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LI NI U

Ngy nay, gio dc l cha kha dn ti thnh cng ca mt quc gia. Gio dc l mt
qu trnh rn luyn nhm nng cao nng lc ca ngi hc, bi vy t hc ng vai tr rt
quan trng. Qu trnh t hc gip h thng ha, chnh xc ha kin thc, rn luyn k nng,
gip cho ngi hc c mt nn tng vng chc khng nhng ni dung kin thc, k nng m
quan trng hn l phng php t hc, lm c s cho vic hc tp, nghin cu trnh
cao hn hay vn dng vo i sng thc tin.
Trong qu trnh t hc mn Ha hc vic s dng h thng bi tp ha hc phong
ph, a dng v ni dung v hnh thc l rt cn thit. c thm mt ti liu tham kho
phc v i mi phng php dy hc theo hng tng cng t hc, chng ti bin son
cun sch "Hng dn t hc ha hc 11 ". Sch gm 9 chng, tng ng vi tng chng
trong sch gio khoa ha hc 11. Trong mi chng c phn n tp cc kin thc c bn
ca chng, phn dng bi tp v phng php gii. Cc bi tp bao gm c hnh thc trc
nghim t lun v trc nghim khch quan, c mt s cu trch trong cc thi tuyn sinh
i hc, Cao ng gn y vi cc hng dn d hiu. Sau mi chng c gii thiu mt s
t kim tra c phn p n v hng dn gii mt s cu hi, do s thun tin cho cc
em hc sinh yu thch ha hc c th t c, t hc thng qua cun sch ny. Sch do tp
th cc Thy, c khoa Ha hc - trng i hc s phm H ni bin son, trong
PGS.TS Trn Trung Ninh l ch bin v bin son cc chng 4, 5 v 7, c Phm Th Kim
Ngn bin son chng 6, 8, 9, c Bi Hng Giang bin son chng 1, 2, 3.
Xin trn trng gii thiu vi cc thy c gio v cc em hc sinh cun sch "Hng
dn t hc ha hc 11". Cc tc gi c nhiu c gng, nhng chc chn khng trnh khi
thiu st. Chng ti xin chn thnh cm n cc kin ng gp qu bu ca cc bn c
sch c th hon chnh hn trong ln ti bn sau, nu c.
Cc tc gi


CHNG 1. S IN LI
1. S IN LI. PHN LOI CC CHT IN LI
A. Tm tt l thuyt
I. S IN LI
1. nh ngha:
- S in li: l qu trnh phn li cc cht trong nc ra ion.
- Cht in li: l nhng cht tan trong nc phn li ra ion. Do dung dch cht in li dn
in c.
V d: NaCl l cht in li; cn ng saccaroz khng phi l cht in li mc d n
tan c trong nc nhng khng phn li ra cc ion.
2. in li ( ) v cht in li mnh, yu
- in li (anpha) ca cht in li l t s phn t phn li ra ion (n) v tng s phn t
ho tan (n
0
).
=
o
n
n
; 0 < 1, nu tnh theo phn trm th 0% < 100%
Th d, trong dung dch CH
3
COOH 0,043M, c 100 phn t CH
3
COOH ho tan th
ch c 2 phn t phn li ra ion, in li l: =
100
2
= 0,02 hay 2%.
- Nu = 0, qu trnh in li khng xy ra, l cht khng in li.
- Nu = 1, l cht in li mnh, khi tan trong nc cc phn t ho tan u phn li ra
ion. V d:
+ Cc axit mnh nh HCl, HNO
3

, HBr, H
2
SO
4,
HClO
4 ,...

+ Cc baz mnh nh NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH)
2

, Ca(OH)
2...

+ Mui tan: NaCl, KNO
3
, Na
2
SO
4
, BaCl
2
, AgNO
3
, ZnCl
2
, K
3
PO
4
...

- Nu 0 < < 1, l cc cht in li yu, khi tan trong nc, ch c mt phn s phn t
ho tan phn li ra ion, phn cn li vn tn ti di dng phn t trong dung dch. V d:
+ Cc axit yu nh CH
3
COOH, H
2
S, H
2
CO
3
, H
2
SO
3
, HClO...
+ Cc baz yu nh Mg(OH)
2
, Cu(OH)
2

Th d: CH
3
COOH CH
3
COO
-
+ H
+

Hng s cn bng in li c k hiu K
in li
* Khi pha long dung dch, in li ca cc cht in li u tng.
B. Cc dng bi tp v phng php gii
Dng 1:Tnh nng cc ion trong dung dch cht in li
Phng php gii
+ Vit phng trnh in li ca cc cht.
+ Cn c vo d kin v yu cu ca u bi, biu din s mol cc cht trong phng trnh
theo tng thi im (ban u, phn ng,cn bng) hoc p dng C=Co. .
V d 1. Trn 100 ml dung dch NaCl 0,10M vi 100ml dung dch Na
2
SO
4
0,10M. Xc nh
nng cc ion c mt trong dung dch.
Li gii
NaCl, Na
2
SO
4
l nhng cht in li mnh nn ta c
NaCl Na
+
+ Cl
-
(1); Na
2
SO
4
2Na
+
+ SO
4
2-
(2)
0,01 0,01 0,01 ; 0,01 0,02 0,01
[Na
+
] =
1 , 0 1 , 0
02 , 0 01 , 0
+
+
= 0,15M; [Cl
-
] = 0,05M; [SO
4
2-
]= 0,05M

V d 2. Tnh nng mol ca cc ion CH
3
COOH, CH
3
COO
-
, H
+
ti cn bng trong dung
dch CH
3
COOH 0,1M c = 1,32%.
Bi gii

CH
3
COOH H
+
+ CH
3
COO
-
(1)
Ban u: C
o
0 0
Phn ng: C
o
. C
o
. C
o
.
Cn bng: C
o
(1-) C
o
. C
o
.
Vy: [H
+
]= [CH
3
COO
-
] = .C
o
= 0,1. 1,32.10
-2
M = 1,32.10
-3
M
[CH
3
COOH] = 0,1M 0,00132M = 0,09868M
Dng 2: Tnh in li ca dung dch cht
Phng php gii
+ Vit phng trnh in li ca cc cht.

+ Biu din s mol cc cht trong phng trnh theo tng thi im (ban u, phn ng,cn
bng) ty theo yu cu v d kin bi ton.
+ Xc nh nng cht (s phn t) ban u, nng cht (s phn t) trng thi cn
bng, suy ra nng cht (s phn t) phn ng (phn li).
+ in li =
o
n
n
=
o
N
N
=
o
C
C

V d 1. Trong 1 lt dung dch CH
3
COOH 0,02M c cha 1,2407.10
22
phn t cha phn li
v ion. Tnh in li ca CH
3
COOH ti nng trn, bit N
0
=6,022.10
23
.
Bi gii
3
OOH CH C
n = 0,02 mol S phn t ban u l:
n
0
= 1. 0,02.6,022.10
23
= 1,2044.10
22
phn t
CH
3
COOH H
+
+ CH
3
COO
-
(1)
Ban u n
0

Phn ng n n n
Cn bng (n
0
-n) n n
trng thi cn bng c tng s phn t cha phn li v cc ion l:
(n
0
n) + n + n = 1,2047.10
22

Suy ra: n = 1,2047.10
22
1,2044.10
22
= 0,0363. 10
22
(phn t).
Vy =
22
22
0
0, 0363.10
0, 029
1, 2047.10
n
n
= = hay = 2,9%
V d 2. Tnh in li ca axit HCOOH 0,007M trong dung dch c [H
+
]=0,001M
Bi gii
HCOOH + H
2
O H
-
+ H
3
O
+

Ban u: 0,007 0
Phn ng: 0,007. 0,007.
Cn bng: 0,007(1-) 0,007.
Theo phng trnh ta c: [H
+
] = 0,007. (M) 0,007. = 0,001
=
0
0, 001
0,1428
0, 007
C
C
= = hay = 14,28%.
V d 3. a) Tnh in li ca dung dch NH
3
0,010M.
b) in li thay i ra sao khi
- Pha long dung dch ra 50 ln.
- Khi c mt NaOH 0,0010M.
Bit: NH
3
+ H
2
O NH
4
+
+ OH
-
; K
b
=
] [
] ].[ [
3
4
NH
OH NH
+
=10
-3,36
Bi gii
a) Tnh in li ca dung dch NH
3
0,010M:
NH
3
+ H
2
O NH
4
+
+ OH
-
K
b
= 10
-3,36

Ban u: C
o
C
o

phn ng: C
o
C
o
C
o
C
o

cn bng: C
0
(1- ) C
o
C
o


2
3,36 0
10
1
C

= 18,8%
b) * Pha long dung dch ra 50 ln:
3
NH
C = 10
-2
: 50 = 2.10
-4
M =C
o

4 2
3,36
2.10
10
1

= 74,5%
in li tng v nng cng nh mt ion cng t th kh nng tng tc gia
cc ion to cht in li cng gim, in li cng ln.
* Khi c mt NaOH 0,0010M: NaOH Na
+
+ OH
-

NH
3
+ H
2
O NH
4
+
+ OH
-
K
b
= 10
-3,36
(1)
Ban u: C
o
C
o
0 1. 10
-3

phn ng: C
o
C
o
C
o
(C
o
+10
-3
)
cn bng: C
0
(1- ) C
o
(C
o
+10
-3
)
V C
o
= 0,01M
3
3,36 0 0
0
( ' 10 ). '
10
(1 ').
C C
C

+
=

= 14,9% <18,8%
Nhn xt: gim v OH
-
ca NaOH lm chuyn dch cn bng (1) sang tri.
Dng 3: Tnh pH ca dung dch khi bit in li v hng s K
a
, K
b
Phng php gii
+ Vit phng trnh in li ca cc cht.
+ Biu din s mol cc cht trong phng trnh theo tng thi im (ban u, phn ng, cn
bng) ty theo yu cu v d kin bi ton.
+ Vi cc cht in li yu l axit HA: HA H
+
+ A
-
.
Hng s in li:
+ -
[H ].[A ]
[HA]
a
K =
+ Vi cc cht in li yu l baz BOH: BOH B
+
+ OH
-
.
Hng s in li:
+ -
[B ].[OH ]
[BOH]
b
K =
+ [H
+
].[OH
-
] = 10
-14
+ Tnh pH ca dung dch axit: Xc nh nng mol/l ca ion H
+
trong dung dch trng
thi cn bng pH=-lg([H
+
])
+Tnh pH ca dung dch baz: Xc nh nng mol/l ca ion OH
-
trong dung dch trng
thi cn bng [H
+
] pH, hoc pH = 14-pOH= 14+lg([OH
-
]).
V d 1. Cho cn bng trong dung dch:CH
3
COOH + H
2
O CH
3
COO
-
+ H
3
O
+

Tnh pH ca dung dch CH
3
COOH 0,1M (K
a
= 1,75.10
-5
).
Bi gii
CH
3
COOH + H
2
O CH
3
COO
-
+ H
3
O
+

Ban u 0,1 0 0
Phn ng x x x
Cn bng 0,1 - x x x
K
a
=
] [
] ][ [
3
3 3
COOH CH
COO CH O H
+
=
) 1 , 0 (
2
x
x

= 1,75.10
-5

Gi s x << 0,1; ta c x
2
= 1,75.10
-6
x = 1,32.10
-3
(tho mn iu gi s)
Vy [H
+
] = 1,32.10
-3
pH = 2,9.
V d 2. a. Tnh pH ca dung dch Ba(OH)
2
0,025 M c = 0,8
b. Tnh pH ca dung dch CH
3
COOH 0,01 M c = 4,25%
Bi gii
a. Ba(OH)
2
Ba
2+
+ 2OH
-

Ban u: 0,025 0 0
Phn ng: 0,025. 0,025. 2.0,025.
Cn li: 0,025(1-) 0,025. 2.0,025.
Theo phng trnh: [OH
-
] = 2.0,025. = 2.0,025. 0,8 = 0,04 M
Do tch s ion ca nc: [H
+
].[OH
-
] = 10
-14
nn [H
+
] =
14
14
10
25.10
0, 04

=
Vy pH = -lg(25.10
-14
) = 12,60.
b. CH
3
COOH + H
2
O CH
3
COO
-
+ H
3
O
+

Ban u: 0,01 0 0
Phn ng: 0,01. 0,01. 0,01.
Cn bng: 0,01(1-) 0,01. 0,01.
[H
3
O
+
]= [H
+
] = 0,01. = 0,01.0,0425= 4,25.10
-4

Vy pH = -lg(4,25.10
-4
) = 3,372.

C. Bi tp n luyn
Bi 1. a. Tnh nng mol/l ca ion Ca
2+
, OH
-
trong dung dch Ca(OH)
2
0,025 M c =
0,8.
b. Tnh nng mol/l ca ion CH
3
COO
-
, H
+
trong dung dch CH
3
COOH 0,01 M c
= 4,25%.
Bi 2. Tnh nng mol/l ca cc ion trong dung dch CH
3
COONa 1,087mol/l, bit hng s
phn li baz ca CH
3
COO
-
l K
b
= 5,75.10
-10
.
Bi 3. Tnh nng mol/l ca cc ion trong dung dch HNO
2
0,100 mol/l. Bit hng s phn
li ca axit HNO
2
l K
a
= 4,0.10
-10
.
Bi 4. Tnh th tch dung dch KOH 14% ( d= 1,128 g/ml) c cha s mol OH
-
bng s mol
OH
-
c trong 0,2 lt dung dch NaOH 5M.
Bi 5. Tnh nng mol ca ion H
+
trong dung dch NH
4
Cl 0,1 M. Bit hng s phn li baz
K
b
(NH
3
) = 1,8.10
-5
.
Bi 6. Tnh in ly v pH ca dung dch HCOOH 1M v dung dch HCOOH 10
2
M.
Bit hng s Ka ca HCOOH l 1,7. 10
4
. So snh ca HCOOH 2 dung dch . Gii
thch.
Bi 7. a. Metytamin trong nc c xy ra phn ng:
CH
3
NH
2
+ H
2
O CH
3
NH
3
+
+ OH
-
Hng s baz K
b
= 4.10
-4
.
Hy tnh in li ca metylamin, bit rng dung dch c pH = 12. Tch s ion ca nc l
10
-14
.
b. in li thay i ra sao (nh tnh) nu thm vo 1 lt metylamin 0,10M:
+ 0,010 mol HCl.
+ 0.010 mol NaOH.
Bi 8. Mt axit CH
3
COOH 0,1M c K
a
=1,58.10
-5
. tnh phn li ca axit v PH ca dung
dch cha axit CH
3
COOH 0,1M.
Bi 9. Gi tr PH ca mt axit n l 2,536. sau khi pha long gp i th PH ca dung dch
l 2,692.
a. Tnh hng s phn li ca axit.
b. Tnh nng mol/l ca axit ban u.
p s v hng dn gii
Bi 1. a. Ba(OH)
2
Ba
2+
+ 2OH
-

Ban u: 0,025 0 0
Phn ng: 0,025. 0,025. 2.0,025.
Cn li: 0,025(1-) 0,025. 2.0,025.
Theo phng trnh: [OH
-
] = 2.0,025. = 2.0,025. 0,8 = 0,04 M
[Ba
2+
] = 0,025. = 0,025. 0,8 = 0,02 M
b. [H
3
O
+
]= [H
+
] = 0,01. = 0,01.0,0425= 4,25.10
-4
M
[CH
3
COO
-
] = [H
3
O
+
]=4,25.10
-4
M.

Bi 2. CH
3
COONa CH
3
COO
-
+ Na
+

1,087M 1,087M 1,087M

CH
3
COO
-
+ H
2
O CH
3
COOH + OH
-

Ban u: 1,087 M 0 0
Phn ng: 1,087. 1,087. 1,087.
Cn bng: 1,087.(1-) 1,087. 1,087.
Ta c:
-
3
3 2
[OH ].[ ] (1,087. ).(1,087. )
[ ].[ ] 1,087(1- )
b
CH COOH
k
CH COO H O

= = =5,75.10
-10
.
Gi s 1 nn b qua (1-). Suy ra: 1,087.
2
= 5,75.10
-10
= 2,3.10
-5
tha mn iu gi s.
Vy [ Na
+
] = 1,087M ; [OH
-
] = 2,5. 10
-5
M. ; [CH
3
COO
-
]=1,086975 M.
Bi 3. Tng t bi 2.
p s: = 6,3245.10
-5
; [H
+
] = [NO
2
-
]= 6,3245.10
-6
M.
Bi 4. n
OH
-
= 0,2.5 = 0,1 mol.
V =
dd
.100 56.0,1.100
35, 461
d . (%) 1,128.14
ct
m m
d C
= = = ml
Bi 5. NH
4
Cl NH
4
+
+ Cl
-

0,1 0,1 0,1
NH
4
+
+ H
2
O NH
3
+ H
3
O
+

Ban u 0,1 0 0
Cn bng 0,1 - x x x
K
a
=
] [
] ][ [
4
3 3
+
+
NH
NH O H
=
) 1 , 0 (
2
x
x

;K
a
(NH
4
+
) . K
b
(NH
3
) = 10
-14

K
a
(NH
4
+
) = 10
-14
.1,8.10
-5
= 5,6.10
-10
. Gi s x << 0,1; ta c
x
2
= 5,6.10
-11
x = 0,75.10
-5
(tho mn iu gi s). Vy [H
+
] = 0,75.10
-5

Bi 6. HCOOH + H
2
O HCOO
-
+ H
3
O
+

Ban u: 1M 0 0
Phn ng:
Cn bng: (1-)
Ta c:
+ 2
3
2
[H ].[ ]
[ ].[ ] (1- )
b
O HCOO
k
HCOOH H O

= = =1,7. 10
4

Gi s 1 nn b qua (1-). Suy ra:
2
= 1,7. 10
4
= 0,013. tha mn . Hay = 1,3%. Vy [H
3
O
+
] = 0,013M pH = 1,8848.
+ Khi [HCOOH]
0
= 0,01M.
HCOOH + H
2
O HCOO
-
+ H
3
O
+

Ban u: 0,01M 0 0
Phn ng: 0,01 0,01 0,01
Cn bng: 0,01(1-) 0,01 0,01
Ta c:
+ 2
3
2
[H ].[ ] 0, 01. '
[ ].[ ] (1- ' )
b
O HCOO
k
HCOOH H O

= = = 1,7. 10
4
= 0,1222 Hay = 12,22%
Nhn xt: Nng ban u gim th in li tng.
Bi 7. a. CH
3
NH
2
+ H
2
O CH
3
NH
3
+
+ OH
-

Ban u: C
o
(M) 0 0
Phn ng: . C
o
C
o
C
o

Cn bng: C
o
(1-) C
o
C
o

Ta c: pH = 12 [H
+
] = 10
-12
[OH
-
] = 10
-2
M C
o
= 0,01
2
0
.
(1- )
b
C
k

= = 4.10
-4
= 0,03846
b. + Thm 0,01 mol HCl: HCl phn ng vi OH
-
lm cn bng dch chuyn theo chiu
thun nn in li tng ln.
+ Thm 0,010 mol NaOH: NaOH phn li ra ion OH
-
lm tng nng ion OH
-
, do
cn bng dch chuyn theo chiu nghch(sang bn tri), lm in li gim xung.
Bi 8. = 0,01257 hay = = 1,257% ; pH = 2,901
Bi 9. a. Hng s phn li ca axit. K
a
= 1,83.10
-4

b. Nng mol/l ca axit ban u l 0,049M.

D. Bi tp trc nghim
Cu 1. Cho cc cht sau: H
2
S; H
2
SO
3
; CH
4
; SO
2
; KHCO
3
; HF; NaClO; C
6
H
6
; Ba(OH)
2
;
C
12
H
22
O
11.
S cht in li l
A. 5. B.6. C.7. D.8.
Cu 2. C 3 dung dch , mi dung dch c cha 1 cation v 1 anion trong s cc ion sau
(khng trng lp gia cc dung dch): Ba
2+
, Mg
2+
, Na
+
, PO
3-
4
, Cl
-
, v OH
-
. Vy 3 dung dch
l:
A. Mg
3
(PO
4
)
2
, Ba(OH)
2
v NaCl B. Mg(OH)
2
, Na
3
PO
4
v BaCl
2

C. Ba
3
(PO
4
)
2
, MgCl
2
v NaOH. D. MgCl
2
, Ba(OH)
2
v Na
3
PO
4

Cu 3. Nu ta k hiu n, N, C l (s mol, s phn t, nng ) phn li; n
o
, N
o
, C
O
l (s mol,
s phn t, nng ) ban u. phn li chnh l
A. n/n
o
B. N/N
o
C. C/C
o
D. tt c u ng
Cu 4. Dung dch axit HA 0,1 M (HA H
+
+ A
-
) c pH=2. vy c gi tr l
A. 0,1 B. 0,01 C. 0,2 D. 0,02
Cu 5. Tng nng cc ion ca dung dch BaCl
2
0,01 M l:
A. 0,03M B. 0,04 M C. 0,01M D. 0,02M
Cu 6 (2007_khi A): Dung dch HCl v dung dch CH
3
COOH c cng nng mol/l, pH
ca hai dung dch tng ng l x v y. Quan h gia x v y l (gi thit, c 100 phn t
CH
3
COOH th c 1 phn t in li):
A. y=x-2. B. y=100x. C. y=x+2. D. y=2x.
Cu 7. Trong 1ml dung dch HNO
2
c 5,64.10
19
phn t HNO
2
v 3,60.10
18
ion NO
2
-
.
in li ca HNO
2
trong dung dch l
A. 4,2%. B. 5%. C. 6%. D. 8%.
Cu 8. 200ml dung dch natri sunfat 0,2M in li hon ton to ra:
A. 0,02mol Na
+
, 0,04mol SO
4
2-
B. 0,04mol Na
+
, 0,02mol SO
4
2-

C. 0,06mol Na
+
, 0,04mol SO
4
2-
D. 0,08mol Na
+
, 0,04mol SO
4
2-
Cu 9. Dung dch CH
3
COOH 0,6% c khi lng ring d = 1g/ml. in li =1%. [H
+
]
trong dung dch c gi tr
A. 0,100M. B. 0,010M. C. 0,001M. D. 0,020M.
Cu 10. Dung dch c cha tng s mol ion bng tng s mol ion ca dung dch CaCl
2
1M l
dung dch
A. Na
3
PO
4
0,5M B. CuSO
4
1M C. Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
0,05M D. Na
2
SO
4
1M
Cu 11. Khi thay i nhit ca mt dung dch cht in li yu (c nng khng
i) th:
A. in li v hng s in li u khng thay i
B. in li thay i v hng s in li khng thay i
C. in li v hng s in li u thay i
D. in li khng i v hng s in li thay i
Cu 12. Hng s cn bng K
a
ca axt axetic l 1,8.10
-5
. in li ca CH
3
COOH trong
dung dch 0,1 M l:
A. 1,43% B. 0,67% C. 1,34% D. 2,34%
Cu 13. Cho cc axit sau:
(1). H
3
PO
4
(K
a
= 7,6 . 10
-3
) (2). HOCl (K
a
= 5 . 10
-8
)
(3). CH
3
COOH (K
a
= 1,8 . 10
-5
) (4). HSO
4
-
(K
a
= 10
-2
)
Sp xp mnh ca cc axit theo th t tng dn:
A. (2) < (1) < (3) < (4) B. (4) < (1) < (3) < (2)
C. 4) < (3) < (1) < (2) D. (2) < (3) < (1) < (4)
Cu 14. Trong qu trnh in li, nc ng vai tr:
A. Mi trng in li B. Dung mi khng phn cc
C. Dung mi phn cc D. To lin kt hiro vi cc cht tan
Cu 15. Trong nhng cht sau, cht no l cht in li mnh?
1. NaCl 2. Ba(OH)
2
3. Cu(NO
3
)
2
4. H
2
S 5. Cu(OH)
2
6. HClO
4
A. 1, 2, 3, 6. B. 1, 4, 5, 6. C. 2, 3, 4, 5. D. 1, 2, 3
Cu 16. Ho tan x mol Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
vo nc thu c dung dch c cha 0,6 mol SO
4
2-
, th
gi tr ca x l
A. 1,8 mol

B.

0,4 mol C. 0,2 mol D.

0,6 mol


Cu 17. Dy ch gm cc cht in li yu l
A. HF, HCl, HBr, HI, H
2
O.

B. KOH, KF, NaCN, KHCO
3
.
C. HF, Cu(OH)
2
, HClO, H
2
S. D. HI,KCN, CH
3
COONa, NaHSO
3

Cu 18. Mt phn t amoni photphat in li hon ton to ra:
A. NH
4
+
, PO
4
3-
B. NH
4
+
, 3PO
4
3-
C.3NH
4
+
, 2PO
4
3-
D. 3NH
4
+
, PO
4
3-
Cu 19. Cho cc yu t: Bn cht ha hc ca cht in li (1); Nhit mi trng (2); nng
cht in li (3). in li ca cht in li ph thuc vo yu t
A. (1);(2). B. (2); (3). C. (1);(3). D. (1);(2); (3).
Cu 20. Dung dch CH
3
COOH trong nc c nng 0,1 M, = 1% c pH l:
A. 11 B. 3 C. 5 D. 7.

P N V HNG DN
1.B 2.D 3.D 4.A 5.A 6.C 7.C 8.D 9.C 10.D
11.C 12.C 13.D 14.C 15.A 16.C 17.C 18.D 19.D 20.B


Cu 4. HA H
+
+ A
-
Ban u: 0,1

Phn ng: 0,1 0,1 0,1
Cn bng: 0,1 (1 ) 0,1 0,1
2
0,1 2 10 H pH H M
+ +
( ( = = =

2
0,1 10 0,1 10%

= = =
Cu 6. HCl l axit mnh 1 = ,ta c: HCl H
+
+ Cl



0
0
10
10
x
x
H C
C
pH x H
+

+
( =

=

( = =


(1)

V c 100 phn t CH
3
COOH th c 1 phn t in li
1
0, 01
100
= =
3
CH COOH
3
CH COO

+ H
+

b
0
C
p
0
C
0
C
0
C
cb
0
(1 ) C
0
C
0
C

+
0
pH= y H 10 10
y y
C

( = =


2
0
10 10
10
0, 01
y y
y
C


+
= = = = (2)
t (1),(2)
2
10 10 2
x y
x y
+
= + =
Cu 7.
18
19 18
3, 6.10
.100 6%
5, 64.10 3, 6.10
= =
+

Cu 9.
3
CH COOH
3
CH COO

+ H
+

Gi nng ban u ca
3
CH COOH l
0
C (M) H
+
(

=
0
C
Xt 1 lt dung dch V = 1000ml
M
M
C d
M
C
V
m
M V
m
V
n
C
dd ct
1 , 0
100 . 60
1000 . 6 , 0
. 1
100 .
(%).
.
1000 100 .
(%)
.
.
0
= = = = = =
H
+
(

=
0
C = 0,1.0,01 = 0,001 M C
Cu 12.
3
CH COOH
3
CH COO

+ H
+


0
C

0
(1 ) C
0
C
0
C
2
5 0 0 0
0
. ( )
1,8.10
(1 ) 1
C C C
Ka
C

= = =

.
0
0,1 C M =
2 4 5
1, 8.10 1, 8.10 0

+ =
0, 0133
0, 0136
B


Cu 20.
3
CH COOH
3
CH COO

+ H
+

H
+
(

=
0
C =0,1.0,01=
3
10

3 pH =


2. AXIT, BAZ V MUI. S IN LI CA NC pH, CHT CH TH AXIT- BAZ
A. Hng dn t n l thuyt
1.Thuyt axit baz ca Areniut
- Axit: l cht khi tan trong nc phn li ra ion H
+

+ Axit ch phn li mt nc ra ion H
+
gi l axit mt nc :HCl H
+
+ Cl
-

+ Axit m phn t phn li nhiu nc ra ion H
+
gi l axit nhiu nc, th d:
H
2
SO
4
H
+
+ HSO
4
-+
; HSO
4
-
H
+
+ SO
4
2-

- Baz: l cht khi tan trong nc phn li cho ion OH
-

+ Baz ch phn li mt nc ra ion OH
-
gi l baz mt nc: NaOH Na
+
+ OH
-

+ Baz m phn t phn li nhiu nc ra ion OH
-
l baz nhiu nc, th d:
Ca(OH)
2
Ca(OH)
+
+ OH
-
; Ca(OH)
+
Ca
2+
+ OH
-

- Hiroxit lng tnh: l cht khi tan trong nc va c th phn li nh axit, va c th phn
li nh baz. Th d:
Zn(OH)
2
Zn
2+
+ 2OH
-
(phn li kiu baz)
Zn(OH)
2
(hay H
2
ZnO
2
) 2H
+
+ ZnO
2
2-

Hiroxit lng tnh thng gp l: Al(OH)
3
, Pb(OH)
2
, Cr(OH)
3
, Sn(OH)
2
.
2. Thuyt axit-baz ca Bron-stt
- nh ngha: axit l cht nhng proton (H
+
), baz l cht nhn proton
Axit Baz + H
+

Theo thuyt ny, H
2
O l hp cht lng tnh: H
2
O + H
2
O H
3
O
+
+ OH
-

- Hng s phn li axit: S phn li ca axit yu trong nc l qu trnh thun nghch, hng s
cn bng phn li axit ny c k hiu l K
a
. Ging nh tnh cht ca hng s cn bng, K
a

ch ph thuc vo bn cht axit v nhit .
+ Th d, :CH
3
COOH H
+
+ CH
3
COO
-

K
a
ca axit CH
3
COOH c biu din nh sau K
a
=
COOH CH
COO CH H
3
3
] ][ [
+

hoc CH
3
COOH + H
2
O H
3
O
+
+ CH
3
COO
-
K
a
=
COOH CH
COO CH O H
3
3 3
] ][ [
+

trong [H
+
], [CH
3
COO
-
], [CH
3
COOH] l nng mol.l ca H
+
, CH
3
COO
-
, CH
3
COOH
lc cn bng.
+ Gi tr K
a
ca axit cng nh, lc axit (tnh axit) ca n cng yu.
Th d, 25
0
C, K
a
ca CH
3
COOH l 1,75.10
-5
v ca HClO l 5.10
-8
. Vy lc axit ca HClO
yu hn ca CH
3
COOH.
- Hng s phn li baz: Hng s cn bng phn li baz c k hiu l K
b
, n ch ph thuc
vo bn cht baz v nhit . Gi tr K
b
ca baz cng nh, lc baz (tnh baz) ca n
cng yu.
Th d: NH
3
+ H
2
O NH
4
+
+ OH
-
c K
b
=
] [
] ][ [
3
4
NH
OH NH
+

- Mui: l hp cht khi tan trong nc phn li ra cation kim loi (hoc NH
4
+
) v anion gc
axit.
+ Mui trung ho: l mui trong phn t khng cn kh nng phn li ra ion H
+
.
Th d: K
2
SO
4
2K
+
+ SO
4
2-

+ Mui axit: l mui trong phn t vn cn hiro c kh nng phn li ra ion H
+

Th d: NaHCO
3
Na
+
+ HCO
3
-
; HCO
3
-
H
+
+ CO
3
2-

Ch : Na
2
HPO
3
, NaH
2
PO
2
vn cn hiro trong phn t nhng khng phi l mui axit
+ Mui phc tp: mui kp, th d NaCl.KCl; mui phc, th d [Ag(NH
3
)
2
]Cl
NaCl.KCl Na
+
+ K
+
+ 2Cl
-

[Ag(NH
3
)
2
]Cl [Ag(NH
3
)
2
]
+
+ Cl
-

[Ag(NH
3
)
2
]
+
Ag
+
+ 2NH
3

Kt lun: Thuyt axit-baz ca Bron-stt tng qut hn thuyt axit-baz ca Areniut v c
tnh nh lng (da vo K
a
, K
b
ta bit lc axit v lc baz).
3. Khi nim v pH
- Tch s ion ca nc:
O H
K
2
= [H
+
][OH
-
] = 10
-14
25
0
C, l hng s nhit khng i.
Trong dung dch long ca cc cht khc nhau 25
0
C lun c [H
+
][OH
-
] = 10
-14
.
Th d: trong dung dch c nng H
+
= 10
-3
M
nng OH
-
l: [OH
-
] = 10
-14
. [H
+
] = 10
-14
. 10
-3
= 10
-11
.
- Quy c pH = -lg[H
+
] hay [H
+
] = 10
-pH
th nu [H
+
] = 10
-a
, pH = a
+ Mi trng trung tnh, [H
+
] = [OH
-
] = 10
-7
, pH =7
+ Mi trng axit: [H
+
] > 10
-7
nn pH <7
+ Mi trng baz: [H
+
] < 10
-7
nn pH >7
B. Cc dng bi tp v phng php gii
Dng 1: Tnh gi tr pH ca dung dch
+ Tnh pH ca dung dch axit: Xc nh nng mol/l ca ion H
+
trong dung dch trng
thi cn bng pH=-lg([H
+
])
+Tnh pH ca dung dch baz: Xc nh nng mol/l ca ion OH
-
trong dung dch trng
thi cn bng [H
+
] pH, hoc pH = 14-pOH= 14+lg([OH
-
]).
V d 1. Trn 100 ml dung dch gm Ba(OH)
2
0,1M v NaOH 0,1M vi 400 ml dung dch
gm H
2
SO
4
0,0375 M v HCl 0,0125 M thu c dung dch X. Tnh pH ca dung dch X .
Li gii
H
+
+ OH
-
H
2
O
Tng s mol OH
-
: (0,1.2 + 0,1).0,1 = 0,03 mol
Tng s mol H
+
: (0,0375.2 + 0,0125).0,4 = 0,035 mol
S mol H
+
d: 0,035 0,03 = 0,005 mol [H
+
]= 0,01M pH = 2
V d 2. Cho dung dch A l mt hn hp: H
2
SO
4
2.10
-4
M v HCl 6.10
-4
M
Cho dung dch B l mt hn hp: NaOH 3.10
-4
M v Ca(OH)
2
3,5.10
-4
M
a) Tnh pH ca dung dch A v dung dch B
b) Trn 300ml dung dch A vi 200ml dung dch B c dung dch C. Tnh pH ca dung
dch C.
Li gii
a. [ H
+
]

trong A: 2.2.10
-4
+ 6.10
-4
= 10
-3
mol pH = 3
[OH
-
] trong B: 3.10
-4
+ 2.3,5.10
-4
= 10
-3
mol pOH = 3 pH =11
b. Trong 300ml dung dch A c s mol H
+
= 0,3.10
-3
mol
Trong 200 ml dung dch B c s mol OH
-
= 0,2.10
-3
mol
Dung dch C c: V = 0,5 lt; s mol H
+
= 0,3.10
-3
- 0,2.10
-3
= 10
-4
mol
Vy [H
+
] =
4
10
0, 5

2.10
-4
M pH = 3,6989
Dng 2: Pha trn dung dch
Phng php gii
+ S dng phng php ng cho, ghi nh: Nc c C% hoc C
M
=0.
+ Xc nh s mol cht, pH [H
+
] mol H
+
hoc mol OH
-
.
+ Vic thm, c cn nc lm thay i nng mol/l v khng lm thay i s mol cht
tnh ton theo s mol cht.
V d 1. 1. Dung dch HCl c pH=3. Hi phi pha long dung dch HCl bng nc bao
nhiu ln c dung dch HCl c pH = 4. Gii thch?
2. Pha thm 40cm
3
nc vo 10 cm
3
dung dch HCl c pH=2. Tnh pH ca dung dch
sau khi pha thm nc.
Li gii
1. Gi s dung dch HCl ban u c th tch V
1
(l), pH = 3.
S mol H
+
ban u l V
1
.10
-3
mol ; Th tch H
2
O cn thm vo l V
2
(l).
S mol H
+
trong dung dch pH= 4 l (V
1
+ V
2
).10
-4

Vic pha long dung dch ch lm thay i nng mol/l ch khng lm thay i s mol H
+
.
V vy : (V
1
+ V
2
).10
-4
= V
1
.10
-3


9 V
1
= V
2

Vy phi pha long dung dch gp 10 ln (nc thm vo gp 9 ln th tch ban u)
2. 1dm
3
= 1 lt; 1cm
3
= 10
-3
lt. S mol H
+
l 10.10
-3
. 0,01 = 10
-4
mol.
Thm 40.10
-3
lt nc th th tch dung dch l 50.10
-3
lt.
Vic pha long khng thay i s mol H
+

nn: C
M
(H
+
) =
4
3
10
50.10

= 0,002M
pH = 2,6989
V d 2. Thm t t 400 gam dung dch H
2
SO
4
49% vo H
2
O v iu chnh lng H
2
O
thu c ng 2 lt dung dch A. Coi H
2
SO
4
in

li hon ton 2 nc.
a. Tnh nng mol/l ca ion H
+
trong dung dch A
b. Tnh th tch dung dch NaOH 1,8M cn thm vo 0,5 lt dung dch A thu c
+ dung dch c pH= 1
+ dung dch c pH= 13
Li gii
a. H
2
SO
4
2H
+
+ SO
4
2-

S mol H
+
:
49.400
2 4
98.100
mol = C
M
(H
+
) =
4
2
=2M
b.Th tch dung dch NaOH cn thm vo pH =1.
H
+
+ OH
-
H
2
O
2.0,5 V.1,8
V pH = 1 [H
+
] = 0,1 s mol H
+
sau phn ng: = (0,5 + V) .0,1 ( mol)
0,5.2 1,8.V = (0,5 + V) .0,1 V = 0,5 lt.
+ Th tch dung dch NaOH cn thm vo pH =13.
V pH = 13 [OH
-
] = 0,1M S mol OH
-
sau phn ng: (0,5 + V).0,1 mol
V.1,8 -2.0,5 = (0,5 + V) .0,1 V = 0,0882 lt.
C. Bi tp n luyn
Bi 1. Ch dng thm qu tm hy trnh by cch phn bit cc dung dch ng trong cc l
ring bit mt nhn sau:
a) NH
4
Cl ; (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
; BaCl
2
; NaOH ; Na
2
CO
3

b) Na
2
SO
4
; BaCl
2
; KNO
3
; Na
2
CO
3

Bi 2. 1.Thm t t 100 gam dung dch H
2
SO
4
98% vo nc v iu chnh c 2 lt
dung dnh X. tnh nng mol/l ca dung dch X.
2. Tnh t l th tch dung dch KOH 0,001M cn pha long vi nc c dung
dch c PH=9.
Bi 3. Dung dch thu c khi trn ln 200 ml dd NaCl 0,3M v 300ml dung dch Na
2
SO
4

0.15 M nu b qua hiu ng th tch th dung dch thu c c nng Na
+
l bao nhiu?
Bi 4. Ha tan 20 ml dung dch HCl 0,05 mol/l vo 20 ml dung dch H
2
SO
4
0,075 mol/l. coi
th tch thay i khng ng k. Tnh PH ca dung dch thu c.
Bi 5. Cho 200ml dung dch HNO
3
c PH=2. tnh khi lng HNO
3
c trong dung dch. Nu
thm 300 ml dung dch H
2
SO
4
0,05M vo th PH ca dung dch thu c l bao nhiu?
Bi 6. Trn 300 ml dung dch NaOH 0,1 mol/lit v Ba(OH)
2
0,025 mol/l vi 200 ml dung
dch H
2
SO
4
nng x mol /lit Thu c m gam kt ta v 500 ml dung dch c PH = 2 . Hy
tnh m v x . Coi H
2
SO
4
in li hon ton c hai nc .
Bi 7. X l dung dch H
2
SO
4
0,02M. Y l dung dch NaOH 0,035M. Khi trn ln dung dch
X v dung dch Y ta thu c dung dch Z c th tch bng tng th tch 2 dung dch em
trn v c pH=2. Coi H
2
SO
4
in

li hon ton 2 nc. Hy tnh t l th tch gia dung dch X
v dung dch Y
Bi 8.Cho m gam hn hp Mg , Al vo 250 ml dung dch X cha hn hp axit HCl 1M v
axit H
2
SO
4
0,5M thu c 5,32 lt kh H
2
ktc v dung dch Y. Tnh PH ca dung dch Y (
Coi dung dch c th tch nh ban u ) .
Bi 9. Trn 200 ml dung dch NaHSO
4
0,2M v Ba(HSO
4
)
2
0,15M vi V lit dung dch hn
hp NaOH 1M v Ba(OH)2 1M thu c dung dch c PH = 7. Tnh V v khi lng kt
ta to thnh.
Bi 10. Trn 250 ml dung dch hn hp HCl 0,08 mol/l v H
2
SO
4
0,01 mol /l vi 250 ml
dung dch Ba(OH)
2
c nng x mol /l thu c m gam kt ta v 500 ml dung dch c pH
= 12 . Hy tnh m v x . Coi Ba(OH)
2
in li hon ton c hai nc .

p n v hng dn gii
Bi 1.
1. Dng giy qu tm:
+ Dung dch lm qu tm chuyn : NH
4
Cl ; (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
; (nhm 1)
+ Dung dch khng lm qu tm chuyn mu: BaCl
2

+ Dung dch lm qu tm chuyn mu xanh: NaOH ; Na
2
CO
3
(nhm 2)
- Ly dung dch BaCl
2
cho vo cc nhm trn:
+ Nhm 1: * Va c kt ta, c kh mi khai l (NH
4
)
2
SO
4.

* Dung dch c kh mi khai thot ra l NH
4
Cl.
+ Nhm 2: * C kt ta l Na
2
CO
3

* Cn li l NaOH.
2. Na
2
SO
4
; BaCl
2
; KNO
3
; Na
2
CO
3.

Dng giy qu tm:
+ Dung dch khng lm qu tm chuyn mu: Na
2
SO
4
; BaCl
2
; KNO
3

+ Dung dch lm qu tm chuyn mu xanh: Na
2
CO
3

- Ly dung dch Na
2
CO
3
cho vo nhm trn:
* C kt ta l BaCl
2
: Na
2
CO
3
+ BaCl
2
BaCO
3
+ 2NaCl
* Khng c hin tng l: Na
2
SO
4
; KNO
3

- Ly dung dch BaCl
2
cho vo Na
2
SO
4
; KNO
3

+ C kt ta l Na
2
SO
4
: Na
2
SO
4
+ BaCl
2
BaSO
4
+ 2NaCl
+ Khng c hin tng l KNO
3

Bi 2. 1.C
M
(X) = 1M
2. V
K2O
/ V
H2O
=1/99
Bi 3. Nng Na
+
: 0,2.0,3 + 0,3.2.0,15 = 0,15mol
Vy C
M
(Na
+
) = 0,3M
Bi 4. PH=1.
Bi 5. [H
+
]= 0,01M s mol H
+
= HNO
3
= 0,002mol.
Khi lng HNO
3
= 0,126 gam
Thm H
+
: 0,03 mol Tng mol H
+
: 0,032 mol [H
+
]= 0,064M
pH= 1,1938
Bi 6. pH= 2 [H
+
] =0,01 M;
0,2.x (0,1 +0,025.2).0,3 = 0,01.0,5 x=0,25M
Khi lng kt ta: m = 0.0075.233= 1,7475 gam
Bi 7. H
+
+ OH
-
H
2
O
V
X
.0,02.2 V
Y
. 0,035
V
X
.0,02.2 - V
Y
. 0,035 = 0,01.( V
X
+ V
Y
) V
X
/V
Y
= 3/2.
Bi 8. p s pH = 1.
Bi 9. NaHSO
4
Na
+
+ HSO
4
-
; Ba(HSO
4
)
2
Ba
2+
+ 2HSO
4
-

HSO
4
-
+ OH
-
H
2
O + SO
4
2-

(0,04 +0,06) 4V (0,04 +0,06)
Do pH = 7 nn 0,1 = 4V V = 0,025(lit)
Ba
2+
+ SO
4
2-
BaSO
4

0,375 0,1 n
BaSO4
= n
Ba2+
= 0,375 mol.
Vy: khi lng BaSO
4
l 87,375 gam.
Bi 10. pH= 12 [OH
-
] =0,01 M;
0,25.2.x (0,08 +0,01.2).0,25 = 0,01.0,5 x=0,06M
Khi lng kt ta: m = 0,0025.233= 0,5825gam
D. Bi tp trc nghim
Cu 1. Cho cc cht: Al, Al
2
O
3
, Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
, Zn(OH)
2
, NaHS, K
2
SO
3
, (NH
4
)
2
CO
3
. S cht u
phn ng c vi dung dch HCl, dung dch NaOH l
A. 7. B. 6. C. 4. D. 5.
Cu 2. Chn cu pht biu sai. Dung dch mui
A. CH
3
COOK c pH >7. B. NaHCO
3
c pH.<.7.
C. NH
4
Cl c pH < 7. D. Na
2
SO
4
c pH = 7.
Cu 3. Thm m gam H
2
SO
4
vo 2 lt dung dch axit mnh ( pH=2) th thu c dung dch c
pH=1, m c gi tr l
A.8,28 gam B. 4,14 gam C. 8,82 gam D.4,41gam
Cu 4. Pht biu no sau y khng ng?
A. Gi tr pH tng th tnh baz tng
B. Gi tr pH tng th tnh axit tng
C. Dung dch c pH = 7 c mi trng trung tnh
D. Gi tr [H
+
] tng th tnh axit tng

Cu 5. Cn thm bao nhiu ln th tch nc ( V
2
) so vi th tch ban u ( V
1
) pha long
dung dch c pH=3 thnh dung dch c pH=4?
A. V
2
=9V
1
B. 3V
1
=V
2
C. V
2
=V
1
D. V
1
=3V
2
Cu 6. Dung dch Ba(OH)
2
c nng Ba
2+
l 5.10
-4
. pH ca dung dch ny l:
A. 9,3 B. 8,7 C. 14,3 D.11
Cu 7. Cn pha long bao nhiu ln th tch dung dch KOH 0,001M vi nc c dung
dch c pH= 9?
A. 100 ln B. 101 ln C. 99 ln D. 10 ln
Cu 8. Cn thm bao nhiu gam dung dch NaOH 10% vo 20 gam dung dch NaOH 30%
c dung dch NaOH 25%?
A. 15 gam B. 6,67gam C. 4 gam D. 12 gam
Cu 9. Pha long 40 ml dung dch NaOH 0,09 M thnh 100ml dung dch A, ri thm vo
dung dch A 30ml dung dch HCl 0,1 M. pH ca dung dch mi l:
A. 11,66 B. 12,38 C. 12,18 D. 9,57
Cu 10. Cho 500 ml dung dch HCl 0,02M vi 500ml dung dch NaOH 0,018M c mt
dung dch mi c pH l:
A. 3 B. 2,7 C. 5 D. 4,6
Cu 11. Tm cu tr li sai trong s cc cu sau y v pH:
A. pH = lg[H
+
] B. pH + pOH = 14
C. pH = -lg[H
+
] D. pH = 14 + lg[OH
-
]
Cu 12(H,2007-A). Trn 100ml dung dch (gm Ba(OH)
2
0,1M v NaOH 0,1M) vi 400
ml dung dch (gm H
2
SO
4
0,0375 M v HCl0,0125M), thu c dung dch X. Gi tr pH ca
dung dch X l
A. 7 B. 2 C. 1 D. 6
Cu 13. Cho cc phn ng sau:
HCl + H
2
O = H
3
O
+
+ Cl
-
(1) NH
3
+ H
2
O = NH
4
+
+ OH
-
(2)
CH
3
COOH + H
2
O = CH
3
COO
-
+ H
3
O
+
(3) HSO
3
-
+ H
2
O = H
2
SO
3
+ OH
-
(4)
HCO
3
-
+ H
2
O = H
3
O
+
+ CO
3
2-
(5) CuSO
4
+ 5H
2
O = CuSO
4
.5H
2
O (6)
Theo thuyt bronsted, H
2
O ng vai tr l axit trong cc phn ng sau:
A. (1), (3), (5). B. (2), (4). C. (2), (4), (6). D. (1), (3), (5), (6).
Cu 14. Trn V
1
lt dung dch HCl (pH=5) vi dung dch V
2
lt NaOH(pH=9) thu c dung
dch c pH=6. T l V
1
/V
2
l:
A. 3/1 B. 1/3 C. 9/11 D.11/9
Cu 15. Nng ion OH
-
trong dung dch A l 1,8.10
-5
M. pH ca dung dch A l
A.7,25M B. 5,25M C.9,25M D. 11,25M
Cu 16. Cho cc dung dch mui sau, dung dch c pH > 7 l
(X
1
) KCl; (X
2
) Na
2
CO
3
; (X
3
) CuSO
4
; (X
4
) CH
3
COONa
(X
5
) ZnSO
4
; (X
6
) AlCl
3
; (X
7
) NaCl ; (X
8
) NH
4
Cl.
A. X
1
, X
2
, X
4
, X
7
B. X
2
, X
4
, X
8
C. X
1
, X
3
, X
4
, X
6
D. X
2
, X
4
Cu 17. (H, C khi A-2007). Cho dy cc cht: Ca(HCO
3
)
2
, NH
4
Cl, (NH
4
)
2
CO
3
, ZnSO
4
,
Al(OH)
3
, Zn(OH)
2
. S cht trong dy c tnh lng tnh l:
A. 3. B. 4. C. 2. D. 5.


Cu 18. Cho cc dung dch c nh s th t nh sau:
1. KCl 2. Na
2
CO
3
3. CuSO
4
4. CH
3
COONa
5. Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
6. NH
4
Cl 7. NaBr 8. K
2
S
Cc dung dch u c pH < 7 l:
A. 3, 5, 6 B. 2, 4, 6 C. 1, 2, 3 D. 6, 7, 8
Cu 19. Th tch KOH 0,001M cn pha 1,5 lt dung dch c pH=9 l:
A.3.10
-2
lt

B. 2,5.10
-2
lt

C. 1,5.10
-3
lt D. 1,5.10
-2
lit
Cu 20. Nh dung dch phenolphtalein vo dung dch no sau y, dung dch chuyn sang
mu hng?
A. AlCl
3
B. MgCl
2
C. Na
2
S D. NH
4
NO
3


p n v hng dn
1.D 2.B 3.C 4.B 5.A 6.D 7.A 8.B 9.A 10.B
11.A 12.B 13.B 14.D 15.C 16.D 17.B 18.A 19.D 20.C

Cu1
2)
2 3 3 2
6 2 3 Al O HCl AlCl H O + + ;
2 3 2 2
2 2 Al O NaOH NaAlO H O + +
3)
3 2 2
( ) 2 Zn OH HCl ZnCl H O + + ;
2 2 2 2
Zn(OH) 2 2 NaOH Na ZnO H O + +
4)
2
NaHS HCl NaCl H S + + ;
2 2
NaHS NaOH Na S H O + +
5)
4 2 3 4 2 2
( ) NH CO HCl NH Cl H O CO + + +

4 2 3
( ) NH CO + NaOH
3
2NH +
2 3 2
Na CO H O +
Cu 2.
2
2 4 4
2 H SO H SO
+
+
Trong 2lt dung dch axit
2 4
H SO (pH=2) c:
2
2.10 0, 02( )
H
n mol
+

= =
g/s thm m (g) khng lm thay i th tch dd,ta c:
trong 2lt dd axit
2 4
H SO (pH=1):
1
2.10 0, 2( )
H
n mol
+

= =
vy s mol
2 4
H SO thm vo l:
0, 2 0, 02
0, 09( )
2
mol

=
2 4
0, 09.98 8, 82( )
H SO
m gam = =
Cu 3. Gi s th tch dung dch KOH
3
10

l
1
V
3
1
.10
OH
n V

=
thm
2
V (l) nc vo dung dch thu c (
1
V +
2
V )l dd KOH
5
10

OH
n

=(
1
V +
2
V ).
5
10


Vy:
3
1
.10 V

=(
1
V +
2
V ).
5
10

cn pha long 100 ln A


Cu 12.
100ml
2
( ) 0,1
0,1
Ba OH M
NaOH M

0, 03( )
OH
n mol

=
400ml
2 4
0, 0375
(0, 0375.2 0, 0125).0, 4 0, 035
0, 01251
H
H SO M
n mol
HClO M
+

= + =


H
+
+ OH


2
H O
0,035 0,03
d: 0,005 0 0,005
H
n
+ d
=0,005
0, 005
0, 01 2
0, 5
H pH
+
( = = =


Cu 14.
1
V (l) dd HCl pH=5
H
n
+
=
5
10

1
V (mol)

2
V (l) dd NaOH pH=9 pOH=5
OH
n

=
5
10

2
V (mol)
H
+
+ OH


2
H O

5
10

1
V
5
10

2
V
do: 6 7 pH axit = < d
1
V .
5
10

>
2
V
5
10

v
6
1 2
( ).10 H V V
+
( = +



1
V .
5
10

-
2
V
5
10

=
6
1 2
( ).10 V V

+
1
2
11
9
V
D
V
=
Cu 19. pH=9 pOH=5
OH
n

=1,5.
5
10

.g/s th tch
KOH
V ban u l V(l)

OH
n

=V.0,001 1,5.
5
10

=V.
3
10

V=1,5.
2
10

(l) D.





3. PHN NG TRAO I ION TRONG DUNG DCH CC CHT IN LI
A. Hng dn t n l thuyt
1. iu kin xy ra phn ng trao i ion
- Phn ng to thnh cht kt ta:
Th d, phng trnh phn t: Na
2
SO
4
+ BaCl
2
BaSO
4
+ 2NaCl
Phng trnh ion y : 2Na
+
+ SO
4
2-
+ Ba
2+
+ 2Cl
-
BaSO
4
+ 2Na
+
+ 2Cl
-

Phng trnh ion rt gn: SO
4
2-
+ Ba
2
BaSO
4

- Phn ng to thnh cht in li yu:
+ Phn ng to thnh nc:
Th d: NaOH + HCl NaCl + H
2
O
Phng trnh ion rt gn: OH
-
+ H
+
H
2
O
+ Phn ng to thnh axit yu:
Th d: HCl + CH
3
COONa NaCl + CH
3
COOH
Phng trnh ion rt gn: H
+
+ CH
3
COO
-
CH
3
COOH
- Phn ng to thnh cht kh:
Th d: Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
SO
4
Na
2
SO
4
+ H
2
O + CO
2

Phng trnh ion rt gn: CO
3
2-
+2H
+
H
2
O + CO
2

Kt lun: Phn ng trao i ion trong dung dch cc cht in li ch xy ra khi c t nht mt
trong cc iu kin: to thnh cht kt ta, cht kh, hoc cht in li yu.
2. Phn ng thu phn ca mui
- Khi nim v s thu phn ca mui: phn ng trao i ion gia mui ho tan v nc l
phn ng thu phn ca mui.
- Phn ng thu phn ca nc: nc nguyn cht c pH = 7, i a s phn ng thu phn
lm thay i pH ca nc.
+ Mui trung ho to bi cation ca baz mnh v gc axit yu, khi tan trong nc gc axit
yu b thu phn, mi trng ca dung dch l kim (pH >7). Th d CH
3
COONa, K
2
S,
Na
2
CO
3
.

Th d, dung dch CH
3
COONa c pH > 7 c gii thch nh sau:
CH
3
COONa CH
3
COO
-
+ Na
+

CH
3
COO
-
+ H
2
O CH
3
COOH + OH
-

Cc anion OH
-
c gii phng sau phn ng thy phn, nn mi trng c pH > 7
+ Mui trung ho to bi cation ca baz yu v gc axit mnh, khi tan trong nc, cation
ca baz yu b thu phn lm cho dung dch c tnh axit (pH <7). Th d NH
4
Cl, FeCl
3
,

ZnBr
2
.
Th d, dung dch NH
4
Cl c pH < 7 c gii thch nh sau:
NH
4
Cl NH
4
+
+ Cl
-

NH
4
+
+ H
2
O NH
3
+ H
3
O
+

Cc cation H
+
c gii phng sau phn ng thy phn, nn mi trng c pH < 7
+ Mui trung ho to bi cation ca baz mnh v gc axit mnh, khi tan trong nc khng
b thu phn, mi trng ca dung dch vn trung tnh (pH = 7). Th d, NaCl, KNO
3
, KI.
+ Mui trung ho to bi cation ca baz yu v gc axit yu, khi tan trong nc, cation ca
baz yu v axit yu u b thu phn. Mi trng l axit hay kim ph thuc vo thu
phn ca 2 mui . Th d, (NH
4
)
2
CO
3
, Al
2
S
3
.
+ Mui axit nh NaHCO
3
, KH
2
PO
4
, K
2
HPO
4
khi ho tan vo nc phn li ra cc anion
HCO
3
-
, H
2
PO
4
-
, HPO
4
2-
, cc ion ny l lng tnh, chng phn ng vi nc nn mi trng
ca dung dch tu thuc vo bn cht ca anion.

B. Cc dng bi tp v phng php gii
Dng 1: Vit phng trnh ion thu gn
Phng php gii
+ Vit phn ng dng phn t, phn tch dng phn t thnh dng ion. Rt gn nhng ion
ging nhau hai v, cn bng in tch v nguyn t hai v, thu c phng trnh io rt
gn.
Cc cht kt ta, cht kh v cht in li yu vn gi dng phn t.
V d 1: Vit phng trnh ion rt gn (nu c) xy ra trong dung dch trong cc trng hp
sau:
1. Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ NaOH ; 2. Cu(OH)
2
+ NH
3
+ H
2
O
3. KNO
3
+ NaCl ; 4. FeS + HCl
5. NaHCO
3
+ Ba(OH)
2
; 6. Ba(HSO
4
)
2
+ KOH
7. KH
2
PO
4
+ HCl ; 8. NH
4
Cl + NaOH
9. CaCO
3
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O ; 10. FeCl
3
+ Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
O
Li gii
1. Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ 6NaOH 2Fe(OH)
3
+ 3Na
2
SO
4
; Fe
3+
+ 3OH
-
Fe(OH)
3

2. Cu(OH)
2
+ 4NH
3
+ H
2
O [Cu(NH
3
)
4
](OH)
2
(phc tan);
Cu(OH)
2
+ 4NH
3
[Cu(NH
3
)
4
]
2+
+ 2OH
-

3. KNO
3
+ NaCl khng phn ng
4. FeS + 2HCl FeCl
2
+ H
2
S ; FeS + 2H
+
Fe
2+
+ H
2
S
5. 2NaHCO
3
+ Ba(OH)
2
BaCO
3
+ Na
2
CO
3
+2H
2
O
HCO
3
-
+ Ba
2+
+ OH
-
BaCO
3
+ H
2
O
6. Ba(HSO
4
)
2
+2KOH BaSO
4
+ K
2
SO
4
+ 2H
2
O
Ba
2+
+ HSO
4
-
+ OH
-
BaSO
4
+ H
2
O
7. KH
2
PO
4
+ HCl KCl + H
3
PO
4
; HPO
4
2-
+ 2H
+
H
3
PO
4

8. NH
4
Cl + NaOH NH
3
+ NaCl + H
2
O ; NH
4
+
+ OH
-
NH
3
+ H
2
O
9. CaCO
3
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O Ca(HCO
3
)
2
; CaCO
3
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O Ca
2+
+ 2HCO
3
-
.
10. 2FeCl
3
+ 3Na
2
CO
3
+ 3H
2
O 2Fe(OH)
3
+ 6NaCl + 3CO
2
.
2Fe
3+
+ 3CO
3
2-
+ 3H
2
O 2Fe(OH)
3
+ 3CO
2
.
Dng 2: Xc nh mi trng dung dch
Phng php gii
+ Vit phng trnh in li cc cht to thnh ion, nhn xt kh nng thy phn trong nc
ca cc ion va to thnh.
+ Ion gc ca axit yu thy phn trong nc to mi trng baz: CO
3
2-
; SO
3
2-
; S
2-
, PO
4
3-
,
CH
3
COO
-
...

+ Ion gc ca baz yu thy phn trong nc to mi trng axit: Cu
2+
, Fe
3+
; Zn
2+
, NH
4
+
..
+ Ion gc ca axit mnh (v d: SO
4
2-
, Br
-
, Cl
-
, NO
3
-
, ClO
4
-
...) v ion gc ca baz mnh (v
d: Na
+
; K
+
, Ba
2+
, Ca
2+
, Mg
2+
...) khng b thy phn trong nc, ng vai tr trung tnh.
V d 1. nh gi mi trng axit, baz, trung tnh ca cc dung dch thu c khi ha tan
cc cht sau vo cc cc nc ring bit: CuCl
2
; Na
2
CO
3
; NaClO
4
; K
2
S; NH
4
Cl; Fe(NO
3
)
3
;
Na
3
PO
4
; K
2
SO
3
, K
2
SO
4
.
Li gii
- Cc cht ha tan trong nc cho mi trng baz, pH>7 l: Na
2
CO
3
; K
2
S; K
2
SO
3
, Na
3
PO
4
.
Na
2
CO
3
2Na
+
+ CO
3
2-
; CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O HCO
3
-
+ OH
-

K
2
S 2K
+
+ S
2-
; S
2-
+ H
2
O HS
-
+ OH
-

K
2
SO
3


2K
+
+ SO
3
2-
; SO
3
2-
+ H
2
O HSO
3
-
+ OH
-

Na
3
PO
4


3Na
+
+ PO
4
3-
; PO
4
3-
+ H
2
O HPO
4
2-
+ OH
-

- Cc cht ha tan trong nc cho mi trng axit, pH<7 l: NH
4
Cl; Fe(NO
3
)
3
; CuCl
2
;
NH
4
Cl NH
4
+
+ Cl
-
; NH
4
+
+ H
2
O NH
3
+ H
3
O
+

Fe(NO
3
)
3
Fe
3+
+ 3NO
3
-
; Fe
3+
+ H
2
O Fe(OH)
2+
+ H
+

CuCl
2
Cu
2+
+ 2Cl
-
; Cu
2+
+ H
2
O Cu(OH)
+
+ H
+

- Cc cht ha tan trong nc cho mi trng pH=7 l: NaClO
4
; K
2
SO
4
.
NaClO
4
Na
+
+ ClO
4
-
; H
+

+ OH
-
H
2
O
K
2
SO
4


2K
+
+ SO
4
2-
; H
+

+ OH
-
H
2
O
V d 2.Cho cc ion sau, ion no ng vai tr axit, baz, lng tnh, trung tnh : Zn
2+
, NH
4
+
,
Fe
3+
, SO
3
2-
, Na
+
; Ba
2+
; ClO
4
-
; I
-
; CO
3
2-
, S
2-
, PO
4
3-
; OH
-
, SO
4
2-
, Cl
-
, NO
-
3
;
HCO
3
-
; H
2
PO
4
-

; HSO
4
-
,Cu
2+
; Al
3+
; HS
-
, HSO
3
-
; H
2
PO
4
-
; CH
3
COO
-
; ClO
-
.
Li gii
- Ion c tnh axit l: Zn
2+
, NH
4
+
, Fe
3+
, HSO
4
-
, Cu
2+
; Al
3+
.
NH
4
+
+ H
2
O NH
3
+ H
3
O
+

Zn
2+
+ H
2
O Zn(OH)
+
+ H
+
HSO
4
-
H
+
+ SO
4
2-

- Ion c tnh baz l: SO
3
2-
, CO
3
2-
, S
2-
, PO
4
3-
; OH
-
, CH
3
COO
-
; ClO
-
.
SO
3
2-
+ H
2
O HSO
3
-
+ OH
-
S
2-
+ H
2
O HS
-
+ OH
-
PO
4
3-
+ H
2
O HPO
4
2-
+ OH
-
CH
3
COO
-
+ H
2
O CH
3
COOH + OH
-
ClO
-
+ H
2
O HClO + OH
-

- Ion c tnh lng tnh l: HCO
3
-
; HPO
4
2-

; HS
-
, HSO
3
-
; H
2
PO
4
-
.
HCO
3
-
+ H
2
O CO
2
+ H
3
O
+
; HCO
3
-
+ H
2
O CO
3
2-
+ OH
-
.
HS
-
+ H
2
O SO
2
+ H
3
O
+
; HS
-
+ H
2
O S
2-
+ OH
-
.
HPO
4
2-
+ H
2
O PO
4
3-
+ H
3
O
+
; HPO
4
2-
+ H
2
O H
2
PO
4
-
+ + OH
-
.
- Ion trung tnh l: SO
4
2-
, Cl
-
, NO
-
3
; Na
+
; Ba
2+
; ClO
4
-
; I
-
.

Dng 3: p dng nh lut bo ton in tch (LBTT)

Phng php gii
+ nh lut bo ton in tch: Trong mt dung dch, tng s mol cc in tch dng ca
ion dng v tng s mol cc in tch m ca ion m lun lun bng nhau.
+ Khi c cn dung dch, khi lng cht rn to ra bng khi lng cc ion dng v ion m
c trong dung dch (tr H
+
+ OH
-
H
2
O )
m
mui
= m
cation/NH4+
+ m
anion
.
V d 1. Mt dung dch cha: a mol Na
+
; b mol Ca
2+
; c mol Al
3+
; d mol Cl
-
; e mol NO
3
-
.
a- Lp biu thc lin h gia a, b, c, d, e.
b- Lp cng thc tnh tng khi lng cc mui trong dung dch theo a, b, c, d, e.
Li gii
a. Lp biu thc lin h gia a, b, c, d, e.
p dng nh lut bo ton in tch ta c: a + 2b + 3c =d + e
b.Tnh tng khi lng cc mui trong dung dch
Khi lng mui = Tng khi lng cc ion = 23a + 40b + 27c + 35,5d + 62e
V d 2. Dung dch A cha a mol Na
+
; b mol NH
4
+
; c mol HCO
3
-
; d mol CO
3
2-
; e mol SO
4
2-
. Thm (c + d + e) mol Ba(OH)
2
vo dung dch A, un nng thu c kt ta B, dung dch X
v kh Y duy nht c mi khai. Tnh s mol ca mi cht trong kt ta B, kh Y v mi ion
trong dung dch X theo a, b, c, d, e. Nu c cn dung dch thu c, lm khan c m gam
cht rn. Tnh m theo a, b, c, d, e?
Li gii
Ba(OH)
2
Ba
2+
+ 2OH
-
; s mol Ba
2+
= c + d + e; s mol OH
-
= 2(c + d + e)
Cc phng trnh ha hc xy ra khi cho Ba(OH)
2
vo dung dch A:
OH
-
+ NH
4
+
NH
3
+ H
2
O (1) ; OH
-
+ HCO
3
-
CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O (2)
b b mol c c mol
Ba
2+
+ CO
3
2-
BaCO
3
(3) ; Ba
2+
+ SO
4
2-
BaSO
4
(4)
(c + d) (c + d) mol e e mol
Kt ta B: BaCO
3
, BaSO
4

p dng L BTT cho dung dch A:a + b = c + 2d + 2e a + b + c = 2(c + d + e).
T (1) v (2) OH
-
d a mol
Vy, t (1): s mol NH
3
= b mol; s mol BaCO
3
= c + d; s mol BaSO
4
= e
Dung dch X gm a mol Na
+
khng tham gia phn ng v a mol OH
-
d.
C cn, lm khan thu amol NaOH, khi lng NaOH = 40a (gam).

Dng 4: Bi tp nhn bit

Phng php gii
+ Vit phng trnh in li, nhn xt kh nng thy phn trong nc ca cc ion , xc nh
mi trng dung dch c to thnh.
+ Ha cht dng nhn bit cn c phn ng vi hin tng (to kh, to kt ta, i mu) vi
cc cht cn nhn bit:
* Dy cht cn nhn bit c cha ion kim loi Fe
2+
, Fe
3+
, Cu
2+
, Al
3+
, Zn
2+
...hay ion
NH
4
+
th nn dng NaOH, Ba(OH)
2
, Ca(OH)
2
...
* Dy cht cn nhn bit c cha ion CO
3
2-
; SO
4
2-
; SO
3
2-
...th nn s dng cc cht
c cha ion Ba
2+
, Ca
2+
, H
+
...
V d 1. Ch dng thm mt thuc th hy trnh by phng php ha hc phn bit cc
dung dch sau: NH
4
HSO
4
; HCl; H
2
SO
4
; NaCl; CH
3
COONH
4
; BaCl
2
; Ba(OH)
2
. Vit cc
phng trnh ha hc ca phn ng xy ra.
Li gii
Dng giy qu tm:
+ Dung dch lm qu tm chuyn : NH
4
HSO
4
; HCl; H
2
SO
4
(nhm 1)
+ Dung dch khng lm qu tm chuyn mu: NaCl; CH
3
COONH
4
; BaCl
2
(nhm 2)
+ Dung dch lm qu tm chuyn mu xanh: Ba(OH)
2
.
- Ly dung dch Ba(OH)
2
cho vo cc nhm trn:
+ Nhm 1: * Va c kt ta, c kh mi khai l NH
4
HSO
4
.
* Ch to kt ta l dung dch H
2
SO
4
* Cn li l dung dch HCl.
+ Nhm 2: * Dung dch c kh mi khai thot ra l CH
3
COONH
4
.
* Ly dung dch H
2
SO
4
nhn bit trn nhn bit NaCl v BaCl
2
.
V d 2. C cc l ng cc dung dch ring bit mt nhn sau: AlCl
3
; NaNO
3
; FeCl
2
;
K
2
CO
3
; NH
4
NO
3;
(NH
4
)
2
CO
3
. Ch c dng thm mt dung dch lm thuc th phn bit
cc dung dch trn. Hy trnh by phng php phn bit tng dung dch trn v vit phng
trnh ha hc dng phn t v ion minh ha.
Li gii
Chn dung dch Ba(OH)
2
ln lt cho tc dng vi cc dung dch cn phn bit.
- Dung dch to kt ta sau tan khi Ba(OH)
2
d l dung dch AlCl
3
.
2AlCl
3
+ 3Ba(OH)
2
2Al(OH)
3
+ 3BaCl
2

Al
3+
+ 3OH
-
Al(OH)
3

Al(OH)
3
+ OH
-
AlO
2
-

+ 2H
2
O.
- Dung dch to kt ta trng xanh, sau chuyn sang mu nu l dung dch FeCl
2
.
FeCl
2
+ Ba(OH)
2
Fe(OH)
2
+ BaCl
2

Fe
2+
+ 2OH
-
Fe(OH)
2

4Fe(OH)
2
+ O
2
+ 2H
2
O



4Fe(OH)
3

- Dung dch to kt ta trng l dung dch K
2
CO
3
.
K
2
CO
3
+ Ba(OH)
2
BaCO
3
+ 2NH
3
+ 2H
2
O
CO
3
2-
+ Ba
2+
BaCO
3
+ 2H
2
O.
- Dung dch to kt ta trng v c kh thot ra l dung dch (NH
4
)
2
CO
3
.
(NH
4
)
2
CO
3
+ Ba(OH)
2
BaCO
3
+ 2NH
3
+ 2H
2
O
2NH
4
+
+ CO
3
2-
+ Ba
2+
+ 2OH
-
BaCO
3
+ 2NH
3
+ 2H
2
O.
- Dung dch c kh thot ra l dung dch NH
4
NO
3
.
2NH
4
NO
3
+ Ba(OH)
2
Ba(NO
3
)
2
+ 2NH
3
+ 2H
2
O
NH
4
+
+ OH
-
NH
3
+ H
2
O
- Dung dch khng c hin tng g l NaNO
3
.

Dng 5: Bi tp s dng phng trnh ion thu gn
+ Vi dung dch c cha nhiu ion, xc nh kh nng phn ng ca cc ion to kt ta, to
kh, to cht in li yu hn, vit phng trnh phn ng dng ion thu gn (ch nn vit
phng trnh lin quan n yu cu ca bi ton).
+ Biu din nng cc cht theo phng trnh ion, da trn d kin v yu cu u bi.
+ p dng nh lut bo ton in tch (nu cn).
V d 1. Mt dung dch X cha 0,15 mol Na
+
, 0,10 mol Mg
2+
, 0,05 mol Cl
-
, 0,10 mol HCO
3
-

v a mol SO
4
2-
. Cn thm V lt dung dch Ba(OH)
2
1M thu c lng kt ta ln nht.
a) Xc nh gi tr ca V?
b) Gi s th tch dung dch thu c sau phn ng l 1,0 lt, xc nh pH ca dung dch.
Li gii
a) p dng LBTT: 0,15 + 0,1.2 = 0,05 + 0,1 + 2a a = 0,1mol
Ba(OH)
2
Ba
2+
+ 2OH
-
(1); Mg
2+
+ 2OH
-
Mg(OH)
2
(2)
xmol xmol 2xmol 0,1 0,2
HCO
3
-
+ OH
-
CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O (3); Ba
2+
+ SO
4
2-
BaSO
4
(4)
0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1
Ba
2+
+ CO
3
2-
BaCO
3
(5).
0,1 0,1
Nu tnh theo OH
-
th s mol Ba(OH)
2
l 0,15mol, nhng tnh theo Ba
2+
th cn 0,20mol.
thu lng kt ta ln nht cn tha mn iu kin kt ta ht Mg(OH)
2
, BaCO
3
v BaSO
4
.
Lng kt ta ln nht khi s mol Ba(OH)
2
= s mol Ba
2+
= 0,1.2=0,2mol

2
( )
0, 2
1
Ba OH
V = =0,2 lt
b) Tnh pH: S mol OH
-
cn d l (0,2.0,2) -0,3 = 0,1mol
[OH
-
] =
0,1
1
= 0,1M = 10
-1
M [H
+
] =
-14
1
10
10

=10
-13
hay pH = 13.
V d 2. Cho 500ml dung dch A cha cc ion Na
+
0,1mol, OH
-
0,25mol, Cl
-
0,15mol v a
mol Ba
2+
. Hp th hon ton 4,48 lt CO
2
ktc vo dung dch A th thu c bao nhiu gam
mui khng tan, tch ra thnh kt ta?
Li gii
p dng LBTT ta c: 0,1 + 2a = 0,25 + 0,15 a = 0,15 (mol)
S mol CO
2
=
4, 48
22, 4
= 0,2mol; Ty theo s mol CO
2
v OH
-
c th xy ra cc phng trnh
ha hc sau:
CO
2
+ 2OH
-
CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O (1)
xmol 2xmol xmol
CO
2
+ OH
-
HCO
3
-
(2)
ymol ymol
Ta c x + y = 0,2 (I)
2x + y = 0,25 (II) x = 0,05 v y = 0,15
S mol BaCO
3
kt ta = 0,05mol, m = 0,05.197 = 9,85g.
V d 3: Mt dung dch hn hp A c cha AlCl
3
v FeCl
3
. Thm dung dch NaOH vo 100
ml dung dch A cho n d. Lc ly kt ta em nung nng n khi lng khng i c
2 gam cht rn. Mt khc phi dng ht vi 45 ml AgNO
3
1,5M kt ta ht ion Cl
-
c
trong 50 ml dung dch A. Tnh nng hai mui trong A?
Li gii
Gi s mol AlCl
3
v FeCl
3
ln lt l x v y mol (trong 100ml dung dch A)
Al
3+
Al(OH)
3
AlO
2
-
;

Fe
3+
Fe(OH)
3
Fe
2
O
3
rn.
x x x y y y/2

2 3
Fe O
n = 0,0125 mol= y/2 y = 0,025 mol
Ag
+
+ Cl
-
AgCl
3x + 3y = 2.0,045.1,5 = 0,135 x = 0,02 mol.
Vy: [AlCl
3
] = 0,2M; [FeCl
3
] = 0,25M


V d 4. Ho tan a gam hn hp Na
2
CO
3
v KHCO
3
vo nc thu c 400 ml dung dch A.
Cho t t 100 ml dung dch HCl 1,5 M vo dung dch A, thu c dung dch B v 1,008 lt
kh (ktc). Cho B tc dng vi Ba(OH)
2
d thu c 29,55 gam kt ta. Tnh a v nng
mol ca cc ion trong dung dch A .
Li gii
n
HCl
= 1,5 x 0,1 = 0,15mol s mol H
+
= 0,15; s mol CO
2
=
1,008
22,4
= 0,045mol
CO
3
2-
+ H
+
HCO
3
-
(1)
HCO
3
-
+ H
+
CO
2
+ H
2
O (2)
0,045 0,045 0,045
Do Ba(OH)
2
tc dng vi dung dch B thu c kt ta nn dung dch B c HCO
3
-

d; S
mol kt ta BaCO
3
=
29,55

197
= 0,15 (mol).
HCO
3
-
+ Ba
2+
+ OH
-
BaCO
3
+ H
2
O (3)
0,15 0,15
S mol H
+
phn ng (1) = 0,15 0,045 = 0,105mol;
Theo (1) s mol CO
3
2-
= 0,105 s mol Na
2
CO
3
= 0,105 v s mol Na
+
= 0,21 mol;
S mol HCO
3
-
sinh ra phn ng (1) = 0,105 mol.
Tng s mol HCO
3
-
= 0,045 + 0,15 = 0,195 mol,
S mol HCO
3
-
c ban u = 0,195 - 0,105 = 0,09 mol
S mol KHCO
3
= s mol

K
+
= 0,09 mol.
Vy a =
3 2
CO Na
m +
3
KHCO
m = (106 x 0,105) + (100 x 0,09) = 20,13 (gam)
Nng cc ion trong dung dch A:
[Na
+
] =
0, 21
0, 4
= 0,525M; [CO
3
2-
] =
0,105
0, 4
= 0,263M;
[K
+
] =
0, 09
0, 4
= 0,225M; [HCO
3
-
] =
0, 09
0, 4
= 0,225M
C. Bi tp n luyn
Bi 1. Trong phng th nghim c cc dung dch b mt nhn: AlCl
3
, NaCl, KOH, Mg(NO
3
)
2
,
Pb(NO
3
)
2
, Zn(NO
3
)
2
, AgNO
3
. Dng thm mt thuc th, hy nhn bit mi dung dch. Vit
cc phng trnh phn ng (nu c).
Bi 2. Trn 3 dung dch H
2
SO
4
0,1M, HNO
3
0,2M, HCl 0,3 M vi nhng th tch bng nhau
thu c dung dch A. Ly 300ml dung dch A cho tc dng vi dung dch B gm NaOH
0,2M v KOH 0,29 M. Tnh th tch dung dch B cn dng sau khi tc dng vi 300ml
dung dch A thu c dung dch c pH=2.
Bi 3. Nh t t tng git dung dch NaOH 2M vo 100ml dung dch X cha cc ion Zn
2+
,
Fe
3+
, SO
4
2-
cho n khi kt ta hon ton ion Zn
2+
, Fe
3+
th dng ht 350 ml. Tip tc thm
dung dch NaOH 2M vo h trn cho n khi khi lng kt ta khng thay i th ht
200ml. Tnh C
M
ca mi mui trong dung dch X.
Bi 4. Thm m gam K vo 300 ml dung dch cha Ba(OH)
2
0,1M v NaOH 0,1M thu c
dung dch X . Cho t t 200 ml dung dch Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
0,1M thu c kt ta Y . Xc nh gi
tr ca m l thu c lng kt ta Y ln nht.
Bi 5. Cho 200 ml dung dch cha Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
0,3M v H
2
SO
4
0,5M tc dng vi 100 ml dung
dch NaOH 25% (d = 1,28 g/ml) thu c kt ta C v dung dch B. Nung C nhit cao
n khi thu c cht rn c khi lng khng i.Vit cc PTP xy ra. Tnh khi lng
cht rn thu c sau khi nung v nng mol ca cc ion trong dung dch B.
Bi 6. Cho 10,2g hn hp A gm Mg v Al tc dng vi dung dch HCl d ta thy c 11,2 lt
kh H
2
(ktc) thot ra v dung dch B. Thm t t V lt dung dch NaOH 0,5M th thu c
lng kt ta ln nht c gi tr m gam.
1. Sau phn ng thu c bao nhiu gam mui clorua?
2. Tnh gi tr ca V v m?
Bi 7. Dung dch Xc cha cc ion Ca
2+
, Al
3+
, Cl
-
. lm kt ta ht ion Cl
-
trong 10 ml
dung dch phi dng ht 70 ml AgNO
3
1M . Khi c cn 100 ml dung dch X thu c 35,55
gam mui khan. Tnh nng mol/l ca Ca
2+
trong X.
Bi 8. Dung dch A cha cc ion Mg
2+
, Ca
2+
, HCO
3
-
tc dng va vi 400 ml dung dch
Ca(OH)
2
1M . Sau phn ng ch thu c kt ta v H
2
O .Tnh khi lng mui ban u.
Bi 9. Cho 100ml dung dch A gm NaOH 0,1M v Ba(OH)
2
0,2M tc dng va vi V
ml dung dch B cha HCl 0,1M v H
2
SO
4
0,075 M, sau phn ng thu c m gam kt ta
trng. Lc b kt ta, c can dung dch th thu c m
1
gam cht rn. Xc nh gi tr V ml,
m (gam), m
1
(gam).
P N V HNG DN GII
Bi 1. C th dng thm phenolphtalein nhn bit cc dung dch AlCl
3
, NaCl, KOH,
Mg(NO
3
)
2
, Pb(NO
3
)
2
, Zn(NO
3
)
2
, AgNO
3
.
Ln lt nh vi git phenolphtalein vo tng dung dch.
- Nhn ra dung dch KOH do xut hin mu hng.
Ln lt cho dung dch KOH vo mi dung dch cn li:
- Dung dch AgNO
3
c kt ta mu nu
Ag
+
+ OH

AgOH ; (hoc 2 Ag
+
+ 2 OH

Ag
2
O + H
2
O)
- Dung dch Mg(NO
3
)
2
c kt ta trng, keo. Mg
2+
+ 2 OH

Mg(OH)
2

- Cc dung dch AlCl
3
, Pb(NO
3
)
2
, Zn(NO
3
)
2
u c chung hin tng to ra kt ta trng, tan
trong dung dch KOH (d).
Al
3+
+ 3 OH

Al(OH)
3
; Al(OH)
3
+ OH

Al(OH)
4


Pb
2+
+ 2 OH

Pb(OH)
2
; Pb(OH)
2
+ 2 OH

Pb(OH)
4
2

Zn
2+
+ 2 OH

Zn(OH)
2
; Zn(OH)
2
+ 2 OH

Zn(OH)
4
2

- Dung dch NaCl khng c hin tng g
- Dng dung dch AgNO
3
nhn ra dung dch AlCl
3
do to ra kt ta trng
Ag
+
+ Cl

AgCl
- Dng dung dch NaCl nhn ra dung dch Pb(NO
3
)
2
do to ra kt ta trng
Pb
2+
+ 2 Cl

PbCl
2

- Cn li l dung dch Zn(NO
3
)
2
.
Bi 2. Gi th tch dung dch B l V(lt)
Th tch mi dung dch axit l: 300/3 = 100 ml
Tng s mol H
+
: (0,1.2 + 0,2 + 0,3).0,1 = 0,07 mol
Tng s mol OH
-
: (0,2 + 0,29). V (mol)
H
+
+ OH
-
H
2
O (1)
V pH = 2 mi trng axit nn trong phn ng (1) th H
+

d, [H
+
] = 0,01M
S mol H
+
d = 0,07 - (0,2 + 0,29). V = 0,01.(0,3 + V) V = 0,08 lt.
Bi 3. Zn
2+
+ 2OH
-
Zn(OH)
2
(1)

; Fe
3+
+ 3OH
-
Fe(OH)
3
(2)
x 2x x y 3y y (mol)
Zn(OH)
2
+ 2OH
-
ZnO
2
2-
+ H
2
O (3)
x 2 x
2x + 3y = 0,35.2 = 0,7 v 2 x = 0,2.2 = 0,4
x = 0,2 mol; y = 0,1 mol. Vy C
M
(ZnSO
4
) = 2M; C
M
(Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
) = 0,5M.
Bi 4. Khi lng kt ta ln nht khi Al
3+
kt ta hon ton.
Gi s mol K l x mol n
OH-
= 0,03 + 2.0,03 + x = 0,12 x = 0,03 mol
m= 1,17 gam.
Bi 5. S mol Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
= 0,3 x 0,2 = 0,06 s mol Fe
3+
= 0,12; s mol SO
4
2-
= 0,18
S mol H
2
SO
4
= 0,5 x 0,2 = 0,1 s mol H
+
= 0,2; s mol SO
4
2-
= 0,1.
S mol NaOH =
40 . 100
28 , 1 . 100 . 25
= 0,8 s mol OH
-
= 0,8; s mol Na
+
= 0,8.
H
+
+ OH
-
H
2
O ; Fe
3+
+ 3OH
-
Fe(OH)
3
0,2 0,2mol 0,12 0,36 0,12mol

Tng s mol OH
-
phn ng = 0,2 + 0,36 = 0,56 s mol OH
-
d = 0,8 - 0,56 = 0,24
Kt ta C: Fe(OH)
3
.
Dung dch B gm: SO
4
2-
(0,18 + 0,1 = 0,28mol), Na
+
(0,8mol), OH
-
(0,24mol).
2Fe(OH)
3

0
t
Fe
2
O
3
+ 3H
2
O
0,12 0,06
Cht rn thu c l Fe
2
O
3
c khi lng = 0,06 x 160 = 9,6g.
Bi 6. a) Cc phng trnh ha hc Mg + 2HCl MgCl
2
+ H
2
(1)
2Al + 6HCl 2AlCl
3
+ 3H
2
(2)
p dng phng php bo ton khi lng m
Mui
= m
Kim loi
+ m
Gc axit

S mol Cl
-
= 2 ln s mol H
2
=
11, 2
22, 4
2= 1,0 mol; m
Mui
= 10,2 + 35,5 = 45,7g.


a) Lng kt ta ln nht khi
Mg
2+
+ 2OH
-
Mg(OH)
2
(3); Al
3+
+ 3OH
-
Al(OH)
3
(4)
xmol 2xmol xmol ymol 3ymol ymol
Gii h: 24x + 27y = 10,2 (I)
2x + 3y = 1,0 (II) x = 0,2 v y = 0,2 m = 0,2(58 + 78)=27,2 (g)
V=
1, 0
0,5
= 2lt; Nu lng NaOH ln hn s ha tan mt phn kt ta Al(OH)
3
.
Bi 7. Gi s mol CaCl
2
v AlCl
3
trong 10ml dung dch ln lt l x v y mol.
S mol ion Cl
-
: 0,07 mol
2x + 3y = 0,07
40x + 27y +0,07.35,5=3,555

x = 0,02 mol; y = 0,01 molC


M
(Ca
2+
) = 2M.
Bi 8. p s m = 30,8 gam .
Bi 9. H
+
+ OH
-
H
2
O (1) ; Ba
2+
+ SO
4
2-
BaSO
4
(2)
Ta c: 0,1.0,5 = (0,1 + 0,15).V.10
-3
V= 200ml
m = 0,015.233= 3,495 gam;
m
1
= m
NaCl
+ m
BaCl2
=0,01.58,5 +0,005.208 = 1,625 gam.
D. Bi tp trc nghim
Cu 1. Trn 200 ml dung dch NaOH 1M vi 250 ml dung dch cha ng thi NaHCO
3
1M
v BaCl
2
xM thu c 31,52 gam kt ta. Xc nh x.
A. 0,6M B. 0,64 M C. 0,65M D. 0,55M.
Cu 2. c php un nng c th nhn bit c bao nhiu dung dch mt nhn trong s
cc dung dch sau: BaCl
2
; Ba(HCO
3
)
2
; NaHSO
4
; NaHCO
3
; NaHSO
3
, NaOH.
A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. 6
Cu 3. Phng trnh phn ng: Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ 3Ba(OH)
2
3BaSO
4
+ 2Fe(OH)
3

c phng trnh ion thu gn l:
A. SO
4
3-
+ Ba
2+

BaSO
4
B. Fe
3+
+ 3OH
-
Fe(OH)
3

C. 2Fe
3+
+ 3Ba(OH)
2
3Ba
2+
+ 2Fe(OH)
3

D. 2Fe
3+

+ 3SO
4
3-
+3Ba
2+
+ 6OH
-
3BaSO
4
+ 2Fe(OH)
3

Cu 4. Dung dch X cha Na
2
SO
4
0,05M, NaCl 0,05M v KCl 0,1M. Phi dng hn hp
mui no pha ch dung dch X:
A. KCl v Na
2
SO
4
B. NaCl v K
2
SO
4

C. KCl v NaHSO
4
D. NaCl v KHSO
4

Cu 5. Phng trnh ion rt gn sau: H
+
+ OH
-
H
2
O
c phng trnh dng phn t l:
A. 3HNO
3
+ Fe(OH)
3

Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ 3H
2
O
B. 2HCl + Ba(OH)
2
BaCl
2
+ 2H
2
O
C. H
2
SO
4
+ Ba(OH)
2
BaSO
4
+ 2H
2
O
D. 2HNO
3
+ Cu(OH)
2

Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ 2H
2
O
Cu 6(H,B-2009). Ho tan m gam hn hp gm Al, Fe vo dung dch H
2
SO
4
long (d).
Sau khi cc phn ngxy ra hon ton, thu c dung dch X. Cho dung dch Ba(OH)
2
(d)
vo dung dch X, thu c ktta Y. Nung Y trong khng kh n khi lng khng i, thu
c cht rn Z l
A. hn hp gm BaSO
4
v FeO B. hn hp gm Al
2
O
3
v Fe
2
O
3
.
C. hn hp gm BaSO
4
v Fe
2
O
3
. D. Fe
2
O
3
.
Cu 7. Cho cc cp dung dch sau:
1, BaCl
2
v Na
2
CO
3
2, NaOH v AlCl
3
3, BaCl
2
v NaHSO
4

4, Ba(OH)
2
v H
2
SO
4
5, AlCl
3
v K
2
CO
3
6, Pb(NO
3
)
2
v Na
2
S
Trn cc dung dch trong tng cp vi nhau, nhng cp no xy ra phn ng?
A. 1,2,3,4,5,6 B. 1,2,4,5,6 C. 1,2,4,6. D. 1,2,4.
Cu 8(2007- Khi B). Trong cc dung dch: HNO
3
, NaCl, Na
2
SO
4
, Ca(OH)
2
, KHSO
4
,
Mg(NO
3
)
2
, dy gm cc cht u tc dng c vi dung dch Ba(HCO
3
)
2
l:
A. HNO
3
, Ca(OH)
2
, KHSO
4
, Na
2
SO
4
. B. NaCl, Na
2
SO
4
, Ca(OH)
2
.
C. HNO
3
, Ca(OH)
2
, KHSO
4
, Mg(NO
3
)
2
. D. HNO
3
, NaCl, Na
2
SO
4
.
Cu 9 (2009- Khi B). Cho cc phn ng ha hc sau:
(1) (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
+ BaCl
2
(2) CuSO
4
+ Ba(NO
3
)
2

(3) Na
2
SO
4
+ BaCl
2
(4) H
2
SO
4
+ BaSO
3

(5) (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
+ Ba(OH)
2
(6) Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ Ba(NO
3
)
2

Cc phn ng u c cng mt phng trnh ion rt gn l:
A. (1), (2), (3), (6). B. (1), (3), (5), (6).
C. (2), (3), (4), (6). D. (3), (4), (5), (6).
Cu 10. Cho s sau : Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ X
1
K
2
SO
4
+ ...
Hy cho bit X
1
c th l cht
A. KOH B. K
2
CO
3
C. K D. KOH, K
2
CO
3
, K.
Cu 11. Dung dch X c cha Na
+
0,1 mol; Al
3+
0,15 mol ; Fe
2+
0,1mol; SO
4
2-
0,2 mol v
Cl
-
x mol. Hy la chn gi tr ng ca x.
A. x= 0,25 B. x = 0,35 C. x= 0, 45 D. x = 0,55
Cu 12. Dung dch X c cha Ba
2+
0,1 mol , Mg
2+
0,05 mol v Na
+
0,15 mol v anion
A. OH
-
0,45 mol B. Cl
-
0,5 mol
C. NO
-
3
0,45 mol D. SO
4
2-
0,225 mol
Cu 13. C cn dung dch X cha Al
3+
0,1 mol ; Cu
2+
0,1 mol ; SO
4
2-
0,2 mol v ion Cl
-
th
thu c bao nhiu gam mui khan ?
A. 28,3 gam B. 31,85 gam C. 34,5 gam D. 35,81gam.
Cu 14. Dung dch A c a mol NH
4
+
, b mol Mg
2+
, c mol SO
4
2-
v d mol HCO
3
-
. Biu thc
biu th ng s lin quan gia a, b, c, d l
A. a + b = c + d B. a + b = 2c + d
C. a + 2b = c + d D. a + 2b = 2c + d
Cu 15. Mt dung dch c cha 2 cation l Fe
2+
(0,1 mol) v Al
3+
(0,2 mol)v 2 anion l Cl
-

(x mol) , SO
4
2-
(y mol). Khi c cn dung dch thu c 46,9 gam mui khan. Gi tr ca x v
y ln lt l:
A. 0,3 v 0,2 B.0,2 v 0,3 C. 0,1 v 0,2 D. 0,2 v 0,1
Cu 16. Trong cc phn ng sau, phn ng no khng xy ra?
A. KHCO
3
+ KOH K
2
CO
3
+ H
2
O
B. H
2
ZnO
2
+ 2NaOH Na
2
ZnO
2
+ 2H
2
O
C. Pb(NO
3
)
2
+ H
2
S PbS + 2HNO
3
.
D. BaCl
2
+ SO
2
+ H
2
O BaSO
3
+ 2HCl
Cu 17. Trn dung dch cha Ba
2+
; OH
-
0,06 mol v Na
+
0,02 mol vi dung dch cha
HCO
-
3
0,04mol ; CO
2-
3
0,03 mol v Na
+
. Hy cho bit khi lng kt ta thu c sau phn
ng.
A. 3,94 gam B. 5,91 gam C. 7,88 gam D. 9,85gam.
Cu 18. Mt dung dch X gm NaHCO
3
, Na
2
CO
3
. Cho t t tng git dung dch HCl vo
dung dch X cho n khi bt u c kh thot ra th dng li thu c dung dch Y. trong
dung dch Y cha cc cht sau:
A. Na
2
CO
3
v NaHCO
3
B. NaHCO
3
v NaCl
C. Na
2
CO
3
; NaHCO
3
v NaCl. D. HCl v NaCl.
Cu 19. Cho 0,1 mol Ba vo 1lt dung dch cha HCl 0,1M, FeCl
2
0,1M v Na
2
SO
4
0,1M.
Hy cho bit khi lng kt ta thu c sau phn ng ?
A. 23,3 gam B. 9 gam C. 32,3 gam D. 27,8 gam
Cu 20: Hn hp X cha Na
2
O, NH
4
Cl, NaHCO
3
v BaCl
2
c s mol mi cht u bng
nhau. Cho hn hp X vo H
2
O (d), un nng, dung dch thu c cha
A. NaCl, NaOH, BaCl
2
. B. NaCl, NaOH.
C. NaCl, NaHCO
3
, NH
4
Cl, BaCl
2
. D. NaCl.

P N V HNG DN GII
1.B 2.D 3.D 4.B 5.B 6.C 7.B 8.B 9.A 10.A
11.B 12.C 13.B 14.D 15.B 16.A 17.A 18.B 19.D 20.D

Cu1.
3
HCO

+ OH


2
H O +
2
3
CO

;
2
Ba
+
+
2
3
CO


3
BaCO
0,25 > 0,2 0,2; 0,16 0,16 0,16

2
0,16
Ba
n
+
= x =
0,16
0, 64
0, 25
M = B
Cu 8. Ba(OH)
2
+ 2HNO
3
Ba(NO
3
)
2
+ 2H
2
O + 2CO
2

Ba(HCO
3
)
2
+ Ca(OH)
2
BaCO
3
+ CaCO
3
+ H
2
O
Ba(HCO
3
)
2
+ 2KHSO
4
BaSO
4
+ 2 H
2
O + 2CO
2
+ K
2
SO
4

Ba(HCO
3
)
2
+ Na
2
SO
4
BaSO
4
+ 2NaHCO
3

Cu 10. Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ X
1
K
2
SO
4

V tri ch c 2 cht l Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
v X
1
X
1
l KOH v
K
2
CO
3
+ Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ H
2
O K
2
SO
4
+...
6K + Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ 6H
2
O 2Fe(OH)
2
+ 3H
2
+ 3K
2
SO
4

Cu 15.Theo bo ton ion: 0,1.2 + 0,2.3=x.1 +2.y x+2y=0,8 (1)
Tng m
mui
:46,9 = 56.0,1 + 27.0,2 +35,5.x + 96.y 35,5x + 96y = 35,9 (2)
Gii h (1) ; (2) x = 0,2 mol; y = 0,3 mol (B)
Cu 19. Ba + 2 H
2
O Ba(OH)
2
+ H
2
(1)
0,1 0,1 0,1
H
+
+ OH
-
H
2
O (2)
0,1 0,1
2OH
-
+ Fe
2+
Fe(OH)
3
(3)
0,1 0,05
Ba
2+
+ SO
4
2-
Ba(SO
4
)
2
(4)
0,1 0,1 0,1
m

= 0,05.90 + 233.0,1 = 27,8 (D)


Cu 20. Na
2
O + H
2
O 2NaOH
a 2a
NaOH + NH
4
Cl NaCl + NH
3
+ H
2
O
a a
NaOH + NaHCO
3
Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
O
a a a
Na
2
CO
3
+ BaCl
2
BaCO
3
+ 2NaCl
a a
NaOH ht , Na
2
CO
3
c tao ra ri phn ng ht , BaCO
3
l cht kt ta , NH
3
l kh
Cht cn li trong dung dch sau phn ng l NaCl. Chn D

4. MT S T KIM TRA
KIM TRA S 1
Thi gian 45 pht
Cu 1. Trong cc phn ng di y, phn ng no trong nc ng vai tr l mt axit
Bronstet
A. AlO
2
-
+ 2H
2
O Al(OH)
3
+ OH
-
B. HCO
3
-
+ H
2
O H
3
O
+
+ CO
3
2-
C.CuSO
4
+ 5H
2
O CuSO
4
.5H
2
O D. HNO
3
+ H
2
O H
3
O
+
+ NO
3
-

Cu 2. Khi trn ln tng cp dung dch cc cht sau:Na
2
CO
3,
CuSO
4
, Ca(NO
3
)
2
, FeCl
3
,
Al(NO
3
)
3
, KOH, s cp cht c phn ng vi nhau l:
A.7 B.8 C.6 D.9
Cu 3. (2007_khi A): Cho dy cc cht: Ca(HCO
3
)
2
, NH
4
Cl, (NH
4
)
2
CO
3
, ZnSO
4
, Al(OH)
3
,
Zn(OH)
2
. S cht trong dy c tnh cht lng tnh l
A. 3. B.4. C. 2. D. 5.
Cu 4. Cho cc phn ng sau :
(1) CuCl
2
+ H
2
S CuS + 2HCl
(2) Fe + 2HCl FeCl
2
+ H
2

(3) Al + 4HNO
3
Al(NO
3
)
3
+ NO + 2H
2
O
(4) CaCO
3
+ 2H
+
Ca
2+
+ H
2
O + CO
2

(5) CuCl
2
+ 2NaOH Cu(OH)
2
+ 2NaCl
Nhng phn ng trao i ion l:
A. (1) , (2) , (5) B. (2) , (3) , (5)
C. (3) , (4) , (5) D. (1) , (4) , (5)
Cu 5. Cho cc cp dung dch sau:
1, BaCl
2
v Na
2
CO
3
2, NaOH v AlCl
3
3, Pb(NO
3
)
2
v Na
2
S
4, Ba(OH)
2
v H
2
SO
4
5, AlCl
3
v K
2
CO
3
6, BaCl
2
v NaHSO
4

Trn cc dung dch trong tng cp vi nhau, nhng cp xy ra phn ng l
A. 1,2,3,4,5 B. 1,2,4,5,6 C. 1,2,3,4,6. D. 1,2,4,5.
Cu 6. Cho cc phn ng sau:
(1)CaCO
3
+ H
2
SO
4
= CaSO
4
+ H
2
O + CO
2
(2)Ca(HCO
3
)
2
+ NaHSO
4
= CaSO
4
+ NaHCO
3
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O
(3)Ba(HCO
3
)
2
+ 2NaHSO
4
= BaSO
4
+ Na
2
SO
4
+ 2CO
2
+ 2H
2
O
(4)3NH
3
+ AlCl
3
+ 3H
2
O = Al(OH)
3
+ 3NH
4
Cl
Trong cc phn ng trn, phn ng no khng phi phn ng axit- baz
A.(1) B.(2) C.(3) D.(4)
Cu 7. Cho dung dch NaHCO
3
vo cc dung dch sau : FeCl
3
, NaOH, BaCl
2
v NaHSO
4
.
Hy cho bit dung dch no khng c phn ng xy ra ?
A. NaOH B. NaHSO
4
C. FeCl
3
. D. BaCl
2
.
Cu 8 (2007_khi A): Nh t t cho n d dung dch NaOH vo dung dch AlCl
3
. Hin
tng xy ra l
A. Ch c kt ta keo trng.
B. Khng c kt ta, c kh bay ln.
C. C kt ta keo trng , sau kt ta tan.
D. C kt ta keo trng v c kh bay ln.
Cu 9. Cho cc kt lun sau :
(1) mui axit l nhng cht m anion gc axit c kh nng cho proton.
(2) mui m anion gc axit c cha H u l cc mui axit.
(3) mui c kh nng cho proton u l mui axit.
(4) mui axit khi tan vo nc to mi trng axit.
Hy cho bit nhng kt lun no ng ?
A. (1) (2) (3) (4) B. (1) (2) (4) C. (1) (3) D. (1)
Cu 10. Cho cc cp cht (hoc dd) sau y:
(1) dd Fe (NO
3
)
3
+ dd NaI; (2) dd FeCl
3
+ dd Na
2
CO
3
; (3) Al + dd NaOH ;
(4) dd AlCl
3
+ dd NaOH; (5) dd NH
3
+ dung dch FeCl
3
;
(6) dd NH
4
Cl + dd NaAlO
2
(t
0
); (7) dd Na
2
CO
3
+ dd FeCl
2
.
Hy cho bit c bao nhiu cp cht khi phn ng to ra sn phm kh.
A 4 B. 5 C. 3 D. 2
Cu 11. Thm 15ml dung dch NaOH 1M vo 15ml dung dch HCl cha bit nng th thu
c 30ml dung dch c pH = 7. Nng ca dung dch HCl ban u l:

A. 1M B. 1,5M C. 2M D. 2,5M
Cu 12 (2007_khi A): Cho m gam hn hp Mg, Al vo 250 ml dung dch X cha hn hp
axit HCl 1M v axit H
2
SO
4
0,5M, thu c 5,32 lt H
2
( ktc) v dung dch Y (coi th tch
dung dch khng i). Dung dch Y c pH l
A. 1. B. 7. C. 2. D. 6.
Cu 13. Cho cc cht sau : Na
2
SO
4
, Na
2
CO
3
, NaCl, H
2
SO
4
, BaCl
2
, NaOH. Ch dng thm
cht no di y phn bit c cc cht trn
A. qu tm B. dung dch HCl
C. dung dch NaOH D. dung dch Ba(OH)
2

Cu 14. Cho dung dch Ba(OH)
2
d vo 100 ml dung dch cha Fe
2+
0,5M, SO
4
2-
a M v
Na
+
0,4M. Sau khi phn ng hon ton thu c bao nhiu gam kt ta ?
A. 4,5 gam B. 16,31 gam C. 5,35 gam D. 20,81 gam
Cu 15. Cho rt t t tng git 100 ml dung dch HCl 2M vo dung dch cha Na
2
CO
3
0,1
mol v NaHCO
3
0,15 mol. Th tch kh CO
2
thot ra (ktc) l
A. 2,24 lt. B. 2,8 lt. C. 3,92 lt D. 4,48 lt.
Cu 16. Cho 2,4 gam Mg vo 200 ml dung dch H
2
SO
4
0,75M thu c dung dch A. Cho
200 ml dung dch B cha Ba(OH)
2
0,3M v NaOH 0,5M vo dung dch A th thu c khi
lng kt ta l
A. 3,48 gam B. 13,98 gam C. 17,45 gam D. 19,78 gam
Cu 17. Trn 100 ml dung dch cha CaCl
2
0,4M v BaCl
2
0,2M vi 200 ml dung dch cha
K
2
CO
3
0,3M v Na
2
CO
3
0,1M. Khi lng kt ta thu c l:
A. 4 gam B. 7,94 gam C. 15,76 gam D. 15,88gam.
Cu 18. Cho 4 phn ng:
(1) Fe + 2HCl FeCl
2
+ H
2

(2) 2NaOH + (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
Na
2
SO
4
+ 2NH
3
+ 2H
2
O
(3) BaCl
2
+ Na
2
CO
3
BaCO
3
+ 2NaCl
(4) 2NH
3
+ 2H
2
O + FeSO
4
Fe(OH)
2
+ (NH
4
)
2
SO
4

Cc phn ng thuc loi phn ng axit - baz l
A. (2), (4). B. (3), (4). C. (2), (3). D. (1), (2).
Cu 19. Cho cc dung dch sau: Na
2
S, FeSO
4
, BaCl
2
, NH
4
NO
3
, NaHSO
4
, Na
2
CO
3
v
CH
3
COONa.Hy cho bit dung dch no c pH > 7
A. Na
2
S, FeSO
4
, BaCl
2
, NH
4
NO
3
, NaHSO
4
, Na
2
CO
3
v CH
3
COONa.
B. Na
2
S, NH
4
NO
3
, NaHSO
4
, Na
2
CO
3
.
C. Na
2
S, Na
2
CO
3
v CH
3
COONa
D. Na
2
S, NH
4
NO
3
, Na
2
CO
3
v CH
3
COONa.
Cu 20. Tp hp nhng ion no sau y u th hin tnh baz:
A. Al
3+
, HS
-
, SO
3
2-
, HPO
4
2-

B. CO
3
2-
, S
2-
, PO
4
3-
, OH
-
C. HSO
4
-
, Cl
-
, CH
3
COO
-
, PO
4
3-
D. SO
4
2-
, HSO
-
4
, NO
-
3
, NH
+
4

Cu 21. Cho 11,15 gam hn hp X gm Na v Al vo nc d thy tan hon ton thu c
9,52 lt kh H
2
(ktc) v dung dch Y. Khi thm 200 ml dung dch HCl 1M vo dung dch Y
th thu c khi lng kt ta l
A. 10,92 gam B. 11,31 gam C. 12,48 gam D. 11,7 gam
Cu 22. Trong cc dung dch: HNO
3
, NaCl, Na
2
SO
4
, Ca(OH)
2
, KHSO
4
, Mg(NO
3
)
2
, dy gm
cc cht u tc dng c vi dung dch Ba(HCO3)2 l:
A. HNO
3
, NaCl, Na
2
SO
4
. B. HNO
3
, Ca(OH)
2
, KHSO
4
, Na
2
SO
4
.
C. NaCl, Na
2
SO
4
, Ca(OH)
2
. D. HNO
3
, Ca(OH)
2
, KHSO
4
, Mg(NO
3
)
2
.
Cu 23 (2007_khi A). C 4 dung dch mui ring bit: CuCl
2
, ZnCl
2
, FeCl
3
, AlCl
3
. Nu
thm dung dch KOH (d) ri thm tip dung dch NH
3
(d) vo bn dung dch th s cht
kt ta thu c l
A. 3. B. 2. C. 4. D. 1.
Cu 24. Cho 40 ml dung dch HCl 0,85M vo 160 ml dung dch cha ng thi Ba(OH)
2

0,08M v KOH 0,04M. Dung dch thu c c pH l:
A. 2 B. 7 C. 12 D. 8.
Cu 25. Dung dch X cha HCl v HNO
3
pH=1 ; dung dch Y cha Ba(OH)
2
0,04M v
NaOH 0,02M. Trn 2 dung dch trn vi nhau theo t l no th thu c dung dch c pH =
7.
A. V
X
/V
Y
= 1 B. V
X
/V
Y
= 2 C. V
X
/V
Y
= 1/2 D. V
X
/V
Y
= 3
Cu 26. Cho cc dung dch trong dung mi l nc, c cng nng 0,1M sau:
X
1
: NH
4
Cl ; X
2
: CH
3
COONa ; X
3
: Na
2
CO
3
;

X
4
: NaHSO
4
; X
5
: NaCl
Cc dung dch c pH ln hn 7 l:
A. X
1
, X
3
, X
4
, X
5
B. X
2
, X
3
C. X
1
, X
4
, X
5
D. X
2
, X
3
, X
4

Cu 27. Trn 200 ml dung dch NaOH 1,5M vi 150 ml dung dch H
2
SO
4
aM thu c dung
dch X c th ho tan va ht 2,34 gam Al(OH)
3
. Tnh a = ?
A. 1,5M hoc 1,8M B. 0,9M C. 1,8M D. 1,5M hoc 0,9M
Cu 28. Trn 100 ml dung dch (gm Ba(OH)2 0,1M v NaOH 0,1M) vi 400 ml dung dch (gm
H2SO4 0,0375M v HCl 0,0125M), thu c dung dch X. Gi tr pH ca dung dch X l
A. 7. B. 2. C. 1. D. 6.
Cu 29. Cho cc dung dch cng nng mol/lt: KHS, NaOH, K
2
CO
3
,Ca(OH)
2
, NaCl. Hy
sp xp cc dung dch theo chiu pH ca dung dch tng dn
A. NaCl<KHS< K
2
CO
3
< NaOH<Ca(OH)
2
.
B. NaCl<K
2
CO
3
<KHS<NaOH<Ca(OH)
2
.
C. KHS<K
2
CO
3
<NaCl<Ca(OH)
2
<NaOH.
D. KHS<NaCl<K
2
CO
3
<Ca(OH)
2
<NaOH.
Cu 30. Ch s dng mt ho cht no sau y c th phn bit c cc dung dch mt nhn
sau bng phng php ho hc: NaCl ; AlCl
3
; CuCl
2
; FeCl
3
; FeCl
2
; NH
4
NO
3
;
(NH
4
)
2
CO
3
?
A. qu tm B. dd Ba(OH)
2
C. dd NaOH D. dd NH
3

p n trc nghim
1.A 2.B 3.B 4.D 5.A 6.A 7.D 8.C 9.D 10.C
11.A 12.A 13.A 14.D 15.A 16.C 17.B 18.A 19.C 20.B
21.D 22.B 23.D 24.A 25.B 26.D 27.D 28.B 29.A 30.B
Cu 12. 2H
+
H
2

0,475 0,2375 mol
H
n
+ p to
2
H
= 0,475

H
n
+ bd
= 0,25.1 + + 0,25.2.0,5 = 0,5
H
n
+ d
= 0,5 0,475 = 0,025 mol
H
+
(

d
=
0, 025
0,1
0, 25
= pH = 1 A
Cu 15. 2H
+
+ CO
3
2-
HCO
3
-
; H
+
+ HCO
3
-
H
2
O + CO
2

0,1 0,1 ; 0,1 0,1 0,1
V = 2,24 lt A
Cu 16. Mg + H
2
SO
4
MgSO
4
+ H
2
(1)
0,1 0,1 0,1
2 4
H SO
n
d
= 0,05 mol
H
+
+ OH
-
H
2
O (2)
0,05.2
OH
n
d (sau p 2)
= 0,2(2.0,3+0,5)-0,05.2 = 0,12 mol
Mg
2+
+ 2OH
-
Mg(OH)
2
bd 0,1 0,12 0,06
2
( ) Mg OH
m = 3,48 g
p 0,06 0,12 0,06
Ba
2+
+ SO
4
2-
BaSO
4

0,06 0,1 0,06
4
BaSO
m = 13,98 m

= 17,46 C
Cu 18. Phn ng axit l phn ng trong c s cho v nhn proton H+
Cc phn ng (2) , (4) .
(2) 2NaOH + (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
Na
2
SO
4
+ 2NH
3
+ 2H
2
O
Bazo Axit
(4) 2NH
3
+ 2H
2
O + FeSO
4
Fe(OH)
2
+ (NH
4
)
2
SO
4

Baz Axit
Chn A
Cu 22. 2HNO
3
+ Ba(HCO
3
)
2
Ba(NO
3
)
2
+ CO
2
+ 2H
2
O
Na
2
SO
4
+ Ba(HCO
3
)
2
BaSO
4
+ 2NaHCO
3

Ca(OH)
2
+ Ba(HCO
3
)
2
BaCO
3
+ CaCO
3
+ H
2
O
KHSO
4
+ Ba(HCO
3
)
2
BaSO
4
+ 2CO
2
+ 2H
2
O
Chn B
NaCl + Ba(HCO
3
)
2
Khng phn ng v NaHCO
3
, BaCl
2
khng kt ta .
Mg(NO
3
)
2
+ Ba(HCO
3
)
2
Khng phn ng v Mg(HCO
3
)
2
tan , Ba(NO
3
)
2
tan
Cu 23. Thm KOH
(d)
:
Cu
2+
+ 2OH
-
Cu(OH)
2
; Zn
2+
+ 4OH
-
ZnO
2
2-
+ 2H
2
O
Fe
3+
+ 3OH
-
Fe(OH)
3
; Al
3+
+ 4OH
-
AlO
2
-
+ 2H
2
O
s thu c l : Cu(OH)
2
; Fe(OH)
3

Thm NH
3 d
: Cu(OH)
2
+ 4NH
3
Cu(NH
3
)
4
(OH)
2

Vy cn li l Fe(OH)
3
D
Cu 27. OH
-
+ H
+
H
2
O (1)
+) TH1: p (1) d OH
-
:
OH
n
d
= 0,2.1,5 2.a.0,15
= 0,3 0,3a (mol)
OH
-
+ Al(OH)
3
AlO
2
-
+ 2H
2
O
0,03 0,03
OH
n

= 0,03 0,3 0,3a = 0,03 a = 0,9 M
+)TH2: p (1) d H
+
:
H
n
+ d
= 2a.0,15 0,2.1,5 = 0,3a -0,3
3H
+
+ Al(OH)
3
Al
3+
+ 3H
2
O
0,09 0,03
H
n
+
= 0,09 0,3a 0,3 = 0,09 a = 1,3 M
Vy chn p n D.
Cu 28. n Ba(OH)
2
= 0,1.0,1 = 0,01 mol , n NaOH = 0,1.0,1 = 0,01 mol ,
n H
2
SO
4
= 0,4.0,0375 = 0,015 mol , n HCl =0,0125.0,4 = 0,025 mol
Ba(OH)
2
Ba
2+
+ 2OH
-
; NaOH Na
+
+ OH
-

0,01 0,02 ; 0,01 0,01
Tng s mol OH
-
: 0,02 + 0,01 = 0,03 mol
H
2
SO
4
2H
+
+ SO
4
2-
; HCl H
+
+ Cl
-

0,015 0,03 ; 0,005 0,005
Tng s mol ca H
+
: 0,035 mol
Phn ng : H
+
+ OH
-
H
2
O
Ban u 0,035 0,03
Phn ng 0,03 0,03
Kt thc 0,005 0
Sau phn ng d 0,005 mol H
+
, Tng th tch l 0,5 lit
[H
+
] = 0,005/0,05 = 0,01 PH = -Lg[H
+
] = -lg0,01 = 2
Chn B


KIM TRA S 2
Thi gian 45 pht
Cu 1. Cn bng sau tn ti trong dung dch: CH
3
COOH CH
3
COO
-
+ H
+

nhit khng i, in li ca CH
3
COOH s bin i nh th no khi pha long
dung dch?
A. tng B. gim C. khng i D. tng sau gim.
Cu 2. Dy cht no di y gm tt c cc mui u b thy phn khi tan trong nc?
A. Na
3
PO
4
, FeCl
2
, KNO
3
B. Mg(NO
3
)
2
, BaCl
2
, NaNO
2

C. AlCl
3
, Na
3
PO
4
, K
2
SO
3
D. K
2
S, Na
2
SO
4
, K
3
PO
4.

Cu 3. Kt qu phn tch cho thy mt dung dch c [OH
-
] = 10
-3
M th mi trng ca dung
dch l:
A. Baz B. Lng tnh C. Trung tnh D. Axit
Cu 4 (2007_khi A): nhn bit 3 axit c, ngui: HCl, H
2
SO
4
, HNO
3
ng ring bit
trong 3 l mt nhn, ta dng thuc th l
A. Al. B. Fe. C.CuO. D. Cu.
Cu 5. Cho 4,6 gam Na vo 100 ml dung dch HCl aM thu c dung dch A. Cho dung dch
A vo 100 ml dung dch AlCl
3
0,8M th thu oc 0,78 gam kt ta. Tnh a
A. 1,1M B. 1,7M C. 2,4M D. 2M.
Cu 6 (2007_khi A): Trn dung dch cha a mol AlCl
3
vi dung dch cha bmol NaOH.
thu c kt ta th cn c t l
A. a : b =1 : 5. B. a: b > 1 : 4. C. a : b = 1: 4. D. a :b < 1: 4.
Cu 7. Cho dung dch cha cc ion: Na
+
, Ca
2+
, H
+
, Cl
-
, Ba
2+
, Mg
2+
. Nu khng a ion l
vo dung dch, dng cht no sau y tch nhiu ion nht ra khi dung dch?
A. dung dch Na
2
SO
4
va . B. dung dch NaOH va .
C. dung dch Na
2
S va . D. dung dch Na
2
CO
3
va .
Cu 8(2007_khi A): Ho tan hon ton 2,81gam hn hp gm Fe
2
O
3
, MgO, ZnO trong
500ml axit H
2
SO
4
0,1M (va ). Sau phn ng, hn hp mui sunfat khan thu c khi c
cn dung dch c khi lng l
A. 6,81 gam. B. 4,81 gam. C. 3,81 gam. D. 5,81 gam
Cu 9. Tp hp cc ion no sau y th hin tnh cht baz :
A. CO
3
2-
, S
2-
, PO
4
3-
, CH
3
COO
-
B.Fe
3+
,S
2-
, SO
3
2-
, OH
-

C. HSO
4
-
,Br
-
,CH
3
COO
-
,PO
4
3-

D.SO
4
2-
, HS
-
,NO
-
3
,OH
-

Cu 10. Dung dch thu c khi trn ln 200 ml dung dch NaCl 0,2M v 300 ml dung dch
Na
2
SO
4
0,2M c nng [Na
+
] l
A. 0,23M B. 32M C. 0,2M D. 0,1M
Cu 11. Trn dung dch cha Ba
2+
; OH
-
0,06 mol v Na
+
0,02 mol vi dung dch cha HCO
-
3
0,04mol ; CO
2-
3
0,03 mol v Na
+
. Hy cho bit khi lng kt ta thu c sau phn ng.
A. 3,94 gam B. 5,91 gam C. 7,88 gam D. 9,85gam.
Cu 12. Cc cht no va tc dng vi dung dch HCl va tc dng vi dung dch NaOH?
A. Pb(OH)
2
, ZnO, Fe
2
O
3
B. Al(OH)
3
, Al
2
O
3
, Na
2
CO
3

C. Na
2
SO
4
, HNO
3
, Al
2
O
3
D. Na
2
HPO
4
, ZnO, Zn(OH)
2

Cu 13(H,2009-A). X l dung dch AlCl
3
, Y l dung dch NaOH 2M. Thm 250 ml dung
dch Y vo cc cha 100 ml dd X, khuy u th trong cc to ra 10,92 gam kt ta. Cc
phn ng u xy ra hon ton. Hy xc nh nng mol ca dung dch X.
A. 1,4M B. 1,6M C. 1,8M D. 1,5M
Cu 14. Cho dy cc cht: KHCO
3
, Pb(OH)
2
, NH
4
NO
3
, CH
3
COONa, (NH
4
)
2
CO
3
, AlCl
3
,
ZnO, Al(OH)
3
. S cht trong dy c tnh cht lng tnh l
A. 5 B.6 C.7 D.4
Cu 15 (2009- Khi B). Trn 100 ml dung dch hn hp gm H
2
SO
4
0,05M v HCl 0,1M
vi 100 ml dung dch hn hp gm NaOH 0,2M v Ba(OH)
2
0,1M, thu c dung dch X.
Dung dch X c pH l
A. 13,0. B. 1,2 C. 1,0. D. 12,8.
Cu 16. Dung dch A cha a mol NH
4
+
, b mol Na
+
, c mol SO
4
2-
, d mol HCO
3
-
v e mol
CO
3
2-
khng k cc ion H
+
v OH
-
ca nc). Thm (c+d+e) mol Ba(OH)
2
vo dung dch A,
un nng thu c kt ta B, dung dch X v kh Y duy nht c mi khai. S mol mi cht
trong kt ta B l:
A. c mol BaSO
4
, (e+d) mol BaCO
3
. B. (e+d) mol BaCO
3
.
C. (c+d) mol BaSO
4
. D. e mol BaSO
4
, (c+d) mol BaCO
3
.
Cu 17 (H, C Khi A2004). Cho 40ml dung dch HCl 0,75M vo 160ml dung dch
cha ng thi Ba(OH)
2
0,08M v KOH 0,04M. (cho bit [H
+
].[OH
-
] = 10
-14
). Gi tr pH ca
dung dch thu c l:
A. 10. B. 11. C. 12. D. 13.
Cu 18 (H SPHN-2001). Th tch dung dch Ba(OH)
2
0,025M cn cho vo 100ml dung
dch gm HNO
3
v HCl c pH = 1,0 pH ca hn hp thu c bng 2,0 l:
A. 110 ml. B. 150 ml. C. 250 ml. D. 200 ml.
Cu 19. Nhng mu giy qu tm vo dung dch CH
3
COOH long, qu chuyn mu hng.
Mu hng ca qu m dn ln trong trng hp no sau y?
A. un nng B. Thm Na
2
CO
3

C. Thm NH
4
Cl D. Thm NaCl
Cu 20(H,2007-B) Trong cc dung dch: HNO
3
, NaCl, Na
2
SO
4
, Ca(OH)2, KHSO
4
,
Mg(NO
3
)
2
, dy gm cc cht u tc dng c vi dung dch Ba(HCO
3
)
2
l:
A. HNO
3
, NaCl, Na
2
SO
4
. B. HNO
3
, Ca(OH)
2
, KHSO
4
, Na
2
SO
4
.
C. NaCl, Na
2
SO
4
, Ca(OH)
2
. D. HNO
3
, Ca(OH)
2
, KHSO
4
, Mg(NO
3
)
2
.
Cu 21. C bn l mt nhn ng bn dung dch: HCl, H
2
SO
4
, Na
2
CO
3
, BaCl
2
. Thuc th
no sau y c th nhn bit c c bn dung dch trn:
A. Dung dch NH
3
. B. Qu tm.
C. Dung dch NaCl. D. Dung dch NaOH.
Cu 22(H,2009-A). Cho 3,68 gam hn hp gm Al v Zn tc dng vi mt lng va
dung dch H
2
SO
4
10%, thu c 2,24 lt kh H
2
( ktc). Khi lng dung dch thu c sau
phn ng l
A. 101,48 gam. B. 101,68 gam. C. 88,20 gam. D. 97,80 gam.
Cu 23. Cn trn dung dch X cha HCl 0,1M v H
2
SO
4
0,1M vi dung dch Y cha NaOH
0,3M v Ba(OH)
2
0,1M theo t l th tch nh th no thu c dung dch c pH = 13?
A. V
X
/V
Y
= 1/1 B. V
X
/V
Y
= 1/2 C. V
X
/V
Y
= 1/3 D. V
X
/V
Y
= 3/1
Cu 24(H,2007-B). Cho 200 ml dung dch AlCl3 1,5M tc dng vi V lt dung dch NaOH
0,5M, lng kt ta thu c l 15,6 gam. Gi tr ln nht ca V l
A. 1,2. B. 1,8. C. 2,4. D. 2.
Cu 25. Cho cc dung dch Ba(NO
3
)
2
; Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
; ZnCl
2
; Mg(NO
3
)
2
; CuSO
4
; FeCl
3
. nhn
bit c cc dung dch trn c th dng thuc th l dung dch
A. Ca(OH)
2
. B. KOH. C. H
2
S. D. NH
3
.
Cu 26. Ch s dng mt ho cht no sau y c th phn bit c cc dung dch mt nhn
sau bng phng php ho hc: NaCl ; AlCl
3
; NaAlO
2
; Na
2
CO
3
; Na
2
S?
A. H
2
O. B. qu tm.
C. Dung dch HCl. D. Dung dch NaOH.
Cu 27. Mui trung ho l
A. Mui khng cn hiro c kh nng thay th bi kim loi.
B. Mui m dung dch c pH = 7
C. Mui khng cn c hiro trong phn t
D. Mui khng c kh nng phn ng vi axit v baz.
Cu 28(H,2009-A). Dy gm cc cht u tc dng c vi dung dch HCl long l:
A. AgNO
3
, (NH
4
)
2
CO
3
, CuS. B. FeS, BaSO
4
, KOH.
C. Mg(HCO
3
)
2
, HCOONa, CuO. D. KNO
3
, CaCO
3
, Fe(OH)
3
.
Cu 29(H,2009-A). Cho bn hn hp, mi hn hp gm hai cht rn c s mol bng nhau:
Na
2
O v Al
2
O
3
; Cu v FeCl
3
; BaCl
2
v CuSO
4
; Ba v NaHCO
3
. S hn hp c th tan hon
ton trong nc (d) ch to ra dung dch l
A. 1. B. 3. C. 2. D. 4.
Cu 30. Nng OH
-
ca dung dch NH
4
OH 0,1M c 1% baz b phn li l:
A. 10
-2
M B. 10
-3
M C. 10
-4
M D. 10
-1
M.


p n v hng dn gii
1.A 2.C 3.A 4.D 5.B 6.B 7.D 8.A 9.A 10.D
11.D 12.D 13.B 14.A 15.C 16.A 17.C 18.B 19.C 20.B
21.B 22.A 23.A 24.D 25.D 26.C 27.A 28.C 29.A 30.B

Cu 6. AlCl
3
+ 3NaOH Al(OH)
3
+ 3NaCl (1)
a 3a a
NaOH + Al(OH)
3
NaAlO
2
+ 2H
2
O (2)
a a

NaOH
n

= 4a = b. thu c th
NaOH
n <a
NaOH
n

=b<4a

1
4
a
b
> (B)
Cu 7. Fe
2
O
3
Fe
2
SO
4

MgO
4 2
SO H
MgSO
4
ZnO ZnSO
4

2,81gam m gam
Nhn xt : cc nguyn t oxi trong oxit c thay bng (SO
4
)
2-
m=2,81+(96-16).
2
4
SO
n

= 2,81+80.0,5.0,1=6,81 (A)
Cu 13. AlCl
3
+ 3NaOH Al(OH)
3
+ 3NaCl (1)
NaOH + Al(OH)
3
NaAlO
2
+ 2H
2
O (2)
* TH1: ch c p (1)
3
( ) Al OH
n = 0,14
3
AlCl
n = 0,14 loi
* TH2: to p (1) v (2):
3
AlCl
n =0,1x
3
( ) Al OH
n
(1)
= 0,1x (mol)

3
( ) Al OH
n
d sau (2)
=0,14
3
( ) Al OH
n
p (2)
= 0,1x-0,14=
NaOH
n
p (2)

Vy
NaOH
n

(1)+(2)
=3.0,1x + 0,1x -0,14 = 0,4x -0,14 =0,5x=1,6(M) B
Cu 15. H
+
+ OH
-
H
2
O

( )
( )
0,1 2.0, 05 0,1 0, 02
0,1 0, 2 0,12 0, 04
H
OH
n
n
+

= + =

`
= + =

)
OH
n
d
= 0,02

0, 02
0,1
0,1
OH

( = =

pOH=1 pH=13 chn A
Cu 20. 2HNO
3
+ Ba(HCO
3
)
2
Ba(NO
3
)
2
+ CO
2
+ 2H
2
O
Na
2
SO
4
+ Ba(HCO
3
)
2
BaSO
4
+ 2NaHCO
3

Ca(OH)
2
+ Ba(HCO
3
)
2
BaCO
3
+ CaCO
3
+ H
2
O
KHSO
4
+ Ba(HCO
3
)
2
BaSO
4
+ 2CO
2
+ 2H
2
O
Chn B
NaCl + Ba(HCO
3
)
2
Khng phn ng v NaHCO
3
, BaCl
2
khng kt ta .
Mg(NO
3
)
2
+ Ba(HCO
3
)
2
Khng phn ng v Mg(HCO
3
)
2
tan , Ba(NO
3
)
2
tan
Cu 22. 2H
+
H
2

0,2 0,1
H
n
+
= 0,2
2 4
H SO
n = 0,1 m = 9,8(g)
m
dd
=98(g); m
dd
= m
kloai
+m
H2SO4
-
2
H
m = 3,68 + 98 -0,1.2 =101,48 chn A.
Cu 24. n AlCl
3
= 0,2.1,5 = 0,3 mol , S mol kt ta n Al(OH)
3
= 15,6/78 = 0,2 mol
* Trng hp 1 : Ch c 1 phn ng sau (sau phn ng (1) NaOH ht ) :
AlCl
3
+ 3NaOH Al(OH)
3
+ 3NaCl
Ban u 0,3 mol 0,6
Phn ng 0,2 0,6 0,2
Kt thc 0,1 0 0,2
n AlCl
3
phn ng = 0,2 AlCl
3
d = 0,3 0,2 = 0,1 mol
n NaOH phn ng = 0,6 mol V NaOH = 0,6/0,5 = 1,2 lt
* Trng hp 2 : C c hai phn ng (trong phn ng (1) NaOH d , AlCl3 ht ) :
AlCl
3
+ 3NaOH Al(OH)
3
+ 3NaCl (1); Al(OH)
3
+ NaOH NaAlO
2
+ H
2
O (2)
0,3 0,9 0,3 ; x x
Sau (1) , (2) thu c 0,2 mol cht kt ta 0,3 x = 0,2 x = 0,1 mol tng s mol
NaOH tham gia phn ng l : 0,9 + 0,1 = 1 mol V = 1/0,5 = 2 lt
Chn D.
Cu 28. Chn p n C
Mg(HCO
3
)
2
+ 2HCl MgCl
2
+ 2H
2
O + 2CO
2
.
HCOONa + HCl HCOOH + NaCl
CuO + 2HCl CuCl
2
+ H
2
O
Cu 29.
1) Na
2
O + H
2
O 2NaOH; 2NaOH + Al
2
O
3
2NaAlO
2
+ H
2
O.
2) Cu + 2FeCl
3
CuCl
2
+ 2FeCl
2
d Cu loi
3) BaCl
2
+ CuSO
4
loi
4) Ba + 2H
2
O Ba(OH)
2
+ H
2
;
Ba(OH)
2
+ 2NaHCO
3
BaCO
3
+ Na
2
CO
3
+ 2H
2
O loi
Vy c 1 hn hp tha mn Chn p n A

CHNG 2. NHM NIT
1. NIT V HP CHT CA NIT
A. Hng dn t n tp l thuyt
I. KHI QUT V NHM NIT
Nhm nit gm cc nguyn t N, P, As, Sb, Bi. Chng u thuc nguyn t p v nhm
VA.
I.1. S bin i tnh cht ca cc n cht
Trong iu kin thng, nit l cht kh, cc n cht cn li l cht rn.
Trong cc hp cht cc nguyn t nhm nit c s oxi ho cao nht l +5, ngoi ra cn
c cc s oxi ho +3 v 3. Ring N cn c thm cc s oxi ho +1, +2, +4.
Cc nguyn t nhm nit c th th hin c tnh oxi ho v tnh kh v kh nng oxi
ho gim dn t nit n bitmut.
I.2. S bin i tnh cht ca cc hp cht
Hirua ca cc nguyn t nhm nit c cng thc chung RH
3
vi bn nhit gim
dn t NH
3
n BiH
3
. Dung dch ca nhng cht ny trong nc c tnh baz.
T nit n bitmut, tnh axit ca cc oxit v hiroxit tng ng gim dn ng thi
tnh baz tng dn.
II. NIT V HP CHT CA NIT
II.1. Nit
Tnh cht: C cng thc cu to N N. Do phn t c lin kt 3 nn iu kin thng
kh tr v mt ho hc (ch tc dng vi Li). nhit cao n hot ng hn do N c m
in kh ln v th hin tnh oxi ho tri hn tnh kh.
+ Tnh oxi ho: N
2
+ 3H
2
2NH
3
N
2
+ 6Li 2Li
3
N
+ Tnh kh: N
2
+ O
2
2NO
Ngay iu kin thng, NO kt hp vi O
2
(khng kh) NO
2
mu nu
iu ch:
+ Trong phng th nghim: NH
4
NO
2

0
t
N
2
+ 2H
2
O
+ Trong cng nghip: Chng ct phn on khng kh lng.
xt, 400
o
C
3000
o
C
II.2. Amoniac v mui amoni
a. Amoniac
Tnh cht l ho: l cht kh khng mu, mi khai v xc, tan nhiu trong nc.
+ Tnh baz yu: NH
3
+ H
2
O NH
4
+
+ OH

K
b
= 1,8.10
5
Do NH
3
lm xanh giy qu m
NH
3
+ H
+
NH
4
+

Al
3+
+ 3NH
3
+ 3H
2
O Al(OH)
3

+ 3NH
4
+

+ Kh nng to phc: Cu(OH)
2
+ 4 NH
3
[Cu(NH
3
)
4
](OH)
2

AgCl + 2 NH
3
[Ag(NH
3
)
2
]Cl
+ Tnh kh: 4NH
3
+ 3O
2
2N
2
+ 6H
2
O
4NH
3
+ 5O
2 (kk)

0
850 C,Pt
4NO + 6H
2
O
2NH
3
+ 3Cl
2
N
2
+ 6HCl
(sn phm sinh ra khi trng l do kh HCl va to thnh ho hp vi NH
3
)
3CuO + 2NH
3

0
t
3Cu + N
2
+ 3H
2
O
iu ch:
+ Trong phng th nghim: 2NH
4
Cl + Ca(OH)
2
2 NH
3
+ CaCl
2
+ 2H
2
O
+ Trong cng nghip: N
2
+ 3H
2
2NH
3
b. Mui amoni: Tt c cc mui amoni u tan trong nc v khi tan in li hon ton
thnh cc ion.
+ Phn ng trao i ion:
NH
4
Cl + NaOH NaCl + NH
3
+ H
2
O (phn ng nhn bit mui amoni)
Hay: NH
4
+
+ OH

NH
3
+ H
2
O
+ Phn ng nhit phn: NH
4
Cl NH
3
+ HCl ; NH
4
NO
3
N
2
O + 2H
2
O
II.3. Axit nitric v mui nitrat
a. Axit nitric
Tnh cht vt l: l cht lng, bc khi mnh trong khng kh, khi un nng n b phn hu
mt phn theo phng trnh: 4HNO
3
4NO
2
+ O
2
+ 2H
2
O
- Tnh cht ha hc
t
o
Fe, t
o
t
o
+ Tnh axit mnh: Mang y tnh cht chung ca mt axit.
Lu : HNO
3
tc dng vi kim loi khng gii phng H
2
.
+ Tnh oxi ho mnh: Tu thuc vo nng axit v v bn cht ca cht kh m HNO
3

c th b kh n mt s sn phm khc nhau ca nit nh:


+ Dung dch HNO
3
c c th oxi ho hu ht kim loi (tr Pt, Au) nhit thng,
hoc Fe, Al, Cr nhit cao, trong N
+5
chuyn thnh N
+4
(NO
2
).
+ Vi kim loi yu th HNO
3
c to thnh NO
2
, cn long cho sn phm NO.
+ Vi kim loi mnh HNO
3
long c th b kh n N
+
, N
0
hoc N
3
.
+ Dung dch HNO
3
c, ngui lm th ng ho mt s kim loi nh Al, Fe, Cr...Ngoi
ra dung dch HNO
3
c cn oxi ho c mt s phi kim nh C, S v nhiu hp cht v c
v hu c khc.
+ Dung dch HNO
3
c khng bn, nhit cao hoc khi c nh sng, mt phn axit
HNO
3
b phn hu to thnh NO
2
, O
2
v nc.
4HNO
3
c 4NO
2
+ O
2
+ 2H
2
O
iu ch:
+ Trong PTN: NaNO
3

tinh th
+ H
2
SO
4 c
NaHSO
4
+ HNO
3

+ Trong cng nghip: 4NH
3
+ 5O
2 (kk)
4NO + 6H
2
O; NO + O
2
NO
2

4NO
2
+ O
2
+ 2H
2
O 4HNO
3

b. Mui nitrat: Tt c cc mui nitrat u tan nhiu trong nc v l cht in li mnh.
Chng km bn vi nhit v d b phn hu khi nung nng.
Mui nitrat ca kim loi mnh phn hu thnh mui nitrit v oxi:
2KNO
3

0
t
2KNO
2
+ O
2
Mui nitrat ca a s kim loi nh Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu... phn hu thnh oxit + nit ioxit
v oxi: 2Cu(NO
3
)
2

0
t
2CuO + 4NO
2
+ O
2

Lu : 4Fe(NO
3
)
2

0
t
2Fe
2
O
3
+ 8NO
2
+ O
2

B. Cc dng bi tp v phng php gii
Dng 1: Bi tp v N
2
v NH
3
-3 0 +1 +2 +4 +5
NH
4
, NH
3
N
2
N
2
O NO NO
2

* Cch thit lp cng thc phn t A
x
B
y
C
z
D
t
(x,y,z,t l cc s nguyn dng)
x:y:z:t =
A
m
A
:
B
m
B
:
C
m
C
:
D
m
D
hoc x:y:z:t =
A
A %
:
B
B %
:
C
C %
:
D
D %

* Tnh hiu sut:
+ Biu din s mol cc cht ( cho v cn tm) theo phng trnh phn ng
+ Xc nh tng s mol cc cht ban u v sau phn ng
+ Hiu sut phn ng: H =
) (
) (
lithuyet mol
thucte mol
.100%
+ Hiu sut ca c qu trnh: A
= % 1 a H
B
= % 2 b H
C
= % 3 c H
D
= % 4 d H
E
H = H
1
. H
2
. H
3
. H
4
= a%.b%.c%.d%.
V d 1: Mt oxit A ca nit c cha 30,43% v khi lng nit. T khi ca A vi khng
kh l 1,59. Tm cng thc phn t ca A.
Li gii:
t A l N
x
O
y
. Theo u bi: %N = 30,43%; %O = 69,57%
x: y =
16
57 , 69
:
14
43 , 30
=1:2 A c cng thc (NO
2
)n
M
A
= 46.n = 46 n = 1. Vy cng thc phn t ca A l NO
2
.
V d 2. Trong mt bnh kn dung tch 56 lit cha N
2
v H
2
theo t l th tch 1:4, 0
0
C
v 200 atm v mt t cht xc tc (th tch cht xc tc khng ng k). Nung nng bnh mt
thi gian sau a nhit v 0
0
C thy p sut trong bnh gim 10% so vi so vi p sut
ban u. Tnh hiu sut phn ng iu ch NH
3
.
Li gii
Phng trnh: N
2
+ 3H
2
2NH
3

Ban u 100 400 0 (mol)
Phn ng x 3x 2x (mol)
Cn bng sau p/: 100-x 400-3x 2x (mol)
S mol hn hp kh sau phn ng: n
s
= 100 - x + 400- 3x + 2x (mol) (1)
Tng s mol (N
2
v H
2
) kh ban u :
t
PV 200.56
n 500mol
22, 4
RT
.273
273
= = =
Trong : = =
2
H
500.4
n 400mol
5
v = =
2
N
500.1
n 100mol
5

p sut trong bnh sau phn ng P
s
=
500.4
180atm
5
=
cng iu kin nhit p sut p sut t l thun vi s mol kh cha trong bnh:
= = =
t t
s
s s
n p 500.180
n 450
n p 200
mol (2)
T (1) v (2) ta c: n
s
= 100 - x + 400- 3x + 2x = 450 x = 25 mol.
Vy H = = =
2pu
2bd
N
N
n
25
.100% 25%
n 100

V d 3. Hn hp A gm ba kh NH
3
, N
2
v H
2
. Dn A vo bnh c nhit cao. Sau phn
ng phn hu NH
3
(coi nh hon ton) thu c hn hp B c th tch tng 25% so vi A.
Dn B i qua ng ng CuO nung nng sau loi nc th ch cn li mt cht kh c th
tch gim 75% so vi B.
Tnh thnh phn % theo th tch ca cc kh trong hn hp A.
Li gii
Gi x, y v z l thnh phn % theo th tch ca ba kh NH
3
, H
2
v N
2
trong hn hp A.
Ta c: x + y + z = 1 (1)
Phng trnh phn ng phn hu NH
3
: 2 NH
3
N
2
+ 3 H
2

x
x
2

3x
2

Sau phn ng hn hp B gm (y + 1,5x) hiro v (z + 0,5x) nit.
B c th tch tng 25% so vi A tc l V
B
= 1,25V
A
= 1,25. do :

( ) ( ) (2) 25 , 1
100
125
z y x 2 x 5 , 0 z x 5 , 1 y = = + + = + + +

T (1) v (2), rt ra : x = 0,25
Khi B i qua ng ng CuO nung nng th H
2
b oxi ho : CuO + H
2
Cu + H
2
O
Loi nc th cht kh cn li l N
2
. Th tch gim 75% so vi B tc l cn bng 25% ca B,
do :
3125 , 0
16
5
100
125
.
100
25
x 5 , 0 z = = = +

Rt ra: z = 0,3125 - (0,5 . 0,25) = 0,1875
Thay cc gi tr ca x v z vo (1), ta c: 0,25 + y + 0,1875 = 1, rt ra y = 0,5625
Thnh phn % theo th tch ca cc kh trong hn hp A:
%V
NH3
= 25% ; %V
N2
= 18,75% ; %V
H2
= 56,25%

Dng 2: Bi tp s dng nh lut bo ton s mol electron
Phng php gii
+ Vit phng trnh cho, nhn electron.
Lu : 2N
+5
+ 10e N
2
; 2N
+5
+ 8.e N
2
O; N
+5
+ 8.e N
-3
(NH
4
NO
3
)
+ Tnh tng s mol electron cho v nhn. p dng LBTT.
+ S mol HNO
3
phn ng =
3
NO
n
+
5
N
n
+ (to kh)
;
+ Cho mui M(NO
3
)
x
; n
M
=
3
( )
x
M NO
n ;
3
NO
n
= x.
3
( )
x
M NO
n = x. n
M
( mol)
V d 1 (H 2002-A). Cho 18,5 gam hn hp X gm Fe, Fe
3
O
4
tc dng vi 200 mL dung
dch HNO
3
long, un nng v khuy u. Sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c 2,24
lt kh NO duy nht ktc, dung dch Y v cn li 1,46 gam kim loi.
1. Tnh nng mol/l ca dung dch HNO
3
.
2. Tnh khi lng mui trong dung dch Y.
Li gii:
V phn ng xy ra hon ton m cn d kim loi (Fe) HNO
3
ht v mui thu c ch
c Fe(NO
3
)
2
. p dng LBT nguyn t vi N :
2
3 3 2 3 2
HNO Fe(NO ) NO Fe(NO )
Fe
n 2n n n n 0, 27 mol
+
= + = =
p dng LBT electron : Gi a, b l s mol Fe v Fe
3
O
4
phn ng.
Cc qu trnh nhng, nhn electron :
+2 +8/3 +2 +5 +2
Fe Fe 2e ; 3Fe 2e 3Fe ; N 3e N
2a 2b 0,3 (1)
a a 2a 3b 2b 3b 0,3 0,1

+ =
`
)
LBT e
+ + +

Mt khc :
2
(1)
Fe
a 0,18
n a 3b 0, 27 (2)
b 0, 03
+
=
= + =


3
NO
n
= 2.
2
Fe
n
+
= 2.0,27 = 0,54 mol
+ S mol HNO
3
phn ng =
3
NO
n
+
5
N
n
+ (to kh)
= 2.0,27 + 0,1 = 0,64 mol

C
M
(HNO
3
) = 3,2M.
m (Fe(NO
3
)
2
) = 0,27.56 + 2.0,27.62 = 48,6 gam.
V d 2. Ho tan ht m (g) hn hp gm FeO; Fe
2
O
3
v Fe
3
O
4
bng HNO
3
c nng thu
c 4,48 () NO
2
(ktc), c cn dung dch sau phn ng thu c 145,2(g) mui khan. Tnh
gi tr m(g)?
Li gii
* Cch gii 1.
4 , 22
48 , 4
n
2
NO
=
= 0,2;
242
2 , 145
n
3 3
) NO ( Fe
= = 0,6
Gi a, b, c ln lt s mol FeO, Fe
2
O
3
v Fe
3
O
4
dng:

+2
a
Fe - 1e = Fe
+3

3
1
Fe
3 / 8
c 3

+
e = Fe
+3


a + c = 0,2
a + 3c + 2b = 0,6

2c + 2b = 0,4 b + c = 0,2
3
b 2
Fe
+
- o.e = Fe
+3

5
2 , 0
N
+
+ 1e = N
+4

m = 72a + 160b + 232c = 72 (a + c) + 160 (b + c) = 72 0,2 + 160 0,2 = 46,4 (g).
* Cch gii 2. Quy i hn hp FeO; Fe
2
O
3
v Fe
3
O
4
ban u thnh hai cht Fe v Fe
2
O
3
,
khi ta c: m =
2 3
Fe Fe O
m m + . Mt khc, ta c s mol e ca Fe cho bng s mol e ca N
+5

nhn thnh N
+4
v bng s mol NO
2
.
Do
2
Fe NO
4, 48
3n n 0, 2mol
22, 4
= = = , n
Fe
=
0, 2
3
m =
0, 2
3
56 + (0,6-
0, 2
3
)80 = 46,4 (g)
V d 3. Cho 8,32 (g) Cu tc dng va vi 240 ml dung dch HNO
3
cho 4,928 () (ktc)
hn hp gm 2 kh NO v NO
2
bay ra.
1. Tnh s mol ca mi kh to ra.
2. Tnh C
M
ca dung dch axit ban u.
Li gii. Cu Cu
2+
+ 2e

* n
NO
= x (mol)
x
+5
N + 3xe xN
+2

*
2
NO
n
= y (mol)

y
+5
N + ye yN
+4
* n
Cu
=
8, 32
64
= 0,13 (mol)
p dng nh lut bo ton electron 3x + y = 0,26 (II)
a) S mol mi kh l x = 0,02 (mol) NO
y = 0,2 (mol) NO
2

b)
HNO
3
n = x + y + (0,13 2)= 0,48 (mol) v
) HNO ( M
3
C =
24 , 0
48 , 0
= 2 (M)
V d 4. Ho tan 4,59 (g) Al trong dung dch HNO
3
1M ngi ta thu c dung dch nhm
nitrat v mt hn hp gm 2 kh: NO; N
2
O c t khi hi so vi H
2
l 16,75.
1. Tnh lng mui thu c, tnh th tch cc kh o ktc.
2. Tnh th tch dung dch HNO
3
1M cn dng.
Li gii. Al Al
3+
+3e; N
+3
+ 3e N
+2
; N
+3
+ 4e N
+1

n
Al
=
4,59
27
= 0,17 (mol) KL mui = 0,17 213=36,21g
Al + 4HNO
3
Al(NO
3
)
3
+ NO + 2H
2
O (1)
8Al + 30HNO
3
8Al(NO
3
)
3
+ 3N
2
O + 15H
2
O (2)
M=16,75.2 = 33,5, p dng phng php ng cho cho hn hp kh ta c
N
2
O 44 3,5


NO 30 10,5
2
3, 5 1
10, 5 3
N O
NO
n
n
= =
tha mn t l 1: 3, cn nhn (1) vi 9 v cng vi (2) ta c mt phng trnh ha hc
chung: 17Al + 66HNO
3
17Al(NO
3
)
3
+ 3N
2
O + 9NO + 33H
2
O (3)
Theo (3) 17mol Al tc dng 66mol HNO
3
3molN
2
O v 9mol NO
Vy 0,17mol Al tc dng 0,66mol HNO
3
0,03mol N
2
O v 0,09mol NO
x + y = 0,22 (I)
M= 33,5
2
N O
V 0, 03.22, 4 = =0,672 lit;
NO
V 0, 09.22, 4 = = 2,016 lt;
HNO
3
0, 66
V
1
= = 0,66 lit
Dng 3: Bi tp kim loi tc dng vi hn hp axit HNO
3
v H
2
SO
4
(hoc HCl,..)

Phng php gii
+ Vit phng trnh phn ng di dng ion y , biu din s mol cc cht theo phng
trnh (da trn d kin bi ton).
+ Tnh tng s mol electron cho v nhn. p dng LBTT.
+ S mol HNO
3
phn ng =
3
NO
n

+
5
N
n
+ (to kh)

V d 1. Cho a mol Cu kim loi tc dng ht vi 120 ml dung dch X gm HNO
3
1M v
H
2
SO
4
0,3M (long) thu c V () kh NO (ktc). Tnh V?
Li gii
HNO
3
n = 0,12 (mol);
+
H
n = 0,24 (mol);
4 2
SO H
n = 0,06 (mol);
-
NO
3
n = 0,12 (mol);
2
4
SO
n = 0,06 (mol)
3Cu + 2
-
3
NO + 8H
+
3Cu
2+
+ 2NO + 4H
2
O
Trc phn ng: a 0,12 0,24
Phn ng: 0,09 0,06 0,24 0,06
Tnh V: - Khi a 0,09 V
NO
= 0,06 22,4 = 1,34 (lt)
- Khi a < 0,09 V
NO
=
3
a 2
22,4 = 14,933a (lt)
V d 2. Ho tan 1 mol Cu bng lng HNO
3
va thu c dung dch A. Thm tip vo
A lng H
2
SO
4
d th dung dch c th ho tan thm ti a l bao nhiu gam Cu? (gi s
phn ng khi xy ra ch sinh ra kh NO
2
duy nht).
Li gii
Cu
3
HNO
Cu(NO
3
)
2

3
NO
n = 2 (mol)
1(mol) 1(mol)
2
-
3
NO + 4H
+
+ Cu Cu
2+
+ 2NO
2
+ 2H
2
O
2 (mol) 1 (mol)
m
Cu
= 1 64 = 64 (g)

C. Bi tp n luyn
Bi 1. Mt bnh phn ng dung tch khng i cha hn hp X gm N
2
; H
2
v cht xc tc
nhit 0
o
C v p sut P
x
= 1atm. Nung nng bnh mt thi gian xy ra phn ng tng
hp NH
3
. Sau a bnh v 0
o
C ta c hn hp Y. p sut kh trong bnh l P
y
. P
y
ln hn
hay nh hn 1atm, khi lng mol trung bnh ca Y so vi X nh th no?
Bi 2. Mt oxit nit A c khi lng 4,6 (g) cho qua vn ng nung , N
2
sinh ra c thu
trong mt nghim p trn mt chu nc. Mc nc trong chu thp hn so vi mc nc
ng nghim 3,0 cm. Th tch N
2
(o 15
0
C; p sut kh quyn 730mmHg) l 1,23 lt, p sut
hi nc bo ho 12,7 mmHg. D ca Hg = 13,6g.cm
3
. Xc nh cng thc phn t ca A bit
rng t khi hi ca A so vi khng kh l 1,586.
Bi 3. Nung m gam bt Fe ngoi khng kh mt thi gian th thu c 14,4 gam hn hp X
gm Fe d v cc oxit ca n.
1. Ha tan hon ton X bng dung dch HNO
3
c thu c 4,48 lt NO
2
(ktc). Tnh m?
2. Ha tan hon ton X bng dung dch H
2
SO
4
c thu c 0,1 mol cht Y (l sn phm
kh duy nht). Tm Y?
Bi 4. Cho 6,4 (g) Cu tan hon ton vo 200 ml dung dch HNO
3
th gii phng mt hn hp
kh gm NO v NO
2
c t khi hi hn hp so vi H
2
l 18. Tnh C
M
ca dung dch HNO
3
.
Bi 5. Hn hp X gm FeS
2
v MS (t l mol 1:1, M c ha tr khng i). Cho 6,51 gam X
tc dng hon ton vi dung dch HNO
3
d c dung dch Y v 0,59 mol hn hp kh Z
gm (NO
2
v NO) c khi lng 26,34 gam. Thm dung dch BaCl
2
d vo Y c m gam
kt ta trng khng tan trong dung dch d axit trn. Xc nh kim loi M v gi tr ca
m(gam).
Bi 6. Nhit phn hon ton 9,4 (g) mt mui nitrat kim loi ha tr II thu c 4,0 (g) mt
cht rn, hn hp kh sau khi i qua dung dch NaOH long, d th phn kh cn li mt mu
nu , chim th tch 0,56 lt (ktc). Cng thc mui dng l g?
Bi 7. Ha tan hon ton 30,4 gam rn X gm Cu, CuS, Cu
2
S v S bng HNO
3
d, thot ra
20,16 lt kh NO duy nht (ktc) v dung dch Y. Thm Ba(OH)
2
d vo Y thu c m gam
kt ta. Xc nh gi tr ca m.
Bi 8. Khi ho tan cng mt kim loi R vo dung dch HNO
3
long v dung dch H
2
SO
4

long th thu c kh NO v H
2
c th tch bng nhau cng iu kin v khi lng mui
nitrat thu c bng 159,21% khi lng mui sunphat. Xc nh kim loi R.
Bi 9. Cho m gam bt st vo 800 ml dung dch hn hp gm Cu(NO
3
)
2
0,2M v H
2
SO
4

0,25M. Sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton, thu c 0,6m gam hn hp bt kim loi v V lt
kh NO (sn phm kh duy nht ktc). Xc nh m v V.
Bi 10. Cho 61,2 gam hn hp X gm Cu v Fe
3
O
4
tc dng vi dung dch HNO
3
long, un
nng v khuy u. Sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton, thu c 3,36 lit kh NO (sn phm
kh duy nht, ktc), dung dch Y v cn li 2,4 gam kim loi. C cn dung dch Y, thu
c m gam mui khan. tnh gi tr ca m?
HNG DN GII
Bi 1: T phng trnh PV = nRT Nu V, T khng i th
2
1
2
1
n
n
P
P
=
Phn ng: N
2
+ 3H
2
2 NH
3

* Phn ng lm gim s mol khi (n
2
< n
1
)
2
1
P
p
> 1 P
1
> P
2
hay P
Y
< 1 (atm)
* Khi lng hn hp P (m) trc v sau phn ng khng i trong khi s mol (n
2
) gim.
Y M > X M hay d
Y.X
> 1. Tm li: P
Y
< 1 v d
Y.X
> 1
Bi 2: A : N
x
O
y
; h = 5cm = 50 mm; P
kh quyn
=
2
N
P + P
Hi nc ba ha
+ P
ct nc


2
N
P = 750 12,7 -
6 , 13
50
= 733,62 mmHg =
760
62 , 733
atm = 0,9653 atm
2
N
n =
) 15 273 (
23 , 1 . 9653 , 0
RT
PV
273
4 , 22
+
=
= 0,05 (mol) n
N
= 2 0,05 = 0,1 (mol)
M
A
= 29 1,386 = 46
y x
O N
n =
46
6 , 4
= 0,1 (mol)
1
1
n
n
y x
O N
N
= trong 1 phn t N
x
O
y
cha 1 nguyn t N.
16y = 46 14 = 32 y = 2. Cng thc N
x
O
y
l NO
2
.
Bi 3: 1. Nhn thy Fe nhng electron cho O
2
to hn hp X, sau X nhng electron
cho HNO
3
to Fe
3+
:
Fe - 3e Fe
3+
; O
2
+ 4e 2O
2-

m
56

3m
56

14,4 - m
32

(14,4 - m)4
32

2H
+
+
-
3
NO + 1e NO + H
2
O
0,2 0,2
Theo nh lut bo ton electron ta c:
3m
56
=
(14,4 - m)4
32
+ 0,2 m = 11,2 (gam)
2. Gi +n l s oxi ha ca S trong cht Y, ta c: S
+6
+ (6 - n)e S
+n

(6 - n).0,1 0,1
Theo nh lut bo ton electron ta c: (6 - n).0,1 = 0,2 n = +4, vy Y l SO
2
.
Bi 4.
0,1
Cu = Cu
2+
+ 2e S mol electron nhng l 0,1.2 = 0,2mol
a
N
+5

+ 1e = N
+4
S mol electron thu l a + 3b = 0,2mol
b
N
+5
+ 3e = N
+2

* Hn hp kh gm:
2
NO
n = a (mol); n
NO
= b (mol)
hh
M =
b a
b 30 a 46
+
+
= 36 (I)
* n
Cu
=
64
4 , 6
= 0,1 a + 3b = 0,2 (II) T (I) v (II) ta c

=
=
055 , 0 b
033 , 0 a


3
HNO
n = 0,2 + a + b
3
HNO
n = 0,288 . Vy
2 , 0
288 , 0
C
) HNO ( M
3
=
= 1,44 (M)
Bi 5: Ta c :
2
NO
NO
n 0, 54
n 0, 05
=

120a +(M+32)a 6, 51(*) =


Qu trnh oxi ho kh :
+3 +6 +5 +4
2
+2 +6 +5 +2
FeS Fe 2S 15e ; N 1e N
a 2a 15a 0,54 0,54
MS M S 8e ; N 3e N
a a 8a 0,15 0,05
+ + +

+ + +


LBT electron 23a = 0,69 a = 0,03
(*)
M = 65 (Zn)
S mol S
+6
= 3a = 0,09 mol. Vy khi lng m = 0,09. 233= 20,97 gam
Bi 6.
2
0, 56
22, 4
O
V = = 0,025mol; M(NO
3
)
2
MO + 2NO
2
+
2
1
O
2

0,05 0,05 0,1 0,025
m
MO
= 0,05 (M + 16) = 4,0 (g) M = 64, Mui nitrat cho l Cu(NO
3
)
2
Bi 7. Quy i hn hp X thnh
Cu : x mol
CuS : y mol


Theo bo ton khi lng : 64x + 96y = 30,4 (5)
S ha bi ton :

Cc qu trnh nhng, nhn electron :
0 +2 +2 +6 +5 +2

Cu Cu + 2e ; CuS Cu + S + 8e ; N + 3e N
x 2x y 8y 2,7 0,9



Theo bo ton electron : 2x + 8y = 2,7 (6)
T (5) v (6)
x 0, 05
y 0, 35
=

X gm
Cu : 0, 05 mol
CuS : 0, 35 mol


Bo ton ng t:
2
4
Cu(OH) Cu
Ba SO S
n n 0, 3 mol
n n 0, 35 mol
= =

= =

m= 98.0,3 + 233.0,35 m = 110,95


Tng t c th quy i hn hp X thnh (Cu v Cu
2
S) hoc (CuS v Cu
2
S) cng thu c
kt qu nh trn.
Bi 8.
3 3 n 2
3R 4nHNO 3R(NO ) nNO 2nH O + + +

2 4 2 4 m 2
2R mH SO R (SO ) mH + +
V th tch kh NO v H
2
thu c l nh nhau nn ta c :
n m
3 2
= (I).
V khi lng mui nitrat bng 159,21% khi lng mui sunphat nn ta c :
159, 21 1
R n.62 (2R 96m)
100 2
+ = + (II)
T phng trnh (I), ta c n = 1,5.m ; thay vo phng trnh (II) ta thu c : R =
28.m. Vy kim loi R l Fe.
Bi 9. = = =
3 2 2 4
Cu(NO ) H SO
n 0,8.0, 2 0,16(mol);n 0, 2(mol) . D kim loi chng t Fe ch b
oxi ha thnh Fe
2+
. 0,6m gam hn hp bt kim loi l ca Fe v Cu. S phn ng xy ra:

+ +
+ + + +
2
3 2
3Fe 8H 2NO 3Fe 2NO H O (1)
0,15 0,4 0,1 (mol) m gim i 0,15.56 (g)
Fe + Cu
2+
Fe
2+
+ Cu (2)
0,16 0,16 0,16 (mol) m tng ln =0,16.8(g)
Khi lng kim loi thay i m = m- 0,6m = 0,15.56 - 0,16.8
0,4m = 7,12 hay m =17,8; V= 0,1.22,4= 2,24 lit.
Bi 10. Sau phn ng cn li Cu chng t mui trong dung dch c Fe
2+
, Cu
2+

m cht rn phn ng l 61,2 -2,4 = 58,8 (g).
Gi = =
3 4
Cu Fe O
n x;n y ; tch CTPT ca Fe
3
O
4
= Fe
2
O
3
.FeO
Qu trnh nhng nhn electron: n
NO
= 0,15 mol
N
+5
+3e N
+2
(NO)
0,45 0,15 mol
(Fe
2
O
3
) Fe
+3
+ e Fe
2+
n
e nhn
= 2y + 0,45
y 2y 2y 2y mol
Cu Cu
2+
+2e n
e nhng
= 2x
x x 2x mol
Ta c h
2x 0, 45 2y
64x 232y
= +
`
+
)
x = 0,375; y = 0,15
Vy = = + =
3 2 3 2
Cu(NO ) Fe(NO )
n x;n 2y y 3y . Do m = 151,5 gam.
D. Bi tp trc nghim
Cu 1. Dn kh NH
3
i qua ng ng bt CuO nung nng, hin tng xy ra l bt CuO t
mu en:
A. chuyn sang mu trng. B. chuyn sang mu .
C. chuyn sang mu nu D. chuyn sang mu xanh.
Cu 2. Cho phn ng : NH
3
+ O
2
NO +H
2
O
H s cn bng ca phn ng trn t tri sang phi l :
A. 4 , 4 , 5 , 6 B. 4 , 5 , 4 , 6 C. 5 , 5 , 4 , 6 D. 5 , 4 , 5 , 6
Cu 3. Mt dung dch c cha cc ion sau: NH
4
+
, Al
3+
, NO
-
3
, Ba
2+
. C th s dng ho cht
no sau y nhn bit c ion NH
4
+
c trong dung dch :
A. Na
2
SO
4
B. HCl
C. Na
2
CO
3
D. NaOH d, un nng.
Cu 4 (H 2007-khi A). Tng h s (cc s nguyn ti gin) ca tt c cc cht trong
phng trnh phn ng gia Cu vi dung dch HNO
3
c, nng l
A. 10. B. 11. C. 8. D. 9.
Cu 5. Cho cc phn ng sau: (A) + H
2
O dung dch (A) (1) ;
(A) + HCl (B) (2); (B) + KOH c (A) + KCl + H
2
O (3);
(A) + HNO
3
(D) (4); (D)
o
t
(M) (5)

A, B, D, M tng ng l cc cht
A. N
2
, NH
4
NO
3
, HNO
3
, NH
4
NO
2
B. NH
3
, NH
4
NO
3
, N
2
, N
2
O

C. NH
3
, NH
4
Cl, N
2
, H
2
O D. NH
3
, NH
4
Cl, NH
4
NO
3
, N
2
O
Cu 6 (H 2007-khi A). Ha tan hon ton 12 gam hn hp Fe, Cu (t l mol 1:1) bng
axit HNO
3
, thu c V lt ( ktc) hn hp kh X (gm NO v NO
2
) v dung dch Y (ch
cha 2 mui v axit d). T khi ca X i vi H
2
bng 19. Gi tr ca V l
A. 2,24. B. 4,48. C. 5,60. D. 3,36.
Cu 7. Hy cho bit phn ng no sau y c dng iu ch N
2
trong phng th
nghim.
A. NH
4
NO
2
N
2
+ 2H
2
O B. 2NH
3
N
2
+ 3H
2

C. 2NO N
2
+ O
2
D. 5Mg + 12HNO
3
5Mg(NO
3
)
2
+ N
2
+ 6H
2
O
Cu 8. Cho s phn ng sau: X + HCl -> Y + Z + NO
2
+ H
2
O. Vi X, Y, Z l 3
mui. Vy X, Y, Z c th l (theo th t ln lt):
A. Fe(NO
3
)
2
, Fe(NO
3
)
3
, FeCl
3
. B. FeSO
4
, Fe(NO
3
)
3
, Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
C. FeS, Fe(NO
3
)
3
, Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
D. Fe(NO
3
)
3
, FeCl
3
, Fe(NO
3
)
2

Cu 9. ho tan va ht 8,4 gam Fe cn dng ti thiu bao nhiu ml dung dch HNO
3
4M?
( bit NO l sn phm kh duy nht ca HNO
3
).
A. 150 ml B. 120 ml C. 90 ml D. 100 ml
Cu 10. Cho kim loi M tan hon ton trong dung dch HNO
3
long nng d thu c hn
hp Y gm 2 kh khng mu trong c mt kh ho nu ngoi khng kh. T khi ca Y
i vi H
2
l 14,3. Hy xc nh cc kh trong hn hp Y.
A. NO v N
2
O B. NO v N
2
C. N
2
v N
2
O D. N
2
v H
2
.
Cu 11. Cho cc oxit sau: FeO, CuO, MgO, Al
2
O
3
, PbO. Kh NH
3
kh c oxit no thnh
kim loi nhit cao ?
A. FeO, CuO, MgO, Al
2
O
3
, PbO. B. FeO, CuO, Al
2
O
3
, PbO.
C. FeO, CuO, PbO. D. FeO, CuO.
Cu 12 (H2009-khi A). Cho hn hp gm 1,12 gam Fe v 1,92 gam Cu vo 400ml dung
dch cha hn hp gm H
2
SO
4
0,5M v NaNO
3
0,2M. Sau khi cc phn ng xy ra hon
ton, thu c dung dch X v kh NO (sn phm kh duy nht). Cho V ml dung dch NaOH
1M vo dung dch X th lng kt ta thu c l ln nht. Gi tr ti thiu ca V l
A. 360ml. B. 240ml. C. 400ml. D. 120ml.
Cu 13. Khi cho dung dch NH
3
n d vo dung dch AlCl
3
c nhng hin tng no sau
y:
A. C kt ta trng xut hin.
B. Kt ta trng tan khi d NH
3
.
C. Khng c hin tng g.
D. Ban u c kt ta trng sau kt ta trng tan.
Cu 14. Kh NH
3
c ln hi nc. Hy cho bit, ho cht no sau y c th s dng lam
kh NH
3
.
A. P
2
O
5
B. H
2
SO
4
c C. CaO D. CuSO
4

Cu 15. Mt hn hp gm N
2
v H
2
c t khi i vi H
2
l 4,9. Cho hn hp qua cht xc
tc nung nng thu c hn hp mi c t khi i vi H
2
l 6,125.Tnh hiu sut phn ng
ca N
2
thnh NH
3
.
A. 33,333%. B. 40% C. 50% D. 66,667%
Cu 16. Khi cho 0,3 mol kh Cl
2
vo bnh cha 0,8 mol kh NH
3
, hy cho sau khi cc phn
ng xy ra hon ton thu c sn phm gm nhng g? (Bit hiu sut cc phn ng t
100%):
A. 0,1 mol N
2
, 0,6 mol HCl B. 0,1 mol N
2
v 0,4 mol NH
4
Cl
C. 0,1 mol N
2
v 0,6 mol NH
4
Cl D. 0,1 mol N
2
v 0,8 mol NH
4
Cl.
Cu 17. Kh NH
3
trong cng nghip c ln hi nc bo ho, mun c NH
3
khan ta
c th dng dy cc cht loi nc l:
A. P
2
O
5
, Na , CaO , NaOH rn B. H
2
SO
4
c , P
2
O
5
, Na , CaO
C. CaO, KOH rn, NaOH rn D. H
2
SO
4
c, CaO, KOH rn
Cu 18. Kh hon ton m gam CuO bng NH
3
nhit cao, kh bay ra sau phn ng c
cho vo dung dch H
2
SO
4
c, ngui d thy vn cn 2,24 lt kh thot ra (ktc). Gi tr ca
m l
A. 24 gam B. 16 gam C. 8 gam D. 12 gam
Cu 19. Tch ri kh N
2
ra khi hn hp gm N
2
, SO
2
, CO
2
ch cn dn hn hp kh qua
mt trong cc dung dch sau:
A. HCl d B. nc brom d
C. nc vi trong d D. H
2
SO
4
c
Cu 20 (H2009-khi A). Cho 3,024 gam mt kim loi M tan ht trong dung dch HNO
3

long, thu c 940,8 ml kh N
x
O
y
(l sn phm kh duy nht, ktc) c t khi i vi H
2

bng 22. Kh N
x
O
y
v kim loi M l
A. NO v Mg. B. N
2
O v Al. C. NO
2
v Al. D. N
2
O

v Fe
P N V HNG DN GII
1.B 2.B 3.D 4.A 5.D 6.C 7.A 8.A 9.D 10.C
11.C 12.A 13.A 14.C 15.A 16.C 17.C 18.A 19.C 20.B

Cu 4. Cu + 4HNO
3
Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ 2 NO
2
+ 2H
2
O

h s = 1+4+1+2+2 = 10 A
Cu 5. NH
3
+ H
2
O NH
4
+
+ OH
-
(1) ; NH
3
+ HCl NH
4
Cl (2);
NH
4
Cl + KOH c NH
3
+ KCl + H
2
O (3);
NH
3
+ HNO
3
NH
4
NO
3
(4); NH
4
NO
3
o
t
N
2
O + 2H
2
O (5).
Cu 6. n
Fe
= n
Cu
= 0,1 mol; Gi n
NO
= x (mol);
2
NO
n = y (mol)
Theo bo ton mol electron ta c: 0,1.2 + 0,1.3 = 3x + y

_
30 46
38
x
x y
M
x y
+
= =
+
8 8 x y = x y =
3 0,5 0,125
0,125
x y x
x y y
+ = =


= =

mol V = (0,125.2).22,4=5,6 (lt)
Cu 8. 3Fe(NO
3
)
2
+ 6HCl 2FeCl
3
+ Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ 3NO
2
+3 H
2
O
Hay Fe
2+
+ NO
3
-
+ 2H
+
Fe
3+
+ NO
2
+ 2H
2
O. Chn A.

Cu 12. Fe + 4H
+
+ NO
3
-
Fe
3+
+ NO + 2H
2
O (1)
3Cu + 8H
+
+ 2 NO
3
-
3Cu
2+
+ 2NO + 4H
2
O (2)
n
Fe
= 0,02 mol ; n
Cu
= 0,03 mol;
H
n
+
= 0,4 mol ;
3
NO
n

= 0,08 mol

H
n
+

p-
= 4.0,02 + 0,08 =0,16
H
n
+ d-
= 0,24 mol
OH
-
+ H
+
H
2
O (3)
3OH
-
+ Fe
3+
Fe(OH)
3
(4)
2OH
-
+ Cu
2+
Cu(OH)
2
(5)
( 3,4,5)
OH
n

= 0,24 + 3.0,02 + 2.0,03 = 0,36 mol V = 360 ml A


Cu 15.Gi s mol ban u n
N2
= x mol; n
H2
= y mol.
Ta c 28x + 2y = 2.4,9(x+y) (1) 18,2x =7,8y (1)
N
2
+ 3H
2
2NH
3
(*)
Ban u x y
phn ng a 3a 2a
Cn bng (x-a) (y-3a) 2a
28(x-a) + 2(y-3a) + 17.2a = 2. 6,125( x-a+y-3a+2a)
28x +2y = 12,25(x+y) -24,5a (2)
T (1), (2). a =
10
y x +
(2). Kt hp (1); (2) ta c a = 0,33333x mol
Vy hiu sut H =
x
a
100 = 33,333% Chn A
Cu 20.
x y
N O
n = 0,042 mol ;
x y
N O
M = 2.22 =44 N
2
O
M M
n+
+ n.e ; 2N
+5
+ 8e N
2
+1

M
024 , 3
n.
M
024 , 3
; 8.0,042 0,042
Theo bo ton mol electron : 0,042.8 =
3, 024
. n
M
M = 9n M l Al.

2. PHOTPHO V HP CHT CA PHOTPHO
A. Hng dn t n tp l thuyt
I. PHOTPHO
1. Tnh cht vt l: P tn ti mt s dng th hnh trong quan trng nht l P trng (P
4
)
v P (polime).
2. Tnh cht ho hc: P trng hot ng hn P .
- Tnh oxi ho: 2P + 3Ca Ca
3
P
2
- Tnh kh:
+ Tc dng vi oxi: 4P +3O
2
(thiu) 2P
2
O
3
; 4P +5O
2
(d) 2P
2
O
5
+ Tc dng vi clo:2P + 3Cl
2
2PCl
3
(Thiu clo); 2P + 5Cl
2
2PCl
5
(D clo )
+ Photpho tc dng d dng vi cc hp cht c tnh oxi ho mnh nh HNO
3
c, KClO
3
,
KNO
3
, K
2
Cr
2
O
7
,...V d: 6P + 5KClO
3
3P
2
O
5
+ 5KCl
3. iu ch
- Hai khong vt chnh ca photpho l apatit 3Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
.CaF
2
v photphorit Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
.
- Trong cng nghip, photpho c sn xut bng cch nung hn hp qung photphorit,
ct v than cc 1200
o
C trong l in :
Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
+ 3SiO
2
+ 5C 3CaSiO
3
+ 2P + 5CO
Hi photpho thot ra c ngng t khi lm lnh, thu c photpho trng dng rn.
II. Axit photphoric v mui photphat
1. Axit photphoric
Tnh cht l ho: Axit photphoric cn gi l axit orthophotphoric (H
3
PO
4
), l cht rn,
khng mu, tan trong nc theo bt c t l no.
- Tnh oxi ho kh: H
3
PO
4
kh b kh v khng c tnh oxi ho.
+ Tc dng bi nhit: H
3
PO
4

0
200 250 C
H
4
P
2
O
7

0
400 500 C
HPO
3

- Tnh axit: l axit 3 ln axit vi hng s phn li axit K
1
= 7,6.10
3
,
K
2
= 6,2.10
8
, K
3
= 4,4.10
13
. y l axit c mnh trung bnh v s phn li ch yu xy ra
theo nc 1. H
3
PO
4
mang y tnh cht chung ca axit.
iu ch: + Trong PTN: P + 5HNO
3
H
3
PO
4
+ 5NO
2
+ H
2
O
+ Trong cng nghip: Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
+ 3H
2
SO
4
3CaSO
4
+ 2H
3
PO
4

hoc P P
2
O
5
H
3
PO
4

2. Mui photphat: Axit photphoric to ra ba loi mui: mui photphat trung ho
(Na
3
PO
4
) v hai mui axit l mui ihirophotphat (NaH
2
PO
4
), mui hirophotphat
(Na
2
HPO
4
).
III. Phn bn
1. Phn m amoni: NH
4
Cl, (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
, NH
4
NO
3
,...
2. Phn m nitrat: NaNO
3
, Ca(NO
3
)
2
... Phn m amoni v phn m nitrat khi bo
qun thng d ht nc trong khng kh v chy ra.
3. Ure : Ure [(NH
2
)
2
CO] l cht rn mu trng, tan tt trong nc, cha khong 46% N,
c iu ch bng cch cho amoniac tc dng vi CO
2
nhit 180 - 200
o
C, di p sut
~ 200 atm : CO
2
+ 2NH
3
(NH
2
)
2
CO + H
2
O.
Trong t, di tc dng ca cc vi sinh vt ure b phn hu cho thot ra amoniac,
hoc chuyn dn thnh mui amoni cacbonat khi tc dng vi nc :
(NH
2
)
2
CO + 2H
2
O (NH
4
)
2
CO
3

4. Phn ln: Phn ln cung cp photpho cho cy di dng ion photphat. dinh dng
ca phn ln c nh gi bng hm lng % P
2
O
5
tng ng vi lng photpho c trong
thnh phn ca n.Nguyn liu sn xut phn ln l qung photphorit v apatit. Mt s
loi phn ln chnh l supephotphat, phn ln nung chy...
a. Supephotphat:
C hai loi supephotphat l supephotphat n v supephotphat kp. Thnh phn chnh
ca c hai loi l mui tan canxi ihirophotphat.
- Supephotphat n cha 14 - 20% P
2
O
5
, c sn xut bng cch cho bt qung photphorit
hoc apatit tc dng vi axit sunfuric c :
Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
+ 2H
2
SO
4
Ca(H
2
PO
4
)
2
+ 2CaSO
4

- Supephotphat kp cha hm lng P
2
O
5
cao hn (40-50% P
2
O
5
) v ch c Ca(H
2
PO
4
)
2
.
Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
+ 3H
2
SO
4
2H
3
PO
4
+ 3CaSO
4

Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
+ 4H
3
PO
4
3Ca(H
2
PO
4
)
2

b. Phn kali
Phn kali cung cp cho cy trng nguyn t kali di dng ion K
+
. dinh dng ca
phn kali c nh gi bng hm lng % K
2
O tng ng vi lng kali c trong thnh
phn ca n.
5. Phn hn hp v phn phc hp
Phn hn hp: cha c ba nguyn t N, P, K c gi l phn NPK. Nitrophotka l
hn hp ca (NH
4
)
2
HPO
4
v KNO
3
.
Phn phc hp:Amophot l hn hp cc mui NH
4
H
2
PO
4
v (NH
4
)
2
HPO
4

B. Cc dng bi tp v phng php gii
Dng 1. Bi tp xc nh cng thc phn t
Phng php gii
* Cch thit lp cng thc phn t A
x
B
y
C
z
D
t
(x,y,z,t l cc s nguyn dng)
x:y:z:t =
A
m
A
:
B
m
B
:
C
m
C
:
D
m
D
hoc x:y:z:t =
A
A %
:
B
B %
:
C
C %
:
D
D %

V d 1. Phn khi lng ca photpho trong mt oxit ca n bng 56,36%. T khi hi ca
cht so vi khng kh l 7,58. Xc nh cng thc phn t ca oxit.
Li gii
Gi CTPT ca oxit l P
x
O
y
. Theo u bi ta c: M
oxit
= 219,82 220 (vC).
31 0,5636
16 0,4364
x
y
=
2
3
x
y
= x= 4; y =6 P
4
O
6
.
V d 2. t chy hon ton mt hp cht ca photpho thu c 14,2g P
2
O
5
v 5,4g nc.
Cho cc sn phm vo 50g dung dch NaOH 32%
1. Xc nh cng thc ha hc ca hp cht.
2. Tnh nng % ca dung dch mui thu c.



Li gii
1. Tng khi lng ca P v H: 6,2 + 0,6 = 6,8 (g) bng khi lng ca cht b t
chy,hp cht khng c O.Cng thc n gin ca P
x
H
y
, ta c t l:

3 : 1 6 , 0 : 2 , 0
1
6 , 0
:
31
2 , 6
y : x = = =

Ly t l n gin nht ta c cng thc ha hc ca hp cht l: PH
3

ta c:
2 5
0,1
P O
n mol = v 0, 4
NaOH
n mol =


Cc p c th xy ra gia P
2
O
5
v NaOH:
P
2
O
5
+ 2 NaOH + H
2
O 2 NaH
2
PO
4
(1)
P
2
O
5
+ 4 NaOH 2 Na
2
HPO
4
+ H
2
O (2)
P
2
O
5
+ 6 NaOH 2 Na
3
PO
4
+ 3 H
2
O (3)
Theo (2), t 1 mol P
2
O
5
v 4 mol NaOH to ra 2 mol Na
2
HPO
4
.
Vy t 0,1 mol P
2
O
5
v 0,4 mol NaOH to ra 0,2 mol Na
2
HPO
4
.
Khi lng ca Na
2
HPO
4
:
2 4
0, 2.142 28, 4
Na HPO
m gam = =
Khi lng ca dung dch: m
dd
= 50 + 14,2 + 5,4 = 69,6 gam
Nng % ca dung dch:
2 4
28, 4.100
% 41%
69.6
Na HPO
C = =
Dng 2. Axit H
3
PO
4
tc dng dung dch kim.
Phng php gii
+ Gi a
n
n
PO H
NaOH
=
4 3

H
3
PO
4
+ NaOH NaH
2
PO
4
+ H
2
O (1)
H
3
PO
4
+ 2NaOH Na
2
HPO
4
+ 2H
2
O (2)
H
3
PO
4
+ 3NaOH Na
3
PO
4
+ 3H
2
O (3)
+ Nu a 1 hay n
NaOH
n
H3PO4
, xy ra (1) ch to mui NaH
2
PO
4
.
+ Nu 1<a<2, xy ra (1) v (2), to 2 mui l NaH
2
PO
4
v Na
2
HPO
4
.
+ 2a<3, xy ra (2) v (3), to mui Na
2
HPO
4
v Na
3
PO
4
.
+ a 3, xy ra (3) ,ch to mui Na
3
PO
4
.
V d 1. t chy a gam photpho ta c cht A, cho a tc dng vi dung dch cha b gam
NaOH. Hi thu c nhng cht g ? Bao nhiu mol ?
Li gii . mol a
a
n n
P PO H
'
31
4 3
= = = ; mol b
b
n
NaOH
'
40
= =
Cc phn ng: 4 P + 5O
2
2P
2
O
5
(1)
P
2
O
5
+ 3 H
2
O 2 H
3
PO
4
(2)
H
3
PO
4
+ NaOH NaH
2
PO
4
+ H
2
O (3)
NaH
2
PO
4
+ NaOH Na
2
HPO
4
+ H
2
O (4)
Na
2
HPO
4
+ NaOH Na
3
PO
4
+ H
2
O (5)
Ta xt cc trng hp:
+ b' < a' : phn ng (3) cha ht, ta c b' mol NaH
2
PO
4
v cn (a' - b') mol H
3
PO
4

+ b' = a' : va ht phn ng (3), Ta c: a' = b' mol NaH
2
PO
4

+ a' < b' < 2a' : phn ng (3) kt thc v c mt phn phn ng (4)
Ta c: (2a' - b) mol NaH
2
PO
4
v (b'- a') mol Na
2
HPO
4

+ b' = 2a' : va ht phn ng (3) v (4) , Ta c: a' mol Na
2
HPO
4

+ 2a' < b' < 3a' : phn ng (3, 4) kt thc v mt phn phn ng (5) , Ta c:
(3a' -b) mol Na
2
HPO
4
v (b'-2a') mol Na
3
PO
4

+ b' = 3a': va kt thc c 3 phn ng (3, 4, 5) , Ta c : a' mol Na
3
PO
4

+ b' > 3a' : sau phn ng (5) cn d NaOH,
Ta c: a' mol Na
3
PO
4
v (b' - 3a') mol NaOH.
V d 2. Trn ln dung dch c cha 11,76 gam H
3
PO
4
vo dung dch c cha 16,8 gam
KOH. Tnh khi lng cc mui thu c khi lm bay hi dung dch?
Li gii : H
3
PO
4
+ KOH KH
2
PO
4
+ H
2
O (1)
KH
2
PO
4
+ KOH K
2
HPO
4
+ H
2
O (2)
K
2
HPO
4
+ KOH K
3
PO
4
+ H
2
O (3)
n
H3PO4
= 0,12 mol. n
KOH
= 0,3 mol. xy ra 3 phn ng trn.
Cc mui thu c l K
2
HPO
4
0,06mol v K
3
PO
4
0,06mol.
Khi lng

K
2
HPO
4
= 10,44 gam.
Khi lng

K
3
PO
4
= 12,72 gam.
V d 3. Cho 100 ml dung dch H
3
PO
4
vo 100 ml dung dch KOH 2M thu c dung dch B
c cha 14,95 gam hn hp 2 mui. Xc nh nng mol/l ca dung dch H
3
PO
4
ban u.
Li gii : H
3
PO
4
+ KOH KH
2
PO
4
+ H
2
O (1)
KH
2
PO
4
+ KOH K
2
HPO
4
+ H
2
O (2)
K
2
HPO
4
+ KOH K
3
PO
4
+ H
2
O (3)
TH1: Xy ra phn ng (1); (2) hn hp mui l: KH
2
PO
4
v K
2
HPO
4

Gi s mol KH
2
PO
4
v K
2
HPO
4
ln lt l: x v y (mol)
2 0, 2
136 174 14, 95
x y
x y
+ =

+ =


0, 05
0,125
x
y
=

mol loi
TH2: Xy ra phn ng (2); (3) hn hp mui l: K
2
HPO
4
v

K
3
PO
4

Gi s mol K
2
HPO
4
v

K
3
PO
4
ln lt l: x v y (mol)
2 3 0, 2
174 212 14, 95
x y
x y
+ =

+ =


0, 025
0, 05
x
y
=

mol n
H3PO4
=0,075mol C
M
= 0,75M
C. Bi tp n luyn
Bi 1. Cho 6,2 gam photpho vo bnh 300ml, cho tip 5,0 gam kh A vo bnh v un nng
ti 300
o
C. c nh c kh B to thnh t phn ng ny th cn phi cho i qua 40ml
dung dch HI 0,1M.
1. Xc nh kh A (l n cht) v kh B (% v khi lng P = 91,2%).
2. Tnh % th tch ca B trong hn hp kh.
Bi 2. t chy trong bnh thy tinh 6,8 gam mt hp cht kh X cha bit, thu c 14,2
gam P
2
O
5
v 5,4 gam H
2
O. Cho thm vo bnh 37 ml dung dch NaOH 32% (d = 1,35
g/ml). Xc nh cng thc ca hp cht kh v nng % ca cc mui thu c.
Bi 3. t chy 16 gam photpho k thut (cn ln tp cht tr) trong lng d oxi v ha tan
sn phm thu c vo nc. Mun trung ha dung dch axit cn dng 187,5ml dung dch
NaOH 25% (d= 1,28). Sau khi trung ha, thm d dung dch AgNO
3
thu c kt ta
vng. Xc nh hm lng photpho trong mu photpho k thut.
Bi 4. Dng dung dch axit HNO
3
m c 60% (d = 1,37) oxi ha photpho thnh axit
photphoric. Mun chuyn lng axit thnh mui natri ihirophotphat cn dng 25ml
dung dch NaOH25% (d =1,28). Tnh s ml axit nitric dng oxi ha photpho.
Bi 5. Cn ly bao nhiu tn qung photphorit cha 65% Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
iu ch c 250 kg
photpho, bit rng lng photpho b hao ht trong qu trnh sn xut l 3%.
Bi 6. Ha tan 14,2g photpho (V) oxit trong 250g dung dch axit photphoric c nng
9,8%. Nng % ca dung dch axit photphoric thu c l:
Bi 7. Ngi ta thc hin phn ng iu ch supephotphat kp theo s sau:

Tnh khi lng dung dch H
2
SO
4
70% dng iu ch c 234 g Ca(H
2
PO
4
)
2

theo s bin ha trn. Bit hiu sut ca qu trnh l 70%.
Bi 8. Ha tan hon ton m gam P vo 100 gam dung dch HNO
3
63% thu c dung dch A
v kh NO
2
(duy nht). trung ha axit trong dung dch A cn 400 ml dung dch NaOH
2M. Tnh th tch kh thot ra (ktc).
Bi 9. Tin hnh nung 1 loi qung cha 80% Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
theo khi lng vi C v SiO
2
u
ly d 1000
0
C. Tnh lng qung cn ly c th thu c 31 g P. Bit hiu sut phn
ng t 80%.
Bi 10. Cn ly bao nhiu tn qung photphorit cha 65% Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
iu ch c 150
kg photpho, bit rng lng photpho b hao ht trong qu trnh sn xut l 3%.
Hng dn gii
Bi 1. 1. B l PX
n
91,2 =32x
100
31 .
X
n M +

M
X
=
2, 99
n
khi n = 3 th M
X
= 1 X l H; A l H
2
; B l PH
3
.
2. n
PH3
= N
HI
= 0,04.0,1 = 0,004 mol.
Ban u: n
P
= 0,2 mol; n
H2
= 2,5 mol.
P + 3H
2
2PH
3

0,2 2,5 0
0,002 0,006 0,004
0,198 2,494 0,004
n
NH3
= 0,004.
100
0,16%
0, 004 2, 494
=
+

Bi 2. t chy kh X thu c P
2
O
5
v H
2
O X cha nguyn t: P, H, c th c O.
Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2

(1)
H
3
PO
4

(2)
Ca(H
2
PO
4
)
2

2 5
0,1
P O
n mol = ,
2
0, 3
H O
n mol = n
P
= 0,1.2 = 0,2 mol; n
H
= 0,3.2 = 0,6 mol.
m
p
+ m
H
= 6,8 gam = m
X
X khng cha Oxi.
Gi cng thc n gin ca X l P
x
H
y
, ta c t l:
1
3
x
y
= . Vy CTPT ca X l PH
3
.
n
NaOH
= 0,4 mol.
P
2
O
5
+ 2 NaOH + H
2
O 2 NaH
2
PO
4
(1)
P
2
O
5
+ 4 NaOH 2 Na
2
HPO
4
+ H
2
O (2)
P
2
O
5
+ 6 NaOH 2 Na
3
PO
4
+ 3 H
2
O (3)
Ta c: n
NaOH
= 2
2 5
P O
n nn hai cht tc dng va theo (2) to mui Na
2
HPO
4
.
Khi lng ca Na
2
HPO
4
:
2 4
0, 2.142 28, 4
Na HPO
m gam = =
Khi lng ca dung dch: m
dd
= 50 + 14,2 + 5,4 = 69,6 gam
Nng % ca dung dch:
2 4
28,4.100
%(Na HPO )= 41%
69.6
C =
Bi 3. 4P + 5O
2
P
2
O
5
(1)

P
2
O
5
+ 3H
2
O


2H
3
PO
4
(2)
H
3
PO
4
+ 3NaOH Na
3
PO
4
+ 3H
2
O (3)
Na
3
PO
4
+3AgNO
3
Ag
3
PO
4
+ 3NaNO
3
(4)
T (1) v (3) n
P
=
1
3
n
naOH
=
1
3
.
187, 5.1, 28.25
0, 5
100.40
mol =
% m(P)trong P k thut:
0, 5.31
.100% 96, 875%
16
= .
Bi 4. P + 5HNO
3
H
3
PO
4
+ 5NO
2
+ H
2
O (1)
H
3
PO
4
+ 2NaOH Na
2
HPO
4
+ 2H
2
O (2)
n
P
=
3 4
1 1 25.1, 28.25
. 0,1
2 2 100.40
H PO NaOH
n n mol = = =
n
HNO3
= 5n
P
= 0,5 mol. V
ddHNO3
=
0, 5.63.100
38, 32
60.1, 37
ml =
Bi 5. p s: khi lng qung = 1,919 tn
Bi 6. P
2
O
5
+ 3H
2
O 2H
3
PO
4
(1)
Theo (1) n
P2O5
= 0,1 mol n
H3PO4
= 0,2 mol m
H3PO4
= 19,6 gam.
Ban u c: m
H3PO4
= 24,5 gam.
Vy Nng % dung dch axit mi l:
19, 6 24, 5
100 16, 692%
250 14, 2
+
=
+

Bi 7.
Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
+ 3H
2
SO
4
3CaSO
4
+ 2H
3
PO
4
(1)
2H
3
PO
4
+ Ca(OH)
2
Ca(H
2
PO
4
)
2
+ 2H
2
O (2)
2 4 2
( )
234
1
234
Ca H PO
n mol = = .Theo bo ton nguyn t P:
3 4 2
( ) Ca PO
n =
2 4 2
( )
1
Ca H PO
n mol =
V hiu sut qu trnh l 70% nn s mol Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
thc t l:
100
.1
70
mol
Theo (1), n
H2SO4
= 3
3 4 2
( ) Ca PO
n =
100
.3
70
mol
Khi lng H
2
SO
4
l:
100
.3
70
.98. = 420 gam.
Khi lng dung dch H
2
SO
4
70% l: 420.
100
70
= 600 gam.
Bi 8. P + 5HNO
3
H
3
PO
4
+ 5NO
2
+ H
2
O (1)
H
3
PO
4
+ NaOH NaH
2
PO
4
+ H
2
O (2)
Theo u bi: n
HNO3
= 1mol.
Gi s n
HNO3
phn ng l x mol n
H3PO4
= 0,2x n
NO2
= x mol
Theo (2); n
NaOH
= 0,8 mol n
H3PO4
+ n
HNO3d
= 0,2x + 1-x = 1-0,8x = 0,8
Vy: x = 0,25 mol V
NO2
= 5,6 lt.
Bi 9. Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
+ 5C + 3SiO
2
3CaSiO
3
+ 2P + 5CO (1)
n
P
= 1 mol
3 4 2
( ) Ca PO
n = 0,5.
100
80
= 0,625 mol.
Khi lng qung cn ly l: 0,625.
100
80
. 310 = 242,1875 gam
Bi 10. Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
+ 5C + 3SiO
2
3CaSiO
3
+ 2P + 5CO .
Khi lng photpho theo l thuyt l: (150 + 150.0,03).10
3
= 154,5.10
3
gam
Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2

(1)
H
3
PO
4

(2)
Ca(H
2
PO
4
)
2

n
P
=
154, 5
31
10
3
mol
3 4 2
( ) Ca PO
n =
1
2
.
154, 5
31
.10
3
mol
Khi lng qung cn ly l:
100
65
. 310.
1
2
.
154, 5
31
.10
3
= 1188,5.10
3
gam= 1,1885 tn

D. Bi tp trc nghim
Cu 1. Photpho c s dng th hnh quan trng l :
A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4
Cu 2. Dung dch axit H
3
PO
4
c cha cc ion ( khng k H
+
v OH
-
ca nc )
A. H
+
, PO
4
3-
B. H
+
, H
2
PO
4
-
, PO
4
3-
C. H
+
, HPO
4
2-
, PO
4
3-
D. H
+
, H
2
PO
4
-
,HPO
4
2-
,PO
4
3-

Cu 3. Cho 1,32g (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
tc dng vi dung dch NaOH d, un nng thu c mt sn
phm kh. Hp th hon ton lng kh trn vo dung dch cha 3,92g H
3
PO
4
. Mui thu
c l:
A. NH
4
H
2
PO
4
. B. (NH
4
)
2
HPO
4

C. (NH
4
)
3
PO
4
D. NH
4
H
2
PO
4
v(NH
4
)
2
HPO
4

Cu 4. Cho (NH
4
)
3
PO
4
vo dung dch KOH, phn ng ha hc xy ra c vit di dng
phng trnh ion rt gn l:
A. 3NH
4
+
+ 3OH
-


3NH
3
+ 3H
2
O

B. NH
4
+
+ OH
-


NH
3
+ H
2
O
C. (NH
4
)
3
PO
4
+ 3OH
-


3 NH
3
+ PO
4
3-
+ 3H
2
O



D. (NH
4
)
3
PO
4
+ 3K
+
+ 3OH
-

3NH
3
+ K
3
PO
4
+ 3H
2
O

Cu 5. C 2 dung dch Na
3
PO
4
v H
3
PO
4
c cng nng mol/l. Hy cho bit cn trn 2
dung dch trn theo t l th tch nh th no thu c dung dch ch cha mui Na
2
HPO
4

.
A. 1: 2 B. 2: 1 C. 1: 1 D. 2: 3.
Cu 6. P chim 11,56% khi lng trong tinh th Na
2
HPO
4
.nH
2
O. Cng thc phn t ca
tinh th hirat ngm nc l:
A. Na
2
HPO
4
.2H
2
O B. Na
2
HPO
4
.14H
2
O
C. Na
2
HPO
4
.7H
2
O D. Na
2
HPO
4
. 5H
2
O
Cu 7. Cho 4 dung dch Na
3
PO
4
, Na
2
HPO
4
, NaH
2
PO
4
v H
3
PO
4
c cng nng mol/l. Hy
cho bit dung dch no c pH ln nht ?
A. dung dch Na
3
PO
4
B. dung dch H
3
PO
4

C. dung dch Na
2
HPO
4
D. dung dch NaH
2
PO
4

Cu 8. Cng thc ho hc ca phn bn hn hp nitrophotka l:
A. (NH
4
)
2
HPO
4
v KNO
3
. B. (NH
4
)
2
HPO
4
v Ca(NO
3
)
2
.
C. NH
4
H
2
PO
4
v (NH
4
)
2
HPO
4
.

D. NH
4
H
2
PO
4
v KNO
3
.
Cu 9.
t
0
Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2

+SiO
2
+C,1200
0
C
A
Ca,
B
HCl
C
O
2
D E
Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2


A, B, C, D tng ng l
A. PH
3
, Ca
3
P
2
, P
2
O
5
, H
3
PO
4
B. P, P
2
O
5
, CaCl
2
, CaO.
C. P, Ca
3
P
2
, PH
3
, H
3
PO
4
D. P, Ca
3
P
2
, PH
3
, P
2
O
5
.
Cu 10. Cn ly bao nhiu gam NaOH cho vo dung dch H
3
PO
4
thu c 2,84 gam
Na
2
HPO
4
v 6,56 gam Na
3
PO
4

A. 4,6 gam B.6,4gam C. 3,2 gam D.0,4 gam.
Cu 11. P
2
O
5
khng th s dng lm kh cht kh
A. NH
3
. B. N
2
. C. CO
2
. D. kh SO
2
.
Cu 12. Phn bn ure c iu ch bng cch:
A. Cho axit nitric tc dng vi canxicacbonat.
B. Cho amoniac tc dng CO
2
nhit v p sut cao.
C. Cho bt qung photphorit hoc apatit tc dng axit sunfuric c.
D. Nung hn hp bt qung apatit vi x vn v than cc nhit cao.
Cu 13. Thm 0,25 mol KOH vo dung dch cha 0,1 mol H
3
PO
4
. Sau phn ng, trong dung
dch c cc mui:
A. KH
2
PO
4
v K
2
HPO
4
B. KH
2
PO
4
v K
3
PO
4

C. K
2
HPO
4
v K
3
PO
4
D. KH
2
PO
4
, K
2
HPO
4
v K
3
PO
4

Cu 14. Magie photphua c cng thc l:
A. Mg
2
P
2
O
7
B. Mg
3
P
2
C. Mg
2
P
3
D.Mg
3
(PO
4
)
3

Cu 15. Trung ho 100ml dung dch H
3
PO
4
1M, cn dng V ml dung dch NaOH 1M. V c gi
tr
A. 300 ml B. 200 ml C. 100 ml D.150 ml
Cu 16. t chy 1 mol P, sn phm cho tc dng vi dung dch cha a mol NaOH. tng
khi lng mui cc tiu th gi tr a l
A. 3. B.2. C.1. D. 2,5.
Cu 17 (H2009-khi A). Pht biu no sau y ng?
A. Phn ln cung cp nit ha hp cho cy di dng ion nitrat (NO
3
-
) v ion amoni
(NH
4
+
).
B. Amophot l hn hp cc mui (NH
4
)
2
HPO
4
v KNO
3
.
C. Phn hn hp cha nit, photpho, kali c gi chung l phn NPK.
D. Phn ure c cng thc l (NH
4
)
2
CO
3
.
Cu 18. Cho 66 gam dung dch 10% NaOH tc dng vi 10g dung dch axit H
3
PO
4
58,8%.
Mui thu c sau phn ng l:
A. Na
2
HPO
4
v NaH
2
PO
4
B. NaH
2
PO
4
v Na
3
PO
4

C. Na
3
PO
4
v Na
2
HPO
4
D.Na
2
HPO
4

Cu 19. t chy hon ton 6,2 gam P, sn phm thu c ha tan tt c vo 35ml dung
dch NaOH 25% (d=1,28g.ml). Dung dch thu c gm cc mui v c C% l:
A. NaH
2
PO
4
24,41% B. NaH
2
PO
4
24,41% v Na
2
HPO
4
19,25%
C. Na
2
HPO
4
19,25% D. NaH
2
PO
4
19,25% v Na
2
HPO
4
24,41%
Cu 20. Cho 400 ml dung dch NaOH 2M vo 200ml dung dch H
3
PO
4
1,5 M. Dung dch thu
c gm cc cht v nng tng ng l:
A. Na
3
PO
4
0,333M B. Na
3
PO
4
0,166 M v Na
2
HPO
4
0,333M
C. Na
2
HPO
4
0,166 M D. Na
3
PO
4
0,333M v Na
2
HPO
4
0,166 M

P N V HNG DN GII
1.B 2.D 3.B 4.A 5.D 6.C 7.A 8.A 9.D 10.B
11.A 12.B 13.C 14.B 15.A 16.C 17.C 18.C 19.B 20.B

Cu 6.
31
% .100 11,56
142 18
p
m
n
= =
+
n=7 Na
2
HPO
4
.7H
2
O C
Cu 9. Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
+ 3SiO
2
+ 5C
o
t
3CasiO
3
+ 2P + 5CO.
2P + 3Ca
o
t
Ca
3
P
2
;
Ca
3
P
2
+ 6HCl
o
t
3CaCl
2
+ 2PH
3
.
PH
3
+ 2O
2

o
t
H
3
PO
4
.
Cu 16. 4P + 5O
2

o
t
2P
2
O
5
;

P
2
O
5
+ 3H
2
O 2H
3
PO
4

Theo bo ton nguyn t P th
3 4
H PO
n = 1 mol = n
P

tng khi lng mui l cc tiu th 2 mui to thnh l NaH
2
PO
4
v Na
2
HPO
4
.
H
3
PO
4
+ NaOH NaH
2
PO
4
+ H
2
O ; H
3
PO
4
+ 2NaOH Na
2
HPO
4
+ 2H
2
O
Vy n
NaOH
= 3
3 4
H PO
n =3 A
Cu 19. 4P + 5O
2

o
t
2P
2
O
5

3 4
H PO
n = 0,2 mol
0,2 0,1
m
dd
=
5 2
O P
m +
4 3
PO H
m = 14,2 + 1,28.35 = 59 gam
n
NaOH
=
1, 28.35.25
0, 28
40.100
= mol ; v
3 4
0, 28
1, 4
0, 2
NaOH
H PO
n
n
= =
sn phm to thnh l NaH
2
PO
4
: x mol
Na
2
HPO
4
: y mol

0, 2 0,12
2 0, 28 0, 08
x y x
x y y
+ = =


+ = =


C%( NaH
2
PO
4
)=
14, 4
.100 24, 41%
59
= ; C%( Na
2
HPO
4
)= 19,25%







3. Mt s t kim tra, nh gi
KIM TRA S 1
Cu 1. tch Zn nhanh ra khi hn hp vi ZnO m khng lm thay i khi lng ca
n, c th dng dung dch
A. amoniac. B. natri hiroxit.
C. axit clohiric. D. axit sunfuric c.
Cu 2. Khi lu ngy ngoi nh sng, HNO
3
b phn hu theo phng trnh:
A. 4NO
2
+ 2H
2
O + O
2
4HNO
3
B. 4HNO
3
4NO
2
+ 2H
2
O + O
2

C. 2HNO
3
N
2
+ H
2
+ 3O
2
D. 3HNO
3
NH
3
+ N
2
O
3
+ 3O
2

Cu 3. Th tch N
2
(ktc) thu c khi nhit phn 30g NH
4
NO
2
l
A. 11,2 lt B. 44,8 lt C. 10,5 lt D. 22,4 lt
Cu 4(H,2007- B). Nung m gam bt st trong oxi, thu c 3 gam hn hp cht rn X. Ha
tan ht hn hp X trong dung dch HNO
3
(d), thot ra 0,56 lt ( ktc) NO (l sn phm kh
duy nht). Gi tr ca m l
A. 2,22. B. 2,52. C. 2,32. D. 2,62.
Cu 5. Du hiu no sau y khng dng nhn ra kh NH
3
?
A. Tan trong nc.
B. To khi trng vi kh HCl.
C. Mi khai, lm xanh giy qu m.
D. Tc dng vi dung dch CuSO
4
cho kt ta xanh, ri kt ta tan to dung dch xanh
lam khi NH
3
d.
Cu 6. Cho s phn ng sau:
X
+H2O
Y
H2SO4
Z
KOH
X
HNO3
D
nhit phn
E + F + H
2
O
X, Y, Z, D, E, F l cc cht tng ng
A. NH
3
(kh), dung dch NH
3
, (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
, NH
4
NO
3
, N
2
O, O
2

B. NH
3
(kh), dung dch NH
3
, (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
, NH
4
NO
3
, N
2
, O
2

C. CO
2
, dung dch NH
3
, (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
, NH
4
NO
3
, N
2
, O
2

D. NH
3
(kh), dung dch NH
3
, (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
, NH
4
NO
3
, N
2
, H
2



Cu 7. Ho tan a gam Cu trong lng d dung dch HNO
3
. Kt thc phn ng thu c
9,856 lt hn hp A gm NO v NO
2
(ktc), d
A/H2
= 225/11. Dung dch thu c c khi
lng khng thay i so vi dung dch ban u. Gi tr ca a l
A. 23,04. B.12,80. C.25,64. D. 19,20.
Cu 8. Axit nitric u phn ng c vi nhm cc cht
A. MgO, FeO, NH
3
, FeCO
3
. B. KOH, MgO, NH
4
Cl.
C. NaCl, KOH, Na
2
CO
3
. D. FeO, H
2
S, NH
3
, Pt.
Cu 9 (H,2007- B). Khi cho Cu tc dng vi dung dch cha H
2
SO
4
long v NaNO
3
, vai tr
ca NaNO
3
trong phn ng l
A. cht oxi ho. B. cht kh. C. cht xc tc. D. mi trng.
Cu 10. Phn ng ho hc no sau y khng ng?
A. 2KNO
3

o
t
2KNO
2
+ O
2
B. 2Cu(NO
3
)
2
o
t
2CuO + 4NO
2
+ O
2
C. 4AgNO
3
o
t
2Ag
2
O + 4NO
2
+ O
2

D. 4Fe(NO
3
)
3
o
t
2Fe
2
O
3
+ 12NO
2
+ 3O
2
Cu 11. Hn hp A gm N
2
v H
2
c t l mol 1:3. Thc hin phn ng tng hp NH
3
. Sau
phn ng thu c hn hp B. T khi ca B i vi A l d
A/B
= 0,6. Hy cho bit hiu sut
ca phn ng tng hp NH
3
.
A. 60% B. 70% C. 80% D. 90%
Cu 12. Oxi ho chm m gam Fe ngoi khng kh thu c 12 gam hn hp A gm FeO,
Fe
2
O
3
, Fe
3
O
4
v Fe d. Ho tan A va bi 200ml dung dch HNO
3
nng x mol/l thu
c 2,24 lt NO duy nht ( ktc). Gi tr m v x ln lt l:
A. 10,8 gam v 3M B. 10,8 gam v 2,3M
C. 10,08 gam v 2M D. 10,08 gam v 3,2 M
Cu 13. Kh hon ton m gam CuO bng NH
3
nhit cao, kh bay ra sau phn ng c
cho vo dung dch H
2
SO
4
c, ngui d thy vn cn 2,24 lt kh thot ra (ktc). Hy la
chn gi tr ng ca m.
A. 8 gam B. 16 gam C. 24 gam D. 12 gam


Cu 14 (H,2007- B). Cho hn hp Fe, Cu phn ng vi dung dch HNO
3
long. Sau khi
phn ng hon ton, thu c dung dch ch cha mt cht tan v kim loi d. Cht tan l
A. Fe(NO
3
)
2
. B. HNO
3
. C. Fe(NO
3
)
3
. D. Cu(NO
3
)
2
.
Cu 15(H,2007- A). Thc hin hai th nghim:
1, Cho 3,84g Cu phn ng vi 80ml dung dch HNO
3
1M thot ra V
1
lt NO.
2, Cho 3,84g Cu phn ng vi 80ml dung dch cha HNO
3
1M v H
2
SO
4
0,5M thot ra V
2
lt
NO.
Bit NO l sn phm kh duy nht, cc th tch kh o cng iu kin. Quan h gia V
1
v
V
2
l
A. V
2
= V
1
B. V
2
= 2V
1
C. V
2
= 2,5V
1
D. V
2
= 1,5V
1

Cu 16. Cho 4,59 gam kim loi R tan hon ton trong dung dch HNO
3
thu c 2,688 lt
hn hp kh Y gm 2 kh khng mu trong c mt kh ho nu ngoi khng kh. T khi
ca Y so vi H
2
l 16,75. Xc nh kim loi R .
A. Mg B. Al C. Ca D. Zn
Cu 17. Dy mui nitrat vo di y khi b nhit phn cho sn phm l oxit kim loi, NO
2

v O
2
:
A. Al(NO
3
)
3
, Zn(NO
3
)
2
, Ni(NO
3
)
2
B. NaNO
3
, KNO
3
, LiNO
3

C. Ca(NO
3
)
2
, Pb(NO
3
)
2
, Fe(NO
3
)
2
D. Hg(NO
3
)
2
, AgNO
3
, Mn(NO
3
)
2
.
Cu 18. Cho 1,32g (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
tc dng vi dung dch NaOH d, un nng thu c mt
sn phm kh c th tch l (ktc)
A. 0,36lt B. 4,48 lt C. 0,448lt D. 0,224 lt
Cu 19. Trong phn ng ho hc: 2NO
2
+ 2NaOH NaNO
3
+ NaNO
2
+ H
2
O . NO
2

ng vai tr:
A. cht kh B. va l cht kh va l cht oxi ho
C. cht oxi ho D. khng phi cht kh hay cht oxi ho.
Cu 20. Cho dung dch HNO
3
long phn ng vi FeS, cc sn phm to thnh l:
A. Fe(NO
3
)
3
, H
2
S. B. Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
, Fe(NO
3
)
3
, NO, H
2
O.
C. Fe(NO
3
)
2
, H
2
S. D. FeSO
4
, Fe(NO
3
)
2
, NO, H
2
O.


Cu 21. Khi c st nh axit c to thnh trong nc ma vi cc phn ng no sau (theo
th t)
4NH
3
+ 5O
2
4NO + 6H
2
O (1); 2NO + O
2
2NO
2
(2)
NO
2
+ H
2
O HNO
3
(3); N
2
+ O
2
2NO (4)
2NO + H
2
O 2HNO
3
(5); 4NO
2
+ 2H
2
O + O
2
4HNO
3
(6)
A. 1, 5 B. 1, 3, 6 C. 1, 2, 6 D. 4, 2, 6.
Cu 22. Trong cng nghip, ngi ta sn xut amoniac da trn phng trnh ho hc sau:
N
2
+ 3H
2
2NH
3
H<0; qu trnh sn xut xy ra c li (v tc , hiu sut) ngi ta
thc hin phn ng
A. p sut cao, nhit thch hp, dng cht xc tc.
B. p sut cao, nhit cao, dng cht xc tc.
C. p sut cao, nhit thp, dng cht xc tc.
D. p sut thp, nhit thp, dng cht xc tc.
Cu 23. t chy 1 mol P, sn phm cho tc dng vi dung dch cha a mol NaOH. tng
khi lng mui cc i th gi tr a l
A. 1. B.2. C.3. D. 2,5.
Cu 24 . Fe
x
O
y
+ HNO
3
Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ NO + NO
2
+ H
2
O. Bit V
NO
:V
NO2
= 2:1. Khi h
s cn bng ca H
2
O l (bit h s cn bng l ti gin):
A. 15x - 3y. B. 21x - 13y. C. 10x - 6y. D. 30x - 6y.
Cu 25 (H2009-khi A). Ha tan hon ton 12,42 gam Al bng dung dch HNO
3
long
(d), thu c dung dch X v 1,344 lt ( ktc) hn hp kh Y gm hai kh l N
2
O v N
2
. T
khi ca hn hp kh Y so vi kh H
2
l 18. C cn dung dch X, thu c m gam cht rn
khan. Gi tr ca m l.
A. 38,34 gam. B. 34,08gam. C. 106,38gam. D. 97,98gam.
Cu 26. Thm 0,15 mol KOH vo dung dch cha 0,1 mol H
3
PO
4
. Sau phn ng, trong dung
dch c cc mui:
A. KH
2
PO
4
v K
2
HPO
4
B. KH
2
PO
4
v K
3
PO
4

C. K
2
HPO
4
v K
3
PO
4
D. KH
2
PO
4
K
2
HPO
4
v K
3
PO
4



Cu 27. Ha tan hon ton 17,4 gam hn hp Al,Fe,Cu trong dung dch HNO
3
. Sau khi kt
thc phn ng thu c 5,6 lt (ktc) kh NO (sn phm kh duy nht) v dung dch X. Lm
kh dung dch X thu c m gam mui khan. Gi tr ca m l:
A. 63,9. B. 67. C. 60,8. D. 70,1.
Cu 28 (H,2007-A). C 4 dung dch mui ring bit: CuCl
2
; ZnCl
2
; FeCl
3
; AlCl
3
. Nu
thm dung dch KOH (d) ri thm tip dung dch NH
3
(d) vo 4 dung dch trn th s cht
kt ta thu c l
A. 3. B. 1. C. 2. D. 4.
Cu 29 (H, 2008-A). Cho 11,36 gam hn hp gm Fe, FeO, Fe
2
O
3
v Fe
3
O
4
phn ng ht
vi dung dch HNO
3
long (d), thu c 1,344 lt kh NO (sn phm kh duy nht, ktc) v
dung dch X. C cn dung dch X thu c m gam mui khan. Gi tr ca m l
A. 38,72. B. 35,50. C. 49,09. D. 34,36.
Cu 30 (H, 2009-A). Cho 3,2 gam bt Cu tc dng vi 100 ml dung dch hn hp gm
HNO
3
0,8M v H
2
SO
4
0,2M. Sau khi cc phn ng xy ra hon ton, sinh ra V lt kh NO (sn
phm kh duy nht, ktc). Gi tr ca V l
A. 0,672. B. 0,448. C. 1,792. D. 0,746.
p n
1.A 2.B 3.C 4.B 5.A 6.B 7.A 8.A 9.A 10.C
11.C 12.D 13.C 14.D 15.B 16.B 17.A 18B. 19.B 20.B
21.D 22.A 23.C 24.A 25.C 26.A 27.A 28.B 29.A 30.A

Cu 4. n (NO) = 0,56/22,5 = 0,025 mol
Khi nung nng Fe trong khng kh th thu c X gm : Fe
2
O
3
, Fe
3
O
4
, FeO , Fe d
X + HNO
3
Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ NO + H
2
O
Tm tt : Fe + O
2
X (1)
X + HNO
3
Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ NO + H
2
O (2)
Nhn thy s oxi ho ca cc nguyn t thay i nh sau :
Fe Fe
3+
+ 3e ; O2 + 4e 2O
2-+
; N
+5
+ 3e N
+2
x 3x ; y 4y ; 0,075 0,025
Tng s e cho bng tng s e nhn : 3x = 4y + 0,075
Bo ton khi lng phn ng (1) : m Fe + mO
2
= m X
56x + 32y = 3 x = 0,045 , y = 0,015 mol m = 56.0,045 = 2,52 gam Chn A
Cu 9. H
2
SO
4
2H
+
+ SO
4
2-
NaNO
3
Na
+
+ NO
3
-

Cu c cc phn ng sau :
3Cu + 8H
+
+ 2 NO
3
-
3Cu
2+
+ 2NO + 8H
2
O
NO
3
-
ng vai tr l cht oxi ha NaNO
3
ng vai tr l cht oxi ha
Chn A
Cu 11. Gi s mol ban u n
N2
= x mol n
H2
= 3x mol
s mol hn hp A ban u: n
A
= 4x mol
A
M =
x
x x
4
. 3 . 2 28 +

N
2
+ 3H
2
2NH
3
(*)
Ban u x 3x
phn ng a 3a 2a
Cn bng (x-a) (3x-3a) 2a
S mol hn hp B: n
B
= (4x -2a) mol;
B
M =
a x
a a x a x
2 4
2 . 17 ) 3 . 3 ( 2 ) ( 28

+ +

Suy ra:
B
A
M
M
=
x
a x
4
2 4
=0,6 a= 0,8x.Vy hiu sut H =
x
a
100 = 80% Chn C
Cu 14. Khi cho hn hp kim loi gm Fe , Cu vo dung dch HNO
3
theo th t th Fe phn
ng trc , nu ht th n Cu .
Fe + HNO
3
Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ NO + H
2
O (1)
Nu Fe d : Fe + 2Fe(NO
3
)
3
3Fe(NO
3
)
2
(2)
V thu c mt cht tan sau phn ng nn phn ng (2) Fe(NO
3
)
3
ht v Cu khng tham
gia phn ng vi bt k cht no.
V HNO
3
v Fe(NO
3
)
3
ht nn khng c cc phn ng
Cu + HNO
3
Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ NO + H
2
O
Cu + Fe(NO
3
)
3
Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ Fe(NO
3
)
2

Cht tan duy nht l Fe(NO
3
)
2
Chn C
Cu 15.1) n
Cu
= 0,06 mol ; n
HNO3
= 0,08 mol
3Cu + 8H
+
+ 2NO
3
-
3Cu
2+
+ 2NO + 4H
2
O.
Xt n
H+
=
8
08 , 0
< n
Cu
=
3
06 , 0
. Vy tnh theo n
H+
. n
NO
= 0,02 mol V
1
= 0,448 lt.
2) 3Cu + 8H
+
+ 2NO
3
-
3Cu
2+
+ 2NO + 4H
2
O.
0,06 0,16 0,08
Xt:
2
08 , 0
3
06 , 0
8
16 , 0
< = tnh theo n
H+
hoc n
Cu
.
n
NO
= 0,04 mol V
2
= 0,896 lt
Vy chn p n B
Cu 20. 12HNO
3
+ 3FeS Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ 9NO + H
2
O. Chn B
Cu 24 . V V
NO
:V
NO2
= 2:1. 2N
+5
+ 6e 2N
+2
. N
+5
+ 1e N
+4
.
Vy: 3N
+5
+ 7e 2N
+2
+ N
+4
; x
x
y
Fe
2 +
xFe
3+
+ (-2y+3x)e
7Fe
x
O
y
+ (30x-6y)HNO
3
7xFe(NO
3
)
3
+ (6x-4y) NO +(3x-2y) NO
2
+(15x-3y)H
2
O.
Cu 25.Al
3
HNO
Al(NO
3
)
3
+ N
2
O + N
2
.
Gi n
N2O
= x mol; n
N2
= y mol.Ta c: x + y = 0,06 mol
44x + 28y = 2.18.(x+ y) 8x = 8yx = y. x=y = 0,03 mol
S mol electron cho: n
1
= 0,46.3 = 1,38 mol
S mol electron N
+5
nhn to kh: 8x + 10y = 18x = 0,54 mol <1,38 mol
Vy sn phm to thnh cn c NH
4
NO
3
.
S mol electron N
+5
nhn to N
-3
(NH
4
NO
3
): 1.38- 0,54 = 0,84 mol
n(NH
4
NO
3
) = 0,84/8 = 0,105 mol m(NH
4
NO
3
)= 8,4 gam
m(Al(NO
3
)
3
)= 0,46.213 = 97,98 gam.
Vy khi lng cht rn l: 8,4 +97,98 = 106,38 gam Chn C
Cu 28.
CuCl
2
+ 2KOH Cu(OH)
2
+ 2KCl; Cu(OH)
2
+ 4NH
3
[Cu(NH
3
)
4
](OH)
2
tan
ZnCl
2
+ 2KOH Zn(OH)
2
+ 2KCl; Zn(OH)
2
+ 4NH
3
[Zn(NH
3
)
4
](OH)
2
tan
FeCl
3
+ 3KOH Fe(OH)
3
+ 3KCl ;
AlCl
3
+ 3KOH Al(OH)
3
+ 3KCl; Al(OH)
3
+ KOH KAlO
2
+ 2H
2
O tan
Chn p n B.
Cu 30. 3Cu + 8H
+
+ 2NO
3
-
3Cu
2+
+ 2NO + 4H
2
O.
0,05 0,12 0,08
Xt t l:
2
08 , 0
3
05 , 0
8
12 , 0
< < nn tnh theo s mol H
+

Vy n
NO
= 0,03 mol vV
NO
= 0,672 lt Chn A

KIM TRA S 2
Cu 1: Nhit phn hon ton Fe(NO
3
)
2
trong khng kh thu c:
A. Fe, NO
2
, O
2
B. FeO, NO
2
, O
2

C. Fe
2
O
3
, NO
2
D. Fe
2
O
3
, NO
2
, O
2
Cu 2 (H2009-khi A).
Cho phng trnh ha hc: Fe
3
O
4
+ HNO
3
Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ N
x
O
y
+ H
2
O.
Sau khi cn bng phng trnh ha hc trn vi h s ca cc cht l nhng s nguyn, ti
gin th h s ca HNO
3
l
A. 13x-9y. B. 46x-18y. C. 45x 18y. D. 23x 9y.
Cu 3 (H2009-khi A). Nung 6,58 gam Cu(NO
3
)
2
trong bnh kn khng cha khng kh,
sau mt thi gian thu c 4,96 gam cht rn v hn hp kh X. Hp th hon ton kh X vo
nc c 300ml dung dch Y. Dung dch Y c pH bng
A. 4. B. 2. C. 1. D. 5.
Cu 4. Dy cht no sau y trong nit c s oxi ha tng dn?
A. NH
3
, N
2
, NO, N
2
O, AlN B. NH
4
Cl, N
2
O
5
, HNO
3
, Ca
3
N
2
, NO
C. NH
4
Cl, NO, NO
2
, N
2
O
3
, HNO
3
D. NH
4
Cl, N
2
O, N
2
O
3
, NO
2
, HNO
3

Cu 5. Xc nh cht (A) v (B) trong chui sau :
N
2

o
2
+ H (xt, t , p)
NH
3

o
2
+ O (Pt, t )
(A)
2
+ O
(B) HNO
3

A. (A) l NO, (B) l N
2
O
5
B. (A) l N
2
, (B) l N
2
O
5

C.(A) l NO, (B) l NO
2
D.(A) l N
2
, (B) l NO
2

Cu 6 (H2009-khi A). Cho 6,72 gam Fe vo 400ml dung dch HNO
3
1M, n khi phn
ng xy ra hon ton, thu c kh NO (sn phm kh duy nht) v dung dch X. Dung dch
X c th ha tan ti a m gam Cu. Gi tr ca m l
A. 1,92 gam. B. 3,20gam. C. 0,64 gam. D. 3,84 gam.
Cu 7. Axit HNO
3
long tc dng vi kim loi gii phng kh NO, cn axit HNO
3
c tc
dng vi kim loi gii phng kh NO
2
.
iu nhn nh khng ng l:
A. Axit HNO
3
c tc dng vi kim loi, sn phm NO
2
thot ra nhanh nht
B. Axit HNO
3
c c tnh cht oxi ho mnh hn axit HNO
3
long
C. Yu t tc phn ng ho hc to nn s khc bit gia hai trng hp
D. Axit HNO
3
c c tnh cht oxi ho yu hn axit HNO
3
long
Cu 8 (H 2009-khi A). Mt bnh phn ng dung tch khng i, cha hn hp kh N
2
v
H
2
vi nng tng ng l 0,3M v 0,7M. Sau khi phn ng tng hp NH
3
t trng thi
cn bng t
o
C, H
2
chim 50% th tch hn hp thu c. Hng s cn bng K
C
t
o
C ca
phn ng c gi tr l
A. 2,500. B. 3,125. C. 0,609. D. 0,500.
Cu 9 (H 2007-khi A). Ha tan hon ton hn hp gm 0,12 mol FeS
2
v a mol Cu
2
S
vo axit HNO
3
(va ), thu c dung dch X (ch cha hai mui sunfat) v kh duy nht
NO. Gi tr ca a l
A. 0,04. B. 0,075. C. 0,12. D. 0,06.
Cu 10. NH
3
c th phn ng c vi tt c cc cht trong nhm no sau y (cc k coi
nh c ):
A. HCl ,O
2
, Cl
2 ,
CuO ,dd AlCl
3.
B. H
2
SO
4
, PbO, FeO ,NaOH .
C. HCl , KOH , FeCl
3
, Cl
2
. D. KOH , HNO
3
, CuO , CuCl
2
.
Cu 11. Cho cc oxit : Li
2
O, MgO, Al
2
O
3
, CuO, PbO, FeO. C bao nhiu oxit b kh NH
3

kh nhit cao ?
A.1 B.2 C.3 D.4
Cu 12 (H 2007-khi A). Trong phng th nghim iu ch mt lng nh kh X tinh
khit, ngi ta un nng dung dch amoni nitrit bo ha. Kh X l
A. NO. B. NO
2
. C. N
2
O. D. N
2
.
Cu 13. Cho s : (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
+X NH
4
Cl +Y NH
4
NO
3

Trong s X,Y ln lt l cc cht:
A. HCl, HNO
3
B. CaCl
2
, HNO
3
C. BaCl
2
, AgNO
3
D. HCl , AgNO
3


Cu 14(H 2007-B). Trong phng th nghim, ngi ta thng iu ch HNO
3
t
A. NaNO
3
v HCl c. B. NaNO
2
v H
2
SO
4
c.
C. NH
3
v O
2
. D. NaNO
3
v H
2
SO
4
c.
Cu 15. Cho 1,725g NH
4
HSO
4
tc dng vi dung dch KOH d, un nng thu c mt sn
phm kh c th tch l (ktc)
A. 0,336lt B. 4,48 lt C. 0,448lt D. 0,224 lt
Cu 16. Cho cc phn ng sau:
(1) NH
3
+ H
2
SO
4
NH
4
HSO
4
(2) NH
4
Cl + KOH NH
3
+ H
2
O + NaCl
(3) 2NO
2
+ 2NaOH NaNO
2
+ NaNO
3
+ H
2
O
(4) 3NH
3
+ 3H
2
O + AlCl
3
Al(OH)
3
+ 3NH
4
Cl
Phn ng khng l phn ng oxi ho - kh trong s cc phn ng trn l:
A. (2) ;(3); (4) B. (1); (3) C. (2); (4) D. (1); (2); (4)
Cu 17. Phn ng gia FeCO
3
v dung dch HNO
3
to ra hn hp kh khng mu, mt phn
ho nu trong khng kh, hn hp kh gm
A. CO
2
v NO
2
B. CO v NO C. CO
2
v NO D. CO
2
v N
2

Cu 18. Nhit phn hon ton KNO
3
thu c cc sn phm l
A. KNO
2
, NO
2
v O
2
B. KNO
2
v O
2

C. KNO
2
, NO
2
D. K
2
O, NO
2
v O
2

Cu 19 (H 2007-khi A). thu ly Ag tinh khit t hn hp (gm a mol Al
2
O
3
, b mol
CuO, c mol Ag
2
O), ngi ta ha tan X bi dung dch cha (6a + 2b + 2c) mol HNO
3
c
dung dch Y, sau thm (gi thit hiu sut cc phn ng u l 100%)
A. c mol bt Al vo Y. B. c mol bt Cu vo Y.
C. 2c mol bt Al vo Y. D. 2c mol bt Cu vo Y.
Cu 20. Tch ring NH
3
ra khi hn hp kh gm N
2
, H
2
v NH
3
trong cng nghip, ngi ta
s dng phng php cho hn hp qua:
A. CuO nung nng B. dung dch nc vi trong
C. thit b nn v lm lnh hn hp. D. dung dch H
2
SO
4
c

Cu 21(C, 2007-B). Cho phng trnh: N
2(k)
+ 3H
2(k)
= 2NH
3(k)
. Khi tng nng ca
hiro ln 2 ln, tc phn ng thun
A. gim i 2 ln. B. tng ln 2 ln.
C. tng ln 8 ln. D. tng ln 6 ln.
Cu 22. t chy ht 31gam pht pho ri ho tan sn phm vo nc c 200 gam dung
dch X. Nng % ca X l :
A. 49% B. 98 % C. 24,5 % D. 2,45 %
Cu 23(H,2009-B). Cho 61,2 gam hn hp X gm Cu v Fe
3
O
4
tc dng vi dung dch
HNO
3
long, un nng v khuy u. Sau khi cc phn ng xy ra hon ton, thu c 3,36 lt
kh NO (sn phm kh duy nht, ktc), dung dch Y v cn li 2,4 gam kim loi. C cn
dung dch Y, thu c m gam mui khan. Gi tr ca m l
A. 151,5. B. 137,1. C. 97,5. D. 108,9.
Cu 24. Cho s phn ng sau:
NH
4
NO
2

nhit phn
A
1

+ O2
A
2

+O2
A
3

+H2O
A
4

+Cu
A
5

nhit phn
A
3
....
A
1
, A
2
, A
3
, A
4
, A
5
tng ng l cc cht sau:
A. NO
2
, NO , NO , HNO
3
, Cu(NO
3
)
2
, NO
B. N
2
O
5
, NO , NO
3
, HNO
3
, Cu(NO
3
)
2
, NO
3

C. N
2
, NO , NO
2
, HNO
3
, Cu(NO
3
)
2
, NO
2

D. N
2
, NO , NO
3
, HNO
3
, Cu(NO
3
)
2
, NO
3

Cu 25. Nhn nh sai l:
A. Phn kali cung cp K cho cy B. Phn phc hp cung cp O cho cy
C. Phn m cung cp N cho cy D. Phn ln cung cp P cho cy
Cu 26(H,2008-A). Cho Cu v dung dch H
2
SO
4
long tc dng vi cht X (mt loi phn
bn ha hc), thy thot ra kh khng mu ha nu trong khng kh. Mt khc, khi X tc dng
vi dung dch NaOH th c kh mi khai thot ra. Cht X l
A. ure. B. amoni nitrat. C. amophot. D. natri nitrat.
Cu 27. Cho 5,6 gam Fe vo 200 ml dung dch cha HNO
3
4M v H
2
SO
4
2M thu c kh
NO v dung dch X. Dung dch X c th ho tan ti a m gam Cu, bit phn ng to ra kh
NO l sn phm kh duy nht, m c gi tr
A. 12,8 gam B. 19,2 gam C. 25,6 gam D. 32 gam
Cu 28. Ho tan 5,76 g Mg trong dung dch HNO
3
long nng d th thu c dung dch B
v 0,896 lt kh X duy nht. C cn cn thn dung dch B thu c 37,12 gam cht rn . Xc
nh s mol HNO
3
tham gia phn ng.
A. 1,0 mol B. 0,8 mol C. 0,6 mol D. 1,2 mol
Cu 29. Axit H
3
PO
4
v HNO
3
cng c phn ng vi cc cht:
A. NaCl, KOH, Na
2
CO
3
, NH
3
B. KOH, Na
2
CO
3
, NH
3
, Na
2
S
C. MgO, KOH, CuSO
4
, NH
3
D. CuCl
2
, KOH, Na
2
CO
3
, NH
3

Cu 30. Trong nc ung nng ion NO
3
-
ti a cho php l 9 ppm. Nu tha ion NO
3
-
s
gy ra mt loi bnh thiu mu hoc to thnh nitrosamin - mt hp cht gy ung th trong
ng tiu ho. Nhn bit ion NO
3
-
ngi ta dng:
A. Cu v NaOH B. Cu v H
2
SO
4

C. CuSO
4
v NaOH D. CuSO
4
v H
2
SO
4
P N V HNG DN GII
1.D 2.B 3.C 4.D 5.C 6.A 7.D 8.B 9.D 10.A
11.C 12.D 13.C 14.A 15.A 16.D 17.C 18.B 19.B 20.C
21.C 22.A 23.A 24.C 25.B 26.B 27.D 28.A 29.B 30.B

Cu 2. Chn B
(5x-2y)Fe
3
O
4
+ (46x-18y)HNO
3
(15x-6y) Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ N
x
O
y
+(23x-9y)H
2
O.
Cu 3.s mol(Cu(NO
3
)
2
)= 0,035 mol
2Cu(NO
3
)
2
2CuO + 4NO
2
+ O
2
.
4x x
m
NO2
+ m
O2
= 6,58-4,96 = 1,62 gam n
O2
= x =
32 46 . 4
62 , 1
+
= 0,0075 mol
4NO
2
+ O
2
+ 2H
2
O

4HNO
3
.
Vy n
HNO3
= 4x = 0,03 mol [H
+
] = 0,03/0,3 = 0,1M pH = 1.
Cu 6.
Fe + 4HNO
3
Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ NO + 2H
2
O (1)
0,12 0,4 tnh theo HNO
3
. s mol(Fe(NO
3
)
3
) (1) = 0,1 mol.
Fe + 2Fe(NO
3
)
3
3Fe(NO
3
)
2
(2)
0,02 0,04 s mol(Fe(NO
3
)
3
)d sau (2) = 0,06 mol.
2Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ Cu Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ 2Fe(NO
3
)
2

0,06 0,03
Vy khi lng Cu l 1,92 gam. Chn A
Cu 9.Theo bi dung dch X ch cha 2 mui sunphat nn theo bo ton nguyn t S, ta
c: 2FeS
2
Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
; CuS
2
CuSO
4

0,12 0,06 ; a 2a
0,12.2 + a = 0,06.3 + 2a a = 0,06 mol chn D
Cu 17. 3FeCO
3
+ 10HNO
3
3Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ 3CO
2
+ NO + 5H
2
O. Chn C
Cu 19.
Al
2
O
3
+ 6HNO
3
2Al(NO
3
)
3
+ 3H
2
O ; CuO + 2HNO
3
Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ 3H
2
O
a 6a 2a ; b 2b b
Ag
2
O + 2HNO
3
2AgNO
3
+ H
2
O .
c 2c 2c
thu c Ag t dung dch Y, phi thm c mol bt Cu vo Y v:
Cu + 2Ag
+
Cu
2+
+ 2Ag
Nu thm Al vo th Al + Cu
2+
Al
3+
+ Cu; Al + 2Ag
+
Al
3+
+ 2Ag
khng thu c Ag tinh khit m c ln Cu. Chn B
Cu 23. 3Fe
3
O
4
+28HNO
3
9Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ NO + 14H
2
O (1)
3Cu + 8HNO
3
3Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ 2NO + 4H
2
O (2)
Cu + 2Fe(NO
3
)
3
Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ 2Fe(NO
3
)
2
(3)
Gi s mol Fe
3
O
4
= x mol; n
Cu p.(2,)
= y mol; n
Cu p.(3)
= z mol;
x/3 + 2y/3 = 0,15 x +2y = 0,45 (*) ; (3) z = 3x/2;
ta c: 232x + 64 (y+z) = 232x + 64y+ 64.3x/2 = 61,2- 2,4 = 58,8
hay: 328x +64y = 58,8 (**)
Gii h (*), (**) ta c x = y = 0,15 mol.
n(Cu(NO
3
)
2
)
(3)
= 3x/2=0,225 m(Cu(NO
3
)
2
) (3)= 42,3 gam.
tng m(Cu(NO
3
)
2
) (2) ,(3)= 42,3 + 188.0,15 = 70,5 gam
m(Fe(NO
3
)
2
)= 3.0,15.180 =81 gam.
Tng khi lng cht rn l: 151,5 gam Chn A
Cu 26.Cu + H
2
SO
4
+ X NO ; X phi cha ion NO
3
-
.
X + NaOH NH
3
; X phi cha ion NH
4
+
.
Vy X l NH
4
NO
3
chn B.

CHNG 3. NHM CACBON
A. Hng dn t n tp l thuyt
- Nhm cacbon gm cc nguyn t cacbon (C), silic (Si), gemani (Ge), thic (Sn) v ch (Pb)
- Lp electron ngoi cng ca nguyn t (ns
2
np
2
) c 4 electron:


ns
2
np
2
ns
1
np
3

(Trng thi c bn) (Trng thi kch thch)
- t c cu hnh electron bn ca kh him, cc nguyn t nguyn t nhm cacbon to
nn nhng cp electron chung vi cc nguyn t khc, trong cc hp cht chng c cc s
oxi ho +4, +2 v c th l -4 tu thuc vo m in ca cc nguyn t lin kt vi chng.
- T C Pb, tnh phi kim gim dn, tnh kim loi tng dn
- Cc nguyn t nhm cacbon to c hp cht vi hiro c cng thc chung l RH
4
, to
c 2 loi oxit l RO v RO
2
.
- Nguyn t cacbon c th lin kt vi nhau to thnh mch, mch cacbon c th gm hang
chc, hng trm nguyn t cacbon (trong cc hp cht hu c).
I. CACBON
- Cc dng th hnh thng gp ca cacbon: kim cng, than ch, cacbon v nh hnh,
fuleren.
- nhit thng, cacbon kh tr v mt ho hc, khi un nng cacbon phn ng c vi
nhiu cht.
- Cacbon th hin tnh kh v tnh oxi ho.
1. Tnh kh
- Tc dng vi oxi: 2C + O
2
(thiu Oxi)
o
t
2CO


;
C + O
2

o
t
CO
2

- Tc dng vi hp cht:














+ Tc dng vi oxit: C + SiO
2

o
t
Si + 2CO ; C + CO
2

o
t
2CO
3C + CaO
o
t
CaC
2
+ CO ; 3C + Fe
2
O
3

o
t
2Fe + 3CO
+ Tc dng vi cc hp cht oxi ho mnh:
C + 4HNO
3
(c)
o
t
CO
2
+ 2NO
2
+ 2H
2
O
C + 2H
2
SO
4
(c)
o
t
CO
2
+ 2SO
2
+ 2H
2
O
+ nhit cao, C tc dng vi hi nc: C + H
2
O
C
o
1050
CO + H
2

2. Tnh oxi ho C + 2H
2

xt t
o
,
CH
4

3C + 4Al
o
t
Al
4
C
3
; 2C + Ca
o
t
CaC
2

Lu : - Cacbon khng tc dng c vi halogen.
- Cc cacbua d b thu phn hoc tc dng vi axit:
CaC
2
+ 2H
2
O C
2
H
2
+ Ca(OH)
2

Al
4
C
3
+ 12 HCl 3CH
4
+ 4AlCl
3
3. Trng thi t nhin, iu ch
Trong t nhin kim cng v than ch l cacbon t do gn nh tinh khit. Ngoi ra,
cacbon cn c trong cc khong vt nh canxit ( vi, phn, hoa, chng u cha CaCO
3
),
magiezit (MgCO
3
), olomit (CaCO
3
. MgCO
3
)....
II. CACBON MONOXIT (CO)
1. Cu to v tnh cht vt l
C: 2s
2
2p
2

: C : : O : :C O: hay :C O:
O: 2s
2
2p
4

- CO l kh khng mu, khng mi, hi nh hn khng kh, tan t trong nc , rt bn vi
nhit v rt c.
2. Tnh cht ho hc
- Trong phn t cacbon monooxit c lin kt ba ging phn t nit nn CO rt km hot
ng nhit thng v tr nn hot ng hn khi un nng.
- CO l oxit trung tnh v l cht kh mnh:
+ CO chy trong khng kh cho ngn la mu lam nht v to nhiu nhit












2CO + O
2

o
t
2CO
2

+ CO kh c nhiu oxit kim loi (ng sau Al trong dy hot ng ca kim loi)
nhit cao:
CO + CuO
o
t
Cu + CO
2
; 3CO + Fe
2
O
3

o
t
2Fe + 3CO
2

+ Khi c than hot tnh lm xc tc, CO kt hp c vi clo
CO + Cl
2

xt
COCl
2
(photgen: rt c)
+ Nhn bit kh CO bng phn ng vi dung dch PdCl
2

PdCl
2
+ CO + H
2
O Pd + 2HCl + CO
2

3. iu ch
- Trong cng nghip
+ Cho hi nc qua than nung , hn hp kh to thnh gi l kh than t cha 44%
CO: C + H
2
O
o
t
CO + H
2

+ Cho khng kh qua than nung , thu c kh l gas (kh than kh) cha 25% CO:
C + O
2

o
t
CO
2
; C + CO
2

o
t
2CO
- Trong phng th nghim: HCOOH
o
t SO H ,
4 2
CO + H
2
O
III. CACBON IOXIT (CO
2
)
-Cng thc cu to: O = C = O
- CO
2
l kh khng mu, nng gp 1,5 ln khng kh, tan khng nhiu trong nc, khng duy
tr s chy
- Khi lm lnh t ngt -76
o
C, kh CO
2
ho rn gi l nc kh (bng kh) d thng
hoa to mi trng lnh v kh nn dng bo qun thc phm.
1. Tnh cht ho hc
- CO
2
l oxit axit.
- Tc dng vi kim loi c tnh kh mnh (Mg, Al, Zn,...)
CO
2
+ 2Mg
o
t
2MgO + C
khng dng CO
2
dp tt cc m chy c Mg, Al


2. iu ch
- Kh CO
2
chim khong 0,03% th tch khng kh, l sn phm ca qu trnh h hp ca
ngi v ng vt.
+ Phng trnh quang hp ca cy xanh: C
6
H
12
O
6
+ 6O
2
6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O
- Trong phng th nghim: CaCO
3
+ 2HCl CaCl
2
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O
- Trong cng nghip: C + O
2

o
t
CO
2
; CaCO
3

o
t
CaO + CO
2

IV. AXIT CACBONIC- MUI CACBONAT
1. Axit cacbonic (H
2
CO
3
)
- Axit cacbonic l mt iaxit yu, km bn, d b phn hu thnh CO
2
v H
2
O
- Trong dung dch H
2
CO
3
phn li theo 2 nc:
H
2
CO
3
H
+
+ HCO
3

; K
1
= 4,5.10
-7

HCO
3

H
+
+ CO
3
2-
; K
2
= 4,8.10
-11

2. Mui cacbonat
* Mui trung ho (CO
3
2-
).
+ Mui trung ho ca kim loi kim (tr Li
2
CO
3
), amoni tan c, cn li khng tan hoc t
tan trong nc.
+ Mui trung ho ca kim loi kim b thu phn mnh trong nc to mi trng kim:
CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O HCO
3
-
+ OH
-

- Tc dng vi axit: Na
2
CO
3
+ 2HCl 2NaCl + CO
2
+ H
2
O
Khi c d kh CO
2
, mui trung ho chuyn thnh mui axit
CaCO
3
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O Ca(HCO
3
)
2
- Mui trung ho ca kim loi kim bn vi nhit, cc mui khc b nhit phn hu:
MgCO
3

o
t
MgO + CO
2
; CaCO
3

o
t
CaO + CO
2

- Mui cacbonat ca kim loi ho tr III khng tn ti trong dung dch :
Al
2
(CO
3
)
3
+ 3H
2
O 2Al(OH)
3
+ 3CO
2

* Mui hirocacbonat (HCO
3

)
- Hu ht tan c tr NaHCO
3
hi t tan.
+ Phn ng nhit phn: Ca(HCO
3
)
2

o
t
CaCO
3
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O
+ Tc dng vi dung dch kim: NaHCO
3
+ NaOH Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
O








Cc tinh th thch anh
+ Tc dng vi dung dch axit: NaHCO
3
+ HCl NaCl + CO
2
+ H
2
O
V. SILIC V HP CHT CA SILIC
1. Silic
a, Th hnh
- Silic tinh th c cu trc ging kim cng, mu xm, nh kim, c tnh bn dn ( nhit
thng dn in thp, nhng khi nhit tng th dn in tng ln).
- Silic v nh hnh l cht bt mu nu.
b, Tnh cht ho hc: Silic th hin tnh kh v tnh oxi ho
- Tnh kh
+ Tc dng vi phi kim: Si + 2F
2
SiF
4
(iu kin thng);
Si + 2Cl
2

o
t
SiCl
4
; Si + O
2

o
t
SiO
2
;
3Si + 2N
2

o
t
Si
3
N
4
;

Si + C
o
t
SiC


+ Tc dng vi hp cht: Si + 2KOH + H
2
O K
2
SiO
3
+ 2H
2

Si + 4HF SiF
4
+ 2H
2

3Si + 18HF + 4HNO
3
3H
2
SiF
6
+ 4NO + 8H
2
O
- Tnh oxi ho: tc dng vi kim loi (Ca, Mg, Fe) nhit cao Silixua kim loi.
Si + 2Mg
o
t
Mg
2
Si
c, iu ch
-Trong phng th nghim: SiO
2
+ 2Mg
o
t
Si + 2MgO
-Trong cng nghip: SiO
2
+ 2C
o
t
Si + 2CO
2. Silic ioxit ( SiO
2
)
- Silic ioxit l cht dng tinh th, khng tan trong
nc.
- Trong t nhin, silic ioxit tinh th ch yu dng
khong vt thch anh (tinh th ln, khng mu, trong
sut). Ct l silic ioxit c cha nhiu tp cht.
- SiO
2
l oxit axit, tan chm trong dung dch kim
c nng, tan d trong kim nng chy hoc cacbonat ca kim loi kim nng chy.
SiO
2
+ 2NaOH
o
t
Na
2
SiO
3
+ H
2
O
SiO
2
+ Na
2
CO
3

o
t
Na
2
SiO
3
+ CO
2

- SiO
2
tan c trong axit HF: SiO
2
+ 4HF SiF
4
+ 2H
2
O
dung dung dch HF khc ch v hnh trn thu tinh
3. Axit silixic (H
2
SiO
3
)
- Axit silixic l cht kt ta keo, khng tan trong nc. Khi un nng, d mt nc
H
2
SiO
3

o
t
SiO
2
+ H
2
O
+ Khi sy kh axit silixic mt 1 phn nc to vt liu xp silicagen- l cht c tc dng ht
m, hp ph.
-Tc dng vi dung dch kim:
H
2
SiO
3
+ 2NaOH Na
2
SiO
3
+ 2H
2
O
- Axit silixic l axit rt yu (yu hn axit cacbonic):
Na
2
SiO
3
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O 2NaCl + H
2
SiO
3

- SiO
2
khng tan trong nc nn H
2
SiO
3
c iu ch bng cch gin tip:
Na
2
SiO
3
+ 2HCl 2NaCl + H
2
SiO
3

SiCl
4
+ 3H
2
O 4HCl + H
2
SiO
3

4. Mui silicat
- Mui silicat ca kim loi kim tan c trong nc, b thu phn mnh cho mi trng
kim: Na
2
SiO
3
+ H
2
O 2NaOH + H
2
SiO
3

- Dung dch m c ca Na
2
SiO
3
v K
2
SiO
3
gi l thu tinh lng.
5. Cng nghip silicat
* Thu tinh
- Thnh phn: Na
2
O.CaO.6SiO
2
l cht v nh hnh, khng c nhit nng chy xc
nh.
- Sn xut: 6SiO
2
+ CaCO
3
+ Na
2
CO
3

C
o
1400
Na
2
O.CaO.6SiO
2
+ 2CO
2

* gm
* Xi mng 3CaO.SiO
2
Ca
3
SiO
5

- Thnh phn chnh gm canxi silicat v canxi aluminat: 2CaO.SiO
2
Ca
2
SiO
4

CaO.Al
2
O
3
Ca
3
(AlO
3
)
2

- Sn xut: vi + t st nhiu SiO
2
+ t qung st
C
o
1600 1400
Clanhke + 5% thch
cao, ph gia
nghien
xi mng
- Qu trnh ng cng ca xi mng
3CaO.SiO
2
+ 5H
2
O Ca
2
SiO
4
.4H
2
O + Ca(OH)
2

2CaO.SiO
2
+ 4H
2
O Ca
2
SiO
4
.4H
2
O

CaO.Al
2
O
3
+ 6H
2
O Ca
3
(AlO
3
)
2
.6H
2
O

B. Cc dng bi tp v phng php gii
Dng 1: Bi tp v nguyn t cacbon
Phng php gii:
t chy Cacbon bi oxi: C 2 trng hp nh sau:
+) Nu tha oxi: C + O
2
CO
2
.
Hn hp kh sau phn ng gm CO
2
v O
2
(d).
+) Nu thiu oxi: C + O
2
CO
2
; CO
2
+ C 2CO
Hn hp kh sau phn ng gm CO
2
v CO d.
V d 1. a. Khi t chy hon ton 3,6g C trong bnh cha 4,48 lt kh O
2
(ktc) sinh ra mt
hn hp gm hai kh. Xc nh thnh phn % ca mi kh .
b. t chy hon ton 8 kg than (cha tp cht khng chy) thy thot ra 0,5 m
3

cacbonic. Tnh % cacbon trong than.
Li gii. a. n
C
=
3, 6
12
= 0,3mol;
O
2
4, 48
n
22, 4
= = 0,2mol.
2C + O
2
2CO (1); C + O
2
CO
2
(2)
x 0,5x x mol y y y mol
Theo bi ta c x + y = 0,3 (I) v 0,5x + y = 0,2 x = 0,2mol v y = 0,1mol
%CO
2
=
0,1
100%
0, 3
= 33,(3)% ; %CO =
0, 2
100%
0, 3
= 66,7%.
b. C + O
2
CO
2

V
CO2
= 0,5m
3
= 500 lt n
C
=
500
224
mol m
C
= 267,857 gam
Vy % m
C
=
267,857
8000
100 = 3,348%
V d 2. C 18 gam hn hp 2 kh CO v CO
2
chim th tch 11,2 lt (ktc). Xc nh th
tch kh CO sau khi cho 18 gam hn hp kh ny qua than nng (phn ng hon ton).
Li gii
Gi n
CO
, n
CO2
ban u ln lt l x, y (mol), ta c 2 phng trnh
x + y = 0,5 v 30x + 46y = 18 x = 0,25 mol; y = 0,25mol.
Pthh: CO
2
+ C 2CO (*) Suy ra n
CO( *)
= 2n
CO2
= 2x = 0,5 mol.
Vy. tng n
CO
= 0,25 + 0,5 = 0,75 mol V
CO
= 16,8 lt
V d 3. Vit phng trnh ha hc thc hin dy chuyn ho sau:
Al Al(NO
3
)
3
Al(OH)
3
Al
2
O
3
Al Al
4
C
3
CH
4
CO
2
NaHCO
3

Na
2
CO
3
CO
2
Ca(HCO
3
)
2
CaCO
3
CaCl
2
Li gii.
Al + 6HNO
3
Al(NO
3
)
3
+ 3NO
2
+ 3H
2
O (1)
Al(NO
3
)
3
+ 3NH
3
+ 3H
2
O Al(OH)
3
+ 3NH
4
NO
3
(2)
Al(OH)
3
Al
2
O
3
+ H
2
O (3); 2Al
2
O
3
4Al + 3O
2
(4)
Al + C Al
4
C
3
(5); Al
4
C
3
+ H
2
O Al(OH)
3
+ CH
4
(6)
CH
4
CO
2
+ H
2
O (7); CO
2
+ NaOH NaHCO
3
(8)
NaHCO
3
+ NaOH Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
O (9)
Na
2
CO
3
+ 2HCl CO
2
+ NaCl + H
2
O (10)
2CO
2
+ Ca(OH)
2
Ca(HCO
3
)
2
(11)
Ca(HCO
3
)
2
CaCO
3
+ H
2
O + CO
2
(12)
CaCO
3
+ 2HCl CO
2
+ CaCl
2
+ H
2
O (13)

Dng 2: Kh CO
2
tc dng vi dung dch kim
Phng php gii
1) Kh CO
2
phn ng vi dung dch NaOH, KOH. t n
NaOH
/n
CO2
= a.
+ a 1 hay n
NaOH
< n
CO2
c phn ng CO
2
+ NaOH NaHCO
3

Mui to thnh l mui axit (HCO
3
-
).
+ 1<a<2 hay n
CO2
<n
NaOH
< 2n
CO2
th xy ra 2 phn ng v to thnh 2 loi mui
CO
2
+ NaOH NaHCO
3
; CO
2
+ 2NaOH Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
O
+ a 2 hay n
NaOH
2n
CO2
c phn ng CO
2
+ 2NaOH Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
O
Mui to thnh l mui trung ha (CO
3
2-
).
2) Kh CO
2
tc dng vi dung dch Ba(OH)
2
, Ca(OH)
2
. t n
CO2
/ n
Ca(OH)2
= b
+ Nu b 1 hay n
Ca(OH)2
n
CO2
: To mui trung ha (kt ta).
Phn ng: CO
2
+ Ca(OH)
2
CaCO
3
+ H
2
O.
+) Nu 1<b<2 hay n
Ca(OH)2
<n
CO2
<2n
Ca(OH)2
: To 2 mui CO
3
2-
v HCO
3
-
.
Phn ng: 2CO
2
+ Ca(OH)
2
Ca(HCO
3
)
2
; CO
2
+ Ca(OH)
2
CaCO
3
+ H
2
O.
+) Nu b 2 hay n
CO2
2n
Ca(OH)2
: To mui axit HCO
3
-
.
Phn ng: 2CO
2
+ Ca(OH)
2
Ca(HCO
3
)
2

V d 1. a. Sc 4,48 lt kh CO
2
(ktc) vo V lt dung dch NaOH 1M, c cn dung dch sau
phn ng thu c 19 gam hn hp mui khan. Nu nung nng hn hp mui trn th thu
c m gam mt mui duy nht. Tnh V,m?
b. Hp th hon ton 2,688 lt kh CO
2
(ktc) vo 2,5 lt dung dch Ba(OH)
2
a mol/l
thu c 15,76 gam kt ta. Tnh gi tr ca a ?
Li gii.
a. CO
2
+ NaOH NaHCO
3
(1); CO
2
+ NaOH Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
O (2)
(mol) x x x y y y
NaHCO
3
Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
O + CO
2
(3)
(mol) x x
H phng trnh: x+ y = 0,2 x = 0,1 mol
84x + 106y = 19 y = 0,1 mol
n
NaOH
= x + y = 0,2 mol V
NaOH
= 0,2 lt
n
Na2CO3
= x + y = 0,2 mol m
Na2CO3
= 21,2 gam
b. * TH1: n
CO2
<
2
( ) Ba OH
n
, Ch xy ra phn ng
CO
2
+ Ba(OH)
2
BaCO
3
+ H
2
O
0,08 mol 0,08 mol
n
Ba(OH)2
= 0,08 mol < n
CO2
= 0,12 mol khng tha mn, loi.
* TH2:
1
2
n
CO2
<
2
( ) Ba OH
n
<

n
CO2
; 2CO
2
+ Ba(OH)
2
Ba(HCO
3
)
2
(1)
CO
2
+ Ba(OH)
2
BaCO
3
+ H
2
O (2)
n
BaCO3
= 0,08 mol
2
( ) Ba OH
n
p. (2) = 0,08 mol
n
CO2
= 0,12 mol
2
( ) Ba OH
n
p. (1) = (0,12 0,08)
1
2
= 0,02 mol
Vy
2
( ) Ba OH
n
p. (1) v (2) = 0,1 mol a = 0,1/2,5 = 0,04 M
V d 2. a. Sc V lt (ktc) kh CO
2
vo 150 ml dung dch Ba(OH)
2
1M, sau phn ng thu
c 19,7 gam kt ta. Xc nh gi tr ca V?
b. Khi cho 3,36 lt CO
2
(ktc) vo 200 ml dung dch cha NaOH 1M v Ba(OH)
2

0,5M. Tnh khi lng kt ta thu c sau phn ng.
Li gii.
a. * TH1: n
CO2
< n
Ba(OH)2
, Ch xy ra phn ng sau
CO
2
+ Ba(OH)
2
BaCO
3
+ H
2
O
0,1 mol 0,1 mol 0,1 mol
n
CO2
=
2
( ) Ba OH
n
p. = 0,1 mol <
2
( ) Ba OH
n
ban u = 0,15 tha mn V = 2,24 lt
*TH2:
1
2
n
CO2
< n
Ba(OH)2
<

n
CO2

2CO
2
+ Ba(OH)
2
Ba(HCO
3
)
2
(1)
CO
2
+ Ba(OH)
2
BaCO
3
+ H
2
O (2)
n
BaCO3
= 0,1 mol n
Ba(OH)2
p. (2) = 0,1 mol

2
( ) Ba OH
n
ban u = 0,15 mol
2
( ) Ba OH
n
p. (1) = 0,15 0,1 = 0,05mol
Suy ra: n
CO2
= 2.0,05 + 0,1 = 0,2 mol tha mn V = 4,48 lt
Vy V = 2,24 lt hoc V = 4,48 lt
b. NaOH Na
+
+ OH
-
(1)

;

Ba(OH)
2
Ba
2+
+ 2 OH
-
(2)
0,2 mol 0,2 mol ; 0,1 mol 0,1 mol 0,2 mol
Tng n
OH-
= 0,4 mol; n
CO2
= 0,15 mol
Ta c t l : n
OH-
/ n
CO2
= 0,4/0,15= 2,666 > 2 Ch xy ra phn ng sau
CO
2
+ 2OH
-
CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O (3)
0,15mol 0,4 mol n CO
3
2-
= n
CO2
= 0,15 mol .
Ba
2+
+ CO
3
2-
BaCO
3
(4)
0,1 mol 0,15 mol n
BaCO3
= 0,1 mol. Vy m
BaCO3
= 19,7 gam.
Dng 3: Bi ton v mui cacbonat, hidrocacbonat
Phng php gii
* Tc dng vi axit (H
+
). Gi
+
2-
3
H
CO
n
n
= x, ta c:

+ Nu x 1 hay
2
3
CO
n
+
H
n th c phn ng: CO
3
2-
+ H
+
HCO
3
-

Sn phm khng c kh CO
2
.
+ Nu 1< x <2 hay
2
3
CO
n <
+
H
n <2
2
3
CO
n xy ra 2 phn ng: CO
3
2-
+ H
+
HCO
3
-
(1);
v HCO
3
-
+ H
+
CO
2
+ H
2
O (2). Sn phm c CO
2
, HCO
3
-
.
+ Nu 2 x hay 2
2
3
CO
n
+
H
n c phn ng: CO
3
2-
+ 2H
+
CO
2
+ H
2
O.
- Nu cho t t dung dch axit H
+
vo dung dch HCO
3
-
, CO
3
2-
th th t phn ng xy ra l:
CO
3
2-
+ H
+
HCO
3
-
(1); Nu sau (1) H
+
d th xy ra (2)
HCO
3
-
+ H
+
CO
2
+ H
2
O (2).
- Nu cho t t CO
3
2-
vo axit th do t l H
+
ln hn CO
3
2-
nhiu nn ch c phn ng
2H
+
+ CO
3
2-
H
2
O + CO
2

* Tc dng vi OH
-
: HCO
3
-
+ OH
-
CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O.
V d 1.a. Cho rt t t dung dch cha 0,015 mol HCl vo dung dch cha 0,01 mol K
2
CO
3

thu c dung dch A. Tnh s mol cc cht c trong A.
b. Nu th nghim trn c tin hnh ngc li (cho t t K
2
CO
3
vo dung dch
HCl) th th tch (ktc) kh CO
2
thu c bng bao nhiu?
Li gii. a. V
2
3
CO
n <
+
H
n <2
2
3
CO
n nn xy ra 2 phn ng
H
+
+ CO
3
2-
HCO
3
-
(1) ; 2H
+
+ CO
3
2-
H
2
O + CO
2
(2)
x mol x mol x mol ; 2y mol ymol y mol y mol

Ta c h x + y = 0,01 x = 0,005 mol
x + 2y = 0,015 y = 0,005mol
Trong dung dch A c: s mol HCO
3
-
= 0,005 mol v n
H2O
= n
CO2
= 0,005 mol
b. Khi cho t t dung dch K
2
CO
3
vo dung dch HCl th ban u s mol H
+
ln hn s mol
CO
3
2-
nhiu ln, do xy ra phn ng
2H
+
+ CO
3
2-
H
2
O + CO
2
(2)
0,015mol 0,01 mol 0,0075mol 0,0075mol. V
CO2
= 0,168 lt.
V d 2. C mt hn hp gm 3 mui NH
4
HCO
3
, NaHCO
3
, Ca(HCO
3
)
2
. Khi nung 40,6 gam
hn hp n khi lng khng i, thu c 20,3 gam hn hp rn. Cho hn hp rn tc
dng vi dung dch HCl d, thu c 4,48 lt kh (ktc). Xc nh thnh phn % khi lng
cc cht trong hn hp u.
Li gii. NH
4
HCO
3

o
t
NH
3
+ H
2
O

+ CO
2
(1)

2NaHCO
3

o
t
Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
O + CO
2
(2)
Ca(HCO
3
)
2

o
t

CaCO
3
+ H
2
O + CO
2
(3)
Hn hp rn gm Na
2
CO
3
, CaCO
3
.
Na
2
CO
3
+ 2 HCl 2NaCl + H
2
O

+ CO
2
(4)
CaCO
3
+ 2HCl CaCl
2
+ H
2
O

+ CO
2
(5)
Gi s mol ca cc cht NH
4
HCO
3
, NaHCO
3
, Ca(HCO
3
)
2
ln lt l x, y, z mol.
Ta c h phng trnh:
y
2
y
2
79x + 84y + 162z = 40,6
x = 0,1 mol
106. + 100z = 20,3 y = 0,1 mol
z = 0,15 mol
+ z = 0,2


Vy % NH
4
HCO
3
=19,458% ; %NaHCO
3
= 20,69% ; % Ca(HCO
3
)
2
= 59,852%.
Dng 4: CO kh oxit kim loi
Phng php gii
+ CO ch kh c oxit ca kim loi ng sau Al trong dy hot ng ha hc: ZnO, CuO,
Ag
2
O,... Lu : Fe
2
O
3

CO
Fe
3
O
4

CO
FeO
CO
Fe.
+ Phn ng tng qut: yCO + M
x
O
y
yCO
2
+ xM
Theo nh lut bo ton khi lng


2
CO O CO
n n n = =
+ m
oxit
= m
kim loi
+ m
ngtu

oxi
V d 1. Cho lung kh CO i qua hn hp X gm cc oxit: Fe
3
O
4
, Al
2
O
3
, MgO, ZnO, CuO
nung nng, sau mt thi gian thu c hn hp kh Y v 23,6 gam cht rn Z. Cho Y li
chm qua bnh ng dung dch nc vi trong d, thy c 40 gam kt ta xut hin. Xc
nh khi lng ca X ?
Li gii.
Cch gii 1. CO
2
+ Ca(OH)
2


CaCO
3
+ H
2
O (1)
X + CO, t
0
: Al
2
O
3
, MgO khng b kh
CuO + CO
0
t
Cu + CO
2
(2) ; Fe
3
O
4
+ CO
0
t
FeO + CO
2
(3)
FeO + CO
0
t
Fe + CO
2
(4) ZnO + CO
0
t
Zn + CO
2
(5)
Phng php bo ton khi lng: (2)(3)(4)(5) n
CO
= n
CO
2
= 0,4 mol

Theo nh lut bo ton khi lng: m
X
+ m
CO
= m
Z
+ m
CO

m
X
= m
Z
+ m
CO
2
- m
CO
= 23,6 + 44.0,4 - 28.0,4 = 30 gam
Cch gii 2. Bi ton trn c th gii nhanh bng phng php tng gim khi lng nh
sau: C 1mol CO phn ng s to ra 1 mol CO
2
lm khi lng cht rn gim 16 gam. Vy
nu c 0,4 mol CO
2
to ra th khi lng cht rn gim 0,4.16 = 6,4 gam .
Khi lng cht rn ban u l 23,6 + 6,4 = 30 gam.
V d 2. Kh hon ton 4,06 gam mt oxit kim loi bng CO nhit cao thnh kim loi.
Dn ton b kh sinh ra vo bnh ng dung dch Ca(OH)
2
d, thy to thnh 7 gam kt ta.
Nu ly lng kim loi sinh ra ho tan ht vo dung dch HCl d th thu c 1,176 lt kh
H
2
(ktc). Xc nh cng thc oxit kim loi trn?
Li gii. Gi cng thc oxit l M
x
O
y
c s mol l a (mol) a(Mx + 16y) = 4,06.
M
x
O
y
+ yCO xM + yCO
2
; CO
2
+ Ca(OH)
2
CaCO
3
+ H
2

(mol): a ax ay ; ay ay
Ta c: ay =7/100= 0,07. Max = 2,94.
2M + 2nHCl 2MCl
n
+ nH
2

(mol): ax 0,5nax
Ta c: 0,5nax = 0,0525 hay nax = 0,105.
Lp t l: 28 = =
nax
Max
n
M
. Vy M = 28n.
Thay n = 1, 2, 3 ta thy n= 2 v M = 56 tho mn. Vy kim loi M l Fe.
2
Lp t l:
4
3
= =
ay
ax
y
x
. Vy cng thc oxit l Fe
3
O
4
.

Dng 5: Bi tp silic v hp cht ca silic
+ tm cng thc ha hc ca thy tinh xA.yB.zC.tD(x,y,z,t l cc s nguyn
dng; A,B,C,D l cc oxit).
x:y:z:t =
A
m
A
:
B
m
B
:
C
m
C
:
D
m
D
hoc x:y:z:t =
A
A %
:
B
B %
:
C
C %
:
D
D %

V d1. Mt loi thu tinh cha 13% Na
2
O ; 11,7% CaO v 75,3% SiO
2
v khi lng. Hy
biu din thnh phn ca loi thu tinh ny di dng hp cht ca cc oxit.
Li gii. Gi s cng thc ha hc ca thy tinh l xNa
2
O.yCaO.zSiO
2
.
Khi lng phn t ca thy tinh l M (vC), ta c:
62x
0,13
M
= ;
56y
0,117
M
= ;
60z
0, 753
M
=
62x: 56y : 60z = 0,13 : 0,117 : 0,753 x = 1 ; y = 1 ; z = 6.
Vy cng thc ha hc ca thy tinh l: Na
2
O. CaO.6SiO
2
.
V d 2. Mt loi silicat c dng xNa
2
O.yAl
2
O
3
.zSiO
2
, bit silicat c cha 32,06% Si,
48,85% O. Tm cng thc ca silicat.
Li gii: Ta c
28
0, 3206
z
M
= ;
16 48 16
0, 4885
x y z
M
+ +
= ;
46 54
0,1909
x y
M
+
= .
Suy ra
28 0, 3206
16 48 16 0, 4885
z
x y z
=
+ +
(1)

46 54 0,1909
16 48 16 0, 4885
x y
x y z
+
=
+ +
(2) ;
46 54 0,1909
28 0, 3206
x y
z
+
= (3)
Gii h (1); (2); (3) ta c: x = 1; y = 1; z = 6 .
Vy cng thc ca silicat l Na
2
O.Al
2
O
3
.6SiO
2




C. Bi tp n luyn
Bi 1. Hp th hon ton V lt CO
2
(ktc) vo dung dch nc vi trong c cha 0,050 mol
Ca(OH)
2
thu c 2,000g kt ta. Gi tr ca V (lt) l bao nhiu?
Bi 2. Cho m gam hn hp Ba - Na (c trn theo t l mol 1:1) vo nc thu c 3,36 lit
H
2
ktc v dung dch A. Cho CO
2
hp th t t vo dung dch A. V th biu din s
ph thuc ca s mol kt ta theo s mol CO
2
c hp th.
Bi 3. Sc kh CO
2
vo 100 ml dung dch X cha ng thi Ba(OH)
2
0,5M v NaOH 0,8M.
Xc nh th tch kh CO
2
(ktc) hp th vo dung dch X thu c kt ta cc i.
Bi 4. Ho tan a gam hn hp Na
2
CO
3
v KHCO
3
vo nc c 400ml dung dch A .Cho
t t 100ml dung dch HCl 1,5M vo 400 ml dung dch A, thu c dung dch B v 1,008 lt
kh (ktc). Cho B tc dng vi Ba(OH)
2
d thu c 23,64 gam kt ta. Xc nh gi tr ca
a (gam)?
Bi 5. Ho tan hon ton 4,68g hn hp mui cacbonat ca hai kim loi A v B k tip trong
nhm IIA vo dung dch HCl thu c 1,12 lit CO
2
ktc. Xc nh tn hai kim loi A v B.
Bi 6. Ho tan hon ton 10,0g hn hp 2 mui XCO
3
v Y
2
CO
3
bng dung dch HCl ta thu
c dung dch A; 0,672 lt kh bay ra (ktc). C cn dung dch A thu c m gam mui
khan. Hi m c gi tr bng bao nhiu gam?
Bi 7. C 1 lt dung dch hn hp Na
2
CO
3
0,1 M v (NH
4
)
2
CO
3
0,25 M. Cho 43 gam hn
hp BaCl
2
v CaCl
2
v dung dch . Sau khi phn ng kt thc ta thu c 39,7 g kt ta A
v dung dch B. Tnh % khi lng cc cht trong A?
Bi 8. t nng 4,16 gam hn hp A gm MgO, FeO, Fe ri cho mt lung kh CO d i
qua, sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c 3,84 gam hn hp cht rn B.
Mt khc, nu cho 4,16 gam hn hp A phn ng hon ton vi dung dch CuSO
4
th thu
c 4,32 gam hn hp cht rn D. Ho tan hon ton 4,16 gam hn hp A bng mt lng
va dung dch HCl 7,3% (d = 1,05 g/ml) th thu c dung dch E v kh H
2
. Tnh th
tch dung dch HCl 7,3% ?
Bi 9. Natri silicat (Na
2
SiO
3
) c th c iu ch bng cch nu nng chy NaOH rn vi
ct. Hy xc nh hm lng SiO
2
trong ct, bit rng t 25 kg ct kh sn xut c 48,8 kg
Na
2
SiO
3
.
Bi 10. Tnh hm lng % CaF
2
trong florit, bit rng khi cho 80g khong vt florit tc dng
vi H
2
SO
4
thu c 1 lng kh c th tc dng vi SiO
2
to thnh 5,6 lt (ktc) kh SiF
4
.

HNG DN GII
Bi 1. Cc phn ng:
Ba + 2H
2
O Ba
2+
+ 2OH
-
+ H
2
(1)
2Na + 2H
2
O 2Na
+
+ 2OH
-
+ H
2
(2)
CO
2
+2OH
-
CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O (3)
CO
3
2-
+ Ba
2+
BaCO
3
(4)
CO
3
2-
+ CO
2
+H
2
O 2HCO
3
-
(5)
BaCO
3
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O Ba
2+
+ 2HCO
3
-
(6)
- Theo (1), (2)
Na Ba H Na Ba
n n n n n = = = + .; 15 , 0
2
1
2
=> mol n n
Na Ba
1 , 0 = =

- Theo (1), (2) mol n n
H
OH
3 , 0 2
2
= =


- Theo (3), (4), (5), (6)
2
CO
n dung dch A hp th ti a bng s
OH
n

= 0,3 mol
- Theo (3), (4) khi 1 , 0
2
= <
Ba CO
n n th
2 3
CO BaCO
n n =
- Khi 2 , 0 1 , 0
2

CO
n th 1 , 0
3
=
BaCO
n
- Theo (5), (6) khi 1 , 0
2
=
Ba CO
n n th:

2 2 3
3 , 0 )
2
1
2
1
( 1 , 0
CO Na
OH
CO BaCO
n n n n n = =


Lp bng:
n
CO2
0 0,025 0,05 0,075 0,1 0,2 0,225 0,25 0,275 0,3
n
BaCO3
0 0,025 0,05 0,075 0,1 0,1 0,075 0,05 0,025 0
th






0 0,05 0,1
0,15 0,2 0,25 0,3
0,1
0,075
0,025
0,05
3
BaCO
n
2 CO
n
Bi 2
CO
2
+ Ca(OH)
2
CaCO
3
+ H
2
O (1)
0,02 0,02 0,02mol
2CO
2
+ Ca(OH)
2
Ca(HCO
3
)
2
+ H
2
O (2)
0,01 0,005mol
CaCO
3
n =
2, 000
100
= 0,02mol
Trng hp 1. ch xy ra phn ng (1)
CaCO CO
3 2
n n = = 0,02mol;

CO
2
V = 0,02x 22,4 = 0,448lt.
Trng hp 2. xy ra phn ng (1) v (2)
CO (1) CO (2)
2 2
n n 0,03mol + =

CO
2
V = 0,03x 22,4 = 0,672lt.
Bi 3.
NaOH Na
+
+ OH
-
(1)

;

Ba(OH)
2
Ba
2+
+ 2 OH
-
(2)
0,08 mol 0,08 mol ; 0,01 mol 0,01 mol 0,02 mol
Tng n
OH-
= 0,1 mol
Ba
2+
+ CO
3
2-
BaCO
3
(3)
V n
Ba2+
= 0,01 mol nn n
BaCO3
cc i l 0,01 mol.
Vy yu cu ca bi ton tr thnh tm th tch CO
2
hp th vo 0,1 mol OH
-
thu c
2
3
CO
n

0,01 mol. Ta xt khi
2
3
CO
n

= 0,01 mol.
* TH1: 2
2
CO
n n
OH-
, Ch xy ra phn ng sau
+) Khi OH
-
cha phn ng ht
CO
2
+ 2OH
-
CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O
0,01 mol 0,02 mol 0,01 mol
2
CO
n = 0,01 mol < n
OH-
ban u = 0,1 tha mn V = 0,224 lt.
+) Khi OH
-
phn ng ht
CO
2
+ 2OH
-
CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O
0,05 mol 0,1 mol
2
3
CO
n

=0,05 mol > 0,01 mol V = 1,12 lt
Vy
2
3
CO
n

0,01 mol th 0,224 lt
2
CO
V 1,12 lt.
* TH2: n
CO2
< n
OH-
<

2n
CO.
Phn ng theo th t
CO
2
+ 2OH
-
CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O (1)
CO
2
+ CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O 2HCO
3
-
(2)
Theo (1)
2
3
CO
n

= 0,05 mol
2
CO
V (1) = 1,12 lt
Khi tng dn kh CO
2
th xy ra phn ng (2) lm gim nng ion CO
3
2-
.
Khi
2
3
CO
n

d (sau p. 2) = 0,01 mol th
2
3
CO
n

p. (2) = 0,05 - 0,01 = 0,04 mol.
Vy tng s mol CO
2
p. (1) v (2) l: 0,05 + 0,04 = 0,09 mol
2
CO
V = 2,016 lt.
Nu th tch CO
2
2,016 lt th
2
3
CO
n

< 0,01 mol.
Vy
2
3
CO
n

0,01 mol th 1,12 lt
2
CO
V 2,016 lt.
Kt lun: khi lng t c l cc i th 0,224 lt
2
CO
V 2,016 lt.
Bi 4.
Gi s mol Na
2
CO
3
, KHCO
3
trong 400 ml dung dch A l x, y mol.
CO
3
2-
+ H
+
HCO
3
-
(1)
x mol x mol x mol
HCO
3
-
+ H
+
CO
2
+ H
2
O (2)
(x + y)mol 0,045 mol 0,045 mol
HCO
3
-
+ Ba
2+
+ OH
-

BaCO
3
+ H
2
O (3)
(x+y 0,045) 0,12 mol
Theo u bi ta c h
x + 0,045 = 0,15
(x+y - 0,045) = 0,12

x = 0,105 mol; y = 0,06 mol


Vy a= 0,105. 106 + 0,06.100 = 17,13 gam
Bi 5. t M l NTK trung bnh ca 2 kim loi A v B
M CO
3
+ 2HCl M Cl
2
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O
0,05 mol 05 , 0
4 , 22
12 , 1
=
MCO
3
= ; 6 , 93
05 , 0
68 , 4
= M = 93,6 60 = 33,6
Bin lun: A < 33,6 A l Mg = 24
B > 33,6 B l Ca = 40.
Bi 6. p dng phng php tng gim khi lng, ta c
1 mol
2-
3
CO 2mol Cl
-
+ 1mol CO
2
m
mui tng
= 71 - 60 = 11 g
x mol 0,03mol 11.0,03 =0,33g
Khi lng mui clorua = Khi lng mui ban u + Khi lng mui tng
10 0, 33 10, 33
muoi
m = + =

(gam)
Bi 7.
V c CaCl
2
v BaCl
2
u to kt ta c vi Na
2
CO
3
v (NH
4
)
2
CO
3
nn kt ta
sinh ra l gm CaCO
3
v BaCO
3
. Do , khng bit BaCl
2
v CaCl
2
phn ng ht hay
Na
2
CO
3
v (NH
4
)
2
CO
3
phn ng ht. Nu gii bin lun tng trng hp th rt mt thi
gian. C th gi quyt bi ton theo phng php tng gim khi lng nh sau:
Trong hn hp Na
2
CO
3
v (NH
4
)
2
CO
3
c cc ion: Na
+
, NH
4
+
, v CO
3
2-

Hn hp BaCl
2
v CaCl
2
c cc ion Ba
2+
, Ca
2+
, v Cl
-
. Cc phn ng:
Ba
2+
+ CO
3
2-
BaCO
3
(1); Ca
2+
+ CO
3
2-
CaCO
3
(2)
Theo (1) v (2) c 1 mol BaCl
2
hoc CaCl
2
bin thnh BaCO
3
hoc CaCO
3
th khi
lng gim 71 60 =11(g) (2Cl
-
chuyn thnh CO
3
2-
). Do tng s mol 2 mui BaCO
3
v
CaCO
3
bng
11
7 , 39 43
= 0,3 (mol) m tng s mol ion CO
3
2-
= 0,1 + 0,25 = 0,35. iu
chng t d CO
3
2-
. Gi x, y l s mol BaCO
3
v CaCO
3
trong A
Ta c:

=
=

= +
= +
2 , 0
1 , 0
7 , 39 100 197
3 , 0
y
x
y x
y x
mol
% BaCO
3
=
7 , 39
197 . 1 , 0
.100 = 49,62 %, % CaCO
3
= 100 49,62 = 50,38 %
Bi 8. Gi s mol trong 4,16 gam hn hp: MgO = x; FeO = y v Fe = z.
Ta c: 40x + 72y + 56z = 4,16 (1)
Khi cho CO d i qua A un nng, CO kh c FeO thnh Fe theo phng trnh:
CO + FeO
0
t
Fe + CO
2

Cht rn B gm: MgO = x(mol).; Fe = y + z (mol).
nn ta c phng trnh: 40x + 56(y + z) = 3,84 (2)
Khi cho A tc dng vi dung dch CuSO
4
d, Fe tan ht theo pt:
Fe + CuSO
4

FeSO
4
+ Cu
Cht rn D gm: MgO = x(mol), FeO = y (mol)v Cu = z(mol).
Ta c: 40x + 72y + 64z = 4,32 (3)
Gii h 3 phng trnh 3 n ta tm c: x= 0,04 ; y = 0,02; z = 0,02.(mol)
Ha tan A trong HCl: MgO + 2HCl MgCl
2
+ H
2
O
FeO + 2HCl FeCl
2
+ H
2
O; Fe + 2HCl FeCl
2
+H
2

S mol HCl dng = 2(x + y + z) = 0,16 mol.
Khi lng dung dch HCl dng =
0,16.36, 5.100
7, 3
= 80 (gam)
Th tch dung dch HCl dng =
80
1, 05
= 76,1( ml)
Bi 9. SiO
2
+ 2 NaOH Na
2
SiO
3
+ H
2
O
1mol 1mol
0,4.10
3
mol 0,4.10
3
mol
SiO
2
chim
3
3
0, 4.10 .60
.100% 96%
25.10
=
Bi 10. CaF
2
+ H
2
SO
4
CaSO
4
+ 2HF (1)
4HF + SiO
2
SiF
4
+ 2H
2
O (2)
n
SiF4
= 0,25 mol n
HF
= 1 mol n
CaF2
= 0,5 mol m
CaF2
= 39 gam
Vy % CaF
2
= 39/80 .100 = 48,75%.
D. Bi tp trc nghim
Cu 1. Cho 115g hn hp ACO
3
, B
2
CO
3
, R
2
CO
3
tc dng vi dung dch HCl d thu c
0,896 lt CO
2
(kc).C cn dung dch sau phn ng thu c cht rn c khi lng
A.120g B. 115,44g C. 110g D.116,22g
Cu 2. Hn hp X gm st v oxit st c khi lng 5,92gam. Cho kh CO d i qua hn
hp X un nng thu c m gam st v kh Y. Kh Y tc dng vi Ca(OH)
2
d c 9gam
kt ta. Khi lng st thu c l
A. 4,48g B. 3,48g C. 4,84g D.5,48g
Cu 3. kh hon ton hn hp FeO, CuO cn 4,48 lt H
2
(kc). Nu cng kh hon ton
hn hp bng CO th lng CO
2
thu c khi cho qua dung dch nc vi trong d to ra
m gam kt ta. m c gi tr l
A. 1,0g B.2,0g C. 20g D.10g
Cu 4 (H 2008-A): Cho V lt kh CO ( ktc) phn ng vi mt lng d hn hp rn gm
CuO v Fe3O4 nung nng. Sau khi cc phn ng xy ra hon ton, khi lng hn hp rn
gim 0,32 gam. Gi tr ca V l
A. 0,448. B. 0,112. C. 0,224. D. 0,560.
Cu 5. ho tan ct, c th dng dung dch
A.HBr B. NaOH c nng C. HCl c nng D. H
2
SO
4
long
Cu 6. Cho V lt CO
2
(ktc) hp th ht vo 20 lt dung dch Ca(OH)
2
0,01M thu c 10
gam kt ta .V c gi tr l
A. 2,24 lt hoc 4,48 lt B. 4,48 lt
C. 6,72 lt D. 2,24 lt hoc 6,72 lt.
Cu 7. Kh CO c th kh nhiu oxit kim loi thnh kim loi nhit cao. Phng trnh
ng l
A. CO + Na
2
O 2Na + CO
2
B. CO + MgO Mg + CO
2

C. 3CO + Fe
2
O
3
2Fe + 3CO
2
D
.
3CO + Al
2
O
3
2Al +3CO
2

Cu 8. C cc cht rn mu trng, ng trong cc l ring bit mt nhn CaCO
3
, Na
2
CO
3
,
NaNO
3
. Nu ch dng qu tm v nc th c th nhn bit
A. 1 cht B. 2 cht C. 3 cht D. 0 cht
Cu 9. Khi cho Na vo dung dch Ba(HCO
3
)
2
. Hin tng xy ra l
A. c kt ta v kh CO
2
bay ln B. c kt ta v kh H
2
bay ln.
C. ch c kt ta. D. ch c kh H
2
bay ln.


Cu 10. tch CO
2
ra khi hn hp vi HCl v hi nc, c th cho hn hp ln lt qua
cc bnh ng
A. NaOH v H
2
SO
4
c B. Na
2
CO
3
v P
2
O
5

C. H
2
SO
4
c v KOH D. NaHCO
3
v P
2
O
5

Cu 11. Dn lung kh CO qua hn hp Al
2
O
3
, CuO, MgO, Fe
2
O
3
, un nng, sau khi phn
ng xy ra hon ton thu c cht rn l
A. Al
2
O
3
, Fe, Cu, MgO B. Al, Fe, Cu, Mg
C. Al
2
O
3
, Fe, Cu, Mg D. Al
2
O
3
, Fe
2
O
3
, Cu, MgO

Cu 12. Thuc mui nabica cha bnh au d dy c cha mui
A. Na
2
CO
3
. B. (NH
4
)
2
CO
3
. C. NaHCO
3
. D. NH
4
HCO
3
.
Cu 13. Th tch ti thiu dung dch NaOH 8% (D = 1,2 g/ml) cn hp th hon ton 33,6
lt CO
2
(ktc)l :
A. 0,375 lt B. 0,625 lt C. 1,25 lt D. 2,5 lt
Cu 14: Ngi ta thng dng ct (SiO
2
) lm khun c kim loi. lm sch hon ton
nhng ht ct bm trn b mt vt dng lm bng kim loi c th dng dung dch:
A. Dung dch H
2
SO
4
B. Dung dch HCl
C. Dung dch HF D. Dung dch NaOH long
Cu 15. Thu tinh l cht rn c cu trc v nh hnh. Thu tinh khng c tnh cht:
A. rn, do
B. trong sut
C. khng c im nng chy c nh
D. cho nh sng mt tri i qua, nhng gi li bc x hng ngoi.
Cu 16. Nhit phn hon ton hn hp MgCO
3
, CaCO
3
ri cho ton b kh thot ra (kh A)
hp th ht bng dung dch nc vi trong thu c kt ta B v dung dch X. un nng
dung dch X li thu c kt ta B. A, B, X l
A. CO, CaCO
3
, Ca(HCO
3
)
2
B. CO
2
, BaCO
3
, Ba(HCO
3
)
2

C. CO
2
, Ca(HCO
3
)
2
, CaCO
3
D. CO
2
, CaCO
3
, Ca(HCO
3
)
2

Cu 17(H 2006-A): Cho 2,688 lt CO
2
(ktc) hp th hon ton bi 200ml dung dch
NaOH 0,1M v Ca(OH)
2
0,01M. Tng khi lng mui thu c l
A. 1,06 gam B. 2,004 gam C.0,2 gam D. 1,26 gam
Cu 18. Cho 0,15mol hn hp NaHCO
3
v MgCO
3
tc dng ht vi dung dch HCl. Kh
thot ra c dn vo dung dch Ca(OH)
2
d thu c a gam kt ta. Gi tr ca a l
A. 5g B. 25g C.15g D. 35g
Cu 19. Khi nung hn hp CaCO
3
v MgCO
3
th khi lng cht rn thu c sau phn ng
ch bng mt na khi lng ban u.Thnh phn % khi lng cc cht trong hn hp u
l
A. 27,41% v 72,59% B. 28,41% v 71,59%
C. 28% v 72% D. 40% v 60%
Cu 20. Silic ioxit khng tan c trong dung dch
A. Dung dch NaOH c, nng B. Dung dch HF
C. Dung dch HCl D. Na
2
CO
3
nng chy

P N V HNG DN GII
1.B 2.A 3.C 4.A 5.B 6.D 7.C 8.C 9.B 10.D
11.A 12.C 13. B 14.C 15.A 16.D 17. B 18.C 19.B 20.C
Hng dn gii
Cu 1. 1 mol CO
3
2-

HCl
2 mol Cl
-
nn khi lng mui tng ln 71-60 =11 gam
x mol CO
3
2-

HCl
2x mol Cl
-
nn khi lng mui tng ln 11.x (gam)
Theo u bi: n
CO2
= 0,04 mol x = 0,04 mol
Vy khi lng mui l 115 + 0,04.11 = 115,44 B
Cu 2. n
O
= n
CO2
= n
CaCO3
= 0,09 mol . Khi lng hn hp m
hh
= m
Fe
+m
O
Khi lng st thu c l 5,92- 0,09.16= 4,48 gam A.
Cu 3.
Vai tr ca H
2
v CO l nh nhau (l cht kh).
n
H2
= n
O
= n
CO2
= n
CaCO3
= 0,2mol.
Vy khi lng kt ta l 0,2.100 = 20 gam C
Cu 4. Khi lng hn hp rn gim chnh l khi lng oxi trong oxit b kh
m
O
= 0,32 gam n
O
= 0,02mol.
V n
O
= n
CO2
= n
CO
= 0,02 mol nn V
CO
= 0,448 lt A
Cu 13. S mol n
CO2
= 1,5 mol; NaOH + CO
2
NaHCO
3
;
n
NaOH
= 1,5mol; V
NaOH
= 0,625lit B
Cu 17. n
CO2
= 0,12 mol; tng s mol OH
-
l 0,024 mol
xt t l: n
OH-
/n
CO2
= 0,024/0,12 <1 Ch to mui axit HCO
3
-

CO
2
+ OH
-
HCO
3
-
. s mol HCO
3
-
= n
OH
-
= 0,024 mol.
n
Na+
= 0,02 mol; n
Ca2+
=0,002 mol Mui thu c l NaHCO
3
, Ca(HCO
3
)
2

Tng khi lng mui thu c l: 23.0,02 + 40.0,002 +0,024.61 = 2,004 gam
Cu 18. Theo bo ton nguyn t Cacbon ta c: n
CO2
= n
HCO3-
=
2
3
CO
n =0,15 mol.
n
CO2
= n
CaCO3
= 0,15 mol m
CaCO3
= 15 gam C

E. Mt s bi t kim tra, nh gi

BI KIM TRA S 1
Thi gian 45 pht
Cu 1(C, 2007-A). Cho s phn ng: NaCl (X) NaHCO
3
(Y) NaNO
3
. X v
Y c th l
A. NaClO
3
v Na
2
CO
3
. B. NaOH v Na
2
CO
3
.
C. NaOH v NaClO. D. Na
2
CO
3
v NaClO.
Cu 2. Khi cho NaOH vo cc ng dung dch Ca(HCO
3
)
2
trong sut, hin tng quan st
c l
A. c kt ta trng B. c kt ta trng, c si bt
C. c kt ta mu xanh, si bt kh D. c si bt kh
Cu 3. Cho ton b 0,448 lt kh CO
2
(ktc) hp th hon ton bi 200 ml dung dch
Ba(OH)
2
thu c 1,97 gam kt ta. Nng mol/l ca dung dch Ba(OH)
2
l
A. 0,05M B. 0,1M C. 0,075M D. 0,15M
Cu 4 (H 2009-A): Cho lung kh CO (d) i qua 9,1 gam hn hp gm CuO v Al2O3
nung nng n khi phn ng hon ton, thu c 8,3 gam cht rn. Khi lng CuO c trong
hn hp ban u l
A. 0,8 gam. B. 8,3 gam. C. 2,0 gam. D. 4,0 gam.
Cu 5. Hn hp Si v Al c th phn ng c vi dy gm cc dung dch
A. HCl v HF B. NaOH v KOH
C. Na
2
CO
3
v KHCO
3
D. BaCl
2
v AgNO
3

Cu 6. Cho rt t t tng git 100 ml dung dch HCl 2M vo dung dch cha Na
2
CO
3
0,1
mol v NaHCO
3
0,15mol. Th tch kh CO
2
thot ra (ktc) l
A. 2,24 lt B. 2,8 lt C. 3,92 lt D. 2,688 lt
Cu 7 (H 2008-A). Hp th hon ton 4,48 lt kh CO
2
( ktc) vo 500 ml dung dch hn
hp gm NaOH 0,1M v Ba(OH)
2
0,2M, sinh ra m gam kt ta. Gi tr ca m l
A. 19,70. B. 17,73. C. 9,85. D. 11,82.
Cu 8. Cho V lt kh CO
2
( 54,6
o
C, 2,4atm) hp th hon ton vo 200ml dung dch hn hp
KOH 1M v Ba(OH)
2
0,75M thu c 23,64 g kt ta. Gi tr ca V l:
A. 2,688 lt v 1,343 lt B. 2,688 lt v 4,253 lt
C. 1,343 lt v 4,253 lt D. 1.008 lt v 6,72 lt
Cu 9. Nung hn hp X gm FeCO
3
v Fe(NO
3
)
2
trong bnh kn khng cha khng kh. Sau
khi phn ng xong thu c mt cht rn duy nht v hn hp A cha 2 cht kh. % khi
lng ca FeCO
3
trong hn hp trc khi nung v t khi ca A (so vi khng kh) l:
A. 39,19% v 1,563. B. 60,81% v 1,551.
C. 50% v 1,402. D. Thiu d kin xc nh.
Cu 10. Trn dung dch cha Ba
2+
; OH
-
0,06 mol v Na
+
0,02 mol vi dung dch cha HCO
-
3

0,04mol ; CO
2-
3
0,03 mol v Na
+
. Khi lng kt ta thu c l
A. 9,85gam B. 5,91 gam C. 7,88 gam D. 3,94 gam.
Cu 11. Sc 4,48 lt CO
2
(ktc) vo 100 ml dung dch cha ng thi BaCl
2
0,5M v NaOH
xM. Xc nh x kt ta thu c c khi lng cc i.
A. x = 0,5M B. x = 1M C. x = 2,5M D. x 2,5M.
Cu 12. Phn ng khng xy ra nhit thng l
A. CaCl
2
+ NaHCO
3
CaCO
3
+ NaCl + HCl
B. Mg(HCO
3
)
2
+ 2Ca(OH)
2
2CaCO
3
+ 2H
2
O + Mg(OH)
2

C. Ca(OH)
2
+ NaHCO
3
CaCO
3
+ NaOH + H
2
O
D. Ca(OH)
2
+ 2NH
4
Cl CaCl
2
+ 2H
2
O + 2NH
3


Cu 13. nhit cao, CO kh c bao nhiu oxit trong s cc oxit sau: Na
2
O, CuO,
Al
2
O
3
, Fe
2
O
3
, MgO. Fe
3
O
4
, FeO.
A. 3 B. 4 C. 5 D.6
Cu 14. Cho mt lung kh CO i qua ng s ng m(g) Fe
2
O
3
nung nng, mt thi gian thu
c 13,92g cht rn X gm Fe, Fe
3
O
4
, FeO v Fe
2
O
3
. Cho X tc dng vi dung dch HNO
3

c nng thu c 5,824 lt NO
2
(kc).
a) Th tch kh CO dng (ktc) v m c gi tr l
A. 3.2 lt v 16 gam B. 3,2 lt v 15 gam
C. 2,912 lt v 16 gam D.2,912 lt v 15 gam
Cu 15. Thi 1 lung kh CO d i qua ng ng hn hp 2 oxit Fe
3
O
4
v CuO nung nng
n khi phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c 2,32 gam hn hp kim loi. Kh thot ra c
a vo bnh ng dung dch Ca(OH)
2
d thy c 5 gam kt ta trng. Khi lng hn hp 2
oxit kim loi ban u l:
A. 3,12gam B. 3,21gam C. 4gam D. 4,2 gam
Cu 16. iu khng nh no sau y ng khi ni v axit silixic?
A. Axit silixic c tnh axit yu hn axit cacbonic
B. Mui ca axit silixic l silicat. a s mui silicat tan trong nc
C. Khi sy kh, axit silixic b mt nc hon ton to silicagen
D. Dung dch axit silixic lm qu tm chuyn .
Cu 17. Nung 100 gam hn hp gm Na
2
CO
3
v NaHCO
3
cho n khi khi lng hn hp
khng i thu c 69 gam cht rn. % khi lng Na
2
CO
3
v NaHCO
3
trong hn hp tng
ng l
A. 84% v 16%. B.16% v 84%.
C. 26% v 74%. D. 74% v 26%.
Cu 18. Si phn ng c vi tt c cc cht trong dy no sau y?
A. C, F
2
, Mg, HCl, NaOH C. N
2
, C, Fe, CuSO
4

B. O
2
, F
2
, Mg, NaOH D. O
2
, Ca, Cl
2
, NaCl
Cu 19. iu ch kim cng nhn to, ngi ta thc hin phng php:
A. Nung than ch 2000
o
C, p sut 50-100 nghn atm, xc tc Fe, Cr, Ni
B. Nung than cc 2500-3000
o
C trong l in, khng c khng kh
C. Nung than m 1000
o
C, trong l cc, khng c khng kh
D. Nhit phn metan c xc tc Fe
Cu 20. Cho cc cht (1) Mg, (2) C, (3) KOH
,n
, (4)axit HF, (5)axit HCl. Silic ioxit phn
ng vi cc cht l
A. 1,2,3,4,5 B. 1,2,3,5 C. 1,3,4,5 D. 1,2,3,4
Cu 21. khc ch v hnh trn thu tinh ngi ta dng dung dch
A. Dung dch HCl. B. Dung dch HBr.
C. Dung dch HI. D. Dung dch HF.
Cu 22. CO
2
khng chy v khng duy tr s chy ca nhiu cht nn c dng dp tt
cc m chy. Tuy nhin CO
2
khng dng dp tt
A. m chy xng du. B. m chy nh ca, qun o.
C. m chy magie hoc nhm. D. m chy kh ga
Cu 23. Nhit phn hon ton hn hp MgCO
3
, CaCO
3
thy thot ra kh A, hp th ht kh A
bng dung dch Ca(OH)
2
thu c kt ta B v dung dch C. un nng dung dch C thu c kt
ta B. Cc cht A, B, C ln lt l
A. CO, CaCO
3
, Ca(HCO
3
)
2
. B. CO
2
, Ca(HCO
3
)
2
CaCO
3
.
C. CO , Ca(HCO
3
)
2
CaCO
3
. D. CO
2
, CaCO
3
, Ca(HCO
3
)
2
.
Cu 24. Trong mt bnh kn dung tch 15 lt, cha y dung dch Ca(OH)
2
0,01M. Sc vo
bnh mt s mol CO
2
c gi tr bin thin 0,12mol n
CO2
0,26mol th khi lng m gam
cht rn thu c s c gi tr trong khong l:
A. 12g m
KL
15g B. 4g m
KL
12g
C. 0,12g m
KL
0,24g D. 4g m
KL
15g
Cu 25. Khi cho CaCO
3
vo dung dch HNO
3
long nng d, hy cho bit c nhng kh no
thot ra ?
A. CO
2
B. CO
2
v NO
C. CO
2
, NO
2
D. CO
2
, NO
2
, NO, N
2
O v N
2

Cu 26 (H 2007-A). Cho t t dung dch cha a mol HCl vo dung dch cha b mol
Na
2
CO
3
khuy u, thu c V lt kh (ktc) v dung dch X. Khi cho d nc vi trong vo
dung dch X thy c kt ta. Biu thc lin h gia V, a, b, l
A. V = 22,4(a+b). B. V = 22,4(a-b).
C. V = 11,2(a+b). D. V = 11,2(a-b).
Cu 27. Cho cc oxit: SiO
2
, CaO, Fe
2
O
3
, CuO, Al
2
O
3
. phn bit tng oxit trn, ch c
dng mt thuc th trong s cc cht sau:
A. Dung dch NaOH. B. H
2
O.
C. Dung dch HCl. D. Dung dch Ba(OH)
2
.
Cu 28. A, B, D ln lt l cht no trong s sau?
Si
+ A
Na
2
SiO
3

+B
H
2
SiO
3

o
t
SiO
2

+D
SiF
4
A. Na, HCl, F
2
B. NaOH, (CO
2
+H
2
O), CaF
2

C. NaCl, HCl , HF D. NaOH, (CO
2
+H
2
O), HF


Cu 29. Nung 13,4g hn hp hai mui cacbonat ca hai kim loi ha tr II, thu c 6,8g
cht rn v kh X. Lng kh X c hp th hon ton vo 75ml dung dch NaOH 1M, khi
lng mui khan thu c sau phn ng l bao nhiu gam?
A. 3,1gam B. 12,6 gam. C. 6,3 gam. D. 15,7 gam.
Cu 30. Mt loi thu tinh kh nng chy cha 18,43% K
2
O, 10,98% CaO , 70,59% SiO
2
v
khi lng. Thnh phn ca thu tinh ny biu din di dng cc oxit l:
A.K
2
O.CaO.4SiO
2
C. K
2
O.2CaO.6SiO
2
B.K
2
O.CaO.6SiO
2
D. K
2
O.3CaO.8SiO
2

P N BI KIM TRA S 1
1.B 2.A 3.C 4.D 5.B 6.A 7.A 8.C 9.A 10.D
11.D 12.A 13. B 14.C 15.A 16.A 17. B 18.B 19.A 20.D
21.D 22.C 23.D 24.B 25.A 26.B 27.A 28.D 29.C 30.B
Hng dn gii
Cu 1. 2NaCl + 2H
2
O
mangngan pdd ,
2NaOH + H
2
+ Cl
2


X l NaOH
NaOH + CO
2
NaHCO
3

2NaHCO
3
Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
O + CO
2
Y l Na
2
CO
3

Na
2
CO
3
+ Ca(NO
3
)
2
CaCO
3
+ 2NaNO
3

Chn p n B
Cu 4. m
Al2O3
+ m
CuO
= m
Al2O3
+ m
Cu
+m
O
= 9,1 (1)
Al
2
O
3
khng b kh nn m
Al2O3
+ m
Cu
= 8,3 (2)
T (1) v (2) ta c m
O
= 0,8 gam n
O
= 0,05 mol m
CuO
= 0,05.80 = 4 gam
Cu 7.Tng s mol n
OH-
= 0,25 mol; n
CO2
= 0,2 mol to 2 mui
CO
2
+ OH
-
HCO
3
-
(1) ; HCO
3
-
+ OH
-
CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O.(2)
0,2 0,2 0,2 ; 0,15 0,05 0,05
Ba
2+
+ CO
3
2-
BaCO
3
(3) Vy m
BaCO3
= 297.0,05 = 9,85 gam C
Cu 9. FeCO
3

0
t
FeO + CO
2
(1)

; 2Fe(NO
3
)
2

0
t
2FeO + 4NO
2
+ O
2
(2)
x x x ; y y 2y y/2
4FeO + O
2

0
t
2Fe
2
O
3
(3)
(x+y) y/2
V hn hp A ch cha 2 cht kh, sn phm l 1 cht rn duy nht nn phn ng (3) xy
ra va . 4(y/2) = x+ y y = x.
%m(FeCO
3
) = % 19 , 39 100 .
. 180 . 116
. 116
100 .
180 116
116
=
+
=
+ x x
x
y x
x

A
M = 33 , 45
2
2 . 46 . 44
2
2 . 46 44
=
+
+
=
+
+
x x
x x
y x
y x
; T khi l
29
33 , 45
=1,5632. A
Cu 11. Phn ng to kt ta: Ba
2+
+ CO
3
2-
BaCO
3
(1)
V n
Ba2+
= 0,05 mol c nh nn n
BaCO3
(max) = n
Ba2+
= 0,05 mol
2
3
CO
n 0,05 mol.
Bi ton tr thnh xc nh nng mol NaOH
2
3
CO
n 0,05 mol.
+ TH1: Nu n
OH-
2n
CO2
: CO
2
+ 2OH
-
CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O(*)

2
3
CO
n =0,05 mol n
OH-
= 0,1; n
CO2 (*)
= 0,05 mol # 0,2 mol loi
+ Nu n
CO2
< n
OH-
<2n
CO2

CO
2
+ OH
-
HCO
3
-
(1); HCO
3
-
+ OH
-
CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O.(2)
0,2 0,2 0,2 ; 0,15 0,05 0,05
n
OH-
= 0,25mol Tha mn k.
(2) n
OH-
cng ln th
2
3
CO
n cng ln. Vy
2
3
CO
n 0,05 mol th x 2,5M.


Cu 23. Chn p n D
MgCO
3
, CaCO
3

0
t
CO
2

2
) (OH Ca
CaCO
3
+ Ca(HCO
3
)
2

0
t
CaCO
3

(kh A) (B) (C) (B)
Cu 24. S mol Ca(OH)
2
l 0,15 mol; n
OH-
= 0,3 mol.
+ n
CO2
= 0,12 mol th ch to CO
3
2-
v
2
3
CO
n = n
CO2
= 0,12 mol
Khi lng cht rn l 40.0,12+60.0,12 = 12 gam.
+ n
CO2
= 0,26 mol, 1< n
OH-/
n
CO2
<2 nn to 2 mui HCO
3
-

v CO
3
2-
.
OH
-
+ CO
2
HCO
3
-
; OH
-
+ HCO
3
-
CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O
0,26 0,26 ; 0,04 0,04
Khi lng cht rn l 40.0,04+60.0,04 = 4 gam.
Chn p n B
Cu 26.Cho t t axit vo dung dch Na
2
CO
3
c th xy ra cc phn ng theo th t sau:
CO
3
2-
+ H
+
HCO
3
-
(1); HCO
3
-
+ H
+
H
2
O + CO
2
(2)
V sn phm c V lt kh nn phn ng (2) xy ra,hay p. (1) th H
+
cn d
Suy ra a>b v s mol HCO
3
-
= b mol, s mol H
+
d (1) = (a-b) mol
Cho Ca(OH)
2
vo dung dch X thy c kt ta, nn dung dch X cha HCO
3
-
,c ngha p.
(2) H
+
ht. Suy ra n
CO2
= n
H+
= (a-b) mol
Vy V = 22,4.(a-b) lt B
KIM TRA S 2
Thi gian 45 pht
Cu 1. Cho cc phn ng:
a/ NaHCO
3
+ KOH b/ KHCO
3
+ NaOH c/ NH
4
HCO
3
+ KOH
d/ KHCO
3
+ Ba(OH)
2
e/ Ca(HCO
3
)
2
+ KOH f/ Ba(HCO
3
)
2
+ NaOH
S phn ng cho phng trnh ion thu gn HCO
3
-
+ OH
-
= CO
2-
3
+ H
2
O l
A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. 5
Cu 2. phng nhim c CO, ngi ta s dng mt n phng c c cha cc hot
cht
A. CuO v MnO
2
C. CuO v than hot tnh
B. CuO v MgO D. Than hot tnh
Cu 3. (H 2009-A). Cho 0,448 lt kh CO
2
( ktc) hp th ht vo 100 ml dung dch cha
hn hp NaOH 0,06M v Ba(OH)2 0,12M, thu c m gam kt ta. Gi tr ca m l
A.1,182. B. 3,940. C. 1,970. D. 2,364.
Cu 4. Phng trnh ion thu gn: Ba
2+
+ OH
-
+ HCO
-
3
= BaCO
3
+ H
2
O ng vi
phng trnh phn ng dng phn t no sau y ?
A. Ba(OH)
2
+ Ba(HCO
3
)
2
= 2BaCO
3
+ 2H
2
O
B. Ba(HCO
3
)
2
+ 2NaOHd =BaCO
3
+ Na
2
CO
3
+ 2H
2
O
C. Ba(OH)
2
+2NaHCO
3
=BaCO
3
+Na
2
CO
3
+ 2H
2
O
D. Ba(OH)
2
+2KHCO
3
=BaCO
3
+K
2
CO
3
+ 2H
2
O
Cu 5. Cho rt t t tng git 100 ml dung dch HCl 2M vo dung dch cha Na
2
CO
3
0,1
mol v NaHCO
3
0,15M. Hy cho bit th tch kh CO
2
thot ra iu kin tiu chun.
A. 2,24 lt B. 2,8 lt C. 3,92 lt D. 2,688 lt
Cu 6. Khi cho CaCO
3
vo dung dch HNO
3
long nng d, kh no thot ra ?
A. CO
2
B. CO
2
, NO C. CO
2
, NO,N
2
O, N
2
D. CO
2
, N
2
O, N
2
Cu 7. Cho t t tng git dung dch cha 0,1 mol HCl vo dung dch cha 0,06 mol
Na
2
CO
3
. Kh CO
2
thot ra c hp th ht vo dung dch Ca(OH)
2
long d thy xut hin
a gam kt ta. Gi tr ca a l
A. 4,00. B. 7,88. C. 6,00. D. 5,00.
Cu 8. Ho tan hon ton 4 gam hn hp ACO
3
v BCO
3
vo dung dch HCl thy thot ra V
lt kh (ktc). Dung dch thu c em c cn thu c 5,1 gam mui khan. Gi tr ca V l
A. 1,12 lt B. 1,68 lt C. 2,24 lt D. 3,36 lt
Cu 9. C phn ng vi tt c cc cht trong dy no sau y:
A. Na
2
O, NaOH, HCl C. Ba(OH)
2
, Na
2
CO
3
, CaCO
3

B. Al, HNO
3
c, KClO
3
D. NH
4
Cl, KOH, AgNO
3
Cu 10. Trong mt bnh kn dung tch 16 lit cha hn hp CO, CO
2
v O
2
d. Th tch O
2

nhiu gp i th tch CO. Bt tia la in t chy hon ton hn hp, th tch kh trong
bnh gim 2 lt (cc th tch kh trong bnh c o cng iu kin nhit v p sut).
Thnh phn % theo th tch ca O
2 ,
CO, CO
2
trong hn hp ban u l
A. 40%; 30%; 30% B. 30%; 40%; 30%
C. 50%; 25%; 25% D. 25%; 25%; 50%
Cu 11. Ho tan a gam hn hp K
2
CO
3
v NaHCO
3
vo nc c 400 ml dung dch X. Cho
t t 100 ml dung dch HCl 1,5M vo 200ml dung dch A thu c dung dch Y v 1,008 lt
kh(ktc). Cho Y tc dng vi Ba(OH)
2
thu c 23,64 gam kt ta. Gi tr ca a gam l
A. 19,53 gam. B.39,06 gam. C. 36,09 gam. D. 15,39 gam.
Cu 12. Cho kh CO d i qua ng s cha 5,64gam hn hp: Fe , FeO , Fe
2
O
3
, Fe
3
O
4
(un
nng) kh thot ra sau phn ng c dn vo dung dch Ca(OH)
2
d thy to thnh 6,25
gam kt ta. Khi lng ca Fe thu c l
A. 4,63gam B. 4,36gam C. 4,46gam D. 4,64gam
Cu 13. C cc mui sau: CaCO
3
; MgCO
3
; Na
2
CO
3
; Ca(HCO
3
)
2
; K
2
CO
3
; KHCO
3
; Li
2
CO
3
;
Mg(HCO
3
)
2
; NaHCO
3
. Nhng mui khng b nhit phn tch nhit < 1000
0
C l:
A.CaCO
3
; MgCO
3
; Na
2
CO
3
; KHCO
3
B. Na
2
CO
3
; K
2
CO
3
; Li
2
CO
3

C. K
2
CO
3
; KHCO
3
; Li
2
CO
3
; NaHCO
3
D. Ca(HCO
3
)
2
; Mg(HCO
3
)
2
; KHCO
3

Cu 14. Cho cc phng trnh ho hc sau
NaOH + NaHCO
3
Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
O (1)
NaCl + H
2
O HCl + NaOH (2)
NaHCO
3
+ CaCl
2
CaCO
3
+ NaCl + HCl (3)
Na
2
CO
3
+ Ca(OH)
2
CaCO
3
+ 2NaOH (4)
Cc pthh sai l:
A. 1, 2, 3 B. 2, 3, 4 C. 2,3 D. 1, 3
Cu 15. Dung dch A c cha 5 ion : Mg
2+
, Ba
2+
, Ca
2+
, 0,1 mol Cl
-
v 0,2mol NO
3
-
. Thm
dn V lt dung dch K
2
CO
3
1M vo A n khi c lng kt ta ln nht. V c gi tr l
A. 150 ml B. 300 ml C. 200 ml D. 250 ml
Cu 16. C 5 l mt nhn ng 5 cht bt mu trng: NaCl, Na
2
CO
3
, Na
2
SO
4
, BaCO
3
,
BaSO
4
. Ch dng nc v kh CO
2
th c th nhn bit c
A. 2 cht B. 3 cht C.4 cht D.5 cht
Cu 17. Cho hn hp gm 0,1mol BaO; 0,1mol NaHCO
3
; 0,1mol NH
4
Cl vo nc. khi
lng kt ta thu c l
A. 9,85 gam B. 14,775 gam C. 19,7 gam D. 24,625 gam.
Cu 18. Mt loi thu tinh pha l c thnh phn: 7,123% Na; 32,093% Pb; cn li l silic v
oxi. Cng thc ha hc ca loi thu tinh ny di dng cc oxit l:
A. Na
2
O.2PbO.6SiO
2
B. Na
2
O.PbO.6SiO
2

C. Na
2
O.PbO.5SiO
2
D. 2Na
2
O.PbO.6SiO
2

Cu 19. Trong cc phn ng ho hc sau y, phn ng no sai
A.
2 4 2
SiO 4HF SiF 2H O + + B.
2 4 2
SiO 4HCl SiCl 2H O + +
C.
0
t
2
SiO 2C Si 2CO + + D.
0
t
2
SiO 2Mg Si 2MgO + +
Cu 20. Kh ht 3 gam mt oxi kim loi X bng CO d th c 2,4 gam kim loi to thnh.
Cng thc ca X l
A. ZnO. B. AgO. C. Fe
3
O
4
D. CuO.
Cu 21. Sc CO
2
d vo dung dch X thu c dung dch Y, un nng dung dch Y n
phn ng hon ton thu c dung dch Z. Cho dung dch X phn ng va vi dung dch
Y thu c dung dch Z. Sc CO
2
d vo Z thu c dung dch Y. C cn dung dch Z thu
c cht rn l soa khan. X, Y, Z ln lt l:
A. NaOH, NaHCO
3
, Na
2
CO
3
. B. Na
2
CO
3
, NaHCO
3
, NaOH.
C. KOH, KHCO
3
, K
2
CO
3
. D. KOH, K
2
CO
3
, KHCO
3
.
Cu 22. Cho cc cht sau:(1): MgO (2): Cacbon (3): axit flohiric (4): Na
2
CO
3
(5):
MgCO
3
(6): NaOH (7): Mg. Silic phn ng c vi tt c cc cht
A. 1,2,3,4,5 B. 2,6,7 C. 2,3,6,7 D. 1,2,4,6
Cu 23. Khi thm rt t t dung dch cha 0,3 mol HCl vo 500 ml dung dch Na
2
CO
3
0,4 M
n kt thc phn ng thu c dung dch X v kh Y. Thm nc vi trong d vo dung
dch X th c bao nhiu gam kt ta to thnh
A. 5 gam. B. 8 gam. C. 10 gam. D. 15 gam.
Cu 24. Dung dch X cha 0,01 mol Ba
2+
, 0,02 mol Mg
2+
, 0,02 mol Cl
-
, y mol HCO
3
-
. Khi
c cn dung dch X ta thu c lng mui khan l
A. 3,76 gam. B. 5,00 gam C. 4,96 gam. D. 3,17 gam.
Cu 25. un si bn dung dch, mi dung dch cha 1 mol mi cht sau: Ba(HCO
3
)
2
,
Ca(HCO
3
)
2
, NaHCO
3
, NH
4
HCO
3
. Khi phn ng xy ra hon ton, trng hp no khi
lng dung dch gim nhiu nht (gi s nc bay hi khng ng k):
A. Ba(HCO
3
)
2
B. Ca(HCO
3
)
2
C. NH
4
HCO
3
D.NaHCO
3

Cu 26. Kh hon ton m gam hn hp gm CuO , Fe
3
O
4
, FeO v ZnO bng kh CO , kh
CO
2
thu c sau phn ng cho hp th ht bng dung dch nc vi trong d thu c 14
gam kt ta. Hy cho bit th tch dung dch H
2
SO
4
0,5M cn dng ho tan va ht m gam
hn hp .
A. 70 ml B. 140 ml C. 280 ml D. 560 ml
Cu 27: Hp th hon ton x lt CO
2
(ktc) vo dung dch cha 0,02 mol Ca(OH)
2
th thu
c 1,0 gam kt ta. Gi tr ca x l
A. 0,224 lit v 0,672 lit. B. 0,224 lit v 0,336 lit.
C. 0,224 lit v 0,896 lit. D. 2,24 lit v 3,36 lit
Cu 28. Mt dung dch X c cha HCl 0,5M v BaCl
2
0,4M. Cho t t 200 ml dung dch X
vo V ml dung dch cha Na
2
CO
3
1M. Gi tr V(ml) ti thiu kt ta thu c ln nht l
A. 130 ml B. 140 ml C. 180 ml D. 200 ml
Cu 29. Dn 4,48 lt kh CO (ktc) qua 10,8 g FeO nung nng. Sau mt thi gian, dng phn
ng thu c kh X c t khi so vi hiro bng 18. Hiu sut ca qu trnh kh oxit l:
A. 66,67%. B. 50%. C. 33,33%. D. 75%.
Cu 30. Sc 1,568 lt kh CO
2
(ktc) vo 500ml dung dch NaOH 0,16M. Sau th nghim
c dung dch A. Rt 250ml dung dch B gm BaCl
2
0,16M v Ba(OH)
2
xM vo dung dch
A thu c 3,94 gam kt ta v dung dch C. Gi tr ca x l
A. 0,020M B. 0,015M. C. 0,025M. D. 0,030M.

P N BI KIM TRA S 2
1.A 2.D 3.C 4.A 5.A 6.A 7.D 8.C 9.B 10.C
11.B 12.D 13. B 14.C 15.A 16.D 17. C 18.B 19.B 20.D
21.A 22.D 23.C 24.A 25.A 26.B 27.C 28.C 29.A 30.A
Hng dn gii
Cu 3.n
OH-

= 0,03mol; n
CO2
=0,02 mol suy ra phn ng to 2 mui
CO
2
+ OH
-
HCO
3
-
(1); HCO
3
-
+ OH
-
CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O.(2)
0,02 0,02 0,02 ; 0,01 0,01 0,01
Vy n
HCO3-
= 0,01 mol;
2
3
CO
n = 0,01 mol m
BaCO3
= 1,97 gamC
Cu 15. MgCl
2
; CaCl
2
; BaCl
2

3 2
CO K
MgCO
3
; CaCO
3
; BaCO
3
.
ion CO
3
2-
thay th cho ion Cl
-
nn dng nh lut bo ton in tch ta c :
2
3
CO
n = n
Cl-
+ n
NO3-
= 0,3 mol. Vy V = 300 ml B
Cu 23. n
Na2CO3
= 0,2 mol ; n
H+
= 0,3 mol.
H
+
+ CO
3
2-
HCO
3
-
(1) ; H
+
+ HCO
3
-
H
2
O

+ CO
2
(2)
0,2 0,2 0,2 ; 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1
Vy n(HCO
3
-
) d sau (2) l 0,2 -0,1 = 0,1 mol.
HCO
3
-
+ OH
-
CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O (3)
0,1 0,1 mol m kt ta l 10 gam C
Cu 28. n
H+
= 0,1 mol ; n
Ba2+
= 0,08 mol n
BaCO3 max
= 0,08 mol.
H
+
+ CO
3
2-
HCO
3
-
(1) ; CO
3
2-
+ Ba
2+
BaCO
3
(2)
0,1 0,1 ; 0,08 0,08 0,08
Vy
2
3
CO
n = 0,1 + 0,08 = 0,18 mol V = 180 ml C
Cu 29. FeO + CO
o
t
Fe + CO
2
.
Ban u : 0,15

0,2
D : 0,15- x 0,2- x x x
Hn hp kh X gm CO (0,2 x) mol ; CO
2
x mol.
T khi :
2
1
.
) 2 , 0 (
44 ) 2 , 0 ( 28
x x
x x
+
+
= 18 x =0,1 mol.
Theo (1) ; n
FeO
<n
CO
nn tnh ton theo n
FeO.
Vy hiu sut l % 67 , 66 100
15 , 0
1 , 0
=
Cu 30. n
CO2
= 0,07 mol ;n
NaOH
= 0,08 mol ; n
Ba(OH)2
= 0,25.x ; n
BaCl2
= 0,04 mol.
Ba
2+
+ CO
3
2-
BaCO
3
.
n
BaCO3
= 0,02 n
Ba2+
= 0,02 < 0,04 + 0,25.x (mol).
Vy nng BaCO
3
do CO
3
2-
quy nh v
2
3
CO
n = 0,02 mol.
Bi ton tr thnh tm s mol OH
-

2
3
CO
n = 0,02 mol.
+ TH1: Nu n
OH-
2n
CO2
: CO
2
+ 2OH
-
CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O(*)

2
3
CO
n =0,02 mol n
OH-
= 0,1; n
CO2 (*)
= 0,02 mol # 0,07 mol loi
+ Nu n
CO2
< n
OH-
<2n
CO2

CO
2
+ OH
-
HCO
3
-
(1); HCO
3
-
+ OH
-
CO
3
2-
+ H
2
O.(2)
0,07 0,07 0,07 ; 0,05 0,02 0,02
n
OH-
= 0,07 + 0,02 = 0,09mol Tha mn k.
Mt khc: n
OH-
= 2. 0,25.x + 0,08 x = 0,02M A

KIM TRA S 3
Thi gian 45 pht
Cu 1 Cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng ca cc nguyn t nhm cacbon l:
A. ns
2
np
2
B. ns
2
np
1
C. ns
2
np
3
D. ns
2
np
4

Cu 2 Cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng ca nguyn t cc nguyn t t cacbon n ch
trong nhm IVA ca bng tun hon l:
A. 6s
2
6p
2
; 5s
2
5p
2
; 4s
2
4p
2
; 3s
2
3p
2
; 2s
2
2p
2

B. 2s
2
2p
2
; 4s
2
4p
2
; 6s
2
6p
2
; 5s
2
5p
2
; 3s
2
3p
2
C. 6s
2
6p
2
; 4s
2
4p
2
; 2s
2
2p
2
; 5s
2
5p
2
; 3s
2
3p
2
D. 2s
2
2p
2
; 3s
2
3p
2
; 4s
2
4p
2
; 5s
2
5p
2
; 6s
2
6p
2

Cu 3 Tnh phi kim ca cc nguyn t trong nhm cacbon c xp theo th t tng dn
A. Ge; Sn; Si; Pb; C
B. Ge; Pb; Sn; Si; C
C. Pb; Sn; Ge; Si; C
D. C; Si; Ge; Sn; Pb
Cu 4 Khi nim no sau y l khng cng nhm vi cc khi nim cn li?
A. Cng thc phn t
B. n cht
C. ng v
D. Th hnh
Cu 5 Trong s cc nguyn t nhm cacbon, cc kim loi l:
A. Cacbon v silic B. Silic v gecmani
C. Thic v ch D. Silic v thic
Cu 6 Kim cng v than ch l cc dng th hnh ca nguyn t cacbon. Kim cng cng
nht trong t nhin, cn than ch mm n mc c th dng sn xut li bt ch 6B, dng
k mt. iu c gii thch do:
A. Kim cng c lin kt cng ho tr bn, than ch th khng
B. t chy kim cng hay than ch nhit cao u to thnh kh cacbonic
C. Kim cng c cu trc tinh th dng t din u, than ch c cu trc lp
trong khong cch gia cc lp kh ln
D. Mt nguyn nhn khc
Cu 7 Nhit phn hon ton 25,9 gam mui hirocacbonnat ca mt kim loi R c ha tr II
khng i. Kh thot ra c hp th ht vo bnh ng dung dch nc vi trong d thu
c 20 gam kt ta. Kim loi R l:
A. Cu B. Ca
C. Mg D. Ba
Cu 8 Cho 11,6 gam hn hp gm oxit v mui cacbonat ca kim loi kim R. Ho tan ht
hn hp trn bng mt lng va dung dch HCl c cha 0,2 mol HCl. Kim loi R l:
A. Na B. K
C. Li D. Cs
Cu 9 Kh hon ton 14 gam hn hp X gm CuO v mt oxit st bng CO thu c 10,32
gam hn hp Y gm 2 kim loi.Th tch CO (ktc) dng cho qu trnh trn l:
A. 51,52 lt B. 10,304 lt
C. 5,152 lt D. 1.0304 lt
Cu 10 Trong mt bnh kn dung tch 16 lit cha hn hp CO, CO
2
v O
2
d. Th tch O
2

nhiu gp i th tch CO. Bt tia la in t chy hon ton hn hp, th tch kh trong
bnh gim 2 lt (cc th tch kh trong bnh c o cng iu kin nhit v p sut).
Thnh phn % theo th tch ca CO, CO
2
v O
2
trong hn hp ban u l :
A. 10%, 20% v 40%. B. 25%, 25% v 50%.
C. 25%, 50% v 25%. D. 15%, 450% v 60%.
Cu 11 Cht no sau khng phi l mt dng th hnh ca cacbon?
A. Than ch B. Thch anh
C. Kim cng D. Fuleren
Cu 12 Khi t cng mt lng than nh nhau, loi to nhiu nhit nht, trong cc loi than
m v than g l:
A. Than g B. Than bn
C. Than antraxit D. Than non
Cu 13 Kim cng c dng lm trang sc qu, lm mi khoan lm dao ct kim loi v
thu tinh. Kim cng khng dn in. Than ch dn in, dn nhit nn c dng lm in
cc. Kim cng v than ch c tnh cht khc nhau v:
A. Chng c cu trc tinh th khc nhau.
B. Kim cng cng cn than ch th mm.
C. Chng c thnh phn nguyn t cu to khc nhau.
D. Kim cng l kim loi cn than ch l phi kim.
Cu 14 Khi t chy hn hp kh SiH
4
v CH
4
thu c mt sn phm rn cn nng 6,0 gam
v sn phm kh A. Cho sn phm kh i qua dung dch NaOH ly d thu c 31,8 gam
mui khan.Thnh phn % th tch ca A l:
A. 66,67% SiH
4
v 33,33% CH
4
B. 75% SiH
4
v 25% CH
4
C. 33,33% SiH
4
v 66,67% CH
4
D. 25% SiH
4
v 75%CH
4

Cu 15 Kim cng c s dng lm trang sc, mi khoan, dao ct, thu tinh v bt mi
l v kim cng l cht cng nht trong tt c cc cht. C tnh cht trn l do tinh th kim
cng thuc loi tinh th:
A. Kim loi in hnh B. Phn t in hnh
C. Ion in hnh D. Nguyn t in hnh
Cu 16 Nung 20g hn hp gm CaCO
3
v NaCl thu c 2,24 lt kh ktc. Khi lng ca
CaCO
3
trong hn hp l:
A. 10g B. 15g
C. 11g D. 12g


Cu 17 Nung nng hon ton 20g hn hp 2 mui NaHCO
3
v Na
2
CO
3
thu c 2,24 lt CO
2

(ktc). Thnh phn % theo khi lng ca Na
2
CO
3
trong hn hp l:
A. 10% B. 21%
C. 16% D. 22,5%
Cu 18 Hiu ng nh knh l hin tng Tri t ang m dn ln, do cc bc x c bc
sng di trong vng hng ngoi b gi li, m khng bc x ra ngoi v tr. Cht kh no sau
y l nguyn nhn chnh gy ra hiu ng nh knh?
A. H
2
B. N
2

C. CO
2
D. O
2

Cu 19 Cho 24,4g hn hp Na
2
CO
3
, K
2
CO
3
tc dng va vi dung dch BaCl
2
. Sau phn
ng thu c 39,4g kt ta. Lc tch kt ta, c cn dung dch thu c m (g) mui clorua.
Vy m c gi tr l:
A. 26,6g B. 6,26g
C. 2,66g D. 22,6g
Cu 20 Cho 50,0 gam hn hp gm 2 mui cacbonat ca 2 kim loi X, Y (c ho tr II duy
nht) tan ht trong dung dch HCl thy thot ra 2,24 lt kh iu kin tiu chun. Khi
lng mui thu c l:
A. 54,8 gam B. 45,6 gam
C. 58,4 gam D. Khng xc nh c v thiu gi thit
Cu 21 Nhit phn hon ton hn hp MgCO
3
, CaCO
3
ri cho ton b kh thot ra (kh A) hp
th ht bng dung dch Ca(OH)
2
thu c kt ta B v dung dch C. un nng dung dch C thu
c kt ta B. Hi A, B, C ln lt l nhng cht no?
A. CO, CaCO
3
, Ca(HCO
3
)
2
B. CO
2
, CaCO
3
, Ca(HCO
3
)
2

C. CO
2
, Ca(HCO
3
)
2
, CaCO
3
D. CO , Ca(HCO
3
)
2
, CaCO
3

Cu 22 Cho 11,6 gam FeCO
3
tan hon ton trong dung dch axit HNO
3
d thu c hn hp
kh A gm CO
2
v mt kh khng mu d ha nu ngoi khng kh. Khi lng ca A l:
A. 4,5 gam B. 5,4 gam
C. 14,5 gam D. 16,2 gam.


Cu 23 Nc kh khng nng chy m thng hoa, c dng to mi trng lnh v kh rt
tin cho vic bo qun thc phm. Thnh phn ca nc kh l:
A. CO
2
rn. B. SO
2
rn.
C. H
2
O rn. D. CO rn.
Cu 24 Cng thc phn t CaCO
3
tng ng vi thnh phn ho hc chnh ca loi no
sau y?
A. B. vi
C. mi D. ong
Cu 25 Cacbon v nh hnh c iu ch t than g hay go da c tn l than hot tnh.
Dng than hot tnh ch to cc thit b phng c, lc nc do tnh cht no?
A. Hp ph cc cht kh, cht tan trong nc
B. Kh cc cht kh c, cc cht tan trong nc
C. t chy than sinh ra kh cacbonic
D. Tt c cc phng n A, B, C
Cu 26 Gii thch ng cho hin tng: "Khi m bnh nc ngt c gas li c nhiu bng
kh thot ra" l v:
A. khi sn xut nn CO
2
vo nc ngt.
B. trong qu trnh sn xut cc kh trong khng kh ho tan vo nc ngt.
C. CO
2
tan trong nc, khi sn xut nc ngt th kh CO
2
trong khng kh tan vo
nc ngt.
D. V cc cht trong nc ngt phn ng vi nhau sinh ra CO
2
.
Cu 27 Th tch NaOH 2M ti thiu cn hp th ht 2 lt CO
2
27,3
0
C v 1,232 atm l:
A. 100 ml B. 75 ml C. 50 ml D. 150 ml
Cu 28 Dn kh CO
2
vo dung dch Ba(OH)
2
thu c 19,7 gam kt ta. Lc b kt ta, ri
em nc lc cho tc dng vi mt lng d dung dch H
2
SO
4
thu c 23,3 gam kt ta
na. Th tch kh CO
2
dng (ktc) l:
A. 4,48 lt hoc 6,72 lt B. 2,24 lt hoc 4,48 lt
C. 6,72 lt D. 4,48 lt
Cu 29 Dn kh CO d qua ng s ng a gam hn hp gm Al
2
O
3
v Fe
3
O
4
nung nng.Sau
mt thi gian th ngng phn ng, thy khi lng cht rn trong ng cn li l 14,14 gam.
Kh thot ra khi ng s c hp th ht bng dung dch nc vi trong d, thu c 16
gam kt ta. Gi tr ca a l:
A. 17,6 gam B.16,7 gam C.12,88 gam D.18,82 gam
Cu 30 Dng CO kh hon ton 2,88g hn hp gm Fe, FeO, Fe
2
O
3
thu c 2,24g cht
rn. Mt khc cng lng hn hp trn tc dng va vi 100ml dung dch HCl thu c
224 ml kh (ktc). Nng mol.l ca dung dch HCl l:
A. 1,3M B. 2M C. 1,5M D. 1,0M
p n bi kim tra s 3
1. A 2. D 3. C 4. C 5. C 6. C 7. D 8. B 9. C 10. B
11. B 12. C 13. A 14. D 15. D 16. A 17. C 18. C 19. A 20. D
21. C 22. D 23. A 24. B 25. A 26. A 27. C 28. C 29. D 30. D
Hng dn gii
Cu 19 .n
BaCO3
= 0,2 mol n
Ba2+
= 0,2n
BaCl2
= 0,2
Vy m
NaCl, KCl
=24,4 + 0,2.208 -39,4= 26,6 gam
*Cch 2: n
BaCO3
= 0,2 mol
2
3
CO
n = 0,2 mol
m
Na+
+ m
K+
= 24,4 -60.0,2 = 12,4 gam.

KCl CO K
NaCl CO Na
2
2
3 2
3 2
Nhn xt; n
Cl-
= 2
2
3
CO
n = 0,2 mol
n
Cl-
= 0,4 mol khi lng mui clorua l: 12,4 + 35,5.0,4 = 26,6 gam
Cu 20 . MCO
3
+ 2HCl MCl
2
+ H
2
O +CO
2
.
1mol CO
3
2-
phn ng to 2 mol Cl
-
, khi lng mui tng ln 11 gam
x mol CO
3
2-
phn ng to 2x mol Cl
-
, khi lng mui tng ln (11.x) gam
Theo u bi: n
CO2
=
2
3
CO
n =0,1 mol. x = 0,1 mol
Vy khi lng mui clorua l: 50+ 11.0,1=51,1 gam D

Cu 22. 3FeCO
3
+ 10HNO
3
3Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ NO + 3CO
2
+ 5H
2
O (*)
0,1 0,1 0,3
m
A
= 44.0,3 + 30.0,1 = 16,2 gam. D
Cu 28 . Nc lc c cha Ba(HCO
3
)
2
: 2CO
2
+ Ba(OH)
2
Ba(HCO
3
)
2
(1)
CO
2
+ Ba(OH)
2
BaCO
3
+ H
2
O (2)
0,1 0,1 0,1
Ba(HCO
3
)
2
+ H
2
SO
4
BaSO
4
+ 2H
2
O

+ 2CO
2
(3)
0,1 0,1 0,1
2CO
2
+ Ba(OH)
2
Ba(HCO
3
)
2

0,2 0,1
Vy n
CO2
= 0,3 mol V
CO2
= 6,72 lt C
Cu 29. V Al
2
O
3
khng b kh nn
Fe O Al
m m +
3 2
=14,14 gam.
n
CO2
= n
CaCO3
= 0,16 mol n
O
= 0,16 mol
Vy m
hh
= 14,14 + 0,16.16 = 16,7 gam. B
Cu 30
Gi s mol Fe, FeO, Fe
2
O
3
ln lt l x, y, z (mol): 56x+ 72y + 160z = 2,88 (1)
+ Trong phn ng kh CO: m
O
= 2,88 2,24 = 0,64 gam n
O
= 0,04 mol
V n
CO
= n
O
= 0,04 mol ; y + 3z = 0,04 mol (2)
+ Trong phn ng vi HCl; n
H2
= 0,01 mol x = 0,01 (3)
Vy t (1); (2); (3) ta c x = 0,01 mol; y = 0,01 mol ; z = 0,01 mol;
n
H+
= 2.0,01 + 2.0,04 =0,1 C
M
(H
+
) = 1M
* Cch 2:

3 3 2
2
2
2 2 FeCl O Fe
FeCl FeO
FeCl Fe
Nhn xt: c 2 ngt Clo thay th cho 1 ngt Oxi
Vy n
HCl
= 2.n
H2
+ n
Cl-
= 2.n
H2
+ 2.n
O
= 2.0,01 + 2.0,04 = 0,1mol C
M
= 1M