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.........................................................................................................................................6
1.
.....................................8
1.1. .......................................................................................8
....................................................................................................................................................................13
1.2. .....13
1.3.
............................................................................................................................................15

1.4. .............................................................18
1.5. ..............................................................................20
1.6. ......................................22
1.7. ..........................................................................23
.......................................................................................31
2.
...................................33
2.1. .......................................................................33
2.2. .................................................................38
2.3. .............40
.......................................................................................44
3. .....45
3.1. .......................................46
3.2.

.........................................................................................57

.......................................................................................63
4. ........................................64
4.1. ...........................................................................................................64
4.2. .................................................67
4.2.1. ..................................................................................67
4.2.2. ...............................................................................................71
4.3. ...........................................73
4.3.1. ....................................................................................73
4.3.2. ..........................................79
4.3.3. ....................88
4.4. ........................................97
4.5. ........................................110
4.6.

...................................125

.....................................................................................141
5. .........................................................................................143
5.1. ..........................143

5.2. ...................144
.....................................................................................157
6.
.........................................................................................................................................158
6.1. - ...............................................................158
6.2. - .............................................................166
6.3. - .........................................................174
.....................................................................................191
7. .............................................................................................................192
7.1. ...............................................................................................192
7.2. ...................................................................200
7.3. , ....................208
.....................................................................................221
8.

...........................................................................................................................222
8.1. ...................................................................222
8.2.
.......................................................................................................................................................228
8.3.
.......................................................................................................................................................244
8.4. .......................................259
8.5. ...........................................................................266
.....................................................................................288
.....................................................................................................................289

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S = (S1, S2, , Sj, , Sm),


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60

IF (SNj = S) AND (C > 0) THEN


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61

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64

(a1j, a2j , , anj, , amj), ,


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3. Ai (Ai A) (T(a1i) = T(a2i) = = T(ani) = = T(ali)), n = 1, m


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n -

67

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SD = {SD1,,SDi,SDn}, i = 1,n; n >> 1, n -
.
SDi = {EDi1...,EDij,,EDik}, j = 1,k; k >= 1, k -
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( ED) ( SD ED) (( z (Z

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V datetime
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70

TED11,,TEDi1,,TEDn1

TED1j,,TEDij,,TEDnj

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71

( ED) (ED SD ) (( TED (ED

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TED = string V integer V datetime V real V logical


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TED11=,,=TE Di1=,,=TE Dn1

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(1-4)
:
((min(j) min(i) min(t))

((min(m) min(k) min(r)),

j - 1- 1- ;
t - 1- ;
m - 2-
1- ;

72

r - 2-
1- .
1- 2-
, . ,
1- -
.

4.3.

4.3.1.

[7,8]

. -
.
.
, , .
, 1- 2-


.
1- , , 2- .

.

, - .

.

73

, :
,


, , , ,
.
.

.
. , ij -
, , i-
j- . (ij) ij; (ij)
ij;
. (ij) ; i i- .

:
1:

{ 1-, 2-, 3- .}
{ ,

, , .}
1 := 1;
:= (11);
WHILE (11) not EMPTY M1 := M1 + 1;
2 := 1;
:= (21);
WHILE (22) not EMPTY M2 := M2 + 1;
3 := 1;
:= (31);
WHILE (33) not EMPTY M3 := M3 + 1;
IF 2 = 1 THEN GOTO 4; { }
IF (2 > 1) and (M2 = M3) THEN GOTO 2;
IF 3 > 2 THEN GOTO 3;
{ }
2:

k := 1;
j := 1;
:= (21);

74

WHILE j <> M2
WHILE (1K) <> (2J)
C(2J)= Concat(C(1K),' ',C(2J));
j := j + 1;
END WHILE;
k := k + 1;
j := j + 1;
END WHILE;
DELETE CT1;
GOTO 4;
{ }
3:

:= 1;
n := 1;
j := 1;
WHILE j <> M3
WHILE (2n) <> (3j)
C(3j) = Concat(C(1k),' ',C(2n),' ',C(3j));
j := j + 1;
END WHILE;
IF (1k) = (3j) THEN k :=k + 1;
n := n + 1;
j := j + 1;
END WHILE;
DELETE CT1;
DELETE CT2;

4:

END.
,

Pascal.
,
,
.
DELETE,
. 2 1- CT1

75

. 3 1- 2- (CT1 , CT2)
. ,
- . ,

.
.
, ,
. !,
., @ .
,
.
, , .. .
1 , ..
. 2 3 , ,
, .
, ,
. 1
N*3, N
.
2 3 N. 2 3
, N*4, ..
. .
, ,
, 1- . ,
(1),
,
() - N.
,

,
. ,

. , (2,
3)

76

.
,

.
.

. ,
, ,
.
.

.
.
, Microsoft Excel,
. 4.3.1.

. 4.3.1.
. 4.3.1, .
Access. / /.

77


Microsoft Excel, ,
. 4.3.2.

. 4.3.2.

, ,
.
Microsoft Access 4.3.3.

. 4.3.3. Microsoft Access

78


, .
,

, .
, . 4.3.3

.
,

; ,
.

. 4.3.4.

. 4.3.4. Microsoft Access

.
,
.

4.3.2.

,
() .

79

,
.
, .
. , . 4.3.1.

4.3.1

50000
70000
40000
7000

9
11
7
77

40000
60000
30000

5
9
5


.
2-
: .

, ,
, .

. 2- ,

80

1:

.

4.3.2.

4.3.2

1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
m
m

50000
70000
40000
7000

9
11
7
77

40000
60000
30000

5
9
5



. 4.3.3 . 4.3.4
4.3.3

1
2

,
,

81

4.3.4

1
1
1
1
2
2
2

50000
70000
40000
7000
40000
60000
30000

9
11
7
77
5
9
5


.

.

.
.
()
(. 4.3.5).
4.3.5
A1
a11
a21

aj1

af1
am1

...
...
...

...
...
...
...

Ai
NULL
a2i

NULL

NULL
ami

...
...
...

...
...
...
...

Ak
NULL
a2k

NULL

NULL
amk

,
. ,
.

82

1: R.
.
. ,
R
(2). .
2: R KR
( R'),.
COUNTER := 0;
3: R'.
,
COUNTER 1.
KR COUNTER.
4: R2, 2-
NR .
R'. ,
( ) ,
R2.
R2 (
) R1 .

KR, .

.

COUNTER = 0
FOR r = 1 m
COUNTER1 = 0
FOR f = 1 k
IF ark = NULL THEN

COUNTER1 = COUNTER1 + 1

NEXT f

83

IF COUNTER1 = k-1 THEN COUNTER = COUNTER + 1


NEXT r
IF COUNTER < 2 THEN EXIT
REM
R = R (A1, , Ai, , Ak) + R (KR)
COUNTER = 0
FOR r = 1 m
COUNTER1 = 0
FOR f = 1 k
IF ark = NULL THEN COUNTER1 = COUNTER1 + 1
NEXT f
IF COUNTER1 = k - 1 THEN
COUNTER = COUNTER + 1
Z(R2 COUNTER,1) = COUNTER
Z(R2 COUNTER,2) = ark
DELETE * FROM R WHERE (A1 = ark)
ELSE
Z(Rr, 1) = COUNTER
END IF
NEXT r
m- R.
k R.
R = R + R (KR) R
KR.
Z(R2COUNTER,1)

R2

COUNTER 1- .
Z(Rr, 1) R r 1-
.
,
, , ,
.

84

,
. ,

.
.

, .

.
sj (sj s) (ajt = NULL) (ajt sj),
j = 1, m; t = 1, k-1.
s .
ajt t- j- .
m ; k .

,
. ,
- .

. .

Microsoft Excel, . 4.3.5.

85

. 4.3.5. Microsoft Excel



Microsoft Access
, . 4.3.6.

. 4.3.6. Microsoft Access


, , ,
.

,

. 4.3.7.

. 4.3.7.

86


. ,
, .
,
.
.

.
,

Microsoft SQl

Server, ( 4.3.8).

. 4.3.8. Microsoft SQl Server


Microsoft SQl Server
Microsoft
Access (. 4.3.6). ,

NULL.

Microsoft Access. ,
Microsoft Access ()
. , Microsoft Access
.
. NULL
. ,

87

. ,
, 1- ,
Microsoft SQl Server.

4.3.3.
.


. , . 4.3.6.

4.3.6

1
3
2
1
3
2

3
1


1985
1988
1987
1984
1989
1983
1983
1986
1986

,
,

88

, , , ,
, , .

1- .
.
, 1-
5- , ..
4- .
:
- 1- ;
- ;
- ;
-
;
- ;
- .
.
. 4.3.7
.
4.3.7

1
3
2
1
3
2

3
1


1985
1988
1987
1984
1989
1983
1983
1986
1986

K2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3

. 4.3.8
1- .
4.3.8

89

2
1
2
3

. 4.3.9 1-
.

4.3.9

1
3
2
1
3
2

3
1


1985
1988
1987
1984
1989
1983
1983
1986
1986

K2
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3

1: ,
K2.
1-
:
1: R
.
2: COUNTER: = 0
R. 1-
, COUNTER: = COUNTER + 1.

.

90

3: R. 1-
,
R2. R2
R. R2
R.

.
.

(.
4.3.10).
4.3.10
A1
a11
a21

aj1

af1
am1

...
...
...

...
...
...
...

Ai
NULL
a2i

NULL

NULL
ami

...
...
...

...
...
...
...

Ak
NULL
a2k

NULL

NULL
amk

,
.
, .
,
.
.
1-
.
R = R + R(K2)
C=0
FOR r = 1 m
C1 = 0
FOR f = 1 k
IF ark = NULL THEN C1 = C1 + 1

91

NEXT f
IF C1 = k - 1 THEN
C=C+1
Z(R2i 1) = C
Z(R2i 2) = ark
ELSE
Z(ar

k+1)

=C

END IF
NEXT r
DEL A1 FROM R

.
DEL A1 FROM R 1- R.

. ,

.

Microsoft Excel, . 4.3.8.

92

. 4.3.8. Microsoft Excel


1-

Microsoft Access

(. 4.3.9).

93

. 4.3.9. Microsoft Access


,
. .
SELECT . INTO 2
FROM
WHERE (.) Is Not Null;
(FROM )
2 (INTO 2)
(.). ,
(WHERE (.) Is Not Null)
. 4.3.10.

. 4.3.10.

94


2 ,
. . 4.3.11.

. 4.3.11. 2
4.3.9
. ,
. 4.3.12.

. 4.3.12.

95

,
. 4.3.13.

. 4.3.13.

, ..
. , ..
2

. , ..
2 ,
. ,
. ,
.

.
SELECT

2.,

.[

/],

.,

.
FROM 2 INNER JOIN ON 2.[ ]
= .;
.

2 INNER JOIN ON 2.[

] = .

(INNER JOIN), ..
, (2.

96

[ ] = .).
, .
. 4.3.14.

. 4.3.14.
,
, .

,
, .

4.4.

2- ,

. , 2-
, [2].
. 4.4.1 ,
2- .

97

4.4.1

1121
27
2231
15
3781
27
2231
14
1121
11
3781
12
2231
33


1.1.6
15.1.6
15.1.6
17.2.6
20.1.6
20.5.6
1.1.7

. ,
''
' ', , ,
. 4.4.1, .

,
.
, ,

.
, , ,
.
2- ,
. 1-
, , 2-
.
, 1- 4.4.2.

98

4.4.2

1121
27
2231
15
3781
27
2231
14
1121
11
3781
12
2231
33


1.1.6
15.1.6
15.1.6
17.2.6
20.1.6
20.5.6
1.1.7

(.4.4.3).
4.4.3

1121

2231

3781

2231

1121

3781

2231

. 4.4.3 4.4.4.
4.4.4

1121

2231

3781

. 4.4.2 . 4.4.4
.
, , ,
.
.

2- .
.

99

, ,
,
. ,
, ,
, .
, ,
.
,
.

,

.
, ,
2- ,
.
,
. 4.4.5.

4.4.5
A1
a11
a21

an1

am1

A2
a12
a22

an2

am2

Ai
a1i
a2i

ani

ami

Aj
a1j
a2j

ani

amj

Ak
a1k
a2k

ank

amk

.
FOR s = 3 k
C=0

100

FOR r = 1 m
AR1 = ar1
ARS = ars
FOR r1 = 1 m
IF NOT((ar1 1 = AR1) and (ar1 s = ARS)) THEN GOTO M
NEXT r1
C = C +1
IF C = r THEN
sz = s
PRINT ( , sz)
STOP
END IF
NEXT r
M: NEXT s
PRINT ( )
.
()

. ,
.

- ,
"GOTO M.
r ,
AR1 = ar,1
ARS = ars s- .
r1

.

,
, .
,
s- .
r

(C = r),

, sz
.

101

, ,
,

.
ars, a(r,s).

, .

.
ar1 ar2, ar11 - ar12.
, ,
.
,

.
,
,

. 2-
-, ().
,
.
.
FOR i = 1 TO m
bi1 = ai1
bi2 = ai sz
NEXT i
REM
FOR i = 1 TO m
s = Concat(bi1, bi2)
FOR J =i+1 TO m
s1 = Concat(bi1, bi2)
IF s1 = s THEN DLETE(Sj)

102

NEXT J
NEXT i
.
1- B 2- .
(1-)
,
,

.

.
Concat(bi1, bi2)
,
. ,

DLETE(Sj)

, .

ai1

ai2.
.
FOR i = 1 TO m
C=0
FOR J = 2 TO k
IF j <> sz THEN
C=C+1
di,c = aij
END IF
NEXT J
NEXT i

103

.

D.

. 1-
,
B.

sz

B.
2-
, ,
Microsoft Access. , ,
.
, . 4.4.1 2- .
4.4.1.

. 4.4.1.
Microsoft Access //
.
, ,
. 4.4.2.

104

. 4.4.2. ,
, ,
. ,

.
, .
, 1
. , .
,
.
, 1
2.

, .
. 4.4.3
2.

105

. 4.4.3. 2
, .
. 4.4.4.
4.4.4 1.

.
. 4.4.4. 1
2.
,
. ,
(. 4.4.5), ,

1 . ,
- 2

106

. 4.4.5. 1
,
( 2)
, . 4.4.6.

. 4.4.6.

107

, 4-
. SQL-,
:
SELECT [ ] AS xyz_ID_xyz, [ ] & ', ' &
[] AS xyz_DispExpr_xyz, [ ], [] FROM
2 ORDER BY [ ];
, ,
1
2- ([ ], []) 2.

[],

],

', '

2, [ ]
(ORDER BY [ ]).
, 1
, SELECT
.
4.4.7. 2 .

.

. 4.4.7.

Microsoft Access, 2-

108

, ,
.

Microsoft Access.
, (. 4.4.5),
. 4.4.8.

. 4.4.8. 1
SELECT :
SELECT [ ], [] FROM 2 ORDER BY
[ ];
1
(. 4.4.9).

109

. 4.4.9. 1
,
Microsoft
Access 2- . ,
,
.
,

Microsoft Access.

4.5.

,
, 3-
. (. 4.5.1).

4.5.1

110

11


6
111-22-

21

33
111-22-

35

33
111-22-

44

33
444-55-

66
444-5566

55

.
.
:
,
.
, , .
,

. ,
, . ,
.
,
, .
,
.
,

.

:

, , ,
, . ,

111

.
.

:
1: 1- ,
.
. ,
.
.
:
2:
.
3:
, .
.
, ,
. ,
( ), .
4: ,

.
2. 2 ,
. , ,
,
.
5: 4
,
3.
,
1.
6: k-1 ,
, .
..
,

112

,
.
,
.
, .. .
. :
. .
. 2-
.
.

. , ,
6, 6, 8.
.

.
,
. ,

. ,

.

.
. 6 8.
6 .
: ' '

6.

. :
8.
, ,
.

113

. , ,
, ,
,
.
.
. -.

.
, . 4.1.
FOR r = 1 k 1, k NK
ZAV = 0
F=0
FOR r1 = r + 1 k -1, k NK
FOR f = 1 TO m
Smr = SELECT COUNT(amr ) FROM Ar
IF Smr > 1 THEN
Smr1 = SELECT COUNT(amr1 ) FROM Ar1
IF Smr1 > 1 and Smr1 = Smr
THEN
Fr = 1
Fr1 = 1
ZAV = 1
ELSE
ZAV = 0
GOTO M
END IF
NEXT f
M:NEXT r1
IF ZAV = 1 THEN
PRINT ( )
FOR i= 1 k 1, k NK

114

PRINT (Fi)
NEXT i
END IF
NEXT r
NK . SELECT COUNT
(amr) FROM Ar amr. F
.
.
,
. ZAV F .
. f
,
. 1,
,
. ,
. , , F
ZAV 1. ,

ZAV .
r1 ZAV 1, ,
. ,
,
,
.
,
.

.
3
, .. .
.

115

F ( ),

.

R2,
R1,
R2 R1 R2.
:
1: R1 ,
.
2: R2 R1 .
3: R2 .
4: R2 COUNTER
.
5: R2,
R1.
6:

R1.

R1

R2.

1:. 1 R2,
R1.
.
1 2 R1 (.
4.5.2),
4.5.2

11
21
35

6
6
6

116

44
55

8
8

1 2 R2
(. 4.5.3),

4.5.3

6

111-22-33

111-22-33

111-22-33

8
8

444-55-66
444-55-66

3 4 R2 4.5.4
4.5.4

1
2

6
8

111-22-33
444-55-66

5 R1 4.5.5.
4.5.5

117

11
21
35
44
55

1
1
1
2
2


. , ,
, ,
.

.
F = (F1,, Fi,, Ft)
F' = (F1,, Fi,, Ft-1)
(F F)
1: R1 A R ,
Aj (R j A) (F Aj) j = 1, k, k R.
2: R2 B R ,
Bn (Bn R) (Bn F) n = 1, k
3: R2' = SELECT B1, B2, , Bf, , Bk2
FROM R2 GROUP BY
B1, B2, , Bf, , Bk2
4: R2 = R2 U RK, RK 1 ,
R2, COUNTER.
5: FOR r = 1 m
art = SELECT FROM R2
WHERE art = Bt
NEXT r
art R1 r,
. Bt
R2''.
m R R1.
3-
, ,
Microsoft Access. , , ,

118

.
, . 4.5.1. 2- .
. 4.5.1.

. 4.5.1.

//

4.5.2.

. 4.5.2. ,

119

,
4, 2.
,
,

. 4.5.3.

. 4.5.3.
,
.
, ,
.
,
,

3-, 2-

.
,
. 4.5.4, .4.5.5, . 4.5.6.

120

. 4.5.4.

. 4.5.5.

. 4.5.6.
,
. ,
3,
4.
, ,
. ,
, .
,

( ),
.
, ,

. 4.5.7.

121

. 4.5.7.
, 1-,
4- . 2-
.
. 4.5.8.

. 4.5.8.

SQL :
SELECT [] AS xyz_ID_xyz, [ ] & ', ' & [
] AS xyz_DispExpr_xyz, [ ], [ ]
FROM 2 ORDER BY [ ], [ ];

122

, 2
: []; [ ] & ', ' & [ ];
[ ]; [ ].
AS .
ORDER BY .


.

Microsoft Access ,
.
. 4.5.9.

. 4.5.9.
, . 4.5.1,
. ,
, ,
. 4.5.10.

123

. 4.5.10. .
. 4.5.11.

. 4.5.11.
. 4.5.11,
(. 4.5.1).

124

4.6.
.

. 4.6.1.

4.6.1.

.
,

. , 3 ,
, , 9
.
3- ( 6).
.
,
,
.

[2]

125

.
.

.
,
. ,

.
.
,
.
.
, ,
.

,
. () R1 R2,
. R1 . 4.6.2.
R2 . 4.6.3.
4.6.2

1
2
3
1
1
2
2
3
3

1
2
3
1
1
2
2
3
3

1
2
3
1
1
2
2
3
3

4.6.3

1
2
3
2
3
1
3
2
1

R1 R2 .
R1' R2 (. 4.6.4 . 4.6.5).

126

4.6.4

4.6.5

1
2
3

1
2
3

1
2
3

1
2
3

R1 R2
COUNTER. . 4.6.6 .4.6.7.

4.6.6

1
2
3

4.6.7

N1
1
2
3

1
2
3

N2

1
2
3

1
2
3

1
2
3

R1.

R1, K1. R2

, R2, K2.
R3 = (K1, K2). K1, K2
R3.
, 1- R1 1- R1.

K1 =1.

R2 1- R2. K2 =1.
R1

R3 (. 4.6.8).

4.6.8
1

127

1
2
3
1
1
2
3
3

1
2
3
2
3
1
2
1

R1 R2.

R1, R2 R3, .
. R
54 , R1, R2 R3 39 .

4- .
1: ,

FOR r = 1 k1, k NK
A = Ar
F=0
FOR q = r + 1 k-1, k NK
A = concat (A, Aq)
C = SELECT A FROM R GROUP BY A;
IF C = 1 THEN
A = A - Aq
ELSE
F=1
END IF
NEXT q
IF F = 1 THEN PRINT(A)
NEXT r
IA ,
.

128

afr Ar f .
k R.
NK ;
SELECT A FROM R GROUP BY A; - SQL
,
. .

.
.
= 1 , . (
).
A = A - Aq
Aq.
2: .
R1 = A R.
A1 = AR A
R2 = A R.

R1 = SELECT A FROM R1 GROUP BY A
R2 = SELECT A FROM R2 GROUP BY A
A R
, R.
A. .
.
AR R;
,
.
.
R1 R2
A = A + N1
A = A + N2,

129

N1 COUNTER R2', N2
COUNTER R2.
3: R1 R2.
FOR f = 1 m
C1 = 0
FOR f1 =1 m1
C1 = C1 + 1
IF Sf(R1) = Sf1(R1) THEN GOTO M1
NEXT f1
M1: C2 = 0
FOR f2 = 1 m2
C2 = C2 + 1
IF Sf (R2) = Sf2 (R2) THEN GOTO M2
NEXT f2
M2: r3f,1 = C1
r3f,2 = C2
NEXT f
m - R1, R2;
m1 R1;
m2 R2;
Sf (R2) f- R1.
Sf1(R1) - f1 R1 (
).
Sf (R2) Sf2 (R2).
r3f,1 1- f- R3.
r3f,2 2- f- R3.
,
R. ,
R1' R2' ,
. R1' R2'
.

130

3-

, SELECT R.
4.6.1
Microsoft Access. Microsoft Access
. 4.6.1.

. 4.6.1. Microsoft Access


( //)
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149

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158

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m q.


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159

CNT = 0
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FOR r = 1 TO m
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NEXT p
NEXT j
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GOTO 3
ELSE
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END IF
2: FOR i = 1 TO n
FOR r = 1 TO m
CNT = 0

160

FOR j = 1 TO k
FOR p = 1 TO q
IF ari = bpj THEN
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IZ = i
END IF
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NEXT i1
NEXT p
NEXT j
NEXT r
NEXT i
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END IF
3: PRINT (' 1:1, ',IZ,JZ)
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167

( bpj) (Z (Bj) bpj) ( ari) (Z (Ai) ari) (bpj = ari),


p = 1,q; j = 1,k;
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q m.
Ai .
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p = 1,q; j = 1,k;
r = 1,m; i = 1,n;
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GOTO 1
ELSE
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1: FOR j = 1 TO k
FOR p = 1 TO q
CNT = 0
FOR i = 1 TO n
FOR r = 1 TO m
IF bpj = ari THEN
CNT = CNT + 1
JZ = j
IZ = i
END IF
NEXT r

168

NEXT i
NEXT p
NEXT j
IF CNT = q THEN
GOTO 3
ELSE
GOTO 4
END IF
2: FOR i = 1 TO n
FOR r = 1 TO m
CNT = 0
FOR j = 1 TO k
FOR p = 1 TO q
IF ari = bpj THEN
NT = NT +1
JZ = j
IZ = i
END IF
NEXT p
NEXT j
NEXT r
NEXT i
IF CNT =m THEN
GOTO 3
ELSE
GOTO 4
END IF
3: PRINT (' 1 : , ',IZ,JZ)
EXIT
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i = 1, n -1; m = 1,n-1; j = 1, k-1; s = 1, k-1.
n - R1;
k - R2;
t R1;
p R2;
R1 = (A1, , Ai, , An);
R2 = (B1, , Bj, , Bk).
, i = 1, n -1; m = 1,n-1; j = 1, k-1; s =
1, k-1 , (
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R1 R2.
FOR i = 1 n
FOR t = 1 tm

177

FOR j = 1 k
FOR p = 1 pm
IF ((Z(Ait) = Z (Bjp))

and (i <> ik) and (j <> jk) THEN

ia1 = i
is = t
ja1 = j
js = p
END IF
NEXT p
NEXT j
NEXT t
NEXT i
FOR i = 1 n
FOR t = 1 tm
FOR j = 1 k
FOR p = 1 pm
IF ((Z(Ait) = Z (Bjp))

and (i <> ik) and (j <> jk) and

(i <> ia1) and (j <> ja1) and (t = is) and (p = js)


THEN
ia2 = i
ja2 = j
PRINT ( !)
PRINT ( R1, i)
PRINT ( R2, j)
PRINT ( R1, Z(Ait)j )
PRINT ( R2, Z (Bjp) )
PRINT ( R1, ia1, ia2)
PRINT ( R2, ja1, ja2)
PRINT ( R1, is)
PRINT ( R2, js)
END IF
NEXT p
NEXT j

178

NEXT t
NEXT i
tm R1;
pm R2;
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179

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180

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SQL


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181

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182

6: 1.
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c=0
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k1 = ka
a = a'1
M1: FOR n = 1 nv
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an = an2
an1 = NULL
F = TRUE
EXIT FOR
ELSE
F = FALSE
END IF
NEXT n
IF (F = FALSE) THEN EXIT FOR
FOR m = 1 mv
IF bm2 = an THEN
k2 = kbm
EXIT FOR
END IF
NEXT m
CREATE S FOR R3
c=c+1
dc1 = k1
dc2 = k2
IF F THEN GOTO M1
NEXT k
kv - R1';
nv - R1;
mv - R2;
ka k- R1';

183

a'1 1- k- R1';
an2 2- n- R1;
bm2 2- m- R2;
kbm m- R2';
dc1 1- c- R3;
dc2 2- c- R3;

CREATE S FOR R3

R3
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- 2
4
+ 3 - 5
3
+
- 3
5

=0
=0
=0

+ 8

=0
- 6

- 7

11+ 12+

=0
253

7
:
- 6 + 6 - 6 + 7 - 11 + 11- 12 + 12 = 0,

0 = 0.

, ,
.
8
:
- 2 - 3 + 3 + 7 + 8 - 8 - 13 + 13 = 0, 7 = 2.
.

(.8.3.3).
.

(. 8.3.4),
,
.

t1

P1

P2

P3

t4

t12

P9

t9

P5

P4

t7

P7

t6

t11

t3

t2

t5

P8

P10

t13

P6

t8

P12

P11

t10

. 8.3.4.

254

, ,
,
, .

.
, ,
.

.


, 8 9 ,
.
:
- ;
- ,
;
-
.
, .

. ,
, .
?
, - ,
( ).
,
. ,
,
,

255

.
, .
.
()
.
. ,
.
, , .

. ,
, .

, . ,

.
t14,
,
.
8:
7 + 8 + 13 + 3 = 2 + 3 + 8 + 13 + 14
7 = 2 + 14

8 ,
.
8 t3, t8 t13,
, , . ,

, .

,
.
,

256

, (. 2.3.3)
t2.
8 :
2 + 7 + 8 + 13 + 3 = 2 + 3 + 8 + 13 + 14
7 = 14
.
9
:
14 + 12 + 7 = 7 + 9
14 + 12 = 9
.
( (9) , 12 = 9 14 = 0)
, 9
, . 9
( ),

. ,

, ,

. ,
, .
9 t12.
.
9:
14 + 12 + 7 = 7 + 9 + 12
14 = 9
.
, ,

.
,

257

. ,
,
.
, ,

, ,
,
. ,
,
.

.
:
- (,
),

;
- (,
),
;
- .
,

.

,
.

. ,

,
.

258

8.4.
.

:
' () = () (ti) + (ti),
() = ( (1), (2), , (N)) - .
, .8.3.3 .
, 7 8
, .

. , 8

8. ,
7. 7
. 8,
.
.

.
. ,
. ,
, ,
. 8.4.1.

t1

259

t1

8.4.1.
t1 , 1 2
. 1 2,
t1. 1 2

3,

. 8.4.1, . 8.4.1,.
,
,
, , ,
.
,

..

.
, .. .
,
,
3 . .

50-
. .


.

:
1 = {000000100000}

260

t11
2 = {100000100000}

.
,

. . , . ,
. Compositional Petri Nets Environment,
.. ""
[19] . ,
. , -,
, ,

2-

, .
( 8.2.3) . 8.4.1.
8.4.1

1
0

2
0

3
0

4
0

5
0

6
0

7
1

8
0

9
0

0
0

1
0

2
0

5
6
7

1
0
0

0
1
1

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
1

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

1
0
1
1
1
2

t0
t1
1
t1
t1
1
t6
t1
t0
t0
0
t1
4
t0
t1
2
t9

261

1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
1
8
1
9
2
0
2
1
2
2
2
3
2
4
2
5
2
6
2
7
2
8
2
9
3
0
3
1
3

t0

t9

t0

t8

t5

t0
0
t1
4
t7
t1
4
t1
2

t0
0
t1
4
t7
t1
3
t1
0
t0
0
t1
3
t0
0

t0
0
t1

262

2
3
3
3
4
3
5

N
3
6
3
7
3
8
3
9
4
0
4
1
4
2
4
3
4
4
4
5
4
6
4
7
4
8
4
9
5

3
t1

t3

t4

t8

t5

0
t1
3
t0
0

t8
t0
0

t0
0
t1
3
t1
0
t1
3

t0
0
t1
3
t1
0
t1
3
t8

263

0
5
1
5
2
5
3
5
4

t0
0
t3
t0
0
t2

,
.

.
,
, .
, ,
. ..
.
, t0 t00,
7 8.
,
t2. N39 ,
3, N40 , 4.
8 , .. .
, , t2,
.
t2. ,
t2,
. ,
t2, t3, t6, t7, t8, t12, t13, ,
.

264

1 12
, -
.
, ,

,
.
, ,
. N3 N8; N11 N18; N17
N24. ,
, ,


. ,
.

,
.

.

. ,
.
,
, .. :
() R () { i | (i) 1},
i = 1, n; n = | | ; R () .
,
.
, ,
.
, , , ,
.

265

,
.


,
,
,
.

8.5. .


, .
,
, ,
,
,
.
, ,



. ,
,




, .
,

266


[18].
<, > , <, ,
>, - , ti

i.

(ti)

.
,

.
, :
(0, ) + ( ,ti1) + , + ((,tin) = ( , ) + ( ,tj1) + , + ( ,tjm),
( ,t) t;
( ,t) t, ;
(0, ) ;
( , ) .
,
,

( i )

, , ,

- .

ti
i- -
.
. i
:

+ i,

i=

267

[20]
:
i = (i + 4mi + bi) / 6,
i ,
;
bi ,
;
mi .

:

2
i

= (bi - ai)2 / 36

:
i = (i + i + 4(mi + mi )+ bi + bi) / 6,
i, i
i ;
bi, bi
i ;
mi, mi .
, ,

.
,
( ,
) ,
,
.


,
(10 15 ) [20].
,

, ,

268

.
,
.


,
[18]. , , ,
, ,
[18].
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
{1, 2, 7} {t1, t6, t11}.

8.5.1

.
t1
P
1

t1

t1

P
1

P
2

t6

t6

P
7

t1
1

P
2

t6

P
7

t1
1

P
1

P
2

P
7

t1
1

269

t1
P
1

t1

t1

P
1

P
2

P
1

P
2

t6

P
2

t6

t6

P
7

P
7

t1
1

P
7

t1
1

t1
1

t1
P
1

t1

t1

P
1

P
2

P
1

P
2

t6

P
2

t6

t6

P
7

P
7

t1
1

P
7

t1
1

t1
1

. 8.5.1.

. 8.5.1,,

(.

8.5.1,),

t1 2
(. 8.5.1,), t11
7 1 7 (. 8.5.1,).
, t6 -
.
, . 8.5.1,.
t1 2 (.
8.5.1,).

7.
7

).

270

.
. 8.4.1,. t11
1 7 (. 8.5.1,).
t11 ,
t6. t6
. 8.5.1,.
. 8.4.1, , ..

. . 8.5.1, .
8.5.1,, . 8.5.1, 8.5.1,, . 8.5.1, 8.5.1,.

.
. 8.5.1
, .

,
. . 8.5.2 ,
. 8.5.1.
t0 [1] 0=20

t0 [1] 0=20

P
7

P
7

t11 [2]
11=10

t11 [4]
11=10

P
7

t11 [4]
11=10

1=200 [3]
t1
P
2

6=10 [5]
t6

t6 [5]
6=10

P
7

t1 [6] 1=200
P
1

P
7

P
1

P
2

. 8.4.2. ,
. 2.5.2

271

t1, t6 t11
[28]
,

= 200,

= 10,

11

= 10,

= 20.

20
1000, .. .

,
.
. ,
.
8.5.1.
, , ,

t6

230

. ,
t6
t1, 30
.
8.5.1


t0
t11
t1
t6

0,20
20, 30
30, 230
230, 240

20, 40
30, 40
240, 440
440, 450

40, 60
40, 50
440, 640
640, 650

60, 80
80, 100
60, 70
70, 80
640, 840
840, 850

6
80, 90

7
100, 110

,

. , t0

20

200

,
,

23

t1

23

t6

200 .
t0, 0, 20
.

272

- t11, ,
7 , t1 t6 4
.
,

. .
:
t0 (100 - 20) / 4, t1 (840 - 440) / 2, t6 (850 - 450) / 2

,
?
[4] :
Uk = nk / ,
nk , ;
- .

:
min (n1 / 1, n2 / 2, , nm / m),
m .
,

.
,
.
- ,

.

, ..

.
, ,

.

273

6 ,
.

.
,
.

. ,

4- .
.

, ,


.
. 8.5.3.

274

t00 [8]
=20

t00 [14] =20


P
8

P
8

t9 [12] =200
t0 [20]
========
=======20
P

t0 [13] =20
P
9

P
9

P
7

P
7

P
9

t14 [9] =10

t14 [15] =10

t0 [7]
=20 ==20

t12 [11] =10

1
0

t14 [22] =10

t14 [17] =10


P
7

P
9

P
9

P
9

P
1
0

t9 [19]
t00 [28] =20
P
8

t7 [23] =10
P
7

P
8

t12 [18] =10

t13 [24] =10

t00 [26] =20


P
8

t8 [29] =10
P
5

t13 [27] =10


P
1
1

P
8

P
7

t7 [16] =10
P
8

t00 [21] =20

t5 [30] =200

P
1
1

t10 [25]
=200
P1
2

P
6

. 8.5.3. ( 1)
. 8.5.4.

275

t00 [41] =20


t00 [47] =20

t00 [31] =20

P
8

P
1
1

P
8

P
8

t13 [34] =10


P
1
2

P
1
1

t5 [30] =200 t8 [36] =10


P
5

P
3

t4 [39] =200

P
8

t00 [37] =20

P
1
1

P
1
2

P
8

t10[49] 200
P
1
1

P
1
2

t00 [52] =20

P
5

P
8

P
6

t8 [51] =20
P
5

t5 [46] =200 P

t00 [54] =20

P
11

P
t10 [43]
8
=200
t13 [50] =10

t8 [45] =10

t3 [38] =10

P
4

P
11

t13 [44] =10

P
8

t10 [33] 200

P
6

t13 [48] =10

t13 [32] =10

t00 [35] =20

P
8

t13 [42] =10

P
8

t3 [53] =10
P
3

P
8

t2 [55] =10

. 8.5.4. ( 2)
, (. 2.3.3 ).
,
. ,
.
,

. ,
,
.

276


.
,
.

, (. 8.5.2).
8.5.2

N N N
1t002018t1071035t131702t143019t008036t131803t02020t0010037t103704t004021t131103
8t83805t145022t872039t55806t04023t592040t001607t126024t0012041t001808t926025t0014042t131909t
727026t1315043t1320010t1428027t10112044t1039011t1229028t1393045t840012t949029t8113046t0018
013t06030t520047t341014t006031t0014048t0020015t147032t3114049t2135016t750033t4134017t135103
4t00160

.
t0 t00, ,
,
, ,
20 . t0
20 , 60 .
, ,
. , ,
.

. , , t7 3 :
{t00, P8, t14, P9}; {t0, P7}

277

{{t00, P8, t10}, {t0, P7}, t12, P9, t9, P10}


t7
max ((

00

14

), 0, (max ((

00

14

), 0) +

12

+ 9))+

max ((20 + 10), 20, (max ((40 + 10), 20) + 10 + 200)) + 10 = 270

.

t10 (N27). 1310 ,
. ,
,
- ,

t7

200
t5 ( ).


. *, .**,
.
t = 240 + 1350 = 1590 .
, ,
,

,
,
,
.

.
,
. ,
.
.

278

.
,

{, , , } ,
{, , ,
}, , .
, :
, ; ,
; ,
; ,

. : ,
.
,

.8.5.5.
, , ; , , ; , , ; ,
, .

279

t1

P1

t11

t3

P5

P2

t12

t7

P7

t6

P9

t9

P10

P8

t14

t5

P6

,c

t8,t2

t13

,c
P11,P3

. 8.5.5.

,
,
.

.
8.5.6.

280

P12,P4

,
,c

t10,t
4

t3

t1
P
1

t5

P
2

P
6

t6
t7

t8,t2

P
7

t1
1

P
5

P
8

t1
2

t14
t9
P
9

t1
3

P1
0

t10,t4
P1
1,P
3

P1
2,P
4

. 8.5.6.

,
(11, 3),
. , ,

,
(. 8.5.7,).
,
,
,. .8.5.7,

t13. (11, )
.
,
,
.

281


.

. 8.5.7.
t3

t3

P5

P8

t5

P6

,c

P
6

P
5

P12,P4

t8,t2

t13

t5

,c
P11,P3

t8,t2
P
8

,
,c

t1
3

t10,t
4

t10,t4
P1
1,P
3

P1
2,P
4

. 8.5.7.

.
. 8.5.8 .8.5.9
.
,

.

, ,
,
.
. 8.5.8
8. t13

282

11
8 (. 8.5.8,). (t10, t4)
4,
.. 8.5.8,.
t13 . 8.5.8,.
(t8, t2)

(t8, t2)

5, 8 (. 8.5.8,). 5
,
.
t5 6 (. 8.5.8,).
. 8.5.9, ,

t13.


.
. 8.5.9, . 8.5.8,, . 8.5.9, .
8.5.8,, . 2.5.9, . 8.5.8,, . 8.5.9,
. 8.5.8,.
, 4-
6, ,
. (t8, t2) (. 8.5.9,)
, t3 (
t3 ).
t3 . 8.5.9,.

283

t3

t3

t5

t5

P
6

P
6

P
5

t8,t2

P8

t10,t4
P1
1,P
3

t1
3

t10,t4
P1
1,P
3

P1
2,P
4

P1
2,P
4

t3

t3

t5

t5

P
6

P
6

P
5

t8,t2

P8

t1
3

P
5

t8,t2

P8

t10,t4
P1
1,P
3

t8,t2

P8

t1
3

P
5

t1
3

t10,t4
P1
1,P
3

P1
2,P
4

P1
2,P
4

284

t3

t3

t5

t5

P
6

P5

P6

t8,t2

t8,t2

P8

P8

t1
3

P
5

t1
3

t10,t4
P1
1,P
3

t10,t4
P1
1,P
3

P1
2,P
4

P1
2,P
4

. 8.5.8.
( 1).
t3

t3

t5

t5

P6

P6

P
5

t8,t2

P8

t8,t2

P8

t1
3

t1
3

t10,t4
P1
1,P
3

P
5

t10,t4
P1
1,P
3

P1
2,P
4

P1
2,P
4

285

t3

t3

t5

t5

P6

P6

P
5

t8,t2

t8,t2

P
8

P8

t1
3

P
5

t10,t4
P1
1,P
3

t1
3

t10,t4
P1
1,P
3

P1
2,P
4

P1
2,P
4

t3

t3

t5

t5

P6

P5

P
6

P
5

t8,t2

t8,t2

P8

P8

t1
3

t10,t4
P1
1,P
3

t1
3
P1
1,P
3

P1
2,P
4

t10,t4
P1
2,P
4

. 8.5.9.
( 2).

286

, ,
,

. 8.5.3,
, :

= 10;

= 200; 8,

= 10;

13

= 10;

10

= 200;

= 20

8.5.3
N
1
2
3
4

t0
t13
t10, t11
t13

20
30
230
240

t8, t2
t5
t0
t13

N
5
6
7
8

250
450
470
480

N
9
10
11
12

t10, t4
t13
t8, t2
t3

680
690
700
710

,
,
710 .


{P1, t1,P2,t6,P7,t11} {P9,t9,P10,t7,P7,t12}.

240 . (, . 8.5.1) _ .

(. 8.5.4).
250 .


: 710 + 240 + 250 = 1200 .

1590

(.

8.5.1

8.5.2.).

. ,
.

287


1.

.
2.
.
3.

.
4. .
5.
.
6.
, , , ,

288


1.

., . . .: ,
1980.

2.

, . :
: . .: , 1999.

3.

.., .. .
. .: - . .. , 2002.

4.

, . SQL: . .:
, 1998.

5.

.., .. Access 2000. .:-, 1999.

6.

.. Microsoft SQL Server 7.0. .:-, 1999.

7.

.., ..

.
"

. .,2004.
8.

.., ..
.
: C. .
-6, 175- . .. . .:
+, 2004.

9.

..,

..

.
: C. .
-6, 175- . . .. . .:
+, 2005.
10.

..

. C. . 6.

289

11.

..

Clarion. .:, , 1995.


12.

..,

..

). C. . -6, 175-
. .. . .: +,2004.
13.

.., ..

: C. .
-6, 175- . .. . .:
+, 2005.
14.

.., ..
Access: . .: -
.. . 2006.

15.

..

: . . 2- ., . ..:- . ..,2002.-336.
16.

..
// . 1979. - 2. 109-113.

17.

., ., . . . .: ,
1984 112 .

18.

Rumchandany C. Analys of asynchronous concurrent systems by


Petry

nets.

NAC

TR

120.

project

MAC,

M.I.T.

Cumbridge(MASS). 1974-p.218
19.

.. ""
. //
http://diamond.stup.ac.ru/KOI/SOFT/DESCRIPT/0007.ru.html

20.

. :
. . -.: , 1984. -264 ., .

290