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4: Developing Through

the Life Span

CHAPTER OVERVIEW Introduction (p. 139)

Developmental psychologists study the life cycle, David Myers at times uses idioms that are
from conception to death, examining how we develop unfamiliar to some readers. If you do not know
physically, mentally, and socially. Chapter 4 covers the meaning of the following expression in the
physical, cognitive, and social development over the context in which it appears in the text, refer to
life span and introduces two major issues in develop- page 124 for an explanation: . . . journey through
mental psychology: (1) whether development is best life—from womb to tomb.
described as gradual and continuous or as a discon-
tinuous sequence of stages and (2) whether the indi-
vidual’s personality remains stable or changes over
Objective 1: State the three areas of change that
the life span. The issue of the relative impact of genes
developmental psychologists study, and identify the
and experience on behavior is the subject of Chapter
three major issues in developmental psychology.
3.
Although there are not too many terms to learn in
this chapter, there are a number of important research 1. Scientists who study physical, cognitive, and
findings to remember. Pay particular attention to the social changes throughout the life cycle are called
stage theories of Piaget, Kohlberg, and Erikson, as
.
well as to the discussion regarding intellectual stabili-
ty during adulthood. Writing carefully prepared 2. One of the major issues in developmental psy-
answers to the section preview items should be espe- chology concerns the relative importance of genes
cially helpful in mastering the material in this chap-
and experience in determining behavior; this is
ter.
called the /
NOTE: Answer guidelines for all Chapter 4 questions issue.
begin on page 115.
3. A second developmental issue,
/ ,
CHAPTER REVIEW concerns whether developmental changes are
First, skim this section, noting headings and boldface gradual or abrupt.
items. After you have read the section, review each 4. A third controversial issue concerns the consis-
objective by completing the sentences and answering
tency of personality and whether development is
the questions that follow it. As you proceed, evaluate
your performance by consulting the answers begin- characterized more by
ning on page 115. Do not continue with the next sec- over time or by change.
tion until you understand each answer. If you need
to, review or reread the section in the textbook before
continuing.

97
98 Chapter 4 Developing Through the Life Span

Prenatal Development and the Newborn Objective 4: Describe some abilities of the newborn,
(pp. 139–144) and explain how researchers use habituation to assess
infant sensory and cognitive abilities.
Objective 2: Describe the union of sperm and egg at
conception. 8. When an infant’s cheek is touched, it will vigor-
ously search for a nipple, a response known as
1. Conception begins when a woman’s the .
releases a mature
9. American psychologist
.
believed that the newborn experiences a “bloom-
2. The few from the man that ing, buzzing confusion.” This belief is
reach the egg release digestive (correct/incorrect).
that eat away the egg’s protective covering. As
Give some evidence supporting the claim that a new-
soon as one sperm penetrates the egg, the egg’s born’s sensory equipment is biologically prewired to
surface all other sperm. facilitate social responsiveness.
3. The egg and sperm fuse and
become one.

Objective 3: Define zygote, embryo, and fetus, and


explain how teratogens can affect development.

4. Fertilized human eggs are called


. During the first week, the
cells in this cluster begin to specialize in structure
and function, that is, they begin to
. The outer part of the fertil-
ized egg attaches to the wall, 10. (Close-Up) To study infants’ thinking, develop-
forming the . mental researchers have focused on a simple
form of learning called ,
5. From about 2 until 8 weeks of age the developing
which involves a in respond-
human, formed from the inner cells of the fertil-
ing with repeated stimulation. Using this
ized egg, is called a(n) .
procedure, researchers have found that infants
During the final stage of prenatal development,
can discriminate ,
the developing human is called a(n)
, and ;
.
they also understand some basic concepts of
6. Along with nutrients, a range of harmful sub- and .
stances known as can pass
through the placenta. Infancy and Childhood (pp. 144–164)
7. Moderate consumption of alcohol during preg- If you do not know the meaning of any of the
nancy (usually does not following words, phrases, or expressions in the
affect/can affect) the fetal brain. If a mother context in which they appear in the text, refer
to pages 124–126 for an explanation: toddler;
drinks heavily, her baby is at risk for the birth
wild growth spurt; formatted; fruitless; flop his
defects and mental retardation that beret; double take; realizes her “grandmother” is
accompany really a wolf; it gets high marks; cognitive mile-
. stones; concrete demonstrations . . . think for them-
selves; pit the drawing power; gosling; “Mere expo-
sure”; mobile sperm banks; footprints on the brain;
sneakily dabbed rouge; parenting styles . . . lax;
heed this caution.
Infancy and Childhood 99

Objective 5: Describe some developmental changes 10. Memories of the preschool years are very few
in a child’s brain, and explain why maturation because infants’ memories do
accounts for many of our similarities.
not easily translate into their later
1. The developing brain .
(over/under)produces neurons, with the number
Objective 8: State Piaget’s understanding of how the
peaking at (what age?). At mind develops, and discuss the importance of assimi-
birth the human nervous system lation and accommodation in this process.
(is/is not) fully mature.
11. The first researcher to show that the thought
2. Between 3 and 6 years of age, the brain is devel-
processes of adults and children are very
oping most rapidly in the
different was .
lobes, which enable
12. To organize and interpret his or her experiences,
.
the developing child constructs cognitive
3. After puberty, a process of
concepts called .
shuts down some neural connections and
13. The interpretation of new experiences in terms of
strengthens others.
existing ideas is called . The
4. Biological growth processes that enable orderly
adaptation of existing ideas to fit new experiences
changes in behavior are called
is called .
.
Objective 9: Outline Piaget’s four main stages of cog-
Objective 6: Outline four events in the motor devel- nitive development, and comment on how children’s
opment sequence from birth to toddlerhood, and thinking changes during these four stages.
evaluate the effects of maturation and experience on
that sequence. 14. The term for all the mental activities associated
with thinking, remembering, communicating,
5. Infants pass the milestones of
and knowing is .
development at different rates, but the basic
of stages is fixed. They sit 15. In Piaget’s first stage of development, the
before they and walk before stage, children experience the
they . world through their motor and sensory interac-
tions with objects. This stage occurs between
6. Genes play a (major/minor)
infancy and nearly age .
role in motor development.
16. The awareness that things continue to exist even
7. Until the necessary muscular and neural matura-
when they are removed from view is called
tion is complete, including the rapid develop-
. This
ment of the brain’s , experi-
awareness begins to develop at about
ence has a (large/small)
months of age.
effect on behavior.
17. Developmental researchers have found that
Objective 7: Explain why we have few memories of Piaget and his followers
experiences during our first three years of life.
(overestimated/underestimated) young
8. Our earliest memories generally do not occur children’s competence. For instance, babies have
before age . an understanding of , as
Karen Wynn demonstrated.
9. This phenomenon has been called
“ “.
100 Chapter 4 Developing Through the Life Span

18. According to Piaget, during the preschool years 25. Russian psychologist
and up to age , children are noted that by age
in the stage. children stop thinking aloud
and instead rely on
19. The principle that the quantity of a substance
. When parents give children
remains the same even when the shape of its con-
words, they provide, according to this theorist, a
tainer changes is called .
upon which the child can
Piaget believed that preschoolers
build higher-level thinking.
(have/have not) developed
26. Piaget believed that children acquire the mental
this concept.
abilities needed to comprehend mathematical
20. Preschoolers unable have difficulty perceiving transformations and conservation by about
things from another person’s point of view. This years of age. At this time,
inability is called . they enter the
21. The child’s growing ability to take another’s per- stage.
spective is evidence that the child is acquiring a 27. In Piaget’s final stage, the
stage, reasoning expands
. Between 3 1/2 and 4, children from the purely concrete to encompass
come to realize that others may hold thinking. Piaget believed
. most children begin to enter this stage by age
Between 5 and 8, they learn that self-produced .
thoughts can create .
22. (Close-Up) The disorder characterized by defi- Objective 10: Discuss psychologists’ current views on
Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
cient and
interaction and an impaired Explain briefly how contemporary researchers view
is Piaget’s theory.
. This disorder is related to
malfunctions of brain areas that enable
to others. The “high function-
ing” form of this disorder is called
.
23. (Close-Up) A new theory proposes that autism
represents an “extreme
brain.” According to this theory, girls tend to be
, who are better than boys at
reading facial expressions and gestures. Boys
tend to be , who understand
things in terms of rules or laws.
24. In contrast to Piaget’s findings, researchers have
Objective 11: Define stranger anxiety.
more recently discovered that the ability to per-
form mental , to think 28. Soon after
, and to take another’s emerges and children
develops become mobile, a new fear, called
(abruptly/gradually) during ,
the preschool years. emerges.
29. This fear emerges at age .
Infancy and Childhood 101

Objective 12: Discuss the effects of nourishment, Discuss the impact of responsive parenting on infant
body contact, and familiarity on infant social attachment.
attachment.

30. The development of a strong emotional bond


between infant and parent is called
.
31. Harlow’s studies of monkeys have shown that
mother-infant attachment does not depend on the
mother providing nourishment as much as it
does on her providing the comfort of
. Another
key to attachment is .
32. Human attachment involves one person provid-
ing another with a 36. A father’s love and acceptance for his children are
when distressed and a (comparable to/less impor-
from tant than) a mother’s love in predicting their
which to explore. children’s health and well-being.
33. In some animals, attachment will occur only dur- 37. Separation anxiety peaks in infants around
ing a restricted time called a months, then
. (gradually declines/remains
Konrad Lorenz discovered that young birds constant for about a year). This is true of children
would follow almost any object if it were the first (in North America/through-
moving thing they observed. This phenomenon is out the world).
called . 38. According to Erikson, securely attached infants
34. Human infants (do/do not) approach life with a sense of
have a precise critical period for becoming .
attached.
Objective 14: Assess the impact of parental neglect,
Objective 13: Contrast secure and insecure attach- family disruption, and day care on attachment pat-
ment, and discuss the roles of parents and infants in terns and development.
the development of attachment and an infant’s feel-
39. Harlow found that when monkeys reared in so-
ings of basic trust.
cial isolation are placed with other monkeys, they
35. Placed in a research setting called the reacted with either fear or .
, children 40. Most abused children
show one of two patterns of attachment: (do/do not) later become abusive parents.
attachment or
41. Although most children who grow up under
attachment.
adversity are and become
Contrast the responses of securely and insecurely
normal adults, early abuse and excessive expo-
attached infants to strange situations.
sure to
may alter the development of the brain’ chemical
.
102 Chapter 4 Developing Through the Life Span

42. When placed in a more positive and stable envi- with their children is the approach taken by
ronment, most infants parents.
(recover/do not recover) from disruptions in 49. Studies have shown that there tends to be a corre-
attachment. lation between high self-esteem on the part of the
43. Experts agree that child care per se child and the style of parent-
(does/does not) constitute a ing. This may be because this parenting style
risk factor in children’s development. High- gives children the greatest sense of
quality child care consists of warm, supportive over their lives.
interactions with adults in an environment that is Explain why the correlation between authoritative
, , and parenting and social competence does not necessarily
. More important than time reveal cause and effect.
spent in day care in influencing a child’s develop-
ment are
.

Objective 15: Trace the onset and development of


children’s self-concept.

44. The primary social achievement of childhood is


the development of a , which Adolescence (pp. 164–175)
occurs in most children by age .
If you do not know the meaning of any of the
45. A child’s self-image generally becomes stable following words, phrases, or expressions in
between the ages of and the context in which they appear in the text,
, when children begin to describe refer to pages 126–127 for an explanation: pays
dividends; out of sync; intellectual summit; charac-
themselves in terms of gender, group member-
ter—the psychological muscles for controlling
ships, and psychological . impulses; moral ladder; throw a switch; talk is
Identify several characteristics of children who have cheap; slack; psychosocial task; forge their
formed a positive self-image. identity; emotional ties with parents loosen; gap . . .
morphing.

Objective 17: Define adolescence.

1. Adolescence is defined as the transition period


between and
.
Objective 16: Describe three parenting styles, and
2. The “storm and stress” view of adolescence is
offer three potential explanations for the link between
authoritative parenting and social competence. credited to , one of the first
American psychologists to describe adolescence.
46. Parents who impose rules and expect obedience
are exhibiting a(n) Objective 18: Identify the major physical changes
style of parenting. during adolescence.

47. Parents who make few demands of their children 3. Adolescence begins with the time of developing
and tend to submit to their children’s desires are sexual maturity known as .A
identified as parents. two-year period of rapid physical development
48. Setting and enforcing standards after discussion begins in girls at about the age of
Adolescence 103

and in boys at about the age of 10. Piaget’s final stage of cognitive development is
. This growth spurt is marked the stage of
by the development of the reproductive organs . The adolescent in this stage
and external genitalia, or is capable of thinking logically about
characteristics, as well as by as well as concrete proposi-
the development of traits such as pubic hair and tions. This enables them to detect
enlarged breasts in females and facial hair in in others’ reasoning and to
males. These nonreproductive traits are known as spot hypocrisy.

Objective 20: Discuss moral development from the


characteristics.
perspectives of moral thinking, moral feeling, and
4. The first menstrual period is called moral action.
. In boys, the first ejaculation
11. The theorist who proposed that moral thought
is called .
progresses through stages is
5. The (timing/sequence) of
. These stages are divided
pubertal changes is more predictable than their
into three basic levels: ,
(timing/sequence).
, and .
6. Boys who mature
12. In the preconventional stages of morality, charac-
(early/late) tend to be more popular, self-
teristic of children, the emphasis is on obeying
assured, and independent; they also are at
rules in order to avoid or gain
increased risk for .
.
13. Conventional morality usually emerges by early
For girls, (early/late) matura-
. The emphasis is on gaining
tion can be stressful, especially when their bodies
social or upholding the social
are out of sync with their
.
. This reminds us that
14. Individuals who base moral judgments on their
and
own perceptions of basic ethical principles are
interact.
said by Kohlberg to employ
7. The adolescent brain undergoes a selective morality.
of unused connections. Also,
Summarize the criticisms of Kohlberg’s theory of
teens’ occasional impulsiveness and risky moral development.
behaviors may be due, in part, to the fact that
development in the brain’s
lags behind that of the
.

Objective 19: Describe the changes in reasoning abili-


ties that Piaget called formal operations.

8. Adolescents' developing ability to reason gives


15. The idea that moral feelings precede moral rea-
them a new level of aware-
soning is expressed in the
ness and judgment.
explanation of morality.
9. During the early teen years, reasoning is often Research studies using
, as adolescents often feel support the idea that moral
their experiences are unique.
104 Chapter 4 Developing Through the Life Span

judgment involves more than merely thinking; it 20. Cultures that place less value on
is also gut-level feeling. inform adolescents about
16. Morality involves doing the right thing, and what who they are, rather than letting them decide on
we do depends on influ- their own. Some adolescents may form a
ences. Today’s identity in opposition to
focus on parents and society.
moral issues and doing the right thing. 21. During the early to mid-teen years, self-esteem
17. Children who learn to delay generally
become more socially responsible, often engaging (rises/falls/remains stable). During the late teens
in responsible action through and twenties, self-esteem generally
learning. They also become more (rises/falls/remains stable)
successful and productive. and identity becomes more .

18. Moral ideas grow (stronger/ 22. Erikson saw the formation of identity as a prereq-
weaker) when acted on. uisite for the development of
in young adulthood.
Objective 21: Identify Erikson’s eight stages of psy-
chosocial development and their accompanying Objective 23: Contrast parental and peer influences
issues. during adolescence.
Complete the missing information in the following
table of Erikson’s stages of psychosocial develop- 23. Adolescence is typically a time of increasing
ment. influence from one’s
and decreasing influence from
Group Age Psychosocial Stage .
24. Most adolescents report that they
Infancy
(do/do not) get along with
Autonomy vs. shame
and doubt their parents.
Preschooler 25. When rejected adolescents withdraw, they are
Competence vs. inferiority vulnerable to , low
Adolescence , and .
Intimacy vs. isolation
Objective 24: Discuss the characteristics of emerging
Middle adulthood
adulthood.
Integrity vs. despair
26. As a result of increased
Objective 22: Explain how the search for identity
affects us during adolescence, and discuss how form- and weakened
ing an identity prepares us for intimacy. - bonds,
sexual maturity is beginning
19. To refine their sense of identity, adolescents in (earlier/later) than in the past.
Western cultures experiment with different
27. Because the time from 18 to the mid-twenties is
in different situations. The increasingly a not-yet-settled phase of life, some
result may be role , which is psychologists refer to this period as a time of
resolved by forming a self-definition, or .
.
Adulthood 105

Adulthood (pp. 175–192) Objective 26: Compare life expectancy in the mid-
twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, and dis-
If you do not know the meaning of any of the cuss changes in sensory abilities and health (includ-
following words, phrases, or expressions in the ing frequency of dementia) in older adults.
context in which they appear in the text, refer
to pages 127–128 for an explanation: misconcep- 6. Worldwide, life expectancy at birth increased
tions about aging exploded by recent research; from 49 years in 1950 to years
stairs get steeper, the print gets smaller, and people and beyond in 2004 in some developed countries.
seem to mumble more; levies a tax; “Use it or lose
Women outlive men by nearly
it”; myth . . . laid to rest; hold their own; “Pair-
bonding is a trademark of the human animal”; test- years worldwide and by
driving life together; shower one another with affec- years in Canada, the United States, and Australia.
tion; Highs become less high.
7. According to one evolutionary theory, our bodies
age and wear out because once we’ve completed
our - task
1. During adulthood, age
by raising our young, there are no
(is/is not) a very good predictor of people’s traits.
pres-
2. The mid-twenties are the peak years for sures against genes that cause degeneration in
,
later life.
,
8. With age, the eye’s pupil
, and
(shrinks/enlarges) and its lens becomes
. Because
they mature earlier, (more/less) transparent. As a
(women/men) also peak earlier. result, the amount of light that reaches the retina
is (increased/reduced).
Objective 25: Identify the major physical changes that
9. Although older adults are
occur in middle adulthood.
(more/less) susceptible to life-threatening ail-
3. During early and middle adulthood, physical ments, they suffer from short-term ailments such
vigor has less to do with as flu (more/less) often than
than with a person’s younger adults.
and habits.
10. Aging (slows/speeds/has no
4. The cessation of the menstrual cycle, known as
effect on) neural processing and causes a gradual
, occurs within a few years of
loss of
. This biological change
.
results from lowered levels of the hormone
. A woman’s experience dur- 11. Physical exercise stimulates
ing this time depends largely on her development, thanks to
and . increased and nutrient flow.
5. Although men experience no equivalent to 12. The mental erosion that results from progressive
menopause, they do experience a more gradual damage to the brain is called .
decline in count, level of the
13. The irreversible disorder that causes progressive
hormone , and speed of erec-
brain deterioration is disease.
tion and ejaculation during later life.
This disease has been linked to a deterioration of
neurons that produce the neurotransmitter
.
106 Chapter 4 Developing Through the Life Span

Objective 27: Assess the impact of aging on recall 19. The accumulation of stored information that
and recognition in adulthood. comes with education and experience is called
intelligence, which tends to
14. Studies of developmental changes in learning and
with age.
memory show that during adulthood there is a
20. The ability to reason abstractly is referred to as
decline in the ability to
intelligence, which tends to
(recall/recognize) new information but not in the
with age.
ability to (recall/recognize)
such information. One factor that influences Objective 29: Explain why the path of adult develop-
ment need not be tightly linked to one’s chronological
memory in the elderly is the
age.
of material.
21. Contrary to popular opinion, job and marital dis-
15. Adults’ memory remains
satisfaction do not surge during the forties, thus
strong when events help trigger recall.
suggesting that a midlife
16. Cognitive abilities among 70-year-olds are need not occur.
(less/more) varied than
22. The term used to refer to the culturally preferred
among 20-year-olds. timing for leaving home, getting a job, marrying,
Objective 28: Summarize the contributions of cross- and so on is the
sectional and longitudinal studies to our understand- .
ing of the normal effects of aging on adult intelli- 23. Today, the timing of such life events is becoming
gence.
(more/less) predictable.
17. A research study in which people of various ages More important than age are
are compared with one another is called a and chance encounters.

- Objective 30: Discuss the importance of love, mar-


study. This kind of study found evidence of intel- riage, and children in adulthood, and comment on
lectual during adulthood. the contribution of one’s work to feelings of self-
satisfaction.
18. A research study in which the same people are
retested over a period of years is called a 24. According to Erikson, the two basic tasks of
study. This kind of study adulthood are achieving and
found evidence of intellectual . According to Freud, the
during adulthood. healthy adult is one who can
and .
Explain why studies of intellectual decline and aging
yielded conflicting results. 25. Human societies have nearly always included a
relatively bond. Marriage
bonds are usually lasting when couples marry
after age and are
.
Reflections on Two Major Developmental Issues 107

26. Marriages today are Objective 32: Describe the range of reactions to the
(half/twice) as likely to end in divorce as they death of a loved one.
were in the 1960s. Couples who live together
34. Grief over a loved one’s death is especially severe
before marrying have a
when it comes .
(higher/ lower) divorce rate than those who do
35. Reactions to a loved one’s death
not.
(do/do not) vary according
27. Of those who divorce, per- to cultural norms. Those who express the
cent eventually remarry. Marriage is a predictor strongest grief immediately
of , (do/do not) purge their grief more quickly.
, , and 36. Terminally ill and bereaved people
. Lesbian couples report (do/do not) go through
(greater/less) well-being predictable stages.
than those who are alone.
37. According to Erikson, the final task of adulthood
28. As children begin to absorb time and energy, is to achieve a sense of .
satisfaction with the marriage itself
(increases/decreases). This is Reflections on Two Major Developmental
particularly true among Issues (pp. 193–194)
women, who shoulder most of the burden.
If you do not know the meaning of any of the
29. For most couples, the children’s leaving home following words, phrases, or expressions in the
produces a(n) (increase/ context in which they appear in the text, refer
to page 128 for an explanation: as a giant
decrease) in marital satisfaction.
redwood differs from its seedling; goof-off.
30. Research studies of women who are or are not
employed have found that a woman’s satisfaction
in life depends on the of her Objective 33: Summarize current views on continuity
versus stages and stability versus change in lifelong
experience in her life’s role.
development.
Objective 31: Describe trends in people’s life satisfac- 1. Stage theories that have been considered include
tion across the life span.
the theory of cognitive development proposed by
31. From early adulthood to midlife, people typically , the theory of moral devel-
experience a strengthening sense of opment proposed by ,
, , and and the theory of psychosocial development pro-
posed by .
.
2. Although research casts doubt on the idea that
32. According to studies, older people
life proceeds through age-linked
(do/do not) report as much
, there are spurts of
happiness and satisfaction with life as younger
growth during childhood
people do. In addition, their feelings and puberty that correspond roughly to the
(do/do not) mellow. stages proposed by .
33. As we age, the brain area called the 3. The first two years of life
shows (do/do not) provide a good basis for predicting a
(increased/decreased) activity in response to neg- person’s eventual traits.
ative events.
108 Chapter 4 Developing Through the Life Span

4. Research on the consistency of personality shows c. whether a cloth or wire mother was present
that some traits, such as those related to mattered less than the presence or absence of
, are more stable than others, other infants.
d. attachment in monkeys is based on im-
such as social attitudes. printing.

7. When psychologists discuss maturation, they are


PROGRESS TEST 1 referring to stages of growth that are not influ-
enced by:
Circle your answers to the following questions and a. conservation. c. nurture.
check them with the answers beginning on page 118. b. nature. d. continuity.
If your answer is incorrect, read the explanation for
why it is incorrect and then consult the appropriate 8. The developmental theorist who suggested that
pages of the text (in parentheses following the correct securely attached children develop an attitude of
answer). basic trust is:
a. Piaget. c. Vygotsky.
Multiple-Choice Questions b. Harlow. d. Erikson.
9. Research findings on infant motor development
1. Dr. Joan Goodman is studying how memory are consistent with the idea that:
changes as people get older. She is most likely a. cognitive development lags significantly be-
a(n) psychologist. hind motor skills development.
a. social c. developmental b. maturation of physical skills is relatively unaf-
b. cognitive d. experimental fected by experience.
c. in the absence of relevant earlier learning
2. In Piaget’s stage of concrete operational intelli- experiences, the emergence of motor skills
gence, the child acquires an understanding of the will be slowed.
principle of: d. in humans, the process of maturation may be
a. conservation. c. attachment. significantly altered by cultural factors.
b. deduction. d. object permanence.
10. According to Erikson, the central psychologi-
3. Piaget held that egocentrism is characteristic of cal challenges pertaining to adolescence, young
the: adulthood, and middle age, respectively, are:
a. sensorimotor stage. a. identity formation; intimacy; generativity.
b. preoperational stage. b. intimacy; identity formation; generativity.
c. concrete operational stage. c. generativity; intimacy; identity formation.
d. formal operational stage. d. intimacy; generativity; identity formation.

4. During which stage of cognitive development do 11. In preconventional morality, the person:
children acquire object permanence? a. obeys out of a sense of social duty.
a. sensorimotor c. concrete operational b. conforms to gain social approval.
b. preoperational d. formal operational c. obeys to avoid punishment or to gain concrete
rewards.
5. The rooting reflex occurs when a: d. follows the dictates of his or her conscience.
a. newborn’s foot is tickled.
b. newborn’s cheek is touched. 12. Which of the following is correct?
c. newborn hears a loud noise. a. Early maturation places both boys and girls at
d. newborn makes eye contact with his or her a distinct social advantage.
caregiver. b. Early maturing girls are more popular and
6. Harlow’s studies of attachment in monkeys self-assured than girls who mature late.
showed that: c. Early maturation places both boys and girls at
a distinct social disadvantage.
a. provision of nourishment was the single most
d. Early maturing boys are more popular and
important factor motivating attachment.
self-assured than boys who mature late.
b. a cloth mother produced the greatest attach-
ment response.
Progress Test 1 109

13. A person’s general ability to think abstractly is 20. The average age at which puberty begins is
called intelligence. This ability general- in boys; in girls, it is .
ly with age. a. 14; 13 c. 11; 10
a. fluid; increases b. 13; 11 d. 10; 9
b. fluid; decreases
c. crystallized; decreases 21. After puberty, the self-concept usually becomes:
d. crystallized; increases a. more positive in boys.
b. more positive in girls.
14. Among the hallmarks of growing up are a boy’s c. more positive in both boys and girls.
first ejaculation and a girl’s first menstrual peri- d. more negative in both boys and girls.
od, which also is called:
a. puberty. c. menarche. 22. Adolescence is marked by the onset of:
b. menopause. d. generativity. a. an identity crisis.
b. parent-child conflict.
15. An elderly person who can look back on life with c. the concrete operational stage.
satisfaction and reminisce with a sense of comple- d. puberty.
tion has attained Erikson’s stage of:
a. generativity. c. isolation. 23. Of the following, which is a possible cause of
b. intimacy. d. integrity. dementia?
a. stroke
16. According to Piaget, the ability to think logically b. brain tumor
about abstract propositions is indicative of the c. alcoholism
stage of: d. All of the above are possible causes.
a. preoperational thought.
b. concrete operations. 24. The end of menstruation is called:
c. formal operations. a. menarche.
d. fluid intelligence. b. menopause.
c. the midlife crisis.
17. The cognitive ability that has been shown to d. generativity.
decline during adulthood is the ability to:
a. recall new information. 25. The popular idea that terminally ill and bereaved
b. recognize new information. people go through predictable stages, such as
c. learn meaningful new material. denial, anger, and so forth:
d. use judgment in dealing with daily life prob- a. is widely supported by research.
lems. b. more accurately describes grieving in some
cultures than others.
18. Which of the following statements concerning the c. is true of women but not men.
effects of aging is true? d. is not supported by research studies.
a. Aging almost inevitably leads to dementia if
the individual lives long enough. True–False Items
b. Aging increases susceptibility to short-term Indicate whether each statement is true or false by
ailments such as the flu. placing T or F in the blank next to the item.
c. Significant increases in life satisfaction are
1. Most abused children later become abu-
associated with aging.
sive parents.
d. The aging process can be significantly affected
2. At birth, the brain and nervous system
by the individual’s activity patterns.
of a healthy child are fully developed.
19. Longitudinal tests: 3. The sequence in which children develop
a. compare people of different ages. motor skills varies from one culture to
b. study the same people at different times. another.
c. usually involve a larger sample than do cross- 4. Recent research shows that young chil-
sectional tests. dren are more capable and development
d. usually involve a smaller sample than do is more continuous than Piaget be-
cross-sectional tests. lieved.
110 Chapter 4 Developing Through the Life Span

5. The process of grieving is much the 4. A child can be born a drug addict because:
same throughout the world. a. drugs used by the mother will pass into the
6. The impact of day care on child devel- child’s bloodstream.
opment, even if it is high quality, re- b. addiction is an inherited personality trait.
mains controversial. c. drugs used by the mother create genetic
7. During adulthood, age only moderately defects in her chromosomes.
correlates with people’s traits. d. the fetus’ blood has not yet developed a resis-
8. Intelligence declines throughout adult- tance to drugs.
hood.
9. By the age of 50, most adults have expe- 5. A child whose mother drank heavily when she
rienced a “midlife crisis.” was pregnant is at heightened risk of:
10. Compared to those who are younger, a. being emotionally excitable during childhood.
elderly people are more susceptible to b. becoming insecurely attached.
short-term ailments such as flu and cold c. being born with the physical and cognitive
viruses. abnormalities of fetal alcohol syndrome.
11. The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease d. addiction to a range of drugs throughout life.
are simply an intensified version of nor-
mal aging. 6. Which is the correct order of stages of prenatal
development?
a. zygote, fetus, embryo
PROGRESS TEST 2 b. zygote, embryo, fetus
c. embryo, zygote, fetus
Progress Test 2 should be completed during a final d. embryo, fetus, zygote
chapter review. Answer the following questions after
you thoroughly understand the correct answers for 7. The term critical period refers to:
the section reviews and Progress Test 1. a. prenatal development.
b. the initial 2 hours after a child’s birth.
1. Stranger anxiety develops soon after: c. the preoperational stage.
a. the concept of conservation. d. a restricted time for learning.
b. egocentrism.
c. a theory of mind. 8. Which of the following was not found by Harlow
d. the concept of object permanence. in socially deprived monkeys?
a. They had difficulty mating.
2. Before Piaget, people were more likely to believe b. They showed extreme fear or aggression
that: when first seeing other monkeys.
a. the child’s mind is a miniature model of the c. They showed abnormal physical develop-
adult’s. ment.
b. children think about the world in radically d. The females were abusive mothers.
different ways from adults.
c. the child’s mind develops through a series of 9. Most people’s earliest memories do not predate
stages. of age.
d. children interpret their experiences in terms of a. 6 months c. 2 years
their current understandings. b. 1 year d. 4 years

3. Which is the correct sequence of stages in Piaget’s 10. Insecurely attached infants who are left by their
theory of cognitive development? mothers in an unfamiliar setting often will:
a. sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete opera- a. hold fast to their mothers on their return.
tional, formal operational b. explore the new surroundings confidently.
b. sensorimotor, preoperational, formal opera- c. be indifferent toward their mothers on their
tional, concrete operational return.
c. preoperational, sensorimotor, concrete opera- d. display little emotion at any time.
tional, formal operational
d. preoperational, sensorimotor, formal opera-
tional, concrete operational
Progress Test 2 111

11. Whose stage theory of moral development was 18. After their grown children have left home, most
based on how people reasoned about ethical couples experience:
dilemmas? a. the distress of the “empty nest syndrome.”
a. Erikson c. Harlow b. increased strain in their marital relationship.
b. Piaget d. Kohlberg c. both a. and b.
d. greater happiness and enjoyment in their rela-
12. The cross-sectional method: tionship.
a. compares people of different ages with one
another. 19. Underlying Alzheimer’s disease is a deterioration
b. studies the same group of people at different in neurons that produce:
times. a. epinephrine. c. serotonin.
c. tends to paint too favorable a picture of the b. norepinephrine. d. acetylcholine.
effects of aging on intelligence.
d. is more appropriate than the longitudinal 20. A person’s accumulation of stored information,
method for studying intellectual change over called intelligence, generally with
the life span. age.
a. fluid; decreases
13. The social clock refers to: b. fluid; increases
a. an individual or society’s distribution of work c. crystallized; decreases
and leisure time. d. crystallized; increases
b. adulthood responsibilities.
c. typical ages for starting a career, marrying, 21. In terms of incidence, susceptibility to short-term
and so on. illnesses with age and susceptibility to
d. age-related changes in one’s circle of friends. long-term ailments with age.
a. decreases; increases
14. To which of Kohlberg’s levels would moral rea-
b. increases; decreases
soning based on the existence of fundamental
c. increases; increases
human rights pertain?
d. decreases; decreases
a. preconventional morality
b. conventional morality 22. Stage theories have been criticized because they
c. postconventional morality fail to consider that development may be signifi-
d. generative morality cantly affected by:
a. variations in the social clock.
15. In Erikson’s theory, individuals generally focus
b. each individual’s experiences.
on developing during adolescence and c. each individual’s historical and cultural set-
then during young adulthood. ting.
a. identity; intimacy d. all of the above.
b. intimacy; identity
c. basic trust; identity 23. Research on the American family indicates that:
d. identity; basic trust a. fewer than 23 percent of unmarried adults,
but nearly 40 percent of married adults, report
16. After menopause, most women: being “very happy” with life.
a. experience anxiety and a sense of worthless- b. the divorce rate is now one-half the marriage
ness. rate.
b. experience hot flashes. c. of those who divorce, 75 percent remarry.
c. secrete unusually high levels of estrogen. d. all of the above are true.
d. feel a new sense of freedom.

17. Notable achievements in fields such as


are often made by younger adults in
their late twenties or early thirties, when
intelligence is at its peak.
a. mathematics; fluid
b. philosophy; fluid
c. science; crystallized
d. literature; crystallized
112 Chapter 4 Developing Through the Life Span

PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED c. Rob, the tallest, most physically mature boy in


the class
Answer these questions the day before an exam as a d. Cindy, who is average in physical develop-
final check on your understanding of the chapter’s ment and is on the school debating team
terms and concepts.
5. As a child observes, liquid is transferred from a
Multiple-Choice Questions tall, thin tube into a short, wide jar. The child is
asked if there is now less liquid in order to deter-
1. Compared to when he was younger, 4-year-old mine if she has mastered:
Antonio is better able to empathize with his
a. the schema for liquids.
friend’s feelings. This growing ability to take
b. the concept of object permanence.
another’s perspective indicates that Antonio is
c. the concept of conservation.
acquiring a:
d. the ability to reason abstractly.
a. self-concept. c. temperament.
b. schema. d. theory of mind. 6. I am 14 months old and fearful of strangers. I am
in Piaget’s stage of cognitive development.
2. Calvin, who is trying to impress his psychology
professor with his knowledge of infant motor a. sensorimotor c. concrete operational
development, asks why some infants learn to roll b. preoperational d. formal operational
over before they lift their heads from a prone
7. I am 3 years old, can use language, and have
position, while others develop these skills in the
trouble taking another person’s perspective. I am
opposite order. What should Calvin’s professor
in Piaget’s stage of cognitive development.
conclude from this question?
a. sensorimotor c. concrete operational
a. Calvin clearly understands that the sequence
b. preoperational d. formal operational
of motor development is not the same for all
infants. 8. In Piaget’s theory, conservation is to egocentrism
b. Calvin doesn’t know what he’s talking about. as the stage is to the stage.
Although some infants reach these develop- a. sensorimotor; formal operational
mental milestones ahead of others, the order b. formal operational; sensorimotor
is the same for all infants. c. preoperational; sensorimotor
c. Calvin needs to be reminded that rolling over d. concrete operational; preoperational
is an inherited reflex, not a learned skill.
d. Calvin understands an important principle: 9. Four-year-old Jamail has a younger sister. When
motor development is unpredictable. asked if he has a sister, he is likely to answer
; when asked if his sister has a brother,
3. Deborah is a mathematician and Willie is a Jamail is likely to answer .
philosopher. Considering their professions:
a. yes; yes c. yes; no
a. Deborah will make her most significant career b. no; no d. no; yes
accomplishments at an earlier age than Willie
will. 10. In a 1998 movie, a young girl finds that a gaggle
b. Deborah will make her most significant career of geese follow her wherever she goes because
accomplishments at a later age than Willie she was the first “object” they saw after they were
will. born. This is an example of:
c. Deborah will make her most significant career a. conservation. c. egocentrism.
accomplishments at about the same time as b. imprinting. d. basic trust.
Willie.
d. there is still not enough information for pre- 11. Joshua and Ann Bishop have a 13-month-old boy.
dicting such accomplishments. According to Erikson, the Bishops’ sensitive, lov-
4. Based on the text discussion of maturation and ing care of their child contributes to:
popularity, who among the following is probably a. the child’s sense of basic trust.
the most popular sixth grader? b. the child’s secure attachment.
a. Jessica, the most physically mature girl in the c. the child’s sense of control.
class d. a. and b. only.
b. Roger, the most intellectually mature boy in
the class 12. Fourteen-year-old Cassandra feels freer and more
open with her friends than with her family.
Psychology Applied 113

Knowing this is the case, Cassandra’s parents 17. Which statement illustrates cognitive develop-
should: ment during the course of adult life?
a. be concerned, because deteriorating parent- a. Adults in their forties have better recognition
teen relationships, such as this one, are often memory than do adults in their seventies.
followed by a range of problem behaviors. b. Recall and recognition memory both remain
b. encourage Cassandra to find new friends. strong throughout life.
c. seek family counseling. c. Recognition memory decreases sharply at
d. not worry, since adolescence is typically a midlife.
time of growing peer influence and diminish- d. Adults in their forties have better recall mem-
ing parental influence. ory than adults in their seventies.

13. Thirteen-year-old Irene has no trouble defeating 18. Given the text discussion of life satisfaction pat-
her 11-year-old brother at a detective game that terns, which of the following people is likely to
requires following clues in order to deduce the report the greatest life satisfaction?
perpetrator of a crime. How might Piaget explain a. Billy, a 7-year-old second-grader
Irene’s superiority at the game? b. Kathy, a 17-year-old high-school senior
a. Being older, Irene has had more years of c. Mildred, a 70-year-old retired teacher
schooling. d. too little information to tell
b. Girls develop intellectually at a faster rate
than boys. 19. Which of the following statements is consistent
c. Being an adolescent, Irene is beginning to with the current thinking of developmental psy-
develop abstract reasoning skills. chologists?
d. Girls typically have more experience than a. Development occurs in a series of sharply
boys at playing games. defined stages.
b. The first two years are the most crucial in
14. Which of the following was not mentioned in the determining the individual’s personality.
text as a criticism of Kohlberg’s theory of moral c. The consistency of personality in most people
development? tends to increase over the life span.
a. It does not account for the fact that the devel- d. Social and emotional style are among the
opment of moral reasoning is culture-specific. characteristics that show the least stability
b. Postconventional morality appears mostly in over the life span.
educated, middle-class persons.
c. The theory is biased against the moral reason- 20. Sam, a junior in high school, regularly attends
ing of people in communal societies such as church because his family and friends think he
China. should. Which stage of moral reasoning is Sam
d. The theory is biased in favor of moral reason- in?
ing in men. a. preconventional
b. conventional
15. Sixty-five-year-old Calvin cannot reason as well c. postconventional
as he could when he was younger. More than d. too little information to tell
likely, Calvin’s intelligence has declined.
a. analytic c. fluid 21. Research on social relationships between parents
b. crystallized d. both b. and c. and their adolescent children shows that:
a. parental influence on children increases dur-
16. Cross-sectional studies of intelligence are poten- ing adolescence.
tially misleading because: b. high school girls who have the most affection-
a. they are typically based on a very small and ate relationships with their mothers tend to
unrepresentative sample of people. enjoy the most intimate friendships with girl-
b. retesting the same people over a period of friends.
years allows test performance to be influenced c. high school boys who have the most affection-
by practice. ate relationships with their fathers tend to
c. they compare people who are not only differ- enjoy the most intimate friendships with
ent in age, but of different eras, education lev- friends.
els, and affluence. d. most teens are strongly influenced by parents
d. of all the above reasons. in matters of personal taste.
114 Chapter 4 Developing Through the Life Span

22. Most contemporary developmental psychologists KEY TERMS


believe that:
a. personality is essentially formed by the end of Using your own words, on a piece of paper write a
infancy. brief definition or explanation of each of the follow-
b. personality continues to be formed until ado- ing terms.
lescence.
1. developmental psychology
c. the shaping of personality continues during
adolescence and well beyond. 2. zygote
d. adolescent development has very little impact 3. embryo
on adult personality.
4. fetus
23. After a series of unfulfilling relationships, 30- 5. teratogens
year-old Carlos tells a friend that he doesn’t want 6. fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
to marry because he is afraid of losing his free-
dom and independence. Erikson would say that 7. rooting reflex
Carlos is having difficulty with the psychosocial 8. habituation
task of: 9. maturation
a. trust versus mistrust.
10. schema
b. autonomy versus doubt.
c. intimacy versus isolation. 11. assimilation
d. identity versus role confusion. 12. accommodation
24. Research on the relationship between self- 13. cognition
reported happiness and employment in 14. sensorimotor stage
American women has revealed that: 15. object permanence
a. women who work tend to be happier.
16. preoperational stage
b. women who do not work tend to be happier.
c. women today are happier than in the past, 17. conservation
whether they are working or not. 18. egocentrism
d. the quality of a woman’s experience in her
19. theory of mind
various roles is more predictive of happiness
than the presence or absence of a given role. 20. autism
21. concrete operational stage
Essay Question
22. formal operational stage
Sheryl is 12 years old and in the sixth grade. Describe 23. stranger anxiety
the developmental changes she is likely to be experi-
encing according to Piaget, Kohlberg, and Erikson. 24. attachment
(Use the space below to list the points you want to 25. critical period
make, and organize them. Then write the essay on a 26. imprinting
separate sheet of paper.)
27. basic trust
28. self-concept
29. adolescence
30. puberty
31. primary sex characteristics
32. secondary sex characteristics
33. menarche
34. identity
35. intimacy
36. menopause
37. Alzheimer’s disease
Answers 115

38. cross-sectional study 41. fluid intelligence


39. longitudinal study 42. social clock
40. crystallized intelligence

Cross-Check
1 2
As you learned in the Prologue,
3 4
reviewing and overlearning of
material are important to the 5 6
learning process. After you have
written the definitions of the key
7 8
terms in this chapter, you should
complete the crossword puzzle to 9
ensure that you can reverse the 10
process—recognize the term,
11
given the definition.
12 13
ACROSS
1. In Piaget’s theory, changing
14
an existing schema to incorpo-
rate new information.
5. Type of intelligence that
relates to reasoning speedily
and abstractly.
7. Process by which certain ani-
mals form attachments during
a critical period.
10. The developing person from 2
weeks through 2 months after 15
conception.
12. Mental concepts or frame-
works that organize informa-
tion. ANSWERS
14. The first menstrual period.
15. A study in which the same people are retested Chapter Review
over a period of years.
Introduction
Down 1. developmental psychologists
2. Type of intelligence that reflects accumulated
2. nature/nurture
learning.
3. A childhood disorder marked by deficiencies in 3. continuity/stages
communication and social interaction. 4. stability
4. In Piaget’s theory, interpreting a new experience
in terms of an existing schema. Prenatal Development and the Newborn
5. The developing person from 9 weeks after con- 1. ovary; egg
ception until birth.
2. sperm; enzymes; blocks
6. Principle that properties such as number and vol-
ume remain constant despite changes in appear- 3. nuclei
ance. 4. zygotes; differentiate; uterine; placenta
8. A study in which people of different ages are 5. embryo; fetus
compared with one another.
6. teratogens
9. Fertilized human egg.
11. Any drug, virus, or other toxic substance that 7. can affect; fetal alcohol syndrome
crosses the mother’s placenta. 8. rooting reflex
13. Decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus that is 9. William James; incorrect
repeatedly presented
116 Chapter 4 Developing Through the Life Span

Newborns reflexively turn their heads in the direction 28. object permanence; stranger anxiety
of human voices. They gaze longer at a drawing of a 29. 8 months
human face than at a bull’s-eye pattern. They focus
30. attachment
best on objects about 8 to 12 inches away, which is
about the distance between a nursing infant’s eyes 31. body contact; familiarity
and the mother’s. Within days, they recognize their 32. safe haven; secure base
mother’s smell and voice. 33. critical period; imprinting
10. habituation; decrease; colors, shapes, sounds; 34. do not
numbers; physics
35. strange situation; secure; insecure
Infancy and Childhood Placed in a strange situation, securely attached
infants play comfortably, happily exploring their new
1. over; 28 weeks; is not
environment. In contrast, insecurely attached infants
2. frontal; rational planning are less likely to explore their surroundings and may
3. pruning even cling to their mothers. When separated from
4. maturation their mothers, insecurely attached infants are much
more distressed than securely attached infants. When
5. motor; sequence; crawl; run
reunited with their mothers, insecurely attached
6. major infants may be indifferent.
7. cerebellum; small Research studies conducted by Mary Ainsworth have
8. 3 revealed that sensitive, responsive mothers tend to
9. infantile amnesia have securely attached infants, whereas insensitive,
unresponsive mothers often have insecurely attached
10. preverbal; language
infants. Other studies have found that temperamen-
11. Piaget tally difficult infants whose mothers receive training
12. schemas in responsive parenting are more likely to become
13. assimilation; accommodation securely attached than are control infants. This points
to the importance of considering the infant’s tempera-
14. cognition
ment in studying attachment.
15. sensorimotor; 2
36. comparable to
16. object permanence; 8
37. 13; gradually declines; throughout the world
17. underestimated; numbers
38. basic trust
18. 6 or 7; preoperational
39. aggression
19. conservation; have not
40. do not
20. egocentrism
41. resilient; stress hormones; serotonin
21. theory of mind; false beliefs; feelings
42. recover
22. communication; social; theory of mind; autism;
43. does not; safe; healthy; stimulating; the mother’s
attending; Asperger syndrome
sensitivity, the child’s temperament, and the fam-
23. male; empathizers; systemizers ily’s economic and educational level
24. operations; symbolically; perspective; gradually 44. self-concept; 12
25. Lev Vygotsky; 7; inner speech; scaffold 45. 8; 10; traits
26. 6 or 7; concrete operational Children who have formed a positive self-concept
27. formal operational; abstract; 12 tend to be more confident, independent, optimistic,
Contemporary researchers see development as more assertive, and sociable.
continuous than did Piaget. By detecting the begin- 46. authoritarian
nings of each type of thinking at earlier ages, they 47. permissive
have revealed conceptual abilities that Piaget missed.
48. authoritative
They also see formal logic as a smaller part of cogni-
tion than Piaget did. Despite these revisions to 49. authoritative; control
Piaget’s theory, studies support the basic idea that There are at least three possible explanations for the
cognitive development unfolds as a sequence of dis- correlation between authoritative parenting and
tinct stages. social competence in children. (1) Parenting may fos-
Answers 117

ter children’s competence. (2) Children’s competence 19. selves; confusion; identity
may promote authoritative parenting. (3) A third fac- 20. individualism; negative
tor, such as heredity or parental education or socioe-
21. falls; rises; personalized
conomic status, may foster both authoritative parent-
ing and child competence. 22. intimacy
23. peers; parents
Adolescence 24. do
1. childhood; adulthood 25. loneliness; self-esteem; depression
2. G. Stanley Hall 26. body fat; parent-child; earlier
3. puberty; 11; 13; primary sex; secondary sex 27. emerging adulthood
4. menarche; spermarche
5. sequence; timing Adulthood
6. early; alcohol use and premature sexual activity; 1. is not
early; emotional maturity; heredity; environment 2. muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keen-
7. pruning; frontal lobe; limbic system ness, cardiac output; women
8. social; moral 3. age; health; exercise
9. self-focused 4. menopause; 50; estrogen; expectations; attitude
10. formal operations; abstract; inconsistencies 5. sperm; testosterone
11. Kohlberg; preconventional; conventional; post- 6. 75; 4; 5 to 6
conventional 7. gene-reproducing; natural selection
12. punishment; rewards 8. shrinks; less; reduced
13. adolescence; approval; order 9. more; less
14. postconventional 10. slows; brain cells
Critics of Kohlberg’s theory argue that the perception 11. brain cell; oxygen
of postconventional moral reasoning as the highest 12. dementia
level of moral development reflects a Western mid-
13. Alzheimer’s; acetylcholine
dle-class bias. Others have argued that for women,
morality is less a matter of abstract, impersonal jus- 14. recall; recognize; meaningfulness
tice and more an ethic of caring relationships. 15. prospective
15. social intuitionist; moral paradoxes 16. more
16. social; character education programs 17. cross-sectional; decline
17. gratification; service; academically 18. longitudinal; stability
18. stronger Because cross-sectional studies compare people not
Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development only of different ages but also of different eras, educa-
tion levels, family size, and affluence, it is not surpris-
Group Age Psychosocial Stage
ing that such studies reveal cognitive decline with
Infancy Trust vs. mistrust age. In contrast, longitudinal studies test one group
Toddlerhood Autonomy vs. shame over a span of years. However, because those who
and doubt survive to the end of longitudinal studies may be the
brightest and healthiest, these studies may underesti-
\Preschooler Initiative vs. guilt
mate the average decline in intelligence. Research is
Elementary school Competence vs. inferiority also complicated by the fact that certain tests measure
Adolescence Identity vs. role only one type of intelligence. Tests that measure fluid
confusion intelligence reveal decline with age; tests that mea-
sure crystallized intelligence reveal just the opposite.
Young adulthood Intimacy vs. isolation
19. crystallized; increase
Middle adulthood Generativity vs.
20. fluid; decrease
stagnation
21. transition (crisis)
Late adulthood Integrity vs. despair
22. social clock
118 Chapter 4 Developing Through the Life Span

23. less; life events world from his or her own vantage point. (p. 150)
24. intimacy; generativity; love; work a. As immature as egocentrism is, it represents a
significant cognitive advance over the sensorimo-
25. monogamous; 20; well educated
tor child, who knows the world only through
26. twice; higher senses and actions. Even simple self-awareness
27. 75; happiness; sexual satisfaction; health; income; takes a while to develop.
greater c. & d. As children attain the operational stages,
28. decreases; employed they become more able to see the world through
29. increase the eyes of others.
30. quality 4. a. is the answer. Before object permanence is
31. identity; confidence; self-esteem attained, “out of sight” is truly “out of mind.”
(p. 149)
32. do; do
b., c., & d. Developments during the preopera-
33. amygdala; decreased tional, concrete operational, and formal opera-
34. suddenly and before its expected time on the tional stages include the use of language, conser-
social clock vation, and abstract reasoning, respectively.
35. do; do not 5. b. is the answer. The infant turns its head and
36. do not begins sucking when its cheek is stroked. (p. 142)
37. integrity a., c., & d. These stimuli produce other reflexes in
the newborn.
Reflections on the Two Major Developmental Issues
6. b. is the answer. (p. 155)
1. Piaget; Kohlberg; Erikson a. When given the choice between a wire mother
2. stages; brain; Piaget with a bottle and a cloth mother without, the
3. do not monkeys preferred the cloth mother.
c. The presence of other infants made no differ-
4. temperament
ence.
d. Imprinting plays no role in the attachment of
Progress Test 1 higher primates.
Multiple-Choice Questions 7. c. is the answer. Through maturation—an orderly
sequence of biological growth processes that are
1. c. is the answer. Developmental psychologists relatively unaffected by experience—all humans
study physical, cognitive (memory, in this exam- develop. (p. 145)
ple), and social change throughout the life span. a. Conservation is the cognitive awareness that
(p. 139) objects do not change with changes in shape.
a. Social psychologists study how people influ- b. The forces of nature are those that direct
ence and are influenced by others. maturation.
b. Cognitive psychologists do study memory; d. The continuity/stages debate has to do with
because Dr. Goodman is interested in life-span whether development is a gradual and continu-
changes in memory, she is more likely a develop- ous process or a discontinuous, stagelike process.
mental psychologist. Those who emphasize maturation see develop-
d. Experimental psychologists study physiology, ment as occurring in stages, not continuously.
sensation, perception, learning, and other aspects
8. d. is the answer. Erikson proposed that develop-
of behavior. Only developmental psychologists
ment occurs in a series of stages, in the first of
focus on developmental changes in behavior and
which the child develops an attitude of either
mental processes.
basic trust or mistrust. (p. 158)
2. a. is the answer. (p. 153) a. Piaget’s theory is concerned with cognitive
b. Deduction, or deductive reasoning, is a formal development.
operational ability. b. Harlow conducted research on attachment and
c. Piaget’s theory is not concerned with attach- deprivation.
ment. c. Vygotsky focused on the influence of social fac-
d. Attaining object permanence is the hallmark of tors on cognitive development.
sensorimotor thought.
9. b. is the answer. (pp. 145–146)
3. b. is the answer. The preoperational child sees the
Answers 119

10. a. is the answer. (p. 170) 18. d. is the answer. “Use it or lose it” seems to be the
11. c. is the answer. At the preconventional level, rule: often, changes in activity patterns contribute
moral reasoning centers on self-interest, whether significantly to problems regarded as being part
this means obtaining rewards or avoiding pun- of usual aging. (pp. 175–176)
ishment. (p. 168) a. Most elderly people do not develop dementia;
a. & b. Moral reasoning based on a sense of social even among the very old, the risk of dementia is
duty or a desire to gain social approval is associ- only 40 percent.
ated with the conventional level of moral devel- b. Although the elderly are more subject to long-
opment. term ailments than younger adults, they actually
d. Reasoning based on ethical principles is char- suffer fewer short-term ailments.
acteristic of the postconventional level of moral c. People of all ages report equal happiness or sat-
development. isfaction with life.
12. d. is the answer. Boys who show early physical 19. b. is the answer. (p. 183)
maturation are generally stronger and more a. This answer describes cross-sectional research.
athletic than boys who mature late; these quali- c. & d. Sample size does not distinguish cross-
ties may lead to greater popularity and self- sectional from longitudinal research.
assurance. (p. 166) 20. b. is the answer. (p. 165)
a. & c. Early maturation tends to be socially 21. c. is the answer. Because the late teen years pro-
advantageous for boys but not for girls. vide many new opportunities for trying out pos-
b. Early-maturing girls often suffer embarrass- sible roles, adolescents’ identities typically incor-
ment and are objects of teasing. porate an increasingly positive self-concept. (p.
13. b. is the answer. (p. 184) 171)
a. Fluid intelligence tends to decrease with age. 22. d. is the answer. The physical changes of puberty
c. & d. Crystallized intelligence refers to the accu- mark the onset of adolescence. (p. 165)
mulation of facts and general knowledge that a. & b. An identity crisis or parent-child conflict
takes place during a person’s life. Crystallized may or may not occur during adolescence; nei-
intelligence generally increases with age. ther of these formally marks its onset.
14. c. is the answer. (p. 166) c. Formal operational thought, rather than con-
a. Puberty refers to the early adolescent period crete reasoning, typically develops in adoles-
during which accelerated growth and sexual mat- cence.
uration occur, not to the first menstrual period. 23. d. is the answer. (p. 180)
b. Menopause is the cessation of menstruation,
which typically occurs in the early fifties. 24. b. is the answer. (p. 176)
d. In Erikson’s theory, generativity, or the sense a. Menarche refers to the onset of menstruation.
of contributing and being productive, is the task c. When it does occur, the midlife crisis is a psy-
of middle adulthood. chological, rather than biological, phenomenon.
d. Generativity is Erikson’s term for productivity
15. d. is the answer. (p. 191) during middle adulthood.
a. Generativity is associated with middle adult-
hood. 25. d. is the answer. (p. 191)
b. & c. Intimacy and isolation are associated with
young adulthood. True–False Items
16. c. is the answer. Once formal operational thought 1. F (p. 158) 5. F (p. 191) 9. F (p. 186)
has been attained, thinking is no longer limited to 2. F (p. 144) 6. F (p. 160) 10. F (p. 179)
concrete propositions. (p. 154) 3. F (p. 145) 7. T (p. 186) 11. F (pp. 180)
a. & b. Preoperational thought and concrete oper- 4. T (p. 154) 8. F (p. 184)
ational thought emerge before, and do not in-
clude, the ability to think logically about abstract Progress Test 2
propositions.
d. Fluid intelligence refers to abstract reasoning 1. d. is the answer. With object permanence, a child
abilities; however, it is unrelated to Piaget’s theo- develops schemas for familiar objects, including
ry and stages. faces, and may become upset by a stranger who
17. a. is the answer. (pp. 181–182) does not fit any of these schemas. (p. 155)
b., c., & d. These cognitive abilities remain essen-
tially unchanged as the person ages.
120 Chapter 4 Developing Through the Life Span

a. The concept of conservation develops during roundings will often exhibit a range of emotional
the concrete operational stage, whereas stranger behaviors.
anxiety develops during the sensorimotor stage. 11. d. is the answer. (p. 168)
b. & c. Egocentrism and a theory of mind both a. Erikson is known for his theory of psychosocial
develop during the preoperational stage. This fol- development.
lows the sensorimotor stage, during which b. Piaget is known for his theory of cognitive
stranger anxiety develops. development.
2. a. is the answer. (p. 147) c. Harlow is known for his studies of attachment
b., c., & d. Each of these is an understanding in infant monkeys.
developed by Piaget. 12. a. is the answer. (p. 183)
3. a. is the answer. (p. 148) b. This answer describes the longitudinal re-
4. a. is the answer. Any drug taken by the mother search method.
passes through the placenta and enters the child’s c. & d. Cross-sectional studies have tended to
bloodstream. (p. 141) exaggerate the negative effects of aging on intel-
b. Addiction cannot be inherited; it requires expo- lectual functioning; for this reason they may not
sure to an addictive drug. be the most appropriate method for studying life-
c. Drugs may disrupt the mechanisms of heredi- span development.
ty, but there is no evidence that such changes 13. c. is the answer. Different societies and eras have
promote addiction. somewhat different ideas about the age at which
d. This answer is incorrect because at no age does major life events should ideally occur. (p. 187)
the blood “resist” drugs. 14. c. is the answer. (p. 168)
5. c. is the answer. (p. 142) a. Preconventional morality is based on avoiding
a., b., & d. A child’s emotional temperament, punishment and obtaining rewards.
attachment, and addiction have not been linked b. Conventional morality is based on gaining the
to the mother’s drinking while pregnant. approval of others and/or on following the law
6. b. is the answer. (pp. 140–141) and social convention.
d. There is no such thing as generative morality.
7. d. is the answer. A critical period is a restricted
time during which an organism must be exposed 15. a. is the answer. (p. 170)
to certain influences or experiences for a particu- b. According to Erikson, identity develops before
lar kind of learning to occur. (p. 156) intimacy.
a. Critical periods refer to developmental periods c. & d. The formation of basic trust is the task of
after birth. infancy.
b. Critical periods vary from behavior to behav- 16. d. is the answer. (p. 176)
ior, but they are not confined to the hours follow- a. Most women do not experience anxiety and
ing birth. distress following menopause; moreover, the
c. Critical periods are not specifically associated woman’s experience will depend largely on her
with the preoperational period. expectations and attitude.
8. c. is the answer. Deprived monkeys were im- b. Only 4 or 5 in 10 postmenopausal Canadian
paired in their social behaviors but not in their and U.S. women and 1 in 7 postmenopausal
physical development. (p. 158) Japanese women experience hot flashes.
a., b., & d. Each of these was found in socially c. Menopause is caused by a reduction in estrogen.
deprived monkeys. 17. a. is the answer. A mathematician’s skills are like-
9. d. is the answer. This is because of a lack of neur- ly to reflect abstract reasoning, or fluid intelli-
al connections before that age. (p. 146) gence, which declines with age. (p. 185)
b. & d. Philosophy and literature are fields in
10. c. is the answer. (p. 156) which individuals often do their most notable
a. Insecurely attached infants often cling to their work later in life, after more experiential knowl-
mothers when placed in a new situation; yet, edge (crystallized intelligence) has accumulated.
when the mother returns after an absence, the c. Scientific achievements generally reflect fluid,
infant’s reaction tends to be one of indifference. rather than crystallized, intelligence.
b. These behaviors are characteristic of securely
18. d. is the answer. (p. 188)
attached infants.
a., b., & c. Most couples do not feel a loss of pur-
d. Insecurely attached infants in unfamiliar sur-
Answers 121

pose or marital strain following the departure of this case, the water is perceived throughout the
grown children. experiment.
19. d. is the answer. Significantly, drugs that block d. This experiment does not require abstract rea-
the activity of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine soning, only the ability to reason logically about
produce Alzheimer’s-like symptoms. (p. 180) the concrete.
a. & b. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are hor- 6. a. is the answer. This child’s age and stranger
mones produced by glands of the endocrine sys- anxiety clearly place him within Piaget’s sensori-
tem. motor stage. (pp. 149, 155)
c. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter and hence is 7. b. is the answer. This child’s age, ability to use
produced by neurons, but it has not been impli- language, and egocentrism clearly place her with-
cated in Alzheimer’s disease. in Piaget’s preoperational stage. (p. 150)
20. d. is the answer. (p. 184)
8. d. is the answer. Conservation is a hallmark of the
a. & b. Fluid intelligence, which decreases with
concrete operational stage; egocentrism is a hall-
age, refers to the ability to reason abstractly.
mark of the preoperational stage. (pp. 150, 153)
c. Crystallized intelligence increases with age.
9. c. is the answer. Being 4 years old, Jamail would
21. a. is the answer. (p. 179)
be in Piaget’s preoperational stage. Preopera-
22. d. is the answer. (pp. 185–186) tional thinking is egocentric, which means Jamail
23. d. is the answer. (p. 187) would find it difficult to “put himself in his sis-
ter’s shoes” and perceive that she has a brother.
(p. 150)
Psychology Applied 10. b. is the answer. (p. 156)
a. Conservation is the ability to realize that the
Multiple-Choice Questions amount of an object does not change even if its
1. d. is the answer. (p. 151) shape changes.
c. Egocentrism is having difficulty perceiving
2. b. is the answer. (p. 145) things from another’s perspective.
a. & d. Although the rate of motor development d. According to Erikson, basic trust is feeling that
varies from child to child, the basic sequence is the world is safe as a result of sensitive, loving
universal and, therefore, predictable. caregivers.
c. Rolling over and head lifting are both learned.
11. a. is the answer. Although loving parents will
3. a. is the answer. Mathematical and philosophical
also produce securely attached children,
reasoning involve fluid and crystallized intelli- Erikson’s theory deals with trust or mistrust. (p.
gence, respectively. Because fluid intelligence 158)
generally declines with age while crystallized
c. Control is not a factor in this stage of Erikson’s
intelligence increases, it is likely that significant
theory.
mathematical accomplishments will occur at an
earlier age than philosophical accomplishments. 12. d. is the answer. (p. 172)
(p. 185) a. This description of Cassandra’s feelings does
not suggest that her relationship with her parents
4. c. is the answer. Early maturing boys tend to be
is deteriorating. Cassandra’s social development,
more popular. (p. 166)
like that of most adolescents, is coming under
a. Early maturing girls may temporarily suffer
increasing peer influence and diminishing paren-
embarrassment and be the objects of teasing.
tal influence.
b. & d. The social benefits of early or late matura-
b. & c. Because Cassandra’s feelings are normal,
tion are based on physical development, not on
there is no reason for her to change her circle of
cognitive skills.
friends or for her parents to seek counseling.
5. c. is the answer. This test is designed to deter-
13. c. is the answer. (p. 154)
mine if the child understands that the quantity of
a., b., & d. Piaget did not link cognitive ability to
liquid is conserved, despite the shift to a contain-
amount of schooling, gender, or differences in
er that is different in shape. (p. 150)
how boys and girls are socialized.
a. These are general processes related to concept
building. 14. a. is the answer. Children in various cultures do
b. Object permanence is the concept that an object seem to progress through Kohlberg’s preconven-
continues to exist even when not perceived; in tional and conventional levels, which indicates
122 Chapter 4 Developing Through the Life Span

that some aspects of the development of moral 22. c. is the answer. (p. 194)
reasoning are universal. (p. 168) 23. c. is the answer. Carlos’ age and struggle to form
15. c. is the answer. Reasoning is based on fluid intel- a close relationship place him squarely in this
ligence. (p. 184) stage. (p. 170)
a. There is no “analytic” intelligence. a. Trust versus mistrust is the psychosocial task
b. Crystallized intelligence increases up to old of infancy.
age. b. Autonomy versus doubt is the psychosocial
16. c. is the answer. Because several variables (educa- task of toddlerhood.
tion, affluence, etc.) generally distinguish the var- d. Identity versus role confusion is the psychoso-
ious groups in a cross-sectional study, it is impos- cial task of adolescence.
sible to rule out that one or more of these, rather 24. d. is the answer. (p. 189)
than aging, is the cause of the measured intellec-
tual decrease. (p. 183) Essay Question
a. Small sample size and unrepresentativeness
Sheryl’s age would place her at the threshold of
generally are not limitations of cross-sectional
Piaget’s stage of formal operations. Although her
research.
thinking is probably still somewhat self-focused,
b. This refers to longitudinal research.
Sheryl is becoming capable of abstract, logical
17. d. is the answer. (pp. 181–182) thought. This will increasingly allow her to reason
a. & c. In tests of recognition memory, the perfor- hypothetically and deductively. Because her logical
mance of older persons shows little decline. thinking also enables her to detect inconsistencies in
b. The ability to recall material, especially mean- others’ reasoning and between their ideals and
ingless material, declines with age. actions, Sheryl and her parents may be having some
18. d. is the answer. Research has not uncovered a heated debates about now.
tendency for people of any particular age group According to Kohlberg, Sheryl is probably at the
to report greater feelings of satisfaction or well- threshold of postconventional morality. When she
being. (p. 189) was younger, Sheryl probably abided by rules in
19. c. is the answer. Although some researchers order to gain social approval, or simply because
emphasize consistency and others emphasize “rules are rules” (conventional morality). Now that
potential for change, they all agree that consisten- she is older, Sheryl’s moral reasoning will increasing-
cy increases over the life span. (p. 194) ly be based on her own personal code of ethics and an
a. One criticism of stage theories is that develop- affirmation of people’s agreed-upon rights. Because
ment does not occur in sharply defined stages. she is a woman, her morality may be more concerned
b. Research has shown that individuals’ adult with caring about relationships.
personalities cannot be predicted from their first According to Erikson, psychosocial development
two years. occurs in eight stages, each of which focuses on a par-
d. Social and emotional style are two of the most ticular task. As an adolescent, Sheryl’s psychosocial
stable traits. task is to develop a sense of self by testing roles, then
integrating them to form a single identity. Erikson
20. b. is the answer. Conventional morality is based
called this stage “identity versus role confusion.”
in part on a desire to gain others’ approval. (p.
168)
a. Preconventional reasoning is based on external Key Terms
incentives such as gaining a reward or avoiding
punishment. 1. Developmental psychology is the branch of psy-
c. Postconventional morality reflects an affirma- chology concerned with physical, cognitive, and
tion of agreed-upon rights or universal ethical social change throughout the life span. (p. 139)
principles.
2. The zygote (a term derived from the Greek word
d. Fear of others’ disapproval is one of the bases
for “joint”) is the fertilized egg, that is, the cluster
of conventional moral reasoning.
of cells formed during conception by the union of
21. b. is the answer. (p. 172) sperm and egg. (p. 140)
a. In fact, just the opposite is true: parental influ- 3. The embryo is the developing prenatal organism
ence on children decreases during adolescence. from about 2 weeks through 2 months after con-
d. Teens reflect their parents’ social, political, and ception. (p. 141)
religious views, but rely on peers for matters of
personal taste.
Answers 123

4. The fetus is the developing prenatal human from 17. Conservation is the principle that properties such
9 weeks after conception to birth. (p. 141) as number, volume, and mass remain constant
5. Teratogens (literally, poisons) are any drugs, despite changes in the forms of objects; it is
viruses, or other substances that cross the moth- acquired during the concrete operational stage.
er’s placenta and can harm the developing (p. 150)
embryo or fetus. (p. 141) 18. In Piaget’s theory, egocentrism refers to the diffi-
6. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) refers to the physi- culty that preoperational children have in consid-
cal and cognitive abnormalities that heavy drink- ering another’s viewpoint. “Ego” means “self,”
ing by a pregnant woman may cause in the devel- and “centrism” indicates “in the center”; the pre-
oping child. (p. 142) operational child is “self-centered.” (p. 150)
7. The rooting reflex is the newborn’s tendency, 19. Our ideas about our own and others’ thoughts,
when his or her cheek is stroked, to orient toward feelings, and perceptions and the behaviors these
the touch, open the mouth, and search for the might predict constitute our theory of mind. (p.
nipple. (p. 142) 151)
8. A simple form of learning used to study infant 20. Autism is a disorder that appears in childhood
cognition, habituation is decreasing responsive- and is marked by deficiencies in communication,
ness to a stimulus that is repeatedly presented. (p. social interaction, and theory of mind. (p. 152)
143) 21. During the concrete operational stage, lasting
9. Maturation refers to the biological growth pro- from about ages 6 or 7 to 11, children can think
cesses that enable orderly changes in behavior logically about concrete events and objects. (p.
and are relatively uninfluenced by experience or 153)
other environmental factors. (p. 145) 22. In Piaget’s theory, the formal operational stage
Example: The ability to walk depends on a certain normally begins about age 12. During this stage
level of neural and muscular maturation. For this people begin to think logically about abstract con-
reason, until the toddler’s body is physically cepts. (p. 154)
ready to walk, practice “walking” has little effect. Memory aid: To help differentiate Piaget’s stages
10. In Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, remember that “operations” are mental transfor-
schemas are mental concepts or frameworks that mations. Preoperational children, who lack the
organize and interpret information. (p. 147) ability to perform transformations, are “before”
11. In Piaget’s theory, assimilation refers to inter- this developmental milestone. Concrete opera-
preting a new experience in terms of an existing tional children can operate on real, or concrete,
schema. (p. 148) objects. Formal operational children can perform
logical transformations on abstract concepts.
12. In Piaget’s theory, accommodation refers to
23. Stranger anxiety is the fear of strangers that
changing an existing schema to incorporate new
infants begin to display at about 8 months of age.
information that cannot be assimilated. (p. 148)
(p. 155)
13. Cognition refers to all the mental processes asso-
24. Attachment is an emotional tie with another per-
ciated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and
son, shown in young children by their seeking
communicating. (p. 148)
closeness to a caregiver and showing distress on
14. In Piaget’s theory of cognitive stages, the sensori- separation. (p. 155)
motor stage lasts from birth to about age 2.
25. A critical period is a limited time shortly after
During this stage, infants gain knowledge of the
birth during which an organism must be exposed
world through their senses and their motor activ-
to certain experiences or influences if it is to
ities. (p. 149)
develop properly. (p. 156)
15. Object permanence, which develops during the
26. Imprinting is the process by which certain ani-
sensorimotor stage, is the awareness that things
mals form attachments during a limited critical
do not cease to exist when not perceived. (p. 149)
period early in life. (p. 156)
16. In Piaget’s theory, the preoperational stage lasts
27. According to Erikson, basic trust is a sense that
from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age. During this
the world is predictable and trustworthy—a con-
stage, language development is rapid, but the
cept that infants form if their needs are met by
child is unable to understand the mental opera-
responsive caregiving. (p. 158)
tions of concrete logic. (p. 150)
124 Chapter 4 Developing Through the Life Span

28. Self-concept is a person’s sense of identity and 37. Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive and irre-
personal worth. (p. 161) versible brain disorder caused by deterioration of
29. Adolescence refers to the life stage from puberty neurons that produce acetylcholine. It is charac-
to independent adulthood, denoted physically by terized by a gradual loss of memory, reasoning,
a growth spurt and maturation of primary and language, and, finally, physical functioning. (p.
secondary sex characteristics, cognitively by the 180)
onset of formal operational thought, and socially 38. In a cross-sectional study, people of different
by the formation of identity. (p. 164) ages are compared with one another. (p. 183)
30. Puberty is the early adolescent period of sexual 39. In a longitudinal study, the same people are test-
maturation, during which a person becomes cap- ed and retested over a period of years. (p. 183)
able of reproduction. (p. 165) 40. Crystallized intelligence refers to those aspects
31. The primary sex characteristics are the body of intellectual ability, such as vocabulary and
structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) general knowledge, that reflect accumulated
that enable reproduction. (p. 165) learning. Crystallized intelligence tends to in-
32. The secondary sex characteristics are the nonre- crease with age. (p. 184)
productive sexual characteristics, for example, 41. Fluid intelligence refers to a person’s ability to
female breasts, male voice quality, and body hair. reason speedily and abstractly. Fluid intelligence
(p. 165) tends to decline with age. (p. 184)
33. Menarche is the first menstrual period. (p. 166) 42. The social clock refers to the culturally preferred
34. In Erikson’s theory, establishing an identity, or timing of social events, such as leaving home,
one’s sense of self, is the primary task of adoles- marrying, having children, and retiring. (p. 187)
cence. (p. 171)
Cross-Check
35. In Erikson’s theory, intimacy, or the ability to
establish close, loving relationships, is the prima- ACROSS DOWN
ry task of late adolescence and early adulthood. 1. accommodation 2. crystallized
(p. 172) 5. fluid 3. autism
36. Menopause is the cessation of menstruation and 7. imprinting 4. assimilation
typically occurs in the early fifties. It also refers to 10. embryo 5. fetus
the biological and psychological changes experi- 12. schema 6. conservation
enced during a woman’s years of declining ability 14. menarche 8. cross-sectional
to reproduce. (p. 176) 15. longitudinal 9. zygote
11. teratogen
13. habituation

FOCUS ON VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE a wild growth spurt. Myers points out that when you
were born, you had all the brain cells that you will
Page 139: As we journey through life—from womb to
ever have. But after birth there is a very rapid devel-
tomb—when, how, and why do we develop? In the
opment (a wild growth spurt) in the number of con-
process of becoming who we are, and as we travel
nections between neurons.
(journey) through life, from conception to death
(womb to tomb) we change and mature physically, Page 146: Trying to access memories of those first
psychologically, and socially. (Another humorous four years is like trying to read a document formatted by
expression describing the life span or life cycle is an earlier version of a computer operating system. This
from “sperm to worm.”) reference is to the similarity between the brain and a
computer. If computer software used for creating a
Infancy and Childhood
document was programmed (formatted) on an earlier
Page 144: . . . toddler . . . This describes a child who is version of a computer, then it will not be easy to
beginning to learn to walk and who walks with read the document on a newer version. Early
short, uneven steps. preschool memories may not have been erased, but
Page 144: After birth, the neural networks that even- because they were programmed on a different, or
tually enabled you to walk, talk, and remember had earlier, system (the child), they are hard to access or
retrieve later on a newer system (the adult).
Focus on Vocabulary and Language 125

Page 147: . . . fruitless . . . This word means to be inscribed with the distance in miles to nearby
unproductive or useless (like a tree that does not towns.) Myers notes that the age at which children
produce fruit). It is pointless (fruitless), according to usually succeed at important mental tasks (cognitive
Piaget’s theory, to try to teach a child who is in the milestones) is of less relevance than the developmen-
preoperational stage of development how to use tal order or sequence in which these abilities appear.
abstract logic to solve a complex problem (formal
operational reasoning). Page 154: Teachers would do better to build on what
children already know, engaging them in concrete
Page 149: In one of his tests, Piaget would show an demonstrations and stimulating them to think for
infant an appealing toy and then flop his beret over it themselves. Preschool and elementary school children
to see whether the infant searched for the toy. When think differently from adults. In order for them to
Piaget tested object permanence, he showed the become independent thinkers (think for themselves),
child an attractive toy and then covered it with his Piaget recommends that they be given specific, tan-
soft round hat (he flopped his beret over it). Very gible examples (concrete demonstrations) that utilize
young babies do not search for the hidden toy— (build on) their existing knowledge.
when they can’t see it, they don’t appear to think
about it (what is out of sight is out of mind). Page 155: To pit the drawing power of a food source
against the contact comfort of the blanket, Harlow created
Page 149: When she lifted the screen, the infants two artificial mothers. Harlow’s experiment was
sometimes did a double take, staring longer when designed to test whether food or nourishment was
shown a wrong number of objects. In this experi- more rewarding than the comfort of a soft terry
ment with 5-month-old infants, Karen Wynn cloth. Thus, when he tested the attraction (pitted the
showed that these very young children were capable drawing power) of the artificial mother who supplied
of conceptual thinking. She did this by measuring food against the soft comfort of the terry cloth moth-
their reaction time to expected and unexpected out- er (contact comfort), he was surprised that they pre-
comes. Shown an impossible outcome, infants stared ferred the cloth mother. They used “her” as a secure
longer (they did a double take) and they also demon- base from which to explore and a safe place (safe
strated a mental capacity for detecting changes or haven) to return to when frightened or anxious.
differences in the frequency of events (they have a
head for numbers). Page 156: The first moving object a gosling, duckling,
or chick sees during the hours shortly after hatching is
Page 151: When Little Red Riding Hood realizes her normally its mother. A gosling is a young goose, a
“grandmother” is really a wolf, she swiftly revises her duckling a young duck, and a chick a young chicken.
ideas about the creature’s intentions and races away. What all these young fowl have in common is a ten-
Preschoolers gradually begin to understand that dency to follow, or trail after, the first larger moving
other people have mental capacities, intentions, object they see shortly after they emerge (hatch) from
motivations, feelings, etc. (children form a theory of the eggshell. This attachment process is called
mind). This is illustrated when the young girl in the imprinting.
children’s story called Little Red Riding Hood recog-
Page 156: “Mere exposure” to people and things fos-
nizes that the big bad wolf (disguised as her grand-
ters fondness. Children do not imprint in the same
mother) has very bad intentions toward her, and she
way that ducklings and other animals do; neverthe-
quickly escapes (races away).
less, repeated encounters with (or exposure to) other
Page 154: Piaget’s stage theory has been influential. In humans and objects encourage or promote liking
some respects, it gets high marks. Piaget’s theory has and attachment (fosters fondness). As Myers puts it,
been controversial, having both supporters and crit- “familiarity breeds content.” This is a twist on the
ics. Cross-cultural research supports the basic stages old saying “familiarity breeds contempt” and sug-
he proposed (it gets high marks), but most researchers gests that intimacy creates (breeds) satisfaction (con-
believe that development is more continuous than tentment) rather than scorn (contempt).
Piaget thought. Children have more conceptual abil-
Page 157: But evidence increasingly indicates that
ities at earlier periods than his theory suggested.
fathers are more than just mobile sperm banks. A
Page 154: . . . cognitive milestones . . . A milestone is an sperm bank is where donated sperm is stored until it
event of significance or importance. (Originally, a is used for artificial insemination. More and more
milestone was a large stone by the roadside research shows that fathers are not simply sperm
126 Chapter 4 Developing Through the Life Span

producers who can move around (mobile sperm time (early maturation), it will be much less stressful
banks) and get mothers pregnant. Rather, evidence for boys than for girls. In general, for boys in their
suggests they are capable caregivers who may inter- early teen years, being stronger and more athletic
act with their babies much as mothers do. leads to more self-assurance, greater popularity, and
greater independence (it pays dividends).
Page 159: . . . can leave footprints on the brain.
Traumatic experiences that occur early in develop- Page 166: If a young girl’s body is out of sync with her
ment can have an effect on brain functioning; own emotional maturity and her friends’ physical
metaphorically, they can leave impressions (foot- development and experiences, she may begin associ-
prints) on the brain. The production of neurotrans- ating with older adolescents or may suffer teasing or
mitters such as serotonin, which calms aggressive sexual harassment. Sync is an abbreviation of syn-
impulses, is slower (sluggish) in abused children chronize, which means to occur at the same time. So,
who become aggressive teens and adults. if a girl’s biological development is not proceeding
at the same rate (out of sync) with her emotional and
Page 161: In a simple variation of the mirror proce- social development, she may start fraternizing (asso-
dure, researchers sneakily dabbed rouge on children’s ciating) with and imitating the behavior of older
noses before placing them in front of the mirror. In girls. Thus, early maturation can be a problem for
order to find out at what point in development a girls, especially if the people around them react in
child realizes that her mirror image is herself and an inappropriate or suggestive manner to their
not another child, researchers use a clever technique. physical development (sexual harassment) or make
Unobtrusively (sneakily) and without the child’s fun of them (tease them).
awareness, they gently rubbed (dabbed) some red
makeup (rouge) on the child’s nose before allowing Page 167: Gradually, though, most achieve the intel-
her to view herself in the mirror. If children have the lectual summit that Piaget called formal operations. The
concept of self, they will be surprised at the red spot formal operational stage is the highest level in Piaget’s
and touch their noses. This actually happens around theory of cognitive development (intellectual sum-
15 to 18 months of age, and self-concept begins to mit). Most adolescents reach this stage and are capa-
grow from then on. ble of logical and abstract reasoning. For example,
many think about (ponder) and discuss (debate) such
Page 161: Parenting styles vary. Some parents spank, issues as good and evil, truth and justice, and other
some reason. Some are strict, some are lax. When it abstract topics about human nature.
comes to child-rearing practices (parenting styles),
there is much variability: (a) some parents use strict Page 168: A crucial task of childhood and adoles-
controls and physical punishment (spanking); (b) cence is discerning right from wrong and develop-
others talk and discuss problems and issues with ing character—the psychological muscles for controlling
their children (reason with them); and (c) still others impulses. Character refers to the total qualities a per-
allow the children to do what they want and make son possesses, including attitudes, beliefs, interests,
few demands of them (they are lax). Myers identifies actions, and a philosophy of life. By developing char-
these parenting styles as (a) authoritarian, (b) authori- acter, adolescents learn to have the intellectual
tative, and (c) permissive. strength (psychological muscles) to refrain from acting
immorally (controlling impulses). Kohlberg proposed
Page 162: Before jumping to conclusions about the a controversial stage theory of moral development
results of different parenting styles, heed this caution. which has three levels: preconventional, convention-
Myers is suggesting that we must be careful (heed a al, and postconventional.
caution) before quickly deciding (jumping to conclu- Page 168: Kohlberg’s claim was that these levels
sions) about the merits of various parenting styles. form a moral ladder (Figure 4.22). In Kohlberg’s view
He points out that the evidence is correlational and children have to go through each of the three stages
does not imply cause and effect. Thus, there may be (preconventional, conventional, and postconven-
other factors that are causally involved (e.g., some tional) in succession much as a person climbs a lad-
children may, because of their temperament, engen- der, one rung at a time, from bottom to top. The
der [elicit] greater trust and warmth from their lowest rung on this moral ladder involves self-interest
parents). and avoidance of punishment; the highest rung,
Adolescence which often develops during and after adolescence,
is concerned with personal ethical principles and
Page 166: Early maturation pays dividends for boys. If universal justice. Critics contend that the theory has
onset of puberty occurs before the expected or usual cultural and gender biases.
Focus on Vocabulary and Language 127

Page 169: . . . throw a switch . . . This means to pull a Adulthood


lever. People’s moral reasoning and judgments are Page 177: The above statements—all false—are
affected by basic emotional reactions (gut-level feel- among the misconceptions about aging exploded by
ings). This phenomenon is evident in the situation recent research on the world’s most rapidly growing
requiring a choice between two unpleasant alterna- population group. To “explode misconceptions”
tives (a dilemma). Either pulling a lever (throwing a means to dispel or get rid of erroneous beliefs
switch) or pushing a person onto the tracks results in that have no foundation in fact. The false statements
five people being saved and one person dying, but (misconceptions) listed in the text have all been
the latter choice causes much more emotional con- refuted by the results of new experiments and inves-
flict (the brain's emotion areas light up). tigations.
Page 170: Our moral thinking and feeling surely Page 178: In later life, the stairs get steeper, the print
affect our moral talk. But sometimes talk is cheap and gets smaller, and people seem to mumble more. This
emotions are fleeting. The expression talk is cheap is not meant to be taken literally. Myers is pointing
means that it is easy to say you believe something or out that as we become older, our sensory and per-
to say that you are going to do something; it costs ceptual abilities change so that our reaction time and
you nothing just to speak about it (talk is cheap). our ability to see and hear decline. Thus, the stairs
However, action, or actually carrying out the correct appear steeper, the print seems smaller, and people
behavior, is also involved in morality. do not appear to be speaking clearly (they mumble).
Page 170: . . . psychosocial task . . . According to Page 179: Aging levies a tax on the brain by slowing
Erikson, each stage of life involves a dilemma (crisis) our neural processing. Myers is pointing out that
that has to be resolved before we can move on to the aging is accompanied by a decrease in some percep-
next stage. These tasks involve interactions between tual and cognitive abilities. Just as you have less
ourselves, our surroundings, and other people; thus, money after taxes have been assessed (levied) on
they are social in nature. The psychosocial assign- your income, there are some losses in the brain’s
ment (psychosocial task) of adolescence involves role ability to function optimally due to the aging
confusion vs. forming an identity. (This is sometimes process.
called an identity crisis).
Page 180: We are more likely to rust from disuse than
Page 171: Erikson noticed that some adolescents forge to wear out from overuse. “Use it or lose it” is sound
their identity early, simply by taking on their par- advice. When adults remain active physically, sexu-
ents’ values and expectations. Forge literally means ally, and mentally (they “use it”), they are less likely
to form or shape by heating and hammering metal. to become inactive later in life (“lose it”). If we follow
Erikson observed that some young people form sedentary life-styles, we will be like unused pieces
(forge) their identities early, while others never quite of metal machinery that suffer from rust; on the
appear to acquire a strong feeling of who they are other hand, keeping active will not do us any harm
(i.e., they don’t find themselves). (we won’t wear out from overuse); instead, we may
Page 173: As people mature in young adulthood, benefit both mentally and physically.
their emotional ties with parents loosen. During their Page 183: According to this more optimistic view,
early twenties, many still lean heavily on their parents. the myth that intelligence sharply declines with age
The time period between 18 and the mid-twenties is is laid to rest. The false idea (myth) that our intellectu-
sometimes called the emerging adulthood stage. al abilities decrease as we get older has been
During this period, young adults have less need for destroyed or buried (laid to rest) by recent longitudi-
close emotional contact with parents (emotional ties nal research. This research tests the same group of
with parents loosen); nevertheless, many still rely on people over many years and may give more accu-
their parents for financial and social support (they rate results than testing many groups of people
still lean heavily on their parents). (each group having a different age range) at one
Page 173: That gap—the years spent morphing from period in time (cross-sectional research). However,
child to adult—is adolescence. The time period (gap) both research methods have their own problems
between the end of childhood and the beginning of (pitfalls).
adulthood involves many social and biological Page 184: . . . hold their own . . . Older adults compare
changes; the person is transformed (morphed) from favorably with younger adults (they hold their own)
one type of entity (a child) to something quite differ- on tests that assess such things as general vocabu-
ent (an adult). lary, knowledge, ability to integrate information,
128 Chapter 4 Developing Through the Life Span

and good judgment. As Myers notes, crystallized Page 190: As the years go by, feelings mellow. . . .
intelligence (accumulated knowledge and verbal Highs become less high, lows less low. Our feelings
skills) tends to increase with age, whereas fluid become less extreme (they mellow) as we age: the
intelligence (ability to reason rapidly and abstractly excitement and elation (highs) and the depression
—quick thinking smarts) tends to decrease during late and gloom (lows) do not encompass such a broad
adulthood. range of feelings as they once did. Myers states it
nicely when he says, “As we age, life becomes less
Page 187: “Pair-bonding is a trademark of the human
an emotional roller coaster, more like paddling a
animal,“ notes anthropologist Helen Fisher (1993).
canoe.”
Pair-bonding refers to the monogamous attachment
formed between one person and another, such as
with a marriage partner, and this affiliation is char- Reflections on Two Major Developmental Issues
acteristic (a trademark) of human beings. Page 193: . . . do they differ as a giant redwood differs
Page 187: Might test-driving life together in a “trial from its seedling . . . or . . . as a butterfly differs from a
marriage” minimize divorce risk? Does premarital caterpillar . . . ? The giant redwood is a large conifer-
cohabitation or a “trial marriage” (test-driving life ous tree that grows in a continuous, cumulative way
together) increase the probability of a successful later from seedling to mature tree. On the other hand, the
marriage and reduce the likelihood of divorce (mini- butterfly emerges as a different creature after pass-
mize divorce risk)? The research suggests it does not. ing through a stage as a caterpillar. The question
Those who live together before marriage are more developmental psychologists ask is: Are changes
likely to get divorced than those who don’t. (These throughout the life span (from infant to adult) due
findings are correlational and can’t be used to make to a slow, continuous shaping process (like the tree),
causal inferences.) or do we go through a series of genetically prepro-
grammed stages (like the butterfly)?
Page 188: Some couples fight but also shower one
another with affection. Other couples never raise Page 194: Many a 20-year-old goof-off has matured
their voices yet also seldom praise one another or into a 40-year-old business or cultural leader. To goof
nuzzle. Myers notes that some couples have many off means to avoid work and act in a lazy manner; a
open conflicts but also treat each other with warmth person who behaves this way is called a goof-off.
and care (shower one another with affection), while oth- Some traits, such as temperament, are relatively sta-
ers who seldom argue loudly (never raise their voices) ble over time, but everyone changes in some way
may fail to be openly complimentary (praise one with age. Thus, a lazy youth (20-year-old goof-off)
another) or to tenderly embrace or cuddle up togeth- may develop (mature) into a more productive adult
er (nuzzle). Although both styles can work, the best (40-year-old leader).
predictor of marital success is a ratio of at least 5 to 1
of positive interactions (smiling, touching, compli-
menting, and laughing) to negative interactions (sar-
casm, criticism, putdowns, and insults).