declared over. 7. We hurried back to the university campus (it/ be) then about ten minutes to ten. 8. (All things/ discuss), there was nothing to be done now. b) Paraphrase the sentences using the Nominative Absolute Participial Constructions. 1. If mother permits us, well take a two days trip to Disneyland. 2. As the weather remained perfect, we had a barbecue almost every day. 3. As the rules were very strict, the doorkeeper forbade me to enter. 4. The crew set off; the rain was still coming down heavily. 5. As our efforts to start the car had failed, we spent the night in a nearby village. 6. Anna and I walked very slowly, admiring the moonlight. Mr. Toots followed us with enormous packets in his hands. 7. The matter was too complicated to solve at once, so I decided to think it over. Ex. Make up sentences or situations using the following phrases as Nominative Absolute Constructions. The head teacher being away; their bodies swaying in time to the song; the concert having been cancelled; its headlights glaring in the dark; its sources being inexhaustible; the matter being urgent; the circumstances being favourable; her hair streaming in the wind; the manager having been dismissed. Ex.69. Define: Participle I or Gerund? 1. Without drying her eyes Amanda was crying days and nights. 2. Being in a hurry, she came running downstairs, grabbed a sandwich and raced away. 3. These panels need washing. 4. It is not worthwhile your going there today. 5. Doctors recommend eating foods containing proteins. 6. Where is my sleeping bag? 7. The story is amusing. 8. We found him dying. 9. Whats the use of raising the cry of discrimination? 10. Dont come up to the sleeping dog! 11. Her daughters greatest passion is shopping. Ex.70. Consider which form is more likely and why. Comment on the meaning of the following sentences. a. Did you hear their baby cry/ crying most of the night? b. I spotted the child lift/ lifting something from the floor and asked him to show it to me. c. Through the bedroom window, I could watch my sister play/ playing in the sand-box. d. I felt the snake bite/ biting me and saw it slither off into the bushes. e. I noticed her quickly slip/ slipping the necklace inside her coat and leave the shop. f. I heard someone call/ calling my name, so I went outside to see who was there.

48 g. We heard them argue/ arguing all Saturday. h. Are you cooking? I can smell something burn/ burning. Ex.71. Translate into English using participial constructions. 1. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , . 7. , . 8. , , - . 9. , . 10. , . Participle II Participle II is a non-finite form of the verb which possesses verbal and adjectival features and denotes a state or a result of some action or an action itself. It stands apart from the other non-finites in that it does not have their morphological categories. Nevertheless, being a verb form, it possesses the potential verbal meanings of voice, aspect and perfect. These meanings depend upon the meaning of the verb Participle II is formed from and are realized in the context. The verbal character of Participle II is manifested in its combinability. Thus Participle II of transitive verbs combines with a by-object denoting the doer of the action: Antonia was walking along the aisle accompanied by her admirer. Participles II of phrasal verbs retain their composite structure: an orphan brought up in a clergymans family. Participle II may be accompanied by an adverbial modifier expressed by adverbs or phrases combining with verbs: the road repaired two years before, the squirrel hidden in the bush, a scandal long forgotten. One of the main verbal features of Participle II is revealed in its functioning as part of the compound verb forms of the passive voice and the perfect. The adjectival nature of Participle II manifests itself in its function in the sentence, which is usually that of either attribute or predicative. Instead of the negation not, Participle II is often negated with the prefix un-: untouched, unfinished. The adjectival nature of Participle II is traced in adjectivized participles with a form different from the verbal Participle II. These forms occur as attributes in such phrases as on bended knees, a drunken man, a lighted candle,

49 torch, match), molten lava (lead, steel), roast meat, a rotten apple, a shaven head, a well-shaven man, sodden clothes, sunken eyes; to be panic-stricken, poverty- stricken (but thunder-struck, theatre-struck). Note the sentences in which Participle II has the passive meaning: Portuguese is one of the languages taught at our college (denoting an action); The date is fixed (denoting a state, which is the result of an action); She felt relaxed (denoting a pure state). Syntactic functions of Participle II Participle II as attribute (may function either as premodifier or postmodifier): Celina kicked aside the clothes scattered on the floor, making one big pile, and took the washtub with the rinsed linen; Things seen are mightier than things heard; He entered the abandoned house. When Participle II or a participle phrase is detached, its position in the sentence is not fixed. Detached attributes are separated from the noun by a coma in writing and by a pause in speech: Impressed by the news, I went out to make a call; The new Scottish Parliament, designed by the Catalan architect, looks like a series of upturned boats; And people hurried by, hidden under their dreadful umbrellas; Participle II as predicative: The customer looked perplexed and troubled; The investigator was puzzled by the clues (in this function Participle II denotes a state). Occasionally we come across Participle II with an active meaning: Everybody is gone; Participle II as adverbial modifier (used in place of clauses with a passive meaning if the main and subordinate clauses have the same subject): Halted at a police road block, we could hear two feuding gangs firing shots ahead of us (of time); Weakened by his long stay in space the space tourist will have difficulty walking (of reason); He watched her movements as if hypnotized (of manner); Jill will speak for hours, unless interrupted; If picked green peaches wont ripen (of condition). Predicative constructions with Participle II The Objective Participial Construction This construction consists of a noun in the common case or a personal pronoun in the objective case and Participle II forming a syntactical complex Complex Object. The objective participial construction is used with verbs of causative meaning, with verbs of physical perception, with verbs of wish: You must get your tickets registered; I wont have my name dragged through the dirt by the press; Have you ever heard their deans name mentioned before? I want the invitation sent at once; Id like my car serviced, please.

50 The construction have/get something done is generally used when we want to say that somebody arranges for something to be done (he/she employs, pays, asks, persuades another person to do something): Im going to have my hair dyed; Laura got her watch mended. However, there are some more usages to be considered:
We use have We use get 1. when we are concerned with the process of 1. when we are more concerned with something happening: I love having my the preparatory arrangements: I got shoulders massaged; the car serviced this morning (there is an assumption here that I 2. if we want to focus on the result of the action: took the car to the garage); The patient has his arm broken or to emphasize that the task was not easy to fulfil: I have this 2. when we say that the person program implemented; referred to in the subject of the sentence causes what happens 3. if it is clear that the person referred to in the accidentally or is to blame for it: subject of the sentence is not responsible for or Sue got her fingers trapped in the has no control over what happens (about bicycle chain. accidents and misfortunes): She has just had her tonsils removed; The old lady had her purse stolen; The Smiths had their car broken into again (however, in informal speech its normal to use get in sentences like this); 4. if we want to employ the perfect form: Oh, you have had your hair dyed.

The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction with Participle II This construction consists of a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case and Participle II which form a syntactical complex, the nominal element and Participle II being in subject-predicate relation: The preparation completed, we started off; We began to talk, but my attention distracted by the surroundings, I took small notice of him. Prepositional Absolute Construction with Participle II It is introduced by the preposition with and its nominal element is hardly ever presented by a pronoun; it is more closely related to the predicate verb and is seldom set off by a comma: It is unhealthy to sleep with the windows shut (adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances); He cant walk with his leg broken (adverbial modifier of reason). Ex.72. I. Paraphrase the following sentences according to the model. Model: The new job, which has been offered to me lately, seems to be very demanding. - The new job offered to me lately seems to be very demanding. 1. The coat, which we bought last year, is too small for me now. 2. These are only a few of the attempts which were made to improve the situation. 3. The things that are left behind by passengers are usually taken to the Lost Property Office. 4. Here is the memo I received yesterday. 5. It was not easy to find the file which I had deleted. 6. The castle, which was built many years ago, still

51 looks magnificent. 7. Name some places abroad you have visited so far. 8. The answer, which had been so long expected, came at last. II. In place of clauses of time, manner and condition use Participle II preceded by conjunction. 1. Bobby shook his head as though he was dazzled by his own vision. 2. Silver tarnishes and turns black if it is not polished regularly. 3. If they were implemented the new reforms could cost the taxpayer and the economy bills. 4. When it was first brought to Europe, the tomato was thought to be poisonous. 5. A stylish event is more likely to attract global coverage if it is held in London than anywhere else. 6. Many rules, although they are introduced with the best of intentions, frequently have the opposite effect. 7. If the bird is disturbed, it may abandon the nest, leaving the chicks to die. Ex.73. Complete the sentences with Participle II + conjunction. 1. Wounds heal more quickly 2. Milk quickly turns sour 3. The CEO was strikingly tongue-tied (when) 4. , Max used to feel left out. 5. His childhood, , had been a happy one. 6. How can you possibly say so? exclaimed Melanie, . 7. , the house was not comfortable to live in. 8. (When) , the new employee cleared his throat nervously. Ex.74. Read about each situation and write sentences with have something done. Model: Melanie is paying the man who has repaired her bicycle. Melanie has had her bicycle repaired. 1. David went to the hospital. A nurse bandaged his arm. 2. Daniel is going to the dentist. He's going to fill his tooth. 3. Laura is walking around town while her photos are being developed. II. The jobs are all done now. Complete the questions using get. Model: Mike: Where did you get your bicycle repaired, Melanie? 1 Harriet: Why ...................................................... ? 2 Emma: Where ..................................................... ? 3 Sarah: Where ..................................................... .? Ex.75. Change the phrases or sentences in italics using have or get + object + Participle II. Model: There's a photographer over there. Why don't we ask her to take our picture? Why don't we have/get our picture taken? 1. Ive finally decided to arrange for someone to pierce my nose. 2. Theres a leak in the roof. We should arrange for someone to repair it. 3. What time is it? Im afraid they havent repaired my watch yet. 4. Someone is going to redecorate the kitchen for us next month. 5. If I were you, Id ask someone to

52 fell that tree. It shuts out all the light. 6. Simons face was badly burnt in the explosion and he had to undergo plastic surgery. 7. The dentist hasnt checked my teeth this year. 8. The baby was crying because someone was washing her hair. 9. He looks much younger. I think someones dyed his hair. 10. I dont know if Ive passed the course because the tutors havent marked all my work yet. 11. That wasps nest is dangerous. You must ask someone to remove it. 12. Jakes car was badly damaged in the crash. 13. Sarahs kidney was removed after the accident. Ex.76. Act out the following dialogue. Write first the appropriate forms to show that either the action has been done by the doer himself, or the doer has caused it to be done by someone else, or he has undergone or suffered something in an accident. Luke: John (have/ break/ his left arm) when his car hit another one yesterday. Mary: (he/ have/ bandage/ it) yet? Luke: Yes, the doctor (have/ see/ he) and (have/ set/ the arm) himself. Mary: Good. And (John/ have/ X-ray/ it) yet? Luke: No, but the doctor (have/ make/ an appointment) with the X-ray Department at the hospital for him. John (be going to have/ do/ it) this afternoon. Mary: (he/ have/ hurt/ himself) anywhere else? Luke: No, he was lucky. The man in the other car (have/ break/ both legs) by the crash. Mary: Oh, dear. Thats bad. How did the accident happen? Luke: The brakes of the other car werent good, but the driver (not have/ repair/ they). Mary: (you/ have/ see/ John) today? Luke: Yes, I (have/ see/ he) twice. Ex.77. Jane and Naomi are models. Jane does everything herself but Naomi is lazy and has everything done for her. Write down their conversation (the possible beginning is given). Jane: Do you know how I usually relax? I enjoy doing my own make-up, polishing my nails and sometimes dyeing my hair, dont you? Naomi: Oh, no. I have my hair and my make-up done at the beauty salon. Last week I had my hair dyed by a very good hairdresser. Ex.78. Translate into English. 1. . 2. , . 3. . 4. .

53 . 5. . 6. , , . 7. . 8. , , . 9. . 10. . 11. , , . 12. , , . 13. : , . Supplementary exercises (all verbals) Ex.79. Open the brackets using the correct non-finite. The best way (explore) China is by land. (Travel) round China involves (cover) great distances as the country is enormous. As a result, some tourists would rather (fly), as it is quicker and they consider (sit) on a bus or train a waste of time. For those who dont mind (take) a bit longer, there is so much (see) which is not visible from a plane. From a bus you can (see) people (work) in the rice fields. You can even spend some time (learn) a few Chinese phrases. Few can resist (taste) a local delicacy birds nest soup, though you may have difficulty (acquire) a taste for one-hundred-year-old eggs! Ex.80. Complete this conversation between two colleagues about a competitor. Use the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Alan: Any news of Mounts? Are they managing (take) much business from us? Tim: Id say around here were still doing OK. Customers tend (come) to us first. But weve ended up (lose) customers in Scotland because thats always been their area. Alan: So, should we spend a lot of time (try) to win back that business? Tim: Id say not, no. We decided (focus) on other areas for now so that we can concentrate on (build) our business round here. We cant afford (ignore) the local area. Alan: I guess Mounts have considered (move) into our area here, though. Are they still relying on (be) the cheapest? Tim: Yeah. If they do target this area, I expect (get) a lot of calls from customers about prices. Its a worry I dont mind (tell) you. Alan: Well, well just have to keep (offer) a better service. Ex.81. Complete the comments some people made about their careers using the correct form of the verbs in italics. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. 1. I try be focused about my career, but Im so busy. Like on an average day, I never have time to stop think, What am I learning? Where am I going?

54 2. The bet career advice I ever read was to stop be a job seeker and start think of yourself as an investment. I did and its beginning work. 3. I remember meet my boss for the first time. I said, How can I get your job? But I respect her and I like think that she respects me, too. 4. I really dont bother try to impress my assistant any more. I tried buy him lunch and stuff when I got here, but I think hes jealous of me. 5. I like my job and I like go into work every day. Im probably a bit of a workaholic. Sometimes I forget have lunch. I have to remember make time for myself. 6. I intend change jobs every two or three years till I have lots of contacts. My aim is to start run my own business. I cant stand work for a boss. Ex.82. I. Find and correct 7 mistakes in each of these emails. Dear Mr Williams, I heard you to speak at the IAD event last July. I dont know if you remember to meet me at the IAD event. I enjoyed meeting you and to hear you talk on internet marketing. (I hope you didnt notice me to leave early. I had to catch a plane.) I would like to invite you to speak at our company conference next month (6th-8th). We can arrange scheduling your talk at a time that is convenient for you. We can also offer to pay your expenses and a fee of $ 600. If you agree to attend, would you mind to send me a title by next Friday? I look forward to hear from you and hope to see you soon. Yours sincerely, Katie de Lang Dear Kate, Good to hear from you. Of course I remember in fact I keep meaning to get in touch. And I didnt mind you leaving early I saw you to look at your watch all the time in the last 15 minutes! Thank for invite me to speak at your conference. I would love coming any day is fine. I can easily spend a day or two to look around the city. I feel like taking a few days off actually, as Ive just finished to write my book on relationship marketing. Just let me to know where Im staying and Ill see you next month. John P.S. Dont forget sending your phone number. II. Write an email inviting a student from another educational institution to give a talk in your university. Ex.83. Make up sentences using the words in brackets. Start your sentences with there is/ there are. Model: There were so many shoppers waiting in the line, two or three hundred, I should think.

55 There is a lorry parked across the road. 1. The cafe is still full. (people/ sit/ on the terrace) 2. The garden was picturesque. (a small stream/ run/ at the bottom of the garden) 3. You could buy some junk food. (street vendors/ sell/ hot peanuts, popcorn and cold drinks) 4. The storm was violent. (cars/ overturn and trees/ uproot) 5. The earthquake was disastrous. (hundreds of people/ kill/ injure; a lot of houses/ completely destroy) 6. Riot police were called to the scene. (rioters/ block the road; shop windows smash) 7. Would anyone like to visit the caves? (tourists/ wish/ to visit the caves) 8. We failed to see a football match. (too many people/ try to get/ into the football stadium) Ex.84. Rewrite the sentences using participial phrases or gerunds. Model: I was exhausted through lack of sleep and fell asleep at my desk. Exhausted through lack of sleep, I fell asleep at my desk. 1. Since I was promoted, Ive had no time to go out. 2. After he was released from prison, Andy could not find a job anywhere. 3. He was frequently criticized for his self-centered attitude but was nonetheless very popular. 4. When he was caught, he confessed everything. (On) 5. If we are elected, we will increase the value of pensions. 6. Jennifer had been shoplifting for many years before she was found out. 7. Unless it is destroyed, this material could have damaging consequences. 8. Although he was ridiculed by everybody, he continued to pursue his bizarre projects. 9. When it is seen from the outside, the building looks a mess, but it is lovely inside. Ex.85. Make up sentences with the following combinations (use participles as adjectives): a promising doctor a disappointed child the defeated enemy the howling wind the threatening storm the accomplished task the melting snow the broken vase an astonishing success embarrassing questions an alarming issue labour-saving devices a well-grounded claim an ill-bred person Ex.86. Make up collocations using adjectival participles. Explain the meaning of the collocations. Model: principle/ guide a guiding principle (an idea that influences you greatly when you consider a matter or take a decision)

56 scientist/ distinguish a distinguished scientist (a person who is highly respected for his or her achievements in science) child/ embarrass force/ drive sight/ shock thought/ comfort habit/ annoy customer/ satisfy crime/ organize family/ extend class/ rule job/ challenge manners/ please feature/ distinguish news/ depress incident/ mention comic strip/ amuse Ex.87. Here are some verbs commonly used in the pattern get/have something done. Do you know what they mean? get/have a prescription filled get/have something fixed get/have something overhauled get/have your house done up get/have your hair permed get/have a job costed Ex.88. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the usage of verbals. 1. Hearing the sounds of music, we stopped talking. 2. The chairman regretted the foreign delegates arriving too late to participate in the discussion. 3. Lamont bowed to him when introduced. 4. By bringing European countries together the common market contributes to their individual progress in social spheres. 5. Having been shown the wrong direction, the hikers soon lost their way. 6. His insisting on our revising the terms of payment and delivery was not unexpected. 7. Being off sick, she could not settle the matter. 8. The tree struck by lightning was all black and leafless. 9. Flushed and excited, Tommy came running to his mother. 10. The room facing the garden is much cozier than this one. 11. Running into the road, the young man caught a taxi. 12. The rush hour in Tokyo its something to be seen to be believed. 13. The perspective of underdeveloped nations forming an economic alliance is unbelievable. Test 1 I. Use the correct form of the infinitive: 1. It was a real pleasure (swim) in the sea on such a hot day. 2. Nick is upset. Hes sure he could (write) the composition much better. 3. She noticed a car (stop) outside the house. 4. There appears (be) a mistake over the numbers. 5. They appear (keep) the details of the investigation a secret for the time being. 6. Life turned out (be) stranger than fiction. 7. I believed her (knit) in the next room. 8. He reported the cabin crew (attack) by the drunken passenger. 9. Sue made the child (obey) her. 10. David happened (witness) the incident.

57 II. Correct the errors: 1. The bag is too heavy to carry it. 2. Shes lazy enough to be a good worker. 3. Bob is too rich to pay alimony to his ex-wife. 4. I wont have you to speak like that! 5. The expedition is reported to land safely. 6. I wont allow him be sent there. 7. I was made conclude that agreement. 8. I happened to be driving that kind of car before. III. Translate into English using the Infinitive constructions where possible (state which of them you have used): 1. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. (no need). 5. , -, . 6. , . 7. , . 8. , ! 9. . 10. , . 11. , ? 12. , . 13. , . 14. . Test 2 I. Complete the sentences with the correct preposition and the gerund. 1. Dont try and discourage me . (do) what I want to do. 2. Id like to enquire (enroll) on one of evening courses. 3. Lillian seems very excited (start) that new job. 4. The estate agent warned them (buy) that bungalow. 5. The government is opposed (spend) more money on public transport. 6. Ive never approved young people (stay out) late. 7. She lives on her own but she relies the neighbours (help) her. 8. Were all in agreement (cut) our costs. 9. Stop talking and get on (write) your essays. 10. I was ignorant (he/be) abroad.

58 11. Is there a chance (catch) the train? 12. The professor was displeased (students/be) noisy. 13. She had no difficulty (get) the tickets. 14. Have you objections (sign) this agreement? II. Underline the word or phrase that is correct. 1. Im sorry hearing/to hear that they have fired him for no reason at all. 2. On the first day, the headmaster advised us all working/to work very hard. In fact, he recommended studying/to study for at least four hours every evening. 3. What do you mean to do/doing about the leaky pipes? 4. After I stretched my legs I found that my back stopped to ache/aching. 5. I never imagined the mountains to be/being so high! 6. Margaret was slow at school, but she went on to be/being Prime Minister. 7. Dont forget to wake me/waking me before you leave. 8. Have you ever considered to buy/buying a microwave oven? 9. I regret to inform/informing you that the consignment is not ready for shipment. 10. Im sorry, I didnt mean to hurt/hurting your feelings. 11. Tom stopped picking up/to pick up his washing on the way home. 12. Then, in her letter, she goes on to say/saying that most of her family have been ill. 13. I remember to put/putting the money in the top drawer, but its not there now. 14. I tried taking/to take the medicine that you gave me but I couldnt swallow it. III. Open the brackets using the correct non-finite. Ive been trying (get) fit for years but it has been impossible (find) a method that has not ended in disaster. Two years ago I started (go) to karate classes. On the second day I overdid it and broke my arm. When I had recovered from that, I took up (swim). At first I really enjoyed (race) my friend up and down the pool. But I regret (say) that it wasnt long before I slipped over on the pool side and cracked my head on the tiles. I needed (go) to hospital to make my head stop (bleed). A few months later a friend advised me (try) aerobics. That didnt last long either, because I hate (listen) to loud disco music. Then last month I bought a bicycle and at this very moment Im lying in a ward with two broken legs. I have decided (give up) trying (get) fit. From now on, Im going to concentrate on (stay) alive. IV. Bill Brown was arrested for stealing a car. Here are some of his answers to questions during his trial. Report what he said (use the verbs given below and add some more sentences of your own). admit consider deny notice recall seem regret manage mean miss Yes, I was certainly in town around midnight. I saw two men looking into all the parked cars now you mention it, I think I did hear a car being driven away I didnt think about telling the police I certainly didnt steal the car I wish I hadnt gone out that night! Model: He admitted being in town around midnight.

59 Test 3 I. Combine each pair of sentences. Use a to-infinitive or an ing form. Sometimes you also need a preposition. 1. We saw Rupert. He was looking in a shop window. 2. I remember the clown. He fell over. 3. Tessa wasnt sure. Which way should she go? 4. The porter just stood there. He expected a tip. 5. How about it? Shall we go to the barbecue? 6. Susan is used to it. Shes always lived on the outskirts. 7. Im afraid. I might hurt myself. 8. Christine apologized. Shed forgotten to pay. 9. The food was too cold. Michelle couldnt eat it. II. Correct the sentences if necessary. 1. Although felt tired, Polly didnt want to go to bed. 2. Peter broke his arm in playing rugby. 3. A woman accused Martin with stealing her money. 4. I wasnt sure whether to write a letter of thanks. 5. Do you remember a young man bumping into you? 6. The girls parents wouldnt let her to stay out so late. 7. The book is too difficult enough for children to understand 8. Police found the woman for lying dead on the floor. 9. Cars are always expensive to repair them. 10. The man died as a result of falling asleep while driving. III. Rewrite the sentences using participial phrases (the first is done for you). 1. He told her not to eat it and explained that there was a risk of food poisoning. (He told her not to eat it, explaining that there was a risk of food poisoning). 2. She held his hand and led him through the crowd. 3. I saw her on the other side of the road and quickly tried to hide. 4. Id had an argument with him the night before so I didnt want to see him. 5. Although I fully understand your problem, I cant allow you to break the rules. 6. Hes lived here all his life so he knows a lot about the town. 7. Since I was happy with my results, I decided to go out and celebrate. 8. She turned on the computer and started checking her mail. 9. The woman who lives next door works for a television company. 10. Although he hated the job, he did it for many years. IV. Translate into English. 1. , , . 2. ,

60 . 3. , . 4. (investigation) . 5. , . 6. , . 7. , . 8. , ? 9. , , . 10. . Test 4 I. Read the text below and write the appropriate participle form. Pushy passengers win airline dispute Fifty-four economy class passengers, (spend) three hours (wait) at Heathrow airport, were finally informed that their flight had been cancelled due to technical problems. On (hear) the news, one of the older passengers marched up to the airline offices, (demand) that they all be put on the next possible flight. However, (overbook) the next flight, there was very little the airline could do. The passengers all crowded around the airline desk, (shout and protest). (want) to do something to appease the angry crowd, they finally offered all the passengers free flights to the destination of their choice. (appease) by this offer, they calmed down, took their seats and waited another three hours before they finally took off, more than six hours late. II. Write the following text changing clauses to participial phrases where possible. Vincent Van Gogh, who was born in Holland in 1853, is one of the worlds most famous painters. Although his talent was unrecognized throughout his life, it was much appreciated after his death. After he had failed in every career he had attempted, Van Gogh first turned to art to express his strong religious feelings. After he had decided to become a painter, in about 1880, he started to paint studies of peasants and miners. During the next few years, which are known as his Dutch period, he produced paintings with rather dark greenish-brown colours. In 1886, when he went to Paris to visit his brother Theo, he was immediately attracted to the Impressionist work he saw there. He decided to stay in Paris and continued his painting there. He was encouraged by Pissaro to use more colour in his pictures and his subsequent paintings were bright and immensely colourful. After Van Gogh had moved to Arles in the south of France, in 1888, he worked frantically. This frenzied activity, which was interrupted by bouts of deep depression and despair, produced the majority of his most famous paintings. One of these, which is called Self Portrait with Bandaged Ear, shows

61 Van Gogh: he was wearing a bandage after he had cut off his own ear. A year later, in 1890, he committed suicide. A lot is known about Van Goghs life and his feelings because of the hundreds of letters which were written by him to his brother Theo and others. Because his brother believed in Van Goghs genius, he always encouraged him in his work. He was the person closest to Van Gogh. (Begin: Born in Holland in 1853, Vincent Van Gogh is one of ) III. Complete the sentences with an object from A and Participle II form of one of the verbs in B. A. her paintings my bike the play B. tidy beat display
your bedroom herself the team repair perform lift up

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

It was disappointing to see by weaker opposition. She wants in the gallery, but we dont think theyd be very popular. Ill need before I can go very far. We heard on the radio a few years ago. Id like before I get home from work. Its in a terrible mess. She felt . by the wind and thrown to the ground.

IV. Translate into English. 1. , . 2. . . 3. , . 4. . 5. , . 6. , . 7. , , - . 8. , . 9. , , - . 10. , , . 11. , . 12. . 13. , . 14. . 15. , . 16. , . 17. , , . 18. , ? 19. , . 20. , .

62 References 1. Eastwood J. Oxford practice grammar. Oxford University Press, 2004. 2. Evans V. Round-up grammar practice 5. Pearson Education Ltd., 2006. 3. Evans V. Round-up grammar practice 6. Pearson Education Ltd., 2005. 4. Jones C., Stannard R. Inside out (advanced). Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 2005. 5. Hewings M. Advanced grammar in use. Cambridge University Press, 2002. 6. McCarthy M., McCarten J., Clark D., Clark R. Grammar for business. Cambridge University Press, 2009. 7. Vince M., Sunderland P. Advanced language practice. Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 2003. 8. Walker E., Elsworth S. Grammar practice for upper intermediate students. Pearson Education Ltd., 2000. 9. .., .. . .: - , 1998. 10. .., .., .., .. . . . .: - , 2006. 11. .. . .: - , 2005. 12. .., .., .. (upper-intermediate). .: , 2005.

63

Non-finite forms of the verb (Infinitive, Gerund, Participle) I-II ,

..
7.10.10. 6084 1/16. . . . 3,9. 100 . 466. - . . 191023, -, ., . 21.