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Earth's seemingly-immense oceans, atmosphere, and seas are, in planetary and mathematical terms, actually razor-thin surface films. Astronauts and cosmonauts taking photographs from space have likened earth's atmosphere to a single layer of skin on an onion. And mathematically speaking,earth's oceans are only 6/100ths of 1% as thick as the earth itself. So what impacts are humankind's numbers having on these components of the only planetary life-support machinery so far known to exist anywhere in the universe? Important and provocative - and entirely free for use by scientists, students, and educators anywhere in the world.
This PowerPoint 4 in our Biospherics Literacy 101 collection is made available courtesy of The Wecskaop Project (What Every Citizen Should Know About Our Planet).

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Copyright 2011, The Wecskaop Project.

All rights reserved.

If we were a little

closer to the sun, our

water would exist

primarily in its

gaseous state

example, covers more of the

earth's surface than all of our

land masses combined

northern hemisphere and approximately

80% of the southern hemisphere

and land masses to fill in the deepest parts of the sea,

we would end up with no land at all

with a layer of water 2.5 kilometers deep

Earth also has hidden reservoirs of water

water vapor, fog, and humidity

on dwindling

underground aquifers

containing fossil water

that fell as rain

thousands of years ago

they are composed mostly of water.

tissues, and bodies of

living things constitute

rich reservoirs of water

up to 98% salt water

the Earth as an "Unlikely Planet

the numbers cited so

far

underscore an

abundance of water

abundance is simply an illusion

compared to the size of our planet

that Earth's oceans only seem large if they are compared to our

own diminutive body size

of our planet, an entirely different perspective emerges

consists of its crust, mantle, and its molten interior

exists only as an inexpressibly thin and precarious surface film

that is only 6/100 ths of 1% as thick as the Earth itself

For supporting mathematics

approximately

12/1000 ths of one inch deep

depth of the earth's oceans

depth to scale on a classroom globe,

we would need a thin film of water

would be too deep

earth's oceans

across a twenty-inch globe

exist as a thin and precarious surface film with greater

vulnerability than we might intuitively suppose

actually an illusion

for we have seen that, in planetary terms, our oceans are THIN

surface films that are just 6/100ths of 1% as thick as the earth itself

Supporting mathematics

review of

supporting mathematics

Part Two

Earths Atmosphere

as another thin and fragile surface film

can be viewed in a similar way

If we analyze the

proportional depth of

Earth's atmosphere,

we find that Earths

ocean of air

is also little more than

another thin and

fragile film

while taking photographs from

space, have likened Earths

atmosphere

to a single layer of skin

on an onion

air may exhibit far greater vulnerability

than we commonly imagine

our collective individual impacts

could contribute seriously to

potentially-calamitous outcomes

and oceans are razor-thin surface films

requires us to consider the

implications of our

current worldwide levels

of pollution, disruption,

and environmental damage

Part Three

What outbreaks of

dinoflagellate red-tide

in marine environments may

tell us about ourselves

dinoflagellates such as Karenia

brevis release small amounts of toxin

into their surroundings

a one-liter water sample can

contain 1,000,000 or more

dinoflagellate cells per liter

characteristics of red-tide outbreaks

is that, taken together, all one

million dinoflagellate cells per

liter in a red-tide outbreak

physically-occupy less than

2/1000 ths of 1%

of the one-liter sample

in which they reside

for supporting mathematics

shows most dramatically

is one of Earths classical realworld examples of populationenvironment calamities

shows most dramatically

is one of Earths classical realworld examples of populationenvironment calamities

that routinely take place

in environments that visually

appear to be

ALMOST

entirely

EMPTY

are one of natures quintessential

examples of calamities

that arise from population explosions

accompanied by the release of wastes

however, arise from their release of

cellular and metabolic wastes

into their surroundings

wastes into its surroundings,

we may be following a trajectory

that is provocatively similar to that of

an outbreak of dinoflagellate red-tide

supplements

its biological and cellular wastes

with a daily worldwide avalanche of

industrial and societal wastes

view, we may actually be on a

trajectory that is considerably worse

than that of the dinoflagellates

and multiple orders of

magnitude worse at that

releases ONLY its

metabolic and biological

wastes into its surroundings

for supporting mathematics

Part Four

No Other Animals Do This

assortment of industrial and societal wastes,

to a significant alteration of

the entire gaseous environment in which we live

that we inflict everywhere else

own species, surrounded by a seemingly

enormous atmosphere and seemingly

individual animal of any species other than our own

daily pollution of its environment is limited

to its daily production of its bodily wastes

limit themselves

the

Continuing,

however, to

envision

release of their biological, cellular,

and

metabolic

this

same

human wastes

being in an

automobile, backed up in

crowded traffic on a busy eightlane highway

hundreds of other cars and trucks

and buses, each spewing exhaust

from an internal combustion

engine

individuals are contributing

much more than our body wastes

to our surroundings

this same human being in an

automobile, backed up in

Incrowded

virtuallytraffic

all of on

these

cases,

each

a busy

eightorganisms

daily pollution of its

lane

highway

environment is limited to daily

production of its bodily wastes

All around in every direction are

hundreds of other cars and trucks

and buses, each spewing exhaust

from an internal combustion

engine

individuals are contributing

much more than our body wastes

to our surroundings

being living in an industrialized country

again a factor, of course,

but humanitys collective

biological wastes are natural

productions that have, in a

planetary sense, little impact

on global systems

backed up in crowded traffic on a busy eight-lane highway. All around in

every direction are hundreds of other cars and trucks and buses, each

spewing exhaust from an internal combustion engine.

us as individuals are

contributing much more

than our body wastes to

our surroundings

And we repeat this behavior every day - again and again and again

in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mumbai, Tokyo, Cairo, Karachi, Jakarta,

Paris, Moscow, Rio de Janeiro, Cape Town, and New York City

into the onion-skin-thin layer of air that makes up Earths atmosphere

Imagine you are driving your car and every mile you drive you throw a

pound of trash out your window.

And everyone else on the freeway in their cars and trucks are doing the

exact same thing, and people driving Hummers are throwing two bags out

at a time one out the driver-side window and one out the passenger-side

window.

How would you feel? Not so good. Well, that is exactly what we are

doing; you just cant see it.

Only what we are throwing out is a pound of CO2 thats what goes into

the atmosphere, on average, every mile we drive

Chemist Nate Lewis

As quoted by Friedman, 2008

- HOT, FLAT, AND CROWDED -

of these impacts would likely double

nations industrialize

and seek to emulate our

own standard of living

Earth that do this

at home or at work yet

our heating or air-conditioning units

run a dishwasher and clothes drier

run our lawnmowers and weed-trimmers

our refrigerators

freezers

street lights

fluorescent lights

toaster-ovens

microwaves

hair-dryers

steel mills

shopping malls

motor-boats

televisions,

computers

and

hot-water heaters

and/or other PowerPoints and PDFs in this series

not included

all the wastes

generated by

tons of disposable, throw-away containers

and all the items

Every day, from all of those tailpipes on each and every bumper-tobumper interstate, boulevard, and highway, we spew molecules of

carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide and other noxious fumes

that do this,

and we do so during each

and every rush hour,

on every grocery run,

on every holiday trip to visit family,

and during every postal delivery

activities every day,

again and again and again

and endlessly,

layer of air that constitutes earths atmosphere

so that our power plants, on our behalf,

release still more tons of wastes and fumes

once-in-a-lifetime contribution by each of us

throughout our lives

We are the ONLY animals on

Earth that do this

behave in this way without calamitous repercussions?

If we intend to enjoy such extravagance,

our populations must be smaller

and/or other PowerPoints and PDFs in this series

again and again and again,

supplements its cellular and

biological wastes with a

planet-wide avalanche of

industrial and societal wastes

the way that we do

No other animal species in

the history of

the Earth has

EVER

supplemented

its biological wastes

in this way

that have EVER done this

have ever supplemented their cellular and

biological wastes the way that we do

(which poison their environments by the release of wastes)

have ever supplemented their cellular and biological wastes

with a daily avalanche of industrial and societal

wastes the way that we do

footnote to the biology of our species

and all-encompassing characteristics

atmosphere is not

responding to our assaults

very well right now,

show that we are nevertheless on-track to ADD at least

our 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th BILLIONS to our numbers by 2100

projections show us

reaching

15.8 BILLION

by centurys end

covered with lakes, rivers, oceans, seas, and ice,

it is both easy and descriptive to

picture our home as "a water planet

so that we could easily call ourselves

"Planet Ocean

(IOF, 1978; Anson, 1991, 1996, 2007)

atmosphere as strictly surface features of our planet

an entirely different assessment presents itself

consider that today our own species,

surrounded by a seemingly enormous

atmosphere and seemingly vast amounts of

open space

an assortment of industrial and societal wastes,

to a significant alteration of the entire gaseous environment in which we live

damage that we inflict everywhere else)

Climb and collapse really happen

and we are not immune

Collapse routinely occurs in environments that

can appear to be almost entirely empty

Calamities can arise from wastes and damage

(as opposed to running out of things)

Earths atmosphere and seas as

onion-skin-thin surface films

of population explosions that induce calamity by

the release of wastes

A thin-film of water on a globe

We are not immune to collapse, and compared to

any other animals or dinoflagellates that have

ever lived, we are behaving comparatively badly

By our release of wastes, we exhibit a behavioral

similarity with population explosions of red-tide

dinoflagellates

We may well be on a trajectory that is far worse

than outbreaks of dinoflagellate red-tide because

we supplement our biological and metabolic

wastes with daily onslaughts of industrial and

societal wastes

While outbreaks of dinoflagellate red-tide can

be categorized as localized events, the impacts

of our own species are global in nature

We are dangerously misled by our

prevailing open-space suppositions

for it is a misperception to presume that human population

growth and overpopulation cannot be truly serious so long

as vast amounts of open space remain

First, Earths atmosphere and oceans

are onion-skin-thin surface films

in environments that can appear almost entirely empty

When less than 2/1000ths of one percent of

seemingly-available space is occupied

that running out of things

such as space, food,

resources, or anything else

that could threaten us

is an incomplete assessment of

our current condition

this, or that have ever done this

and are doing so on a worldwide

scale so that we are not a localized

phenomenon

incidental footnote to the biology of our species

but are instead one of our most distinguishing

and all-encompassing characteristics

Appendix 1

Severe red-tide conditions are common when

Karenia brevis populations reach concentrations

ranging between 100,000 to 1,000,000 or more cells

per liter. Secondly, approximate dimensions of a

typical K. brevis cell:

(1) Volume of 1 liter = 61.024 cubic inches

(2) The approximate dimensions of a single cell of K.

brevis are:

L: ~30 um (= 0.03 mm) = ~ 0.0012 inches **

W: ~ 0.0014 inches

(a little wider than it is long") *

D: ~ 10 15 um deep (10 um = .0004;

15 um = .0006), so average = ~ .0005 in

** Nierenberg, personal communication, 2008

** Floridamarine.org, 2008

million dinoflagellate cells in a one-liter sample still

have approximately 61.023 16 cubic inches of

unoccupied volume that would appear to remain

theoretically-available to them.

Percentage Unoccupied

(61.023 16) divided by (61.024 00) so that about

.999 987 2 or about 99.998 72% of the available

volume remains unoccupied.

This means that such a K. brevis population

manages to routinely visit calamity upon itself

and the environment in which it resides, even as

the cells themselves physically-occupy less than

2/1000ths of 1% of the total volume that appears

to remain seemingly-available.

= (.0012) x (.0014) x (.0005)

= ~ .000 000 000 840 cubic inches

or less than 2/1000ths of one percent of the volume

that appears to remain theoretically-available.

approximately (1,000,000) times (.000 000 000 840)

or a physical volume of about 0.000 84 cubic inches.

volumetrically-insignificant portion of the "openspace" that visually appears to remain almost

entirely empty, they manage, by their combined

overpopulation and production of invisible and

calamitous wastes, to catastrophically-alter the

aqueous surroundings in which they live.

subtracting 00.000 84 occupied cubic inches leaves

(61.024) (00.000 84) or about 61.023 16 cubic

Supporting Math

The image shown left depicts the physical amount of

space that constitutes two one-thousandths of one

percent. Note that the dot in the image denotes two

one-thousandths of one percent of the dark rectangle.

2/1000ths of

one percent

preparation of a two-dimensional illustration like the

one shown here that visually depicts the proportional

amount of area occupied by two one-thousandths of

one percent.

(1) Use imaging software to open a rectangle 500

pixels high by 350 pixels wide = 175,000 square

pixels (Here: dark rectangle without frame)

(2) Thus, one percent of this area = (175,000) x (.01)

equals 1750 square pixels

(3) In addition, 1/1000ths of one percent = (1750)

times (.001) equals1.750 square pixels

(4) And two1000ths of one percent = (1750) x (.002)

equals 3.5 square pixels

(5) Calculating the square root of 3.5 square pixels

equals1.87 pixels, so that a square of (1.87

pixels) by (1.87 pixels) equals 3.5 square pixels

in nearly empty environments

a small square of 1.87 pixels by 1.87 pixels (length

times width) would visually depict a physical region

of two one-thousandths of one percent.

Concerning V. B. Scheffers classic reindeer climband-collapse study on St. Paul Island, Alaska, our

estimate that the reindeer of St. Paul Island, Alaska

physically-occupied less than 2/1000ths of 1% of the

islands total area at the time of collapse is derived as

follows.

L: Assume an average reindeer is approximately

44 long

(Female reindeer ~ 38 long; males ~ 46 long; .

so for our purposes, assume an average of 44)

is approximately 24 wide

Girth will vary with time of year; food, pregnant . . .

females, etc., so for our purposes assume 24

member of the population would equal (44 inches)

x (24) or approximately 1056 square inches each

Given a peak reindeer population of St. Paul island of

slightly more than 2000 animals, (2000) times (1056)

equals a combined area that is physically occupied by

reindeer bodies of approximately 2,112,000 square

inches (by the entire herd).

One square foot = (12) x (12) = 144 square inches,

so that 2,112,000 divided by 144 means that the

physically-occupy a total of 14,667 square feet.

If the area of St. Paul Island, Alaska is about 41

square miles, then if one square mile is equal to

27,878,400 square feet, then the total square

footage of the island would equal ( (27,878,400)

x (41) or approximately 1,143,014,400 square feet.

Next, we can subtract the14,667 square feet that are

physically-occupied by the entire herd from the total

square footage of the island so that (1,143,014,400)

minus (14,667) results in a total unoccupied square

footage of 1,142,999,733 square feet.

Lastly, dividing the islands total unoccupied space

(1,142,999,733) by the total area of the island

(1,143,014,400) gives the percentage of total

unoccupied space at the time of the peak reindeer

population, which was 0.999 987 168. Notice then

that the collapse (and 99% die-off) of the St. Paul

Island reindeer population began at a time when

99.999% of the islands total area appeared to

remain theoretically-available.

Notice, therefore, that the herds collapse and 99%

die-off both began (and proceeded to devastation)

in surroundings that visually appeared to be

almost entirely empty.

We can apply the same approach to D.R. Kleins

classic reindeer climb-and-collapse study on St.

Matthew Island, Alaska (1968). Our estimate that

the reindeer of St. Matthew Island physically-occupied less than 2/1000ths of 1% of the islands total

area at the time of collapse is derived as follows.

L: Assume an average reindeer is approximately

44 long

(Female reindeer ~ 38 long; males ~ 46 long; .

so for our purposes, assume an average of 44)

is approximately 24 wide

Girth will vary with time of year; food, pregnant . . .

females, etc., so for our purposes assume 24

member of the population would equal (44 inches)

x (24) or approximately 1056 square inches each

Given a peak reindeer population of St. Matthew island (1963) of slightly more than 6000 animals, (6000)

times (1056) equals a combined area that is physically occupied by reindeer bodies of approximately

6,336,000 square inches (by the entire herd).

One square foot = (12) x (12) = 144 square inches,

so that 6,336,000 divided by 144 means that the

physically-occupy a total of 44,000 square feet.

If the area of St. Matthew Island, Alaska is about

138 square miles, then if one square mile is equal to

27,878,400 square feet, then the total square footage of the island would equal ( (27,878,400) x (138)

or approximately 3,847,219,200 square feet.

Next, we subtract the 44,000 square feet that are

physically-occupied by the entire herd from the total

square footage of the island so that 3,847,219,200

minus (44,000) results in a total unoccupied square

footage of 3,847,175,200 square feet.

Lastly, dividing the islands total unoccupied space

(3,847,175,200) by the total area of the island

(3,847,219,200) gives the percentage of total

unoccupied space at the time of the peak reindeer

population, which was 0.999 988 Notice then that

the collapse (and 99% die-off) of the St. Paul Island

reindeer population began at a time when 99.999%

of the islands total area appeared , visually-speaking, to remain theoretically-available.

Notice, therefore, that the herds collapse and 99%

die-off both BEGAN (and proceeded to devastation)

in surroundings that visually appeared to be

almost entirely empty.

Appendix 2

International Oceanographic Foundation

Virginia Key, Florida

(i)

Earth's oceans are, on average, approximately 3.6 km deep. If we

have 3.6 km of water on one side of our planet and another 3.6 km

on the opposite side, this represents an addition of 7.2 km added to

Earth's overall diameter.

interior, rocky mantle, crustal plates, and covering

of oceans) is approximately 12,740 km.

Earth's diameter would be roughly 12,732.8 km.

km (99.94%) of Earth's diameter consists of its

molten interior, rocky mantle, and crustal

plates.

the oceans accounts for only six one-hundredths of

one percent of Earth's diameter an inexpressibly

thin film indeed.

(12,732.8 divided by 12,740 = 0.9994)

and (100 minus 0.9994 = .0006)

would equal oceans, so that the scale model would

require a layer of water that is 6/100ths of a cm

deep in order to represent the ocean's average

depths in proportionally correct terms.)

(50.8 times .0006 = .03)

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