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Earth's seemingly-immense oceans, atmosphere, and seas are, in planetary and mathematical terms, actually razor-thin surface films. Astronauts and cosmonauts taking photographs from space have likened earth's atmosphere to a single layer of skin on an onion. And mathematically speaking,earth's oceans are only 6/100ths of 1% as thick as the earth itself. So what impacts are humankind's numbers having on these components of the only planetary life-support machinery so far known to exist anywhere in the universe? Important and provocative - and entirely free for use by scientists, students, and educators anywhere in the world.
This PowerPoint 4 in our Biospherics Literacy 101 collection is made available courtesy of The Wecskaop Project (What Every Citizen Should Know About Our Planet).

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You are on page 1of 93

(Five PowerPoints / Five Days)

**There are five PowerPoints in this
**

open-courseware collection

This presentation is a courtesy of

The Wecskaop Project

It is entirely free for non-commercial use by scientists,

students, and educators anywhere in the world

**What Every Citizen Should Know About Our Planet
**

Copyright 2011, The Wecskaop Project.

All rights reserved.

Is our planet fragile or robust?

**If we were a little
**

closer to the sun, our

water would exist

primarily in its

gaseous state

**The Pacific Ocean alone, for
**

example, covers more of the

earth's surface than all of our

land masses combined

**In addition, water covers 60% of the
**

northern hemisphere and approximately

80% of the southern hemisphere

International Oceanographic Foundation (1977)

**Furthermore, if we were to use all Earth's mountains
**

and land masses to fill in the deepest parts of the sea,

we would end up with no land at all

**Instead, Earth would be covered
**

with a layer of water 2.5 kilometers deep

**In addition to these immense reservoirs of water,
**

Earth also has hidden reservoirs of water

**Its atmosphere is filled with clouds, rain,
**

water vapor, fog, and humidity

**Our farms and cities rely
**

on dwindling

underground aquifers

containing fossil water

that fell as rain

thousands of years ago

**Lettuce and celery are good diet foods because
**

they are composed mostly of water.

**And even the cells,
**

tissues, and bodies of

living things constitute

rich reservoirs of water

**Living cells, for example, are
**

up to 98% salt water

International Oceanographic Foundation (1977)

**In these respects, then, we can think of
**

the Earth as an "Unlikely Planet”

**In one way, therefore,
**

the numbers cited so

far

underscore an

abundance of water

**In reality, however, this seeming enormity and
**

abundance is simply an illusion

**Because as living organisms, each of us is so tiny
**

compared to the size of our planet

**that Earth's oceans only seem large if they are compared to our
**

own diminutive body size

After International Oceanographic Foundation (1977)

**If we assess Earth's oceans, however, as simply a surface feature
**

of our planet, an entirely different perspective emerges

**Mathematically speaking, 99.94% of our planet
**

consists of its crust, mantle, and its molten interior

After International Oceanographic Foundation (1977)

**The thin layer of water that we refer to as an ocean
**

exists only as an inexpressibly thin and precarious surface film

that is only 6/100 ths of 1% as thick as the Earth itself

**See close of Part One
**

For supporting mathematics

approximately

12/1000 ths of one inch deep

**to correctly depict the proportional
**

depth of the earth's oceans

After International Oceanographic Foundation (1977)

**To proportionally illustrate such a
**

depth to scale on a classroom globe,

we would need a thin film of water

**the film it leaves behind
**

would be too deep

**to properly characterize the depth of
**

earth's oceans

After International Oceanographic Foundation (1977)

**If we were to wipe a wet paper towel
**

across a twenty-inch globe

**Thus viewed from a planetary perspective, our oceans
**

exist as a thin and precarious surface film with greater

vulnerability than we might intuitively suppose

**Thus, the seeming immensity of our oceans is
**

actually an illusion

**for we have seen that, in planetary terms, our oceans are THIN
**

surface films that are just 6/100ths of 1% as thick as the earth itself

After International Oceanographic Foundation (1977)

Supporting mathematics

**See appendix two for further
**

review of

supporting mathematics

Part Two

Earth‟s Atmosphere

as another thin and fragile surface film

**It turns out that our ocean of air, Earth's atmosphere,
**

can be viewed in a similar way

Part Two - Like the Skin of an Onion

**If we analyze the
**

proportional depth of

Earth's atmosphere,

we find that Earth‟s

“ocean” of air

is also little more than

another thin and

fragile film

**Astronauts and cosmonauts,
**

while taking photographs from

space, have likened Earth’s

atmosphere

to a single layer of skin

on an onion

**And this onion-skin-thin surface film of
**

air may exhibit far greater vulnerability

than we commonly imagine

**Seen from this perspective,
**

our collective individual impacts

could contribute seriously to

potentially-calamitous outcomes

**The fact that Earth‟s atmosphere
**

and oceans are razor-thin surface films

requires us to consider the

implications of our

current worldwide levels

of pollution, disruption,

and environmental damage

Part Three

What outbreaks of

dinoflagellate „red-tide‟

in marine environments may

tell us about ourselves

**In the ocean, one-celled
**

dinoflagellates such as Karenia

brevis release small amounts of toxin

into their surroundings

**During such outbreaks of “red-tide,”
**

a one-liter water sample can

contain 1,000,000 or more

dinoflagellate cells per liter

**One of the most striking
**

characteristics of „red-tide‟ outbreaks

is that, taken together, all one

million dinoflagellate cells per

liter in a red-tide outbreak

physically-occupy less than

2/1000 ths of 1%

of the one-liter sample

in which they reside

**See appendix one
**

for supporting mathematics

**What the white dot in this image
**

shows most dramatically

is one of Earth‟s classical realworld examples of populationenvironment calamities

**What the white dot in this image
**

shows most dramatically

is one of Earth‟s classical realworld examples of populationenvironment calamities

that routinely take place

in environments that visually

appear to be

ALMOST

entirely

EMPTY

**In addition, dinoflagellate red-tides
**

are one of nature’s quintessential

examples of calamities

that arise from population explosions

accompanied by the release of wastes

**Dinoflagellate red-tide calamities,
**

however, arise from their release of

cellular and metabolic wastes

into their surroundings

**Because our own species also releases
**

wastes into its surroundings,

we may be following a trajectory

that is provocatively similar to that of

an outbreak of dinoflagellate red-tide

**Except, of course, our own species
**

supplements

its biological and cellular wastes

with a daily worldwide avalanche of

industrial and societal wastes

**So that, from at least one point of
**

view, we may actually be on a

trajectory that is considerably worse

than that of the dinoflagellates

and multiple orders of

magnitude worse at that

**for each dinoflagellate cell
**

releases ONLY its

metabolic and biological

wastes into its surroundings

**See appendix one
**

for supporting mathematics

Part Four

No Other Animals Do This

(or have EVER done this)

“vast amounts of open space”

**may be well on its way, via an ongoing release of an
**

assortment of industrial and societal wastes,

to a significant alteration of

the entire gaseous environment in which we live

**Not to mention the catastrophic PHYSICAL damage
**

that we inflict everywhere else

**It is provocative to consider that today our
**

own species, surrounded by a seemingly

enormous atmosphere and seemingly

**As a test of this last observation, envision an
**

individual animal of any species other than our own

**In virtually all of these cases, the organism‟s
**

daily pollution of its environment is limited

to its daily production of its bodily wastes

Photos courtesy of life.nbii.gove‟ fox = Mosesso; Others - Hermann

**All of the organisms below, for example,
**

limit themselves

the

Continuing,

however, to

envision

release of their biological, cellular,

and

metabolic

this

same

human wastes

being in an

automobile, backed up in

crowded traffic on a busy eightlane highway

**All around in every direction are
**

hundreds of other cars and trucks

and buses, each spewing exhaust

from an internal combustion

engine

**This indicates that each of us as
**

individuals are contributing

much more than our body wastes

to our surroundings

Photos courtesy of life.nbii.gove‟ fox = Mosesso; Others - Hermann

**Continuing, however, envision
**

this same human being in an

automobile, backed up in

Incrowded

virtuallytraffic

all of on

these

cases,

each

a busy

eightorganism‟s

daily pollution of its

lane

highway

environment is limited to daily

production of its bodily wastes

All around in every direction are

hundreds of other cars and trucks

and buses, each spewing exhaust

from an internal combustion

engine

**This indicates that each of us as
**

individuals are contributing

much more than our body wastes

to our surroundings

**Next, however, envision an ordinary human
**

being living in an industrialized country

**One‟s daily body wastes are
**

again a factor, of course,

but humanity‟s collective

biological wastes are natural

productions that have, in a

planetary sense, little impact

on global systems

**Continuing, however, envision this same human being in an automobile,
**

backed up in crowded traffic on a busy eight-lane highway. All around in

every direction are hundreds of other cars and trucks and buses, each

spewing exhaust from an internal combustion engine.

**This indicates that each of
**

us as individuals are

contributing much more

than our body wastes to

our surroundings

**And we repeat this behavior every day - again and again and again –
**

in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mumbai, Tokyo, Cairo, Karachi, Jakarta,

Paris, Moscow, Rio de Janeiro, Cape Town, and New York City

**releasing more multiple millions of tons of waste, without fail, relentlessly
**

into the onion-skin-thin layer of air that makes up Earth‟s atmosphere

**“Imagine you are driving your car and every mile you drive you throw a
**

pound of trash out your window.

And everyone else on the freeway in their cars and trucks are doing the

exact same thing, and people driving Hummers are throwing two bags out

at a time – one out the driver-side window and one out the passenger-side

window.

How would you feel? Not so good. Well, that is exactly what we are

doing; you just can‟t see it.

Only what we are throwing out is a pound of CO2 – that‟s what goes into

the atmosphere, on average, every mile we drive”

Chemist Nate Lewis

As quoted by Friedman, 2008

- HOT, FLAT, AND CROWDED -

**If world population did not grow at all, all
**

of these impacts would likely double

**as the world‟s poorest
**

nations industrialize

and seek to emulate our

own standard of living

**We are the only animals on
**

Earth that do this

**and we are not even
**

at home or at work yet

Now we switch on:

our heating or air-conditioning units

run a dishwasher and clothes drier

run our lawnmowers and weed-trimmers

our refrigerators

freezers

street lights

fluorescent lights

toaster-ovens

microwaves

hair-dryers

steel mills

shopping malls

motor-boats

televisions,

computers

and

hot-water heaters

**For further information, see our book Wecskaop III
**

and/or other PowerPoints and PDFs in this series

**And we still have
**

not included

all the wastes

generated by

** unwanted catalogue mailings
**

tons of disposable, throw-away containers

and all the items

that we ship halfway around the world

Every day, from all of those tailpipes on each and every bumper-tobumper interstate, boulevard, and highway, we spew molecules of

carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide and other noxious fumes

**We are the only animals on earth
**

that do this,

and we do so during each

and every rush hour,

on every grocery run,

on every holiday trip to visit family,

and during every postal delivery

**And then we repeat these same
**

activities every day,

again and again and again

**without fail, relentlessly
**

and endlessly,

**into the onion-skin-thin
**

layer of air that constitutes earth‟s atmosphere

so that our power plants, on our behalf,

release still more tons of wastes and fumes

**Notice also that these additional wastes do not constitute a
**

„once-in-a-lifetime‟ contribution by each of us

**day after day after day,
**

throughout our lives

We are the ONLY animals on

Earth that do this

**How can we imagine that endless billions of us can endlessly
**

behave in this way without calamitous repercussions?

If we intend to enjoy such extravagance,

our populations must be smaller

**For further information, see our book Wecskaop III
**

and/or other PowerPoints and PDFs in this series

**Instead, we repeat these assaults
**

again and again and again,

Elephant photo courtesy of Thomas Hermann; life.nbii.gov

**No other animal species
**

supplements its cellular and

biological wastes with a

planet-wide avalanche of

industrial and societal wastes

the way that we do

No other animal species in

the history of

the Earth has

EVER

supplemented

its biological wastes

in this way

**We are the only animals on Earth
**

that have EVER done this

**No other organisms in the history of the Earth
**

have ever supplemented their cellular and

biological wastes the way that we do

**And no population explosions of red-tide dinoflagellates
**

(which poison their environments by the release of wastes)

have ever supplemented their cellular and biological wastes

with a daily avalanche of industrial and societal

wastes the way that we do

**And these behaviors are NOT a minimal or incidental
**

footnote to the biology of our species

**Instead, they are one of our most distinctive
**

and all-encompassing characteristics

**Knowing that Earth‟s
**

atmosphere is not

responding to our assaults

very well right now,

**consider that the U.N.‟s newest world population projections
**

show that we are nevertheless on-track to ADD at least

our 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th BILLIONS to our numbers by 2100

**And their “high-fertility”
**

projections show us

reaching

15.8 BILLION

by century‟s end

**Because three-quarters of the Earth's surface is
**

covered with lakes, rivers, oceans, seas, and ice,

it is both easy and descriptive to

picture our home as "a water planet“

so that we could easily call ourselves

"Planet Ocean“

(IOF, 1978; Anson, 1991, 1996, 2007)

**On the other hand, if we consider Earth's oceans and
**

atmosphere as strictly surface features of our planet

an entirely different assessment presents itself

**However, it is at least provocative to
**

consider that today our own species,

surrounded by a seemingly enormous

atmosphere and seemingly “vast amounts of

open space”

**also appears to be well on its way, via an ongoing release of
**

an assortment of industrial and societal wastes,

to a significant alteration of the entire gaseous environment in which we live

**(Not to mention the catastrophic physical
**

damage that we inflict everywhere else)

Review of Key Concepts

**Review of Key Concepts
**

Climb and collapse really happen

and we are not immune

Collapse routinely occurs in environments that

can appear to be almost entirely empty

Calamities can arise from wastes and damage

(as opposed to “running out” of things)

Earth‟s atmosphere and seas as

onion-skin-thin surface films

** Dinoflagellate red-tides as quintessential examples
**

of population explosions that induce calamity by

the release of wastes

A thin-film of water on a globe

** Collapse with 99% mortality is a biological reality
**

We are not immune to collapse, and compared to

any other animals or dinoflagellates that have

ever lived, we are behaving comparatively badly

By our release of wastes, we exhibit a behavioral

similarity with population explosions of red-tide

dinoflagellates

We may well be on a trajectory that is far worse

than outbreaks of dinoflagellate red-tide because

we supplement our biological and metabolic

wastes with daily onslaughts of industrial and

societal wastes

While outbreaks of dinoflagellate red-tide can

be categorized as localized events, the impacts

of our own species are global in nature

**Review of Key Concepts
**

We are dangerously misled by our

prevailing “open-space” suppositions

for it is a misperception to presume that human population

growth and overpopulation cannot be truly serious so long

as “vast amounts of open space” remain

First, Earth‟s atmosphere and oceans

are onion-skin-thin surface films

**And climb and collapse really do occur – and they do so
**

in environments that can appear almost entirely empty

When less than 2/1000ths of one percent of

seemingly-available “space” is occupied

**In addition, the supposition
**

that “running out” of things

such as space, food,

resources, or anything else

**are necessarily the first or only factors
**

that could threaten us

is an incomplete assessment of

our current condition

Review of Key Concepts

**And we are the only animals that do
**

this, or that have ever done this

and are doing so on a worldwide

scale so that we are not a localized

phenomenon

**And our behaviors in this respects are not a minimal or
**

incidental footnote to the biology of our species

but are instead one of our most distinguishing

and all-encompassing characteristics

Appendix 1

Supporting math – Red-tides

**Supporting Math – Red-tides
**

Severe red-tide conditions are common when

Karenia brevis populations reach concentrations

ranging between 100,000 to 1,000,000 or more cells

per liter. Secondly, approximate dimensions of a

typical K. brevis cell:

(1) Volume of 1 liter = 61.024 cubic inches

(2) The approximate dimensions of a single cell of K.

brevis are:

L: ~30 um (= 0.03 mm) = ~ 0.0012 inches **

W: ~ 0.0014 inches

(“a little wider than it is long") *

D: ~ 10 – 15 um deep (10 um = .0004;

15 um = .0006), so average = ~ .0005 in

** Nierenberg, personal communication, 2008

** Floridamarine.org, 2008

Using the above:

**inches remaining unoccupied. In other words, one
**

million dinoflagellate cells in a one-liter sample still

have approximately 61.023 16 cubic inches of

unoccupied volume that would appear to remain

theoretically-available to them.

Percentage Unoccupied

**Therefore, the percentage unoccupied equals
**

(61.023 16) divided by (61.024 00) so that about

.999 987 2 or about 99.998 72% of the available

volume remains unoccupied.

This means that such a K. brevis population

manages to routinely visit calamity upon itself

and the environment in which it resides, even as

the cells themselves physically-occupy less than

2/1000ths of 1% of the total volume that appears

to remain seemingly-available.

**Volume of a typical cell of K. brevis = (L) x (W) x (D)
**

= (.0012) x (.0014) x (.0005)

= ~ .000 000 000 840 cubic inches

**Thus, (100%) – (99.998 72%) = .001 28 %,
**

or less than 2/1000ths of one percent of the volume

that appears to remain theoretically-available.

**Thus one million Karenia brevis cells occupy
**

approximately (1,000,000) times (.000 000 000 840)

or a physical volume of about 0.000 84 cubic inches.

**Thus, even though the K. brevis cells occupy a
**

volumetrically-insignificant portion of the "openspace" that visually appears to remain almost

entirely “empty,” they manage, by their combined

overpopulation and production of invisible and

calamitous wastes, to catastrophically-alter the

aqueous surroundings in which they live.

**Recalling that one liter equals 61.024 cubic inches,
**

subtracting 00.000 84 occupied cubic inches leaves

(61.024) – (00.000 84) or about 61.023 16 cubic

Supporting Math

The image shown left depicts the physical amount of

space that constitutes two one-thousandths of one

percent. Note that the dot in the image denotes two

one-thousandths of one percent of the dark rectangle.

2/1000ths of

one percent

**The step-by-step mathematics outlined below permits
**

preparation of a two-dimensional illustration like the

one shown here that visually depicts the proportional

amount of area occupied by two one-thousandths of

one percent.

(1) Use imaging software to open a rectangle 500

pixels high by 350 pixels wide = 175,000 square

pixels (Here: dark rectangle without frame)

(2) Thus, one percent of this area = (175,000) x (.01)

equals 1750 square pixels

(3) In addition, 1/1000ths of one percent = (1750)

times (.001) equals1.750 square pixels

(4) And two1000ths of one percent = (1750) x (.002)

equals 3.5 square pixels

(5) Calculating the square root of 3.5 square pixels

equals1.87 pixels, so that a square of (1.87

pixels) by (1.87 pixels) equals 3.5 square pixels

**Real-world population calamities
**

in nearly “empty” environments

**Thus beginning with a rectangle of 500 x 350 pixels,
**

a small square of 1.87 pixels by 1.87 pixels (length

times width) would visually depict a physical region

of two one-thousandths of one percent.

**Supporting Math – Reindeer of St. Paul Island
**

Concerning V. B. Scheffer’s classic reindeer climband-collapse study on St. Paul Island, Alaska, our

estimate that the reindeer of St. Paul Island, Alaska

physically-occupied “less than 2/1000ths of 1%” of the

island’s total area at the time of collapse is derived as

follows.

L: Assume an average reindeer is approximately

44” long

(Female reindeer ~ 38” long; males ~ 46” long; .

so for our purposes, assume an average of 44”)

**W: Assume that the width of an average reindeer
**

is approximately 24” wide

Girth will vary with time of year; food, pregnant . . .

females, etc., so for our purposes assume 24”

**Thus the area physically-occupied by an average
**

member of the population would equal (44 inches)

x (24”) or approximately 1056 square inches each

Given a peak reindeer population of St. Paul island of

slightly more than 2000 animals, (2000) times (1056)

equals a combined area that is physically occupied by

reindeer bodies of approximately 2,112,000 square

inches (by the entire herd).

One square foot = (12) x (12) = 144 square inches,

so that 2,112,000 divided by 144 means that the

**bodies of an entire herd of 2000 animals would
**

physically-occupy a total of 14,667 square feet.

If the area of St. Paul Island, Alaska is about 41

square miles, then if one square mile is equal to

27,878,400 square feet, then the total square

footage of the island would equal ( (27,878,400)

x (41) or approximately 1,143,014,400 square feet.

Next, we can subtract the14,667 square feet that are

physically-occupied by the entire herd from the total

square footage of the island so that (1,143,014,400)

minus (14,667) results in a total “unoccupied” square

footage of 1,142,999,733 square feet.

Lastly, dividing the island’s total unoccupied space

(1,142,999,733) by the total area of the island

(1,143,014,400) gives the percentage of total

unoccupied space at the time of the peak reindeer

population, which was 0.999 987 168. Notice then

that the collapse (and 99% die-off) of the St. Paul

Island reindeer population began at a time when

99.999% of the island’s total area appeared to

remain theoretically-available.

Notice, therefore, that the herd’s collapse and 99%

die-off both began (and proceeded to devastation)

in surroundings that visually appeared to be

almost entirely empty.

**Supporting Math – Reindeer of St. Matthew Island
**

We can apply the same approach to D.R. Klein’s

classic reindeer climb-and-collapse study on St.

Matthew Island, Alaska (1968). Our estimate that

the reindeer of St. Matthew Island physically-occupied “less than 2/1000ths of 1%” of the island’s total

area at the time of collapse is derived as follows.

L: Assume an average reindeer is approximately

44” long

(Female reindeer ~ 38” long; males ~ 46” long; .

so for our purposes, assume an average of 44”)

**W: Assume that the width of an average reindeer
**

is approximately 24” wide

Girth will vary with time of year; food, pregnant . . .

females, etc., so for our purposes assume 24”

**Thus the area physically-occupied by an average
**

member of the population would equal (44 inches)

x (24”) or approximately 1056 square inches each

Given a peak reindeer population of St. Matthew island (1963) of slightly more than 6000 animals, (6000)

times (1056) equals a combined area that is physically occupied by reindeer bodies of approximately

6,336,000 square inches (by the entire herd).

One square foot = (12) x (12) = 144 square inches,

so that 6,336,000 divided by 144 means that the

**bodies of an entire herd of 2000 animals would
**

physically-occupy a total of 44,000 square feet.

If the area of St. Matthew Island, Alaska is about

138 square miles, then if one square mile is equal to

27,878,400 square feet, then the total square footage of the island would equal ( (27,878,400) x (138)

or approximately 3,847,219,200 square feet.

Next, we subtract the 44,000 square feet that are

physically-occupied by the entire herd from the total

square footage of the island so that 3,847,219,200

minus (44,000) results in a total “unoccupied” square

footage of 3,847,175,200 square feet.

Lastly, dividing the island’s total unoccupied space

(3,847,175,200) by the total area of the island

(3,847,219,200) gives the percentage of total

unoccupied space at the time of the peak reindeer

population, which was 0.999 988 Notice then that

the collapse (and 99% die-off) of the St. Paul Island

reindeer population began at a time when 99.999%

of the island’s total area appeared , visually-speaking, to remain theoretically-available.

Notice, therefore, that the herd’s collapse and 99%

die-off both BEGAN (and proceeded to devastation)

in surroundings that visually appeared to be

almost entirely empty.

Appendix 2

Supporting math – Thin Films

**Mathematics after a presentation outlined by the
**

International Oceanographic Foundation

Virginia Key, Florida

After International Oceanographic Foundation (1977)

Supporting math – Thin Films

After International Oceanographic Foundation (1977)

**Here is the supporting mathematics:
**

(i)

Earth's oceans are, on average, approximately 3.6 km deep. If we

have 3.6 km of water on one side of our planet and another 3.6 km

on the opposite side, this represents an addition of 7.2 km added to

Earth's overall diameter.

**(ii) Earth's overall diameter (including its molten
**

interior, rocky mantle, crustal plates, and covering

of oceans) is approximately 12,740 km.

**(iii) Thus, without the 7.2 kilometers of ocean, the
**

Earth's diameter would be roughly 12,732.8 km.

**(iv) This means that 12,732.8 km out of 12,740
**

km (99.94%) of Earth's diameter consists of its

molten interior, rocky mantle, and crustal

plates.

**(v) Thus, the math shows that the average depth of
**

the oceans accounts for only six one-hundredths of

one percent of Earth's diameter – an inexpressibly

thin film indeed.

(12,732.8 divided by 12,740 = 0.9994)

and (100 minus 0.9994 = .0006)

**(For a 50.8 cm model globe, .0006 times 50.8 cm
**

would equal oceans, so that the scale model would

require a layer of water that is 6/100ths of a cm

deep in order to represent the ocean's average

depths in proportionally correct terms.)

(50.8 times .0006 = .03)

This presentation is a courtesy of

The Wecskaop Project

It is entirely free for non-commercial use by scientists,

students, and educators anywhere in the world

**What Every Citizen Should Know About Our Planet
**

Copyright 2011, The Wecskaop Project.

All rights reserved.

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