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SKANDA, PARTS XIV-XXIV BHAVISYA BRAHMAVATVARTA DEVBHGAVATA KLIK MRKANDEYA MATSYA VMANA VISNU VISNUDHARMOTTARA

THE

BRAHMNDA PURNA
Translated and Annotated by

DR. G.V. TAGARE

PART I

M O T I L A L BANARSIDASS P U B L I S H E R S PRIVATE LIMITED D E L H I

First

Edition:

Delhi,

1983 2000

Reprint:

Delhi,

MOTILAL BANARSIDASS PUBLISHERS PRIVATE LIMITED All Rights Reserved

ISBN: 81-208-0354-x

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U N E S C O COLLECTION OF REPRESENTATIVE WORKSIndian Series.

This book has been accepted in the Indian Translation Series of the UNESCO Collection of Representative Works, jointly sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Government of India

Printed in India
BY J A I N E N D R A PRAKASH JAIN AT SHRI J A I N E N D R A PRESS, A-45 N A R A I N A , P H A S E I, N E W D E L H I 110 0 2 8 A N D P U B L I S H E D B Y N A R E N D R A PRAKASH JAIN F O R M O T I L A L B A N A R S I D A S S P U B L I S H E R S PRIVATE LIMITED, B U N G A L O W R O A D , D E L H I 110 0 0 7

PUBLISHER'S N O T E T h e purest gems lie hidden in the b o t t o m of the ocean or in the d e p t h of rocks. O n e has to dive into the ocean or delve into t h e rocks -to find t h e m out. Similarly, t r u t h lies concealed in t h e language which with the passage of time h a s become obsolete. M a n has to learn t h a t language before he discovers t h a t t r u t h . But he has n e i t h e r the means n o r the leisure to embark on t h a t course. We have, therefore, planned to help h i m acquire knowledge by an easier course- We have started the series of Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology in English T r a n s l a t i o n . O u r goal is to universalize knowledge t h r o u g h the most p o p u l a r international m e d i u m of expression. T h e publication of t h e P u r n a s in English translation is a step towards t h a t goal.

PREFACE T h e present volume contains the Brahmnda Purna, P a r t I ( C h a p t e r s 1-38) completing the first-two sections (Prakriy a n d Anusaga) of t h e text in English Translation. T h i s is the Twenty-second volume in the series which we h a v e planned on Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology. T h e project of the Series was envisaged a n d financed in 1970 by Lala Sundar Lai J a i n of Messrs Motilal Banarsidass. Hitherto twentyone volumes of the Series (comprising English translation of iva, Liga, Bhgavata, Garuda, Nrada a n d Krma Purnas) have been published a n d released for sale. T h i s P u r n a , like all o t h e r P u r n a s , is encyclopaedic in c h a r a c t e r . It deals with miscellaneous topics such as Cosmogony, Religion, Philosophy History, Geography a n d Astronomy. It is called Brahmnda since it gives explanation of the real state of affairs a b o u t the universe. It is divided i n t o four sections : Prakriy, Anusaga, Upodghta a n d Upasamhra. It is a c c o m p a n i e d by Lalit-Mhtmya ( t h e glorification of t h e Goddess L a l i t ) in 40 c h a p t e r s . T h e present volume consists of two Sections viz. Prakriy a n d Anusaga. Section I Prakriy consists of five chapters which deal w i t h the creation of the universe in the light of the V e d i c metaphysics which it expounds in detail in the P u r n i c m a n n e r . T h i s section describes the original state of e q u i l i b r i u m of gunas ( q u a l i t i e s ) , the laying of the Golden Egg, t h e e m e r gence of the creator lord B r a h m a from it. T h e second section Anusaga, which this volume includes, contains 33 chapters ( 6 - 3 8 ) . It is a connected continuation of the theme of Prakriy p&da inasmuch as it recounts t h e a c c o u n t of the b i r t h as well as the genealogies of Brahmarsis (Brahmanical sages), Devarsis (Celestial sages) a n d Rjarsis (Royal sages). T h e two sections which complete this volume illustrate the two characteristics of a M a h p u r n a viz., Sarga ( C r e a t i o n ) a n d Vatha ( g e n e a l o g y ) , a l t h o u g h t h e l a t t e r trait is resumed in t h e third section, n a m e l y t h e Upodghta of t h e next volume.

via )

T h e aim of this series is to universalize knowledge t h r o u g h t h e most p o p u l a r i n t e r n a t i o n a l m e d i u m of expression, namely English. O l d Sanskrit T e x t has been rendered i n t o English as precisely as possible. The translation is based on the standard edition of the Vekatevara Press. T h e text is well edited, still it presents problems, h a r d to be overcome by m e r e translation. T h e need of annotations is evident therefore. T h e learned t r a n s l a t o r has a d d e d a m p l e materials in t h e footnotes which facilitate correct interpretation of the text. He has p u t elabo r a t e c o m m e n t s in these notes on each a n d every problem of i m p o r t a n c e a n d discussed textual variations in the verses common to other P u r n a s . His critical I n t r o d u c t i o n needs no comment in t h e preface. T h e comparative study of the Javanese text of B r a h m n d a P u r n a in K a v i language w i t h the Sanskrit text of the present P u r n a is a feature t h a t shall be most wel comed by the reader. We h a v e included Abbreviations in this p a r t . T h e y will be r e p e a t e d in the succeeding p a r t s too w i t h such additions as are m a d e in t h e notes of those parts. T h e general I n d e x will be a p p e n d e d to t h e last p a r t . Acknowledgement of Obligations It is our pleasant d u t y to p u t on record o u r sincere t h a n k s t o D r . R . N . D a n d e k a r a n d the U N E S C O authorities for their kind encouragement a n d valuable h e l p which render this work m o r e useful t h a n it would otherwise have been. We a r e extremely grateful to D r . G. V. T a g a r e w h o has meticu lously a n d delightfully accomplished this onerous task. T h e critical I n t r o d u c t i o n , the lucid translation a n d comprehensive a n n o t a t i o n s are, in fact, his m o n u m e n t a l contributions to the studies i n Indology. W e must t h a n k Shri T . V . Parameshwar Iyer for his valuable assistance in the p r e p a r a t i o n of this work. We should also express o u r g r a t i t u d e to all those persons w h o have offered suggestions for improving the s a m e .

Editor

CONTENTS

PREFACE ABBREVIATIONS

vn xiii xvii xvii xviii-xix xix xx the


XX

INTRODUCTION I T h e title B r a h m n d a E x t e n t , Position, Transmission T h e p l a c e of Composition II Text-criticism : Materials (i) C h a p t e r Concordance of B r a h m n d a a n d Vyu P u r n a s

(ii) T h e B r a h m n d a a n d N r a d a P u r n a s (iii) T h e O l d J a v a n e s e B r a h m n d a P u r n a III IV T h e Brahmnda as a Mah-Purna Religious Sects i n the B r h m n d a P u r n a : aivismVaisnavism Sktism T h e S u n worship An obscure c u l t : G o d h a r m a Non-Vedic religions D h a r m a s t r a A n c i e n t L o r e s T h e Science of Music Religion a n d Philosophy i n the B r a h m n d a Purna: VedntaSkhyaYogaBhakti T a n t r a o t h e r points T h e P a r a u r m a Legend Historical T r a d i t i o n i n the B r a h m n d a P u r n a T h e D a t e o f the B r a h m n d a P u r n a Appendix to the d a t e of the B r a h m n d a P u r n a

xxii xxvi
XXX

xliv

V VI

Iviii

lxiii lxvi lxxiv lxxix lxxxi

VII VIII IX X

PART I
SECTION IPRAKRIYA

CHAPTERS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Contents of the B r a h m n d a P u r n a T h e Legend of N a i m i s r a n y a Evolution of the Universe : T h e Creation of Hiranyagarbha Constitution of the world ( T h e Cosmic E g g ) Creation of t h e Universe

3 22 28 32 36

SECTION

IIANUSAGA

55

CHAPTERS 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. K a l p a s and M a n v a n t a r a s ; their D u r a t i o n Knowledge About the World God Brahma's Mental Creation : g o d s , sages, manes, a n d h u m a n beings created Progeny of R u d r a : Birth of Bhrgu and Others Magnificence of God iva : Birth of Nilalohita : His eight Names a n d Forms Creation of Sages R a c e of Agni R e a l N a t u r e o f K l a T i m e : Seasons as Pitrs (Manes) R a c e of Priyavrata L e n g t h a n d extent of the E a r t h : Description of J a m b d v p a 57 6586 93 101 109^ 113 120134 141 149 162 165 174 192 19ft

16. Description of B h r a t a 17. Varsas o f J a m b d v p a , H a r i a n d I l v r t a 18. J a m b d v p a ; T h e Bindu L a k e I t s four streams 19. Plaksa a n d o t h e r Continents 20. Description of t h e Netherworlds 2 1 . T h e Solar System. M o v e m e n t s of heavenly Luminaries : Division of T i m e

( 22.

xi

T h e Divine Luminaries, Varieties of clouds. Divisions of Stratosphere, the C h a r i o t of the Sun-God 23. Information a b o u t Heavenly bodies. The m o v e m e n t of the Polar S t a r 24. T h e a r r a n g e m e n t of the Heavenly L u m i n a r i e s . T h e Sun, the source of Light to L u m i n a r i e s 25. Origin of the Epithet N l a k a n t h a . Siva swallowing poison 26. O r i g i n of t h e Liga-image of Siva 27. iva cursed by D r u v a n a sages. I n s t a l l a t i o n of iva LigaInjunctions regarding Ashbth 2 8 . M e e t i n g of P u r u r a v a s a n d Pitrs. Performance of a n n u a l obsequies on the New Moon D a y 29. Cycle of Yugas. Characteristics of Yugas 30. I n a u g u r a t i o n of the Sacrificial Cult. Fall of K i n g Vasu for denunciation of Sacrifices 31. T h e four Yugas : Castes a n d Stages of Life 32. Yugas a n d Classes of People. Lineage of Sages 33. Characteristics of Sages a n d of M a n t r a s 34. Vysa and his Disciples 35. Legends of Yjavalkya a n d Vysa, Description of S v y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a 36. 37. T h e Lineage o f M a n u , M a n v a n t a r a s Milking of the E a r t h Cksusa M a n v a n t a r a : Dynasty of Vaivasvata Manu The Mrca

214 222 232 247 258

265 277 287 296 301 313 325 331 338 361 381 386

38. " T h e Vaivasvata M a n v a n t a r a : Creation

ABBREVIATIONS

C o m m o n a n d self-evident abbreviations such a s c h ( s ) c h a p t e r (s), p p a g e , p p p a g e s , vverse, w v e r s e s , F t n footnote, Hist. I n d . PhiloHistory of I n d i a n Philosophy a r e n o t included in this list. ABORI AGP AIHT Annals of the Bhandarkar Institute, P o o n a . Oriental Research

S. M. Ali's The Geography of Purnas, P P H , New Delhi, 1973. Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, F. E. Pargiter, Motilal Banarsidass ( M L B D ) , Delhi. Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology Series, M L B D , Delhi, 1972 onwards. Agni Purna, G u r u M a n d a l Edition ( G M ) , Calcutta, 1957. Archaeological Survey R e p o r t . Atharva Veda, Svadhyaya M a n d a l , A u n d h . Brahmnia Purna, M L B D , D e l h i 1973. Bhagavadgit. Bhgavata Purna, Ahmedabad. Brhmana (preceded Satapatha). Bhagavat, by Vidyapeeth, such as

AITM AP Arch. S. R e p . AV Bd. P. BG Bh. P. Br. Bs. P. Bv. P. CC CVS DB

name

Bhavisya Purna, Vishnu Shastri Bapat, W a i . Brahma Vaivarta Purna, G M , 1955-57. Caturvarga Cintmani by H e m d r i . Carana Vyha Stra by a u n a k a ; C o m . by Mahidsa. Devi Bhgavata, G M , 1960-61.

( De or G D A M I

The Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Mediaeval India, N. L. D e , Orienta Reprint, Delhi, 1971. Dharma Stra (preceded by the a u t h o r ' s

D h . S. ERE GP GS HD IA IHO_ KA KP

n a m e such as G a u t a m a ) . Encyclopaedia of Religion and EthicsHastings. Garuda Purna, Ed. R. S. Bhattacharya, C h o w k h a m b a , Varanasi, 1964. Grhya Stra (Preceded by the n a m e of the a u t h o r such as pastamba) History of Dharma G.O.S. The Indian Antiquary. The Indian Historical Quarterly. Kaufiliya Artha&stra. Krma Purna, Venkateshwara Press Edt. Bombay, also Kashiraj Trust E d t . , V a r a n a s i 1971. Liga Purna, G M , 1960; also M L B D , Delhi, 1981. Manu Smrti. Mahbhrata, Gt Press, G o r a k h p u r , VS 2014. Mrkandeya Purna. Mahbhrata Nmnukramani, G t Press, G o r a k h p u r , VS 2016. M t . P. MW NP PCK P d . P. PE Matsya Purna, G M , 1954. Monier Williams Sk. English Dictionary M L B D , Delhi, 1976. N&radiya or Nrada Press, Bombay. Purna; Venkateshwar stra by P. V. K a n e ,

LP Manu Mbh. MKP MN

Bhratavarsiya Prcina Caritra koia, Siddheshwar Shastri, Poona, 1968. Padtna Purna, G M . , 1957-59. Puranic Encyclopaedia by V. Marti, English, M L B D , Delhi, 1975.

( PJ. PR or P R H R C RV at. Br SC or S M C SEP

xv

Purna ( J o u r n a l of t h e K a s h i r j T r u s t ) , Varanasi. Puranic Records on Hindu Rites and R. G. H a z r a , C a l c u t t a , 1948. Rg Veda, Svadhyaya M a n d a l , A u n d h atapatha Brhmana. Smrti CandrikDcv&nna. B h a t t a . Studies in Epics and Purnas by A. D. Pusalkar B h a r a t i y a V i d y a B h a v a n ( B V B ) , Bombay. Customs

INTRODUCTION 1. The Title Brahmnda

T h i s P u n a is called ' B r a h m n d a ' , as god B r a h m a n a r r a t ed it w i t h special emphasis on the description of the B r a h m n d a (the Cosmic Egg) a n d deals with the future Kalpa-periods. 1 K P . states t h a t this P u r n a , sanctified by the description of the B r a h m a n was recounted by B r a h m a to Sages engaged in a S a t t r a in Naimisa forest. 2 T h e NP ( N r a d a P u r n a ) calls it ' a n ancient treatise dealing with the events of the A d i - K a l p a . s T h e B d . P . 4 ( B r a h m n d a P u r n a ) repeatedly declares its m a i n object to give 'the explanation of the real state of affairs or the reality a b o u t the Universe or the world (loka-tattva). T h e t e r m B r a h m n d a connotes a mix of ancient I n d i a n concepts a b o u t cosmography, cosmology a n d cosmogony. T r a d i t i o n a l l y 5 the P u r n a is divided into four p a r t s (Pdas) of u n e q u a l length as follows : 1) Prakriy P d a (No. of Chs. 5) 2) A n u s a g a P d a (No. of Chs. 33) 3) ' U p o d g h t a P d a (No. of Chs. 74) 4) U p a s a i h h r a P d a (No. of Chs. 4)
1. B r a h m a brahtnnda-mhtmyam adhikrty'bravit p u n a h / t a c c a dvdaa-shararh B r a h m n d a m dviatdhikam // B h a v i s y n m ca kalpnrii ryate yatra vistarah / t a d Brahmnda-purnam ca Brahman samudhrtam // Mt.P. 53-54-55. KP. I I . 4 3 . 4 . atra prvarh sa B h a g a v n rsnm sattram satm / sa vai p r o v c a B r a h m n d a m P u r n a m Brahma-bhvitam // AP. 272.22 repeats Mt. P. 53.54a, b.c. 3. 4. N P . 109.1 loka-tattvrtham a k h i l a m V e d a - s a m m a t a m / Bd.P.l.l.l.1-8. loka-tattva-vidhnrthamibid. 12 5. Bd.P. 1.1.1.39 : E v a m pdstu catvrah NP. 109.29 calles Bd. P. ' c a t u s p d a '

xviii

Brahman da Purna

This seems to be the original division as followed in the Prva Sarhhit(Fa. P. 11.61.58-59), b u t later on, P d a s 1 a n d 2 -were included u n d e r Prva bhga, P d a 3 u n d e r the middle p a r t (MadhyaBhga) a n d P d a 4 as Uttara-bhga (the latter p a r t ) . T h e original B d . P . ended with the 4th C h . of the Upasamhra Pda as its concluding verses ( I I I IV.4.41-73) state t h a t all the sages of N a i m i s r a n y a , the performers of the sacrificial session, went to heaven. It further gives the genealogy of the teachers of Bd. P. who h a n d e d down the T e x t (and i t t h e Genealogyis m u c h m o r e comprehensive t h a n t h a t in the begin n i n g I . i . 1.8-12). Moreover, we find t h a t the Lalit M h t m y a starts with a fresh M a g a l c a r a n a a n d has a new p a i r of interlocutors. Its contentsmanifestation of goddess Lalit to kill Bhandsura, h e r m a r r i a g e with K m e v a r a , (iva) a n d glorification of M a h p a d m etc.show t h a t it is an- i n d e p e n d e n t work a n d not an integral p a r t of the Bd. P. Lalit M h t m y a of 40 chapters is thus a later accretion or an Appendix, as it is not m e n t i o n e d in the N P . C h . 109 n o r in the J a v a n e s e version of the Bd. P. 2. Extent :

As to the extent of the Purna,majority of the P u r n a s 1 regard "Bd. P. as consisting of 12000 verses" (dvdaa-shasrath Brahmndam). T h o u g h Ml. P. 53.54 gives 12,200 as the n u m b e r of verses in Bd.P., the Venkateshwar Press edition of this P u r n a , however, contains 14286 verses. Obviously Venk. Press edition is inflated with an interpolation of 2286 verses. T h e absence of Lalit m h t m y a in the J V P . a n d t h a t of the so-called 'Prophetic history of future dynasties' in the Indonesian edition of the Bd.P. show t h a t the original Bd. P. was smaller. 3. Position

All P u r n a s , however, agree a b o u t the. 18th position of Bd. P. in the list of P u r n a s (vide KP.III.6.21-24, Bh. P. X I I . 13. 4-8, LP, I.39.6I-63, Mt. P. 53.12ff, SK. P . V I I . 2 . 5 - 7 ) .
1. e.g. Bh.P. X I I . 13.8., AP. 272.23-

Introduction 4. Transmission

xix

T h e Bd.P. records the following two lines of transmission Of this P u r n a : I. God B r a h m - * S a g e Vasistha->Parara--Jtukarnya D v a i p y a n a (Vysa) S t a Ro (Lo) m a h a r s a n a (Bd.P. 1.1.1 8-17). JVP. (109.33-36) substitutes akti for P a r a r a a n d adds V y u (the W i n d - g o d ) between J t u k a r n y a a n d Vysa. I I . This is much longer t h a n the I above, a n d is given in the concluding portion of the P u r n a (Bd.P. Hl.iv.4.58-66). It is as follows : God B r a h m - v M t a r i v a n (The W i n d - g o d ) - * Uanas-*Brhaspati-VThe Sun-god-*The G o d of death--Indra->Vasistha -+Srasvata->Tridhman -^-aradvataTrivista--antarksa-> Trayyruni->-Dhanajaya -> K r t a j a y a Bharadvja --> G a u tama->Niryyantara--Vjaravas->-Somausma Trnabindu-*Daksa->akti->Parara (while in womb)->Jtukamya->.Dvaip y a n a (Vysa)->-Sta R o ( L o ) m a h a r s a n a . O n e wonders why Vasistha did not transmit this P u r n a directly to his son akti a n d Why fifteen generations of teachers or c o n t e m p o r a r y teachers h a d to intervene between the father (Vasisfha) a n d the son ( a k t i ) . T h e VS.P. 103.58-66 gives this very list of teachers who transmitted the text of t h a t P u r n a . It must however be conceded t h a t all the teachers in the list are a c c o m m o d a t e d in the longer II list. 5. The Place of Composition

It is difficult to pin-point the place of the composition of Bd.P. In Bd.P. I.ii. 16.43-44 the a u t h o r states : " T h e region towards the n o r t h e r n extremity of the Sahya m o u n t a i n where the Godvar flows is the]most fascinating realm in the whole of the e a r t h . A city n a m e d G o v a r d h a n a was b u i l t there by R m a . Heavenly trees a n d divine medicinal herbs were planted there by sage Bharadvja to please R m a . H e n c e t h e region of t h a t excellent city is c h a r m i n g " . ' In my note on G o v a r d h a n a , * I have n o t e d t h a t G o v a r d h a n a
Note 1 on p. 157.

XX

Brahmnda Purna

was an i m p o r t a n t centre of learning a n d was m e n t i o n e d several times in the famous inscription of U s a v a d t a (100 B.C.)Epi. Ind. V I I I , p. 78. Brahmins hailing from t h a t area are known as G o v a r d h a n a B r h m a n a s . Some of the details of the r d d h a ritual (rddha Kalpa) in Bd.P. ( H . i i i . Chs. 10 to 20) are c o m m o n to those of the M d h y a n d i n Brahmins ( M d h y a n d i n Brahmins seem to have colonised the Godvar valley right from its source at Tryambakeshwar). K a n e regards this area as the place of composition ofBd. P. (HD.V.ii.895 a n d I V . 710 Footnote 1618), I still think t h a t s o m e m o r e clinching evidence is necessary to support this claim, for in C h . 16 u n d e r reference a n d elsewhere a n u m b e r of places in I n d i a are mentioned in glowing terms. I I . Text-Criticism : Materials

II. i. Chapter Concordance of the Brahmnda and Vyupurna Brahmnda Vyu . Brahmnda 7 (195) 8 (66) 9 (92) 10 (88) 11 (45a) 12 (53) 13.1-86 (86) 13.87-151 (65) 14 (75) Vyu 8 (209) 9.1-84 (64) 10.1-67 (67) 27 (60) 28 (39) 29 (49) 30.1-78 (78) 31 (61) 33 (65):

Prahriypda 1.1 (174) 2 (48) 3 (38) 4 (34) 5 (141) Anusagapda 6 (77) 7 (80) 1 (205) 2 (45) 4 (92) 5 (54) 6 (79)

Introduction Brahmnda 15.1-51a (50) I5.51a-61b l5.61b-80 (20) 16 (69) 17 (37) 18 (84) 19 (197) 20 (58) 21 (176) 22 (84) 23 (108) 24 (152) 25 (117) 26 (65) 28 (100) 29 ' (92) 30 (48) 31 (127) Vyu 34.1-57 (57) 43.1-9 (9) 45.1-20a (20) 45.67-13? (71) 46 (37) 47' (80) 49 (186) 50.1-57a (57) 50.57b-224 (167) 51 (76) 52 (99) 53 (123) 54 (117) 55 (68) 56 (94) 57.1-85 (85) 57.86-125 (40) 58 (126) Bd.P. 32 (122) 34 (68) 35.1.4a S5.4b-215 (211) 36 (227) 37 (60) 38 (33; V.P. 59.1-106a (106) 60.1-62 (62) 60.63-66a 61 (186) 62 (193) 63 (56) 64 (31)

XXI

(*)

Upodghtapda II.l (125) 2 (32) 3 (131) 4 (37) 5 (106) 6 (39) 7. (479) 8. (162) 9 (76) 65.1a-120 (120) 65.120b-159 (39) 66 (152) 67.1-47 (47) 67.68-135 (88) 68 (39) 69 (355) 70 (91) 71 (79)

xxii Bd.P. 10.1 -52a (52) 10.52b-120 (68) ll.l-35a (35) 11.35b-116 (81) 12 (46) 13 (143) 14 (117) 15 (68) 16 (59) 17 (22) 18 (15) V.p. 72 (50) 73 (73) 74 (32) 75 (77) 76 (43) 77 (135) 78 (28) 79 (95) 80 (62) 81 (26) 82 (15) Upasamhirapida III.l (243) 2 (316) 3 (113) 4 (73) Bd.P. 19 (74) 20 (23) 59 (86) 60 (28) 61 (53)

Brahmnda Purna V&.P. 83.1-107 (107) 83.108-129 (22) 84 (86) 85 (28) 86 (69)

100 (246) 101 (355) 102 (135) 103 (73)

It is d u e to this close correspondence between t h e texts of Bd. P. a n d V P. t h a t I referred to the r e a d i n g in the corres p o n d i n g verse in t h e V . P . in case the r e a d i n g in B d . P . is corrupt, incorrect or doubtful. * II. ii. The Brahmnda and the Narada Purnas

T h e N P . , in C h . 109, briefly gives a list of topics in the Bd. P. T h e y are n o t 'a T a b l e of c o n t e n t s ' in the m o d e r n sense of t h e t e r m b u t are found described at various places in t h e Bd.P.

Introduction

xxiii

Below is a comparative table of the topics in the Bd. P. as recorded in the N P . Bd.P. Prva bhga Prakriy pda 1.1.1. 1.1.2. 1.1.3. 1.1.4 Bd.P. Prva-Bhga-Anusaga Pda N.P. Ch. 109 V.5 N a r r a t i o n of K a l p a s a n d M a n v a n t a r a s , K r o w l e d g e a b o u t worlds V.6 N a r r a t i o n of m e n t a l creation R u d r a ' s offspring Prowess of M a h d e v a Creation by Sages V.7 Agnivarha T h e wheel of T i m e Dynasty of Priyavrata T h e extent of the e a r t h V.8 Description of Bhrata Review of other sub-continents Description of J a m b d v p a a n d other continents T h e description of the nether-worlds V.9 E n u m e r a t i o n of the u p p e r worlds T h e movements of planets P l a n e t a r y system I.ii. 18 & 19. I.ii.20 I.ii.21.20 I.ii.23. I.ii.21,22 ff. I.ii.6 I.ii.7. I.ii.8. I.ii.9. I.ii.10. I.ii.ll. I.ii.12 I.ii.13. I.ii.14 I.ii.15 I.ii.16 I.ii.17

NP.Ch. 109 V.4 Stipulation of duties Story of the Naimisa forest T h e origin of H i r a n y a g a r b h a T h e conception of different worlds.

xxiv NP E n u m e r a t i o n of Divine plants V.10 E x p l a n a t i o n of the n a m e N i l a k a n t h a Prowess of M a h d e v a Description of the New M o o n day Review of the Principles of Yuga V.ll T h e Institution of Yajas T h e last two Yugas described

Brahmnda Purna Bd.P. I.ii.24 I.ii.25 I.ii.26, 27 I.ii.28 I.ii.29. I.ii.30. I.ii.31

Characteristics of h u m a n beings in different Yugas I.ii.32. Spiritual lineage of Sages I.ii.32 V.12 T h e classification of the Vedas I.ii.34.

S v y a m b h u v a M a n u a n d his M a n vantara I.ii.35. E n u m e r a t i o n of remaining M a n u epochs Milking of the E a r t h V.13 T h e Cksusa M a n v a n t a r a I.ii.36. I.ii.36. I.ii.37.

JVP. T h e creation of Seven Sages V.14 T h e family of Prajpati a n d the b i r t h of Devas Birth of M a r u t s V.15 T h e race of K a y a p a T h e families of Sages Pitf-Kalpa rddha-Kalpa

Bd.P. HI Upodghta Pda H.iii.l.

II.iii.2, 3 II.iii.5 II.iii.7 II.iii.8 II.iii.9 H . i i i . Chs.10-20.

Introduction NP. V.16 T h e origin of Vaivasvata M a n u a n d his creation T h e family of M a n u ' s sons T h e review of G a n d h a r v a s (Science of M u s i c ) V.17 T h e race of Iksvku T h e race of Atri T h e r a c e of Amvasu T h e story of Raji V.18 T h e story of Yayti T h e race of Yadu T h e story of K r t t a v l r y a II.iii.61. II.iii.63. II.iii.8 II.iii.66 II.iii.66 II.iii.68 II.iii.69 II.iii.59 II.iii.60 Bd.P.

XXV

T h e story o f J a m a d a g n i a n d P a r a urma II.iii.21-46. V.19 T h e r a c e o f Vrsni II.iii.71. T h e b i r t h of Sagara II.iii.47.75-100. T h e story of Bhrgava a n d the killing of K r t t a v r y a V.2C T h e story of S a g a r a T h e story of Bhrgava again Battle between Devas a n d Asuras Birth of K r s n a V.21 Greatness of Visnu T h e race of Bali V.22 T h e future kings of Kali Age II.iii.37-46. II.iii.45-56 II.iii.57-58. II.iii.72.67-195 a n d 73.1-68. II.iii.71.195-241. II.iii.73. II.iii.74.26 II.iii.74 Bd. P. UttaraBhga-Upasamhra V.23 V.24 Description of Vaivasvata M a n v a n t a r a I I I . i v . 5 ff. Stories of future M a n u s III.iv.1.7 ff. Pda ff. I n d r a ' s ( P r o b - i v a ' s ) p r a y e r by ukra II.iii.72.163ff

XXVI

Brahninda Purna NP Bd.P. I U . i v . l & 3. III.iv.2.90 ff.

V.25

K a l p a a n d Pralaya Measures of T i m e 14 Worlds a n d their character

III.iv.2.-8-89. III.iv.2.145-195. IV.3. IV.iv.2. IV.iv.iv.4.

V.26

Description of Hells Prakritic P r a l a y a

V.27 V.28

Description of Siva's city Threefold goals Description of B r a h m a n

It will be seen from the above c o m p a r a t i v e T a b l e t h a t Lalit-Mhtmya does n o t form a p a r t of Bd.P. according to Nrada. II. (Hi) The Old-Javanese Brahmn4a Purna* T h e first scholar to invite a t t e n t i o n to t h e old-Javanese ( O J . ) Bd. P. was R. Friederich who, in A . D . 1847, n o t e d it in. his 'Provisional R e p o r t of t h e Isle of Bali'. But t h a t P u r n a in. Kavi language c a m e to be edited a n d translated in D u t c h by the great scholar Prof. D r . J. G o n d a of U t r e c h t in 1932-33. (Het. oud-javaansche B r a h m n d a P u r n a Edited a n d a n n o t a t e d , B a n d u n g 1932 a n d I I translated, B a n d u n g 1933). Like other O J . texts (e.g. m a n y Parvans of the M b h . ) the Bd. P. in K a v i L a n g u a g e is an abridged prose translation of t h e S K . Bd. P. or was a translation of an abridged form of t h e original S K . written in the loka style. It p r u n e s superfluous adjec tives a n d other trammels a n d succinctly presents the story. It follows S K . passages which were borrowed a n d translated very closely. Although it is m u c h shorter, it does not generally speak ing, omit, from the chapters w h a t is essential. W h a t is especially

Based on Prof. D r . J.

G o n d a ' s paper : Oritntalia this

Einige Mitteibingen uber dasXI. 218-259. I am grateful dated. article ( H i s letter

alt-jvnische Brahmnda Purna in Acta 1.12.82).

to Dr. G o n d a for inviting my attention to

Introduction

xxvii

interesting is t h a t m a n y lokas, double or single pdas a r e lite rally borrowed a n d interspersed at irregular intervals. T h e s e S K . quotations constitute fragments of an i n d e p e n d e n t t r a d i t i o n of these texts. T h e Javanese Bd. P. is closely r e l a t e d to the B r a h m n d a - V y u recension though different in m a n y respects from it a n d is a valuable source of knowledge for studying t h e textual tradition of t h e P u r n a s . D r . G o n d a examines t h e struc t u r e of the J a v a n e s e Bd. P. a n d draws a t t e n t i o n to the following p a r t i c u l a r s w h i c h shed light on its relation with S K . Bd. P. a n d the inter-relation between the S K . P u r n a s themselves: 1. T h e introduction mainly agrees with S K . V . P . , w i t h the sacrifice of K i n g Adhisma-Krsna. A m o n g B r h m a n a s a n d Sages w h o a t t e n d e d was Bhagavn R o m a h a r s a n a . H e , a t t h e i r request, proceeds to n a r r a t e the Manuvamakrama i n c l u d i n g P u r a n i c stories. O J . ( O l d - J a v a n e s e ) Bd. P . p . 4 8 . 5 p , 53.30 correspond t o V . P . 1.8-28. V . P. 1.1-9 a r e completely missing. 2. R o m a h a r s a n a commences his n a r r a t i o n by describing the creation of t h e universe B d . P . l , 3, 8. After describing P r a d h n a , the O J . text informs about the creator : R u d r a , K l a a d d i n g some notices of (originally Skhya b u t Puranised c o n cepts like) m a h n , a h a m k r a , ekdaendriya, t a n m t r a s a n d the origin of t h e cosmic egg.. Then, the creation of nine devar^is,. t h e b i r t h of R u d r a (cf. Bd.P. G h . l O ) , t h e origin of S a k a l p a a n d D h a r m a (Gf. V . P. 9.7 ff), the creation of gods, Asuras, pitrs. T h e first q u o t a t i o n in O J . Bd. p. corresponds to Bd. P. 1.3.8 a n d the last to 1.8.54-55. 3. After some details a b o u t t h e chronology of c r e a t i o n a n d origin of four V a r n a s , t h e O J . text treats the b i r t h of S v y a m bhuva M a n u and atarp, their marriage and birth of R a t i etc. T h e n a r r a t i v e runs parallel to Bd. P. 1.9.32 ff (V. P. 10.8ff) b u t t h e O J . version is shorter a n d presents the topics in different order. While dealing with D a k s a ' s wife Prasti a n d her twentyfour children ( O J . Bd.P. p. 58.1.21 ff) t h e text agrees with K P . 8.15 r a t h e r than with the m o r e detailed Bd.P. 1.9.47-49 ( V . P . 10.23-24) showing t h a t the Javanese a u t h o r h a d a shorter S K . redaction of the Bd. P. T h e text Bd. P. ch. 11 (V. P. c h . 28) a n d O J . Bd. P. r u n parallel b u t O J . version drops Agnivama-varnana. The

xxviii

Brahmnia Pur an a

short note on Pitrs (Bd. P. 1.13.1 ff. V . P. 30.1 ff) is also missing. 4. O J . Bd. P. is silent on Deva-vama Varnana (Bd. P. 1.13.87-151, V . P. 3 1 ) . 5. Ksattriya-Sarga i.e. the genealogy of M a n u Svyamb h u v a in O J . Bd. P. p. 68.1.2 ff corresponds to Bd. P. 1.14 a n d V . P. 33. In SK. Bd. P. a n d V . P. the description of J a m b d v i p a (Bd. P. 1.15, V . P. 34. 1-57, 53.1-9, 45.1.20a) follows rationally a n d chronologically after n a r r a t i n g the a p p o i n t m e n t of M a n u ' s seven grandsons to seven dvipas, b u t C h s . Bd. P. 15-31, V . P. 34-58 are not found in O J . Bd. P. It gives the geography of J a m b d v p a at a later place. 6. T h e O J . Bd.P. p.72.1,ff. containing yuga-prajS-laksanam a n d Rsi-pravaravarnanam corresponds to Bd. P. 1.32.1 ff). T h e duration of life of gods, demons, m e n , d h a r m a , ramas etc. a r e discussed to some length. 7. Bd. P. C h . 33 containing sages a n d sacred formula (rs-nm n m n i , m a n t r a - l a k s a n a m , m a n t r n m n&nvidhatvam e t c . ) is missing in O J . Bd. P., t h o u g h the contents are to follow later on (p. 14 ff.). T h o u g h the subject m a t t e r of Bd. P. 34 is generally speaking adequately represented in the O J . text, there is m u c h diversity in details (so in V . P . as w e l l ) . 8. T h e episode of the pupils of D e v a m i t r a kalya a n d kapni are common to O J . a n d SK. Bd.P. (Ch. 35 of Bd. P . ) ; so are the next subjects such as division of Yajurveda, Vaiamp y a n a ' s brahma-haty, behaviour of Yjavalkya who, after 'vomitting' old Yajurveda, acquires a new (white) Yajurveda a n d names of 86 pupils of V a i a m p y a n a etc. T h e O J . text spells m a n y names differently. T h e r e is a curious statement in O J . Bd. P. p. 90.1 where Yjavalkya is shown to refuse V a i a m p y a n a ' s request to observe p e n a n c e to atone for his B r a h m a h a t y . But b o t h SK. Bd.P. 1.35.20 a n d V . P. 61.17 state the willing ness of Yjavalkya to obey: aham ekal carisymi tisthantu munayas tvime 9. T h e next section on the rsis of four Vedas, the mantras, their use differs considerably in details from SK. Bd. P. C h . 33 b u t V . P. too differs a n d so the origin of deviation is I n d i a n a n d not Indonesian.

Introduction

xxix

10. W h e n O J . text (p. 112.30) reaches S K . Bd. P. 1.35.201 a n d V. P. 61.172, it ( O J . B d . p . p. 112.30) observes : " L i k e t h a t the n a r r a t i v e goes in the Prakriypda of B r a h m n d a samhit as told by t h e revered V y s a " ) . But the Prakriy-pda in SK. P u r n a s ends m u c h earlier viz. at t h e end of C h . 5 in Bd. P. a n d 6 in V . P. It is puzzling how the term Prakriypda is used in t h e O J . T e x t w h i c h shows no knowledge of the four fold division (viz. Prakriy, Anusaga, Upodghta a n d Upasarhhra> of t h e mla-purna. 11. T h e long section dealing with other M a n u s a n d t h e descendants of Svyambhuva M a n u esp. t h e V e n a - P r t h u episode r u n s parallel in general with Bd. P.,V.P. Kirfel points out t h e difference between redaction of the V e n a - P r t h u episode in Bd. P., V . P. a n d in other P u r n a s like B r a h m a , H a r i v a m a a n d concludes t h a t t h e O J . text betrays t h e activity of the same r e d a c t o r w h o a r r a n g e d the I n d i a n Bd. P.-V. P. texts. H e r e after O J . text treats the description of J a m b d v p a , Bhuvanavinysa a n d a p a r t of Jyotihpracra which constitute Bd. P. C h . 1.15 a n d V . P. C h . 34. T h e harmonization of this r e m a r k a b l e transposition of the topics is a problem. 12. Bd. P. 1.15-24, V . P. 34-54 a n d M t . P . 112-128 constitute a large coherent treatise of geography a n d cosmogra p h y . O J . text (p. 128.22 ff) refers to B h a t t r a Byu " T h e L o r d V y u " as an a u t h o r i t y (cf. t h e beginning of B d . P . 1.15, V . 34) a n d deals w i t h J a m b d v p a , its m o u n t a i n s (esp. M e r u ) t h e S a p t a v a r s a of J a m b d v p a a n d closes w i t h K u r u v a r s a . 13. Next O J . text (p. 136, 30-143, 4) gives the descrip tion of B h r a t a v a r s a . T h e order of Stanzas in Bd. P . , V . P. is similar to O J . text b u t curiously enough the line Bd. P. 1.16.8 a n d V . P. 45, 78 regarding the m u t u a l u n a p p r o a c h a b i l i t y of t h e nine regions of B h r a t a - V a r s a is u n t r a c e d in O J . text a n d S K . M t . P. 14. T h e next section deals with other varsas of J a m b dvpa ( K i m p u r u s a e t c . ) , the p e n a n c e of B h a g r a t h a , the descent of G a g , lakes, rivers a n d V a d a v m u k h a or Aurvgni. T h e O J . shows the influence o f M t . P . a n d the q u o t a t i o n i n O J . text p. 152.12 ( y a s y m j a m b n a d a l i s m r t a h ) has m o r e in c o m m o n w i t h M t . P. 120.67 r a t h e r t h a n B d . P . 1.18.69a a n d V . P. 47.66b.

XXX

BrahmSnda Purna

15. T h e next section deals with other dvipas, Saka, K u a e t c . On this cosmographic topic SK. P u r n a s resolve into three groups (1) Bd. P., V . P. etc. (2) M t . P., V a r h a (3) P d . P. a n d M b h . T h e J a v a n e s e version joins the Matsya recension of this cosmography. 16. T h e last section deals with astronomy. Bd. P. 20, V . P. 50.1-57 give the description of the nether-worlds. But O J . deletes this a n d goes with M t . P. As to the description of stars, planets, division of stratosphere, the Solar car (Bd.P. 1.22), the O J . text follows m o r e closely M t . P . I n M t . P., Bd. P , V . P . t h e n a r r a t i o n (of the stars etc.) continues b u t the O J . text a b r u p t l y comes to a close where the above I n d i a n parallel texts do not even finish the c h a p t e r . F r o m this Prof. D r . G o n d a concludes t h a t the O J . text is incomplete. T h e Vamnucarita traditionally dealt with in the P u r n a is completely absent as it was of little i m p o r t a n c e to J a v a n e s e readers* A p a r t of this O J . text containing the V e n a - P r t h u episode, the geography a n d p a r t of cosmography has come down to us in a metrical a d a p t a t i o n in a MS called Prthuvijaya, the n a m e of the poet being Asta-guna. III. The Brahmnda as a Mah-Purna

It m a y be due to the interpolatory n a t u r e of C h . 1 of our P u r n a , t h a t the ancient division of this P u r n a in four partsPdas) follows the Paca-laksana*\\st characterising Mahp u r n a s , as the former is given in W. 38b-39 a n d the latter in W . 37b-38b o f the opening c h a p t e r . B e i t a s i t may, the l a t t e r the Paca-laksana definition of a P u r n a is very p o p u l a r as it is repeated in a n u m b e r of P u r n a s e.g. A P . 1.14, K P . 1.1.12, M K . P.134.13-14, V a r h a P. 2.4, V . P. 4.10-11. It is interesting to note how this ancient P u r n a of " f o u r feet" (Catuspda) a d a p t s itself to the Paca-laksana formula
* I t is equally possible that the MS of S K . B d . P ' taken to J a v a m i g h t have been at a period before the so-called 'future kings'. H e n c e their n o n mention.

Introduction

xxxi

a d o p t e d by it. T h e five characteristics (laksanas) of a P u r n a given by it, a r e : (1) Sarga (creation of the U n i v e r s e ) , (2) Pratisarga (Dissolution a n d re-creation of the w o r l d ) , (3) Manvantaras (Periods of T i m e presided over by M a n u s ) , (4) Vama (Genealogies of gods, the P a t r i a r c h s , T h e Sun a n d T h e M o o n ) a n d (5) Vamnucarita (accounts of dynasties of different ruling families). (1) SargaCreation of the Universe

T h e P u r n a gives the following theories of the creation of t h e Universe : (1) Creation from the Brahman

T h e eternal B r a h m a n , the source of t h e Universe is beginningless a n d endless. It is the source of the beginning a n d the place of u l t i m a t e merging a n d rest (of the U n i v e r s e ) . It is incomprehensible a n d beyond Sat a n d Asat. It pervaded the entire universe which was dark (unmanifested), as the gunas were in a state of equilibrium. At the time of creation, Ksetraja presided over Pradhna a n d agitated the gunas which thereby b e c a m e uneven (due to loss of their e q u i l i b r i u m ) a n d the great principle Mahat was evolved. As the Sattva-guna p r e d o m i n a t e d in t h e Mahat, the liga Sarira psychic-subtle-body) was evolved a n d was presided over by the Ksetraja. Sakalpa (thoughtp o w e r ) a n d Adhyavasya ( d e t e r m i n a t i o n ) are r e m e m b e r e d to be his functions. W i t h a desire to create, he created this great creation (1.1.3.10-24). (//) The Purnic Theory*

T h e Ksetraja called B r a h m a who awoke in the egg of Prakrti (Cosmic Egg) is the first embodied being a n d he is called Purusa (One lying in the abode of t h e cosmic e g g l . T h i s god B r a h m a , the first creator of Bhtas (elements or beings) existed first. T h i s four-faced H i r a n y a g a r b h a a p p e a r e d at first in this (Cosmic E g g ) . Both at the time of creation a n d re-crea tion (after d e s t r u c t i o n ) , he is the Ksetraja called B r a h m a .
*A few verses in the text of Bd. P. are corrupt and unintelligible. So this theory is g i v e n on the basis of the corresponding verses of t h e V . P. 4. 76-79 as both these PurBM h o v e identical verse

xxxii

Brahmnda Purna

In the Vedic tradition, H i r a n y a is the Light-Life principle. He in whom this principle vibrates is Hiranyagarbha*. O u r P u r n a states t h a t the Cosmic Egg contains seven worlds, the e a r t h along w i t h Seven continents, oceansnay everything including the Sun, the M o o n , Stars, Planets a n d the m o u n t a i n Lokloka (1.1.3.26-31). T h e egg is enveloped from outside with seven sheaths of the fow" elements (water, fire, wind a n d t h V ' e t h e r ) , of the Bh&ldi, Al/that and PradKaa e a c h sKeatTten times bigger t h a n the former. Skhya influence is obvious here. This is the Prkrtacreation, a vivartaoithe B r a h m a n presid ed over by Ksetraja ( B r a h m a ) . It takes place without preplanning (abuddhipurva) like the flash of a lightening ( I . 1.3.24-37). (///) Prkrta Sarga

O u r P u r n a presents the Skhya T h e o r y of Creation as follows : Before the creation of the Universe, the Unmanifest was stationed in itself a n d the p r o d u c t (the Universe) was withdrawn. T h e Pradhana a n d Purusa remained w i t h their characteristics T a m a s a n d Sattva respectively. Laya means equilibrium of Gunas a n d Creation means dis-equilibrium of these Gunas. T h r e e divinities viz. B r a h m a , Visnu a n d R u d r a were b o r n out of the qualities Rajas, Sattva a n d T a m a s respectively. But it is Visnu who, as the enlightener a n d revealer of the Rajas, becomes B r a h m a a n d t h a t of the T a m a s adopts the form of K l a ( R u d r a ) a n d of these Sattva assumes the form of Visnu. T h u s , the trinity of gods, though separate with separate functions, are b u t one entity. " T h e self-born deity has three states. He has four faces as B r a h m a a n d possessing Rajas exclusively, creates the worlds; as K l a , he has the gunasRajas and T a m a s , a n d he annihilates. As P u r u s a with a thousand heads, he is exclusively Sttvika. T h i s is the position of G u n a s in the case of the Self-born d e i t y " (I.i.4.17-19) T h a t Deity is Om. Omniscient, dya, (first), Aja ( U n b o r n ) Hiranyagarbha, K l a a n d eternal, (ibid.26-34).

" T h e Purnas amplify V e d i c tradition. For the concept 'Hiranyagarbha' v i d e V. S. AgrawalaHirartyagarbha (Purna II i.ii.285-306).

Introduction (IV) The Nine Creations of Brahma

XXXLll

At the beginning, there was one vast ocean (Ekrnava, also called M a h r n a v a , Stabdha-Salila or Tugnta-Toya ' W a t e r at the end of Yugas' in other P u r n a s ) . T h i s primeval watery flood expresses the infinite unmanifest cause of the Universe (called the Krana Brahman by N i l a k a n t h a on HV.P.3.9.1-4). B r a h m a n a m e d N r y a n a w i t h a thousand heads slept there. He r e m a i n e d m e d i t a t i n g for a thousand Yugas. He moved alone in waters a n d knew t h a t the Universe h a d sunk into t h a t vast expanse of w a t e r a n d t h o u g h t of the other eight-fold cosmic body (evolved b y ) O r h k r a in the beginning of K a l p a s as before (I.i.5.1-9). He assumed the form of a boar a n d lifted up the e a r t h * a n d re-arranged the m o u n t a i n s , oceans etc. on the e a r t h as before 'again a n d again at the beginning of every K a l p a ' (ibid 9-27). W i t h a desire to create, he m e d i t a t e d a n d as he was m e d i t a t i n g Avidy w i t h its five 'knots' (parvans) viz. T a m a s ( i g n o r a n c e ) , M o h a (Delusion) M a h m o h a (great Delusion a n d ) others (These are the Kleas in the Togastra) unfolded itself a n d immobile (mukhya or sthvara) creation took place. B r a h m a was n o t satisfied with this m e d i t a t e d (Vaikrta) creation a n d created the a n i m a l world called Tiryak-srotas as it functioned bliquely. T h i s second creation was T m a s i k a a n d B r a h m a being dissatisfied w i t h it created the T h i r d d i v i n e S t t v i k a of gods (called Urddhvasrotas). These are the three ' m e d i t a t e d ' a n d (ibid. 28-46). Later, god B r a h m a desired set of beings a n d Lo ! a ' d o w n r c u r r e n t e d ' beings full of Rajas a n d T a m a s yet capable goals was created (ibid 47-50). P r i m a r y creations to create a n o t h e r category of m o r t a l of achieving these

T h e fifth creation is called Anugraha Sarga (favoured crea t i o n ) as it was created t h r o u g h the favour of Avyakta or Prakrti. It consists of four classes a n d they a r e b o r n a g a i n a n d a g a i n ( W . 5 1 - 5 2 a n d V V . 100-104).
* T h e beautiful allegoric description of Y a j a - V a r h a should be read in. the original V V . 11 ff.

xxxiv

Brahmnda Purna

T h e sixth creation is the Bhta-Sarga (creation of elements, Tanmtras). T h e r e seems to be some confusion (probably d u e to the uncritical n a t u r e of the T e x t ) . But to recapitulating the names of these sargas: /. Primary Creation : (1) (2) (3) Creation of Mahat Creation of Tanmtras, (called Bhta sarga here again) Vaikrika (Creation of Aindriya Sarga)

These are the Prkrta (created from Prakrti) Primary crea tions a n d //. Secondary Creation : (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) Mukhya Sarga Tiryak-Srotas mals). Arvksrotas (Creation of insentients or ofimmobiles). (Creation of lower creatures a n d ani

rddhva Srotas (Creation of gods a n d divine beings). (Creation of h u m a n beings) (Both Sttvika a n d T m a s i k a ) Anugraha-Sarga

These five (4-8) are called Vaikrta (Secondary) creations a n d these function without consciousness or fore-knowledge (a-buddhi-prvaka). III. Primary-Cum-Secondary (?)

(9) T h e Kaumra CreationCreation by mind-born sons. But when S a n a t - K u m r a a n d others became Yogins a n d did n o t procreate, B r a h m a created mind-born sons viz. Bhrgu, Agiras, M a r c i , Pulastya, P u l a h a , K r a t u , Daksa, Atri a n d Vasistha from various parts of his body (I. i.5.70-76). These are termed as nine Brahms as they participated in creation, b u t his m e n t a l sons S a n a t - K u m r a a n d K r a t u b e c a m e Yogins. L a t e r on ( W . 1 0 7 - 1 0 8 ) , the Rgvedic idea a b o u t the creation of four V a r n a s from different parts of the Lord's body, is stated. In spite of the overlapping of these theories, they represent a m e t a p h o r i c a l amplification a n d continuation of Vedic concepts w i t h a strong a d m i x t u r e of Skhya (e.g. the concept of the

Introduction

XXXV

T r i n i t y o f g o d s B r a h m a , Visnu a n d R u d r a ) . T h e corner stone of P u r n i c lore, is a m i x of the Vedic Brahman a n d t h e S k h y a concept of three gunas etc. PRATI-SARGA (DISSOLUTION AND T h e Pralaya is of four types : (1) (2) (3) (4) Nilya-usual Naimittika Prkrtika Atyantika (Periodical). (of P r a k r t i , the. p r i m o r d i a l n a t u r e ) (Absolute or final). every d a y e.g. RE-CREATION)*

(1) T h e Nitya Pralaya is w h a t goes on deaths of beings.

(2) The Naimittika Pralaya takes place at the completion of a K a l p a i.e. at the end of one thousand sets of (Gatur) Yugas. G o d B r a h m a begins to absorb the subjects in h i m . A continuous d r o u g h t for h u n d r e d years, the Sun w i t h his seven rays burns up everything a n d evaporates the oceans. T h e S a m v a r t a k a fire burns down the four worlds viz. Bh, Bhuvar, Svar a n d M a h a r . Thereafter, S a m v a r t a k a clouds p o u r down torrential rains a n d everything mobile a n d immobile is destroyed a n d dissolved i n t o one vast expanse of w a t e r a n d god B r a h m a becomes a thouand-eyed, thousand-headed entity a n d goes to sleep for a period of one thousand sets of four Yugas (God B r a h m a ' s n i g h t ) ( I I . iv. 132-190). At the end of B r a h m a ' s night, he wakes up a n d recreates. T h e day a n d night of B r a h m a i.e. the complete day of B r a h m a is called Viesa K a l p a (ibid. 190-210) (3) The Prkrlika Pralaya takes place at the end of B r a h m a ' s period. W h e n the P r a t y h r a ' (withdrawal of the Universe) is i m m i n e n t , Bhtas (elements, both gross a n d subtle) are a n n i hilated, evolutes of Prakrti beginning w i t h Mahat a h d e n d i n g with Viesas are destroyed. T h e waters swallow the special qualitysmellof the e a r t h , the fire t h a t of the water u p t o ka which merges into Bhtdi. In this way the higher evolute of Prakrti "swallows u p " the lower one, till at last t h e Mahat dis solves itself into Guna-smya (equilibrium of Gunas). Only, the
Cf. KP.1I.45. 1-10. VP.1.7.41-43, V I . 3 . 2 ff.

xxxvi

Brahmnda Purna

A t m a n remains. T h i s process of reabsorption of Principles (Tattva-Smya) is r e c u r r e n t (II.iv.3-1-24). (4) tyantika Pralaya takes place when one becomes liberated t h r o u g h spiritual knowledge. He does n o t take up a n o t h e r body j u s t as a sprout (never comes o u t ) w h e n t h e seed is b u r n t , (ibid. 80-84). This is called "dissolution due to d a w n i n g of knowledge (II.iv.1.131). Manvantaras P u r n a s look u p o n T i m e as a form of G o d . 1 His power to create t h e universe by disturbing t h e equilibrium of gunas of P r a k r t i , the destroyer of all beings 2 a n d t h e empirical timesequence. T h e Bd. P. is c o m m i t t e d to the description of all M a n v a n t a r a s a n d K a l p a - p e r i o d s 3 a n d i t describes T i m e f i g u r a tively in terms of units of time : " T h e S a n is his source a n d t h e period of nimefa* (twinkling of an eye or u t t e r a n c e of a short vowel) is his beginning. D a y a n d night constitute his form a n d nimesa-wa.it his limbs. T h e year is his essence. T h i s lord of sub jects (Prajpati) is of t h e n a t u r e of t h e present, past a n d f u t u r e " . 5 T h e m a i n division of time are t h e day, the fortnight, t h e m o n t h , the season a n d Ayanas. 8 T h e M a n v a n t a r a s a r e based o n t h e concept o f Y u g a periods. Originally a Yuga consisted of five years called (1) Samvatsara, (2) Parivatsara, (3) Id or-Idvatsara, (4) Anuvatsara a n d (5) V a t s a r a 7 . We find t h e same d u r a t i o n of Yuga in M b h . S a b h 11.37-38) K a u t i l y a 8 a n d Vedga-jyotisa. 8
1. 2. 3. Yugbhimni Kltm-Rudrafr / I.ii. 13.139 I.ii.13.109. I.i.1.46 to utter a Sarva-bhtpahrakah / also see V. 149.

4. It m e a n s e i t h e r ' w i n k i n g of the e y e ' or 'time required short letter, (laghvakfaram) vide Bd. P. I.ii.29.5. nimtsakla-tulyarh hi vidyllaghvaksaram ca yat 5. 6. 7. I.ii.l3.III-113a. Ibid. 113b-114a. Ibid. 114b-115.

& Paca-samvafsart yugamArlha-stra 11.20 p. 109. 9. Paftca-sarrwatsara-mayam Tugdhyaksam Prajpatim V. 1. H e n c e K a n e conjectures that 'yuga' i n RV.III.26.3,111.55.18 m e a n s *a period of 5 years'.

Introduction

xxxvii

L a t e r on, the period of Yuga came to be extended to 12000 years e.g. Bd. P.I.ii.29.25-29, state 12,000 years as the total n u m b e r of years of four Yugas (including the ' t w i l i g h t ' y e a r s ) a period endorsed by M a n u 1 a n d M b h . 8 . N o w h e r e is there a h i n t t h a t these are n o t h u m a n years b u t divine ones. But later on, the concept of 'divine' or s u p e r - h u m a n years developed as c a n be seen from units of time given as follows 8 . 15 nimesa = K s t h ; 30 K s t h = K a l a 30 K a l s = M u h r t a ; 30 M u h r t a s = D a y a n d night (24 hours) 30 days = A m o n t h = O n e day a n d night of Pitrs 30 h u m a n m o n t h s = 1 year of Pitrs 360 h u m a n m o n t h s = 1 year o f Pitrs H u m a n U t t a r y a n a = 1 d a y of the Devas H u m a n D k s i n y a n a = 1 night of the Devas 1 h u m a n year = A complete d a y a n d night of Devas 30 H u m a n years = A m o n t h of Devas 360 H u m a n years = O n e year of Devas 3030 H u m a n years = 1 Saptarsi year 9090 H u m a n years = 1 D h r u v a year 360,000 H u m a n years = 1 , 0 0 0 years of gods. T h u s the Yuga periods w i t h the twilight period dhymSa) of each Yuga is as follows: Period years 4000 4000 3000 3000 2000 2000 1000 1000 Sandhy 400 300 200 100 Sandhyma 400 300 200 100 = = = Total 4800 3600 2400 1200 years. (San-

1. 2. 3. 4.

Krta-yuga : Tret-yuga : Dvpara-yuga: Kali-yuga :

T o t a l period of four yugas (Caturyugi or MahS-yga)


1. 2. 3. Manu 1.71.

12,000

V a n a . 188.27. Bd. P. I.U.29.5.-21.

xxxviii

Brahmnia Purna

But these are 'divine' years. A n d o u r P u r n a converts t h e m into h u m a n years as 4320,000. T h i s n e w concept of Yugas is adopted in P u r n a s vide K P . I . C h s . 5 1 , 5 3 N P . I. C h . 4 1 , M b h . V a n a , Chs. 149, 188, V P . 1.3, V . P . Chs. 2 1 , 22, 57, 58. T h e d a y of god B r a h m a consists of 1000 catur-yugis in which fourteen M a n u s ruled. It m e a n s a m a n v a n t a r a = catur^yKgtJ 14 or 71Ty catur-yugas or 12000 x 360 x 71 + 17,28000), or 30,67,20,000 h u m a n years 1 . Strangely e n o u g h , this yuga-theory is limited to B h r a t a - v a r s a . 2 T h e theory of Yugas a n d K a l p a s began to take shape in 300 B.C. a n d was fully developed in t h e first centuries of t h e Christian E r a . 3 The Characteristics of Yugas : O u r P u r n a offers a few remarks a b o u t t h e state of society in Krta-yuga : T h e r e was social equality. People were ever young, equal in b e a u t y a n d longevity. T h e y were w i t h o u t malice a n d h a d no conflicts. T h e institution of Varnrama-dharma (classification of Society into Vamas a n d Stages in life) was yet to be established. People lived in n a t u r a l surroundings as the climate was pleasant. Strangely enough, birds, beasts a n d reptiles were non-existant. K n o w l e d g e was valued the most. 4 The Tret-Tuga : T h o u g h D h a r m a lost 'one leg' Vedic m a n t r a s a n d Siddhis which were 'lost' at the end of the (last) K a l p a , manifested themselves to sages. T h e belief in the eternal n a t u r e of mantras a n d their d i s a p p e a r a n c e at t h e end of a K a l p a only to manifest themselves at t h e beginning of a n o t h e r K a l p a is peculiar to P u r n a s . In T r e t Yuga, t h e r e was only one Vedic 8 Samhit. T h e beginning of this Yuga was m a r k e d w i t h rainfall a n d l u x u r i a n t vegetations. People gave up their previous n o m a d i c

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Bd. P. 3 8 , 3 9 ; also V P . I. 3.19-21. Catvri Bhrate varje yugni kavayo'bruvan / KaneHD.III.888-890. Bd. P. I.ii.7.45-59. I b i d 74-195 and C h . 29.52-92. Ibid. 23

Introduction

xxxix

habits a n d settled by constructing houses in m o u n t a i n s , along the rivers a n d also establishing villages, townships etc. T h e y m a i n t a i n e d themselves by products from the trees b u t due to some climatic change, the vegetation was 'swallowed u p ' by the e a r t h a n d the e a r t h h a d to be 'milched' as per god B r a h m a ' s direction (i.e. Agriculture was d e v e l o p e d ) . T h e Social structure based on fixed prescribed duties (Varnrama-dharma) came to be established. T h e Saptarsis (Seven sages) laid down rauta a n d Smrta dharmas. T h e institution of Kingship a n d of L a w a n d order (Dandaniti) became established. Ritualistic sacrifice c a m e in vogue in T r e t . The Dvpara-Yuga W i t h two 'legs' of D h a r m a lost, this Yuga shows the deterioration a n d confusion of social, religious a n d o t h e r conditions providing the background for the chaos of K a l i Yuga. It is in every D v p a r a t h a t a Vysa is born to a r r a n g e the floating Vedic hymns into four Sarhhits. This idea of an i n c a r n a t i o n of a Vysa is found in other P u r n a s such as V P . I I I . 3, Bh. P. 1.4. 24-25, K P . I. 52, V . P. 23.107-213. T h e list of the Vysa per each D v p a r a is as follows : 2 1. Svayambh (Self-born god B r a h m a ) , 2. P r a j p a t i , 3 . U a n a s , 4 . Brhaspati, 5. Savitr, 6. M r t y u , 7. Indra,8.Vasistha, 9. Srasvata, 10. T r i d h m a n , 11. T r i v a r s a , , 1 2 . Sanadvja 13. Antarksa, 14. D h a r m a , 15. T r a i y y r u m , 16. D h a n a j a y a , 17. Krtajaya, 18. Rjsa, 19. Bharadvja, 20. G a u t a m a , 2 1 . U t t a m a , 2 2 . Haryavarha, 23. V e n a , 24. Vjaravasa, 25. Somam u k h y y a n a , 26. T r n a b i n d u , 27. T a t a j a , 28. akti, 29. P a r a r a . 30. J t u k a r n a , 3 1 . D v a i p y a n a . 32. F u t u r e Vysa, D r o n i (Avatthman). So here we have a bonus of three m o r e Vysas in lo the prescribed twenty-eight. 3 addition

Kali Tuga :* Almost all P u r n a s depict a gloomy p i c t u r e of t h e K a l i Age e.g. M b h . V a n a . Chs. 188, 190, nti 69.80-97,
1. 2. 3. 4. Bh. P. Ch. 3 1 . Ibid. Ch. 35.116-126. T h e r e are different n a m e s in t h e list of Vysas in K P . I. 52 viz. 11. Ibid. C h . 31.33-101.

Rsabha, 12 Sutejas 14. Sucaksus 18. Rtajaya 2 2 . N r y a n a , 2 4 . Vlmiki.

xl

Brahmnda Purna

Bh. P. X I I . 1-2, V P . V I . 1, V y u 58 a n d 99. 391-428, M t . P. 143.32-78. It a p p e a r s t h a t t h a t was the a c t u a l state of the society when P u r n a s were written, though they prophesise it as a future state of society. 1 In a p r o p h e t i c tone, our P u r n a says : T h e D h a r m a will be on the last leg. M e n a n d women will be character-less. K s a t t r i y a a n d Vaiya classes will be practically eliminated. Brahmins will be fallen a n d associate with Sdras in eating etc. a n d bow to t h e m . dras will be kings a n d act as B r h m a n a s . Kings instead of protecting subjects will act like robbers. P r e d o m i n a n c e of Buddhists, J a i n s , K p l i k a s a n d atheists is predicted. T h e only relieving feature is t h a t a person gets the fruit of his good act immediately in Kali-yuga. 2 At last god Visnu incarnates a n d puts an end to the chaotic conditions. Seventyone such groups of four Yugas constitute a man vantara. A M a n u presides over the world for this period of seventyone cycles of four yugas. E a c h M a n u has his separate set of I n d r a , gods, saptarsis (seven sages) etc. All M a n u s a n d their p a r a p h e r n a l i a ( I n d r a etc.) have the same powers, function etc. as those of the previous ones. T h e n u m b e r of M a n u s is fourteen. O u t of t h e m six have already ruled a n d retired. T h e present M a n u is Vaivasvata. T h e n a m e s of the M a n u s are as follows: (1) S v y a m b h u v a , (2) Svrocisa, (3) U t t a m a , (4) T m a s a , (5) R a i v a t a , (6) Cksusa, (7) Vaivasvata (8) M a n u M e r u ( ? ) Svarni, (9) D a k s a Svarni (10) B r a h m a Svarni, (11) D h a r m a - S v a r n i , (12) R u d r a - S v a r n i , (13) R a u c y a (14) Bhautya. T h e following e x a m p l e of one M a n u S v y a m b h u v a 3 will illustrate t h e personnel a t t e n d i n g u p o n a M a n u .
1. R. C. H a z r a points out that such was the actual condition of the

H i n d u Society after A o k a a n d before 200 A . D . (Puranic Records on Hindu Rites and Customs II Ch. 1 ) . 2. 3. Bd. P. I. ii. 3 1 . 31-72b. V i d e Bd. P . I.ii.36 a n d I I I . i v . l .

Introduction I Manu-Svyambhuva:

xli

(1) G o d s Y m a s , (2) I n c a r n a t i o n of Visnu, Yaja, officiated as I n d r a (3) Seven SagesMarci, Atri, Agiras, P u l a h a , K r a t u , Pulastya, Vasistha. II ManuSvrocisa

( I ) G o d s 1 2 T u s i t a s a n d 12 P r v a t a s (2) IndraVipas'cit (3) Seven Sages (the descendants of the Saptarsis of the p r e vious M a n v a n t a r a ) r j a , S t a m b a , P r n a , R s a b h a , D a t t a , Nicala, Arvrivan. (4) S o n s N i n e sons such as C a i t r a , K i m p u r u s a a n d others. F o u r t e e n M a n v a n t a r a s complete the day of god B r a h m a . At the end of god B r a h m a ' s day, there is a deluge. After taking rest'at n i g h t ' of an equal d u r a t i o n as t h a t of the day, god B r a h m a creates the Universe as he did in the previous K a l p a 1 a fact h a m m e r e d by the a u t h o r of the P u r n a every now a n d t h e n . As n o t e d above, the Pralaya after the completion of a d a y of B r a h m a is called Naimittika while t h a t at the end of life of B r a h m " is called Prkrlika Pralaya. (4 & 5) Varha and Vamnucarita Genealogies of ancient dynasties are the chief d a t a for reconstructing history of ancient I n d i a . T h e disbelief of early scholars in P u r n i c accounts of these dynasties is now m u c h modified by the works of F . E . Pargiter, 2 S. N. P r a d h a n , 3 H. C. R a y c h a u d h a r y , 4 A . D . Pusalkar 6 a n d others. Scholars like M . K . A c h a r y a 8 D . R . M a n k a d ' a n d others have tried t o recon struct the chronology of these ancient events. Pusalkar, in the Vedic Age takes 3102 B . C . t h e usual d a t e for Deluge or Flood

1. akalpayat 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Vide for e x a m p l e Op. cit. /

31.118-119.

Cf.

D h t yath-prvam 5.7

Mahnryanya

A n c i e n t I n d i a n Historical Tradition. Chronology of A n c i e n t India. Political History of A n c i e n t India. V e d i c A g e (Bharatiya V i d y a Bhavan, B o m b a y ) . D a t e s of A n c i e n t I n d i a n Purnic Chronology. History.

xlii

Brahmnda Purna

in M e s o p o t a m i a a s the definite starting point for the date of M a n u Vaivasvata a n d divides the ancient I n d i a n historical periods as follows : (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) M a n u Vaivasvata period 3102 B.C. Yayti Period (C. 30002750 B.C.) M n d h t Period (C. 27502550 B.C.) P a r a u r m a Period K r s n a period (C. 25502350 B.C.) (Ds'arathi) R m a c a n d r a p e r i o d ( C . 2350-1950 B.C.) (C. 19501400 B.C.)

Tentatively, I accept this chronological frame work. O u r P u r n a describes the dynasties of Vaivasvata M a n u (I.ii.chs. 36, 38, I l . i i i . 59, 6 0 ) . T h e dynasties of sages like K y a p a , Atri^Vasistha (Il.iii.Chs. 5-8), Dynasties of Iksvku, N i m i (Ibid Chs. 6 3 , 6 4 ) , of Amvasu a n d D h a n v a n t a r i (Ibid Chs. 66-67), the L u n a r dynasty (Ibid Chs. 65, 68-71). Despite these a t t e m p t s in fixing period frames a n d deter m i n a t i o n of c o n t e m p o r a r y kings (for example D a a r a t h a of Ayodhy a n d Divodsa of V r n a s ) , the chronology of these kings is comparative a n d a sort of r a t i o n a l guess work ! We are on firmer grounds from the time of Megasthenes. Although Sandrocottus mentioned by Megasthenes is showed to be C a n d r a g u p t a I of the G u p t a dynasty a n d n o t C a n d r a g u p t a M a u r y a , according to K. D. S e t h n a . 1 I, however, still believe t h a t Megasthenes refers to C a n d r a g u p t a M a u r y a . O u r P u r n a has given the following dynasties of the K a l i age (i) Pauravas (Parksit to K s e m a k a ) , (ii) Aiksvkus (Brhadbala to S u m i t r a ) , (iii) B r h a d r a t h a s (Sahadeva to Ripujaya) Bd.P.II.iii 74-107b122a. (iv) Pradyotas, (v) iungas (vi) N a n d a s 74.139-143. (ibid. 74.122b-127a.) (74.127b-135a) (vii) M a u r y a s (74.144-1449) (viii) Sugas (74.150-156a.) (ix) K n v y a n a s (74.156b-160a.) a n d (x) A n d h r a s (74.160b170.)

1. 1966).

Trover in A . D . 1858 advocated this

identity in his Rjataragin.

This is confirmed by K . D . Sethna, G. C. Bose a n d others (Purna J a n . & J u l y

Introduction

xliii

T h e various periods of these genealogies given in this P u r n a are roughly correct. 1 T h u s , o u r P u r n a supplies i m p o r t a n t m a t e r i a l o n the history of ancient india a n d stands the test of the Paftcalaksana criterion. Paca-Laksana and Four Pdas So the problem arises : W h a t is the relation between t h e four Pdas of the Bd. P. to these Paca-laksanas ? O u r P u r n a positively states: 'This P u r n a as recognised by people consists of four Pdas viz. (I) Prakriy, (2) Anusaga, (3) Upodghta a n d (4) Upa-Samhra?, (III.iv.4.43-44). Roughly these four divisions have a c c o m m o d a t e d the veLaksanas of a P u r n a as follows: (1) PrakriyIt means the creation of the Universe a n d corresponds to Sarga. O u r P u r n a describes the Vedic m e t a physics of creation in a P u r n i c m a n n e r in Chs. 3, 4 a n d 5 of Prakriy pda w h e n it deals w i t h the original state of equilibrium of gunas, the laying of the Golden egg a n d emergence of H i r a n y a g a r b h a (Lord B r a h m a , the creator from i t ) . (2) Anusaga-pda : As its n a m e suggests it is a connected c o n t i n u a t i o n of the previous pda a n d includes the b i r t h a n d genealogies of Brahmarsis (Brahmanical Sages), Devarsis (celes tial sages) a n d Rjarsis (Royal Sages as in Chs. 8-38. (3) Upodghta Pda : T h i s seems to have c o m b i n e d in itself the M a n v a n t a r a a n d V a r h n u k i r t a n a . A sort of overlaping a n d m i x i n g up of topics seems to h a v e taken p l a c e as t h e D y n a s t y of M a n u a n d the topic of M a n v a n t a r a s is given in Chs. 36-38 of the previous section. T h e lineages of Sages w h i c h should have formed a p a r t of the previous section a r e given in the I I I Section C h s . 1-7. T h e topic of rddha a n d an inflated version of P a r a u r m a legend (which are probably accretions of a later d a t e ) have occupied Chs. 12-58. T h e topic of Vaivas-

1. 2.

For the details of these dynasties see the annotations on that c h a p t e r infra 'Historical Tradition in Bd. P.' tu parigrahah / j Prakriy evam eva prathamah pdah kathys

( I l . i i i . 7 4 ) . And

Anusaga upodghta upasamhra eta ca // catuh-psdam purnam loka-sammatam

xliv

Brahmnda Purna

v a t a M a n u is r e p e a t e d in Chs. 59-60. A n d t h e real Varhn u k r a m a dealing w i t h the dynasties of Iksvku, N i m i etc. are c r a m m e d in Chs. 63-71 (which was p r o b a b l y the older portion in t h e original P u r n a ) a n d Ch. 74 which deals with the dynasties in K a l i age in a prophetic vein. (4) Upasamhra Pda : It deals with t h e dissolution of t h e Universe a n d corresponds to the Pratisarga laksana. A l t h o u g h I have discussed t h e M l a P u r n a theory in my introduction to t h e N r a d a P u r n a (pp. 2-9), it is difficult to state which topics formed t h e p a r t s of the original catus-pda B r a h m n d a P u r n a in the absence of a critical edition. IV. Religious Sects in the Bd. P.

A l t h o u g h the Bd. P. believes in t h e P a r a B r a h m a n as the u l t i m a t e principle a n d t h e trinity of g o d s B r a h m a , V i s n u , iva as His manifestation on a lower p l a n e , it testifies to t h e existence of t h e following religious sects at t h a t time. 1. aivism

R u d r a or iva as M a h e v a r a is the S u p r e m e deity. iva on a lower p l a n e is b o r n of god B r a h m a as Nla-lohita a n d was given the following eight names : (along w i t h t h e explanation of their significence) R u d r a , Bhava, arva, n a , P a u p a t i {Panm patih in the t e x t ) , Bhma, U g r a a n d M a h d e v a 1 . F r o m the B r h m a n a period where (as in t h e Satapatha V I . 1.3.1-18) R u d r a was r e g a r d e d as b o r n from P r a j p a t i a n d was given the same list of n a m e s (except Aani for Bhima in Bd. P . ) . T h e n a m e s arva, Bhma, U g r a indicate t h e terrific or des tructive aspect of R u d r a , while the rest, his auspicious n a t u r e . He is credited to have created all the Universe including god B r a h m a a n d V i s n u . 2 Siva's four faces create functions of guar d i a n s o f q u a r t e r s such a s I n d r a , K u b e r a a n d V a r u n a . Mythological legends T h e most o u t s t a n d i n g feat ascribed to R u d r a in all the P u r n a s (e.g. Bh. P. I V . 5, L P . I. 99 & 100, N P . II.66.5-16,
1. Bd. P. I.ii.10. 2. O p . Cit. I. 2.26.9. ukra's eulogy of Nilalohita II.iii.72.163-195.

Introduction

xlv

Siva II.1.1-36 V . P. 1.30.122-160) is t h e destruction of Daksa's sacrifice. T h e legend dates back to the B r h m a n a period w h e r e (as in a t a p a t h a a n d K a u s t a k i ) Daksa's m o r a l t u r p i t u d e is given as the cause of destruction. T h e M b h . ( n t i 283.26-33) attributes the destruction of D a k s a ' s sacrifice to his denial to give R u d r a his d u e sacrificial share. But in t h e n e x t c h a p t e r (284) sage D a d h c i is said to have c o n d e m n e d D a k s a for not inviting iva a n d cursed t h a t it would n o t be completed (ibid 284.12-21). But in o u r P u r n a ( I . I I . 13.45 ff) D a k s a insults his eldest d a u g h t e r Sat, the wife of iva. Sat immolates herself in Yogic fire. R u d r a a n d D a k s a m u t u a l l y curse e a c h other. A n o t h e r miracle a t t r i b u t e d to iva is the drinking of H a l h a l a poison w h i c h emerged while c h u r n i n g the milky ocean. He was requested by god B r a h m a to save the world from it. iva d r a n k it a n d b e c a m e blue-throated as the effect of t h a t deadly poison (I.ii. 24.7-98). T h e M b h . (nti 342.114-115) attributes it to the strangling of Siva's t h r o a t by V i s n u in a fight. B d . P . takes every o p p o r t u n i t y to glorify Siva. P a r a u r m a , an i n c a r n a t i o n of Visnu, is advised by his forbear Aurva to perform p e n a n c e for propitiation of iva a n d secure from h i m his secret missiles. P a r a u r m a performs p e n a n c e , is tested by iva a n d g r a n t e d the missiles (Il.iii.Chs. 22-24). F o r avenging his father's d e a t h by killing Sahasrrjuna, P a r a u r m a a p p r o a ches B r a h m a for guidance a n d is directed to p r o p i t i a t e iva by p e n a n c e (Il.iii. Chs. 31-32). As a contrast, M b h . n t i , disposes of this episode in a few verses, even t h o u g h it is a 'Bhrguised' version. iva-liga M o d e r n scholars hold t h a t the symbol (Liga) of iva is his phallus. As in KP (1.26.66-99) the Liga of iva is the m a n i festation of a c o l u m n of fire (the Skarhbha in A . V . ) t h e beginning a n d e n d of w h i c h were u n t r a c e a b l e a n d hence incomprehensible to gods B r a h m a a n d V i s n u (1.2.25.18-28). T h e y j o i n t l y p r a y e d t h a t L i g a in terms a t t r i b u t a b l e to the Supreme-most power w h o creates, permeates, protects, destroys everything. It is called para Brahman, the highest abode (paramam padam)etc. ( I b i d . W. 3 1 - 5 4 ) . It is as it were a g a r l a n d of the epithets of Siva. The

xlvi

Brahmnda Purna

T h e identification of R u d r a a n d sacrificial fire is found in V e d i c literature (e.g. Tail. Sam. V . i v . 3 . 1 ) . T h e similarity in Liga-worship a n d fire-worship is significant. H e r e t h e phallusaspect has no place. As in K P . I I . 38-39, iva P. I V . 12.4-54, our P u r n a des cribes the falling of the Phallus of iva in D r u v a n a ( I . i i . 2 7 ) . G o d iva c a m e to bless the sages of D r u v a n a a n d d e m o n s t r a t ed to t h e m the P u p a t a way of reducing sins by inviting public censure, technically called 'Dvra' which includes o u t w a r d acts of courting (rgrana), irrelevant speech (avitad-bhsana e t c . ) * . T h e sages were aghast as the behaviour was against dharma as they understood it. T h e y requested h i m to d r o p his p h a l l u s ; c l o t h e himself a n d speak gently. iva of his own accord d r o p p e d it a n d disappeared. G o d B r a h m a advised t h e m to p r e p a r e its r e p l i c a a n d worship h i m . T h e words are : drstarh vai y d r a m tasya ligam sn m a h t m a n a h / Tdrk-pratikrtirh krtv l a p n i m p r a p a d y a t a // 'After m a k i n g the replica of t h e Liga of the great soul in the same form as seen by you, resort to Lord with the trident in his hand.' Strictly speaking, this is not the direct advocacy of phallusworship. N o r the Liga-replica p r e p a r e d by t h e m could include Toni. But the h i n t of phallus-worship is clear, t h o u g h the two panegyrics o f Lord iva, one b y God B r a h m a ( W . 47-55) a n d t h e other by the sages of D r u v a n a ( W . 63-91) show t h a t our P u r n a pays the greatest respect to L o r d iva. T h e r e m a i n i n g c h a p t e r is a glorification a n d explanation of the elements of P u p a t i s m as follows: (i) T h e P u p a t a vow is based on Yoga a n d was chro nologically p r o m u l g a t e d at first. T h e Varnramadharma is a later creation by god B r a h m a (VV. 116-117). Bath in holy ashes is essential. H o l y ashes are the semen of god iva a n d they reduce to ashes all the sins of h i m w h o besmears himself w i t h it. It has
vide Bhsarvaja's Ratnatk on Haradatta's Ganakrik

(i)

For details pp. 18-19. cf.

KP.

11.39.15-17.

Introduction

xlvii a protective influence against all evils. A person whose self is purified by applying the ashes a n d is self controlled is liberated ( W . 106-115).

SkandaKrt tikeya T h e P u r n a does n o t explain the K u m r a - V i d y a n d the yogic significance of the legend of the aivite god S k a n d a - K r t tikeya. Bd. P. (II.iii.9.22-51) gives the legend as follows: I n d r a being afraid of the child t h a t would be b o r n of Siva a n d U m requested Agni (the omnipresent Fire-god) to disturb their sexual intercourse. At the a p p e a r a n c e of Agni, U m n a t u r a l l y got up a n d the Semen of R u d r a was spilt on the g r o u n d . Being enraged, U m , as a p u n i s h m e n t for his disturbance at such a j u n c t u r e , forced Agni to carry the semen as foetus in his belly. F i n d i n g it u n b e a r a b l e , he requested the river G a g to carry it. G a g also was too m u c h t o r m e n t e d to b e a r it a n d discharged it. His b i r t h was welcomed w i t h j o y by all divine beings. T h e wives of six Saptarsis (except Vasistha's wife A r u n d h a t ) fed h i m a n d the god manifested six m o u t h s to suck t h e m a n d c a m e to be known as Sanmukha ( S i x - m o u t h e d ) . He is the defeater of the enemies of gods a n d hence is called Skanda. He was b r o u g h t up by six K r t t i k s (Pleids) a n d hence was known as Krttikeya. W h e n he yawned, a javeline (akti) came out of his m o u t h . G o d V i s n u gave h i m two birds, a cock a n d a pea-cock. It is n o t e w o r t h y t h a t K u s h a n seals from t h e - 1st to 3rd cent A . D . represent K r t t i k e y a holding a javeline a n d a cock. He was a n o i n t e d as the commander-in-chief of the a r m y of Devas. A seal of the 5 t h C e n t A . D . from M a t h u r a represents h i m as seated on a peacock a n d being installed by god B r a h m a a n d iva (?) as the leader of Deva a r m y . O u r P u r n a does n o t record his m a r r i a g e w i t h a girl called Devasen as in M b h . Vana 229. Being a destroyer of the a r m y of enemies of gods he is called Skanda. A n o t h e r r e m a r k a b l e factor is t h a t his a r m y consists of goblins a n d evil spirits (Pramathas a n d Vinyakas) in a d d i t i o n to Devas. T h i s supports the tradition which explains his n a m e s M a h s e n a a n d K u m r a associated w i t h diseases like d e m o n cough (as in Praskara Grhya Stra) a n d his permission to the M o t h e r s to be evil spirits ( M b h . Vana 2 2 0 . 2 2 ) . Skanda's inability to intervene in the scuffle between

xlviii

Brakmnda Purna

P a r a u r m a a n d G a n e a in w h i c h P a r a u r m a smashed the tusk of G a n e a a n d his performance of the role of a r e p o r t e r of the incident to Prvat (Bd.P.II.3.41.32-55 a n d ibid 42.1-10) is not creditable to the commander-in-chief of the D e v a army. A cult worshipping the image of S k a n d a , was in vogue at the time of Patajali (1st C e n t A . D . ) a n d the n a m e s of Skanda were a d o p t e d b y the rulers o f the G u p t a d y n a s t y . T h e n a m e S u b r a h m a n y a is not applied to Skanda in our P u r n a (and also in t h e M b h . ) Ganea G a n e a , the elephant-headed god whose images are found all over Eastern Asia has an h o n o u r a b l e place even a m o n g the Buddhists as a later d e v e l o p m e n t of the V e d i c B r a h m a n a s p a t i . O u r P u r n a notes two exploits of this leader of the G a n a s of god iva. T h e benevolent G a n e a is t h e son of U m . W h e n P a r a u r m a w e n t to L o r d iva to report his exploit (the killing of Sahasrrjuna) iva a n d U m were in their privacy. G a n e a a n d S k a n d a were g u a r d i n g the door of t h a t private a p a r t m e n t . G a n e a prohibited P a r a u r m a from i m m e d i a t e e n t r a n c e . W h e n he was forcing his way in, G a n e a lifted up P a r a u r m a , whirled h i m in all the different worlds a n d placed h i m on the ground again. Being over-powered thus by G a n e a , P a r a u r m a h u r l e d t h e axe given to h i m by L o r d Sakara. In order to respect the axe of god iva, G a n e a allowed a tusk of his to be cut down (II.iii.42.1-5). Prvat became offended at this act of P a r a r m a a n d r e m o n s t r a t e d w i t h lord Siva for his favouritism to P a r a u r m a as against his son G a n e a a n d w a n t e d to leave Siva's house w i t h h e r children. U l t i m a t e l y Lord K i s n a a n d R d h consoled h e r a n d b r o u g h t a b o u t a rapproachment between Prvat a n d P a r a u r m a {ibid. 2.3.43.28-54). T h e second episode (Bd. P. I I . 3.67) is n o t creditable b o t h to iva a n d G a n e a . Siva's mother-in-law did not approve of his u n c o n v e n t i o n a l ways. U m , Siva's spouse felt insulted a n d straightway urged iva to seek residence elsewhere. iva selected V r n a s , the capital of Divodsa. iva commissioned G a n e a n a m e d N i k u m b h a or K s e m a or K s e m a k a ) to get V r n a s vacated for his (Siva's) residence. G a n e a (i.e. N i k u m b h a ) a p p e a r e d in a d r e a m to a B r a h m i n M a k a n a a n d asked h i m to

Introduction

xlix

instal his image at t h e outskirt of the city {nagaryante). M a k a n a obeyed a n d G a n e a went on giving munificent gifts a c c o r d i n g to the wishes of all his worshippers. At last t h e fame of t h e deity as a dispenser of all desires i n c l u d i n g sons, gold, longevityin fact everything reached king Suds. K i n g Suds who was issueless directed his senior q u e e n Suya to worship G a n e a a n d p r a y h i m to g r a n t h e r a son. In spite of her r e p e a t e d services, N i k u m b h a purposely did not g r a n t her t h e b o o n . " T h e god is benevolent a n d m u n i ficent to my subjects b u t is ungrateful e n o u g h to g r a n t me n o t h i n g in spite of our r i c h worship, meals etc. T h i s is no god b u t an evil spirit (Bhuta). I shall destroy t h e shrine of this G a n a p a t i " . (ibid. VV. 51-54). In his desperation t h e king destroyed t h e shrine of N i k u m b h a - G a n e a . N i k u m b h a got a fine excuse a n d he cursed t h a t t h e city of V r n a s be totally deserted. W h e n V r n a s b e c a m e v a c a n t N i k u m b h a reported the m a t t e r to god iva w h o c a m e to live there w i t h his spouse. (ibidW. 55-62) God iva alone knows the m o r a l justification of this act. K s e m a k a alias N i k u m b h a was really a R k s a s a . At t h e e n d of t h e period of t h e curse, king M a h b h u killed d e m o n K s e m a k a a n d r e h a b i l i t a t e d the beautiful city of V r n a s . T h e curse motif for t h e desertion of Vrnas by Divodsa is used in t h e H a r i v a m a , B r a h m a a n d V P. b u t it records it as a p h a s e in the conflict between H a i h a y a s a n d the kings of V r n a s (Pargiter A I H T . , p . 2 6 3 ) . Epithets of Ganea D u r i n g reconciliation of Prvat, K r s n a explains the signi ficance of various n a m e s of G a n e a : (1) GaneaThe commander-in-chief powerful tribes (groups) of P r a m a t h a s . of the various

(2) Lambodara : He contains within his belly all t h e p a s t , present a n d future B r a h m a n d a s . (3) Gajnana : W h e n b e h e a d e d , t h e h e a d of an ele p h a n t was substituted on his torso in its p l a c e . (4) Bhlacandra : W h e n the m o o n was cursed on t h e 4 t h d a y of a fortnight he held the m o o n on his forehead.

Brahmnda Purna

(5) rpakarnakaWhen t h e fire-god, being cursed by Saptarsis (Seven Sages), was on the point of extinction, he rekind led it by (the flapping of) his ears. ( 6 ) Vighna-naBefore the battle with Asuras, gods worshipped h i m a n d he w a r d e d off all their impediments. (7) EkadantaDue to chopping off one tusk by Parau rma. (8) Vakra-tunda : In the future creation his snout will be b e n t . Since the T e n t h K a l p a , G a n e a got priority of worship before all gods. K r s n a further gives the boon t h a t all auspicious rites such as Jtakarma (consecratory rites after b i r t h ) , Garbhdhna, in proceeding on a j o u r n e y to holy places or on trade or business missions or military expedition. G a n e a will be worshipped first a n d the u n d e r t a k i n g will be successful*. T h e P a r a u r m a episode is revised a n d enlarged. T h e above 'boons' show t h a t the cult of G a n e a was well-established a n d t h e e m i n e n t position given to h i m in H i n d u P a n t h e o n dates prior to the final redaction of this P u r n a . Vaisnavism O u r P u r n a identifies V i s n u w i t h the B r a h m a n . As the enlightener a n d revealer of the G u n a Rajas he becomes Brahma, t h e creator, a n d of the T a m a s , he becomes K l a , the destroyer, a n d t h a t of Sattva, he stands separate as a sustainer of t h e universe (Bd. P. I. i.*4-7). It m e a n s t h a t on the Lower Plane B r a h m a , V i s n u a n d R u d r a are the representatives of the gunas Rajas, Sattva a n d T a m a s (Ibid. I.i.4.6-8). T h e y are t h e three states of the B r a h m a n (ibidW. 17-19). Visnu is called a thou sand-headed P u r u s a who is threefold according to gunas, four fold according to Vyhas (manifestations). He is dya (First), Aja ( u n b o r n ) , Nryana (causing sleep i.e. perfect rest of Naras), omniscient, t h e divine Om (ibidW. 20-30). "It is this great god w h o incarnates for t h e sake of gods to destroy Adharma a n d to establish Dharma (II.iii.72.64., 73.69-70). A n o t h e r reason a t t r i b u t e d to Visnu's descent is t h e curse of Sage Bhrgu. W h e n t h e Asuras took shelter in the h e r m i t a g e of Bhrgu,
*Bd. P. I I . iii. 42.30-44.

Introduction

li

I n d r a , Visnu a n d other gods attacked t h e m . Bhrgu's wife rushed forward a n d ordered I n d r a a n d others to get out, other wise she would b u r n t h e m down by her power of P e n a n c e . At the instigation of I n d r a , Visnu killed her. T h e sage Bhrgu cursed Visnu to take birth as a h u m a n being seven times a n d in their presence restored his wife back to life (ibid 7 2 . W 116-147). T h e original P u r n a h a d ten incarnations of Visnu, three divine a n d seven h u m a n . But later accretions a d d e d two m o r e to the divine i n c a r n a t i o n s a n d one m o r e (that of P r a m a t i ) to the h u m a n incarnations. T h e serial Nos. in R o m a n figures in the table below indicate the original n u m b e r i n g of the P u r n a . Incar nation No. Period Name of the incarnation Nryana P r t h u the Son of V e n a V a r h a (?) Name of his Preceptor and other details Son of D h a r m a God Brahma himself be came the sacrificial priest of P r t h u ' s yaja. Born within the O c e a n when gods were in distress. For slaying H i r a n y a Kaipu. Begged of Bali, while he was performing a sacri fice, three paces of l a n d . Bali gladly d o n a t e d it when V m a n a assumed a refulgent T r i v i k r a m a form, deprived Bali of his kingdom of the three worlds, bound down Bali a n d confined Bali a n d his tribe to P t l a . And gave the kingdom of t h r e e worlds to I n d r a . (firf.iUI.iii.73.70-86.

Cksusa Manvantara Vaivasvata Manvantara

IIIII

Narasimha Vmana

lii

Brahmnda Purna

He enumerates the following seven incarnations of Visnu a m o n g h u m a n beings. Period Name Details Incar nation No. 10th T r e t y u g a D a t t t r e y a His preceptor's n a m e IV Mrkandeya. King His preceptor, U t a t h y a . 15th T r e t V Yuga Mndht 19th T r e t Preceptor Vivmitra, Paraurma V I Yuga Annihilated Ksattriyas. Son of Jamadagni V I I 24th T r e t R m a , Son of P r e c e p t o r Vasistha Yuga Daaratha Exploit : Killing of Rvana. Preceptor J t u k a r n y a 28th D v p a r a Veda-Vysa VIII Yuga son of P a r a r a Preceptor Grgya a n d I X 28th D v p a r a K r s n a (V m a n a ) son of S n d i p a n i . Killed Dai e n d period Devak (Aditi) tyas Kamsa, lva, a n d Vasudeva J a r s a n d h a , Naraka, ( K a y a p a ) in cut off Bna's 1000 V r s n i family arms. Annihilated K u r u s , established D h a r m a . Preceptor Yjavalkya; X F u t u r e I n c a r Will be b o r n in the Family w i t h his a r m y he will n a t i o n : Kalki conquer a n d extermior Visnuyaas of P a r a r a , son of Devan a t e Mlecchas. sena. V i s n u formerly E x t e r m i n a t i n g living beI n the 2 5 t h K a l p a a t the called P r a m a t i ings for 25 years. People end of Kaliin C a n d r a m a s also will kill each other, Yuga. Gotra. usurp properties of others a n d in the twilight of K a l i age the n u m b e r of people will dwindle d o w n ; w i t h the d a w n o f K r t a age h a p p y period will p r e v a i l (cf. Mt. P. 143.61-65).

Introduction

liii

T h i s list of Visnu's i n c a r n a t i o n shows a fluid state w h e n n e w accretions were m a d e t o o u r T e x t . T h a t t h e n u m b e r o f incarnations is ten is the firm belief of t h e a u t h o r w h o e n u m e r a t e s t h e m as 2nd, 5 t h e t c . But some additions were m a d e later as in t h e case of P r a m a t i , the so-called t e n t h I n c a r n a t i o n of V i s n u . T h e verses a r e obviously a d a p t e d from M t . P. 143.61-65, even w h e n the 10th i n c a r n a t i o n K a l k i alias Visnuyaas is already described. T h e s t a n d a r d list o f t e n incarnations of V i s n u now-a-days does n o t include K i n g P r t h u , M n d h t , D a t t t r e y a , Vysa. T h e cause of non-mention of the Boar-incarnation is per haps d u e to its detailed t r e a t m e n t in I.i.5.1-27. T h e r e too, V i s n u whose abode is waters ( N r y a n a ) is described as sleeping on the vast expanse of Cosmic W a t e r s a n d he wished to lift up the submerged e a r t h a n d assumed the form of Y a j a - V a r h a . As the notes on t h a t c h a p t e r (I.i.5) show, the concept of Yaja V a r h a is a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the Vedic tradition presented here in P u r n i c form. R m a , the son of D a a r a t h a , the 7th i n c a r n a t i o n of V i s n u is cursorily treated in a few verses (Il.iii.64. 192-197) recording his killing of R v a n a a n d good government for 10000 years. N o t a word a b o u t his defeat of P a r a u r m a though K r s n a is m a d e to predict it formerly (Il.iii.36.30-33). T h e a u t h o r of o u r P u r n a is an a r d e n t devotee of K r s n a or r a t h e r of the R d h cult. Even w h e n P a r a u r m a got the secret missiles from god iva, he is m a d e to go to Agastya a n d learn from h i m K r s n a ' s eulogy called Krsna-Premmrta (the n e c t a r in the form of K r s n a ' s love). * W h e n P a r a u r m a recited the h y m n , K r s n a , the pastoral god w i t h a flute, manifested him self to P a r a u r m a * * ( T h e IX i n c a r n a t i o n of V i s n u favouring an a u d i a n c e to the VI i n c a r n a t i o n of the same god !) Parau r m a glorified K r s n a in V e d a n t i c terms applied to the B r a h m a n ( W . 15-24). K r s n a blessed h i m w i t h success i n his mission t o kill Sahasrrjuna who is an i n c a r n a t i o n of his disc S u d a r a n a a n d the slaughter of K s a t t r i y a s . He disappears promising h i m
*Bd. P. II.iii.36. T h e h y m n is a list of 108 epithets ( W . 1 6 - 4 1 )of Krsna. * O p . Cit. Ch. 3 7 .

liv

Brahmnda Purna

to deprive of his m a r t i a l power in his incarnation as D a r a t h i Rma* K r s n a a n d R d h are shown to be greater t h a n god iva a n d Prvat. W h e n Prvat threatened to leave the house d u e to Siva's inaction against P a r a u r m a , iva meditates a n d invokes Lord K r s n a w h o comes w i t h R d h . R d h is shown to have b r o u g h t a b o u t a reconciliation between Prvat a n d P a r a u r m a . * * R d h is not known to the authors of Harivarha a n d t h e Bhga v a t a P u r n a . But the pastoral K r s n a , the L o r d of Go-loka (Cow's h e a v e n ) a n d of Gops (Cowherdesses) manifests himself w i t h R d h a n d S u d m a n . P a r a u r m a ' s eulogy o f R d h (Op. Cit. 43.8-9) especially the epithets u s e d : R&sei (the chief figure, sovereign of R a s a d a n c e ) , rasikevari (Goddess of t h e aesthetes) a n d the m o t h e r of Ativirf (extremely Superior b e i n g ) , the m o t h e r of the g r e a t Being in whose pores of body t h e cosmic eggs shine. These show t h a t R d h has a t t a i n e d the status of the high est deity in public m i n d . B u d d h a is n o t regarded as Visnu's i n c a r n a t i o n . T h e epithet is applied to god iva ( I l . i i i . 7 2 . 1 7 7 ) . M o r e i m p o r t a n t is the declaration of the identity of iva a n d Visnu, R d h a n d U m b y R d h herself: " Y o u ( U m ) a n d I are one. T h e r e is no difference between us. You ( U m ) are Visnu a n d I am iva w h o has duplicated in forms. In the h e a r t of Siva, Visnu has assumed your form a n d in the h e a r t of Visnu, iva has assumed my f o r m " . (Op. cit. 42. 48-49.) T h e Synthesis of aiva a n d Vaisnava cults was the mission of the P u r n a s a n d Bd. P. is not an exception. As c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e passages, K r s n a ' s biography in the description of V r s n i dynasty (Il.iii.71.195-265) is practically the same as in the Bh. P . , b u t our P u r n a notes one good act of K a m s a H e did n o t kill N a n d a ' s d a u g h t e r who was brought as a substitute for K r s n a . He magnanimously says to Vasudeva, " J u s t as she is your d a u g h t e r , she is m i n e too. I w o n ' t kill h e r " . A n d the girl grew up in V r s n i family (II.3.72.219-220).
Op. Cit. 37.26-33. **0p. Cit. 42.18-56.

Introduction

lv

O n e more point is the m e n t i o n of t h e V y h a theory. T h e four manifestations of S k a r s a n a , V s u d e v a , P r a d y u m n a a n d Aniruddha. *

"Closely connected with the incarnations of Vi?nu is the struggle bet w e e n Suras and Asuras- 'Suras' were so called as they a c c e p t e d Sur (goddess w i n e ) w h e n she emerged while churning the ocean, 'Asuras' preferred to be dry teatotaller and did not accept her. H e n c e A-sura. Suras (gods) c o m m i t t e d u n g o d l y acts a n d Asuras showed super-human magnanimity. T h e first three c o m m o n rulers of both Suras and Asuras were Hiranyakaipu, Bali a n d Prahlda and they ruled for ten yugas ( I I . i i i . 7 2 . 8 8 - 9 2 ) . Our Purna indicates that D e v a s and Asuras were cousin-tribes. " T h e r e was great friendship rupted. T h e D e v a s and Asuras abided by the behest of Asura Indras between (Il.iii. the D e v a s and Asuras. For a full period of ten yugas, the universe was uninter 7 2 . 6 9 ) . Hiranyakaipu, Bali a n d Prahlda w e r e the three Asura Indras ( N o t e the order of succession in Bd. P. (Op. Cit. 7 2 . 6 8 - 9 2 ) . But due to the mischief, fraud or aggression of Devas, twelve battles were fought between them in the V a r h a K a l p a and V i s n u ' s incarnation was involved in some. Sr. No. oj the battle. I II III IV V X a r a s i m h a and Hiranyakaipu. V m a n a ' s fraudBali was cheated and deprived of his empire a n d confined to Ptla. Varha. Churning of the nectar, Daityas cheated by V i s n u a s M o h i n i . Prah l d a was defeated by Indra. T r a k m a y a b a t t l e A b d u c t i o n of Brhaspati's wife T r by Candra. As Brhaspati's cause was espoused by Devas, C a n d r a I n d r a killed V i r o c a n a . VI VII VIII IX X Adi-baka. T h e conflict b e t w e e n Vasisjha a n d V i v m i t r a (But the sages only fought in the form of birds). T h e fight for T r i p u r a i v a massacred Asuras. A n d h a k r a D e v a s and m e n jointly defeated D a i t y a , R k s a s a alliance. V r t r a V i s n u j o i n e d Indra a n d killed V r t r a a n d his allies. DhvajaVipracitti a n d his younger brother assumed Dhvaja form by M y I n d r a penetrated a hundred thousand killed him. XI XII H l h a l a N o apparent cause. K i n g Raji surrounded b y the gods defeated D a i t y a s ( I l . i i i . 7 2 . 7 2 - 8 8 ) . Dhvajas and Asura a n d Asuras supported Cause

Ivi ktism

Brahmnda Purna

Although there is a big section of 40 chapters (IV.iii.5-44) called Lalit Mhtmya appended to the Bd. P., it is apocryphal. T h e concluding verses of Ch. 4 of the Upasamhra pda ( I I I . i v . 4 . 41-73) state t h a t all the sages of N a i m i s r a n y a , the performers of the sacrificial sessions, w e n t to heaven, gives the genealogy of the teachers of the Bd. P. who h a n d e d down the T e x t a n d the Phala-ruti t h e m e r i t accruing from listening to the B d . P . T h a t clearly shows t h a t the Bd. P. ended here. T h e section on Lalit Mhtmya starts with a ne-wMagalcarana (benedictory verses)and a new p a i r of interlocutors, a n d t h e contentsmanifestation of Goddess Lalit to kill the Asura Bhanda, her marriage with K m e v a r a (iva), glorification of the goddess M a h p a d m a n d K m k s etc.show t h a t it is an i n d e p e n d e n t work. If Lalil-mhtmya is treated as an integral p a r t of the Bd. P., akti-worship with all its T n t r i c details must have been prevalent at the time of the inclusion of the L a l i t - M h t m y a in Bd. P. It is not so m u c h of R d h b u t r a t h e r K r s n a cult (with its T a n trie aspect as in N P . Chs. 82-83) that is emphasized in Bd.P. (e.g. It is Bhakti in R d h ' s eulogy by P a r a u r m a I I . iii. 43.8.ff). [See T a n t r i s m a l s o ] . The Sun-worship T h e r e are references to the Sun-worship or propitiation of the Sun-god. T h u s Yjavalkya ireturns"vomits b a c k " Yajurveda to his teacher V a i a m p y a n a , propitiates the Sungod who confers on Brahma-rti (Yjavalkya) Yajur-mantras, after assuming the form of a horse (I.ii.35. 23-26). H e n c e white Yajurveda is called Vjasaneyi Samhit. T h e story of Satrjit receiving >ymantaka gem from the Sun-god ( I I . Hi.71.21-33) shows how generous the Sun-god is to his devotees. As in other P u r n a s , in the Bhuvana-Koa p o r t i o n i n Bd.P. there is mythical astronomy describing the position, dimen sions of the Sun-god, his chariot a n d -paraphernalia of gods, sages, G a n d h a r v a s , celestial damsels, serpents, demons, the twelve

Introduction

lvii

sun-gods presiding over each m o n t h , t h e different colours he assumes in each season, his function to b u r n down the Universe at the end of K a l p a . C a n we regard this m y t h i c a l astronomy as a p a r t of t h e Sun-worship, as we can say a b o u t it in the Bhavisya Purna where M a g a Brahmins are found worshipping the Sun ? An Obscure cult T h e r e is an obscure cult called Godharma or t h e Cult of the Bull. In Il.iii.74.53-58 t h e Bull of god iva explains to sage D r g h a t a m a s : " W e do not distinguish between w h a t should or should n o t be e a t e n or d r u n k or w i t h w h o m one should go (co h a b i t ) . No sin is c o m m i t t e d by u s " . D r g h a t a m a s followed it a n d was cured of his blindness a n d fear of Age a n d d e a t h by S u r a b h i , t h e Divine Cow. He c a m e to be known as G a u t a m a as his T a m a s (blindness) was removed by a C o w . * T h i s is a crude description of the V r a t a poetically described by K l i d s a in R a g h u v a m a . ( I I . 1 . 2 5 . ) Non-Vedic religions T h e r e are indirect references to J a i n i s m , Buddhism K p l i k a s a n d Ajvakas (called Ajvas). T h e y a r e alllcalled nagnas ' n u d e s ' as they are not covered by the T r i n i t y of V e d a s (II.iii.14.34-36, 39-40). In the description of K a l i Age, t h e ochre-coloured (Buddhists), the nirgranthas ( J a i n s ) a n d K p l i kas are bracketed with the " m e r c h a n t s " of the V e d a a n d holy places (1.2.31.65-66). T h e P u r n a strongly opposes a n i m a l sacrifices. In the T r e t Yuga sages declared to I n d r a t h a t the slaughter of animals in a sacrifice was n o t dharma. Hirhs (Injury to a n i m a l s ) can never be dharma. Sacrifices are to be performed w i t h Seeds which a r e three years old ( u n p r o d u c t i v e ) " . W h e n king ' U p a r i c a r a ' (Heaven-moving) Vasu disagreed w i t h this principle of non injury, he fell down a n d sank to P t l a (1.2.30.9-32). T h i s is t h e U p n i s a d i c t h o u g h t - c u r r e n t a n d need n o t be traced to J a i n i s m or Buddhism. T h e institution of Bhiksus is not limited to J a i n s or Bud dhists so t h e daalaksanaka dharma ' D h a r m a characterised by T e n
* g a v hrta-tamh so'tha G a u t a m a h samapadyata / II.iii.74.94

Iviii

Brahmnda Purna

rules of discipline' in 1.27.177-179 are m e a n t for B r a h m a n i c a l forest-hermits. It is not certain whether the anikitat-vda in I.ii.8.64 should be a t t r i b u t e d to Sajaya Belatthiputra, although it can be taken as a brief unscientific statement of S y d v d a . T h e classification of living beings as Aupapattika, Mraka (III.iv.2.192-93) is c o m m o n to J a i n i s m a n d B r a h m a n i s m . But m u c h m o r e convincing evidence is regarding the derivation of the n a m e Bhrata from B h a r a t a 1 the son of ( J a i n T l r t h a k a r a ) R s a b h a b o r n of N b h i andjMerudev (1.2.14.59-62). V e d y a r d h a (1.2.15) is a hypersanskritisation of m o u n t V e y a d d h a m e t in J a i n Pkt. literature. But very little information is preserved a b o u t non-Vedic Section of this P u r n a . V. Dharma-straAncient LoresScience of Music

T h e m e n t i o n of a Bhavisyat P u r n a a n d quotations from P u r n a s on m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g to D h a r m a stra in the pastamba Grhya Sutra(II.9.24.6; 1.6.19.13; 11,9.23.3-6) show t h a t materials of D h a r m a stra came to be i n c o r p o r a t e d in P u r n a s since the 5 t h C e n t . B.C. 2 In my introductions to KP.p.xliv, N P . pp.52-53,1 p o i n t e d out how P u r n a s were looked u p o n as authorities on D h a r m a stra by mediaeval N i b a n d h a writers. T h o u g h the special feature of D h a r m a stra in Bd. P. m a y a p p e a r to be r d d h a to which 879 verses (Il.iii.Chs. 9-20) have been devoted, there are some m o r e topics like the duties of different V a r n a s a n d Aramas (I.ii.7.132-185; I.ii.29.89.90 I.ii.31), the denunciation of a n i m a l sacrifices (I.ii.30-16-48). O n e , however, wonders how this a t t i t u d e to ahims is to be recon ciled w i t h t h e promised fruits for non-vegetarian articles of food to be served at r d d h a (Bd.P. 19.2-11). But Bd.P. is not the only work which prescribes such diet in r d d h a . M a n u III.267-72, Yjavalkya 1.258-60, M b h . Anusana C h . 88, Ktyyana rddha-Stra (Kantfik 7-8), KP.II.20.40-42, M t . P.17.31-35 do the same a n d specify the period Pitrs are gratified with the flesh of a p a r t i c u l a r a n i m a l .

1. 2.

Tasmt tu Bhratam varsam lasya nmn vidur budhh / Intro, t o N P . pp. 6-8.

I.ii. 14.62a..

Introduction

lix

T h e topic of r d d h a is so comprehensively discussed t h a t it covers the following topics of D h a r m a - s t r a viz. H o l y places of Pilgrimage (II.iii.Gh. 13), Dana (ibid.Ch.)6), Tithis a n d Naksattras (ibid. Chs. 17 & 18), t h o u g h the emphasis is on its suitability to r d d h a . As I have discussed these topics in details in my a n n o t a t i o n s giving cross references to various works on D h a r m a stra I do not r e p e a t t h e m h e r e . But I m a y state t h a t all the details of r d d h a such as relative superiority of people p a r t a k i n g of t h e feast in r d d h a (II.iii.9.66-76) a m o n g w h o m Yogins have a special place of h o n o u r (19.29, 49-52, II.iii.9.70; m e t a l pots to be used in S r d d h a , offering oPinolas, Agni karana 'establishment of fire' (ibid.ch. 11) rites of purification, distinguishing features of a p p r o p r i a t e a n d i n a p p r o p r i a t e features in the r i t u a l of r d d h a ; eschewing the sight of naked ascetics, atheists etc, (Op. Cit. C h . 1 4 ) the test of Brahmins a t t e n d i n g r d d h a (ibid ch. 15) etc. a r e found practically the same in Smrti a n d P u r n a works (see notes on the various c h a p t e r s ) . T h e classification of Pitrs into seven as in V . P . 7 3 , P d . P . Srsti 9.2-4 shows a later accretion. T h e superstition of foodpollution by the sight of non-Vedic ascetics Skhyas, aivas like K r u s a s etc. (19.43-44)is found in Gautama Dh.S. 15.25-28, M a n u 111.239-42, KP.II.22.34-35 VP.III.16.12-14 to m e n t i o n a few. T h e r e is some contradiction in the tests of the B r h m a n a invited for r d d h a (ch. 15) where Bd.P. instructs t h a t Brah mins should not be tested (V.7) a n d also gives qualifications of invitation-worthy Brahmins. It is not understood w h y Orissa, T e l a g a n a a n d N o r t h S i n d h were regarded as unfit for performing r d d h a (14.313 3 ) . N o t t h a t the contradictions m e n t i o n e d above are limited to Bd.P. (vide annotations on the relevant topics). T h a t is a charac teristic of literature of growth (like P u r n a s ) where, due to lack of critical editing, b o t h old a n d new portions a r e allowed to r e m a i n despite their non-agreement. In spite of these, Bd.P. was looked u p o n as an a u t h o r i t y on D h a r m a stra. F o r example, Mitksar on Yjavalkya I I I . 3 0 9 a n d Smrticandrik I.p.l 18 quote Bd.P. to support the purificatory rite of b a t h i n g along w i t h one's dress if one h a p p e n s

lx

Brahmnda Purna

to t o u c h aiva, P u p a t a or Lokyata (Materialists). A p a r r k a quotes 75 verses from Bd.P. (out of t h e m 43 are on r d d h a . ) Smrti Candrik quotes a b o u t 50 verses on Ahnika a n d r d d h a .

Ancient Lores in Bd.P. T h e a u t h o r of t h e B d . P . is n o t exact in information a b o u t our a n c i e n t works: T h u s (i) t h e r e is a difference in the total n u m b e r of M a n t r a s in different V e d a s as stated in Bd.P. I.ii.3570-81 a n d t h e a c t u a l V e d i c Texts. Name of the Veda Total No. as per Bd.P. Total No. in the Svdhyya Mana'ala (Satavalekar) edition. 10552 (The same in C V S [Carana Vyha Stra] 1810 in these 12000 1900 (Ktyyana supports this) 8880 w h e n ukriya a n d K h i l a Mantras are added). 6026 12330 3988

1.

Rgveda

8635

2.

Smaveda this)

8014

(CVS supports ( T h e only 75 Sman) 3. 4. Adhvaryava (Black Yajurveda) Vjasaney (White Yajurveda)

5.

Atharva Veda

5977

2. In statements about Rsis (Sages), their lineage, t h e khs (Branches of the V e d a s ) , there are a n u m b e r of discre pancies between Bd.P. a n d C V S . (vide a n n o t a t i o n s on C h a p t e r s 32-35). T h e uncritical n a t u r e of t h e text can be a cause for some, b u t t h e n u m b e r of discrepancies is too large to be explained t h a t way.

Introduction 3. Brhmana Texts

lxi

O u t of the ten different characteristics of t h e B r h m a a Texts, Bd.P. I.ii.34.63-64 explains Purkrti'a precedent, an instance w h e r e a n o t h e r did something of t h e same kind', a n d Pur-kalpa ' w h a t h a p p e n e d in the past ages, changing t h e m e a n ing after considering the context.' 4. Mimms

O n P r v a m m m s S t r a I I . 1.33, S a h a r a quotes Bd.P. I.ii.33.47-48 as the characteristics or function of B r h m a n a s * . In Bd.P. 1.2.32.31.22 we find m e n t i o n of Ayurveda, Jyotisa, Arthastra, H e t u - t r a (Science of Logic.) Science of Music1 T h e r e are seven notes (Svaras) viz. Sadja (Sa), Rsabha (Ri), GndhSra (Ga), Madhyama (Ma), Pacama (Pa), Dhaivata (Dha) a n d Nisda (Ni). T h e r e are three Gramas (basic scales). Grma m e a n s t h e g r o u p of seven notes. T h e P u r n a s m e n t i o n three Gramas viz. Saq*ja-grAma, Madhyama-grma a n d GandhragrmaThe Sa-scale, t h e Ma-scale a n d the Ga-scale. These have Sa, Ma a n d Ga as the starting notes. T h u s the Sa-scale would have notes : Sa, Ri, Dha, Ni. T h e Ma-scale would h a v e the notes Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa, Ri, Ga. T h e Ga-scale which fell i n t o disuse " w e n t to h e a v e n " w o u l d have Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa, Ri. T h e n u m b e r of rutis (the Micro-tones) in the Saptaka fixed by B h a r a t a is 22. T h e ^ruii-intervals were distributed in t h e notes as follows : Sa scale : 4 Sa, 3 Ri, 2 Ga, 4 Ma, 4 Pa, 3 Dha, 2 Ni 22 Ma scale : 4 Ma, 3 Pa, 4 Dha, 2Ni, 4 Sa, 3 Ri, 2 Ga22

Hetur nirvacanarh nind praiarhi samiayo vidhih / Parakriy Parkalpo Vyavadhrana-Kalpani Upamnam daSaite vai vidhayo Brhmanasya lu \\

\.

T h e n o t e is based on the translation a n d annotations of Ch. 61.29-35 is extremely Indian he Music study of a n c i e n t

a n d C h . 62 by Prof. Dr. G. H. Tarlekar. T h e Sk. text of Bd.P. corrupt. P r o f Tarlekar has d e v o t e d his life to the music. W i t h the help o f V . P . a n d other texts o n a n c i e n t I n d i a n for his h e l p in the matter.

has tried to e m e n d a n d translate these verses- I am grateful to Prof. Tarlekar

Ixii

Brahmnda Purna

MSrchan was the g r a d u a l ascent and descent of the seven notes of the basic scale. As the Murchans started from each note of the scale, there were seven Murchans of each scale. T h u s the murchanas of the three gramas n u m b e r e d twentyone. Tana is like Mrchan in which one or two specific notes are d r o p p e d . W h e n one specific svara (note)is dropped it is called Sadava Tna (one consisting of six notes) a n d when two specific notes are dropped, it is called Auduva Tna ( O n e consisting of five n o t e s ) . According to P u r n a s , there were twenty Tnas of Madhyama-grma, fourteen of Sadja-grma a n d fifteen of Gandhara grma. T h u s the n u m b e r of Tnas of three gramas is fortyninein Pre-Bharata (Ntya stra) State of I n d i a n Music. T h e P u r a n i c concept of Tana is different from t h a t of the present day. T h e T e x t enumerates the names of 31 Tnas only in their corrupt forms, b u t they do not throw any light on their n a t u r e . But they disclose the names of two ancient authors on Music. Bhlmasena (with reference to the Tna Ngarapya form reconstructed from the obscure form Ngartnayapriyh in the text, a n d N r a d a . Very obscure names of murchans a n d their presiding deities a r e given (in 61.43b-53b). O n l y a critical edition of the text will help to clarify it. Alankaras in Music1 As the whole c h a p t e r on Alakras (Ch.62) is full of c o r r u p t readings a n d obscurities, readings from C h . 87 of V . P . a r e taken as the basis a n d Sagita Ratnkara, t h o u g h m u c h later in d a t e t h a n Bd.P. or V . P . , is used as it preserved some of the P u r n i c traditions (But it was found to be of little u s e ) . Alakras are to be spoken of along with the Varnas (move m e n t s of notes such 'steady', 'ascending' e t c . ) . T h e Varnas are (1) Sthyin (Sa, Sa, Sa), (2) rohin (Sa, ri, ga etc.) (3) Avarohin (Ni, dha, pa) a n d (4) Sacrin (Sa ri sa ri ga etc.) T h e a u t h o r enumerates four alakras such as Sthpani, Pramda, Apramda, promises to explain t h e m b u t the explanations are n o t found in t h e text. T h e t r e a t m e n t is very scrappy a n d obscure. He is however right w h e n he emphasizes the use of the right Alakra
1. Based on II.iii.62.

Introduction

Ixiii

at the right place (62.24-26). T h e a u t h o r gives the local varieties of songs such as M a d r a k a , A p a r n t i k a (62.31-36). About Tolas, Bd.P. gives two even measures (caturasra of four beats a n d eight Mtrs) a n d Tryasraof four beats a n d six Mtrs). Lastly, he mentions three Vrttis viz. Citr, Vrtti a n d Dakfin. T h e Vrttis are styles of r e n d e r i n g songs with a c c o m p a n i m e n t . In Citr, the music of stringed instrument was p r o m i n e n t a n d the song subservient. In Daksin, the song was p r o m i n e n t a n d instru m e n t a t i o n subservient a n d in the Vrtti, b o t h were employed equally (vide Ntya stra (Baroda)Vol. IV, p p . 100-101, Sagita Ratnkara V.10-16 a n d VI.165-167). VI. Vednta : In t h e Magalcarana (benedictory verses at t h e beginning of the B d . P . ) , the a u t h o r pays obeisance to the omnipresent Selfb o r n Deity called L o r d H a r i who in his threefold form represen ting rajas, sattva a n d tamas, creates, sustains a n d annihilates t h e U n i v e r s e . 1 He possesses three gunas a n d is yet devoid of t h e m . He is endowed w i t h unparalleled knowledge, d e t a c h m e n t , s u p e r h u m a n power a n d d h a r m a . Resorting to Yoga he created the world of mobile a n d immobile beings (I.i.1.1-7). L a t e r the creation of the Universe from Prakrti is called a Vivarta (of B r a h m a n ) a n d not Parinama of the Skhya (I.i.3.24). T h e B r a h m a n has neither beginning nor end. It is u n b o r n , subtle, incomprehensible, beyond b o t h Sat and A-sat (existence a n d n o n existence) ( I . i . 3 . 9 - I I ) . It is the source of the world. In concluding the P u r n a (III.iv.4.71-73) he pays h o m a g e to t h a t P r i m o r d i a l Deity whose description is like t h a t of the P u r u s a in the Purusa-Skta ( R V . X - 9 0 ) . It is t h e P u r a n i c way of presenting t h e V e d n t a . khya : K a p i l a , the founder of the Skhya school is said to be one of t h e Seven Sons of god B r a h m a a n d a b r o t h e r of suri a n d
1. V i s n u assumes these forms. I.i.4.6-8.

Religion and Philosophy in Bd. P.

Ixiv

Brahmnda Purna

P a c a i k h a o t h e r a n c i e n t teachers of this school a n d K a p i l a ' s followers (III.iv.2.272-274). He is called Paramarsi (I.ii.32.86) as intellectually he comprehends w h a t is still unmanifest, simul taneously w i t h its manifestation. T h i s epithet is preceded by the description of the evolution of the Universe (ibid W. 71-76) which is the same as in I.i.Ch.s 3, 4 & 5. B d . P . uses varakrsna's terms a n d process of evolution of the Universe in the Skhya Krik e.g. the state of equilibrium of G u n a s , the creation of Mahat, Ahamkra (Cosmic E g o ) , the elements (Bhtas , SenseO r g a n s b u t it posits the presence a n d power of V i s n u for this, while v a r a k r s n a is an atheist. T h e G u n a s S a t t v a , Rajas a n d T a m a s are personified by Visnu, B r a h m a n a n d R u d r a . This is Theistic Skhya probably posterior to I v a r a k r s n a (circa 300 A . D . ) . Toga Yoga as a philosophy is n o t directly discussed in the Bd. P., b u t the i m p o r t a n c e of Yoga is stressed everywhere. Visnu crea ted the world t h r o u g h his power of Yoga |(I.i.1.1-7 . In inviting B r h m a n a s for r d d h a , a Yogi has a iprecedence over learned B r h m a n a s (II.iii.9.70; 15-25). A guest at t h e time of r d d h a should be received as 'masters of Yoga move in different forms to guide people in D h a r m a ' (ibid V. 9 ) . T h e p a t h of Yoga t h r o u g h P r n y m a , P r a t y h r a etc. is r e g a r d e d as ' u n d o u b t e d l y the means to M o k s a ' (Il.iii. 13.138-139) Bhakti In Bd.P.II.iii.34.37-41, we are told t h a t d u e to lack of Bhakti, P a r a u r m a was u n a b l e t o m a s t e r the K r s n a - K a v a c a . T h e r e Bhakti is classified as follows: (i) Uttam T h e best one. T h e devotees in this class are iva, N r a d a , uka, Ambarisa, R a n t i deva, M r u t i , Bali, Bibhisana, P r a h l d a , U d d h a v a a n d last b u t not the least Gops of Braj. M a n y of these Bhaktas are in cluded in Nrada-Bhakli-Stra 83 b u t t h a t Bhakti-Sutra rates t h e Bhakti of Gopls as the Sinceremost.

Introduction

lxv

(ii) Madhyam: T h e middle class. Vasistha a n d o t h e r sages, M a n u a n d the like of h i m a n d Paraurma. (iii) PrkrtaCommon. Of ordinary people. or K a n i s t h (lowest) Tantra T h e a n a c h r o n i s m of bringing in K r s n a (and. R d h ) in P a r a u r m a legend shows its interpolatory n a t u r e . But it is t h e T a n t r i c cult in which K r s n a a n d R d h are used for Mantra, Kavaca etc. t h a t is i m p o r t a n t here. God B r a h m a advises P a r a u r m a to secure t h e m from god iva (II.iii.32.37-39). T h e whole c h a p t e r (ibid 33) is T a n t r i c . T h e M a n t r a is t h e core of T a n t r a - s t r a a n d K r s n a - M a n t r a of 10 syllables given to P a r a u r m a is : Gopijanavallabhya Svh T h e sage of this M a n t r a is Sadiva; Pakti is the m e t r e ; K r s n a is the deity. A n d its utilization is for the achievement of everything (33.3-4). T h e M a n t r a is followed by Kavaca (Protective c h a r m with mystical syllables) called Trailokya-Vijaya (33.6-27) imploring Lord K r s n a to protect different parts of the body everywhere, u n d e r all circumstances. Accompanied with mystic syllables like Om Hrim a n u m b e r of epithets of K r s n a express his close association w i t h R d h . Later, a Stotra, called Krsnmrta Stotra, a series of 108 epithets of K r s n a reported to have been recited by esa, is n a r r a t e d by Agastya to P a r a u r m a (36.16-50). T h e epithets cover all the episodes in the life of K r s n a a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e of this Stotra is described at the end of t h a t C h a p t e r . P a r a u r m a recited the Stotra a n d when K r s n a manifest ed himself, he devoutly prayed h i m w i t h a n o t h e r Stotra (37. 15-24). W h e n L o r d iva implored K r s n a t o appease t h e w r a t h of goddess U m at hacking down t h e tusk of G a n e a by P a r a u r m a , b o t h R d h a n d K r s n a a p p e a r a n d bring a b o u t a p e a c e , P a r a u r m a is shown to praise t h e m in V e d a n t i c terms i n t e r -

Ixvi

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mixed w i t h P u r h i c episodes (II.ii.43, W . 8 - 1 0 ) . These Stotras m a y not be T a n t r i c , b u t they show the influence of R d h cult. Gf. N P . I . C h s . 80, 8 1 , 82. T h e section on Lalit Mhtmya starts with a new Magalcarana (benedictory verses) a n d a new pair of interlocutors, a n d t h e contentsmanifestation of Goddess Lalit to kill the Asura B h a n d a , h e r m a r r i a g e w i t h K m e v a r a (iva), glorification of the goddess M a h p a d m a n d K m k s etc.show t h a t it is an i n d e p e n d e n t work. But if Lalit-Mhtmya is treated as an integral p a r t of t h e Bd.P., Sakti-worship w i t h all its T a n t r i c details must have been prevalent at the time of inclusion of the L a l i t - M h t m y a in Bd.P. Other points A few m o r e points are remarkable : (i) AhimsaThough animal sacrifices are c o n d e m n e d on the ground of Ahirs (non-injury) which is regarded as ' T h e gate-way to D h a r m a ' (I.ii.30.35) arid though non-retaliation is r e c o m m e n d e d for sages aspiring for Moksa (II.iii.32.9.-12) it is n o t a blind Ahims. For Bd.P. (I.ii.36.188) states " I f by killing one, m a n y can lead a h a p p y life, there is no sin, major or m i n o r , i n killing h i m " . (ii) Non-covetousness : T h e tirade against Trsn (covetousness) in the t r a d i t i o n a l verses ascribed to K i n g Yayti (Il.iii. 68.96-103) need not be a t t r i b u t e d to Buddhism as this revulsion is expressed i n M b h . Vana 2-36, nti 174-46 a n d in other P u r n a s . (iii) Free-Will and determination : Bd.P. (I.ii.8.61-62) raises t h e p o i n t w h e t h e r one succeeds in one's efforts d u e to his Daiva (destiny), effort or Svabhva a n d decides t h a t a combination of Daiva a n d h u m a n efforts yields fruit. Cf. M b h . nti 238.4-5 a n d M t . P . 220.8 for similar views.

VII

The Paraurma Legend

T h e Legend of P a r u r m a a n d his exploits in killing ' t h e t h o u s a n d - a r m e d ' K r t t a v r y a Arjuna a n d 'de-Ksattrising the e a r t h ' twentyone times, is a favourite topic of Purna-writers as can be seen from t h e B h . P . I X . l 5 & 16, P d . P. V I . 241, M t .

Introduction

lxvii

P. 43, 44 Sk. P. (Rev K h a n d a 2 1 8 ) . T h e legend deserves special a t t e n t i o n as o u r P u r n a has devoted 37 chapters (chs. 21-58) of the Upodghta Pda a n d shown his connection w i t h S a g a r a , K i n g of Ayodhy a n d e n c o u n t e r w i t h R m a , t h e son of D a a r a t h a of the same Ayodhy house ( t h o u g h b o t h Sagara a n d R m a (circa 2350 B . C . ) 1 were born m a n y generations l a t e r ) a n d with the r e c l a m a t i o n of land from the Sea from G o k a r n a ( i n ' K a r n a t a k ) to C a p e C o m o r i n , in the South. T h e basic incident of the legend took place in the hoary a n t i q u i t y (circa B.C. 2 5 5 0 ) 2 a n d there is no u n a n i m i t y in the a c c o u n t of the P u r n a s . 3 T h e b a r e facts of the case a p p e a r as follows : (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) J a m a d a g n i ' s royal reception to K i n g K r t t a v r y a . R a i d o n J a m a d a g n i ' s hermitage a n d m a n h a n d l i n g him by officers of Krttavrya. Paraurma's killing Krttavrya in retaliation. As a revenge, K r t t a v r y a ' s sons killed J a m a d a g n i . T w e n t y o n e battles in which H a i h a y a allies. P a r a u r m a defeated

O u r P u r n a magnifies P a r a u r m a a s a n epic hero. T h e story begins after the rddha-Kalpa (procedure of performing r d d h a ) as follows : W i t h the permission of his father, P a r a u r m a visits his grandfather Rcka a n d t h e n his great-grandfather a n d so on till he visits Bhrgu the founder of his family. Bhrgu advises h i m to p r o p i t i a t e Lord iva a n d o b t a i n from h i m his missiles (Ch. 2 1 ) . Accordingly P a r a u r m a performs p e n a n c e on the H i m a l a y a s to propitiate iva (Ch. 2 2 ) . iva, disguised as a h u n t e r tests P a r a u r m a a n d is satisfied. He imparts the knowledge of secret missiles to P a r a u r m a for killing d e m o n s , b u t advises h i m to go on pilgrimage a n d perform p e n a n c e to a t t a i n ability to h a n d l e these weapons (Chs. 23 a n d 24) P a r a u r m a kills a tiger in a H i m a l a y a n cave a n d saves a B r a h m i n boy safe a n d u n i n j u r e d
1. 2. 3 V e d i c Age, p. 2 9 2 . Ibid, p . 2 8 3 . S e e below : W a s Karttavirya a villain ?

lxviii

Brakmnda Purna

a n d hence the boy is n a m e d 'Akrtavrana'. He becomes his p e r m a n e n t companion. Both of t h e m r e t u r n to J a m a d a g n i ' s hermitage ( R a m a ' s h o m e ) (Ch. 2 5 ) . K r t t a v r y a of H a i h a y a dynasty visits J a m a d a g n i ' s h e r m i tage a n d gets a royal reception a n d comfortable night-halt to all his men a n d officers d u e to the power of J a m a d a g n i ' s cow ( K m a d h e n u ) . On his d e p a r t u r e , t h e H a i h a y a king is insti gated by his minister C a n d r a g u p t a to confiscate the K m a d h e n u . While P a r a u r m a is away, C a n d r a g u p t a r e t u r n s a n d in t h e scuffle t h a t follows J a m a d a g n i is killed. T h e K m a d h e n u flies away in the sky. C a n d r a g u p t a returns w i t h the calf to the k i n g (Chs. 26-29). P a r a u r m a ' s r e t u r n a n d R e n u k ' s l a m e n t a t i o n beating her breast twenty-one times. P a r a s u r m a ' s vow to annihilate Ksattriyas twentyone times. Bhrgu visits the h e r m i t a g e a n d revives J a m a d a g n i . (From Bhrgu's visit a n d resuscitation of J a m a d a g n i to the e n d of C h . 39, the Bd. P. adds new m a t e r i a l (out of which some is anachronistic, n o t found in older P u r n a s ) . P a r a u r m a consults god B r a h m a a n d discusses the strategy to kill H a i h a y a . B r a h m a directs h i m to god iva. P a r a u r m a approaches iva, propitiates him a n d gets the secret of the perfect missile (Chs. 31-32). T h e protective m a n t r a (Kavaca) is called Trailokya-Vijaya (conquest of the three worlds) (Ch. 3 3 ) . T h e story of the m a l e a n d female deer illustrating the fruit of the h y m n called Krsnapremamrta (Ch. 3 4 ) , P a r a u r m a goes to Agastya's h e r m i t a g e a n d listens from h i m the h y m n Krsna-Premamrta (Chs. 35-36). K r s n a , the future 8th incarnation of Visnu, manifests himself to P a r a u r m a (the 6th incarnation of Visnu, a n d orders h i m to annihilate Ksattriyas 21 times a n d in the 2 4 t h T r e t Yuga, K r s n a will i n c a r n a t e as R m a (the 7th incarnation of V i s n u ) in R a g h u family w i t h his 4 Vyhas a n d deprive P a r a u r m a of his divine power. Bhrgava sends a challenge to K r t t a v r y a a n d kills h i m b u t he, being an i n c a r n a t i o n of the S u d a r a n a discus of Visnu, reassumes his original form (Chs. 36-40). After carrying out his vow P a r a u r m a goes to iva to report his exploits b u t is prevented by Ganea to enter, as iva a n d Prvat were taking rest. P a r a u r m a strikes G a n e a w i t h his axe a n d cuts his tusk. Prvat strongly complains against this.

Introduction

lxix

to iva a n d w a n t s to leave for her father's house b u t is concili a t e d by R d h . R d h a is eulogised by P a r a u r m a . (This shows t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e of R d h - c u l t w h e n this p a r t of the Bd. P. was i n t e r p o l a t e d despite its a n a c h r o n i c i m p o r t ) . R e t u r n i n g to his father's h e r m i t a g e , P a r a u r m a reportes his revenge on K r t t a v r y a . J a m a d a g n i advises h i m to perform p e n a n c e for twelve years in a t o n e m e n t for his blood-shed. P a r a u r m a de parts a n d in his absence sons of K r t t a v r y a kill J a m a d a g n i a n d R e n u k too dies heart-broken. After completing his p e n a n c e for Twelve Years P a r a u r m a learns how his father was killed. He recalls his divine charioteer a n d advances against H a i h a y a s , K r t t a v r y a ' s son Vtihotra hides a n d saves his life. P a r a u r m a repeats the slaughter of Ksattriyas twenty-one times. In K u r u ksetra, he fills five tanks with K s a t t r i y a blood a n d performs r d d h a of his Pitrs. His m a n e s a p p e a r in t h e sky, c o m m a n d h i m to desist from blood-shed a n d perform p e n a n c e . P a r a u r m a (though u n m a r r i e d a n d u n a n o i n t e d as a king) performs a Horse-Sacrifice (Haya-medha II.iii.47.45-53) a n d gives to K a y a p a all the e a r t h except M a h e n d r a M o u n t a i n reserved for his residence. Thereafter, he quietly performs p e n a n c e there (Chs. 41-43). T h e Sagara episode (Chs. 44-50)intervenes here as follows: After P a r a u r m a ' s r e t i r e m e n t , H a i h a y a s organise them selves a n d in alliance w i t h warlike tribes like akas, H n a s a n d o t h e r s they assail Bhu the king of Ayodhy, the ally of Bhrgavas. Bhu flies a n d dies n e a r Aurva's (Bhrgava's ) h e r m i tage * T h i s intervention of Sagara episode is for explaining w h y P a r a u r m a r e t u r n s to active life a n d reclaims the land from the Sea. P a r a u r m a is a p p r o a c h e d by B r h m a n a s of G o k a r n a as, d u e to the excavation of the e a r t h by Sagara's sons, the Sea engulfed a n d drowned t h e holy place. P a r a u r m a accompanies t h e m a n d requests t h e Sea-god to recede a n d vacate the holy place G o k a r n a . V a r u n a , t h e Sea-god, does not respond. Parau r m a angrily fixes an arrow to his bow to evaporate the whole ocean. T h e n only V a r u n a appears a n d concedes to vacate.
In fact it was a fight for the control of Indo-Gangetic plain between

kings of the north, the allies of Bhrgavas a n d the H a i h a y a kings.

Ixx

Brahmnda Purna

P a r a u r m a takes his ladle a n d facing the n o r t h throws it a n d it goes a n d forms the rpraka T r t h a (Nl-Sopr in T h a n a District of M a h a r a s h t r a ) . T h u s P a r a u r m a reclaims a strip of land six h u n d r e d Yojanas in l e n g t h (Chs. 57-58). 1 As compared w i t h older P u r n a s , this legend of Parau r m a brings in m a n y new elements (as recorded a b o v e ) . T h e sources of these new extra episodes are obscure. But the legend of P a r a u r m a as amplified in the Bd. P. becomes the source of newer versions in later P u r n i c works like the Sahydri Khania, Datta Purna, Kerala-Mhtmya a n d the like. Some works like Paraurama-Kalpastra, veda are a t t r i b u t e d to h i m . Jamadagnya-dhanur-

T h e P a r a u r m a legend raises a few problems of historical imp or t a n ce . We have to grope for the answer, as P a r a u r m a probably belongs to the 3rd m i l l e n i u m B.C. 2 We shall try to ascertain the facts which could be d e d u c e d from the conflicting Purnic evidence: (1) Who were the Bhargavas ?

T h e n a m e Bhrgu ( G K . Phrug us) leads one to believe that they came from Phrygia in West Asia. 3 This migration must have taken place before the Vedic period. T h e Vedas credit the Bhrgus to have brought the fire from the heaven a n d that they were performers of Soma-Sacrifice. 4 T h e y seem to be a m a r t i a l people who participated in the famous Darja w a r ( R V . V I I . 1 8 . 6 ) . T h e y explored the technique of the use of fire in war, as a Bhrgava sage Aurva is said to have been dissuaded by his Pitrs (probably elderly people of his c l a n ) to desist from per fecting his fire-missile. 5 T h e y were advanced in medicine a n d
1. 197-200. 2. pp. 3. C. 2 5 5 0 2 3 5 0 B.C. is regarded as Paraurma period in Vedic Age, A . J . Karandikar states that R o m a n s were a Bhrgava people w h o 283-288. V i d e Pargiter A I H T (Ancient Indian Historical tradition), pp.

migrated to the W e s t after the fall of T r o y v i d e Mahbhratc P&rvabhmi) Intro, pp. 2-6. 4. 5. MacdonnelKeithVedic Index, vide reference to Bhrgu and other M b h . Adi. 178.14-22. Bhargavas.

Introduction

lxxi

surgery a n d hence the Sajlvani Vidy ( T h e lore of re-suscitating the d e a d ) is a t t r i b u t e d to t h e m . ukra, a Bhrgava p r e c e p t o r of Asuras, is credited to have been restoring the ' d e a d ' Asuras to life a n d gods sent K a c a , the son of their preceptor Brhaspati, to learn t h a t lore from h i m . 1 O u r text (Bd.P.) records t h a t Bhrgu brought back to life J a m a d a g n i (II.iii.30.57-58). Some of t h e m were A t h a r v a n priests. M a n u , a Bhrgava was a law giver. T h e y were experts in arts a n d crafts as they are m e n t i o n e d as chariot-buildjers 2 . T h e word 'Bhrgava' came to m e a n a handicraftsman, a potter, 3 archer, a r c h i t e c t A n d we c a n ' t presume t h a t all of t h e m could be B r h m a n a s . T h e y were on the coast of Gujarat at the time of P a r a u r m a , as his father is associated w i t h Bhrgukaccha (Broach) from which they migrated to Madhya-dea due to the pressure of H a i h a y a s 4 .

(2) Was Paraurama a Brhmana ? N o b o d y has raised this point. But in Mbh.Adi.58.5-6, we are told t h a t when all Ksattriyas were slaughtered by Parau r m a , K s a t t r i y a ladies went to Brhmanas a n d the children b o r n from t h e m were the Ksattriyas of the new generation. 8 If this matriarchical system was then the accepted custom, J a m a d a g n i , the son of a K s a t t r i y a Princess must be regarded as a K s a t t r i y a . He m a r r i e d R e n u k , a K s a t t r i y a Princess of Ayodhy a n d P a r a u r m a is a full-blooded K s a t t r i y a a n d not a B r h m a n a at all. T h e story of Rcka's wife ( J a m a d a g n i ' s K s a t t r i y a m o t h e r ) eating up a portion of Caru charged with a specific mantra

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Op. Cit. 76.12-18. RV.IV.16.20.X-39.141. M b h . Adi. 190.47,191.1. Pargiter, A I H T . ch. X V I I . tad nihksattriye loke Bhrgavena krte sati / B r h m a n n Ksattriya rjan sutrthinyo' b h i c a k r a m u h " tebhyaca lebhire garbhara Ksattriyas th Sahasraah / tatah susuvire rjan K?attriyn viravattarn // Mbh. Adi. 58.5-6.

Ixxii

Brahmnda Purna
1

m e a n t for Rcka's mother-in-law, the queen of K a n o u j , is obvi ously intended as an apologetic explanation of the m a r t i a l c h a r a c t e r of P a r a u r m a , though a B r a h m i n . T h e fact is t h a t the Patriarchical system was well-established in t h e days of M b h . But to justify the refrain in the old ballad on P a r a u r m a (which the M b h a Bhrgava versionassimilated) tri-sapta-krtvah vasudhm krtv nihksattriym Prabhuh /

M b h . nti 49.63. the K s a t t r i y a ladies were said to have been constrained to a d o p t the Niyoga m e t h o d for the continuation of their families. To credit a m a n w i t h span of active military leadership for twentyone generations is historically absurd. A n d it shows t h e hollowness of the refrain, if it is taken literally to be t r u e . A n d a com plete genocide of Ksattriyas is not implied by the P u r n a s as shown below : T h e m a i n point is t h a t P a r a u r m a was r e g a r d e d as a B r h m a n a by the M b h . a n d P u r n a s which took for granted the p a t r i a r c h i c a l system. (3) Was Krttavirya Arjuna a Villain ? N o . He was the greatest K i n g of the N a r m a d region. Even t h e M b h . w h i c h is supposed to have been influenced (revised ?) by Bhargavas 2 states t h a t he was a pious king, res pectful a n d friendly to B r h m a n a s , full of compassion to the n e e d y a thoroughly religious p r i n c e " 3 . T h e N P . C h . 76 & . 77 deify h i m a n d his Mantra a n d Kavaca are regarded as very effective. P u r n a s tell us t h a t he was blessed with a thousand arms by D a t t t r e y a . He was t h e sovereign ruler who conquered the e a r t h a n d d o n a t e d it as daksin. T h e only fault committed by h i m was the raid on J a m a dagni's hermitage w h e n he a n d his entourage were given a royal
1. 2. 3. Op. Cit. nti 49.9-28, also Anusana, Ch. 4. V. S. S u k t h a n k a r " T h e Bhrgus a n d the Bhrata, A] T e x t historic (1936)

study" ABORI.XVIII.1-76. Arjurtas tu mahtej ball nityarh amtmakah .1 Brahmanyaca Jaranyaca data raSca Bhrata jj Mbh.-nti.

49-44.

Introduction

Ixxii i

reception by J a m a d a g n i . Arjuna was a king of M h i s m a t . J a m a d a g n i was a p r o m i n e n t Bhrgava whose h e r m i t a g e was either in or on t h e border of Arjuna's kingdom. He knew how powerful was the Bhrgava clan, their m a t r i m o n i a l relations w i t h his rival kings of Ayodhy, K a n a u j ( K n y a k u b j a ) etc. Politically it was not desirable to allow such an inimical centre either in or n e a r the borders of his kingdom. For m a n y years Bhargavas t u r n e d inimical since when his tax-collectors haras sed t h e m a n d m a n y fled for life, though they were on friendly terms d u r i n g his father's reign. No sane ruler should allow such an economically powerful inimical centre n e a r his kingdom even t h o u g h he be given a rousing reception a n d treated w i t h sump tuous b a n q u e t s etc. But he did not raid the rama. Even the pro-Bhrgava M b h . a n Itihsa (Record of facts)does not hold h i m respon sible for taking away the calf of J a m a d a g n i ' s cow (not the cow as stated in other P u r n a s ) but his sons did it without his knowledge. T h i s is t h e oldest pro-Bhrgava a c c o u n t of the cause of P a r a u r m a ' s action. O u r P u r n a attributes consent of t h e king to his m i n i s t e r C a n d r a g u p t a ' s plan of carrying away the cow, b u t M b h . recognizes Arjuna's ignorance a n d n o t even his assent on t h e m a t t e r , t h o u g h t h a t was the cause of his d e a t h . T h e M b h . however attributes his d e a t h to Apava Vasistha's curse which t u r n e d the heads of his sons. O t h e r P u r n a s offer different versions: T h e Bh. P., a V a i s n a v a P u r n a , attributes t h e order of taking away t h e cow to king K r t t a v r y a ( I X . 15.26). Pd. P. (VI.241.30-38) tells us t h a t w h e n king K r t t a v r y a a t t e m p t e d to seize the cow, she by t h e dint of h e r power defeated his army, went out of sight a n d a p p roached I n d r a . T h e frustrated king, m a d w i t h rage, killed the sage by the blows of his fist.i S K . P . V (Rev K h a n d a ) C h . 218
continued tasya p u t r . . . . J a m a d a g n i d h e n v a s te vatsam ninyuli / ajtarii Krtavryena H a i h a y e n d r e n a dhimat // t a n n i m i t t a m a b h d y u d d h a m J m a d a g n e r m a h t m a n a h // M b h . nti 49.45-47. sva-sainvarh nihatarh drsfv so'rjunah Krodha-mrchitah j musfin tdaymsa Bhrgavarh dvijasattamam // tditas tena bahuSo ( ) vikalgah prakalpitah j Papta sahas bhumau mamra dvija-sattamah 11 ~Pd.P. V I . 2 4 1 . 37-38.

1.

lxxiv

Brahmna Purna

describes the scuffle between J a m a d a g n i a n d K r t t a v r y a for t h e cow ( K m a d h e n u ) in which J a m a d a g n i is killed ( 2 6 ) . T h e lack of u n a n i m i t y in t h e account of t h e P u r n a s is significant. VIII Historical Tradition in Bd.P.

Although as a M a h - p u r n a , Bd.P. has t r e a t e d the dynas ties of Vaivasvata M a n u , the Solar a n d L u n a r races etc., this P u r n a like the M t . (50.57-89, 271-273), V.99.250-435 a n d Bs.P. (Bhavisya 3.1.3 & 6) P u r n a s , presents eight successive dynasties of the rulers of M a g a d h a since the B h r a t a W a r . * " It mentions not only the total n u m b e r of years covered by each dynasty b u t also the n u m b e r of years each king (of every d y n a s t y ) reigneddetails n o t given for any other kingdom. It is obviously due to the political i m p o r t a n c e of M a g a d h a as a seat of imperial power while the P u r n a s were in the formative stage. T h e a u t h o r of Bd.P. assumes t h a t he writes the P u r n a in the reign of Senajit of the B r h a d r a t h a dynasty of M a g a d h a (a contempo r a r y of Adhismakrsna of the P a u r a v a dynasty a n d D i v k a r a of t h e Solar dynasty of Ayodhy a n d uses future tense to all the kings of all the dynasties who ruled after t h e m . T h e details of dynasties t h a t ruled over M a g a d h a since the beginning of t h e K a l i Age are as follows: / The Brhadratha Dynasty* (Bd.P.II.iii.74.107-121) J a r s a n d h a - ^ S a h a d e v a (killed in t h e B h r a t a War)-*Sompi (58)-*-rutaravas (67)**-*Ayutya (26 ) ^ N i r m i t r a * * * (100)->-Suksatra (56) B r h a t k a r m (23) -> Senajit (The 'Present r u l e r ' for Bd.P.)
Although Bh.P. I X . 1 2 . 9 - 1 6 ; 22.34-49; X I I . 1 . 2 - 3 6 V P . I V . 2 1 ; 2 2 , 2 3 , 2 4 deal with the same topic. Bd., V . and to some extent M t . P . form a group. H e n c e 1 h a v e taken them together. Bs.P. is probably their Chief source. The Arabic figures in brackets after the n a m e of the king denote the n u m b e r of years of the reign of that king. * * * As such a long period is not normally possible, some petty or insigni ficant rulers preceding h i m are not m e n t i o n e d and a probably alloted to his reign. consolidated period is

Introduction

lxxv

F u t u r e rulers : rutajaya (40)->Ripujaya (35)-*uci (58)->Ksema (28)->Suvrata (64)->-Dharmanetra* (58)-Suarma (38)->-Drdhasena ( 5 8 ) - * S u m a t i (33)-*-Sunetra (40)-*Satyajit (83)->Vivajit (25)-*Arijaya(50). These 22 B r h a d r a t h a kings ruled for 1000 years. II Pradyota Dynasty

(Op.Cit. W . 1 2 2 - 1 2 7 a ) According to Bd.P., u n a k a (Pulaka in M t . P . ) a minister of K i n g Arijaya (V.L. Ripujaya) killed his master a n d installed his son P r a d y o t i on the M a g a d h a n t h r o n e . T h e following is the list of rulers of P r a d y o t a d y n a s t y : Pradyota (23)->-Plaka (24)->Vikhaypa (50)->-Ajaka (21) ->-Nandi v a r d h a n a ( 2 0 ) . T h u s the five kings of P r a d y o t a dynasty ruled over M a g a d h a for 138 years. This account in the P u r n a is misleading. P r a d y o t a or C a n d a P r a d y o t a , Vsavadatt's father a n d U d a y a n a ' s fatherin-law ruled from Ujjayin as has been attested by Bhsa in his plays a n d also in the M t . P . , while describing future kings. 1 T h i s P r a d y o t a was a contemporary of Bimbisra of M a g a d h a according to Pali records a n d there is no reliable evidence to presume a P r a d y o t a d ynasty in M a g a d h a . 2 III iunga Dynasty

(Op.Cit. 127b-135a) iunga of V r n a s vanquished the P r a d y o t a rulers a n d his son shifted his capital to Girivraja. T h e following were t h e rulers : iunga ( 4 0 ) - K k a v a r n a , shifts his capital to Girivraja ( 6 3 ) - * K s e m a d h a r m a n (20)->-Ksattraujas (40) ->-Vidhisra
Installed as a king w h e n he w a s only five years old. 1. Brhadrathefvatkfu vtihotresvavantisu / M t . P . 271.1 2. The Vedic Age, p. 3 2 9 . Pulakah Svminarh hatv svaputram abhiseksyati \\

Ixxvi

Brahmnda Purna

(Bimbisra) (38) ->Ajtaatru (25)->Darbhaka (Daraka) (35) - * U d y i n , the founder of K u s u m a p u r a (modern-Patna) to the s o u t h of the G a g (33)->-Nandivardhana (40)->-Mahnandi (43). T h e r e is a discrepancy in the total period of this dynasty viz. 360 years (V. 134)actually it a m o u n t s to 377 years. T h e P u r n a s (including B d . P ) . have distorted history. Vidhisra i.e. Bimbisra (Seniya in the A M g c a n o n ) occupied the t h r o n e of M a g a d h a immediately after Arijaya a n d t h a t iunga c a m e a few generations (after a n d not before Bimbisra 1 . IV Nanda Dynasty (Op.Cit. W . 139-143) M a h p a d m a ( N a n d a ) , T h e son of M a h n a n d i from a dra woman, exterminator of all Ksattriyas, the sole emperor (ekart, ekachattra) ruled 88 years8 sons one after a n o t h e r ruled for 12 years. T o t a l period of N a n d a dynasty 100 years. V Maurya Dynasty (Op.Cit. W . 144-149) A B r a h m i n K a u t i l y a 'will' uproot N a n d a s a n d instal C a n d r a g u p t a M a u r y a as the king. C a n d r a g u p t a (24)--Bhadra-Sra (Bindusra) (25)-> Aoka (36)->Kulla ( K u n l a ) (8)->Bandhuplita (8) - >I ndra Plita (10)->Devavarm (7 - a t a d h a n u (8)->-Brhadratha ( 7 ) . T h e n u m b e r of regnal years of B a n d h u p l i t a a n d atad h a n u are given as p e r emendation in D K A P . 29.Though Bd.P. records 9 M a u r y a n kings, M t . P . , V P . a n d Bh.P. state t h a t the total n u m b e r of these kings as 10. VI uga Dynasty (Op.Cit. W . 1 4 9 - I 5 6 a ) P u s p a - m i t r a ( P u s y a 0 ) , (60 years)-Agnimitra (8)-> Sujyestha (7) - W a s u m i t r a ( 1 0 ) - * B h a d r a ( 2 ) - * P u l i n d a k a (3) ->Ghosa (3)-*Vajramitra (7)->Bhgavata ( 3 2 ) ^ - D e v a b h mi (10).
1. The Vedic Age (tSVB), p. 328 and The Age of Imperial Unity, p p . 18-22

Introduction

lxxvii

O t h e r P u r n a s agree t h a t Pusyamitra, the c o m m a n d e r of the a r m y o f B r h a d r a t h a M a u r y a uprooted h i m b u t credit h i m w i t h a rule of 36 years a n d not 60. T h u s 10 uga kings are said to have ruled for 112 (atam prnarh daa due ca) years in B d . P . V. 156a b u t actually the total a m o u n t s to 142 years. V I I Knva Dynasty {Op.Cit. VV. 156b-159) As the last uga king Devamiti a was dissolute, his minister Vasudeva overthrew h i m a n d killed h i m . T h e r e were five kings in his dynasty as follows : Vasudeva ( 5 ) - * B h u m i m i t r a (24)-> N r y a n a (12)-*-Suarman ( 4 ) . These K a n v y a n a kings ruled for 45 years. V I I I ndhra Dynasty (Op.Cit. W . 160-170) Bd , V , Bh. a n d V. P u r n a s agree t h a t there were 30 kings in this dynasty b u t actually give only 16, 25, 23 a n d 24 n a m e s . T h e fullest list of 30 kings is in the M t . P. Bd. P. gives the rulers in this dynasty as follows : Sindhuka (Simuka) ( 2 3 ) - * K r s n a , b r o t h e r of S i ndhu k a ( 1 0 ) - > n t a k a r n i (56)--Apolava (12)-s-Patumn (24)->Anist a k a r m (25)->-Hla (1) (5 according to the text a d o p t e d in DKA.p.41)->-Pattallaka (5)->-PursabhIru (v.l. 1. P u r i k a s e n a ) (21)->takarni (1 )->-ivasvti ( 2 8 ) - > G a u t a m p u t r a (21)-> t a k a r n i (1) ->ivasvti (2o) --Gautam-putra (21) -^Yajar t a k a r n i (29) -> Vijaya (6) D a n d a r i t a k a m (3) ->Pulomri (v.l. Pulomvi) (7). Bd.P. states t h a t the 30 kings of this dynasty will rule for 456 years (Samh iatni catvri pacat saf tathaiva ca) V. 170. T h e n u m b e r of kings e n u m e r a t e d is 16 a n d the t o t a l years of their rule a m o u n t s to 262. T h e total span of these dynasties of K a l i a g e is given as follows : 1050 years : F r o m the b i r t h of P a r k s i t to the c o ro na t i o n of Mahpadma Nanda* 836 years : F r o m M a h p a d m a N a n d a to the end of t h e A n d h r a Dynasty. T h e period is re-stated w i t h reference to S a p t a r s i e r a years.
That m e a n s the Bhrata W a r took p l a c e in the 15th Cent. B.C.

lxxviii 814 years : 1050 years 836 years :

Brahmnda Purna F r o m P r a t p a to Parlksit F r o m Parlksit to M a h p a d m a N a n d a M a h p a d m a to the last of n d h r a s .

2700 years. T h u s from P r a t p a to the e n d of t h e A n d h r a s comprised a complete cycle of t h e Saptarsis (Great B e a r ) . O u r P u r n a presents this m u c h historical d a t a from the beginning of the K a l i Age to the end of the n d h r a dynasty. O t h e r great dynasties like the Solar race a n d t h e L u n a r race are n o t adequately treated. After the description of t h e A n d h r a dynasty, Bd.P. e n u m e rates some local dynasties with the total n u m b e r of Kings per dynasty : No. 7 10 7 10 8 14 13 11 of Kings in the Dynasty Total No. years of the dynastic rule 300 years. 67 years. 72 years. 380 years. 160 years. 500 years. 300 years. 300 years.

A n d h r a s (Prob. A n d h r a b h r t y a s ) Abhras Gardabhins akas Yavanas Tusras G u r u n d a s (Mlecchas) Maunas

After these, K i l a k i l a clan will rule, after w h o m Vindhyaakti (300 A . D . ) will rule for 96 years (?) Vindhyaakti, the founder of V k t a k a dynasty was a B r h m a n a of Visnu-vrddha gotra a n d 96 years is probably not the reign-period b u t his life s p a n * . Vindhya-akti's son Pravra i.e. M a h a r a j a PravaraS e n a I ( d e a t h circa A . D . 325) who is credited to have performed n o t only Vjapeya sacrifices b u t four A v a m e d h a s . * * It shows t h a t on t h e back-drop of M l e c c h a rule he cham pioned the cause of Brahmanism.

*The Age of Imperial Unity, p. 219. * O p . , cit. p . 2 2 0 .

Introduction

lxxix

The Nga dynasty of Vidii T h e N g a dynasty of Vidi is recorded only in Bd.P. a n d V . P . b u t n o t in M t . P . T h e following is the line of k i n g s S a d c a n d r a Son of esa Nga)--Candrmu--Nakhavn -> Dhanadharman-vBhtimn. Bd.P. does n o t m e n t i o n the G u p t a dynasty. Bd.P.II.iii.74. 195 which corresponds to V.P.99.383 reads Sapta-variiaj&h instead of Gupta-vamajh* as in V P. IX. The Date of the Bd. P.

Like the M b h . a n d other P u r n a s , Bd.P. has assimilated a n u m b e r of modifications, interpolations etc. d u r i n g the course of its transmission from the days of K r s n a D v a i p y a n a Vysa. We can fix the d a t e (s) of t h e different parts of t h e text, the general d a t e being t h a t of its last redaction. Bd.P. states t h a t it was composed d u r i n g the reign of B r h a d r a t h a king Senajit ( I I . i i i . 7 4 . 1 1 3 ) a c o n t e m p o r a r y of P a u r a v a king Adhisma K r s n a a n d king D i v k a r a of Ayodhy. Adhismakrsna was the fourth in descent from Parlksit. Bd.P. states t h a t a period of 1050 years elapsed from the b i r t h of Parksit (the B h r a t a W a r ) to the coronation of M a h n a n d a (ibid V . 2 2 7 ) . T h e coronation of M a h p a d m a N a n d a took place in 382 B.C. This m e a n s the Birth of Parksit took place in 1432 B.C. * *. Pargiter's assumption of 950 B.C. as t h e d a t e of t h e Bh r a t a war ( A I H T , p p . 179-183) is not acceptable in view of the u n a n i m o u s tradition of the P u r n a s . T h e Vedic Age (p. 273) accepts 1400 B.C.. as the d a t e of the B h r a t a W a r . Now Adhi smakrsna was the fourth in descent from P a r k s i t * * * . If 1432 B.C. be the d a t e of t h e b i r t h of Parlksit, a period of 100 or 125
* I however believe (in the absence o f M S S . e v i d e n c e ) be regarded as an o p e n question. * * o r in 1397 B.C. if the reading in the P u r n a be taken d o n e in the V e d i c A g e , p. R a y Choudhari in 9 0 0 2 7 3 . S.K. Political as 1015as is Chatterji. S e l e c t e d writings, p. History of India from the 140 that i t should

(Vikas, D e l h i 1 9 7 8 ) locates Parksit in the middle o f t h e l O t h Cent. B.C.

B.C. a n d Accession of

Parksit to the extinction of the Gupta Dynasty, p. 9. * * *Pariksit - > J a n a m e j a y a - > a t n k a yAvamedhadatta-yAdhtsimakrsna.

]xxx

Brahmnda Purna

years must have elapsed between Parksit a n d Adhismakrsna. T h u s the n a r r a t i o n of Bd.P. in the N a i m i s a forest in the reign of B r h a d r a t h a king Senajit took place circa 1300 B.C. according to the Bd.P. As a P u r n a is m e n t i o n e d in the Atharva Veda X I . 7 . 2 4 ; XV.6.10-11 a n d in pastamba Dharma Stra 1.6.19.13; II.9.23.3-6, we need not doubt the existence of the nucleus of Bd.P. in t h a t early period. But the present text is definitely later both in language a n d contents as can be seen from the following : (1) T h e Sk. language of the text is m u c h m o r e m o d e r n t h a n Atharvaveda and pastamba Dharma Stra. As t h e various etymologies* (noted in annotations) show, people have forgotten t h e root-sense of the words. It means Sk. has ceased to be a language of c o m m o n p a r l a n c e . (2) T h e list of " f u t u r e k i n g s " in Bd.P. II.iii.74 describes the A n d h r a dynasty (3rd cent A . D . ) . T h e evidence given by Pargiter in D K , p. 53 is sufficient to show t h a t G u p t a dynasty is m e n t i o n e d in Bd.P. II.iii.74.195 though the p r i n t e d edition records the r e a d i n g : Sapta-vamajh instead of Gupta-vamajh in the corresponding verses in V . P . 99.383. T h e following verse is the verse in question. anu-Gag Praygam ca Sake tarn Magadhm tath / etn jnapadn sarvn bhoksyante Gupta- (Sapta-Bd.P.)Vamajhj Bd.P.II.iii.74.195 a n d V.P.99.383. T h e verse describes correctly the region ruled by G u p t a s . But now the m e n t i o n of G u p t a s in Bd.P. is accepted a n d Pargiter's claim (DKA 53-54) t h a t contemporary dynasties of the early fourth Century A . D . in V . P . a n d Bd.P. is n o t t h a t controversial. (3) T h e m e n t i o n of Bhmasena a n d N r a d a on Chs. on Music shows t h a t this portion m a y be located between 400-600 A . D . T h e same applies to t h e m e n t i o n of V a r a r u c i a n d N t y a sstra. (4) C h a p t e r s on P a r a u r m a legend show the strong influence of R d h - K r s n a cult in its T a n t r i c aspect (vide Supra
V i d e the A p p e n d i x to this note.

Introduction

Ixxxi

T a n t r i s m in B d . P . ) . T n t r i s m was very p o p u l a r between 8th to 11 th C e n t . A . D . in East I n d i a . And it was d u r i n g t h a t period t h a t R d h cult flourished in t h a t region. N P . 109.19 mentions the legend of P a r a u r m a in its table of contents of Bd.P. But we c a n n o t say definitely whether the a n a c h r o n i c R d h - K r s n a element is implied in N P . As N P . itself contains the T a n t r i c worship etc. of R d h - K r s n a (Chs. 80, 81 a n d 8 2 ) , Bd.P. might have these chapters even before the NP a n d the N P . m a y be presumed to imply the existence of these chapters before it. As most of the c o n t e n t s of Bd.P. (except those on Lalit M h t m y a ) are recorded in N P . 109, Bd.P. definitely belongs to the p r e - N P . period (700-1000 A . D . ) (5) T h e Javanese version of the Bd.P. does not contain the c h a p t e r on V a m n u c a r i t a section of the Bd.P. Prof. J. G o n d a attributes this to the lack of interest of the Indonesian translator in I n d i a n dynasties. But w h e n the Indonesian translator sum marises or translates the major portion of the Bd.P., he would n o t have disregarded the V a m n u c a r i t a portion h a d it existed in his Sk.Ms. It must have been an incomplete copy which reached Indonesia in the early centuries of the Christian era. In spite of the interpolatory portion, the Bd.P. is one of the oldest P u r n a s as it follows the old Catuspda structure a n d its m a i n body belongs to the pre-NP. period (700-1000 A . D . ) . Appendix to the date of the Bd. P. Some etymologies T h e a u t h o r of the Bd.P. takes pleasure in etymologies j u s t to serve his purpose a n d pleasure. Although most of t h e m a r e discussed in the annotations, here are a few specimens : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. nara 'a m a n ' <na4-vTr1.1.5.135; 1.2.6.56-57 ambhas ' w a t e r ^ ^ b h 'tos hine'1.1.5.133 R u d r a from y/ruand y/dru (i.2.9.78). N o r m a l l y derived from y/rud'to cry' D e v a ^divto play 1.2.8.10; ' a god' also -y/divto shine it is

raksas 'a d e m o n ' -y/raksto protect 1.2.8.33 G a n d h a r v a y/dhi<dhay ' t o d r i n k ' I.ii.8.41

Il

z o

(3d
I

a s

H O W

<
U <

lxxxii 7. 8. 9. Pulaha :

Brahmnda Purna

'Keair lavaih s a m u d b h t a h / 'Born of h a i r ' I l . i i i . 1.45 Vasistha'possessor of VastC (wealth) or 'Vai' self-controller I I . i i i . 1.46. Medin ' T h e earth'medas 'fat' 'overspread with the fat of M a d h u a n d K u b e r a < A u (bad )+bera God of wealth (body) Kaitabha' I.ii.37.2

10. 11.

II.iii.8.44.'ugly' Deform-bodied

Hetu\/han<.to kill (the a r g u m e n t ) 'cause', ' t h e middle T e r m in Logic' sj hi to go ( m e a n i n g arrived a t ) I.ii.33.49. C a r a k a 'A Class of B r h m a n a s ' < y/car (performed a t o n e m e n t for G u r u ' s B r a h m a h a t y ) I, ii.35.27.

12.

CHAPTER ONE Contents of the Brahmnda Purna1 [ A r r i v a l of Sta R o m a h a r s a n a at the sacrificial session at K u r u k s e t r a R e q u e s t e d by sages thereof, to recite the P u r n a S t a recites the Brahmnda Parana beginning w i t h its Contents.] 1. Obeisance, obeisance to the Self-born deity consisting of the quality of sattva on (the occasions of) annihilation, creation or sustenance (of the universe) . Obeisance to the selfb o r n deity of three-fold forms viz. Sattva, Rajas a n d Tamas. 2. Victorious is Lord H a r i w h o sustains t h e worlds, w h o is u n b o r n , who is omnipresent a n d possessed of the ( t h r e e ) qualities yet is (also) devoid of them.

1. ' T h e present Purna is called the Brahmnda ( B d . P . ) , as god Brahma narrated it w i t h special reference to Brahmnda'. T h e term Brahmnda connotes a mixture of ancient Indian concepts about Cosmography, Cosmo logy and Cosmogony. In the Nrada Purna ( N P . ) 109.1, it is said to be an ancient Purna dealing with the events of the di-Kalpa. It contains a number of verses and chapters c o m m o n to the Vyu Purna ( V . P . ) which led Kirfel to propose a theory of c o m m o n origin of the Bd.P. and V . P . (Purna PacaLaksaria). Perhaps the wording of the Krma Purna(K.P.) 1.1.15 might have led h i m to thin!: so, but it misled M. Ali to believe that 'The geographical section of this Purna (Bd.P.) appears to be a late copy (about 1030 A . D . ) of the V y u with slight alterations and modifications introduced by the co pyist.' (Geography of the Purnas P.8.) But the statement in the Bd.P. and the an N . P . about the oral transmission of the Bd.P. makes it clear that this is confused with the V . P . T h e problem however will be discussed in the Introduction. But I must acknowledge that the text of the identical and similar verses Bd.P. which would have otherwise remained obscure. in V.P. and Bd.P., helped me to e m e n d or correct a number of printing mistakes in the

independent work w i t h V y u as a narrator of this P u r n a and it need not be

Brahmnda Purna

3. (I seek refuge in g o d ) Brahma, the creator of the world, who is omniscient, unvanquished, who is the lord of (everything) past, present and future a n d who is the real Master of all. 4. F o u r things are to be resorted to by the goodnamely, the unparalleled knowledge a n d d e t a c h m e n t , a n d super-human power a n d virtue (found in full form in case) of the lord of the universe. 5. T h e Lord (knowing) t h a t these h u m a n dispositions always consist of the good a n d the evil, (created) them again, indeed, without hesitation (aviakah) for the sake of performance of (religious) actions. 6. T h e creator of the world who knows full well the reality about the world and is conversant with Yoga, resorted to Yoga a n d created all living beings mobile a n d immobile. 7. I am desirous of knowing the P u r n i c narrative a n d so I seek refuge in the m i g h t y L o r d ( t h e creator of the universe), the witness of the worlds a n d the supreme all-pervading R u l e r . 8. T h a t Prajpati ( L o r d of all creatures), Lord (Brahma) recounted to Vasistha 1 , the entire P u r n a t h a t is on a p a r with the Vedas a n d the m a i n theme of which is t h e real state of the universe. 9. T h e holy sage Vasistha taught to his grandson, Par ara, the son of akti, this sacred ( P u r n a ) which is the n e c t a r of the knowledge of reality. 10. T h e holy lord P a r a r a , at first, t a u g h t sage J t u karnya this divine P u r n a t h a t is on a p a r with the Vedas.
1. W . 8 - 1 7 give the line of transmission of the B d . P . as follows : G o d Brahmasage VasisthaPararaJtukainya Dvaipyana (Vysa) Sta L o ( R o ) m a h a r s a n a . An important point to note is the missing link of Vyu here. N . P . 109.35 states : Vyso labdhv tatai'caitat, Prabhajana-mukhodgatam T h a t is according to N . P . JtukarnyaVyu or P r a b h a j a n a V y s a , is the proper Parampar (line of oral transmission.). T h i s lacuna is however indi rectly supplied in V . 3 6 b below where the W i n d g o d ( M t a r i v a n ) is stated to be a narrator. Another point is the emphatic claim of the P u r n a to a status equal to the V e d a . A n d the third point is about the m a i n object of the P u r n a viz. to explain the real state or reality of the world (Loka-taltva, VV 1-8, 12

etc.).

I.I.I.11-17

5
1

11. After learning t h e P u r n a , the learned J t u k a r n y a transferred the knowledge of the supreme, eternal B r a h m a n to D v a i p y a n a 2 . 12. D v a i p y a n a was delighted thereby. T h a t self-contro lled sage passed on the kuowledge of t h a t extremely wonder ful P u r n a t h e content of which was t h e knowledge of the real state of t h e world. 13-14. F o r the sake of p r o p a g a t i n g it in t h e worlds, he taught this P u r n a which is (highly esteemed) like the Vedas a n d which contains m a n y topics, to J a i m i n i , S u m a n t u , Vaiampyana, Pailava who was t h e fourth among, them a n d L o m a h a r sana the fifth. 3 He ( L o m a h a r s a n a ) was (otherwise called) Sta. He was h u m b l e , righteous a n d pure. His modes of n a r r a t i o n were extremely wonderful. 15-17. After learning t h e p u r n a , L o m a h a r s a n a became h u m b l e r . He became extremely intelligent and virtuous. He was a p p r o a c h e d and questioned by a sage like you (?) (regard ing m a t t e r s of mythology etc.) He h a d t h e most excellent selfcontrol. Along with (the other) sages, he used to bow down to the sages after c i r c u m a m b u l a t i n g them. He was endowed with great devotion. After acquiring learning, he b e c a m e satisfied
1. Jtukarnya or J t k a r n a was a self-controlled s a g e a m e m b e r of ( M b h . S a b h . 4 . 1 4 ) . O n e wonders w h y the M b h . a n d

Yudhisthira's Court

other Purnas do not furnish more details about h i m w h o taught this Purna to D v a i p y a n a Vysa. Secondly, Parara teaches this Purna to Jtukarnya and not to his own son Vysa. 2. as D v a i p y a n a T h e son of Parara and Satyavat, popularly known V y s a (the arranger) due to his classification of the floating traditional in the Yamuna. nyasto tasmd dvlpe sa yad blas smrtah Mbh. a person is his geographical residence. 3. to his V y s a seems to have taught this P u r n a (presumably others also) five disciples but Jaimini, S u m a n t u , According to V a i a m p y a n a and Pailava preservation of the he is Purnic called V . P . 1.16, Adi 63.86 Dvaipyanah

M a n t r a s into four V e d a s . He w a s n a m e d D v a i p y a n a as he was kept in an island

In the Pali canon also, we are told that one of the eight ways of n a m i n g

( P a i l a ) took interest in the V e d a , leaving the Lore to S t a narration. L o ( R o ) maharsana. R o m a h a r s a n a as he m a d e the hair of his

audience bristle by his eloquent

6
1

Brahmna'a Purna

a n d went t o K u r u k s e t r a . H e (humbly) a p p r o a c h e d t h e p u r e sages who were performing t h e elaborate-sacrificial session. 18. T h e performers of t h e Satra met R o m a h a r s a n a (i.e. L o m a h a r s a n a ) with great humility. He excelled t h e m in intel lect ( b u t ) as laid down in t h e scriptures 2 , ( h e bowed down) duly to them. 19. On seeing R o m a h a r s a n a then, all those sages were extremely pleased. T h e y were glad a n d their minds became happy. 20. T h e y worshipped h i m with all necessary requisites of hospitality, such as Arghya ( M a t e r i a l s of worship), Pdya ( w a t e r for washing t h e feet) etc. He paid respects to all t h e sages. He received the permission of the king ( ? ) . 2 1 . After p e r m i t t i n g him, t h e sages enquired h i m of his health. He a p p r o a c h e d all those sages (individually) (consider ing t h e m to b e ) t h e eternal B r a h m a n , the great splendour. W h e n t h e assembled persons indicated their consent, he sat on a beautiful well-covered seat. 22-23. W h e n he h a d taken his seat, all t h e sages of praise worthy, holy vows, well-disciplined according to (religious) rules, a n d of calm a n d concentrated m i n d s , became delighted a n d surrounded h i m w h o was an observer of great (religious) vows. W i t h deep love ( a n d r e v e r e n c e ) , they spoke to h i m ( a s follows) : 24. " W e l c o m e *to you, O highly fortunate one. H o w glad are we, the residents of this place, to see you, t h e best of sages, of excellent vows, hale a n d hearty, O intelligent one !

1. sacrificial 2. (1.9.9)

T h i s Purna is (re-)narrated at Kuruksetra where sages held session.

T h i s Sta is n o t a Brahmin. He is the Pratiloma offspring of a and Smrtis of M a n u (10-11), Yjavalkya ( 1 . 9 3 ) . H e n c e this foranmaya and not Stra

Ksattriya father and a Brahmin mother vide Gaut.Dh.S.4.15, B a u d h y a n a mality on his part. In V . 2 1 , the term of greeting h i m is (Gaut. should Dh.S.) be V V . 37-38, guests with kualam

kuSala used in the case of Brhmanas. According to Gautama Dharma respectively (11:127) greeted

of Brhmana, Ksattriya, V a i y a castes the words Kuala, anmaya and rogya. prcchet Ksattra-bandhum anmayam

M a n u also

prescribes : Brhmanam

I.I.1.25-37a

25. T h a n k s to you t h e performer of meritorious h o l y rites. I no longer consider this e a r t h a void, O S t a , you a r e t h e disciple of t h a t noble-souled sage Vysa. 26. You a r e intelligent a n d you are always worthy of his blessings. You a r e fully epuipped w i t h t h e good qualities of a genuine disciple. You a r e learned a n d educated. Since you a r e worthy of being blessed, O holy lord, you have understood t h e principles. 27. After having a t t a i n e d vast knowledge, you are free from d o u b t s in every respect. O wise one, it always behoves you to r e c o u n t to us, everything t h a t we ask you. 28. We wish to hear t h e divine story of t h e P u r n a t h a t is on a p a r w i t h t h e rutis and t h a t is full of righteous topics. This has already been h e a r d by you from V y s a . " 29. On being requested t h u s by t h e sages then, the excessively intelligent Sta, endowed w i t h humility, offered an excellent reply full of modesty thus : 30. " W h a t e v e r intellect I possess is d u e to the service I rendered to t h e sage. It is certainly t r u e t h a t my ( i n t e l l e c t ) should be utilised for serving ( o t h e r s ) . 3 1 . T h a t being t h e situation, O excellent B r h m a n a s (I shall r e c o u n t ) whatever is possible for m e . It behoves you to ask questions on a n y topic w h i c h you desire to k n o w . " 32. On h e a r i n g his sweet u t t e r a n c e , t h e sages again replied to S t a whose eyes welled with tears ( o f j o y ) . 33. " Y o u a r e particularly well-versed in t h e details (of this t o p i c ) . You have seen Vysa personally. H e n c e you explain t h e origin of t h e world completely. 1 34. We wish to know who was b o r n in which family. ( W e wish to know t h e details of the family and ancestry of t h e kings, sages e t c ) . K i n d l y recount the wonderfully diversified creative activity of Prajpati during the days of y o r e " . T h u s was t h e excellent a n d noble-souled R o m a h a r s a n a requested after offering h i m d u e hospitable reception. 35-37a. T h a t excellent-most Sta n a r r a t e d everything in detail a n d in d u e order.
1. T h i s is indicative of the title 'Brahmnda Purna'.

8 S t a said :

Brahmnda Purna

"O excellent Brhmanas, I shall recount in d u e order t h a t sacred story which D v a i p y a n a , w h o was pleased with me, had n a r r a t e d to m e . O B r h m a n a s , I shall expound the P u r n a t h a t h a d been related by M t a r i v a n 1 ( t h e wind-god) on being asked by t h e noble-souled sages of N a i m i s a forest. 2 37b-39. A P u r n a is characterised by five topics 3 . Viz. Sarga( P r i m a r y cveauon), Pratisarga (Dissolution and R e c r e a t i o n ) , Varha (Lineage of Kings e t c . ) , Manvantaras ( t h e regions of M a n u s or Manu-periods) a n d Vamnucarita (chronological description of kings a n d sages). T h e first pda (section) (of this P u r n a ) is called Prakriy-Pda (section on rites). In this section there is the summing
1. 2. It m e a n s the Wind-god did not teach it to D v a i p y a n a . Secondly This is modern Nimsar at a distance of 20 miles from Sitapur from and two the present text is a rehp.sh of the Purna narrated at Naimioranya. 45 miles to the N W . of Lucknow. T h e word Naimisa is derived different words ( 1 ) Nimisa 'the twinkling of the eye' a n d

( 2 ) Nemi'the felly (vide

of a wheel'. According to ( 1 ) , this place c a m e to be called N a i m i s a as V i s n u killed an army of Asuras within the twinkling of an e y e at this place ridhara on Bh.P.I.1.4 where he quotes V . R . P . as his authority). According to ( 2 ) w h i c h is accepted here in infra 1.1.2.8, g o d Brahrn, to ensure a sacred place for a sacrifice for sages created mentally a wheel w h i c h went on running till it reached the vicinity of the G o m a t i river near w h i c h its felly broke d o w n and it stopped. T h e sages w h o followed it to that place accepted it for their sacrificial session. This popular etymology from Nemi is endorsed by V.P.I.2.8, Devi Bh.P. 1.2.28-32 where it adds that Kali cannot enter that place. It was at this place that R m a performed his horse-sacrifice 7.91.15). Although there was another N a i m i s r a n y a in Kuruksetra sion was from the West to the East, the N a i m i s r a n y a on to be the 'birth-place' 3. are The five in of Purnas. (vide Chndogya Upa. 1.2.13 and K(haka Samhit 10.6) and although the Aryan expan the Gomati appears (V.R.

characteristics of a Purna as found in V . 3 7 b a n d 38a AP.1.14, BS.P.1.2.4-5 B V . P . I V . 1 3 3 . 6 , G P . I . 2 1 5 . 1 4 ,

(which should h a v e formed one continuous verse as is found in other P u r n a s ) mentioned K P . I . 1 . I 2 , S K . P . V I I . 2 . 8 4 and V P . I I I . 6 . 2 5 . A m a r a S i m h a (5th Cent. A . D . ) has recorded this verse in his Amara Koa 1.6.5. Although these characteristics have been unanimously accepted as essential parts of the Purnas, ' T h e Purna T e x t s that h a v e c o m e d o w n to us hardly conform to this definition" (The Hist, and Culture of the Indian People V o l . I I I P . 2 9 2 ) . If the original Purna texts conformed to this description, the present texts of the Purnas must have been revised or mutilated during their transmission.

I . I . 1.40-47

up of the story; the other sections are Anusaga ( C o n s e q u e n c e ) , Upodghta ( I n t r o d u c t i o n ) a n d Upasamhra (Conclusion). T h u s the four sections are briefly mentioned by m e . 40. I shall n a r r a t e t h e m in detail later on a n d in the proper order. At the outset, the P u r n a a m o n g the sacred scriptures, was h e a r d by B r a h m a . 1 4 1 . Thereafter, the Vedas c a m e out of his m o u t h s . Simi larly, the Vedgas (ancillary subjects), the D h a r m a s t r a s ( L a w codes), the sacred rites and holy observances (also c a m e out). 42. T h e n the decision 2 " I will create( the entire universe) beginning with Mahat ( t h e G r e a t Principle) a n d ending w i t h ViSesa (the p a r t i c u l a r creations of worldly o b j e c t s ) " by the unmanifest cause which is eternal a n d of the n a t u r e of Sat (Existent) and Asat (Non-existent). ^ 43-44. T h e golden (Cosmic} Egg a n d the excellent birth of B r a h m a ^ T h e Avarana ( T h e covering ' s h e a t h ' ) of the Egg (was) the ocean. T h e (covering) of the waters by the Tejas ( t h e fiery e l e m e n t ) . T h e (enclosure of the Tejas) by the gaseous element. T h e n the encircling of the gaseous element by the Ether. Its covering by Bhtdi ( E g o ) . T h e Bhtdi is encircled by Mahat ( T h e G r e a t Principle) a n d the Mahat is encircled by Avyakta ( T h e unmanifest o n e ) . 45. T h e Egg itself has been described as situated within the (enclosure of t h e ) elements. T h e a p p e a r a n c e of the rivers a n d the mountains"is described here. 46. T h e r e is the description of all the M a n v a n t a r a s a n d t h e K a l p a s . T h e n a r r a t i o n of the tree of B r a h m a n . T h e b i r t h of B r a h m a is t h e n recounted. 47. After this is t h e description of the creation of the
1. T h e Purna-writers claim their priority in creation and hence existed the

superiority to the Vedas. T h a t some tract of literature called

Purna

at the time of the Atharva V e d a is clear from A V . X I . 7 . 2 4 , X V . 1 . 6 , but the creation of the V e d a is historically hardly justifiable. 2. V V . 4 2 - 4 4 treat briefly the evolution of the universe obviously

tall claim of being heard by g o d Brahma before he heard any stras before on

the basis of Skhya system. As the following topics are given as table of con tents their special explanations will be given in their respective chapters.

10

Brahmnda PurSntt

subjects by B r a h m a . H e r e the Avasths ( s i t u a t i o n s ) a r e descri bed, of god B r a h m a whose birth is unmanifest. 48. T h e occurrence of the K a l p a s ; the stabilisation of the Universe; H a r i ' s lying down in the waters a n d the uplift of the E a r t h . 49-50. T h e particular (description) of the cities etc., the classification of castes a n d stages of life. T h e positions of the stars and the planets a n d their transit from one Zodaical sign to a n o t h e r a n d the a b o d e of the Siddhas a n d their distance in yojanas in details a n d the allocation of places in the heaven to m e n of auspicious conduct. 5 1 . T h e n a r r a t i o n of (the different species of) trees, medicinal herbs a n d creepers. T h e two paths viz. of the Devats (deities) a n d of the sages are ( t h e n ) described. 52. T h e creation and manifestation of M a n g o a n d other trees. T h e origin of animals a n d h u m a n beings is ( t h e n ) narrated. 53. T h e definition as well as its total components of K a l p a are m e n t i o n e d . T h e n the nine types of intentional creations by god B r a h m a are described. 54. T h r e e of the intentional creations (are m e n t i o n e d in d e t a i l s ) . T h e a r r a n g e m e n t of the worlds. T h e origin of D h a r m a etc. from the limbs of B r a h m a . 55. ( T h e description of) the twelve t h a t a r e b o r n again a n d again in the Prajkalpa; Pratisandhi ( t h e period of transi t i o n ) between two K a l p a s is m e n t i o n e d . 56. T h e origin of A d h a r m a due to god Brahma's enve l o p m e n t by T a m a s a n d the creation .of P u r u s a from his ( B r a h m a ' s ) b o d y with p r e p o n d e r a n c e of Sattva g u n a . 57. Similarly, (the b i r t h o f a t a r p ) a n d the birth of the two sons, viz. Priyavrata, U t t n a p d a as well as t h a t of the auspicious Prasti a n d Akrti (kti) . 58. Those who h a d rid themselves of sins a n d are well established themselves in the t h r e e worlds are glorified. After wards t h e b i r t h of twins in Akti from Ruci, the Prajpati. 59-60. T h e auspicious births of Daksa's d a u g h t e r s from Prasti. T h e n the p r o c r e a t i o n b y t h e great-souled D h a r m a from Daksa's d a u g h t e r s like abd ( r a t h e r r a d d h as in.

I.I.1.61-69

11

Vyu P.), a race characterised by S a t t v a - g u n a a n d was ( a s if) t h e d a w n (?) of happiness : As well as the r a c e of A d h a r m a ( E v i l ) from Hirhs (Violence) characterised by T a m o - g u n a a n d inauspiciousness. 6 1 . T h e description of t h e creation of subjects by Bhrgu a n d o t h e r sages, where-in t h e lineage of the B r h m a n a sage Vasistha is recounted. 62. T h e b i r t h of t h e p r o g e n y of Agni from S v h is recounted t h e r e . Thereafter, t h e b i r t h of subjects of the two types of Pitrs in S v a d h (is also m e n t i o n e d ) . 63-64. In t h e context of the description of t h e line of t h e Pitrs, t h e curse of D a k s a by M a h e v a r a , Sat a n d Bhrgu a n d other intelligent ones, (is m e n t i o n e d ) . So also the r e t u r n curse u t t e r e d b y D a k s a . T h e protest against the e n m i t y b y R u d r a of wonderful feats, because defects were seen is described. 65. I n t h e context o f M a n v a n t a r a s , T i m e (with its u n i t s ) is recounted in detail. T h e auspicious characteristics of t h e d a u g h e r of K a r d a m a , the Prajpati. 66. T h e details of the sons of P r i y a v r a t a a r e described t h e r e . T h e i r a p p o i n t m e n t on different continents a n d l a n d s severally (are r e c o u n t e d ) . 67. T h e n a r r a t i o n of t h e creation of S v y a m b h u v a ( M a n u ) . So also t h e description of the Varsas (sub-continents) a n d rivers a n d t h e i r different types. 68. H o w thousands of t h e different continents com prise t h e g r o u p of seven Dvpas. T h e detailed description of the M a n d a l a (Encircling z o n e ) o f J a m b d v p a a n d t h e ocean. 69. T h e m a g n i t u d e a n d extent o f t h e J a m b d v p a , t h e ocean a n d t h e m o u n t a ins, is m e n t i o n e d in t h e form of Yojanas ( ' Y o j a n a = 12 K m s ) . T h e following seven m o u n t a i n s , 1 viz.
1. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) T h e m o u n t a i n system of the Purnas as H i m a v n T h e great H i m a l a y a n NisadhaHindukushKunlun MeruThe Nila. Pamirs. recorded here is repre

sented under the following n a m e s t o d a y : Range. chain. HemaktaLadakhKailashTrans-Himalayan chain.

12

Brahmnda Purna

H i m a v n , H e m a k t a , Nisadha, M e r u , Nila, veta a n d rgin, a r e glorified. 70-73. T h e distance between pairs of these, the girth, height and extent of these mountains, all these are mentioned is so m a n y Yojanas. T h e inhabitants of these mountains are recounted. B h r a t a a n d other sub-continents are described, alongwith the rivers a n d m o u n t a i n s therein. H o w they are inhabited by the mobile a n d the immobile living beings. J a m bdvpa a n d other islands (continents) are surrounded by seven oceans. Thereafter the golden e a r t h a n d Lokloka ( m o u n t a i n ) is described. These worlds have definite extents a n d magnitudes, consist of seven continents. 74. R p a (form, colour) etc. are described because they are also m a d e alongwith the P r k r t a s (effects of the P r a k r t i ) . All these a r e partial transformation of the P r a d h n a . 75. T h e m o v e m e n t , extent etc. of the sun, the moon a n d the e a r t h a r e succinctly yet completely stated (without leaving out anything of i m p o r t a n c e ) . 76-77. T h e dtmerttions are mentioned. T h e extent of these is m e n t i o n e d in so m a n y Yojanas. M a h e n d r a and other splendid a n d sacred ( m o u n t a i n s ) on the summit n o r t h of the M n a s a lake (are described) along with t h e present beings that are in possession of t h e m a n d t h a t identify themselves with them. T h e sun's movement above these, like a firebrand moving in a circle, has been mentioned. T h e characteristics of Ngavthi a n d Aksavthi a r e m e n t i o n e d . 78. T h e description of the two ksths (kosfhaamisprint) quarters (or courses of w i n d s ) , the two Lekhas, horizons (or Lekhasdeities) a n d the zones in Yojanas; of the Lokloka ( m o u n t a i n ) of the twilight, of the d a y a n d of the Visuvat (Equinox).
(vi) (vii) vetaNura TauTurkistan-Atbashi chain

rgin or r g a v n K a r a

T a u K i r g h i z - K e t m a n chain. (For

details vide M.AliGeog. of the Purnas C h . I I I ) T h e progressive contraction of Bhrata up to 1947 A . D . blinds us to the fact that a large part of w h a t is Central Asia today was an integral part of the B h r a t a of the Puranic world.

I.I.1.79-89

13

79. T h e Lokaplas (guardians of t h e q u a r t e r s ) w h o stay on it in t h e four q u a r t e r s a r e described. T h e southern a n d t h e n o r t h e r n path-ways of t h e Pitrs ( m a n e s ) a n d gods (are described). 80. ( T h e goal) of householders a n d those w h o r e n o u n c e (i.e. sannysins) d e p e n d e n t on Rajas a n d Sattva ( i s m e n t i o n e d ) . T h e region of Visnu w h e r e D h a r m a a n d others a r e stationed is m e n t i o n e d . 8 1 . T h e movement of the sun a n d t h e m o o n as well as t h a t of t h e planets a n d luminaries is described. It has t h e efficacy of according auspiciousness as well as inauspiciousness to t h e subjects. 82-83. T h e chariot of t h e sun built by B r a h m a him self for t h e sake of a dwelling u n t o t h e sun is m e n t i o n e d . T h e chariot whereby t h e lord goes to his abode from t h e heaven is presided over by t h e Devas, the Adityas, t h e sages, t h e G a n dharvas, t h e Apsaras, the G r m a n s , t h e serpents a n d t h e Rksasas. 84. T h e Rasa (juice) t h a t exudes from t h e chariot evolved out of t h e essence of the waters, is m e n t i o n e d : T h e waxing a n d t h e w a n i n g of t h e m o o n caused by S o m a are mentioned. 85. T h e m o v e m e n t of t h e chariots of t h e sun a n d others begins from D h r u v a ( t h e pole s t a r ) . T h e heavenly porpoise a t t h e tail end of which t h e pole star is stationed is also described. 86. All t h e constellations of stars along w i t h t h e planets wherein t h e gods of meritorious acts h a v e their abodes are described. 87. T h e t h o u s a n d rays of t h e sun, t h e asylum of rain, chillness a n d h e a t , t h e different classes of rays w i t h reference to names, functions a n d places of o p e r a t i o n ( a l l these a r e mentioned). 8 8 . T h e m a g n i t u d e a n d t h e m o v e m e n t o f t h e planets d e p e n d i n g on t h e sun a r e m e n t i o n e d . T h e origin of t h e Mahat ( G r e a t P r i n c i p l e ) from t h e Pradhna, t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of which are c o m p a r e d to SL d a n c i n g girl. 89. T h e n a r r a t i o n of t h e greatness of P u r u r a v a s , the son of Il. T h e greatness of t h e Pitrs of two types as well as t h a t of the d e a d .

14

Brahmnda Purna

90-91. T h e n t h e Parvans ( i m p o r t a n t days in the transit of t h e m o o n such as first q u a r t e r , full m o o n , last q u a r t e r , New m o o n ) as well as t h e Sandhis ( j u n c t i o n s ) , of t h e Parvans are n a r r a t e d . T h e great blessing of the two types of Pitrs by m e a n s of rddha; t h e Pitrs w h o h a v e gone to t h e heaven a n d those w h o have h a d a downfall. T h e i r n u m b e r a n d extent of Yugas as well as t h e Yuga called K r t a are described. 92. T h e introduction and c o m m e n c e m e n t of agricultural activities e t c . as m e a n s of livelihood in t h e T r e t y u g a as a result of the lowering of s t a n d a r d s ; t h e establishment of castes a n d stages of life b a s e d on D h a r m a ( d u t y ) . 93. Establishment of t h e institution of Yaja*. T h e conversation of Vasu a n d the sages; t h e downfall of Vasuall these a r e recounted * *. 94. T h e penance is praised a n d so also the situations of the Yugas entirely. T h e succinct description of the D v p a r a a n d K a l i ages. 95. M a n v a n t a r a is recounted a n d its n u m b e r (of years) is n a r r a t e d according to h u m a n calculation. T h i s alone is t h e characteristic feature of all M a n v a n t a r a s . 96. T h e past, present a n d future M a n v a n t a r a s are recounted. So also is t h e definition of Pratisandhna (Period of transition between two M a n v a n t a r a s ) . 97. T h e past a n d the future (reigning members) in the S v y a m b h u v a ( M a n v a n t a r a ) are r e c o u n t e d . T h e m o v e m e n t o f the sages is mentioned. So also t h e way of t h e knowledge of Kla (Time). 98. T h e extent of t h e n u m b e r of D u r g a s (fortresses) a n d t h e c o m m e n c e m e n t a n d t h e different professions for livelihood in the Yugas ; t h e b i r t h a n d characteristic features of t h e emperors in the T r e t .
tana. This baseless ** reading: PraSnnm durvacastoam ca svyambhuvam rtt Manum / This v e r s e = V . P . ( V y u Purna) 1.111, but it is the proper reading a n d h e n c e accepted, as a misprint. and h e n c e probably reads Taja-Pravar-

Vajra-Pravartana is

T h e text translated a b o v e : Sabdatvarh ca Pradhnt tu Sviyambhuvam

ii$ Manum is confusing. T h i s v e r s e = V . P . 1.112 w h i c h however gives a better

1.1.1.99-UO

15

99. T h e b i r t h of P r a m a t i ; the d i m i n u t i o n by Agulas of the living beings in the K a l i y u g a t h e s e a r e m e n t i o n e d . 100. T h e e n u m e r a t i o n of the different khs (Branches) of t h e V e d a s ; t h e i m p o r t a n c e of the disciples ; t h e seven types ofVkyas (sentences) a n d n a r r a t i o n of the spiritual lines of the sages. 101. T h e characteristic features of the sons of charioteers a n d those of t h e B r h m a n a s (are described) in full. T h e classi fication of the Vedas by t h e noble-souled Vedavysa (is also given). 102. T h e n a r r a t i o n of the Devas a n d the lords of subjects in the M a n v a n t a r a s ; the d u e order of the M a n v a n t a r a s and t h e knowledge of K l a ( T i m e ) : all these are recounted. 103-104. T h e grandsons of Daksa ; the splendid progeny of his beloved d a u g h t e r ; the children procreated by B r a h m a a n d others a n d the children begot by t h e intelligent D a k s a ; the S v a r n a M a n u s who h a d resorted to M e r u are also recounted here. T h e description of the creation of subjects by D h r u v a , the son of U t t n a p d a . 105. T h e creative activity of Cksusa M a n u , the descrip tion of the prowess of the subjects; the act of milking the e a r t h by the lord ( K i n g P r t h u ) , t h e son of Vena. 106. T h e special m e n t i o n of the vessels, milks and calves; (the fact) t h a t this e a r t h h a d already been milked by B r a h m a and others. 107. T h e birth of D a k s a the intelligent Prajpati from the ten Pracetasas in M r i s as occurring t h r o u g h e q u a l p a r t of everyone of t h e m is described. 108. T h e lordship over the past, present and future things of M a h e n d r a s is recounted. T h e M a n u s a n d others who are covered with M a n u narratives will be described. 109. T h e detailed creative activity of Vaivasvata M a n u is recounted. T h e origin of Bhrgu a n d others in the V e s t u r e s * of Brahma a n d others is n a r r a t e d . 110. As distinguished from t h e splendid Prajsarga (creation of the subjects) of Cksusa M a n u , t h e creation t h r o u g h
* V.P. 1.128 reads Brahma-ukrt 'from the semen of g o d Brahma'.

16

Brahmnda Purna

meditation by Daksa in the Vaivasvata M a n v a n t a r a is recounted^ 111. N r a d a , the m e n t a l son of Brahma, engaged t h e extremely powerful sons of Daksa in convex sation and destroyed t h e m and was cursed (as a r e s u l t ) . 112. T h e r e u p o n Daksa begot t h e well-known daughters n a m e d V a i r i n s . * T h e birth of M a r u t in the n o b l e lady Diti in the course of the continuous blowing of t h e w i n d . * * 113. T h e seven times seven (49) groups of M a r u t s are recounted here. T h e y acquired Devatva (state of being Devas) because of their staying a l o n g w i t h I n d r a . T h e i r residence is the shoulders (?) of V y u ( ? ) . 114-115. T h e origin of t h e Daityas, D n a v a s , Yaksas, G a n d h a r v a s , Rksasas, ghosts a n d evil spirits, of the Yaksas, birds, creepers etc. is ' recounted. T h e origin of the Apsaras is n a r r a t e d in great details. T h e entire sphere of t h e sun is described a n d also the b i r t h of the e l e p h a n t Airvata. 116. T h e b i r t h of V a i n a t e y a ( G a r u d a ) as well as his installation as a K ng (of b i r d s ) . T h e detailed narratives of t h e (races of) Bhrgus a n d t h e Agiras a r e recounted. 117. T h e detailed description of t h e progeny of K yapa, Pulastya, noble-souled Atri a n d sage P a r a r a . 118. T h r e e girls in w h o m t h e worlds are stabilised are glorified. T h e detailed description of I c c h * * * of ditya (is found) thereafter. 119. T h e story of K i n k u v i t j is m e n t i o n e d . T h e an nihilation of B r h a d b a l a s by D h r u v a J is m e n t i o n e d . Iksvku a n d others are glorified briefly. 120. T h e creation of the king Nisi etc. is mentioned in detail along with P a l n d u h a r a n a e t c ; t h e story of the king Yayti's r a c e :
* ** begot from V i r i n i V . P . l . 1 3 1 . V.P. 1.133, reads: Mirul-Prasda.

* * * T o be a m e n d e d as Il as in V.P.1.141 as there is no person called I c c h in this context in (he Purnas. f X (Vikuksi in VA.P.) V.P.I.141b-142a reads: 'The destruction of D h u n d h u , Iksvku

a n d others ending w i t h B hadbala are described ? D h r u v a is not credited w i t h destroying Brhadbalas, vide P E . (Puranic encyclopaedia on D h r u v a & Brhadbala.)

I.I.I.121-131

17

121. T h e description o f Y a d u ' s r a c e a n d t h e detailed n a r r a t i o n of H a i h a y a after K r o d h a . * Afterwards t h e details of t h e race are m e n t i o n e d . 122. T h e greatness of J y m a g h a and his creation of subjects is recounted. So also of D e v a v r d h a , A n d h a k a a n d noble-souled D h r s t i . 123-124. T h e lineage of A n i m i t r a ; t h e false accusation of t h e two V a i y a s ; * * T h e ascertainment a n d t h e acqui sition of t h e jewel by the intelligent S a t r j i t ; in t h e course of t h e creation of progeny by t h e saintly K i n g D e v a m d h v a n , the birth a n d story of t h e noble-souled ra is m e n t i o n e d . 125. T h e wickedness of Kariisa a n d t h e b i r t h of Vasudeva Visnu of u n m e a s u r e d splendour in Devak, d u e to t h e unification of t h e families ( ? ) * * * 126-127. Afterwards t h e creative activity of t h e sages; the description of t h e creation of the subjects; w h e n t h e war of t h e Devas a n d t h e Asuras s t a r t e d ; a w o m a n was slain by Visnu while protecting akra from d e a t h a n d a curse was obtained by him from Bhrgu. Bhrgu resuscitated the divine m o t h e r of ukra. 128. D u e to the concurrence of t h e Devas a n d t h e sages twelve battles were c o n d u c t e d . 1 N a r a s i m h a a n d others, t h e destroyers of sins are glorified. 129. T h e propitiation o f S t h n u (iva) by ukra by m e a n s of severe penance. arva eulogised by h i m who was cut off (krtta) for boons. 2 130-131. Afterwards t h e m a t e r i a l activity of t h e Devas a n d the Asuras is recounted. W h e n t h e noble-souled ukra was a t t a c h e d to J a y a n t , t h e intelligent Brhaspati, assuming t h e form of ukra deluded Asuras for which a c t ukra cursed Brhaspati. f
* T h i s should be K r o s t u a n d not K r o d h a vide V . P . 1 . 1 4 4 . ** V P. 1.146. (in identical verse) reads: Vifnor divybhiSarhsanam, ' T h e divine e u l o g y of g o d Visnu'. * * * V . P . 1 . 1 4 8 reads: 'ekntena'. 1. V . P . 1 . 1 5 1 (identical w i t h this verse) reads: T w e l v e wonderful battles between gods and demons. 2. V . P . 1 . 1 5 2 readsiVaradnaugha-lubdhena 'extremely desirous of getting boons). f T h e corrupt text has resulted in this confused version. It should be as V . P . l . 1 5 3 - 1 5 4 reads:

18

Brahmnda Purna

132-34. T h e greatness of Visnu is n a r r a t e d . It is express ed at the b i r t h (i.e. i n c a r n a t i o n ) of lord Visnu. T u r vasu w h o was t h e younger brother of Y a d u was t h e grandson (of ukra) . A n u , D r u h y u and others as well as their sons ( w h o were) t h e kings a r e described. T h e descendants of A n u were noble-souled. Excellent kings a m o n g t h e m are fully described. T h e y h a d plenty of wealth a n d their splendour was m u c h . tithya (hospitality) to a Brahmanical sage is classified i n t o seven as resorting to D h a r m a . 135. T h e r e t h e curse of Brhaspati by the poets 1 (?) is described. T h e fame of H a r a ' s ( H a r i ' s ) family is slightly tou ched. a n t a n u ' s prowess is explained. 136. In t h e concluding portion, the future kings are recounted. T h e description of t h e groups of lords, yet to come, is given in detail. 137. T h e description of t h e annihilation of all, when K a l i y u g a expires at the end of t h e Bhautya m a n v a n t a r a (?). T h e annihilation is divided into Naimittika (at t h e end of a K a l p a ) Prkrtika (after two parrdha years w h e n B r a h m a dies and tyantika ( w h e n t h e individual soul merges in the Brahman.) 138. T h e re-absorption a n d dissolution of all living be ings in various ways is described. Anvrsti (absence of r a i n ) a n d t h e terrible S a m v a r t a k a fire of the sun (are m e n t i o n e d ) . 139. (The description of Prkrtika Pralaya is described in t h e S m k h y a system of philosophy. T h e n B r a h m a n (is ex-

Jayanty saha saktt tuyatra Sukre mahtmani / Aswan mohaymisa ukrarpena buddhimn \\ Brhaspatis tu tarn ukrah aSpa sumah&dyutih jj ' W h e n the noble-souled ukra was attached to Jayanti, the cursed Brhaspati' story of the love-affair between ukra a n d J a y a n t i a n d her subse clever Brhaspati, assuming the form of ukra, deluded Asuras for w h i c h act ukra The PGK

q u e n t marriage w i t h h i m are m e n t i o n e d in other Purnas vide PE p. 3 5 5 , p. 3 6 5 . 1. T h e corresponding verse in V . P. 1,158 is as follows: Brhaspatyarh tu surabhir yatra Spam ihnudat j Kirtanam Jahnu-vamSasya antanor vlrya-sabdanam //

1.1.1.140-147

19

plained) particularly. T h e description of the seven worlds beginning w i t h Bh. 140. T h e definition is explained by means of P a r a , P a r r d h a a n d Apara (?) of the B r a h m a n . T h e fixation of the extent a n d m a g n i t u d e o f B r a h m ( ? ) in so m a n y Yojanas. 141. H e r e the hells of the sinners such as R a u r a v a etc. a r e mentioned. T h e ultimate sequel of all living beings is deci sively fixed. 142. T h e description of the worldly existence through the Pratisarhsarga (secondary creation) of B r a h m a . T h e move ment upwards or downwards as dependent on virtue or evil has been m e n t i o n e d . 143. T h e annihilation of great Bhtas (elements )in every K a l p a . T h e miseries are i n n u m e r a b l e . Even god Brahma is not eternal. 144. T h e wickedness of worldly pleasures, the p a i n in the course of worldly existence. 1 T h e inaccessibility of salva tion (except) t h r o u g h Vairgya (absence of passion) because defects are seen. 145. (One) abandons the Sattva (living beings) whether manifest or unmanifest a n d is established in the B r a h m a n . Since multiplicity is seen, t h e idea of purity (of the world) recedes. 146. T h e n ( t h e devotee) becomes afraid of the three types of Tpa (distresses) arising from Rpa a n d Artha (forms a n d objects). 2 He then becomes Nirajana (unsullied). After obtaining the bliss of B r a h m a n , he is not afraid of anything. 147. Again the creation by another Brahma as before, is recounted. T h e Vikriys (changes) of the universe such as crea tion a n d annihilation are described.

It was Surabhi (the heavenly c o w ) family of king J a h n u is glorified.

which

uttered

the

curse;

the of

1. Sathhra emended as Samsra, otherwise it w o u l d m e a n 'Pain annihilation'.

2. T h e corresponding verse in V . P . 1.171 gives a better reading: tatas tpatraytto nirpkhyo nirajanah j ' T h e n he transcends three types of miseries a n d he is called formless a n d free from blemishes ( p u r e ) ' .

20

Brahmnda Purna

148. T h e activities of the living beings t h a t a r e b o r n a n d the fruits (they obtain) a r e described. T h e n t h e creation of the groups of sages is described. It is destructive of sins. 149-150. T h e a p p e a r a n c e of Vasistha a n d the birth of akti. His grasping of the b o n e of a u d s a 1 as b r o u g h t about by Vivmitra. T h e b i r t h of t h e eminent P a r a r a from Adryant. T h e holy lord, t h e great sage was b o r n of P i t r k a n y a n d the holy sage ( P a r a r a ) . 151. T h e b i r t h of uka. T h e h a t r e d towards sage Vivmitra of t h e intelligent P a r a r a along with his son. 152-154. T h e collection of Agni (fire) by Vasistha w i t h a desire to kill Vivmitra. T h e (hindrance to i t ) by lord vidhi (Brahma) w h o was t h e well-wisher of V i v m i t r a as well as by t h e intelligent lord G r n a s k a n d h a 2 (?) for t h e sake of a child. W i t h the blessings of arva ( i v a ) , t h e saintly lord Vysa split one V e d a of four quarters into four V e d a s . M a n y b r a n c h e s of t h e V e d a s were evolved by his disciples a n d t h e i r disciples. 155-159a. (Defective text) T h e y did not t r e m b l e in mak i n g p r a c t i c a l use of t h e Vedas. W h e n they were seen by Svayam b h u ( B r a h m a ) those excellent sages desirous of D h a r m a a n d wishing to get a holy p l a c e , asked him. T h e lord w h o wished for their welfare told t h e m like this : " T h e n a v e of this wheel is excellent. Its b e a u t y a n d splendour is divine. It has seven spokes. It is i n c o m p a r a b l e a n d praise-worthy. As it rolls d o w n , all of you follow it alertly, watchfully. T h e n y o u will r e a c h a place where this is broken. T h a t place where t h e r i m of this wheel is broken is a holy land. It should be considered sacred."3
1. Saudssthi-grahacsya in this text is contrary to facts. It was Sau-

dsa ( K i n g K a l m s a p d a as a d e m o n ) w h o devoured akti (Vasisfha's eldest son) at the instigation of V i v m i t r a . H e n c e the better reading is in V . P . in the. corresponding verse kftena ca j 2. 3. V . P . 1.178a reads: Crn Skandena dhmat ' I t ( T h e V e d a ? ) was divided by the intelligent Lord Skanda for the sake of its continuity'. A popular etymology of ftTaimifranya vide n o t e 2 p. 8. 1-175a viz. Saudsn nigrahas tasya Vivmitra-

I.I.I.159b-171

21

After saying this to all those sages, he b e c a m e invisible. 159b-160. T h e sages of Naimisa forest performed a S a t r a there taking only Tava ( b a r l e y ) as their food along with the w a t e r of G a g . 161. W h e n S a r a d v n died, he was resuscitated, as the sages of N a i m i s a forest were endowed with great kindness. 162. T h e y m a d e this e a r t h boundless. T h e y b r o u g h t K r s n a as king. W i t h great pleasure, a n d hospitality, the king was received a n d h o n o u r e d duly. 163. S v a r b h n u , the cruel Asura, c a m e within the S a t r a a n d a b d u c t e d the king. W h e n the king vanished, the sages followed h i m . 164. T h e y saw h i m protected by a G a n d h a r v a a n d abid 1 ing in the village n a m e d K a l p a . Again the Yaja was begun by the great sages. 165. On seeing everything golden, he h a d an a r g u m e n t w i t h t h e m in the Satra that lasted for twelve years a n d performed by the sages of N a i m i s a . 166-167. Y a d u was installed by them even as they were arguing. After the son of Y a d u , Ayuta was born in the forest. T h e y concluded the Satra a n d began to worship V y u . This is the Krtyasamuddea (enumeration of contents of the P u r n a ) . T h e p a r t of the P u r n a has been described. 168. T h e P u r n a comes to light in this order alone. Even a great topic is understood easily if m e n t i o n e d briefly. 169-170a. After m e n t i o n i n g the brief outline, I shall now n a r r a t e the details to you. If a person, after conquering t h e sense organs, learns this first Pda (section) very well, there is no d o u b t a b o u t it t h a t the entire P u r n a has been u n d e r stood by h i m . 170b-171. O B r h m a n a s , he who knows t h e four Vedas with their ancillary subjects a n d the U p a n i s a d s must increase his knowledge of V e d a t h r o u g h Itihsas a n d P u r n a s . T h e

1. A village in the H i m a l a y a s near Badarikrama where M a r u a n d Devpi, the last kings of the Solar a n d Lunar races respectively performed p e n a n c e to reappear again as kings of Ayodhy a n d Hastinapur after Kalki. D e , p. 74.

22

Brahmnda Purna

V e d a is afraid of a m a n of incomplete knowledge saying "O this m a n will strike m e . " 1 172-174. R e p e a t e d l y learning this c h a p t e r t h a t h a d been directly m e n t i o n e d by the self-born lord B r a h m a one shall never lose sense after getting into an adversity. He will a t t a i n such a goal (hereafter) as is desired by him. Since this h a d been (in existence) before also (Pur api), it is remembered as P u r n a m . 2 He who u n d e r s t a n d s the ety mological i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of this, is rid of all sins. H e n c e , listen to this summary. N r y a n a creates the world. It is on t h a t occasion of creation w h e n he makes this entire P u r n a . It does not remain at the time of annihilation.

CHAPTER TWO The Legend of Naimisranya [Greedy K i n g Pururavas killed while confiscating the Golden a l t a r : Prince Ayu installed as K i n g : sages conciliated] 1-3. Those sages who considered the austerities as their wealth asked Sta once a g a i n : " W h e r e did t h a t Sattra (sacri ficial session) of those persons of miraculous deeds take place ? H o w long did it c o n t i n u e ? H o w was it performed ? H o w d i d P r a b h a j a n a (the Windgod) recount th? P u r n a ? R e c o u n t it in detail as we have great eagerness to hear i t " . T h u s urged, S t a replied t h e following auspicious (narrative) :
1.

words

= M b h . Adi. 1.267b-268a. T h i s is the traditional stand of Purnas

regarding their indispensability. It is justifiable to some extent as they pre serve the unbroken Brahmanical tradition from the V e d a s a n d are some-times useful in interpretation as in Ahalyyai jrah jaghnendrah 2. (atapatha 1.2.3.2 etc.). (atapatha 3.3.4.18) or Viivarpam

A popular etymology of the word Purna.

I.I.2.4-12

23

4. " L i s t e n to the narration as to where those selfpossessed ones performed t h e excellent Sattra, how long it continued a n d how it was performed. 5-7. Desirous of creating the universe formerly, he ( B r a h m a ) discharged (everything) to those who performed the Taja. T h e y performed the highly meritorious S a t t r a for a thousand years. B r a h m a himself became the Tapogrhapati (Lord of the p e n a n c e h o u s e ) . I d a accepted the status of the Patni (wife of the sponsor of the sacrifice). T h e intelligent M r t y u of great splendour performed the milra rite ( t h e act of killing t h e sacrificial a n i m a l ) in that Sattra of those noble souls. T h e Vibudhas (Devas) stayed there for a thousand years. 8. T h e place where t h e rim of the whirling Dharmacakra (wheel of righteousness) broke down b e c a m e well known as 1 Naimisa on a c c o u n t of t h a t event. It is a place well-worshipped by t h e sages. 9-10. It is t h e place w h e r e t h e holy G o m a t i river is resorted to by Siddhas a n d C r a n a s . T h e G o m a t i h a d a d a u g h t e r in a trice a n d t h a t is the Rohin. akti b e c a m e t h e eldest son of the noble-souled Vasistha a n d A r u n d h a t of excellent brilliance* (?) 11. It is t h e place where K i n g K a l m s a p d a a n d a k r a * * met akti. It is the place where enmity broke out between Vivmitra a n d Vasistha. 12. It is t h e p l a c e w h e r e sage P a r a r a was b o r n of Adryant. Against his knowledge, Vasistha h a d to court discomfiture. 2
1. V i d e Ch. 1, p. 8 note 2. It appears that the Bd.P. regards Nimsar near the Gomati as the original Naimisranya. * T h e t e x t : Sutytrdnam uttamatejasah is confusing. V.P.2.10 in identical verse reads: akti-jyesfhh samabhavan Vasisthasya mahtmanah j Arundhyatyh sut yatra atam utlama-Ujasah jj ' T h e r e a hundred sons of excellent brilliance of w h o m akti was t h e eldest, were born of the noble-souled Vasistha from Arundhati" , ** V . P . 2.11 (identical with this N o . 11verse) reads: 'aplah' for Sakrah. It m e a n s : It is a place where king K a l m s a p d a was cursed by akti. 2. Pars'ara, while in his mother's (Adryant's) womb, was such a great V e d i c scholar that he surpassed his grandfather Vasistha ( M b h . Adi176.12-15.)

24

Brahmnda Purna

13. T h e e x p o u n d e r s of B r a h m a n t h o u g h t of a m o u n t a i n in Naimisa at t h a t spot. Since they were born ( r a t h e r p e r f o r m e d sacrificeV.P.2.13) in N a i m i s a , they are r e m e m b e r e d as Naimisyas. 14. T h e Sattra of those intelligent persons lasted for twelve years, w h e n the Valorous P u r u r a v a s Was ruling over the e a r t h . 15. We have h e a r d the report that, even when he en j o y e d e i g h t e e n islands over the. ocean, P u r u r a v a s was never contented w i t h the jewels, d u e to his covetousness. 16. U r g e d by a divine messenger, Urva m a d e love to h i m . He sponsored this Sattra in t h e c o m p a n y of Urva. 17-19. While K i n g Pururavas ruled, the sages of the Naimisa forest performed t h e sacrificial session.* T h e G a g conceived a brilliant foetus from the Fire-god. She deposited it on t h e m o u n t a i n a n d it was transformed i n t o gold. G o d Vivakarm himself, the god of great imagination who evolved the world, entered t h a t sacrificial session of those sages of u n b o u n d e d (immense) lustre ( a n d ) transformed t h e premises a n d enclosure of the sacrifice i n t o a golden one. 20-21. Pururavas, t h e son of I d a c a m e a-hunting to t h a t region. Seeing t h a t extremely wonderful enclosed place of the sacrifice m a d e of gold, his wisdom was overcome (lit. struck down) by avarice a n d he began to seize it. T h e r e u p o n the residents of N a i m i s a b e c a m e very m u c h infuriated against the king. 22-23. T h e angry learned ascetics ( w h o were devoted to p e n a n c e ) urged by the Devas hit him with K u a grasses, charged with t h u n d e r b o l t . P o u n d e d by the a d a m a n t i n e Kua 1 grasses t h a t king cast off his m o r t a l body. T h e son of Urva,

* 1.

satre

e m e n d e d as satram (as in V . P . 2.17, was a chief from

an

identical

verse).

This account of Pururavas' death recorded here appears to be correct trans-Himalayan regionIlvrta the

historically. Pururavas

varsa, the region round M t . M e r u bounded by M t . G a n d h a m d a n a on

west and M l y a v n on the east. He established his kingdom at Pratisthna (modern Jhusi near A l l a h a b a d ) a n d founded the famous Lunar dynasty. H i s greed for w e a l t h and his attempt to plunder the sacrificial session is recorded in the M b h . di.75.20-23. As he c a m e there a-hunting (and n o t with an army

I.I.2.24-31 fought there on the g r o u n d .


1

25

24-26. Ayus, t h e righteous r u l e r of the e a r t h w h o m they call t h e noblesouled father of N a h u s a , o b t a i n e d a high priority a m o n g those who got purificatory b a t h i n t h e p r i n c i p a l sacrifice of t h a t sacrificial session. H a v i n g pacified t h e K i n g t h a t way, t h e sages, t h e knowers of B r a h m a n , w h o themselves were the m r t i s (idols) of t h e calves of the cow in t h e form of the e a r t h 2 ( ? ) , began to perform t h e sacrificial session. In this sattra, t h e noble-souled ones observed celibacy. 27-31. T h e y observed Brahmacarya as in t h e case of Vivasrjs (creators of t h e universe) formerly, when they were desirous of creating the universe. T h e king b e c a m e endowed with the lustre of t h e sun a n d t h e fire. He shone like I n d r a with t h e sages a n d others a r o u n d h i m , such as t h e anchorites Vlakhilyas fond of their friends, Marcis; the u n b o r n sages 3 , T h e y worshipped t h e Devas with h y m n s of praise a n d houses ( ? ) a n d t h e Pitrs by means of t h e holy rites befitting t h e Pitrs.

for c o n q u e s t ) , it is more probable that he was overwhelmed by the sages a n d g o t killed in the scuffle. T h e sages' curse a n d the bringing of fire from heaven etc. described in the M b h . is obviously a white-wash by its the author as

the episode concerned the founder of the Lunar dynasty to w h i c h P n d a v a s belonged. T h e sages wisely installed his son yus w h o , like a farsighted states m a n trying to consolidate the newly-founded kingdom, e x t e n d e d his patro n a g e to the sacrificial session. T h e Bd.P. version is supported by V . P . 1. T h e t e x t : aurvaeyais tatas tasya yuddham cakre nrpo bhuvi, is syntactically n o t correct. M o r e o v e r Ayu, the son of Pururavas a n d Urva w h o succeeded h i m is not k n o w n to h a v e fought w i t h the sages. V.P.2.23b (a corresponding verse reads:) aurvaieyarh tatas tasya putrarh cakrur nrparh bhuvi ' T h e n they m a d e h i s son born of Urva the king over the earth'. 2. ing For Prthvi vatstma-mrtayah in this text, c p . V . P . 2 . 2 6 ( a correspond (satram rebhire karturh) yathvad dharma-bhtaye 'according verse r e a d s ) : 3.

to prescribed rites for the prosperity of D h a r m a ' . T h e reading of these stanzas in V.P.2.27/29a. : Vaikhnasaih anyaiica priya-sakhair jus (am Vlakhilyair marcikaih j lj munibhir srya-vaivnara-prabhaih

( 2 8 b t h e same a s 2 8 b i n V . P . ) Sambhrais tu Subhair juspam fair evendra-sado yath jj ( T h e sacrificial session) was attended by Vlakhilyas brilliant like the Cranas, as in the assembly of I n d r a ) . a n d other sages sun, the fire and by auspicious ( h o l y ) multitudes of Pitrs,

26

Brahmnda Purna:

T h e y duly worshipped t h e G a n d h a r v a s a n d others in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h their species. While p r o p i t i a t i n g , he remem bered the G a n d h a r v a s a n d others. Thereafter, in other holy rites t h e G a n d h a r v a s sang Sman h y m n s ; the groups of Apsaras d a n c e d ; t h e sages spoke words of wonderfully variegated letters a n d of splendid form. 32. T h e l e a r n e d scholars c h a n t e d M a n t r a s etc. T h e y defeated their o p p o n e n t s by means of copious objections. 33-34. T h e sages w e r e . great erudite scholars. T h e y were experts in words, meanings a n d logical arguments. N o t h i n g was seized from t h e m . No Brahmarksasas entered t h e p l a c e and spoiled t h e Yaja. N e i t h e r the Daityas n o r those with weapons with feather attached to them c a m e there. T h e r e was no occasion for expiatory acts a n d there was no poverty. 35. Due to the combination of efficiency, intellect and steady activity, the injunctions were duly carried out resulting in blessings. T h u s the Sattra (sacrificial session) of those learned persons continued for twelve years. 36-38. T h a t sacrifice of the sages residing in Naimisa was like t h a t of the thunderbolt-bearing I n d r a . T h e elderly heroic a n d other R t v i k s performed the J y o t i s t o m a sacrifices separately. R i d i n g on the backs ( o f h o r s e s ? ) , they concluded all the sacrifices after distributing ten t h o u s a n d (coins) as m o n e t a r y gifts. After concluding their Yaja, all of t h e m asked V y u d e v a (the wind god) the great lord of u n m e a s u r e d vitality, O B r h m a n a s , w h a t I have been asked by you all. U r g e d (by t h e m ) the lord m e n t i o n e d to t h e m , the m a t t e r of his own race.
1 2

39. (Lord W i n d ) was t h e disciple of t h e self-born deity. He has perfect control over the sense organs. He sees every t h i n g directly. He is endowed with t h e eight powersnim (minuteness) a n d others. He is equipped w i t h subtle limbs. 40. He sustains all the worlds by m e a n s of rains a l o n g with t h e w i n d s blowing obliquely. T h e branches, the seven
1. V . P . 2 . 3 6 reads: Bhrgvdy rsayo dhiy: 'intelligent & self possessed sages like Bhrgu & others. 2. V . P . 2 . 3 6 reads: P r s t h a g a m a n a m ' w h o w e n t after them'.

1.1.2.41-48

27

boughs, h a v e been b o r n e by h i m . (? t h e seven types of wind are p r o b a b l y alluded t o ) . H e protects t h e mobile a n d t h e immobile beings all r o u n d . 41-43. In his realm t h e seven times seven (fortynine) M a r u t s a r e stationed. He is extremely powerful a n d he performs the Sattra of t h e Stas with t h r e e V y h a s 1 (circular or other types of arrays) He holds t h e remedies of t h e fiery e m b o d i e d beings. T h e five functional o r g a n airs, viz., P r n a a n d others sustain t h e body filling it with its i n n a t e activities. T h e wind has e t h e r (ka) as its source of origin. It has t w o qualities. It is end owed with the qualities of abda (sound) a n d Spar.Sa ( t o u c h ) . 44. He has been called V c o r a n i (source of origin of speech like the Arani which is t h e source of fire) by persons w h o are clever in the science of sound a n d phonetics. W i t h soft a n d gentle speech, he a p p e a r e d to delight t h e sages. 4 5 . O learned ones, conversant w i t h t h e P u r n a s , O B r h m a n a s , well disciplined in t h e knowledge of t h e P u r n a s , the lord ( w i n d ) recounted t h e story in a speech befitting t h e basis w h i c h is the P u r n a . 46-48. All these narrations, O excellent B r h m a n a s , a r e in a c c o r d a n c e with w h a t h a d transpired. This is an excellent great principle of t h e world of t h e sages. T h i s P u r n a h a s been formerly recounted by B r a h m a . It contains excellent wisdom of the deities a n d t h e sages. It destroys all sins. I shall n a r r a t e it in detail its contents in d u e o r d e r . 2

1. 2.

V.P.2.41

reads:

Vyhraynih

bhtnrh'Bhtas

(beings)

w h o d e p e n d o n the V y h a ( b o d y ) ' . W . 36-48 show that this Purna (Bd.P.) was formerly narrated b y god Brahma originally. H i s disciple, the W i n d g o d recounted it to sages of N a i m i s r a n y a on the occasion of the Sattra of twelve years duration.

28 CHAPTER THREE

Brahmnda Purna

Description of Evolution of the Universe : The Creation of Hiranyagarbha Sta narrated : 1. Listen to their divine story t h a t rids one of all sins. It is being n a r r a t e d by m e . It is wonderfully variegated. It has m a n y topics ( u n d e r discussion) ; it is esteemed by t h e Vedas. 2. He who retains this ( i n m i n d ) p e r m a n e n t l y or listens to this frequently m a i n t a i n s his family (or propagates his race) a n d he is h o n o u r e d in t h e heavenly world. 3. Listen to t h e topic being r e c o u n t e d in the m a n n e r it h a d been h e a r d a n d it h a d occurred. Listen to the five Trs ( s t a r s ) * t h a t are five in n u m b e r . Listen to this n a r r a t i v e t h a t is conducive to the increase of the fame of t h e ancestors. 4. T h e glorification of all these persons of meritorious deeds a n d of everlasting fame is conducive to wealth, fame, longevity a n d heaven. It destroys enemies. 5-7. I b o w d o w n to H i r a n y a g a r b h a , the lordly Purusa who is u n b o r n , w h o is the first creator of subjects, w h o is t h e most excellent one, t h r o u g h w h o m t h e K a l p a has b e e n com p e t e n t to h a v e its characteristics; t h r o u g h w h o m the fire has been c a p a b l e of being a purifying factor; a n d w h o is t h e self-born B r a h m a administering all t h e worlds. After bowing down to B r a h m a , I shall recount t h e excellent creation of living beings, t h a t begins with Mahat (the great First Principle) a n d ends w i t h Viefa (special created t h i n g s ) , 1 t h a t has its own charac teristic features a n d diversities, t h a t has five authorities (testimonies) ; t h a t calmly rests in t h e six ones (?) a n d t h a t which is presided over by P u r u s a . 8-9. T h r o u g h concentration of mind, I shall describe to you t h e excellent creation of Bhtas. Avyakta ( t h e unmanifest
* For the above reading (of the P u r n a ) . Skhya the theory of evolution of the universe is accepted in account of creation of the Brahmnda in NP. 17.2-16. (ViSva-tra ca y paca), V.P.4.7a (a corres

ponding verse) reads : vistrvayavam tesm ' ( L i s t e n to the narration of) the detailed parts 1. Purnas. 1.3. The

Compare

1-45; 42.1-115; Bh.P. 111.20.12-53; KP.I.2.3 ff.; A P .

1.1.3.10-18

29

o n e ) which is of t h e n a t u r e of Sat a n d Asat (Existent a n d n o n existent) is the eternal cause. Persons w h o discuss a n d p o n d e r over t h e Principles (reality) call i t P r a d h n a a n d P r a k r t i . It is devoid of odour, colour a n d t a s t e ; it is w i t h o u t t h e qualities of sound a n d t o u c h . 10. It is the source of origin of t h e universe; it is t h e g r e a t Bhta (living e n t i t y ) ; t h e supreme a n d e t e r n a l B r a h m a n . It is t h e (cosmic) b o d y of all living b e i n g s ; the unmanifest o n e has b e c o m e so. 11. T h e B r a h m a n has n e i t h e r beginning n o r e n d ; it is u n b o r n a n d s u b t l e ; it has t h r e e Gunas, it is t h e source of origin a n d place of u l t i m a t e m e r g i n g a n d rest. It is Asmpratika (does n o t b e l o n g to t h e present t i m e ) , it is Ajeya (i.e. c a n n o t be comp r e h e n d e d . It is t h e B r a h m a n which is beyond Sat a n d Asat. 12. This entire d a r k world was p e r v a d e d by his A t m a n ( s o u l ) . As the G u n a s were in a state of equilibrium, this world full of darkness h a d n o t yet been evolved. 13. At t h e time of creation, Pradhna is presided over by Ksetraja a n d since the G u n a s become uneven ( d u e to loss of their e q u i l i b r i u m ) , the great Principle (Mahat) was evolved. 14. T h a t Mahat (Great Principle) is subtle a n d at t h e outset it was enveloped by Avyakta. T h e Mahat wherein there is a p r e d o m i n a n c e of Sattva Guna displays Sattva guna alone. 15. It should be known as M a h a t on a c c o u n t of its Sattva quality. T h a t is r e m e m b e r e d as its sole reason. T h e Liga (arira) (i.e. t h e i n t e r n a l b o d y or t h e psychic m e c h a n i s m ) a l o n e is evolved a n d it is presided over by Ksetraja ( i n d i v i d u a l soul). 16. Sarhkalpa (Wishful t h o u g h t ) a n d Adhyavas&ya (Determination) are remembered as its two functions. W i t h a desire to create he w h o is beyond measures, creates the g r e a t creation. 17-18. (Defective T e x t ) V i r t u e etc. and the elements are t h e causes of t h e principles of the worlds. T h e m i n d in the
1

1. The text from verse 17-28 is corrupt and the corresponding text of the V.P. Ch.4 has little in common with these verses and is of no help in interpretation. Hence reconstruction of emendations could not be hazarded. But V.P. 4.76b-79 bear some correspondence to Bd.P.I.i.3.24-27. The V.

30

Brahmnda Parana

g r e a t A t m a n is B r a h m a n . T h e discrimination of wicked know ledge is t h r o u g h v a r a ( L o r d ) . T h e P r a j s a n d h i (the j u n c t i o n of intellect) is everything t h a t is u n d e r possession. He considers all living beings t h r o u g h Sakhyyatanaramis (?) (the rays t h a t a r e the a b o d e of t h e n u m b e r ?). Therefore the lord attains t h e desired fruit. 19-20. T h e Manas (Mind) is called Bhoktr (Enjoyer) a n d Trtr (Protector) a n d it remains as separated soul. ( T h e Mahat is so called) because it falls within the collection of principles a n d it is great in m a g n i t u d e . T h e M a h a t principle is r e m e m b e r e d as one having physical body t h a t is g r e a t e r t h a n the remaining Gunas a n d Tattvas (Principles). T h e mind is called M a n a s because it thinks or considers the division (or separateness) or it is t h o u g h t of as a p a r t . 21-22. T h e (individual soul) is r e m e m b e r e d as Purusa because of its relationship with Sat (the Existent i.e. t h e B r a h m a n ) by way of enjoyment of worldly pleasures. Also the supreme soul is called B r a h m a n because it is Brhat (very huge) a n d because it causes all t h e living beings to increase in size ( B r m h a n a t v a ) . ( I t is possible) because it is t h e basis of every t h i n g . It is defined as B r a h m a because it causes t h e living beings to increase in- size a n d because it fills all the bodies w i t h blessings. 23. T h e P u r u s a u n d e r s t a n d s all the Bhavas (beings a n d things) separately. It is t h r o u g h it (i.e. P u r u s a ) t h a t the Brah m a n achieves all its tasks (lit. doing of the w o r k ) at t h e outset. 24. K n o w t h a t the Prkrta (the creation of P r a k r t i ) is t h e Vivarta ( t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ) (ofBrahman). x T h e Ksetraja is on a p a r with B r a h m a n . Indeed it is called the first embodied being and Puripurusa ( t h e ancient p e r s o n ) .
P. verses m a y be summarised here as follows: 'The Ksetraja called Brahma w h o awoke in the egg of Prakrti (Cosmic e g g ) is the first e m b o d i e d being and he is called Purusa (one lying in the abode of the cosmic e g g . ) This g o d Brahma, the first creator of Bhtas (elements or beings) existed first. This four-faced Hiranya-garbha appeared at first in this (cosmic e g g ) . Both at the time of creation and re-creation (after destruction), he is the Ksetraja called Brahma. 1. T h i s purna supports Vivarta-vda as distinguished from Parinma.nda in explaining the Brahma-world relation.

I.I.3.25-33

31

25. T h a t B r a h m a is the primordial creator of the living beings, t h a t existed at the outset. 26-27. T h a t H i r a n y a g a r b h a with four faces a p p e a r e d in the An4a (Cosmic e g g ) . In t h e p r i m a r y creation as well as in the secondary creation, the Ksetraja is on a par with B r a h m a n . T h e ( I n d i v i d u a l souls) are asked alongwith the Karanas (sense o r g a n s ) . T h e y a b a n d o n ( t h e m ) alongwith the dissolutions. Again they assume physical bodies during the j u n c t i o n s of the jgas. 28. (Defective t e x t ) Those five (?) who are enlightened m a y take away t h e w a t e r of t h e depression ( p i t ) of t h a t noblesouled one who uplifts the golden M e r u . (?)
1

29-31. T h e s e seven worlds are well established in this cosmic egg; the whole e a r t h along with t h e seven continents, t h e seven oceans, the g r e a t m o u n t a i n s a n d thousands of rivers -are established in the very same cosmic egg. These worlds a r e s i t u a t e d within (the cosmic egg). This universe is within the cosmos. Everything is established in t h a t cosmic eggviz. t h e m o o n and the sun along w i t h t h e stars, planets a n d t h e w i n d as well as the m o u n t a i n Lokloka. 32.* T h e waters a r e externally s u r r o u n d e d by the Tejas (fiery e l e m e n t ) ten times as big as themselves. T h e Tejas is externally surrounded by Vyu (wind) ten times as big as itself. 33. V y u is externally surrounded by the Nabhas ( E t h e r ) ten times as big as itself. In t h e same m a n n e r the entire ether is externally surrounded by B h t d i ( t h e A h a r h k r a or e g o ) .
1. F r o m this verse onwards the Prkrta sarga, the first creation of g o d is unpremedi it.

Brahma, is described. It takes p l a c e without pre-planning or

tated (abuddhiprva)' like the s u d d e n flash of lightning' as the Bd.P. puts While the Vaikrta creations (five in n u m b e r ) are plannedbuddhiprvaka. *

F r o m this verse the e l e m e n t a l sheaths that envelop the cosmic egg

are e n u m e r a t e d . As verses 29-38 in Bd.P. here a n d V.P.4.81-91 are identical, we c a n substitute the missing line in Bd.P.32. by V . P . 8 4 a as follows: adbhir daia-gunbhis tu bhyato' ridam samvrtam j ' T h e cosmic egg is e n v e l o p e d from outside w i t h times (larger) water'. T h i s additional line is essential to make up the n u m b e r s e v e n of these Prkrtic sheaths m e n t i o n e d b e l o w in verse 34 a s : ebhir varanair andam saptabhih prkrtair vrtam j (the sheath of) ten

32

Brahmnda Purna

34. T h e Bhtdi is enveloped by Mahat a n d the Mahat is enveloped by Pradhna. T h e cosmic egg is thus enveloped by the seven varanas (coverings) p e r t a i n i n g to t h e Prakrti. 35-37. T h u s willingly these Prakrtis (evolutes of Prakrti) are stationed ready in destroying mutually. T h e y stand ready at t h e time of c r e a t i o n ; they sustain m u t u a l l y a n d they devour m u t u a l l y . Those Vikras (effects) abide in t h e Vikrins (causes) by way of t h e supporter-supported relationship. T h e Avyakta (the unmanifest o n e ) is called Ksetra a n d B r a h m a n is called Ksetraja. T h u s the P r k r t a Sarga ( c r e a t i o n of t h e P r a k r t i ) ( h a s been e x p l a i n e d ) . It is presided by Ksetraja. ~. 38. This is t h e first creation a n d it is u n p r e m / d n e d . It appeared just like the lightning. U n d o u b t e d l y he w h o factually understands this b i r t h of H i r a n y a g a r b h a shall become longlived, famous, blessed and intelligent.

CHAPTER

FOUR

Constitution 'of' the world (The Cosmic Egg) [ T h e creation d u e to disequilibrium of gunasthe three states of the self-born god BrahmaDescription of K a l p a s ] Sta said : 1. W h e n t h e unmanifest one is stationed within itself a n d w h e n the effect (universe) h a d b e e n w i t h d r a w n , t h e Pra d h n a a n d P u r u s a r e m a i n w i t h their similarity of characteristics (retained). 2. These two have T a m a s a n d Sattva gunas. T h e y are stationed on a p a r w i t h each other. H e n c e they a r e said to be m u t u a l pursuers. T h e y a r e not excessive ( i n t h e manifestation of the G u n a s ) .

I.I.4.3-11

33

3. Laya (Dissolution) should be understood to occur when G u n a s are in equilibrium. It is called creation when there is p r e d o m i n a n c e (of one G u n a over the other.) T h e Sthiti (Sustenance) was at the time when Sattva was p r e d o m i n a n t . Certainly, the lotus is stationed at the top (?) 4. W h e n Rajas closely follows a n d stations itself in T a m a s a n d Sattva, it is the Rajas that causes the other things to function in the same way as in the case of the w a t e r causing the seeds to function. 5. T h e G u n a s assume inequality a n d they become stabilized casually. It should be known that three (divinities) were b o r n out of the G u n a s which are a g i t a t e d . 6. T h e y a r e eternal, extremely mysterious; the souls__of everyone and e m b o d i e d ; the Sattva q u a l i l y l s V i s u T t h e Rajas is B r a h m a a n d the T a m a s is R u d r a , the Prajpati. 7. Visnu the enlightener a n d revealer of the Rajas becomes B r a h m a , a n d a t t a i n s the status of t h e c r e a t o r . It is from him^that being of great vitality^that the variety of creation of the worlds, takes its origin.
1

8. Visnu as t h e enlightener a n d revealer of t h e T a m a s stands separate in the fom of K l a ( T i m e ) .("Vfc S <' / . ' ~j Visnu as the enlightener a n d revealer of t h e Sattva stands separate as sustenance (i.e. one w h o sustains). 9 . These alone are the three worlds; these alone are t h e three G u n a s ; these alone a r e the three V e d a s ; these a l o n e a r e the three sacred fires. 10. These have m u t u a l inter-association; these a r e m u t u a l l y a t t a c h e d ; they exist by m u t u a l help a n d they impel inter se. 11. These are m u t u a l l y coupled; these are m u t u a l l y inter d e p e n d e n t ; these do not become separated even for a m o m e n t ; they do not a b a n d o n each other.

1. T h o u g h this Purna accepts the Skhya theory regarding the crea tion of the universe being due to the imbalance of the three Gunas, the personi fication of the Gunas in Brahma (Rajas), V i s n u (Sattva) and Rudra ( T a m a s ) is the puranic w a y of presentation for the understanding of the process by t h e masses.

34

Brakmnda Purna

12. As a result of t h e unevenness of t h e G u n a s , t h e Prad h n a begins to function at the time of creation. At the outset it begins to function (from t h a t Avyakta) of t h e n a t u r e of Sat a n d Asat a n d presided over by Adrsfa (the u n m a n i f e s t ) . 13. T h e pair B r a h m a a n d Buddhi (Cosmic intellect) took their origin simultaneously from t h a t ( P r a d h n a ) of the n a t u r e of T a m a s a n d unmanifestness*. T h e Ksetraja ( a n d ) t h a t which is (also) n a m e d B r a h m a (was born from t h a t p a i r ) . 14. Fully equipped withKrya (effect?) a n d Karana (the instruments; t h e sense-organs) B r a h m a a p p e a r e d (existed) at the outset. He was unparalleled in lustre, intelligent, unmanifest b u t excellent enlightener ( r e v e a l e r ) . 15. (Defective t e x t ) . He is t h e first embodied being stabilised in r e t e n t i o n . He is endowed with unequalled know ledge a n d absence of passionate a t t a c h m e n t . 16. On account of his being unmanifest a n d because he h a d kept (everything) u n d e r control, since these a r e three G u n a s a n d because all evolved beings are i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , ( B r a h m a attains) whatever he desires mentally. 17. T h e self-born deity has three states : {He has four faces as B r a h m a as K l a ( G o d of D e a t h ) he is Bhava, t h e destroyer; (as V i s n u ) he is t h e P u r u s a with thousand heads. 18. As B r a h m a , he creates the worlds; as K l a , he annihilates t h e m ; as Purusa, he is indifferent : these are t h e t h r e e states of the selfborn deity. 1 19. As B r a h m a , he possesses Rajas exclusively; as K l a he has Rajas a n d T a m a s a n d as P u r u s a (i.e. Visnu) he is exclusively S t t v i k a ; t h i s is the position of t h e G u n a s in t h e case of t h e self-born deity. 20. B r a h m a has eyes like lotus-petals*; K l a has t h e lustre ofcollyrium ever since his origin. Purusa islotuseyed with t h e form of t h e s u p r e m e A t m a n .
* 1. V . P . o . 2 3 : F r o m that (Pair of Brahma & Buddhi) was born Ksetraja T h e trinity of gods carrying out the functions of creation, sustendesignated as Brahma, full of tamas and unmanifestness. ance a n d destruction of the universe but the three states of self-born deity. * Kamalapatrksa should be emended as Kamalapatrbha as in V.P.5. 3 1 b , as it is the description of the complexions of three deities. one and the same

I.I.4.21-29

35

2 1 . He is single. He is two-fold. He is three-fold. AgairT he is multifold. T h e lord of Yogins makes a n d un-makes t h e physical bodies. 22. T h e physical bodies a d o p t different kinds of shapes, activities, colours a n d features. Since he has the pastime of 1 r e m a i n i n g threefold in the world, he is called Triguna (one t h a t has three G u n a s ) . 23-24. Since he is divided i n t o four, he is glorified as Caturvyha (one with four a r r a y s ) . Since at the end of a P a r r d h a , the lord lies down (sleeps) ; since the lord enjoys the pleasures of the world, since all living beings always take rest (lie down) normally and comfortably in him, he is defined as A t m a n , He is Rsi because he goes everywhere a n d since the lord enters the physical body. 25. He is Sarva ( a l l ) , because he is the master of a l l ; he is Visnu because he permeates everything. He is Bhagavh, (since) he devoured the Bhvas (living beings). He is Nga because no gas (i.e. sin) abides in him. 2 6 . He is Parama, because he is extremely delighted. Since lie h a s D e v a t v a (state of being G o d ) , he is remembered a s O M . He is Sarvaja (omniscient) because he knows everything perfectly. He is Sarva because everything originates from him. 27. B r a h m a causes the sleep (i.e. perfect rest) of Naras ( m e n ) , hence he is remembered as N r y a n a . He functions after dividing himself into three. He is Sakala ( h a v i n g the full c o m p l e m e n t of digits and p a r t s ) . 28. By means of the three ( G u n a s ) , he himself creates"," devours a n d protects. T h e Prabhu ( L o r d ) himself became H i r a n y a g a r b h a at the outset a n d manifested himself. 29. Indeed he is dya (First, foremost) a n d Svavaa ( h a v i n g himself under c o n t r o l ) . He is r e m e m b e r e d as Aja because he is not b o r n . H e n c e he is defined as Hiranyagarbha in the P u r n a s .
1. T h e author of Bd.P. seems to be fond of giving popular etymologies.

T h e etymologies of Triguna, Caturvyha, Atm, Rsi, Visnu, N r y a n a etc. are interesting. S o m e of these are however grammatically correct e.g., V i s n u vis'to pervade', rsir 'to go'.

36

Brahmnda Purna

30. He is selfborn a n d receding (?), he is K l a and t h e foremost a m o n g all t h e castes. It is not possible to specify him exclusively in the course of h u n d r e d s of M a n u ' s y e a r s . * 31. T h e P a r r d h a of B r a h m a is r e m e m b e r e d as being reckoned is so many K a l p a s . He has a n o t h e r period of the same d u r a t i o n a n d he wakes up at the end of t h a t period. 32. T h o u s a n d s a n d crores of years t h a t h a d b e e n t h e abode of K a l p a s have passed by. As m a n y a r e yet to come. 33-34. T h e K a l p a t h a t is c u r r e n t now, is V r h a , know ye all. It is t h e first K a l p a a n d it is the present K a l p a . T h e Kings should govern till thousand Yugas are completed.

CHAPTER FIVE The Creation of the Universe [ T h e Boar i n c a r n a t i o n of V i s n u P r i m a r y a n d secondary crea t i o n c r e a t i o n of gods, sages a n d their d i s s o l u t i o n ] . rl Sta said : 1. At t h e beginning, t h e waters were present everywhere, on the surface of t h e e a r t h . W h e n this (visible w o r l d ) h a d been annihilated a n d when t h e winds h a d become quiet, n o t h i n g could be known. 2. In t h a t vast ocean-like expanse of water, 1 w h e n t h e whole world consisting of mobile and immobile beings h a d
* For Varngratas, V.P.5.46b reads Varsgrajas. If this is accepted as

emendation, the verse w o u l d m e a n : " I t is n o t possible to calculate even w i t h hundreds of M a n v a n t a r a s as a unit of the time etc. 1. EkrnavaAlso called Mahrnava, agdha stabdha salila, or Salila only, Yugnta-toya in M t . P., H V . , Bh.P. V P . a n d other Purnas. T h i s pri meval watery flood expresses the infinite unmanifest c a u s e t h e Krana Brah man as explained by N i l a k a n t h a (on H V . P . 3.9.1-4) 1/2 from w h i c h all life

I.I.5.3-10

37

perished, the only entity present t h e r e was t h a t lord B r a h m a 1 with t h o u s a n d eyes a n d t h o u s a n d legs. 3. At t h a t t i m e B r a h m a n a m e d N r y a n a lay asleep in the waters. He h a d a thousand heads. He was t h e Purusa with golden colour a n d was beyond the k e n of the sense-organs. 4. P r o h i b i t e d * (?) on a c c o u n t of t h e excess of Sattva, he saw the e m p t y world. In this context, as regards N r y a n a they cite this loka ( v e r s e ) . 5. Waters are called Nras (because) t h e waters are indeed t h e children of (Nara) ( M a n ) ; the waters are his place of resort. H e n c e , he is r e m e m b e r e d as N r y a n a . 2 6. (Defective t e x t ) . He r e m a i n s m e d i t a t i n g for a period e q u a l to a thousand Yugas. He performs meditation on a ( l o t u s ) with golden petals in order to reach t h e ideal state of Brahman.** 7. Like a glow-worm at night d u r i n g the rainy season, B r a h m a moves about here a n d there in the water, stooping d o w n w i t h his face t u r n e d downwards. 8-9. After knowing t h a t t h e great ( u n i v e r s e ) h a d gone d e e p into t h a t vast expanse"oTwater, h e - t h o u g h t of uplifting the e a r t h with steadiness of composure. T h e n he t h o u g h t of t h e o t h e r eightfold cosmic body (as evolved by) O m k r a , in t h e beginnings of K a l p a s as before. T h e n the great soul t h o u g h t of his divine form. 10. On seeing t h a t the e a r t h h a d sunk i n t o the w a t e r he t h o u g h t " w h a t form shall I assume a n d uplift the earth ?"
comes into being. V P . I . 2 . 2 2 states that this Ekrnava doctrine is very ancient and Brahma-vdins have elaborated it to explain the process of creation a n d dissolution. M t . P . 182 identifies N r y a n a with M a h r n a v a . 1. * 2. ** Cf. Purusa-skta (RV.X.90.1). nisiddha in the text is illogical. V . P . 6 . 4 (an identical verse) reads: T h e usual derivation of N r y a n a found in other Purnas also b u t ~J sarge-krant II V . P . 6 . reads arvaryante : naiiarh klam upsya sah / prakurute Brahmatvarh

Prabuddha 'awakened' by the d o m i n a n c e of Sattva. for a different derivation vide supra 4.28"!

' H a v i n g passed the night-time in sleep, at the end of the night, creates g o d Brahma for the creation of the universe'.

38

Brahmnda Purna

11. He r e m e m b e r e d the form of a Boar 1 t h a t is suitable for the a q u a t i c sports. It was invisible* u n t o all living beings. It is of the n a t u r e of speech termed B r a h m a n . 12. Its girth was t e n Yojanas (1 Y o j a n a = 1 2 K m ) a n d the length was a h u n d r e d Yojanas. It resembled the d a r k cloud, in complexion. It h a d a r u m b l i n g sound like t h a t of t h e clouds. 13. It h a d a h u g e body like a great m o u n t a i n . It h a d curved fangs, white, s h a r p a n d terrible. It bore resembl a n c e (in lustre to) l i g h t n i n g a n d fire. Its brilliance was like t h a t of the sun. 14. It h a d thick long a n d r o u n d shoulders. It used to walk with the ( s t e a d y ) steps of Visnu. T h e region of its hips was raised up (well-developed) a n d stout. It was h o n o u r e d with the characteristic features of a bull. 15. Assuming this inimitable form of a boar, H a r i entered t h e n e t h e r worlds for uplifting t h e e a r t h . 16-22. ( T h e description of Taja-vrha) . 2 T h e conclu sion on the Diks (initiation) a n d Isfi (sacrifice) were his curved fangs, the Kratu (sacrifice) was his t o o t h . 3 T h e Juh ( t h e crescent-shaped wooden ladle) was his m o u t h ; . t h e fire was his

1.

VV.8-11 remind f Tait.Brhmana 1.2.1.3 which states po v idamagre salilam stt / prajpatir vyur bhtv trh tasmin

acarat j sa imam apaiyat j varho bhtva'harat //

Purnas elaborated this statement in the full-fledged description of the Boarincarnation of Visnu. Vide Bh. P. 111.13 17-33, Mt.P.Chs. 246-248; V P . I . 4 . 1-52, M b h . Sabh 37.29 ff. and Bd. P. infra Ch. 8. 1-10. * 2. adhrsyam 'unassailable' in V . P . 6 . 1 1 . This poetic description of the D i v i n e Boar in Yaja terminology is

so beautiful that n o t only Purna-writers but writers on Smrti works, Tantra works and even akara adopted it. For example, vide V.P.Ch.6 (a number of verses identical with B d . P . ) , Bm P. 2 1 3 . 3 3 - 4 2 ; Bh.P. 111.13 34-39, Visnu Smrti briefly. 3. Mt.P. 247.68 reads differently. Kratu-dantas Citi-mukhah Veda-pdo Ypa-darhffrah 1.3-12; akara on Visnu-sahasra-nma verse 118 on Tajga. T h o u g h it is a self-explanatory translation some expressions are explained

I 1.5.16-22
1 2

39

t o n g u e ; the D a r b h a grasses were his h a i r s , t h e B r a h m a ( o n e of the four Rtviks employed at a S o m a sacrifice or vedic 3 knowledge of great p e n a n c e was his h e a d . T h e V e d a s were his shoulders; he h a d the fragrance of t h e Havis. T h e Havya, Kavya 1 etc. w e r e his velocity; Prgvama ( t h e sacrificial r o o m facing 6 the east) was his b o d y ; he was brilliant; he was e q u i p p e d w i t h different kinds of Dikss ( i n i t i a t i o n s ) ; he was the m a s t e r of Yoga w i t h D a k s i n for his h e a r t ; he was t h e lord full ofraddh 6 (faith) a n d Sattva (good quality) ; he h a d Upkarma (extra 1 study of t h e V e d a s by w a y of e x p i a t i o n ) for his Ruci ( l u s t r e or t a s t e ) ; he h a d Pravargya ( t h e ceremony p r e l i m i n a r y to Soma sacrifice) as his vartabhsancfi ( o r n a m e n t a l whorls of h a i r on his c h e s t ) , the way of t h e different Cchandas ( M e t r e s ) was his p a t h w a y ; t h e Upanisads with their esoteric doctrines consti t u t e d his seat. He was assisted by M y in the capacity of his spouse; he h a d t h e height of t h e peak of a m o u n t a i n ; he had t h e day a n d the n i g h t as his eyes;* he had t h e ancillary subjects
1. 2. 3. 4. A V e d i c concept. Agni (fire) is the tongue of gods w i t h which they darbha-rom. T h e rfariAa-grass spread on the altar is compared to Brahma-rsahBrahma means also the V e d i c knowledge and natu It is difficult to understand w h y the velocity of the Divine Boar is

eat the food (offered in sacrifices), cf. R V . I V . 5 7 . 1 . the shaggy hair on the body of the boar. rally its position is the highest viz. the head. compared to the Havya and Kavya rites meant for gods and Pitrs. Probably Agnihotra and rddha and their association with the sacrifice m a y be the reason. 5. Prgvamia-kyaPrgvaihSa also means 'a room in which the family and friends performing the sacrifice assemble.' This body (Kya) of the TajaVarha is so m u c h spacious as to accommodate many people. 6. V.P.6.21. gives a better reading viz. mah-sattra-mayo : Mahdays. sattra is a long (and great) Soma-sacrifice continuing for 13 to 100 V a r h a has assumed the form of a great S o m a sacrifice. 7. 8. The The M t . P . and akara read upkarmostharucakah : Whose p e n d a n t whorls of hair on the front of horse's chest is regarded as orna lower-life was upkarma (recitation of the V e d a s ) . Can we take ruci for rucaka? mental. T h e same on the chest of the boar would be beutirymg. T h e Pravargya ceremony is introductory to the S o m a sacrifice. In this, fresh j n i l k is poured into a heated vessels called Mahivira or Gharma, or i n t o boiling ghee 9. Day ( M W . P . 6 9 3 . U ) . T h e vapour-fumes coiling up from the gharma and night represent the Sun a n d the M o o n . T h e y are the t w o is imagined as circular whorls of the Boar's hair. eyes of this Divine Boar.

40

Brahmnda Purna

of the Veclas as the o r n a m e n t u n t o his ears. He h a d the odour of the jya (ghee-offering; in the sacrifice) ; the Sruv ( t h e sacri ficial ladle) was his s n o u t ; he h a d the loud p i t c h in c h a n t i n g of the Sman hymns as his voice; he was glorious, an embodi m e n t of t r u t h and v i r t u e ; he was h o n o u r e d by the exploits of his actions; expiation was his claw; he was t e r r i b l e ; he had t h e knee joints of the animals; he was the great sacrifice in c a r n a t e ; Udgt was his e n t r a i l ; 1 the H o m a was his Liga (symbol) ; he h a d fruits and seeds as great medicinal h e r b s ( ? ) Vdyantara* (Another d i s p u t a n t ) was his own astra (sacrifice) ( ? ) . Absence of egotim as well as Soma j u i c e was his blood.
2

2 3 . [ T h e text in Bd.P. is corrupt. T h e corresponding verse in V . P. 6.23 is as follows :] b h t v Yajn-varho vai a n t a h sa prviat p r a b h u h / a d b h i h s a c h d i t m rvm sa t m a n a n prajpatih upagamyojjahru a p a s t ca sa vinyasan // ' I t is reported t h a t he verily b e c a m e Yaja-varha a n d the Lord entered the waters. T h a t Prajpati found t h a t e a r t h w h i c h was covered over with waters. R e m o v i n g (displacing) those waters, he seized a n d quickly lifted it u p . ' 24. He allocated the waters of the ocean in the oceans a n d those of the rivers in the rivers. After m a k i n g them separate a n d equal, he gathered the mountains on the e a r t h for its stability. 25. These m o u n t a i n s h a d been b u r n t in the previous Sarga (period of c r e a t i o n ) by the Samvartaka fire (i.e. fire of destruction at the time of universal a n n i h i l a t i o n ) . Along with t h a t fire these m o u n t a i n s h a d got merged in the e a r t h completely.

1. 2.

It is the length of the S m a song sung by the U d g t r which resemb Phala-bja-mahausadhh. T h i s reading though accepted in the trans

les the long entrail of the animal. lation is obscure. Mt.P.,Bm.P., V i s n u Smr. read Bjausadhi-mahphalah. Mahphala is the scrotum. T h e idea seems to be that the herbs a n d plants which produce the seed are comparable functionally to the testicle of the 3. This is obscure. T h e reading in V i s n u Smr. (1.6) is It means the Vedi, the altar of the sacrifice was the heart of the Boar. Boar. Vedyantartm.

I.I.5.26-32

41

26. (Defective t e x t ) . In t h a t vast expanse of water [due to cold (aitytV. P . ) ] . t h e y became stored up by the w i n d . Wherever this (water solution w i t h b u r n t mountains) was sprinkled, a m o u n t a i n cropped up in e a c h of those places. 27. After they h a d been scattered, V i v a k a r m a n divided t h e worlds, oceans a n d m o u n t a i n s . He divides like this a g a i n a n d again at t h e beginning of every K a l p a . 1 28. He created again and again this e a r t h consisting of seven continents along w i t h t h e oceans a n d t h e m o u n t a i n s . He (also) created again t h e four worlds beginning with Bh (earth). 29-31. After creating the worlds, B r a h m a , .the self-born lord b e g a n the creation of Prajs (subjects). Desirous of creat ing different subjects ( c r e a t u r e s ) , he created t h e m in the same form as h a d been created before. As he m e d i t a t e d a n d pondered about (the forthcoming) creation preceded by (cosmic) intellect, Avidy unfolded itself i n t o five forms simul taneous w i t h Pradhna2 ( ? ) . These five forms were T m a s i k a . T h e y were darkness, delusion, great-delusion, p i t c h darkness a n d blind darkness. 32. T h u s Avidy h a d five joints (Parvan).3 It manifest ed itself from t h e great-soul. T h u s the c r e a t i o n r e m a i n e d five-fold even as he was m e d i t a t i n g over it a n d identifying himself with it.
1. T h e Puranic belief about the n e w creation of the universe universe on at the at same

beginning of a n e w K a l p a is that, despite the annihilation of the the end of every Kalpa, g o d Brahma re-creates the Dht yathprvam 2. akalpayat j m o d e l of the former universe. It is succinctly stated as This is the translation of Pradhina-samakle in the T e x t .

universe the

T h e unfoldprinciple

m e n t of the five Parvans of Avidy simultaneously with the

Skhya

called Pradhna is confusing. V . P . 6 . 3 6 gives a better reading viz. Pradhynasama-klam "simultaneously with i.e. while he was meditating, there manifes ted Avidy of five knots or Parvans". 3. T h e five joints delusion, (Parvans) of Avidy desire of enjoyment, are enumerated in 3 1 b viz. These are rendered Tamas, Moha, Mah-moha, Tmisra and as ignorance, /4n</Aa-tmisra.

anger and fear of death, vide

C o m . on V P . I . 5 . 5 ) . T h e concept called Avidy is very c o m p l e x . W i t h Y o g a , it m e a n s "undifferentiated consciousness" ( J . H . W o o d s ) ; V e d n t a equates it Avith M y . H e r e the cosmic aspect of Avidy is implied.

42

Brahmnda Purna

33. It is surrounded everywhere by T a m a s like the seed a n d the creeper within a p o t . * Within a n d without, it is devoid of lustre as well as devoid of consciousness. 34. Since they have (well) m a d e intellect, miseries and sense-organs, the Ngas (i.e. trees, creepers, plants) are glorified as Mukhya (Principal) creations. 1 T h e i r selves have been covered u p . 35 B r a h m a , the self-born lord, was not fully satisfied in his m i n d even after seeing the evolution of Mukhyasarga (principal c r e a t i o n ) . He t h o u g h t of creating (a fresh type of creation) then. 36. Even as he was p o n d e r i n g over it, a n o t h e r creation, the Tiryaksrotas2 (oblique-currented creation, i.e. the a n i m a l world) took its origin. It is remembered as Tiryaksrotas, because it functioned in oblique ( i n non-straight) ways. 37. On account of the excess of the Tamas quality, they are r e m e m b e r e d as Ajnabahula ( a b o u n d i n g in i g n o r a n c e ) . T h e y a r e Utpdyagrhinah** ( c o m p r e h e n d i n g w h a t should be p r o d u c e d ) . T h e y fancy themselves wise, despite their ignorance, 38. T h e y possess egotism. T h e y are p r o u d of themselves. T h e y a r e of twentyeight types. 3 T h e sense-organs a r e of eleven, varieties. T h e soul etc. a r e of nine varieties.

* For Bd.P.bja-kumbha-lat-vrtah (translated here) V . P . 6 . 3 7 b r e a d s : dipah kumbhavad vrtah 'just as a l a m p lighted in a pitcher cannot emit light outside d u e to the opaque wall-like cover of the pitcher. T h i s simile in V . P . is the traditional a n d m o r e appropriate o n e here. For more discussion vide n o t e 2 on P. 57 o f the translation o f K P ( M L B D . ) 1. This 'meditated' (Vaikrta) creation by Avidy w a s characterised by ignorance as it included immobiles (jVga)-like mountains, trees. H e n c e it is also called Mukhya. As verse 55 below explains Mukhya means Sthvara (immobile). 2 . W . 36-40 describe the second type and stage o f "meditated" creation viz. Tiryaksrotas. It is not that the creatures in this creation always m o v e in oblique direction. But, as verse 56 below and V P . 1.5.9-11 and 22a explain, it includes birds a n d beasts w h i c h are by nature mostly ignorant and hence taking to wrong-ways and egotistic. This is the second stage in volution after the immobile one. reading. V . P . 6 . 4 3 a reads: utpatha-grhinah 'taking to wrong w a y s ' a better is supported

3. T h e text reads astvirhad-vidhtmikh and the reading by V.P.6.44. But V P . I . 5 . 1 1 a reads: as(virhiad-vadhimikh.

1.1^.39-47

43

39. T h e T r a k a s a n d others are of eight types, their des truction of power is r e m e m b e r e d ( ? ) . T h e y have inner light a n d all of t h e m are again externally enveloped. 40. T h e y are called Tiryaksrotas. T h e y have their selves u n d e r control. T h e y have three appellations. 4 1 . After creating t h e second universal c r e a t i o n ; Tiryaksrotas a n d having observed t h a t type of creation, (following) idea occurred in h i m : the the

42. Even as he was pondering, t h e final creation of t h e Sttvika type was evolved. T h i s third creation is rdhvasrotas u p w a r d s c u r r e n t e d . 1 It is based upwards. 4 3 . 'Z Since they r e t u r n e d u p w a r d s they are called rdhva srotas. T h e y are of a pleasant n a t u r e w i t h m u c h of gaiety. T h e y are not enveloped within or w i t h o u t . 44-46a. T h e y a r e brilliant w i t h i n a n d w i t h o u t . T h e sub jects of rdhvasrotas are r e m e m b e r e d as n i n e . T h e y are D h t (? c r e a t o r ) a n d others. T h e y are r e m e m b e r e d as wise ones of contented m i n d . This third creation, the rdhvasrotas, is r e m e m bered as Daivika (Divine) i.e. pertaining to gods). W h e n the divine creations of the rdhvasrotas type h a d been created, lord B r a h m a became pleased. Thereafter, he did not p o n d e r over a n y t h i n g else. 46b-47. ( L a t e r o n ) t h e lord was desirous of c r e a t i n g a n o t h e r set of created beings t h a t would be S d h a k a (aspirant after spiritual a c h i e v e m e n t ) . Even as he was p o n d e r i n g over creation a n d since he was of truthful (effective) conception, the Bhautasarga ( c r e a t i o n of Bhtas, i.e. living beings) manifested itself. It was down-

T h e reading is w o r t h noting as the verses concerning the creation in V P . I . 5 , V . P . 6 a n d Bd.P. text under translation are c o m m o n and the word Vadha in asivimSad-vadktmakah in V P . ekdaendriya-vadhh sapta-daa-vadhi is a technical term in Skhya. It means aSaktir uddisf //49// Urdhvaj 'weakness.' Ivara Krsna's Skhya-K&rik enumerates t h e m as follows: saha buddhi-vadhair buddher viparyayt tufti-siddhindm

1. W . 4 2 - 4 6 a describe the third Vaikrta Creation called srotas or Deva-sarga, creation of heavenly beings.

44
1

Brahmnda Purna

w a r d c u r r e n t e d (arvk-srotas) as well as competent to achieve t h e goals of his life. 4 8 . Since they function downwards (i.e. on the earth, below heaven) they are (called Arvksrotas. T h e y a b o u n d in brilliance b u t were c o n t a m i n a t e d by tamas a n d d o m i n a t e d w i t h rajas. 49. H e n c e they have excess of misery. T h e y make re p e a t e d a t t e m p t s . T h e y are enlightened within a n d without. T h e y are the m o r t a l beings capable of achieving their goal. 50. T h e y a r e a r r a n g e d into eight classes w i t h hellish characteristics (i.e. such characteristic features as are conducive to h e l l ) . Those m e n w i t h souls of spiritual achievement are similar in characteristic features to the G a n d h a r v a s . 51-52. T h e fifth creation, t h e Anugraha Sarga (creation of blessings) is a r r a n g e d into four classes, viz. i) Viparyaya (Loss of consciousness), ii) akti (Efficiency), iii) Siddha (of a c h i e v e m e n t ) a n d iv) Mukhya ( P r i n c i p a l ) . T h e y are b o r n a g a i n and again, they recede a n d they ( c o m e b a c k ) to be present. T h e sixth creation is said to be of Bhtdi (elements or creatures) e t c . 53-55A. Those creatures should be known as character ised by tendency to eat a n d obtain or g r a b . T h e first creation of B r a h m a should be known as t h a t of M a h a t ( t h e g r e a t p r i n c i p l e ) . T h e second creation is t h a t of Tanmtras. It is called Bhtasarga.2 55B. T h e third Vaikrika creation is called Aindriya Sarga (creation p e r t a i n i n g to the sense o r g a n s ) . These are the Prkrta (of Prakrti) creations t h a t are evolved with consciousness and foreknowledge.
1. VV.46b-50 describe the fourth creation called arvk-srotasdown-

currented i.e. w h o function on the earth below the heavenly region. It is called Manusyasarga in verse 49 and in VP.I.5.23. 2. There seems to be confusion Vaikrta in the present text. Here Bhtdi or Bhta-sarga is called the sixth verses below Creation. But in the recapitulatory

( V V . 5 2 b - 5 8 ) Bhta-sarga is given as the Second Prkrta Creation Pacaite vaikrth sargh

( V . 5 4 a ) and Vaikrta sargas are stated to be five in number

I.I.5.56-62 T h e fourth creation is Mukhyasarga. creations are r e m e m b e r e d as Mukhyas, The

45 immobile

56-57. T h e fifth one is Tiryaksrotasa creation. T h e Tiryagyonis (i.e. the lower creatures a n d animals) constitute it. T h e sixth creation of rdhvasrotas is called D a i v a t a (per taining to divine beings). Thereafter, is the seventh creation, t h a t of the Arvksrotas, the h u m a n beings. T h e e i g h t h creation is Anugrahasarga. It is Sttvika as well as T m a s a . 58. These (latter) five creations a r e the Vaikrta ( M e d i tated) creation. T h e first t h r e e a r e remembered as Prkrta (per t a i n i n g to P r a k r t i ) creations. T h e n i n t h creation called t h e K a u m r a ( b r o u g h t a b o u t b y K u m r a i.e. S a n a t k u m r a e t c . ) sarga. ( T h e eight creations m e n t i o n e d before a r e ) Prkrta a n d Vaikrta. 59. (Defective text)* T h e t h r e e P r k r t a creations a r e Buddhiprvas ( c r e a t e d w i t h consciousness a n d foreknowledge). T h e Vikrta creations function Buddhi-Aprvas ( w i t h o u t consci ousness a n d foreknowledge). T h e i r classes p e r t a i n to t h e B r a h m a n (?) 60-62. U n d e r s t a n d all of it even as it is b e i n g r e c o u n t e d in detail. He abides fourfold (in four groups) in all t h e liv ing beings, viz by (1) Viparyaya, (2) akti, ( 3 ) Buddhi (intellect a n d (4) Siddhi (see verse 51 a b o v e ) . He is stationed a m o n g immobile beings by means of Viparysa (i.e. Viparyayacontra riety or loss of consciousness) ; in t h e lower creatures by means of akti (physical p o w e r ) ; the h u m a n beings are with souls of spiritual achievement; there is Pusti** (? n o u r i s h m e n t ) wholly a m o n g the Devas.
* T h e text is defective a n d hence the translation is confused. T h e Prkrts tu trayah sargh krts te'buddhi-prvakh /

corresponding verse in V . P . 6 . Buddhi-prvam pravartante faf-sarg Brahmanas tu te 11 ' T h e three Prkrta creations were brought about w i t u o u t p l a n n i n g or pre-meditation ** (abuddhi-prvakh). But the six creations of g o d Brahma c a m e (with previous m e d i t a t i o n ) . out pre-planned

tufti 'contentment' in V . P . 6 . 6 9 .

46 Thereafter, himself.

Brahmnda Purna B r a h m a created m e n t a l sons on a p a r with

63-65. Those (sons) of great splendour a n d strength became Nivrttas (i.e. renounced the world) on account of their knowledge p e r t a i n i n g to Vivarta (unreal a p p e a r a n c e caused by Avidy e.g. the world instead of B r a h m a n ) . All the three of t h e m (?) addressed the n a m e (? of the world a n d ceased (their activity) without c r e a t i n g the (primary) creation of the sub jects or the secondary one. W h e n they were found Viraktas (Devoid of passionate a t t a c h m e n t ) B r a h m a wishing to create o t h e r Sdhakas created those Devas who took pride in their positions a n d identified themselves with the same. T h e n there is the c o m m a n d of B r a h m a once again. U n d e r s t a n d from me those Sthnins (deities in different positions) who were in the condition of non-creation (Abhtasrs(i). 66-68. T h e y a r e the waters, the fire, the e a r t h , the wind, the intermediate region between the heaven a n d the e a r t h , the ether, the heaven, the quarters, the oceans, the rivers, the vegetable kingdom, t h e souls of medicinal herbs, the souls of trees a n d creepers, the winding plants, the units of time such as K s t h s , Kals, M u h r t a s etc., the twilights, the nights, the days, the half-years, the m o n t h s , the Ay anas ( t h e period of the tran sits of the sun from n o r t h to south a n d vice versa), the years a n d yugas. T h e y take p r i d e a n d identify themselves with their positions a n d c u r r e n t s . T h e y are r e m e m b e r e d as having the names of their respective positions. 69. After creating the souls of different Sthnas (positions), he created other beings, the Devas a n d the Pitrs by w h o m these subjects flourished. 70. He created nine m e n t a l sons, viz., Bhrgu, Agiras, Marci, Pulastya, P u l a h a , K r a t u , Daksa, Atri a n d Vasistha. 71. These are decisively termed nine B r a h m s in the P u r n a because they were just like B r a h m a ( i n regard to the creation) of all B r a h m a Yogins their sons. 72. Thereafter Brahma created R u d r a form out of his

I.I.5.73-82

47

anger. He then created the Samkalpa* (conception) a n d D h a r m a ( v i r t u e ) of all in all directions. 73. T h e n B r a h m a created Vyavasya ( E n e r g e t i c effort) t h e c r e a t u r e of the n a t u r e of pleasure. F r o m the S a m k a l p a of (he c r e a t o r whose source of origin was the unmanifest one S a m k a l p a was b o r n . 74. F r o m the P r n a Daksa was created a n d he (Brahma) created M a r l c i from the speech a n d the eyes. Sage Bhrgu was b o r n of the h e a r t of B r a h m a whose source of origin was water. 75. Agiras was born of the head a n d Atri from the ears. Pulastya was born of the life-breath called U d n a a n d P u l a h a from the V y n a . 76. Vasistha was born of life-breath Samna. He created K r a t u from the A p n a . These are remembered as the t w e l v e * * excellent sons of B r a h m a . 77. D h a r m a a n d others should be known a n d they are remembered as the first born sons of B r a h m a , Bhrgu a n d others w h o were created ( l a t e r ) , were not expounders of Brahman. 78. T h e s e twelve sons of B r a h m a are to be known as t h e ancient householders. O B r h m a n a , these a r e b o r n along with Rudra. 79. K r a t u a n d S a n a t k u m r a , these two lived in p e r p e t u a l celibacy. In t h e previous b i r t h * * * they are elder to all. 80. In the seventh K a l p a , these ancient Sdhakas of the world h a d already passed away. T h e y shine (refulgently) in this world by means of the splendour of their own souls. 81. Both of t h e m were Yogins by n a t u r e . Those two, of great power, carried out the duties of subjects a n d love by superimposing the soul (on the supreme soul) by means of the soul. 82. He continues to be in the same state as he was in, when he was b o r n . So he is called K u m r a . T h e r e u p o n , his n a m e S a n a t k u m r a b e c a m e well established. * Samkalpa and Dharma born before all. ** Dharma, Samkalpa, Rudra and nine sages = 12. *** If the reading is prvolparmau "They were born before'.

48

Brahmnda Purna

83. T h e i r twelve races a r e divine a n d a r e endowed with the groups of D e v a s ; they performed holy rites; they h a d progeny a n d they h a d great sages o r n a m e n t i n g the race. 84. After seeing those twelve Sttsika beings b o r n of his vital airs, the lord created the Asuras, the Pitrs, the Devas a n d the h u m a n beings. 85. He created the Devas from his m o u t h ; t h e Pitrs from his chest; the h u m a n beings from his o r g a n of generation a n d he created the Asuras from his buttocks. 86. Carrying on his creative activities d u r i n g the night, the lord of the Devas created souls of h u m a n beings from t h e moonlight. He created t h e Pitrs from the n e c t a r . 87. After creating t h e Mukhya ( p r o m i n e n ) a n d Amukhya (non-prominent) Devas a n d Asuras, he created from his m i n d the h u m a n beings a n d the great Pitrs who were like their own fathers. 88. H e created the lightning, the t h u n d e r a n d t h e clouds, the red coloured rainbows, t h e Rks, t h e Yajus M a n t r a s a n d the S m a n songs for the fullment of the Yajas. 89. T h e living beings, high and low, were born of his splendour. T h e creation of subjects by B r a h m a comprises of the Devas, the sages t h e Pitrs a n d the h u m a n beings. 90. Again he creates living beings, the mobile a n d the immobile ones, the Yaksas, the Picas, the G a n d h a r v a s a n d all the Apsaras, all r o u n d . 9 1 . H e created men, K i n n a r a s , Rksasas, the birds, the animals, t h e deer a n d t h e serpents. He created the two types, the mobile a n d t h e immobile, as well as t h e Vyaya (perishable) a n d the Avyaya (Imperishable) . 92-94. T h e y a t t a i n those activities created formerly by t h e self-born lord. T h o u g h created again a n d again, they b e t a k e themselves to those alone (Viz. t h e i r own previous characteristics) such as violence a n d nonviolence, softness a n d cruelty, virtue a n d evil as well as w h a t is d o n e a n d w h a t is n o t d o n e . 1 T h e y know t h e t h r e e (entities) are n o t separate, though b o r n of t h e m alone as separate (?). This is thus, a n d n o t t h u s ; this is n e i t h e r the p a i r (thus a n d non-thus) n o r the 1. This is the inexorable Law of Karman. Even after Kalpnta, the Karma follows its doer immediately after the new creation of the world.

1.1.5.95-103
1

49

non-pair (of thus and n o n - t h u s ) . People w h o cling to Sattvag u n a a n d who view with equanimity say t h a t K a r m a n has itself as the object. 95-97. T h a t great lord created these five by means of the word Diva (Divto shine, the heaven t h a t sparkles). He caused the extension of the created five elements by way of names ( ? ) . T h e lord gave t h e m names pertaining to the sages. He gave names to those creations among the Devas t h a t a r e not born during the night. T h u s for the reasons cited above, the creation of the worlds by the self-born lord was effected. T h e evolutes of the Prakrti beginning with Mahat and ending with Vifesa (particularised creations) were thus evolved. 98-99. T h e cosmos has the lustre of the moon a n d the sun; it is embellished by planets and stars; it is equipped with thousands of riyers, seas a n d mountains. It consists of different kinds of beautiful cities and flourishing principalities a n d territories. In this forest of Brahma, the unmanifest one, the omniscient Brahma wanders. 100-103 . This grove of trees of B r a h m a is b o r n of t h e seed viz Avyakta or Prakrti (the unmanifest o n e ) . It is stationed
2

1. T h i s reminds us of the stance of Sajaya-Belatthi-putta in phala-sulta (para 3 2 ) of Dlgha Nikya (p. 51 of the N a l a n d a Edt.)

Smaa-

2. VV.100-103 give an allegorical description of the universe or Sariisra as the forest tree of god Brahma. T h e comparison w i t h the tree a n d the universe is as follows, Tlie Tree T h e Seed Stem Inner hollow The creation or Samsra

Avyakta

(Prakrti)

Buddhi (Intellect) Sense-organs

Branches (kh) in the Bd.P. T h e Mahbhtas (elements) (but ankura or sprouts in V . P.) [PrakSa in Bd.P. is probably a misprint for Praikha in V.P. ] Leaves Flowers Fruits (patra) Viiesa (sense categories) Virtue Evil objects or particular

(dharma)

(a-dharma)

Pleasure and pain

50

Brahmnda Purna

u n d e r its blessing. It is full of stems a n d branches in t h e form of the intellect. T h e sense-organs are the i n n e r hollows; the great Bhtas (elements) are its l u m i n a r i e s ; * it possesses leaves, in the form of the Viesas (particularised categories) or the objects of senses), V i r t u e a n d Evil are its beautiful flowers; pleasure a n d misery are the fruits (of this tree) ; this eternal tree of B r a h m a is the sustenance of all living beings. This forest of B r a h m a is constituted by a n d belongs to the trees of B r a h m a . T h e eternal, Avyakta (unmanifest one) of the n a t u r e of Sat a n d Asat is the cause thereof. Persons w h o think of the Tattvas (categories) call it P r a d h n a , P r a k r t i a n d M y . 104. Such is the A n u g r a h a 1 creation. It is r e m e m b e r e d as one with B r a h m a as the cause. T h e three creations pertain ing to Prakrti are the creations of B r a h m a w i t h o u t the back g r o u n d of consciousness or m e d i t a t i o n . 105-106. T h e six creations beginning with M u k h y a are the Vaikrtas (pre-meditated ones) a n d they have b e e n created with the b a c k g r o u n d of consciousness. T h e y function by way of Vaikalpa (i.e. t h r o u g h m e n t ) . T h e y are identified with the B r a h m a n (?) excite ,

T h u s nine creations 2 a r e remembered including the Prkrtas a n d Vaikrtas. These are the creations originating t h r o u g h m u t u a l contact. T h e reason thereof has been r e m e m b e r e d by the wise or learned. 107. It is t h a t Acintytman (incomprehensible soul) w h o is t h e m a k e r of all living beings. T h e y ( t h e l e a r n e d ) say t h a t the Vedas are his h e a d ( ? ) ; the firmament is his n a v e l ; the sun a n d t h e m o o n are his eyes; the quarters a r e his ears, know t h a t the e a r t h constitutes his feet.
* The word Prakia is inapplicable to Bhtas. T h e r e a d i n g : mahi-

bhta-praikha "The tree has big branches in the form of M a h b h t a s ' in the V . P . is better. 1. This is called Anugraha creation as it is caused or created through t h e favour of Avyakta or Prakfti as noted in V . l 0 0 above anugrahe sthitati) 2. As n o t e d above three are Prkrta sargas a n d six are Vaikrta ones. T h i s makes the total of nine creations. (tasya=avyaktasya

1.1.5.108-118

51

108. It is from his m o u t h (face) t h a t the B r h m a n a s were b o r n . F r o m the front p a r t of his chest t h e Ksatriyas were b o r n . It is from his thighs t h a t the Vaiyas were b o r n a n d the dras from his feet. All the castes were b o r n of his limbs. 1 109. N r y a n a is greater t h a n and beyond the Avyakta ( t h e unmanifest o n e ) ; t h e cosmic egg is t e r m e d Avyakta, god B r a h m a himself is b o r n of the cosmic egg; the worlds have been c r e a t e d by h i m . 110. * After staying there for ten K a l p a s they go a g a i n to t h e (world of) Satya. (Those w h o reach) the world of B r a h m a a t t a i n the goal from which they never r e t u r n . 111. W i t h the exception of overlordship, they a r e on a p a r with him in regard to AiSvarya (prosperity, power to control etc.) T h e y become equal to B r a h m a as far as form a n d object are concerned. 112. T h e r e they stay endowed with pleasure a n d accompanied by themselves ( a n d their possessions). On account of the inevitability"of t h e T n a t t e r , it (he) e x p a n d s t h e P r k r t a (creation) himself. 113-114. T h e n , purified on t h a t occasion, they a r e to be directly connected with the diversity. J u s t as, while one is asleep t h e faculty of u n d e r s t a n d i n g functions without intel lectual consciousness. So also their knowledge functions w h e n purified on t h a t occasion, through the withholding of differences, b u t not so in the case of usmins (?) (lustrous or powerful o n e s ) . 115-116. T h e causal relations between cause a n d effects function alongwith t h e m in regard to the residents of t h e world of Brahma, who see t h e diversity; whose aberrations h a d receded a n d who stand by their own duties. T h e y are Siddhas of similar (equal) characteristics, of splendid souls a n d a r e free from sullied state. 117-118. As an effect of P r a k r t i , they possess senseorgans a n d organs of action. T h e y a r e well a r r a n g e d in their own souls. After establishing the soul, the P r a k r t i , t h a t a p p e a r s
1. * An echo from the Purusa Skta ( R V . X . 9 0 ) Obviously some lines are missing from the text.

52

Brahmna'a Purna

in multifarious forms, a n d t h a t seems to be different from Purusa, does not function. T h e r e u p o n begins to function the creation of those things of the n a t u r e of existing cause. 119. T h e contact of the Tuktas (sages of Yogic p r a c t i c e ) , t h e seers of reality should be known as Prakrti. It is the cause of their Apavarga (salvation) of those persons w h o go on a never to r e t u r n j o u r n e y of those who are not r e b o r n . 120-122. D u e to Abhva (Absence of r e b i r t h ) t h e y go once again to Satya-Loka as t h o u g h the flames h a v e subsided. T h e r e u p o n , w h e n those persons of joyous souls have gone above t h e three worlds, they by w h o m t h e M a h a r - L o k a was not reached, go along with them. W h e n t h e Kalpadha ( t h e b u r n i n g of the universe at t h e end of t h e K a l p a ) is i m m i n e n t their disciples stay here. T h e y a r e the G a n d h a r v a s a n d others, the Picas, t h e h u m a n beings, the B r h m a n a s a n d others, t h e animals a n d t h e birds and t h e immobile beings alongwith t h e reptiles. 123. While on t h a t occasion the residents of the surface of the e a r t h a r e staying there, 1 the thousand rays of the sun perish ( ? ) . T h e y b e c o m e seven rays a n d each one of these rays becomes a sun. G r a d u a l l y they assume a h u n d r e d times in creased m a g n i t u d e a n d b u r n t h e three worlds. 124-125. T h e y b u r n t h e mobile a n d t h e immobile beings, the rivers a n d all the m o u n t a i n s : they h a d already been dry d u e to d r o u g h t a n d absence of rain. Now they a r e heated by those rays. T h e n they are completely b u r n t by t h e sun's rays a n d they b e c o m e helpless. These mobile a n d immobile beings, as well as D h a r m a a n d A d h a r m a etc. become completely b u r n t by t h e sun's rays. 126-129a. W i t h their bodies b u r n t a n d w i t h their sins completely washed off at t h e end of t h e Yuga, they become well known ( ? ) . T h e y a r e freed of their distress. (They a r e blessed) by t h e auspicious (stage of boundlessness). T h e n , after t h e night of B r a h m a , b o r n of t h e unmanifest one, has d a w n e d , those people b e c o m e j o i n e d with the people of similar forms

1.

Description of the end of a Kalpa.

1.1.5.129-141

53

a n d in the subsequent creation they become the m e n t a l progeny of B r a h m a . 129b-132. Thereafter, w h e n t h e people living in t h e three worlds have become merged w i t h t h e people, w h e n all t h e worlds have been completely b u r n e d by the seven suns, w h e n t h e e a r t h is flooded by t h e rain, b o t h in the secluded places a n d in t h e seas, t h e oceans, t h e clouds, t h e waters of the e a r t h proceed a h e a d flowing fast like arrows. T h e y are as t h o u g h m o u n t a i n s called by the n a m e Salila (water) ; w h e n m u c h w a t e r c a m e on like this a n d covered this e a r t h it b e c a m e w h a t is called Arnava (sea). 133-135. (Defective t e x t ) . ( W a t e r is called Ambhas, w h y is it so ?) Since it shines (bhti) it is called Ambhas. T h e word Bh is used in t h e sense of lustre a n d illumination. 1 T h e expanse of water has spread over everything a n d got i n t o t o u c h with all. It is known by its own lustre. Since it stuffs the entire e a r t h all r o u n d within itself a n d makes it extend, it is called Apatanu.2 T h e root T a n o t i m e a n s to extend. T h e waters a r e therefore called Apatanu. T h e word Sara indicates t h a t which is irna ( s h a t t e r e d ) . It is a root having various meanings. In t h a t vast expanse of water, t h e waters are not shattered. H e n c e they are called JVras.3 136-138. In the waters, at the e n d of a t h o u s a n d Yugas, w h e n t h e d a y of B r a h m a comes to a close, when it is his night of the same d u r a t i o n within the waters, w h e n within t h e waters t h e e a r t h has lost all its fires; when it is darkness all r o u n d with not even a glimmer of light, w h e n t h e wind has, subsided-the lord B r a h m a by w h o m t h e portion of the world is presided over desired once a g a i n to m a k e the division of this world. 139-141. In t h a t vast expanse of water, where the mobile a n d t h e immobile beings h a d perished, B r a h m a lay d o w n , B r a h m a of thousand eyes, thousand legs a n d t h o u s a n d
1. . 2. 3. Bd.P. interestingly traces ambhas 'water' to bh'to shine.' It

is "merely a popular etymology. M W . does not give a word like Apatanu or Upatanu. Kara na+irna=waters, is beyond linguistics.

54

Brahmanda Purna

heads, the P u r u s a of golden colour, B r a h m a n a m e d N r y a n a w h o was beyond the ken of t h e sense organs lay asleep. He became awakened d u e to t h e emergence of Sattva. He woke up a n d surveyed the cosmos t h a t was a void. W i t h t h e n a r r a t i o n of this, t h e first P d a (section) of the P u r n a has been related.

SECTION TWO ANUSAGA-PDA

CHAPTER

SIX

The Kalpas and Manvantaras1 Their Duration Sta said : 1. On h e a r i n g the first P d a (section) the m a i n t h e m e of which is the P r a k r t i , thus recounted, K p e y a ( K y a p e y a in V.P.) who was delighted h a d some doubts. 2-3. After p r o p i t i a t i n g the S t a by m e a n s of words ( a n d desirous of h e a r i n g ) a n o t h e r story for t h a t purpose, (he said) " H e r e a f t e r O Sage conversant with the K a l p a , recount P r a t i s a n d h i t o m e . I wish to know this, viz. : the interim period between t h e two K a l p a s i.e. t h e K a l p a t h a t has passed a n d t h e K a l p a t h a t is c u r r e n t . I wish to know t h e P r a t i s a n d h i ( t h e period of t r a n s i t ) between these two. I n d e e d , you are sufficiently well-versed." 4. On being thus requested by K p e y a , Sta, the most excellent a m o n g eloquent m e n , began to n a r r a t e the origin of the three worlds entirely. Sta said : 5. Now I shall describe factually, O m e n of holy vows, the K a l p a of the past a n d t h e K a l p a of the future a n d t h e period of transit t h a t is between these two. 6. (I shall also describe) O m e n of holy rites, the dif ferent M a n v a n t a r a s in the Kalpas. T h e K a l p a t h a t is c u r r e n t now is V a r h a a n auspicious K a l p a .
1. Description of Manvantaras is one of the main characteristics of a Purna. We have a description of these Manvantaras in Bh.P. V I I I . 1 . 1 - 2 9 . K P . I . 5 1 , NP.I.40-17-37, V P . I I I . 1.1-9 and others. But this chapter like V.P. 7 describes the Kalpas and the interim period joining the Kalpas. A number of verses are c o m m o n to V.P.7 and this chapter.

58

BrahmSnda Purna

7. U n d e r s t a n d the intervening transitional stage between this K a l p a a n d the old ( a n c i e n t ) K a l p a t h a t preceded this a n d passed away. 8. W h e n t h e previous K a l p a recedes w i t h o u t a Prati sandhi ( i n t e r m e d i a t e p e r i o d ) , a n o t h e r K a l p a begins again with J a n a l o k a a n d others. 9. T w o (consecutive) K a l p a s have a transitional stage separating t h e m mutually. All beings a r e completely annihilat ed at the end of a K a l p a . 10a. T h e Period intervening between the end of K a l p a is called* Pratisandhi.1 that

lOb-ll. In a M a n v a n t a r a , the junctions of those periods of time called Yugas are unbroken. T h e M a n v a n t a r a s function with interconnections of the Yugas. T h e previous Kalpas have been recounted briefly (?) in the Prakriy-pda. 12-14. E a c h K a l p a has a Prva-Ardha (former half) a n d Para-Ardha ( l a t t e r h a l f ) . Therefore, when a K a l p a passes by, its latter h a l f is followed by the former half of the next K a l p a . T h e other K a l p a s also will follow suit with their latter halves increased(?). O B r h m a n a s , the K a l p a t h a t is present now is the first a m o n g them. It has a Prva-Ardha a n d a Para-Ardha. T h e second one is called Para. This is the period of sustenance. It is r e m e m b e r e d t h a t the period of dissolution is thereafter. 15. Prior to this K a l p a was the ancient K a l p a that h a d passed by at the end of a thousand sets of four Yugas along with the M a n v a n t a r a s . 16-18. W h e n the K a l p a comes to a close a n d the time of universal b u r n i n g arrives (?), t h e Devas moving a b o u t in the aerial chariots, the stars, planets a n d the constellations, t h e moon, the sun etc.all these meritorious souls were twentyeight crores in n u m b e r . T h e i r n u m b e r in all the fourteen
* T h e reading: na vidyate ' T h e Pratisandhi does not exist between the wrong. Hence the reading of ( = t h i s verse in Bd.P.) is accepted.

past a n d the present K a l p a ' is obviously V . P . 7.9 1.

This is the definition of Pratisandhi. In Manvantaras, the y u g a period

connecting t w o manvantaras is unbroken but at the end of the Kalpa, the universe gets destroyed-as described in V V . 1 6 ff below.

1.2.6.19-27

59

M a n v a n t a r a s is the same. Therefore their total n u m b e r in all t h e M a n v a n t a r a s together was (14 X 28 = ) 392 crores. 19. F u r t h e r , in everyone of the K a l p a s , t h e Devas moving a b o u t in aerial chariots a r e r e m e m b e r e d to be seventy thousand more. 20. In t h e fourteen M a n v a n t a r a s t h e r e were the Devas, t h e Pitrs a n d t h e sages imbibing n e c t a r ( A m r t a p s ) in t h e f i r m a m e n t a n d heaven. 2 1 . T h e y h a d their servants (followers), wives a n d sons. At t h a t t i m e , t h e Devas in the firmament were beyond t h e discipline of the Varnas (castes) a n d the ramas (stages in life). 22. Thereafter, w h e n t h e a n n i h i l a t i o n of all living beings along w i t h objects a p p r o a c h e d , all of t h e m b e c a m e persons of equal position a n d c o n d i t i o n w i t h those t h a t h a d a t t a i n e d Syujya ( t h e salvation of m e r g i n g with t h e d i v i n i t y ) . 23-25. Thereafter, d u e to t h e inevitability of t h e re c u r r e n c e of t h e i n t e l l e c t * of t h e soul (?) t h e Devas, t h e residents of t h e t h r e e worlds, b e c o m e persons identifying w i t h and taking p r i d e in the different positions h e r e . W h e n the t i m e of sustenance was complete, w h e n t h e Pacimottara ( t h e l a t t e r a n d later period) was i m m i n e n t , w h e n t h e a n n i h i l a t i o n arrived, the enthusiasic Devas in the last days of t h e K a l p a , p a r t i a l l y a b a n d o n e d their abodes. 1 Thereafter, they became excited a n d d i r e c t e d their m i n d s towards t h e Maharloka. 26. (Defective t e x t ) . T h e y practise Yoga a n d m a k e use of the great (thing) in t h e b o d y * * (?) All of t h e m a b o u n d in purity. T h e y have achieved the m e n t a l Siddhi ( a c h i e v e m e n t ) . 27. T h e M a h a r - l o k a was a t t a i n e d b y B r h m a n a s , Ksattriyas, Vaiyas a n d o t h e r people b o r n of t h e m , alongwith those residents of K a l p a .

* stood of g o d ** teyukt 1.

V.P.8.23

( = Bd.P.

present verse) reads buddhv ' H a v i n g under

the

inevitability.' W . 2 4 - 3 1 describe the progress of gods upto Satya-loka, the region

Brahma. T h e f i r s t line i n the corresponding V . P . verse upapadyante mahasi-sthaih aririkaih' j etc. ( 8 . 2 6 ) reads:

w i t h their bodies stationed in mahas {Maharloka) they practise

60

Brahmanda Purna

28. After going to M a h a r l o k a , the fourteen groups of the Devas b e c o m e agitated. Thereafter, they directed their m i n d towards J a n a l o k a . 29. In this o r d e r t h e residents of t h e K a l p a m u t u a l l y ( ? ) proceeded for thousands of Yugas a c c o r d i n g to t h e reckoning of t h e Devas. 30. All of t h e m a b o u n d e d in purity. T h e y have achieved the m e n t a l Siddhi ( a c h i e v e m e n t o f spiritual p o w e r s ) , t h e J a n a (Loka) was a t t a i n e d by those residents of K a l p a together. 3 1 . After staying there for ten K a l p a s , they go to the Satya ( L o k a ) once a g a i n . After going to the world of B r a h m a , they a t t a i n a goal from where there is no r e t u r n . 32. Except t h e overlordship, they become equal to B r a h m a . 1 T h e y are equal to B r a h m a in regard to features a n d object (of t h e sense organs) (i.e. V i s a y a ) . 33. T h e r e they stay with pleasure in the S a m y a m a s * (? worlds of t h a t n a m e ) . After a t t a i n i n g bliss from B r a h m a n , they become liberated a l o n g w i t h B r a h m a . 34. In view of t h e inevitability of affairs concerning ( t h e course of) P r a k r t i , they r e m a i n ( b o u n d along) with honour, worship etc. as is p r o d u c e d at the same t i m e . * * 35. J u s t as in t h e case of a s l e e p n g person the faculty of knowledge functions without (clearcut) perceptions (Abuddhiprvam), so also when they a r e purified a n d rendered service, t h e bliss begins to function. 36. (The bliss begins to function) by the withholdings of differences. These are different in regard to lustrous ones. Along with t h e m their effects a n d instruments (sense organs) also d e v e l o p . 37-38. multiplicity Of those residents of B r a h m a ' s region who observe (and separateness) a n d whose authority has been

1.

Cf. Brahma-stra IV.4.17-18 where t h e released soul is stated to have creation of the universe. The (with

all the Lordly powers e x c e p t the power of * Brahma)'. ** T h e y remain

powers of the released soul are not unlimited. V . P . 8 . 3 3 b reads: Prasamgamt'due to their close contact ( b o u n d ) in their separateness produced

(retained)

at that time.

1.2.6.39-48

61

w i t h d r a w n a n d who abide by their righteous duties. Those Siddhis have similar characteristics. T h e y are of p u r e souls a n d are unsullied. In their P r k r t a form they are e q u i p p e d with sense organs b u t they are stabilised in their own souls. 39. After proclaiming itself (or the soul), t h e P r a k r t i is factually observed as different from Purusa a n d as multifarious a n d as such it functions. 40. Again when the creation begins to function, Prakrti should be known in its connection with the liberated (?) souls who perceive reality a n d who are identical w i t h the existent causes. ~ y 4 1 . T h e r e , those persons a t t a i n i n g salvation do not J r e t u r n by t h e same p a t h (of Sarhsra ). There non-existence h a d been caused once again like t h a t of the blazing flames that h a d b e e n extinguished. 1 y 42. While those n o b l e souls h a d gone far above t h e three worlds a l o n g w i t h these, the M a h a r l o k a is not occupied by t h e m . 43. W h e n t h e b u r n i n g of K a l p a is i m m i n e n t , the G a n d h a r v a s a n d others, t h e Picas ( v a m p i r e s ) , the B r h m a n a s a n d o t h e r h u m a n beings become their disciples.* 44-45. (So also) t h e animals a n d birds, t h e immobile beings a n d t h e reptiles. While those residents of t h e surface of the e a r t h s t a n d t h e r e a t t h a t time, the t h o u s a n d rays t h a t manifest themselves b e c o m e (combined a n d c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t o ) seven rays a n d each one of t h e rays becomes a S u n . 2 46-48. Rising up gradually, they b u r n t h e t h r e e worlds. T h e mobile a n d the immobile beings, t h e rivers a n d all t h e m o u n t a i n s t h a t h a d a l r e a d y been dried u p d u e t o absence of r a i n a r e inflamed a n d afflicted by t h e suns. Completely
1. * Cf. the concept of Brahma-nirvna in the BG. V V . 2 4 - 2 6 . isyh in Bd.P. is probably a misprint for is(h 'remaining ones'

(found in V . P . in corres. verse 8 . 4 3 b ) . A s this is description of the K a l p n t a , Sisfa is a better reading. 2. V V . 4 3 - 6 0 . T h i s description of the Kalpa-dha a n d the e n d of the a verbatim repetition of VV.121-138 of the last chapter. universe is

T h e popular etymologies of ambhas, salila, JVara oi Nra all m e a n i n g 'water' a n d the derivation of N r y a n a h a v e b e e n noted there.

62

Brakmnda Purna

b u r n t by the rays of the suns, they become helpless. T h e mobile a n d the immobile beings of the n a t u r e of virtue as well as evil get their bodies b u r n e d . In t h e interval between the two Yugas, they get rid of their sins. 49. T h e y are well k n o w n * a n d freed from t h e sunshine by t h e auspicious ( r a i n ) t h a t has great continuity shower ing incessantly. Thereafter, those people a r e joined with other people of similar forms a n d features. 50. After staying there d u r i n g the n i g h t of B r a h m a born of the unmanifest one, they become t h e m e n t a l sons of B r a h m a at the time of subsequent c r e a t i o n . 51-56. T h e n , when the residents of t h e three worlds h a d become p r o p e r * *(?) ( o r equipped) with people, w h e n t h e worlds had been completely b u r n e d down by the seven suns, when t h e e a r t h h a d been flooded with r a i n , when the seas h a d become desolate, all the waters of the oceans, clouds a n d t h e e a r t h move a h e a d scattered (like a r r o w s ) . T h e y have the n a m e Salila. T h e y followed (one after the o t h e r ) . T h a t flood of water gathered together in a b u n d a n c e . W h e n t h a t vast sheet of water covered t h e e a r t h , it b e c a m e known by the n a m e Arnava ( s e a ) . This water is called Ambhas because it shone and spread. T h e water reached everywhere. The root y/Bh has the sense of Vypti (spreading) a n d Dipti (shining). Since it spread over t h e entire e a r t h all r o u n d w i t h i n itself, water is r e m e m b e r e d as Tanus. T h e root y/Tan is used in the sense of extension. T h e root \/ar i.e. r has different m e a n ings. I t m e a n s " t o become shattered o r s c a t t e r e d " . 57-62. In the vast sheet of water, t h e waters are not quick in m o t i o n (ighrh) therefore, they are called Nras. At t h e end of t h e thousand Yugas, when the d a y of B r a h m a had c o m e to a close, when the night of so m u c h ( = the same) d u r a tion h a d b e e n present within the watery expanse, when the

* **

Tonya tay hyanirmuktfi 'freed from that species' in V . P . 7 . 4 9 is a apravrtttsu ( V . P . 7 . 5 2 a ) 'when all the people, residents of the three

better reading. worlds are extinct'. T h i s reading is more suitable in the context t h a n upapannesu of the B d . P . here.

1.2.6.63-68

63

surface of the e a r t h h a d become lost within t h a t water, when all fires were extinguished, w h e n the wind had become totally calm a n d motionless, when there had been darkness all round w i t h o u t any light, this (universe) h a d been presided over by this person. He is Brahma, the lord. He wished again to divide this world. In t h a t vast sheet of water where the mobile a n d the immobile beings have perished, B r a h m a becomes a person with thousand (i.e. i n n u m e r a b l e ) eyes, thousand feet, thousand heads one who has conquered all the sense-organs a n d one with golden complexion. T h e y cite this verse regarding N r y a n a in this connection. " T h e waters are Nras. We have heard t h a t they con stitute his bodies. T h e y a r e being filled in. Since he stays therein, he is remembered as N r y a n a . 63. T h e first Prajpati (lord of subjects) is a person of good m i n d . 1 He has a thousand heads, a thousand feet, a thousand eyes, a thousand faces (mouths) and a thousand arms. He performs a thousand acts. He is explained as a person identical with t h e three Vedas. 64. He has t h e lustre a n d colour of the sun. He is the protector of the universe. He is single. He is the first Virf (cosmic p e r s o n a g e ) . He is H i r a n y a g a r b h a of noble soul. He is beyond the K e n of m i n d . 65. In the beginning of the K a l p a , the Lord a b o u n d s in Rajas quality a n d after becoming B r a h m a , he b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e c r e a t i o n of the world. In t h e e n d of the K a l p a , he a b o u n d s in T a m a s , a n d after becoming K l a , he devoured it again. 66. It is reported t h a t in the cosmic ocean, N r y a n a with the p r e p o n d e r a n c e of Sattva guna divides himself threefold a n d abides in the three worlds. 67-68. By means of the three (qualities or forms), he creates, devours a n d sees or protects (the w o r l d ) . In the vast

1.

Cf.

Purusa

Skta

(RV.X.90). The

V e d i c concept

regarding

Virj, Hiranya-garbha here identified with Brahma or P u r u s a of the Purusaskta are the different stages in the evolution. T h a t Purusa is credited with three gunas for the creation, sustenance and destruction of the universe.

64

Brahmnia

Purna

sheet of water, w h e n the mobile a n d the i m m o b i l e beings have perished, at the end of a thousand sets of four Yugas, w h e n ( t h e earth) is covered on all sides w i t h water, B r a h m a n a m e d N r y a n a shines himself in the universe. 69. All the subjects of the four types (i.e. Svedaja, Andaja, Udbhijja a n d Jaryujd) are covered with T a m a s , d u e to t h e akti of B r a h m a . In t h e M a h a r l o k a , t h e great sages see K l a (God of d e a t h ) sleeping. 70. At t h a t time t h e great sages referred to above a r e Bhrgu a n d others. 1 T h e great sages, w h e n the K a l p a comes to a close, are the eight sages, Satya a n d others. T h e great t h i n g t h a t is surrounded by t h e m when they revolve is t h e Mahat* (1) 71. T h e root \/Rs\\&& t h e sense of Gat(movement). T h e above n a m e (i.e. Rsi) is derived from t h a t r o o t . 2 Since they move about with t h e i r Sattva a n d since they are great, they a r e called Maharsis ( G r e a t sages). 72. T h e sleeping K l a was then seen by those seven great sages, viz. Sattva (? S a t y a ) a n d others w h o a r e stationed in t h e M a h a r l o k a in t h e previous K a l p a . 73. T h u s B r a h m a ( c o n t i n u e s t o function) i n thousands of nights. T h e great sages w h o were b r o u g h t by h i m t h e n saw t h e sleeping K l a . 74. Since, in t h e beginning of the K a l p a , B r a h m a evolv ed fourteen assemblages (worlds) (?) of diverse forms, it is 3 defined as K a l p a . 75. He is t h e creator of all living beings again a n d again, in the beginnings of the K a l p a s . T h e great lord is b o t h Vyakta (manifest) a n d Avyakta ( u n m a n i f e s t ) . T h i s entire universe is evolved by him.

1.

T h e concept of Saptarsis ( s e v e n sages) ursa major is astronomical in

the V e d i c period. Varhamihira in Brhat-sarhhit also treats t h e m from astro nomical point. In the M b h . a n d the Purnas, their status as "mind-born s o n s " of Brahma becomes prominent. But their survival after deluges as stated here, hints at their original astronomical aspect. 2. 3. * A correct etymology. Definition of K a l p a ; cf. V.p.7.77. T h i s verse is obscure. T h e correspondence V. in V.P.8.83 reads:

1.2.6.76-777.1-5a

65

76. T h u s the inter-relation between two Kalpas has been recounted. T h e present has become the antecedent state in between the two. 77. Everything has been recounted briefly in the previous K a l p a in the m a n n e r as it was factually. Now I shall recount the current K a l p a . U n d e r s t a n d the same.

C H A P T E R SEVEN Knowledge About the World (Geographical divisions of the their d u r a t i o n G e o g r a p h y and Life) Sill a said : 1. He passed a period of time equal to a thousand Yugas as his night. At the end of the night, B r a h m a creates the universe through the cause (potentiality) of creation. 2. At that time, in t h a t vast expanse of water, B r a h m a became wind and moved a b o u t (in that ocean) enveloped in darkness when the mobile and the immobile beings h a d ( a l r e a d y ) perished ( a n d became non-existent). 3-4a. He flooded the surface of the e a r t h all round with water. W h e n the elements had been stationed in S a t y a * ( t r u t h ) along with their divisions, he moved about like the glowworm d u r i n g t h e nights in t h e rainy season. 4b-5a. He was moving about quickly as he pleased, thinking by means of his intellect, about the means of stabiliza tion. villages-Flora earthFour Yugas and of c o n t i n e n t s c o n t i n e n t s , towns

a n d f a u n a p e o p l e c a s t e s a n d stages in

V . P . 8 . 3 samanttall

round.

66

Brahmnda Purna

5b-8a. He was searching for the earth. He realized t h a t the earth was within the water. After knowing t h a t one of them was blind (?) the lord who was capable of lifting up the e a r t h assumed the truthful form of a b o a r as remembered in the beginnings of the previous Kalpas. T h e n he entered the water. T h a t lord of subjects wished to contact the e a r t h covered with waters. He lifted up the e a r t h a n d placed it again along w i t h its c h i l d * (Reference to N a r a k a ? ) . 8b-9a. He deposited the waters of t h e oceans in the oceans a n d the waters of the rivers in the rivers separately. After levelling the e a r t h he picked up and gathered the m o u n t a i n s . 9b-11. As the previous creation was being b u r n e d for merly by the S a m v a r t a k a fire, the mountains of t h a t period had been melted by that fire. T h e y were t h e n scattered by the wind. Due to dullness, they became solidified. Wherever the (molten rocks) were spilt there arose a m o u n t a i n . T h e y are called Acalas1 (not-moving or immobile) because their ridges were immovable. T h e y a r e r e m e m b e r e d as Parvatas because they h a d Parvans (or j o i n t s ) . 12-14. T h e y are (called) Giris because they h a d been swallowed. T h e y are Siloccaya because they h a d moved about (Ayana). T h e n , after lifting up the e a r t h from within the waters, the lord created seven times seven subcontinents in its seven continents. After levelling the uneven grounds he created m o u n t a i n s all r o u n d by means of rocks. T h e r e a r e only fortynine sub-continents in those con t i n e n t s . 8 As m a n y m o u n t a i n s (i.e. 49) a r e situated at the borders of the sub-continents.
* 1. V . P . 8 a reads: apas tsu tu vinyasan 'He deposited a the waters (over the surface of the earth'. T h e s e verses give 'etymology' of the synonyms for mountain. T h i s Purna is full of semantic etymologies i.e. etymologies based on the mean ing of the word and not its form. Sometimes, they are grammatically (even as phonetic derivation) correct, but that is none of the concern of the Purnawriter. T h u s acala 'a mountain', giri-griis not defensible. understandable but ayant tu is stloccayah 'the mountains are called siloccaya because of their movements' phonetically 2.

Every continent has seven sub-continents. T h u s the number of sub

continents becomes 7 x 7 = 4 9 . Their list is described later in chs. 18 and 19.

1.2.7.15-24

67

15-20. In h e a v e n * etc. they are enveloped in splendour n a t u r a l l y a n d not otherwise. T h e seven continents a n d oceans encircle one another. T h e y are situated after surrounding one another naturally. T h e four worlds are the Bh a.nd others. As before, Brahma created the m o o n and the sun along with the planets as well as the immobile beings all round, as B r a h m a created the Devas of this K a l p a , who were Sthnins (persons occupying the a b o d e s ) . He created the following things as w e l l ) : the waters, the fire, the earth, the wind, the firmament, the heaven, the Dyaus ( t h e ethereal w o r l d ) , the quarters, the oceans, the rivers, the mountains, the souls of medicinal herbs, the souls of trees a n d creepers, the units of time such as Lavas, Kfths, Kals a n d Muhrtas, the twilight, the nights, the days; the halfmonths,- the months, the Ayanas (transits, one in the six m o n t h s ) , the years and the Yugas. He created the abodes and ( t h e dwellers t h e r e i n ) who take pride in the abodes separately by laying claims to them. 2 1 . After creating the souls for the abodes, he created the period of Yugas namely K t t a , T r e t , D v p a r a a n d Tisya (i.e. K a l i ) . 22. At the beginning of the K a l p a , he created the sub jects at the outset. Those subjects of the previous K a l p a have been recounted to you by m e . 23-24. In t h a t K a l p a that was being dissolved (i.e. t e r m i n a t e d ) , the subjects were b u r n t by the fire. Those t h a t h a d not reached Tapo-loka a n d those t h a t remained on the earth, r e t u r n at the time of the subsequent creation for the sake of being visible. 1 Those subjects who stay there for being visible, do so for the sake of subsequent creation.

V.P.8.15

readssargdau

sannivists

it

'They

(mountains)

were than

assembled there at the beginning of creation'. This reading is better that in the Bd.P. here as Svarga ( H e a v e n ) is not relevant in the context. 1.

V V . 2 3 ff. This is the inexorable l a w of Karma. There may be the (i.e. w h o have not attained M o k s a ) are reborn

dissolution of the universe at the end of a Kalpa, but the beings whose K a r m a s have not been exhausted Purna. in the subsequent Kalpa. T h i s idea has been emphatically repeated in this

68

Brahmnda Purna

25. Being created, they exist for the sake of their pro geny. T h e y are regarded as having achieved the four Purusrthas viz. : D h a r m a , Artha, K a m a a n d Moksa. 26. T h e Devas, thePitrs and the h u m a n beings ( a r e c r e a t e d ) in o r d e r ; thereafter, they equipped themselves with p e n a n c e ; they filled the abodes at the outset. 27. I n d e e d , those h u m a n beings become B r h m a n a s and souls of spiritual achievement. D u e to their K a r m a n con taminated by the faults of hatred a n d too m u c h of a t t a c h m e n t * they went to heaven (?) 28. While r e t u r n i n g in an embodied state, they are b o r n in every Yuga. W i t h the r e m n a n t s of the fruits of their K a r m a n , (they are born again a n d again) ; they are well known as Tadtmakas (? Identified with t h e m ) . 29-30. T h e people bound by the a d v e n t of (a new) K a l p a are born from the J a n a l o k a . T h a t which is their cause in the waters is indicated by means of the K a r m a n * * ( ? ) . From the J a n a l o k a , they are born t h r o u g h auspicious and inauspicious K a r m a n s . T h e y assume physical bodies of diverse forms, in the different species. 31. T h e subjects beginning with the Devas and ending with the immobile beings are b o r n (influencing) themselves mutually. T h e i r p u r e ( o r sanctified) K a r m a n s usually pre dominated. 32. Therefore, they attained only those names and features (which they h a d before). Again a n d again they are b o r n w i t h names and forms in the (different) K a l p a s . 33-34. Thereafter, is the creation of B r a h m a who is de sirous of creating the Upasrsfi (subsidiary c r e a t i o n ) . Even as he was m e d i t a t i n g on those subjects, since he was of truthful med itation, a thousand couples came out of his m o u t h . It is b u t n a t u r a l t h a t they were people of great brilliance with the Sattva quality p r e d o m i n a n t .
* For saga-dnesa-yuktena, m o t i v a t e d by non-hatred.' ** reads: For apsu yah kranam V.P.8 reads: sagdvesa-yuktena '(acts)

tesm bodhayan karmana tu sah / V.P.8.30a

iayah kranam tatra boddhavyam karmanrh tu sah / ' P l a c e of residence should be known as its cause' etc.

1.2.7.35-43

69

35. He created a n o t h e r thousand couples t h r o u g h his eyes. All of t h e m h a d the Rajas quality p r e d o m i n a n t . T h e y were Sustains (lustrous ones) a n d Amarsins ( i n t o l e r a n t ) . 36. He created a thousand (couples) of Asats ( n o t good ones) from his arms. D o m i n a t e d as they were from Rajas a n d T a m a s , they are r e m e m b e r e d as grha-ila* ( a t t a c h e d to houses). 37-38. T h e couples alone gave birth frequently till t h e end of their lives. Ktakas (? deceitful ones) a n d Aktakas (nondeceitful) are born (of those couples) who are mortals ( a b o u t to d i e ) . Since after generating the family, they a b a n d o n e d their bodies. Even since then there is the occurrence of copulation in this K a l p a . 39. In the K r t a age, 1 it is by m e n t a l m e d i t a t i o n t h a t pure objects of senses such as abda (sound a n d others) each of which is of five characteristics ( b e c a m e a v a i l a b l e ) . 40. T h u s with m e n t a l emotions, those subjects without progeny stay d e a r * * ( ? ) So also the families were born with which this universe was filled u p . 4 1 . T h e y resort to rivers, lakes and oceans as well as to mountains. T h e n those subjects have very little pleasure in t h a t war(?) but they move in i t . * * * 42. T h e y say t h a t t h e earth with Rasa (juice, water,) is their food. Desirous of m e n t a l siddhis those subjects m o v e a b o u t as they please. 43. In the K r t a y u g a , the subjects ( h u m a n beings etc.) h a d equal length of life, happiness a n d beauty. In the first Yuga, at the beginning of the K a l p a , there was no D h a r m a a n d Adharma.
* 1. ** ih-Sila (indulging in desires) in V.P.7.39.

VV.39-57 give a rosy picture of the K r t a Yuga. T h e corresponding verse viz. V . P . 8 . 4 6 a reads: ityevam tnnasi prvam prk-srstir yd prajdpateh /

'in this w a y formerly the preliminary creation was mental (after that it was born of copulation. T h e whole world is filled w i t h t h a t ) . *** verse in Yuddht in the text is strange; it should be Yuge. T h e corresponding V.P. (8.47b) tad cold or rain'. reads: etc. ntyambu-itosn yuge

' T h e y wandered (lived) in that Y u g a w h e n there was no excess of heat,

70

Brahmn4 Purna

44-45a. In every Yuga, they were born with their res pective rights and a u t h o r i t y . T h e y say t h a t the K r t a yuga at the beginning, h a d four thousand years in accordance with the reckoning of the gods. T h e two periods of j u n c t i o n consisted of four h u n d r e d years. 45b-46a. T h e r e were thousands of subjects of great repute. T h e y had no h i n d r a n c e anywhere. T h e r e were no mutually clashing opposites. T h e r e was no Krama (one gradually succeeding a n o t h e r ) . 46b-47. Those subjects had no regular abodes and resorts. T h e y were residents of m o u n t a i n s a n d seas. T h e y were i m m u n e from sorrow. ( T h e quality called) Sattva was predomi n a n t in t h e m . T h e subjects were exclusively h a p p y . T h e y always moved a b o u t as they pleased. T h e y were always delight ed in their minds. 48. T h e r e were neither animals nor birds. T h e r e were no reptiles then. T h e r e were no plants etc. T h e r e were no drunkards, m a d and furious persons. This is the m a n n e r of Dharma. 49. For their sustenance, there were flowers and fruits alongwith bulbous roots. T h e time was entirely and exclusively pleasant; it was n e i t h e r too hot n o r too chill. 50. Whatever they desire is achieved everywhere and for ever. By their meditations, everything grows up from t h e n e t h e r worlds through t h e e a r t h . 5 1 . ( T h e vegetation) caused strength a n d fineness of complexion u n t o them. It destroyed their sickness a n d old age, Those subjects had stable (everlasting) youth with their bodies not requiring purificatory rites. 52. In their case, even without copulation^subjects (pro geny) are born t h r o u g h mere m e n t a l conception. T h e birth a n d features a r e t h e same ( i n regard to everyone). T h e y are on a p a r (with one a n o t h e r ) a n d they a r e pleased a n d h a p p y . 53. At that time, t h e r e is truthfulness, absence of greed, satisfaction, happiness a n d self-control. In regard to beauty, longevity, aesthetic accomplishments a n d other activities, all of t h e m a r e devoid of a n y m u t u a l difference.

1.2.7.54-64a

71

54. T h e sustenance of the subjects was (abuddhiprvika) without any conscious intellectual effort. Since the door is open* (i.e. there are facilities to auspicious a n d evil activities) theie is lack of conscious effort. 55. At t h a t time there was no systematic classification of castes a n d stages of life. T h e r e were no thieves. T h e y used to d e a l with one a n o t h e r without a n y i n t i m a t e desire or hatred. 56. In the K r t a yuga, all the subjects a r e b o r n with e q u a l beauty, features a n d s p a n of life. T h e y a r e devoid of in feriority a n d superiority. Usually they are h a p p y , they at e free from sorrow. 57-58. T h e y have neither gain nor loss; neither friends nor enemies; no likes or dislikes. Since they are devoid of desire, their sense-object functions mentally. T h e y do not violently injure m u t u a l l y nor do they favour one a n o t h e r t h e n . 59. In the K r t a y u g a , knowledge is the greatest thing. 1 In the T r e t , it is said to be the institution of Yaja (sacrifice) (as the greatest t h i n g ) . In the D v p a r a , war began to function; a n d in the Kaliyuga, it is stealth alone. 60. T h e K r t a Yuga is characterised by Sattva quality; the T r e t Yuga by Rajas quality, the D v p a r a by (a m i x t u r e of) Rajas a n d T a m a s qualities, while the Kali, (only) by T a m a s quality. T h u s the situation of the Gunas in the Yugas should be known. 61-64a. 2 This is the time in the Krta Yuga. U n d e r s t a n d ( t h e period of) its j u n c t i o n . F o u r thousand (divine) years con stitute the Krta Yuga. T h e parts of its j u n c t i o n a r e eight h u n d r e d years, according to divine reckoning. It comprises of four thousand h u m a n years. ( ? ) T h e n , a m o n g t h e m there a r e
* V . P . 8 . 6 1 a (a corresponding verse) reads: karmanoh for Krta-dvrs karmanah in the Bd.P. which is

... .hrtayugt

obscure: T h e verse m e a n s : " I n the Krta Age, there was no inclination both to p i o u s a n d impious d e e d s " . 1. 2. V V . 5 9 - 6 0 give a comparative statement of the special features of VV.61-71 describe the state in the period intervening between four Yugas. K r t a a n d Tret.

72

Brahmnda Purna

neither sudden clamour and outcry, nor contrarities ( ? ) . T h e n , w h e n t h a t K r t a yuga along with the p a r t of the j u n c t i o n has passed, the entire Y u g a d h a r m a (Duty etc. characteristics of the Yuga) becomes reduced to a quaricr. 64b-65. T h a t is the time of junction of the Yuga, the Sandhy (transitional p e r i o d ) of what has passed off. T h u s when the Sandhydharma(Du.ty characteristics of the transitional stage from K i t a y u g a ) is reduced to a q u a r t e r (?) it vanishes within the K r t a y u g a without any vestige*. 66. W h e n the j u n c t i o n has passed away, there was m e n t a l progeny. T h e achievement of spirituality was in a n o t h e r Yuga called T r e t , next to K r t a . 67. T h e eight m e n t a l Siddhis that h a d been recounted (as existent) by me in the beginning of the creation, become reduced gradually. 68. In the beginning of the K a l p a , there is one single mental Siddhi, in the K r t a Yuga, in all the M a n v a n t a r a s in accordance with t h e division of the four Yugas. 69. T h e origin of Karmasiddhi (achievement of K a r m a n ) in K r t a is brought about by the conduct of the people of different castes a n d stages of life (?). T h e Sandhy (junction) of the K r t a is reduced by a q u a r t e r (?) 70. These parts of the junctions of K r t a take tip the three (? other parts) and those Yuga Dharmas as well as penance, learning, strength and longevity decrease a n d decline. 7 1 . W h e n the K r t a yuga and its transitional part have passed, O excellent sages, it is the beginning of T r e t yuga along with its parts. 72-73. W h e n the p a r t of K r t a yuga has passed off and those seven (? siddhis) remained lingering at the beginning of the T r e t yuga that h a d begun to function in the early p a r t of the K a l p a , the (one remaining) Siddhi perishes d u e to efflux of time a n d not otherwise; when t h a t Siddhi disappeared a n o t h e r Siddhi was b o r n .
* The corresponding verse V.P.70b-71a: ' ' W h e n at the e n d of the yuga, w h e n e v e n the transitional period also expires, the quarter of the dharma characteristic of this transitional period of the yuga, remains."

1.2.7.74-84

73

74. (Defective) Parts of waters returned ( t o the firma m e n t ) in the form of clouds. F r o m t h e t h u n d e r i n g clouds the showering of r a i n began to function. 75. W h e n the surface of the e a r t h had been perfected (watered) by t h a t r a i n occurring only once the subjects c a m e into being. T h e r e u p o n , the trees b e c a m e designated as their abodes. 76. All kinds of worldly enjoyment of those subjects e m a n a t e d from t h e m ( t h e trees). In the beginning of the T r e t yuga, the subjects maintained themselves with t h e m . 77. (Defective) then, after t h e lapse of a great deal of time, due to their own change, they h a d a sudden emotion in the form of a great desire for close contact. 78. In the case of women (of the modern days) mens truation occurs till the end of their life (?) But then (i.e. in the T r e t y u g a ) , t h a t did not take place on account of the power of the Yuga. 79. But in the case of those women (oflater days), the menstrual flow began to function m o n t h by m o n t h . As a con sequence thereof, sexual intercourse also takes place then. 80-81. T h e y had the physical contact every m o n t h because of their emotional feelings at that time. W h e n there is no menstrual flow at the proper time, the conception took place. On account of their contrary n a t u r e (?), all those trees designa ted as their abodes a n d evolved at t h a t time, perish thereafter. 82. W h e n they h a d perished, the subjects became be wildered a n d agitated in all their sense-organs. T h e y began to meditate on their Siddhi. T h e y were truthful in their m e d i t a t i o n then. 83-84. Those trees designated as their abodes appeared in front of them. T h e y yielded clothes, fruits a n d o r n a m e n t s . Similarly, honey of great potency of metaphysical* significance was produced in every leafy cup. It was a c c o m p a n i e d by the juice of the G a n d h a r v a s ( ? ) . * * [Gandharvnm rasnvitam in Bd.P. It should be Gandha-vama-rasnvitam. ]
* nvikfikam in Bd.P. should be amksikam ('with no flies in i t ) . ** T h e verse contains misprints. T h e original verse seems to be as in V.P.8.90:

74

Brahmnda Purna

85. Those subjects maintained themselves with t h a t at the beginning of T r e t yuga. W i t h t h a t Siddhi they b e c a m e hale, h e a r t y a n d well-nourished. T h e y were free from feverish ailments. 86. Thereafter, on other occasions also, the subjects became overwhelmed by greed thus, once again. T h e y seized the trees a n d took by force the nectar and honey. 87. On account of this misdemeanour on their part brought about by their covetousness, the K a l p a trees (wish-yield ing trees) perished here a n d there along with the Lord *(?) 88. W h e n t h a t achievement (Siddhi) was reduced to a very little quantity with the passage of time, they maintained themselves with this. T h e i r Dvandvas (rivalries or m u t u a l opposites) rose up tremendously. 89. T h e dullness, the wind a n d the sunshine were severe. Therefore they were m u c h tormented. Being afflicted by the mutually opposed pairs of feelings and reactions, they bewailed their w o u n d s * * (?) ^ 90-93. (Defective) they h a d been vexed in their minds when formerly they h a d no abodes. T h e y were wandering about as they pleased. After building houses to remedy the (evil effects of) Dvandvas (like heat and c o l d ) , they stayed in the abodes as they pleased as they could secure. ( W h e n they had no abodes) they resorted to difficult passages in m o u n t a i n s and on rivers (?) d r i p p i n g with h o n e y * * * , in plains a n d even in (hilly) regions where water was available. T h e y lived as they pleased and as m u c h as they could enjoy. T h e y began to build those abodes in order to ward off cold (blizzards) and hot ( w i n d s ) . Thereafter, they built hamlets and cities.
Tesvtva jyate tsrh gandha-oarna-rasnvitam pufake madhu / jl had

amkskam no flies * ** *** and in it.

mahvryam pufake

T h e h o n e y was e n d o w e d with g o o d flavour, colour a n d taste a n d V . P . 8.93b madhun ' a l o n g with the honey'. V . P . 8 . 9 5 cakrur vararini ca 'created shelters and covers.' madhu-dhunvatsu in the text is absurd in the context. verse) appropriately reads: marudhaiwasu'in V.P.8.97 sandy

(a

corresponding

deserts

wildernesses*.

1.2.7.95-103

75

94-95. T h e y built villages a n d cities with their due shares, extent a n d dimensions and built other settlements as well, in accordance with their knowledge. After measuring with their own fingers (in the b e g i n n i n g ) , they m a d e thereafter other units 1 also for the sake of measurement. 96-100. (Defective) with A gulas (finger-width) as the basis they m a d e the units, Pradea, Hasta, Kisku a n d Dhanus. T e n joints of the fingers (Agulas) constitute what is called Pradea. T h e space delimited by the tips of the extended t h u m b a n d index finger is called Pradea. T h e same with ( t h e tip of the extended) middle finger is remembered as Tla. T h e same with ( t h e tip of the extended) ring finger is Gokarna. T h e same with (the tip of the extended) small finger is called Vitasti. It has twelve Agulas. Twentyone Agulas make the unit Ratni. Twentyfour Agulas make one Hasta. T w o Ratnis or fortytwo Agulas make a Kisku. Four Hastas make one Dhanus o r ( ? ) Danda. T h e same is a pair of arrows (Nliks). T w o thousand Dhanus make one Gavyti. This h a d been m a d e by them then. 101. Eight thousand Dhanus m a k e one Yojana as determin ed by t h e m . With this Yojana (as the unit of measurement) settlements (i.e. colonies) were m a d e thereafter. 102. Among the four (types of) fortresses, three are n a t u r a l a n d the fourth (type of) fort is artificial. I shall m e n tion its decisive features. 103. It has a thick elevated r a m p a r t (esp. a surrounding wall elevated on a mound of e a r t h ) with cavities ( o r openings).
1. V V . 96-101 give the units of measurements of distance as follows. Agula = Finger-breadth. 10 A g u l a 12 Agulas 21 Agulas 24 Agulas 2 Ratnis or 42 Agulas 4 Hastas 2000 Dhauus 7000 D h a n u s = = = Kiksu D h a n u s or D a n d a (?) Gavyti Yojana = = = = Pradea Vitasti Ratni Hasta

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Brahmnda Purna

It is surrounded with a moat on all sides. It has a beautiful front-door a n d a gynaeceum in which girls are kept. 104. (Defective t e x t ) * T h e moats two Hastas in b r e a d t h are excellent in the case of the K u m r p u r a . T h e total b r e a d t h of the current of water in ( t h e m o a t ) m a y be eight, nine or ten ( ? ) . 105-106. (I shall m e n t i o n ) 1 the girth and length of ham lets, cities, and villages entirely as well as those of the three types of ( n a t u r a l ) forts viz. mountains, waters (i.e. rivers) and waste-lands such as deserts etc., and the artificial forts as well. T h e d i a m e t e r shall be half a Yojana. Its length shall be one a n d one eighth Yojanas. 107. T h e extent of a Pura (city) shall be half of the m a x i m u m l e n g t h ( ? ) . T h e r e must b e a r i v e r ( ? ) flowing to its east or n o r t h . It should be divided into a h y p o t e n u m a n d seg ments. It must be laid out in the shape of a spread fan. 108. A city t h a t is long, diamond-shaped or circular is not praiseworthy. A city endowed w i t h the symmetrical parts a n d quadrangles and heaven-like, c o m m e n d a b l e was m a d e by t h e m . 109. T h e Vstu (site of a building; dwelling place) t h a t is not m o r e t h a n twenty four Hastas is short; t h a t of one h u n d r e d a n d eight (Hastas) is great. In this m a t t e r they praise the middle one a n d the short one which has no (wooden s t r u c t u r e ) . 110. T h e chief settlement should be eight h u n d r e d Kiskus. T h e h a m l e t should be of half the d i a m e t e r of the city. T h e P n a * * ( ? Drinking place) shall be above i t ( ? ) . 111. T h e h a m l e t shall be a Yojana ( a b o u t 12 k m ) from the city a n d the village shall be half a Yojana from the h a m l e t . T h e outermost b o u n d a r y shall be two Kroas (1 K r o a = 3 k m s ) . T h e b o u n d a r y of a field is four Dhanus.
* T h e corresponding verse in V.P.8.110 runs as follows: srotas samhata-dvram nikhtam punar eva ca / hastsfau ca daia iresfh navsfau v'pare raath // Different opinions about the breadth of the m o a t in front of Kumripura are given here as 2, 8, 9, 10 hastas, the last being the best. 1. ** V V . 105-116 delineate the ancient ideas of town (and village) planning. V.P.7.116b (in the corresponding verse) reads : grmam for

Ptiam of the Bd.P. It m e a n s : a grma should be beyond that'.

1.2.7.112-120

77

112. T h e pathway along the quarters (i.e. East-west a n d North-south) was m a d e twenty Dhanus wide by t h e m . T h e road in the village was also twenty Dhanus ( w i d e ) . T h e path in the b o u n d a r y was only ten Dhanus ( w i d e ) . 113. T h e glorious royal road was m a d e ten Dhanus wide. T h e movement of (traffic of) men, horses, chariots a n d elephants (shall b e ) w i t h o u t a n y h i n d r a n c e . 114. T h e branch-streets were measured by them (and m a d e ) four D h a n u s (wide). T h e roads joining the high-ways shall be three D h a n u s (wide) and their branches two D h a n u s wide. 115. (Defective text) T h e Jaghpatha* (? the thighroad) has four Pdas w i d t h ; the passage between rows of houses is three quarters ( w i d e ) . Dhrtimrga** (? p a t h of courage) if m o r e t h a n one sixth. T h e Padiku (Foot-Path ?) is r e m e m b e r e d thus in due order. 116. T h e enclosure lor excrement is a quarter all round. After those places have been m a d e , the houses and dwellings (should be c o n s t r u c t e d ) . 117. T h e y thought over it a g a i n and again about the trees designated as their houses as to how they were before, and b e g a n to build like t h e m . 1 118. T h e branches of trees have gone down. Others have gone this way. Still others have gone u p . In the same way, some have gone obliquely. 119. With their intellect, they have observed carefully how the b r a n c h e s have gone. Apartments were constructed by them in the same way. Hence they (the a p a r t m e n t s ) are re m e m b e r e d as Sls. 120. T h u s Sl&s ( a p a r t m e n t s , dwellings) became wellknown from the branches. So also the abodes. Therefore they are r e m e m b e r e d as ls. T h a t is remembered as their Sltva2 (state of being a l ) .
*jagh-patha is probably a 'misprint' for " g h a n t - p a t h a " 'a bell-road' i.e. the chief road through a village or a highway. Pada= 15 fingers' breadth. ** Vrtti-mrga in V . P . 8 . 1 2 1 . 1. VV.117-121 refer to construction of buildings. It is interesting to note that the la tree played an important part in ancient ideas of housing. 2. Popular but important etymology of l 'an apartment or dwel ling'.

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121. Since people are delighted therein (Prasidanti), they are designated as Prsdas (palaces). Therefore, the abodes, a p a r t m e n t s and palaces are designated as Prsdas. 1 122. W h e n the wish-yielding K a l p a trees perished along with the h o n e y , ( t h e subjects) a t t a c h e d by the Dvandvas ( m u t u a l opposed pairs of feelings etc.) began to think a b o u t the means of agriculture a n d other occupations for livelihood. 123. T h e subjects created were seen agitated due to ex haustion a n d sorrow. Thereafter, the Siddhi a p p e a r e d in front of t h e m in the T r e t yuga. 124. Another (type of) rain became the means of achiev ing all objects for them. T h e waters of the rain were sweet a n d were as m u c h as they wished for. 125-126. T h u s a ( n e w ) way of life a n d conduct began to function d u r i n g the creation of the second type of r a i n . D u e to the contact of the earth with the small collections of water t h a t g a t h e r e d together on the surface of the earth, the medicinal herbs began to grow. Those medicinal herbs began to p u t forth blossoms, roots a n d fruits. 127. T h e fourteen (types of lands in) villages a n d forests ( b e g a n to flourish) without being ploughed a n d without t h e seeds being sown. T h e trees and the bushes p u t forth flowers and fruits at the p r o p e r seasons. 128. In the T r e t yuga, medicinal herbs a n d plants began to a p p e a r themselves on the earth. In the beginning of the T r e t yuga, the subjects sustained themselves with those plants a n d herbs. 2 129. Thereafter, due to the inevitability of affairs a n d due to the T r e t yuga those subjects b e g a n to have passion a n d covetousness for ever. 130. T h e n , they forcibly seized rivers, fields, m o u n t a i n s , trees, bushes a n d medicinal herbs as m u c h as they could (in accordance with their s t r e n g t h ) .

1. 2. Yuga.

Etymology of Prsda 'a palace'. VV 128ff show the prevalence of food-gathering e c o n o m y in the

Tret yuga. T h e evolution of four Varnas is another sociological feature of this

1.2.7.131-141

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131-132. Previously I have already explained to you a b o u t the spiritually enlightened souls in t h e K r t a y u g a . T h e y were b o r n as m e n t a l sons of B r a h m a a n d they h a d come h e r e (to t h e e a r t h ) from t h e J a n a l o k a . T h e y were quiescent lustrous Karmins (devoted to the pursuit of holy rites) a n d ( u n h a p p y a n d dejected). R e t u r n i n g from there (i.e. J a n a l o k a ) , they were b o r n again in the T r e t yuga. 133. In the previous births, due to the glory of their auspiciousness (i.e. meritorious acts) as well as sins they were conceived as B r h m a n a s , Ksatriyas, Vaiyas, dras a n d mali cious people. 134-135. T h e n ( a m o n g t h e m some b e c a m e ) powerful, truthful in conduct, non-violent, devoid of greed a n d persons who h a d conquered their selves. T h e y used to abide by those t h a t were r e m e m b e r e d * (? Smrti texts ?). T h e y never a c c e p t e d charity. T h e i r .tasks were carried out by those w h o were weaker t h a n they. T h e y (these weaker people) a p p r o a c h e d t h e m speaking to t h e m (?) 136-137. Those others w h o were less brilliant t h a n they, r e m a i n e d serving them. T h u s w h e n they were m u t u a l l y related a n d also resorted to each other, due to t h a t fault the medicinal herbs diminished m u c h t h e n . Like sands they perished on being held in t h e fists. 138-139. T h e n d u e to the power of t h e Yuga, the fourteen (types of people, animals etc.) villages a n d forests began to pluck (and destroy) t h e flowers, fruits and roots (of those trees). T h e n , w h e n they perished the subjects became perplexed. All of t h e m were overwhelmed with h u n g e r ; then they went to the self-born (deity i.e. B r a h m a ) . 140-141. In the beginning of T r e t yuga, those subjects desired for some means of livelihood. T h e self-born lord B r a h m a knew their desire. He pondered over this ( s i t u a t i o n ) b y means of his vision t h a t can see everything directly. He u n d e r stood, t h a t the medicinal herbs have been devoured (i.e. d r a w n w i t h i n ) b y the e a r t h . H e m a d e t h e m grow once again. * V.P.8.141 reads: sma tesu vai for Bd.P. text here: smrtefu vai. As A* question of memory or smrti text does not arise here V.P. reading is better,

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142. After making the Sumeru m o u n t a i n (as) the calf, he milked this earth in the form of a cow t h a t yielded seeds on the surface of the earth in the form of the milk. 1 143. T h e lord m a d e those seeds grow as the medicinal herbs ( a n d other plants) t h a t ended when the fruits became ripe. ( T h a t is, the plants yielded fruits but once a n d then they perished) they are the g r o u p of seventeen. 144-145. T h e following types of seventeen grains a n d pulses constitute the g r o u p of seventeen, viz., Rice, barley, wheat, Bengal-gram, gingelly Priyagu ( L o n g p e p p e r ) , Udra (?), Koradufta (a kind of g r a i n eaten by the poor people i.e. Kodrava), Vmaka (?), the black gram, the green gram, the Masra (dl), Nivra ( r i c e ) , the horse-gram, t h e H a r i k a * (?) a n d the C a r a k a * ( ? ) . 146a. T h u s these were remembered as the species of rural medicinal herbs (Grmya-Osadhi). 146b-147. Symka (a variety of r i c e ) , Nivra ( a n o t h e r variety of r i c e ) , Jartila (wild s e s a m u m ) , Gavedhuka ( ?) Kuruvinda (a king of b a r l e y ) , Nenuyava (Bamboo seeds, T m t r k t a k a ( ? ) ** etc. are remembered as the fourteen types of medicinal herbs of the villages and forests. 148. All these fourteen varieties (of medicinal herbs a n d plants) peculiar to villages a n d forests grew at the beginning of the first T r e t yuga. T h e y are not grown by ploughing. 149. T h e trees, hedges, creepers, winding plants, spread ing creepers a n d (various) species of grasses yielded roots, f r u i t s , * * * shoots e t c . u n t o t h e m . T h e y plucked their fruits.
1. milking This is the Puranic presentation of the ancient V e d i c concept of A V . V I I I . Skta 10. Purna-writers the Virj c o w recorded in

used this motif later w i t h g o d Brahma, king Prthu etc. as the milker. Funnily enough M t . P . 10.25 makes Vararuci as the milker and the science of Drama turgy ( N t y a - V e d a ) as the milk. Here god Brahma milked seeds of medicinal herbs and plants. M e n gathered food from them for their .livelihood. * V . P . 8 . 1 5 2 a reads : 'dhakya canakai caiva' ** *** a misprint which means:

' T h e pulse cajanus Indicus spreng as well as chick Peas. for tath markat ca y e ) . Gf. V . P . 8 . 1 5 4 as M W . gives no word like tmtirktaka. markafaka is a species of grain. V . P . 8 . 1 4 9 reads: puspaih for pusfh.

1.2.7.150-158

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150. Those seeds which were milked out of the e a r t h formerly by the self-born lord, b e g a n to grow as medicinal herbs putting forth iiowerj a n d fruits at the p r o p e r seasons. 151. When the medicinal herbs created before did not grow a n d flourish again, he m a d e m e a n s of livelihood for t h e m by m e a n s of agricultural occupations. 1 152. T h e self-born lord (blessed t h e m ) with the power of working with their own hands a n d achieving great results. Thenceforth, the medicinal herbs became Kr.stapacyas ( p l o u g h e d and grown). 153. After achieving his purpose in the m a t t e r of agri cultural occupation, the Prajpati (lord of the subjects i.e. god B r a h m a established the bounds of decency by means of which they protected one a n o t h e r . 154. A m o n g t h e m some were very powerful a n d they seized the realm. He established t h e m as Ksatriyas a n d it was their d u t y to p r o t e c t others. 155. (Defective) . 2 All those subjects who h a d been created will be worshipping you. 'Tell the t r u t h in accord a n c e with the fact'. Those (subjects) who said this were the Brhmanas. 156-158. Some stood by in the activity of protecting others who were weak. T h e y destroyed Kitas ( w o r m s ) . T h e y were established on the e a r t h . T h e people call them Vaiyas and cultivators of soil. T h e y were the achievers of liveli hood. Those who were engaged in the service (of o t h e r s ) , those who r a n e r r a n d s a n d served others, were devoid of bril liance a n d deficient in virility. (Since they were deficient they served o t h e r s ) . He called t h e m dras. L o r d B r a h m a o r d a i n e d and prescribed their respective duties a n d holy rites.
1. V V . l . l f f described the transition from food-gathering economy

to the food-growing one by the introduction of Agriculture. T h i s stage crystalized the four-fold classification of the society with their specific duties (vide VV 161-165 2. below). upaiisjhantiye free from fear'. tin vaiyvanto nirbhays tathd.j V . P . 8 . 1 6 2 a gives a better reading:

' S o long all those w h o worship or respect a n d obey those Ksattriyas, they a r e

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Brahmnda Purna

159. Although the establishment of the classification i n t o the four castes h a d been m a d e by him (Lord B r a h m a ) , the subjects, out of delusion, did not conform to those rules. 160. T h e subjects who lived in accordance with the duties of the (different) castes b e c a m e antagonistic to one another. Lord B r a h m a understood everything factually. 161-162. He ordained that meeting out punishments, m a i n t e n a n c e of armies and waging wars should be the means of sustenance for the Ksatriyas. Performance of Yajas, teaching of the Vedas and acceptance of charitable and monetary giftslord Brahma prescribed these as the holy duties and rites for those B r h m a n a s . Breeding of cattle, carrying on trading activities and cultivation of the soilhe granted these to the Vaiyas. 163-165. Again he ordained t h a t arts a n d crafts should be t h e means of livelihood for the dras. To the B r h m a n a s , Ksatriyas a n d Vaiyas he prescribed the common d u t y of performing Yaja and studying the Vedas as well as giving charitable gifts. To the others the common d u t y ordained was performance of their duties for livelihood. After prescribing these duties a n d holy rites, the lord ordained their abodes in the other worlds above : T h e Prjpatya ( t h a t belonging to Prajpati or B r a h m a ) world is remembered as the abode of the B r h m a n a s who per formed their holy rites a n d duties. 166. T h e world belonging to I n d r a is the abode of Ksatriyas who never flee from the battlefield. T h e abode of the Vaiyas who sustain themselves by their respective duties is the M r u t a world (i.e. the world belonging to the wind g o d ) . 167. T h e a b o d e of the dras who abide by their d u t y of rendering service is the world belonging to the Gandharvas. These are the abodes (after d e a t h ) of the people of the differ e n t castes who r e m a i n good a n d m a i n t a i n the conduct of life befitting their respective s t a t i o n in life. 168. W h e n this m o d e of disciplined life of the four castes h a d been well-established, the people of the different castes strictly adhered to t h e duties of their respective castes because they were afraid of p u n i s h m e n t otherwise. T h e n , after the castes h a d been established, he stabilised the stages of life.

1.2.7.169-178

83

169. T h e Lord established as before the following four 1 ramas (stages in life) viz. t h e householder, t h e celibate reli gious student, t h e forest h e r m i t a n d the ascetic. 170. (Defective text) t h e people of the four castes per formed t h e duties of the respective castes. After doing their duties they erected their residences a n d m a i n t a i n e d their stages of life a n d t h e n enjoyed themselves. 171. B r a h m a established those ramas. He directed a n d guided those who swerved from these and recounted righteous virtues to t h e m . 172-173. He instructed t h e m in the m e t h o d s of selfrestraint, observances, a n d controls of sense-organs etc. Among t h e four castes, t h e stage of the life of a house holder stood at the outset because it was t h e source of origin 1 for the sustenance of the other three ramas - (stages of life). I shall m e n t i o n ( t h e duties) in d u e order along with the holy vows a n d observances. 174. T h e following a r e t h e duties of t h e householder in brief : M a r r i a g e , m a i n t e n a n c e of sacrificial fire, hospitability to guests, performance of Yajas a n d continuation of his race (procreation). 175. T h e duties of the religious student are as follows : He must wear the girdle (of the muja grass) and hold the staff. He must wear the skin of an antelope. He must sleep on the ground. He must serve his preceptor. He must beg for alms. He must be eager to acquire learning. 176. These a r e the duties of the forest h e r m i t s ; w e a r i n g barks and leaves or skins of antelope (for clothes), m a i n t a i n i n g themselves by means of roots, fruits and medicinal herbs found in the forests, b a t h i n g both at d a w n and dusk and performance of Homa. 177-178. T h e duties of the mendicant (recluse) are as follows : He must beg for alms when the noise of pestles has died down. He must not steal. He m u s t m a i n t a i n cleanliness.

1. 2.

V V . 1 6 9 - 1 8 9 describe the duties of the four Aram'as or stages in life. Cf. tesrh grhastho yonir aprajanalvd iiaresmGaut.Dh.S.IlI.3.

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Brahmnda Purna

He must not err or be elated. He must refrain from sexual in tercourse. He must have mercy on all living beings. He must have forbearance. He must listen to the instructions of t h e preceptor. He must serve the preceptor. He must be truthful. This righteous conduct of ten items (as e n u m e r a t e d above) was laid down by the self-born lord as the d u t y of a recluse. 179. Five of t h e m p e r t a i n to Bhiksus viz. : begging, knowledge (of vedas) and religious vows.* He mentioned their abodes after d e a t h as well as Ausmi (absence of lus tre) (?) 180. T h e r e are eightyeight t h o u s a n d sages who live in p e r p e t u a l celibacy. T h e place r e m e m b e r e d as their is alone t h e abode of those w h o live with their preceptor (i.e. (Brahmacrins). 181. T h e p l a c e remembered as t h e abode of the seven sages ( t h e great Bear) is (assigned as) t h a t of the forest-dwel lers. T h e world of Prajpati is the abode of house-holders and B r a h m a ' s abode is t h a t of t h e ascetics. 182.** (Defective t e x t ) T h e abode of the Yogins has not been created (?) without conquering them, it does not exist (?) Those abodes of the persons of different stages of life are in deed in the abode of B r a h m a . 183. O n l y four paths have been created as Devaynas (paths of t h e D e v a s ) . O n l y four p a t h s are r e m e m b e r e d as Pitrynas ( p a t h s of t h e m a n e s ) . 184. Formerly, in t h e first M a n v a n t a r a (these h a d been created) by B r a h m a who administered the worlds. Ravi (the sun) is r e m e m b e r e d as the e n t r a n c e to those paths t h a t ( a r e known as) Devaynas. T h e moon (Candramas) is mentioned as the e n t r a n c e of Pitrynas. 185-186. T h u s even though t h e castes a n d stages of life h a d been clearly defined, the subjects a d h e r i n g to the duties of t h e different castes did not flourish. T h e n , in the middle of
* ** Probably a misprint for amusmin. V.P.8.196 (corresponding verse) reads as follows: yoginm amrtarh sfhnam nndhnrh na vidyate / " I m m o r t a l (amrtam) is the abode of Yogins which is not meant for nonYogins.

1.2.7.187-195 T r e t yuga he evolved a n o t h e r m e n t a l creation bodies of his own self and similar to himself.

85 from the

187. In t h a t first T r e t yuga, when it gradually reached its middle period he began to create m e n t a l progeny other t h a n ( w h a t was before). 188. T h e n t h e same lord created t h e subjects with pre d o m i n a t i n g Sattva and Rajas qualities. T h e y h a d the pursuit of virtue ( D h a r m a ) , wealth, love a n d liberation a n d they accom plished their professions for livelihood. 189. T h e y were the Devas, the Pitrs, the sages a n d t h e M a n u s ( i . e . h u m a n beings ?) In regard to their characteristics they were in accordance with the respective Yugas. By these, the subjects ( i n the universe) flourished. 190-195. (Defective) F o r m e r l y , I h a d m e n t i o n e d to you a b o u t those people who in the previous K a l p a resorted to J a n a l o k a . As when he m e d i t a t e d u p o n t h e m , all these created beings, a p p r o a c h e d him for the purpose of being born ( a g a i n ) . In t h e course of M a n v a n t a r a s , they were first j u n i o r - m o s t * (?) T h e y were well-renowned by the people of their race (?). T h e y h a d all t h e faculties of cleverness or otherwise, u n i m p a i r e d . T h e y h a d m i n o r calamities due to the defect of the fruits of their own activities. Those who were present consisted of Devas, Asuras, Pitrs Yaksas, G a n d h a r v a s , h u m a n beings, Rksasas, Picas, animals, birds, reptiles, trees, worms of hells etc. For the sake of food of the subjects, he created Vidtm a n s * (knowingsouls) (?)

V . P . 8 . 2 0 9 reads: dhlnrtham prajnm ca tmano vai vinirmame, 'for

the control of the subjects, it is reported that he created h i m s e l f .

86 CHAPTER EIGHT

Brahmnda Purna

God Brahma'''s Mental Creation : Gods, sages, manes, and human beings created Sta said : 1. Even as he was m e d i t a t i n g , the m e n t a l progeny were born along with those causes a n d effects arising out of his body. 2 - 4 . T h e r e cropped up Ksetrajas (Individual souls) of the Ksetra (Cosmic b o d y ) of this intelligent person i.e. B r a h m a ) . Thereafter, he was desirous of creating thousands a n d thousands of the four groups of living entities viz. the Devas, the Asuras, the Pitrs and the h u m a n beings. Prajpati engaged him self therein a n d m e d i t a t e d u p o n the creation. While m e d i t a t i n g thus, an effort arising out of his T a m a s constituent was involv ed. So, at the outset the Asuras were b o r n as his sons from Prajpati's loins. 5. Asu is considered by scholars as the vital b r e a t h . Therefore, those who were born of it were Asuras. 1 He discarded t h a t physical body whereby the Asuras h a d been c r e a t e d . 6-7a. T h a t physical body discarded by h i m immediately became N i g h t . Since t h a t physical body h a d the T a m a s ele m e n t p r e d o m i n a n t , the night too consisting of three Tmas (watches of night of the d u r a t i o n of three hours e a c h ) became Tamobahul ( o n e in which darkness prevails). Therefore at night the subjects enveloped bv darkness. (people) a r e themselves

7b-9. After creating the Asuras, he adopted a n o t h e r body t h a t was unmanifest, with the Sattva element predomi n a n t within it. T h e n he engaged himself with it. As the lord joined himself to it, he felt very h a p p y . Thereafter from his shining face the D e v a t s (gods a n d goddesses) were born. Since they were b o r n of the refulgent face (Divyatah) they are glorified as Devas.
(1) A n o t e w o r t h y derivation of asura as contrasted with the usual a + sura.

1.2.8.10-20

87
1

10. T h e root \/"Div" is used in the sense of " t o p l a y " . Therefore, the Devas were b o r n of his divine (lit. " s h i n i n g " ) body (and called Devats). body.

11. After creating the Devas, he discarded t h a t divine T h a t physical body discarded b y him b e c a m e " d a y " .

12. Therefore, people worship the Devas with holy rites performed d u r i n g the d a y t i m e . After creating t h e Devas, he a d o p t e d a n o t h e r body. 13-14. He adopted a n o t h e r body t h a t was solely consti tuted by the Sattva element a n d engaged himself therein. T h e lord m e d i t a t e d u p o n those sons considering t h e m like father (of fatherly n a t u r e ) . T h e Pitrs were born of t h a t body in the j u n c t u r e of night and d a y ; therefore those Pitrs are Devas. T h a t state of being Pitrs is declared a b o u t them. 15. He discarded t h a t body whereby the Pitrs were created. T h e b o d y t h a t had been discarded by h i m forthwith b e c a m e the twilight. 16. Hence, the daytime is considered as belonging to t h e Devas a n d t h e night is remembered as belonging to the Asuras. T h e body that belongs to the Pitrs a n d t h a t is in between those two is the most i m p o r t a n t . 17. H e n c e the Devas, the Asuras, the sages a n d the h u m a n beings, while practising Yoga, worship t h a t body w h i c h is in between d a w n a n d m o r n i n g (day-break). 18. H e n c e , B r h m a n a s perform sandhy at the junction of the night a n d day. Thereafter, B r a h m a engaged himself in a n o t h e r body of his. 19. T h a t body which the lord created m e n t a l l y was solely constituted by t h e Rajas element. T h e y (the progeny so created) are his sons through the mind. Since they were begot ten (Prajanant), they became Prajs (subjects). 20. Since, he m e d i t a t e d (before creation) (Manant), they are called Manusyas ( M e n ) ; they became wellknown as Prajs because they were procreated. After creating the subjects again, he discarded his own body.
1. Correct etymology d i v m e a n s both 'to play' and 'to shine'.

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Brahmnda Purna

21. That body discarded by him became the moonlight immediately. Hence, the subjects become delighted when the moonlight comes out. 22. Thus these physical bodies discarded by that noblesouled person immediately became night, day, twilight and moonlight. 1 23. The moonlight, the twilight, and the day these three are constituted solely of the Sattva element. The night is cons tituted of Tamas only. Hence that is Niymika* (that which checks, restrains and restricts). 24. So, the Devas were created by means of the shining divine body with pleasure and sportiveness through the face (mouth). Since their birth was during the day time, they are powerful during the day time. 25. Since the lord created the Asuras at night from his loins through the vital breaths, and as they were born during the night, they are invincible during the night. 26-28a. These following, viz.: the moonlight, the night, the day and the twilightthese alone become the causes (of origin) of all future Devas, Manes, human beings along with the Asuras in all the Manvantaras that had passed by and that have not yet come. Since these four spread and shine there, the water is called Ambhas. The root y/bhk is used in the sense of spreading and shining. 2

1. V V . 22-27 summarise the four main *

creations

from god Brahma's

body and their other features as follows: He e m e n d e d as triymik 'consisting of three Y m a s ' as in verse 6 Born from Brahma's part of the body
l.

above, V.P.9.22 (an identical verse) also reads triymik. Creation Asuras Devas Pitrs. Human beings. 2. Popular derivation of ambhas. When discarded His Body transformed into Night Day juncture of day and night iv. mind moonlight (but d a w n in other Purnas) Rajas, Prevailing gunas. Tamas Predominant Sattva. Pure Sattva.

Loins & vital breath Shining face Mind

ii. iii.

1.2.8.28b-37

89

28b-29a. After creating the waters, the lord created the Devas, the D n a v a s , the h u m a n beings, the Pitrs and various kinds of other subjects. 29b-30. T h e lord discarded ( t h a t body) t h e moonlight and a t t a i n e d a n o t h e r physical body p r e d o m i n e n t l y constituted of Rajas a n d T a m a s . Thereafter, he engaged himself therein (he united himself to i t . ) . Therefore, he created in darkness tiiose who were overwhelmed by hunger. 31-34. Those created beings, overwhelmed by hunger, a t t e m p t e d to seize the waters. Those a m o n g t h e m who s a i d " w e shall protect these w a t e r s " , are r e m e m b e r e d as Rksasas. Those night-walkers (demons) who felt hunger with in themselves a n d who said " L e t us destroy t h e waters, let us be delighted in our m u t u a l c o m p a n y " , b e c a m e Yaksas a n d G u h y a k a s of ruthless action d u e to t h a t work. T h e root -\/raksis considered to have the m e a n i n g " t o p r o t e c t . " T h e r o o t \/"ksi" has the m e a n i n g " t o d e s t r o y " . Since they protected (Rakfant) they were called Rksasas. Since they destroyed(KsapanSt), they are called Yaksas. 1 35-36. On seeing t h e m (the ruthless Yaksas), the intel ligent self-possessed lord became displeased. D u e to this dis pleasure, his hairs b e c a m e shivered. Those shivered hairs moved up a n d ascended again a n d again. Those hairs t h a t dropped off from the h e a d moved a n d crawled u p . T h e y are considered Vyla, because they were (originally) Blas or Vlas (hairs). Since they drooped off (Hinatvt) they are remembered A his serpents) . 2 37. T h e y are P a n n a g a s 3 because they moved a n d wrig gled. T h e state of being Sarpas is d u e to t h e fact t h a t they crawled. T h e i r a b o d e of repose is in the e a r t h u n d e r the sun, the m o o n and the clouds*.
1. 2. P.134. 3. * V V . 37-41 describe the creation of various tribes of demi-gods and of Piica and Gandharva. (in an identical T h e text srycandramasau ghanh is obscure. V . P . gives popular etymologies Puranic etymology of rksasa and Taksa. Another derivation of Vylavla and ahihigenerally ahi is

derived as follows : ahartin sa ca dit o hrasvacaApte Sk. H i n d i K o s a

-verse reads, .srycandramasoradhah

'below the Sun and the m o o n ! '

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Brahmnda Purna

38. T h e terrible fiery foetus born of his (Brahma's) anger entered in the form of poison in those serpents who were born along with them. 39. After creating t h e serpents out of his anger a set of terrible beings whose diet was flesh a n d w h o were furious by n a t u r e were created. T h e y h a d the tawny colour. 40. Since they h a d been born (Bhtatvit), they are remem bered as Bhtas; and as they ate flesh [Piitant), they were called Picas. Even as he ( B r a h m a ) was singing words, the G a n d h a r v a s were born as his sons. 4 1 . T h e root Dhay is recited by poets in the sense of 'drinking'. Since they were born drinking the (musical) words, they a r e r e m e m b e r e d as G a n d h a r v a s . 42. After creating these eight divine beings, he created the Cchandas (Prosody, Vedas) ' as he pleased (Cchandatah). He created t h e birds t h r o u g h his age (? Vayas). 43. After creating the birds, he created the groups of animals. He created goats out of his m o u t h a n d the sheep out of his chest. 44-45. B r a h m a created t h e cows from his belly a n d the horses, donkeys, Gavayas (a species of o x ) , deer, camels, boars a n d dogs along with the elephants from his sides as well as feet. O t h e r species of animals too were created. T h e medicinal herbs (and plants a n d creepers) with fruits a n d roots were born out of his hairs. 46. Formerly, at the beginning of this K a l p a , at the advent of t h e T r e t yuga, he created the five types of medi cinal herbs a n d t h e n engaged himself in the sacrifices. 47-48. T h e cow, the goat, t h e m a n , 1 t h e sheep, the horse, t h e m u l e a n d the donkeythese are remembered as seven r u r a l (Grmya) domesticated animals. T h e r e are other seven forest animals, the beasts of prey, t h e tigers, the elephants, t h e monkey, the birds as t h e fifth of t h e set, t h e a q u a t i c animals as t h e sixth ones a n d t h e reptiles as the seventh ones. 49. T h e buffaloes, the Gavaya oxen, a n d t h e camels, the cloven-footed animals, the Sarabha ( t h e eight-footed fabulous
1. Strangely enough the Purna includes the h u m a n species a m o n g animals.

domesticated

1.2.8.50-58

91

a n i m a l ) , the elephant, with monkey as the seventh of this set, are t h e forest animals. 50. T h r o u g h his first face ( m o u t h ) , he created t h e 1 2 following, viz : the Gyatr, the Rk, the Trivrtstoma a n d 3 Rathantara a n d Agnistoma a m o n g the Yajas. 5 1 . T h r o u g h his right-hand (southern) face ( m o u t h ) , he created the Yajurveda hymns, the T r a i s t u b h a metre, the fifteenth Stoma (hymn) and the Brhatsman hymn. 52. T h r o u g h his b a c k w a r d (western) face ( m o u t h ) , he created t h e S m a n hymns, the J a g a t m e t r e , the seventeenth Stoma ( h y m n ) , the V a i r p y a a n d A t i r t r a (part of J y o t i s t o m a ) sacrifices. 53. T h r o u g h his fourth face ( m o u t h ) , he created t h e twentyfirst (stoma i.e. h y m n ) . T h e Atharva-Veda, the Aploryma* a n d the A n u s t u b h metre a l o n g w i t h Vairja. 54. It is wellknown that after creating the great cloud wellknown as Parjanya, the holy lord created lightning, t h u n d e r clouds a n d the red-coloured rainbows. 55. He created the Rk, Yajus and S m a n M a n t r a s for the accomplishment of Yajas. T h e living beings both high a n d low were b o r n of the limbs of Brahma. 56-58. T h e Prajpati ( L o r d of the subjects) who was creating at the outset the fourfold set viz.: t h e Devas, t h e sages, the Pitrs a n d the h u m a n beings, created the living beings both mobile a n d immobile. After creating Yaksas, the Picas, the G a n d h a r v a s , the Apsaras, the h u m a n beings, the K i n n a r a s , the Rksasas, the birds, the animals, the deer a n d t h e serpents, he created the Ayyayas (changeless ones) and Vyayas

1. 2.

V V . 50-53 give the creation of V e d i c literature, V e d i c metres a n d TrivrtstomaA three-fold stoma verses). the verses tv wa to be sung according to Sma-music are II.1.1.11. sacrifice. e t c . = S.V. (in w h i c h together, at first, the the three 2nd 1st

special sacrifices from the mouths or faces of Brahma. v e r s e s o f e a c h T r c a o f R v . I X . i l are sung and lasdy the 3rd 3. 4. Rathantara: RV.VII.32.22-23 then verses

abhi

ptoryma is a S o m a sacrificean amplification of Atirtra

According to T n d y a B r . X X 3.4-5, it is so called as its performance secures whatever one desires.

92 ( t h e changeables) beings. as well as the

Brahmnda Purna mobile a n d the immobile

59-60. Even w h e n created again a n d again, these beings a d o p t e d only the K a r m a n s t h a t h a d been committed before. 1 T h e previous natures a n d features such as violence a n d non violence, softness of h e a r t a n d ruthlessness, virtue a n d evil as well as t r u t h a n d falsehoodall these were a d o p t e d by them ( i n their later c r e a t i o n s ) . Hence, they are liked by them. 6 1 . It was B r a h m a , the creator himself, who ordained t h e diversity in the great elements a n d their allotment to different physical bodies afflicted by the sense-organs (Indryrtesu) *. 62. Some m e n say that t h e m a n l y endeavour (is the sole cause of a c h i e v e m e n t ) . Some m e n say t h a t it is the Karman (previous a c t i o n s ) . O t h e r B r h m a n a s say t h a t it is the destiny. TheBhtacintakas (those w h o think about the elementsperhaps t h e Crvkas) say t h a t it is n a t u r e and latent instinct. 63. (But real thinkers) know t h a t t h e r e is no difference or superiority a m o n g t h e m a n l y endeavour, previous action and the destiny. T h e same is understood t h r o u g h the n a t u r e of the o u t c o m e of fruits (of actions etc.) 64. ( S o m e s a y ) 2 this is thus a n d not t h u s t h i s is b o t h nor is it both. But persons abiding by Sattva a n d having impartial vision say ( t h a t t h e Universe) is the object of its own activity. 65. It is only through the words of the Vedas that the great lord created at t h e outset, the different forms a n d features of t h e living beings a n d the development of the created ones.

1. * organs." 2. in

As n o t e d a b o v e this Purna emphasizes the law of Karman. T h e If the reading Indriyrthesu is adopted the m e a n i n g is " a n d their

e n d of a K a l p a does not destroy the K a r m a of an individual. allotment to different physical bodies a n d the objects of the various sense Apparently the view (anicitatvda) p. 51 of Sajaya Belatthi Putta Ed.): when asked

SmaMa-phala-sultaDigha

Nikyo

(Nalanda

about the existence of the other world he states: enarh ti pi me no, tath li pi me no, aath ti pi me no, no ti pi me no, no no ti pi me no. But I think the Purna probably voices the view of Sydvda.

1.2.8.669.1-6

93

66. T h e names pertaining to the sages a n d the visions belonging to the Devasthese, the u n b o r n lord assigns to those who are b o r n at the end of the night.

CHAPTER NINE The Progeny of Rudra : Birth of Bhrgu and others Sta said : 1. By means of his mind, the lord then created five Kartrs (doers or agents of c r e a t i o n ) , viz.: R u d r a . D h a r m a , M a n a s ( m i n d ) , R u c i a n d krti. 2. All these are mighty-armed a n d they a r e the causes of the sustenance of the subjects. W h e n the medicinal h e r b s decline again and again, it is R u d r a who sustains t h e m a n d revives them. 3-4. By those who seek benefits, the Lord was well wor shipped with whatever fruits a n d medicinal herbs were available (to t h e m ) . He (that God) is called T r y a m b a k a 1 as in times of (impending?) extinction of medicinal herbs etc., sacrifice is offered to h i m by sages with three K p l a s (plates or potsherds c o n t a i n i n g ) of cakes sacred to h i m ( R u d r a ) . 5-6. It has already been m e n t i o n e d by me t h a t the three Vedic metres, Gyatr, T r i s t u p and J a g a t I are t h e sources of origin of the Ambakas (i.e. Kaplas) along with the Vanaspati (i.e. the medicinal h e r b s ) . These three metres join together a n d assume unity (i.e. when they a r e used in M a n t r a s at the t i m e of the consecration of the Puroda offerings). T h a t Purodia is infused with the virility of each of these m a n t r a s . H e n c e the Puroda is remembered as Trikapla ( h a v i n g three vessels to hold i t ) . Therefore the Puroda is Tryambaka as well. H e n c e
1. T r y a m b a k a means 'one having three eyes' and is an epithet of iva.

H e r e it is identified with Puroda.

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Brahmnda Purna

the lord ( t o w h o m this Puroda is offered) is r e m e m b e r e d as Tryambaka. 7. D h a r m a sustains all the subjects. Manas is remembered as t h a t which caused knowledge. krti is the form of splendid beauty. Ruci is remembered as one who inculcates raddh (faith). 8-9. T h u s these protectors of the subjects are the causes of the sustenance of the subjects. Even as he continued the creative activity for the sake of the multiplication of the subjects, those created subjects did not increase at all by any means. Therefore, he racked his intellect that should arrive at a decisive conclusion. 10. T h e n he saw the T a m a s element moving within himself. T h a n k s to its own action, it h a d a b a n d o n e d Rajas and Sattva a n d was existing by itself. 11. T h e r e u p o n , d u e to t h a t sorrow, the lord of the uni verse felt grieved. He pushed out the T a m a s element and after w a r d s covered it with Rajas. 12. T h a t T a m a s pushed out by him gave b i r t h to a pair. On account of his unrighteous conduct, Hims (Violence) and oka (grief) were born. 13. W h e n t h a t pair in the form of Varana (covering u p ) , was born, the lord b e c a m e delighted. He resorted to this. 14. F r o m a half of the body of the lord who was delighted within himself thus, a w o m a n conducive to great welfare, and 1 c h a r m i n g a n d fascinating to all living beings, c a m e o u t . 15. T h a t beautiful looking lady was indeed created from Prakrti by him ( a s he was) desirous (of p r o g e n y ) and was called a t a r p . And she was again a n d again called so. 16. It was then t h a t the subjects were born of that noblesouled being in the middle of T r e t yuga as has already been m e n t i o n e d by me to you in section-I Prakriypda. 17. W h e n those subjects created by t h a t intelligent selfpossessed being did not increase in n u m b e r , he created other jxiental sons similar to himself.
1. Cf. Manu 1.32.

1.2.9.18-29
1

95

18-19. He created these nine m e n t a l sons viz. : Bhrgu, Agiras, M a r l c i , Pulastya, P u l a h a , K r a t u , Daksa, Atri a n d Vasistha. In the P u r n a , these are decisively called the " n i n e B r a h m s " (because they were like) B r a h m a (the c r e a t o r ) u n t o all beings of controlled souls, having the A t m a n as their source of origin. 20. T h e n B r a h m a created again D h a r m a who was delightful a n d pleasant u n t o all living beings; as well as the Prajpati Ruci. These two were the eldest of all ancient ones. 21. He created from his intellect, D h a r m a who was delightful a n d pleasant u n t o all living beings. He who is n a m e d Ruci was b o r n of the m i n d of (the lord of) unmanifest birth. 22-24. Sage Bhrgu was born of the h e a r t of the lord whose source of origin was water. B r a h m a created Daksa from his vital b r e a t h and M a r l c i from his eyes. He created R u d r a (also known as) Nlalohita in the form of Abhimna (prestige, h o n o u r ) . He created agiras from his h e a d a n d Atri from the ears. From his Udna (?) vital breath (prna) he created Pulastya and Pulaha from Vyna. Vasistha was born of Samna and he created K r a t u from Apna. 25. T h u s these twelve are r e m e m b e r e d as the sons of B r a h m a at the beginning (of c r e a t i o n ) of subjects. D h a r m a was the first-born a m o n g those Devats. 26. Bhrgu a n d others who h a d been created are remem bered as Brahmarsis (Brahminical sages). T h e y are the ancient house-holders a n d D h a r m a (virtue) was initially established by them. 27-28a. In the K a l p a , these twelve give b i r t h to subjects a g a i n and again. T h e i r twelve races a r c divine a n d equipped with Divine qualities. T h e y perform holy rites and have (i.e. procreate) progeny. T h e y are a d o r n e d ( h o n o u r e d ) by great sages. 28b-29. W h e n the p r o g e n y created b y D h a r m a a n d other g r e a t sages ( w h o themselves) h a d been created ( b y h i m ) d i d not multiply, t h e intelligent a n d self-possessed lord b e c a m e slightly enveloped by T a m a s a n d afflicted by grief.

1.

Cf. M a n u 1.35 also VP.I.8.4-6.

96

Brahmnda Purna:

30. J u s t as B r a h m a was enveloped by T a m a s elements, so also in the case of his sons too a n o t h e r T a m a s element issued forth. 31-32. A d h a r m a is in the n a t u r e of r e t u r n flow (?) a n d H i m s (Violence) is inauspicious by n a t u r e . T h e n when he was obstructed a n d the n a t u r e of the covering was manifest, B r a h m a discarded his own shining physical body. After dividing his own body into two, he b e c a m e a m a n by one half. 33. By ( a n o t h e r ) half he b e c a m e a w o m a n a n d she was a t a r p . She was the P r a k r t i , 1 the m o t h e r of all living beings ( a n d manifested thus) because the lord was creating out of desire. 34-36. W i t h her grandeur, she pervaded the firmament and the earth and r e m a i n e d steady. T h a t was the former body of B r a h m a who stayed enveloping the firmament. T h e half t h a t was created as a w o m a n b e c a m e a t a r p . T h a t divine l a d y performed a very difficult p e n a n c e for a h u n d r e d thousand years and obtained Purusa of brilliant fame as her husband. Indeed, he is called M a n u , the Purusa, the earlier son of t h e self-born lord. 37-38a. Seventyone sets of four Yugas constitute what is called his M a n v a n t a r a (reign of a M a n u ) . After obtaining as his wife, a t a r p who was not b o r n of a n y w o m b , the P u r u s a sported with her. H e n c e it is called Rati (sexual d a l l i a n c e ) . 38b-40. T h e first union took place in the beginning of the K a l p a . B r a h m a created V i r t (the immense Being). T h a t V i r t became the P u r u s a . H e , accompanied by a t a r p , is remembered a s Vairja, M a n u a n d S a m r t ( E m p e r o r ) . T h a t Purusa, M a n u , the Vairja c r e a t e d subjects (begot p r o g e n y ) . F r o m Vairja, the P u r u s a , S a t a r p gave b i r t h to two heroic ' sons. 4 1 . T h e y were Priyavrata a n d U t t n a p d a . These two sons were the most excellent sons t h a t persons possessing sons could expect. (She gave b i r t h to) two d a u g h t e r s also of great fortune. F r o m t h e m these subjects were b o r n .
1. used T h e Skhya pair of Prakrti and Purusa are represented T h e terms Vairja, Purusa, M a n u here as

atarup and M a n u . as synonyms.

(and Samrt) are

1.2.9.42-55

97

42. T h e y were the divine lady n a m e d Akti a n d auspi cious lady Prasti. Both of t h e m were auspicious. T h e lordly son of the self-born lord gave Prasti to Daksa. 43. He gave kti to Ruci, the Prajpati. An auspicious pair was b o r n of Akti as the progeny of Ruci, the mental son (of B r a h m a ) . 44. T h e y were the twins Yaja and Daksin. Twelve sons were born to Yaja and D a k s i n . 45. T h e y were the Devas n a m e d Ymas in the Svyam b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a . They were the sons of twins, viz : Yaja 1 and Daksin. H e n c e they are remembered as Ymas. 46. ( ?) T w o groups of B r a h m a are remembered viz : Ajitas a n d ukras. T h e Y m a s who have the appellation Divaukas (heaven-dwellers) c i r c u m a m b u l a t e d the former. 47. Lord Daksa begot of Prasti, the d a u g h t e r of Svyambhuva Manu, twenty-four daughters who b e c a m e mothers of the world. 48-49a. All of t h e m were highly fortunate. All of them were lotus-eyed. All of them were wives of Yogins a n d all of them were Yogic mothers. All of t h e m were expounders of B r a h m a n a n d all of t h e m were the mothers of the universe. 49b-50. Lord D h a r m a accepted ( t h e following) t h i r t e e n daughters of D a k s a as his wives, viz : r a d d h , Laksm, Dhi ti, T u s t i , Pusti, M e d h , Kriy, Buddhi, Lajj, Vasu, n t i , Siddhi, a n d Krti as the t h i r t e e n t h . 51-52. These door-ways of his (creative activity) w e r e ordained by the self-born lord. T h e others t h a t remained were the eleven younger daughters of beautiful eyes, viz : Sat,. K h y t i , S a m b h t i , Smrti, Prti, K s a m , S a n n a t i , Anasy. Orj, Svh a n d S v a d h . 53-54. O t h e r great sages accepted t h e m (as wives). T h e y were R u d r a , Bhrgu, Marci, Agiras, P u l a h a , K r a t u , Pulastya, Atri, Vasistha, Agni and Pitrs. He gave (in m a r r i a g e ) Sa to Bhava a n d K h y t i to Bhrgu. 55. To Marci, he gave Sambhti, a n d Smrti to Agiras.. To Pulastya he gave Prti a n d K s a m to Pulaha.
1. Derivation of Y m a , the gods of the S v y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a .

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56. To K r a t u , he gave Sannati a n d the ( d a u g h t e r ) n a m e d Anasy to Atri. He gave rj to Vasistha a n d Svh to Agni (the fire-god). 57-58. He gave Svadh to the Pitrs. Listen from me their children. All these were highly fortunate ladies; their subjects (children) obediently followed them in all M a n v a n t a r a s till the time of ultimate annihilation (of the w o r l d ) . raddh gave birth to K a m a and D a r p a (arrogance) is remembered as the son of Laksm. 1 59. N i y a m a ( R e s t r a i n t ) was the son of D h r t i ( C o u r a g e ) . Santosa ( C o n t e n t m e n t ) is mentioned as the son of T u s t i (Satisfaction). L b h a (gain) was the son ofPusti ( N o u r i s h m e n t ) a n d ruta (Learning) was the son of M e d h ( I n t e l l e c t ) . 60. D a m a (Restraint of sense-organs) a n d a m a (Res t r a i n t of the m i n d ) a r e mentioned as the sons of Kriy (Activity). Bodha (Understanding) a n d A p r a m d a (Absence of Errors) were the sons of Buddhi (Intellect). 6 1 . Vinaya (Modesty) was the son of Lajj (Bashfulness). Vyavasya (Enterprise) was the son of Vasu. K s e m a (Welfare) was the son of Snti ( T r a n q u i l i t y ) . Sukha( Happiness) was b o r n of Siddhi ( A c h i e v e m e n t ) . 62. Yaas ( F a m e ) was the son of Krti (Renown) T h e s e were the sons of D h a r m a . Kama's (Love's) son H a r s a (Delight) was b o r n of the noble lady Siddhi (Achievement). 63. T h r o u g h A d h a r m a (Evil), H i m s (Violence) gave b i r t h to the two children Nikrti (Dishonesty, Wickedness) a n d Anrta ( F a l s e h o o d ) . 64. T w o twins were born of Nikrti a n d A n r t a viz Bhaya ( F e a r ) , N a r a k a ( H e l l ) , M y (Illusion) a n d V e d a n ( P a i n ) . 65. T h r o u g h M a y a , M y gave birth to M r t y u ( D e a t h ) t h a t takes away all living beings. T h e n D u h k h a (Misery) was b o r n of V e d a n t h r o u g h R a u r a v a ( H e l l ) . 66. Vydhi (Sickness) gave birth to J a r ( O l d a g e ) , oka (Grief), K r o d h a ( A n g e r ) and Asy (Jealousy) through M r t y u . All these a r e remembered as characteristics of A d h a r m a (Evil) with misery as the ultimate end.
1. V V . 58-67 personify virtues and vices and state O u t of these V V . 6 3 - 6 8 describe the T m a s a creation. their parentage.

1.2.9.67-80 67. less. T h u s this T m a s a creation took birth the controlling one.

99 T h e i r wife, son,everyone is r e m e m b e r e d as d e a t h with A d h a r m a as

68. Nlalohita was c o m m a n d e d by B r a h m a , "Beget p r o g e n y " . He contemplated on his wife Sat a n d created sons. 1 69. T h e y were neither superior to him nor inferior. T h e y were his m e n t a l sons on a p a r with himself. H e , created thousands a n d thousands of such childern wearing elephant hides. 70-80. All of t h e m h a d these characteristics and features: All of t h e m were on a p a r with himself in form, brilliance, strength a n d learning. T h e y were tawny-coloured. T h e y h a d quivers a n d m a t t e d hair. T h e y were dark blue-red in com plexion. T h e y were devoid of tufts. T h e y h a d no hairs. T h e y were killers w i t h eyes ( b y casting a look). T h e y h a d K a p l a s (skills) with them. T h e y h a d huge beautiful forms and_J>ideous cosmic forms. Some occupied chariots a n d wore coats of mail. T h e y were defenders wearing a r m o u r s . T h e y h a d h u n d r e d s and thousands of arms. T h e y were able to go through t h e firmament, earth and heaven; they h a d big heads, eight fangs, two tongues a n d three eyes. (Some were) eaters of rice, (some) eaters of flesh, ( s o m e ) drinkers of ghee a n d (some of) Soma juice. (Some) h a d penises of great size; fierce bodies a n d blue necks. Some h a d fierce fury. T h e y h a d quivers a n d armours, bows, swords a n d leather shields. Some were s e a t e d ; some were r u n n i n g . Some yawning a n d some occupying (seats). Some were reciting (the V e d a s ) , some performing J a p a s , Yogic practices and meditations. Some were blazing. Some were showering, some shining a n d some smoking. Some were enlightened. Some were wakeful, alert a n d enlightened. Some h a d the p r o p e r t y of B r a h m a ( ? ) . Some h a d the vision of B r a h m a n . T h e y h a d blue necks a n d thousand eyes. All of t h e m were walking over the e a r t h . T h e y were invisible to all living beings. T h e y had great Yogic power, virility a n d splendour. T h e y were shouting a n d r u n n i n g . O n seeing R u d r a creating
1. V V . 68-80 describe the Raudri Srsti (creation by R u d r a ) and he t\ I

was asked by Brahma to stop creation as he was procreating immortal progeny and R u d r a complied.

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these excellent Devas with these qualities a n d features, in thousands even before the expiry of the period of a Y m a , B r a h m a told h i m " D o not create subjects like these. T h e subjects should not be created on a p a r w i t h oneself or superior to oneself; welfare u n t o you. Create other subjects vulnerable to d e a t h . Subjects devoid of d e a t h do not begin to perform holy rites". 81. T h u s addressed, he ( R u d r a ) said to h i m (Brahma) : " I will n o t create progeny subject t o d e a t h a n d old age. Pro sperity u n t o you. I am standing by (i.e. cease to p r o c r e a t e ) ; you please create, O lord. 82. These hideous a n d bluish-red coloured subjects who h a d been created by me in thousands a n d thousands, have come o u t of my own self. 83. These Devas will be known by the n a m e of R u d r a s . T h e y a r e highly powerful. Those R u d r n s a r e well-known over the earth a n d firmament. 84. E n u m e r a t e d in the (Vedic text) atarudra, they will become worthy of Yajas. All of t h e m will p a r t a k e of t h e Yajas along with the groups of Devas. 85. Till the end of the Yuga, they will remain, on being worshipped along with those Devas b o r n of Cchandas (Vedas orborn as they are pleased) in the M a n v a n t a r a s . 86. On being told thus by M a h d e v a , t h a t lord B r a h m a , the delighted lord of subjects replied to the terrible R u d r a . 87. "O lord welfare u n t o you. Let it be as spoken by you." W h e n it was p e r m i t t e d by B r a h m a , everything h a p p e n e d t h a t way. 88. Thenceforth, the lord S t h n u did n o t beget subjects. He r e m a i n e d celibate till the u l t i m a t e annihilation. 89-9la. He is r e m e m b e r e d by learned m a n as S t h n u 1 because it was said by h i m t h u s " 1 am standing b y " . All these qualities are present in a k a r a v i z : knowledge, penance, truthfulness, glorious prosperity, virtue, d e t a c h m e n t a n d com prehension of the self. He excels all the Devas a n d sages along

1.

Derivation of Sthnu.

1.2.9.91b-9210.1-4

101

w i t h the Asuras, by m e a n s of his splendour. H e n c e the lord is 1 remembered as Mahdeva (Great god). 91b-92. He excels the Devas t h r o u g h his glorious pros perity, the great Asuras t h r o u g h his power, all the sages t h r o u g h his knowledge a n d all the living beings t h r o u g h Yoga. It is thus t h a t M a h d e v a is bowed to by all t h e Devas. After creating the subjects devoid of enterprise, he refrained from creation.

CHAPTER TEN Magnificence of God iva : Birth of Nilalohita : His eight Names and Forms* The Sage said.: 1. T h e manifestation in this K a l p a of the noble-souled great lord R u d r a along w i t h the Sdhaka (spiritual aspirants) has n o t b e e n n a r r a t e d by you. Sta replied : 2. T h e origin of the p r i m o r d i a l creation has been succinct ly m e n t i o n e d by m e . I shall now n a r r a t e in detail the names a l o n g w i t h the physical bodies. 3. M a h d e v a begot of his wives m a n y sons in the o t h e r K a l p a s t h a t have passed by. Listen to those ( p r o c r e a t e d ) in this K a l p a . 4. In t h e beginning of the K a l p a , the lord c o n t e m p l a t e d on a son on a p a r w i t h himself. Thereafter, the child Nilalohita a p p e a r e d on his lap.
1. Derivation of Mahdeva.

This chapter deals w i t h the eight forms of g o d i v a a popular concep tion in Purnas a n d classical literature. It is an amplification of a similar concept in atapatha Brhmana as n o t e d below. This chapter is textually very close to V.p.Ch.27.

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5-6. He cried loudly in a terrible m a n n e r (voice). He a p p e a r e d as t h o u g h he would b u r n by means of his brillance. 1 On seeing t h e child N i l a l o h i t a crying suddenly, B r a h m a spoke to h i m " W h y do you cry, O child ?" He r e p l i e d " G i v e me at the outset a n a m e , O G r a n d f a t h e r . " 2 7 . " O lord, you are n a m e d R u d r a " . O n being told thus he cried again. " W h y do you cry, O c h i l d ? " asked B r a h m a to him. 8. " G i v e me a second n a m e " , said he to t h e self-born L o r d . " Y o u are Bhava by n a m e , O L o r d " . On being told thus he cried again. 9. " W h y do you c r y ? " , enquired B r a h m a of t h e crying child. " G i v e me a third n a m e " . On being told thus, he said again. 10. " O lord, you are arva b y n a m e . " O n being told thus he cried again, " W h y do you cry ?", asked B r a h m a again to t h e crying child. 11. " G i v e me a fourth n a m e . " On being told thus, he said again, " O lord, you are I n a b y n a m e " . O n being told thus he cried again. 12. " W h y d o you c r y " , said B r a h m a t o t h a t crying child again. He replied to the self-born l o r d " G i v e me a fifth name." 13. " Y o u a r e t h e lord a n d m a s t e r of all Paus ( A n i m a l s , living b e i n g s ) " . On being told thus, he cried again. " W h y do you c r y ? " said B r a h m a to t h a t crying child, once again. 14. " I n d e e d , give m e t h e sixth n a m e " . O n being told thus h e replied t o h i m " O lord, you a r e Bhma b y n a m e " . O n being told thus he cried again. 15. " W h y d o you cry ? " , asked B r a h m a again t o t h a t crying child. " G i v e m e t h e seventh n a m e " . O n being told thus he replied :
1. 2. T h i s n a m e signifies identification of R u d r a a n d Fire. W. 5 ff. T h i s episode of crying for a n a m e a n d g o d It is from this concept in SB that Bd.P. Brahma's (and other

assigning eight n a m e s is a reproduction of the same in atapatha B r h m a n a (SB. 6.1.3.1-18). S e e the next note. Purnas such as V . P . , L P ) developed the Asta-mrli conception of R u d r a .

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16. " O lord, you a r e U g r a b y n a m e " . O n being told thus, h e cried a g a i n . T o t h a t crying child he said " D o not c r y " . 17. He s a i d ' G i v e me, O lord, the eighth n a m e " . " Y o u arc M a h d e v a b y n a m e " . O n being told thus, h e stopped crying. 18. After securing these n a m e s . Nilalohita requested B r a h m a " I n d i c a t e t h e abodes of these n a m e s " . 1 19-20. T h e n the bodies were lord u n t o these n a m e s ( a b o d e s ) . water, the e a r t h , the wind, the fire, B r h m a n a a n d t h e M o o n . T h u s the ties. T h e lord is to be worshipped, those bodies. allotted by t h e self-bom T h e y w e r e t h e sun, the t h e Ether, t h e initiated bodies were of eight varie saluted a n d bowed to in

21-23. B r a h m a said again to the child N i l a l o h i t a " O lord, at the outset, your n a m e has been m e n t i o n e d by me as R u d r a . T h e sun shall b e t h e f i r s t body u n t o thy f i r s t n a m e " .

1. mrtis)

T h e abodes of the names of Nilalohita are the eight forms of iva and they symbolize the five Mah-bhtas

(asfa-

(gross e l e m e n t s ) ,

the t w o principle vital airs Prna a n d Apna and the principle of the M i n d . T h e following tabular statement of the eight forms of Rudra, their abodes, names of their consorts and children will clarify this chapter. Name or Form of 1. 2. 3. 4. iva Rudra Bhava arva I na A b o d e or bodies alloted the sunj (i.e. Raudri Suvarcal Dhtri Vikei iv i the satum Prna or Heat) the water Apah (ani) T h e Venus (ukra) The i) Mars Designation of that body N a m e o f the consort N o of the sons

the earth
the wind

Bhmi Vta

(Agraka) Manojava ii) Avijtagati 5. 6. 7. 8. Paupati Bhima Ugra Mahdeva the Fire the Ether Initiated Brhmana The Moon Agni Svh Quarters Diks Rohioi Skanda Svarga Santna Budha

Aka
Diksita Brhmana Candramas

( A p n a ) or cold

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W h e n this was uttered his splendour became an eye, which illuminates, t h e n it entered the sun. H e n c e he ( t h e sun) is r e m e m b e r e d as R u d r a . O n e shall avoid seeing t h e sun while rising or while setting. 24. Since the sun comes into view frequently a n d since it vanishes frequently, one, who desires for longevity, should not directly see the sun. O n e should always be p u r e . 25-26. Worshipping d u r i n g t h e two periods of junctions ( t h e d a w n and t h e d u s k ) , a n d repeating t h e S m a n , R k a n d Yajus hymns, the B r h m a n a s propitiate a n d strengthen R u d r a of t h e past a n d t h e future. At t h e time of rising, the sun stands on the Rks, at m i d d a y he stands on t h e Yajus a n d in t h e late afternoon, R u d r a lies down a n d takes rest gradually. H e n c e , in fact, t h e fun never rises nor does he set. 1 27. O n e shall never pass urine in the direction of R u d r a (i.e. the sun) in whatever condition he may b e . 28. Lord R u d r a does not oppress the B r h m a n a who strictly adheres to these principles. T h e n B r a h m a said again t o t h a t lord N i l a l o h i t a . 29. Y o u r second n a m e has been m e n t i o n e d by me as Bhava. Let t h e waters be the second physical body of this n a m e of yours. 30. On this being m e n t i o n e d , the element of t h e n a t u r e of Rasa ( J u i c e ) (i.e. water) became stationed in his body. Since he entered it, t h e water is remembered as Bhava. 3 1 . Since t h e living beings are born ( b h a v a n t ) of h i m , a n d since he evolves (bhvant) the living beings t h r o u g h t h e m (i.e. t h e w a t e r s ) he is called Bhava 2 (due to his creation a n d evolution of beings). 32. H e n c e , one shall never urinate or pass faeces into the waters. O n e should not spit into water, n o r plunge into t h e water in t h e n u d e n o r should a n y o n e have sexual intercourse within the waters.

T h e Soma-yji B r h m a n a Yajamna is regarded as the principle of the mind. Cf. mono 1. 2. vai Tajamnasya rpamSat. Br.1.2.8.84. T h i s Puranic speculation turned out to be a scientific truth. T h i s e t y m o l o g y of 'Bhava' is confirmed in V . P .

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33. N o r should one e n u m e r a t e (?) these w h e t h e r flowing or still. T h e s e bodies of t h e waters a r e declared by t h e sages as Medhya ( P u r e ) a n d Amedhya ( I m p u r e ) . 34. Waters devoid of taste, waters of bad o d o u r a n d colour a n d water in very little q u a n t i t y should be avoided on all occasions. T h e sea is the source of origin of waters. H e n c e waters desire it. 35. After r e a c h i n g t h e sea, t h e waters become sacred a n d Amrta ( n e c t a r i n e ) . H e n c e one should n o t obstruct t h e waters since they love the sea. 36a. L o r d Bhava does n o t oppress or injure h i m w h o treats w a t e r thus. 36b. T h e n B r a h m a said again to child Nilalohita : 37. " O lord, the third n a m e o f yours t h a t h a d b e e n m e n t i o n e d by me is arva. Let this e a r t h be t h e physical b o d y of t h a t third name. 38. O n this being mentioned, t h e h a r d and f i r m ( p a r t ) in his body, n a m e l y bones entered the e a r t h . Therefore, it is called arva. 39. H e n c e , one should not evacuate the bowels or uri n a t e i n t h e ploughed l a n d . O n e should not u r i n a t e i n t h e shade of trees, or in the p a t h w a y or in one's own shadow. 40. After covering t h e ground w i t h grass a n d covering one's head, one should evacute the bowels. arva does not oppress or injure h i m who behaves like this towards t h e earth. 41-43. T h e n B r a h m a said again to child N i l a l o h i t a . " Y o u r fourth n a m e t h a t h a d b e e n declared by me is Ina. V y u ( W i n d ) should be the fourth physical b o d y of your fourth n a m e . As soon as this was spoken t h a t (vital b r e a t h ) which was stationed in him in five groups a n d is t e r m e d Prna (Vital b r e a t h ) entered V y u . H e n c e wind is Ina. H e n c e one should not censure or revile at V y u the lord himself as it blows violently. 44. L o r d M a h e n a does not oppress or injure h i m who properly behaves towards the w i n d and those who h o n o u r the w i n d by m e a n s of Yajas and those w h o serve it.

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45-49. T h e n B r a h m a said again to t h a t lord D h m r a (smoke-coloured) I v a r a . " T h e fifth n a m e of yours t h a t h a d been m e n t i o n e d by me is Paupati. Let this Agni (Fire) be the fifth body of y o u r fifth n a m e " . On this being mentioned, the fiery brilliance t h a t h a d been stationed in his body and is t e r m e d Usna ( H o t ) entered the fire. H e n c e it (fire) is Pau pati. Since Agni is Pau (Animal) a n d since he protects a n i mals, the physical body of Paupati is designated (defined) as Agni. H e n c e , one should not b u r n i m p u r e o r d u r e nor should one w a r m one's feet. O n e should not place it b e n e a t h n o r should one trespass it. Lord P a u p a t i does not oppress or injure h i m who behaves properly like this. 50-54. T h e n B r a h m a said once again to t h a t lord vetapigala ( W h i t e - a n d - t a w n y - c o l o u r e d ) . "O lord, the sixth n a m e of yours that h a d been mentioned by me is Bhma. Let ka ( E t h e r ) be the sixth b o d y of t h a t n a m e " . On this being utter ed, the cavity t h a t h a d been in his body entered t h e ether. H e n c e , it is the body of Bhma. Since the lord is r e m e m b e r e d as existing in the e t h e r . O n e should not evacuate the bowels, u r i n a t e , take food, drink water, have sexual intercourse or throw up leavings of food consumed without having a cover on. T h e lord does not oppress or injure h i m who behaves towards Bhma thus. T h e n B r a h m a said once again to t h a t lord, who is mighty. 55. O lord, your seventh n a m e t h a t h a d been m e n t i o n e d b y m e was U g r a . T h e initiated B r h m a n a becomes the body of t h a t n a m e of yours. 56. On this being uttered, the Caitanya (consciousness, alertness) t h a t was in his body entered the initiated Brh m a n a w h o performs the Soma sacrifice. 57. F o r t h a t d u r a t i o n , the initiated B r h m a n a becomes lord U g r a . H e n c e , no one shall abuse or revile at h i m nor shall anyone speak vulgar word s a b o u t him. 58. Those w h o censure h i m take away his sins. Lord U g r a does not: oppress or injure those B r h m a n a s who behave properly thus. 59-61. T h e n B r a h m a once again said to t h a t lord with the lustre of the sun, " Y o u r eight n a m e t h a t h a d been m e n -

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tioned by me is M a h d e v a . L e t the m o o n be t h e physical b o d y of t h a t eighth n a m e of y o u r s " . On this being m e n t i o n e d , t h e mind of the lord t h a t h a d been conceiving a n d c o n t e m p lating entered the Candramasa ( M o o n ) . Therefore, the m o o n is M a h d e v a . H e n c e , this great lord is considered to be the Moon. 62. On the new m o o n day a B r h m a n a should not cut trees, bushes or medicinal herbs. Soma ( M o o n ) is remem bered as M a h d e v a a n d his A t m a n (soul) is the g r o u p of medicinal herbs. 63-65. M a h d e v a does not slay him who always remains thus on the P a r v a n days ( n e w m o o n , full m o o n e t c . ) a n d w h o understands t h a t lord thus. T h e sun protects the subjects by the day a n d the m o o n , at the night. O n t h e n i g h t (i.e. o n the new m o o n ) the sun a n d the m o o n join together. O n t h a t Amvsy (New M o o n ) n i g h t one shall always be Tukta ( p r o p e r l y performing Yogic exer cise) . All this visible universe has been pervaded by R u d r a , t h r o u g h his bodies a n d names. 66. T h i s sun t h a t wanders alone is called R u d r a . It is d u e to the light of the sun t h a t the subjects see with t h e i r eyes. 67-69. R u d r a remains a liberated soul a n d drinks w a t e r t h r o u g h his rays. Food is eaten a n d w a t e r is d r u n k w i t h a desire for food, w a t e r etc. T h e body arising out of water develops a n d nourishes the bodies. T h a t e a r t h e n body of the lord is good as it sustains the subjects. It is t h r o u g h this t h a t the lord upholds all the sub jects by means of a steady splendour. 70-75. T h e gaseous body of Ina is the vital b r e a t h of all living beings. It is stationed in the bodies of all living beings along w i t h the functions of t h e vital b r e a t h . T h e body of Paupati cooks a n d digests t h e food consum ed a n d t h e beverages drunk, in the bellies of t h e living beings. T h a t which cooks is called Agni (fire i.e. Gastric fire). T h e cavities t h a t are within the bodies for the p u r p o s e of the free movement of the air constitute the body (of t h e lord) called Bhma.

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T h e existence of expounders of B r a h m a n is, d u e to C a i t a n y a (consciousness) of the initiated ones. T h a t body is of the form of U g r a . Therefore, the initiated one is remem bered as U g r a . T h e p a r t of the body t h a t conceives a n d contemplates a n d which is stationed in the subjects is the m e n t a l body, the m o o n i t is stationed in the living beings. Being b o r n again a n d a g a i n he becomes fresh a n d fresh. It is being d r u n k at the p r o p e r time by the Devas along with t h e Pitrs. T h e m o o n of a q u a t i c n a t u r e w i t h n e c t a r within him is remembered as Mahdeva. 76. His first b o d y has been glorified by the n a m e R a u d r i . Its wife is Suvarcal a n d her son is anaicara ( t h e Saturn). 77. T h e second body of Bhava is r e m e m b e r e d by the n a m e of Apah. Its wife is r e m e m b e r e d as D h t r a n d the son is r e m e m b e r e d as U a n a s (the V e n u s ) . 78. T h e b o d y of the t h i r d n a m e of arva is Bhmi ( t h e e a r t h ) . Its wife is Vike a n d the son is r e m e m b e r e d as Agraka (the Mars). 79-84. Vta (wind) is the body of the fourth n a m e of n a . Its wife is iv by n a m e . Anila ( W i n d ) has two sons, viz. : M a n o j a v a (Having the speed of the m i n d ) a n d Avijtag a t i ( O n e of inscrutable m o v e m e n t ) . Agni (Fire) is r e m e m b e r e d by B r h m a n a s , as the body of P a u p a t i . S v h is r e m e m b e r e d as its wife. S k a n d a is remem bered as its son. T h e E t h e r (Aka) is called t h e body Bhma, his sixth n a m e . T h e quarters are r e m e m b e r e d as its wives a n d Svarga ( h e a v e n ) is r e m e m b e r e d as its son. T h e seventh b o d y U g r a is r e m e m b e r e d as the initiated B r h m a n a . Dks is r e m e m b e r e d as its wife a n d S a n t n a is called the son. T h e b o d y Mahat of the eighth n a m e is remembered as Candramas( M o o n ) . Its wife is Rohin. H e r son is remembered as Budha. T h u s these bodies of his have b e e n recounted along w i t h the names.

1.2.10.85-8811.l-5a

109

85-87. T h e lord is to be saluted a n d b o w e d to in those bodies w i t h t h e respective n a m e s for each body. He should be saluted by devotees in the sun, t h e w a t e r s , t h e E a r t h , t h e wind, t h e fire, t h e Ether, t h e i n i t i a t e d one as well as the m o o n . H e should b e h o n o u r e d w i t h g r e a t devotion along with t h e n a m e s . He who knows t h a t lord thus with the bodies a n d n a m e s acquires p r o g e n y a n d attains t h e Syujya ( I d e n t i t y ) of L o r d Bhava. T h u s the esoteric fame of Bhma has been recoun ted to y o u . 88. O B r h m a n a s , let there be welfare u n t o the b i p e d s . Let there be welfare u n t o the q u a d r u p e d s . N o w t h e names a n d bodies of M a h d e v a have been recounted. Listen to t h e progeny of B h r g u .

CHAPTER ELEVEN The Creation of Sages* Sta said : 1-3. K h y t i gave b i r t h to a d a u g h e r a n d two sons. T h e sons were masters of happiness a n d misery. T h e y g r a n t auspi cious a n d inauspicious results u n t o all living beings. T h e y were t h e gods D h t r ( s u p p o r t e r ) a n d V i d h t r (Dispenser of d e s t i n y ) . T h e y used (to live a n d ) w a l k a b o u t t h r o u g h o u t the M a n v a n t a r a . T h e i r elder sister, goddess Sri, purified the worlds. T h e splendid lady attained lord N r y a n a as h e r husband. Bala ( s t r e n g t h ) a n d U n m d a ( l u n a c y ) were b o r n o f her a s t h e sons of N r y a n a . 4-5a. Tejas (fiery brilliance) was the son of Bala a n d

This chapter deals with the progeny of the famous seven sages such as Bhrgu, Agiras, Atri, P u l a h a a n d others. After mentioning their important descendants we are told that all these races passed away in the S v y a m b h u v a Manvantara. T h i s chapter corresponds to V . P . c h . 2 8 .

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Sarhaya ( D o u b t ) was t h e son of U n m d a . O t h e r m e n t a l sons too were b o r n of him. T h e y move a b o u t in the firmament. T h e y drive a n d carry the aerial chariots of the Devas a n d persons of auspicious rites. 5b-6. Ayati (future) a n d Niyati ( R e s t r a i n t ) , the d a u g h ters of M e r u * are remembered as t h e wives of V i d h t r a n d D h t r . P r n a a n d M r k a n d a of firm holy vows were their sons. T h e y are eternal a n d Brahmakoas ( t h e treasury of B r a h m a n or Vedas). 7. M r k a n d e y a was born of Manasvin (as the son) of M r k a n d a . His son Vedairas was b o r n of D h m r a p a t n . 8. Sons of Vedairas in ( t h r o u g h ) Pvar are remem bered as Propagators of the race. These sages who are wellk n o w n as M r k a n d e y a s (Descendants of M r k a n d a ) were masters of the Vedas. 9-10. D y u t i m n was born of P u n d a r k , as the son of P r n a . D y u t i m n h a d two sons, viz. : U n n a t a a n d Svanavta. These two sons h a d sons a n d grandsons through m u t u a l alliances a m o n g t h e descendants of Bhrgu. T h e y passed away d u r i n g t h e Svyambhuva M a n v a n t a r a . Listen to t h e progeny of Marci. 11. U n d e r s t a n d t h a t , S a m b h t i , the wife of M a r c i t h e Prajpati, gave b i r t h to the son P r n a m s a a n d the following -daughters : 12. K r s i , Vrsti, Tvis and the splendid U p a c i t i . P r n a msa begot of Sarasvat two sons: 13. T h e two were Viraja who was righteous a n d Paravaa. Viraja's son was a scholar, well known by the n a m e Sudhman. 14. S u d h m a n , t h e son of Viraja a n d Gaur, resorted to t h e Eastern q u a r t e r . He was a valorous a n d noble-souled guar dian of the q u a r t e r , ( r u l e r of the w o r l d ) . 15-16. Parvaa, of great fame, entered ( t h e task of)
* V . P . 8 . 4 reads: dve tu kanye for meru kalpa hereof. It means accord

i n g to V . P . M e r u was not the father of Ayati and Niyati. M a y we take M e r u as a K a l p a ?

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111

counting holy occasions (Parva-ganana ? ) . P a r v a a * begot of Parva two sons, viz. : Y a j u r d h m a n the intelligent a n d Stambhaks'yapa. T h e i r two sons Sanysa a n d Nicita stabi lised their line. 17-18. Smrti, the wife of Agiras, gave b i r t h to these childrenfour d a u g h t e r s a n d two sons. T h e four daughters w h o were holy a n d well-reputed in the worlds, were viz. Sinvli, K u h , R k a n d A n u m a t i . T h e two sons were B h a r a t g n i a n d Krtimn. 19. Sadvat gave b i r t h to Parjanya the son of Agni (i.e. B h a r a t g n i ) . (Another) Parjanya (otherwise called) Hira n y a r o m a n was b o r n of M a r l c i . 20-21. He is r e m e m b e r e d as a L o k a p l a ( r u l e r of the world, g u a r d i a n of the q u a r t e r ) staying till the ultimate deluge. D h e n u k a gave birth to Carisnu a n d D h r t i m n , the two sinless sons of K r t i m n . Both of them were the most excellent a m o n g t h e descendants of Agiras. T h e i r sons a n d grandsons r a n to thousands. T h e y h a v e all passed away. 22-24. Anasy gave birth to five Atreyas (i.e. sons of Atri) who were free from sins. She gave b i r t h to a d a u g h t e r also n a m e d ruti w h o was the m o t h e r of a k h a p d a . She was the wife o f K a r d a m a , the Prajpati ( L o r d of subjects) a n d son of P u l a h a . T h e five trcyas were Satya-Netra, H a v y a , Apom r t i , anaicara a n d Soma the f i f t h one a m o n g t h e m . T h e y passed away a l o n g with the Y m a d e v a s in the S v y a m b h u v a Manvantara. 25. T h e sons a n d grandsons of those noble-souled Atreyas were h u n d r e d s a n d thousands. T h e y all passed away in t h e Svyambhuva M a n v a n t a r a . 26. D n g n i was the son of Prti, the wife of Pulastya. He is remembered as Agastya in his previous b i r t h in t h e Svyambhuva M a n v a n t a r a . 27-28a. T h e m i d d l e one was D e v a b h u a n d the t h i r d son was Atri by n a m e (thus Pulastya h a d ) three sons. T h e i r younger sister n a m e d Sadvat was well-known. She is r e m e m * T h e corresponding verse in V . P . 2 8 reads: Sarvagannm. It m e a n s Parvaa entered into all t h e g a n a s (?)

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bered as t h e splendid a n d p u r e wife of Agni (i.e. B h a r a t g n i ) a n d m o t h e r of Parjanya. 28b-29. Sujagh, the wife of D n g n i , t h e intelligent son of t h e B r a h m a n i c a l sage Pulastya a n d Prti, gave birth to m a n y sons. T h e y a r e well known as Paulastyas. T h e y a r e remembered ( t o have lived) in S v y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a . 30. K s a m gave birth to t h e sons of P u l a h a * , t h e Prajpati. All of them h a d t h e brilliance of t h e three sacrificial fires. T h e i r fame is well-established. 3 1 . T h e y were three viz. K a r d a m a , U r v a r i v n a n d Sahisnu. Sage K a n a k a p t h a (also was his s o n ) . T h e r e was a beautiful d a u g h t e r n a m e d Pvar. 32. K a r d a m a ' s wife ruti w h o was t h e d a u g h t e r of Atri gave b i r t h to a son n a m e d a k h a p d a a n d a d a u g h t e r n a m e d Kmy. 33. It is r e p o r t e d t h a t this a k h a p d a was prosperous ruler of t h e world a n d lord of t h e subjects. He was devoted to t h e southern q u a r t e r . K m y was given in m a r r i a g e to P r i y a v r a t a . 34. K m y b o r e to P r i y a v r a t a ten sons on a p a r with t h e S v y a m b h u v a M a n u a n d two d a u g h t e r s . It is t h r o u g h these t h a t the Ksatriya race spread. 35. Y a o d h a r , the lady of beautiful waist, gave b i r t h to Sahisnu, the son of K a n a k a p t h a . ( S h e gave b i r t h ) to K m a deva (also). 36. S a n n a t i b o r e auspicious sons to K r a t u . T h e y were equal to K r a t u . T h e y h a d neither wives n o r sons. All of t h e m were c e l i b a t e . 37. T h e y were well k n o w n as Vlakhilyas and a r e sixty thousand in n u m b e r . T h e y s u r r o u n d the sun a n d go a h e a d in front of A r u n a . 38-39a. A l l o f t h e m a r e ( p e r p e t u a l ) associates of t h e S u n till t h e time of u l t i m a t e a n n i h i l a t i o n (of t h e universe). T h e y h a d two younger sisters, P u n y arid Satyavat. T h e y were t h e daughters-in-law of P a r v a , the son o f P r n a m s a .

Corrected misprint.

from

V . P . 2 8 . 25a. as Pulastya in this text is an obvious

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113

39b-40. T h e seven (Vasisthas) were b o r n of rj as t h e sons of Vasistha. T h e i r elder sister was a d a u g h t e r of beauti ful waist n a m e d P u n d a r k . She was the m o t h e r of D y u t i m n a n d the beloved wife of P r n a . 41-42a. H e r younger brothers, the seven sons of Vasistha a r e well known. T h e y a r e R a k s a , G a r t a , r d h v a b h u , Savana, P a v a n a , Sutapas a n d aku. All of t h e m are r e m e m b e r e d as seven sages. 42b-45. T h e famous d a u g h t e r of M r k a n d e y a , the n o b l e lady of excellent limbs, gave b i r t h to R a t n a , the king of wes t e r n q u a r t e r . (He was also known as) K e t u m n a n d he was a Prajpati. T h e races of the noble-souled sons of Vasistha passed away in the S v y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a . Listen to the p r o g e n y of Agni. T h u s the creation of sages has been recounted along w i t h their a t t e n d a n t s . Henceforth, I shall r e c o u n t the family of Agni in detail a n d in the proper order.

CHAPTER

TWELVE

The Race of Agni* Sta said : deity l-2a. A m e n t a l son of B r a h m a is r e m e m b e r e d as t h e identifying itself with fire in the Svyambhuva M a n v a n *This chapter presents the forty-nine ritualistic functions of the Fire as so m a n y different Agni gods a n d gives their arrangement or correlations ia a genealogical form. As a matter of fact, it is a V e d i c concept as c a n be seen from the notes. T h i s section concerning Agnivarha must have been possibly upa part of the original ( U r - ) purna as m a n y verses hereof are textually identical w i t h those in V . P . 29, M t . P . 5 1 . T h e Mbh. Vana Chs. 217-22 (Agirasa k h y n a ) give a detailed description of the ritualistic functions of fire.

114
1

Brahm&n$a Purna

tara. Svh bore to h i m three sons, viz. : P a v a m n a a n d Suci who is remembered as Agni also. 2b-3. T h e P a v a m n a fire is t h a t which is obtained by c h u r n i n g ( t h e Arani), Pvaka is the fire originating from light ning. uci should be known as the solar fire. These a r e t h e three sons of Svh. [ (Repetition) * the P a v a m n a fire is t h a t which is obtained by churning ( t h e A r a n i ) , a n d uci is r e m e m b e r e d as solar fire.] 4-6. T h e Pvaka fire has water as the source of origin a n d it originates from t h e lightning. T h e y a r e their respective abodes (viz. : Arani, t h e sun a n d the l i g h t n i n g ) . K a v y a v h a n a is said to be the son of P a v a m n a . Saharaksa was the son of Pvaka a n d H a v y a v h a was t h e son of uci. H a v y a v h a is the fire of the Devas; K a v y a v h a n a is fire of the.Pitrs; S a h a r a k s a is the fire of the Asuras. T h e r e (thus) t h r e e fires p e r t a i n i n g to the three (i.e. the Devas, Pitrs a n d the Asuras). T h e sons a n d grandsons of these fortynine in n u m b e r . 7. Brahma. 8. T h e good son of B r a h m a d a t t g n i 2 ( t h e fire h a n d e d over by B r a h m a ) is^well known by the n a m e B h a r a t a . Vaiv n a r a was his son, a n d he carried H a v y a for a h u n d r e d years.
T h e text repeats this, hence included here. 1. WA-6 : T h e following genealogical tree will clarify the relation of g genealogical these fires: Agra=vh

the are the are

I shall m e n t i o n their divisions separately along

with

their names. T h e secular fire is well

known as the first son of

Pavamna ( = G r h a p a t y a )

Pvaka

uci

(=Ahavaniya)

I (=Daksingni) born of Arani (cf. R v . I I I . 2 9 . 2 ) | or source: | Water or Lightening F u n c t i o n s : kavya-vhana t P e r t a i t i s to Pitrs) (Vaidyuta) Saharaksa (belongs to Asuras) 2.

I The Sun Havya-vhana pertains to D e v a s

V . P . 29-7 reads Brahmaudanigni instead of Brahmadattgni of B D . P.

T h a t reading i s supported b y M t . P . T h e genealogy i s : Brahmadatta o r Brahma-

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115

9-10. Formerly the fire Edhiti was g a t h e r e d by A t h a r v a n 1 in the ocean Puskara. H e n c e t h a t secular fire is A t h a r v a n a . D a r p a h is remembered as the son of A t h a r v a n . Bhrgu was b o r n as A t h a r v a n a n d Fire is remembered as A t h a r v a n a (son of A t h a r v a n ) . H e n c e the secular fire is considered D a d h y a , 8 t h e son of A t h a r v a n a . 11. P a v a m n a , t h e son of Atharvan, is remembered by t h e wise as one t h a t should be generated by churning. It should be known as G r h a p a t y a fire. His two sons are r e m e m b e r e d as follows : 12. ( T h e y are arhsya a n d u k a * (ukra in V . P. 9-11) arhsya is A h a v a n l y a fire w h o is remembered as H a v y a v h a n a . T h e second son is uka (ukra in V. P.) a n d he is said to be t h e fire t h a t is gathered a n d carried. 13. Savya a n d A p a s a v y a * * were the two sons of amsya. a m s y a , t h e H a v y a v h a n a , loved sixteen rivers. 14-18. T h e fire amsya w h o is r e m e m b e r e d as A h a v a n y a fire as well as one w h o is identified w i t h fire (AbhimSnin, one

udana Bharata Vaivnara w h o carried Havya to gods. Br. ( a t a p a t h a Brh m a n a ) 1.4.2.2 explains that Agni is called Bharata as he supplies Havya to esa agnir hi devebhyo bharati tasmd bharatognir ityhuh / . (po In other words this genealogy becomes an equation thus: B r a h m a d a t t a - = B h a r a t a = V a i v n a r a , the carrier of food to gods. 1. churned out of Puskara. According to Br. V I . 4 . 2 . 2 , Puskara=Waters T h i s has a reference to R v . V I . 1 6 . 1 3 where A g n i is said to h a v e b e e n gods:

vai Puskaram). Br.VII.4.1.13 explains that w h e n Indra g o t frightened after slaying Vrtra, he resorted to waters w h i c h created a city (Par) for h i m a n d h e n c e came to 2. * be known as Puskara (asmai puram akurvarhs tasmit puskaram caksate paroksam). fireplace movable in a carriage tu dhinayah (Krttik). // all. correctly It is probably the same as Daksingni. krtuike crir dhisnthe dhisnyd ** reads: tath sabhySvasathyau vai arhsasygruh suUhmbhau. ha vai tat puskaram

T h e idea is obscure. T h e V . P . 29.16a. reads differently as follows: avyabhicirinyas tstpann&s fire. T h i s is a wrong reading as 'savya' a n d 'apasavya' are no fires at V.P.29.12

*Sabhya' a n d 'vasathya' are the names of the

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Brahmnda Purna

who takes pride) by the B r h m a n a s loved these sixteen rivers :* viz. : Kver, K r s n a v e n , N a r m a d , Y a m u n a , G o d var, Vitast, G a n d r a b h g , Irvat, Vip, Kauik, a t a d r u , Saray, St, Sarasvat, H r d i n a n d Pvan. He divided himself into sixteen Dhmans ( a b o d e s ) a n d in those abodes he deposit ed himself. T h e Dhisnis (abodes i.e. fire-places) were caused to move by vehicles (Krttikas) (?) a n d t h e sons were b o r n in those Dhisns. H e n c e those sons a r e called " D h i s n i s " . T h u s these sons of t h e rivers were b o r n in the Dhisnis a n d they a r e glorified as Dhisnis. 19. Some of these fires are Viharaniyas, ( p o r t a b l e , those t h a t should be carried or r e m o v e d ) , a n d others a r e Upastheyas2 (those t h a t should be m a d e to sit, deposited (?). T h e y shall be briefly b u t factually r e c o u n t e d . 20. T h e following a r e the sons of amsya. All of them are remembered by B r h m a n a s as Upastheyas. V i b h u , Pravah a n a a n d Agndhra a n d others, Dhisnis ( a l r e a d y deposited f i r e s )
1. T h i s is a poetic w a y of describing the spread of the V e d i c Y a j a cult. This portable fire was carried from the Sit (The O x u s V . S . A g r a w a l a ; the J a x a r t e s N . L. D e ) in the Central Asia d o w n to the Kveri in the South India. M o d e r n political m a p s of India blind us to the vast geographical area which w a s India to the Purna-writers. It was on the St that N r a d a m e t his brothers Sanatkumra etc. and where probably the N . P . was presumed to have been narrated. For the ancient names of the rivers hereof modern names are given in brackets : Vitast ( T h e J h e l u m ) , Candrabhg ( T h e C h i n a b ) , Irvati ( T h e R a v i ) , V i p ( T h e Bias), Kauiki ( T h e K o s i ) , atadru ( T h e Sutlej), St (the O x u s or the Jaxartes or the T a r i m Y a r k a n d ) , Hrdin or Hldini ( T h e Brahmaputra?), Pvani ( T h e G h a g g a r ? ) . T h e list of rivers shows that the spread of the Yaja-cult covered parts of Central Asia, the Panjab a n d Kashmir, the U t t a r Pradesh (and probably Bihar), t h e M a d h y a Pradesh, Maharashtra a n d part of Southern Karnatak. ' T h e sons of the rivers' is obviously the riperian population w h i c h followed the Yaja cult. 2. T h e Purna classifies Dhisnya fires into Viharaniyas and Upastheyas. T h e translation gives only the literal interpretations of the terms. T h e Dhisnya was a side-altar of a h e a p of earth covered w i t h sand. On t h a t altar fire w a s placed.. In the Soma-sacrifice, these fires were placed between the altar ( V e d i ) of the rauta Yaja a n d the U t t a r a V e d i m e a n t for the S o m a sacrifice. T h e designation Upastheya is given to those fires as they were to be approached at their fixed place in the Uttara-Vedi. T h e Viharanya fires are so called as they could be taken to any spot considered necessary on the day of the Yaja.

1.2.12.21-30

117

a r e serially laid down in their p r o p e r places in a Savana (Soma sacrifice) on t h e d a y when t h e Soma-juice is extracted. 21-22. Listen to the d u e order of the fires t h a t a r e to be laid down A n u d d e y a * (without being given a n y p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n ) . B r h m a n a s * * worship t h e eight f i r e s beginning with S a m r d a g n i . T h e y a r e S a m r d a g n i etc. T h e second one is K r n u a n d it is inside t h e Altar. T h e third one is Parisatpavamna. It is laid down as directed (anudiyate) .*** 23. A n o t h e r fire is Pratalka, (otherwise) n a m e d N a b h a s . It is manifested in the Catvara (levelled spot of g r o u n d speci ally p r e p a r e d for the sacrifice). Havya t h a t is not besmeared ( w i t h g h e e ) is deposited in t h e fire in t h e mitra vessel ( p a r ticular vessel used in t h e sacrifice). 24. (Thereafter is the fire) R t u d h m a n t h a t is glorified as Sujyoti a n d A u d u m b a r y a Vivavyacas is t h e ocean firef ? a n d is glorified in the abode of B r a h m a . 25-26. ( T h e fire) V a s u r d h m a n t h a t is Brahmajyoti is mentioned in t h e abode of B r a h m a . Ajaikapt t h a t is an Upastheya is also lsukhyaka. A h i r b u d h n y a is an Anuddeya fire. T h a t fire is remembered as G r h a p a t i . 27-28. Thereafter, I shall e n u m e r a t e his eight sons who are called V i h a r a n i y a s . 1 [ H e r e there is a repetition of verse N o . 20]. T h e fire H a v y a v h a n a is declared as H o t r l y a fire (i.e. f i r e used b y t h e H o t r ) . 29-30. T h e second fire here is n a m e d Pracetas t h a t is a subdued fire. Thereafter is t h e fire Vaivadeva. It is called arhsiJ by t h e B r h m a n a s . T h e fire Uik t h a t is K a v i is con ceived as Pota fire. It is also conceived as vri fire, V b h r i a n d Vaisthlya.
* vcynm, ** ed by For anuddeya nivsynm here cf. V.P.29.19a. anirdeSynya'undefinable or indescribable'. T h e printed text shows s o m e confusion, verse 2 1 A should be follow 2 2 a after w h i c h 2 1 b should be taken. T h e translation is of the re V.P.29.20 atra dryate, 'is seen here'.

arranged lines. ** f In V . P . 2 9 . 2 2 vivasyyasamudra seems to be the n a m e of the fire. 1. It is not k n o w n w h y there should be a different list of such fires as this list differs from that in M t . P .

t V.P.28abrahma-sthne sa ucyate.
'is s p o k e n of as being in the abode of B r a h m a .

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3 1 . T h e fire Avasphrja is also called Vivasvn a n d Asthn. T h e eighth one which is fire S u d h y u is also called Mrjlya. 32. Those Dhisnyas, the Viharaniyas, a r e being worshipped on t h e Sautya d a y ( t h a t is the d a y on which Soma juice is extracted) by t h e B r h m a n a s . It (i.e. S u d h y u ) is r e m e m b e r e d as the source of origin of the waters. I n d e e d it is conceived in waters. 33. T h e fire b y n a m e Pvaka t h a t is born of waters and t h a t is called Abgarbha ( H a v i n g the waters as the w o m b ) should be known as the fire at the A v a b h r t h a (the holy ablution at the end of a sacrifice). It is worshipped along with V a r u n a . 34. H r c c h a y a (Abiding within the heart) is the fire t h a t is his (Pvaka's) son. 1 It is the fire t h a t digests (food-stuffs) in the stomach of m e n . M r t y u m n is r e m e m b e r e d as t h e scholarly son of t h e Jathara-fire (Gastric fire). 35-36. T h a t fire b o r n m u t u a l l y m a y b u r n all the living beings here. T h e terrible S a m v a r t a k a fire is remembered as the son of the fire M a n y u m n (? M r t y u m n ) . It drinks water a n d lives in the ocean a n d has the face of a m a r e . Saharaksa is conceived as the son of Samudravsin (residing within the ocean). 37. K s m a , the son of Saharaksa, burns t h e houses of m e n . His son is the fireKravyd a n d it consumes dead persons. 38. T h u s the sons of Pvaka fire have b e e n described here. Thereafter is the solar fire uci. 2 It is called yus by t h e Gandharvas. 39. This fire generates other fires on being c h u r n e d in the A r a n i ; this fire is taken from one place to a n o t h e r ; this lord is known by the n a m e yus.

1.

VV.34-38 give the list of Pvaka's sons. But actually they are given ( M a n y u m n ) S a m v a r t a k a (Vadav-

here in the genealogical order as follows: PvakaHrcchayaMrtyumn 2. follows: uci or Ayus, M a h i s a , Sahasa, Adbhuta, Vividhi, Arka as enumerated in V . 4 3 . Arkanine sons of n a l a ) S a h a r a k s a k s m a K r a v y dagni. T h e fires under group of uci are given in a genealogical order as

1.2.12.40-50

119

40. M a h i s a was t h e son of Ayus. His son is n a m e d Sahasa. T h a t fire Sahasa is r e m e m b e r e d as t h e Abhimnin (Identifying itself with it) in the Yajas of Pka (cooking). 4 1 . T h e son of the fire Sahasa was A d b h u t a of great fame. Vividhi is r e m e m b e r e d as the great son of t h e fire Adbhuta. 42. (This fire) is one t h a t identifies itself with expia tory rites. It always consumes the Havis-offering t h a t is consign ed i n t o t h e fire. Arkka was the son of Vividhi. T h e following were t h e sons of t h a t fire ( A r k k a ) . 43. T h e y areAnkavn, Vjasrk, R a k s o h , Yastikrt, Surabhi, Vasu, A n n d a , Apravista a n d R u k m a r t . 44. These fourteen fires are the Progeny of the fire uci. These fires are said to be those t h a t are consecrated in t h e sacrifices. 45. In t h e M a n v a n t a r a of Svyambhuva in the first Sarga ( c r e a t i o n ) , these fires t h a t are Abhimnins (those t h a t identify themselves) h a d passed away along with the Y m a s , t h e excellent Devas. 46. Formerly in the world, these H a v y a v h a n a s (fires) were those t h a t identified themselves with t h e abodes called Viharaniyas, b o t h sentient a n d insentient. 47. These fires were stationed in the holy rites a n d Yajas. T h e y were (both) Kmyas (those w i t h t h e fruit desired) a n d Naimittikas occasional ones or t h a t are utilised when cause arises). T h e y h a d passed away in the previous M a n v a n t a r a along with those ukras a n d Ygas (?) 48. In the M a n v a n t a r a of the first M a n u , they h a d passed away along with the holy noble-souled Devas. T h u s t h e abodes of these Sthnins (those t h a t identify themselves with the abodes) h a v e been e n u m e r a t e d by m e . 49. T h e characteristics of J t a v e d a s (fires) in the M a n v a n t a r a s of t h e past and future are e n u m e r a t e d t h r o u g h them. 50. All of t h e m are r e m e m b e r e d as ascetics a n d Brahmabhrts (those t h a t sustain the knowledge of B r a h m a n ) . All of t h e m were lords of subjects. T h e y are r e m e m b e r e d as L u m i n o u s .

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5 1 . These a r e to be known (as present) in all t h e seven M a n v a n t a r a s beginning with Svrocisa a n d ending with the Svarnya M a n v a n t a r a in regard to their names, forms a n d purposes. 5 2 . T h e present f i r e s exist along w i t h t h e c u r r e n t Yma Devas. T h e future fires ( l i t . those t h a t have n o t y e t c o m e ) shall exist along with the future Devas. 53. T h u s the g r o u p of fires has been duly the p r o p e r order. Now henceforth t h e race in detail a n d in the d u e order. described in

of t h e Pitrs will be narrated

CHAPTER

THIRTEEN

The Real Nature of'Kla Time : Ssatons (Rtuf) Sta said :

as

Pitrs

(Manes)

1. Even as B r a h m a was creating sons formerly in the S v y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a , the h u m a n beings, the Asuras a n d the Devas were b o r n out of his limbs. 2. T h e Pitrs also were b o r n , considering h i m as their father ( ? ) . T h e m o d e of their creation has been described before. Let it be h e a r d briefly once again. 3. After c r e a t i n g the Devas, Asuras a n d the h u m a n beings, B r a h m a took pride in t h e m . (He conceived of a further c r e a t i o n also). ( T h e Pitrs) w h o were being considered like fathers, were born of his flanks. 4. T h e six seasons beginning with M a d h u ( S p r i n g ) (were b o r n of his flanks). T h e y call t h e m Pitrs. T h e vedic text s a y s , " T h e seasons are t h e Pitrs a n d D e v a s . " 5. In all the M a n v a n t a r a s , past a n d future ( t h e same is r e p e a t e d ) . Formerly, these were born in the auspicious M a n v a n t a r a of S v y a m b h u v a .

1.2.13.6-15

121

6-7a. T h e y are remembered by the n a m e Agnisvttas a n d Barhisads. Those of t h e m who were householders, w h o did not perform Yajas are r e m e m b e r e d as the Pitrs of the group Agnisvttas. T h e y were not hitgnis (those who regularly m a i n t a i n e d sacrificial fires). 7b-9. Those of t h e m who performed Yajas are the Pitrs (known as) Somapifhins. Those who performed Agnihotras are remembered as the Pitrs called Barhisads. In this sacred lore, it has been decisively mentioned that the Rtus (seasons) are the Pitrs a n d the Devas. T h e months of M a d h u a n d M d h a v a (i.e. C a i t r a a n d V a i k h a ) should be known as Rasas; the m o n t h of uci a n d ukra (i.e. J y e s t h a a n d A s d h a ) are usmins (Lustrous o n e s ) . T h e m o n t h s of N a b h a s a n d abhsys (i.e. rvana a n d B h d r a p a d a ) t h e s e two are cited as Jivas. 10. T h e months of Isa a n d rja (i.e. vina a n d K r t t i k a ) a r e cited as Svadhvats- T h e m o n t h s of Saha a n d Sahasya (i.e. Mrgarsa a n d Pausa) a r e cited as G h o r a s . 11. T h e months of T a p a s a n d T a p a s y a (i.e. the m o n t h s of M g h a a n d P h l g u n a ) pertain to the winter, they a r e Manyumats. T h e units of time called Msas (months) are included in the six periods of time (seasons). 12. These a r e called Rtus. T h e Rtus a r e the sons of B r a h m a . T h e y should be known as those identifying them selves with both sentient a n d non-sentient (objects). 13. In the abodes of Msa (month) a n d Ardhamsa (fort n i g h t ) , the Rtus (seasons) a r e considered the Sthnins ( t h e a b i d e r s ) . By m e a n s of the change of abodes, the Sthnbhimnins( those who identify themselves with the abodes )should be understood. 14. T h e days, the nights, the months, the seasons, the Ayanas ( t r o p i c a l transits of the sun) a n d the years are the a b o d e s ; t h e names of Abhimnins (deities identifying them selves) are in the same order. 15. T h e Sthnins (those w h o identify themselves with the a b o d e s ) who a r e established in these, a r e the states of time. T h e y are having those as their own selves, since they a r e of the s a m e essence as they. U n d e r s t a n d as I shall m e n t i o n t h e m .

122
1

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16. T h e various units (or states) of time are t h e Tithis of Parvans (dates of l u n a r fortnights), the junctions, the fortnights t h a t a r e on a p a r with halves of m o n t h s , t h e moments, the Kals, K s t h s , M u h r t a s , days a n d nights. 17-18. T w o half-months m a k e one Msa ( m o n t h ) . T w o m o n t h s m a k e w h a t is called Rtu. T h r e e Rtus m a k e one Ayana a n d t h e two Ayanas, (viz. : t h e southern a n d t h e northern) together constitute a year. These are the abodes for the Sthnins. T h e Rtus are t h e sons of N i m i . Similarly, they should be known as six in n u m b e r . 19-20. T h e five types of subjects (i.e. h u m a n beings, q u a d r u p e d s , birds, reptiles and trees) are remembered as the sons of Rtu. T h e y are characterised by their seasonal change. Since the mobile a n d the immobile beings are born through the rtavas (seasonal changes, menstruation etc.) t h e rtavas a r e fathers a n d t h e Rtus a r e grandfathers. W h e n they come together, t h e subjects of t h e Prajpati are born. 2 1 . H e n c e t h e Vatsara ( y e a r ) is considered the great grand-father of t h e subjects. These Sthnins of t h e n a t u r e of the abodes in their respective abodes have been recounted. 22. T h e y are declared as those who have t h e same names, the same essence a n d the same n a t u r e as they ( i . e . units of t i m e ) . It is Samvatsara ( t h e year) t h a t is considered a n d re m e m b e r e d as P r a j p a t i . 23. Agni, the son of Samvatsara, is called rta by scholars. Since they are b o r n of R t a , they a r e called R t u s . 24-25. Years should be known as having six seasons. To the five types of subjects, viz. : bipeds, q u a d r u p e d s , birds, reptiles a n d t h e stationary beings, there are five rtavas (seasonal changes). T h e flower is remembered as K l r t a v a (seasonal change indicating p a r t i c u l a r period of time of trees. T h e state of being Rtu a n d rtava is recounted as Pitrtva ( t h e state of being Pitrs). 26. T h u s the Rlus a n d t h e rtavas should be known as

1.

V V . 16-18 detail the units of time.

1.2.13.27-36

123

Pitrs because all the living beings are b o r n of t h e m t h r o u g h the Rtukla(the time of Rtuperiod favourable for c o n c e p t i o n ) . 1 27. H e n c e these rtavas are indeed the Pitrsso we have h e a r d . These h a v e stayed t h r o u g h o u t the M a n v a n t a r a s as Klbhimnins (identifying themselves w i t h the Kla or t i m e ) . 28-30. T h e y are endowed w i t h causes a n d effects; they have p e r v a d e d everything t h r o u g h their s u p r e m a c y a n d i n d e e d these identify themselves with the abodes a n d they stand h e r e in consequence of t h a t special contact (?). T h e Pitrs a r e of various kinds viz. : Agnisvttas a n d Barhisads. T w o daughters well known in the worlds were b o r n of Svadh a n d the Pitrs. T h e y were M e n a n d . D h r a n by w h o m the entire universe is sustained. These two were expoun ders of B r a h m a n . These two were Yogins also. 31-34. M e n was t h e m e n t a l d a u g h t e r of those Pitrs w h o are m e n t i o n e d as Agnisvttas. T h e y are r e m e m b e r e d as Upahtas too. D h r a n is r e m e m b e r e d as the m e n t a l d a u g h t e r of Barhi sads. These Pitrs, the Barhisads are r e m e m b e r e d as Somapyins too. 2 These two Pitrs gave their splendid daughters in m a r r i a g e for the sake of righteousness. T h e Agnisvttas gave M e n as the wife u n t o the H i m a v n , T h e Barhisads gave the splendid d a u g h t e r D h r a n as wife u n t o M e r u . U n d e r s t a n d their grandsons. M e n the wife of H i m a v n gave birth to M a i n k a . 35. She gave b i r t h to G a g also, the most excellent river w h o b e c a m e the wife of the salt sea. K r a u c a is the son of M a i n k a . It is d u e to h i m t h a t the c o n t i n e n t K r a u c a h a s been so n a m e d . 36. D h r a n . the wife of M e r u , gave b i r t h to the son M a n d a r a endowed with divine m e d i c i n a l herbs as well as three well r e p u t e d d a u g h t e r s .

1. 2.

T h i s explains w h y Rtus (Seasons) are regarded as Pitrs ( m a n e s ) . T h e r e is a difference of o p i n i o n a m o n g the Purnas about the n a m e s presuming

of the daughters of these Pitrs. S u c h differences are reconciled by

that the events in Purnas refer to different K a l p a s or Manvantaras.

124

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37. T h e y were Vela, Niyati a n d the third ( d a u g h t e r ) Ayati. A y a t i is r e m e m b e r e d as the wife of D h t r a n d N i y a t i t h a t of V i d h t r . 38. T h e progeny of these two, formerly in the Svyam b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a h a v e already been recounted. Vela (sea shore) gave b i r t h to a praiseworthy (lit. u n c e n s u r e d ) d a u g h t e r of Sagara ( t h e o c e a n ) . 39. T h e d a u g h t e r of t h e ocean n a m e d S a v a r n b e c a m e t h e wife of P r c n a b a r h i s . T e n sons were b o r n to S a v a r n of Prcinabarhis. 40. All of t h e m were called Pracetasas a n d were masters of t h e science. L o r d Daksa, the son of t h e self-born lord, assumed t h e status of their son. 4 1 . It was on account of the curse of t h e three-eyed lord ( a n d it took place) in t h e Cksusa M a n v a n t a r a . O n h e a r i n g this, rhapyani asked S t a . 42. " H o w was it t h a t Daksa was born formerly in the C k s u s a M a n v a n t a r a , d u e to the curse of Bhava ? Even as we ask, n a r r a t e t h a t to u s . " 43. O n being told thus, S t a addressed m a p y a n i a n d told t h e story connected with D a k s a ( a l o n g with) the cause of t h e curse of T r y a m b a k a . Sta said : 44. " D a k s a h a d eight d a u g h t e r s who have a l r e a d y been m e n t i o n e d by m e . T h e father b r o u g h t t h e m from their (hus b a n d s ' ) houses to his own house a n d h o n o u r e d t h e m . 45-46. T h e n , h o n o u r e d very well thus, all of t h e m stayed in their father's house. T h e eldest a m o n g t h e m was n a m e d Sat who was the wife of T r y a m b a k a (Three-eyed god iva) Daksa who h a t e d iva did not invite t h a t d a u g h t e r . M a h e v a r a never bowed down to Daksa. 47-48. T h e son-in-law who was stationed in his own brilliance did not bow down to his father-in-law. On knowing t h a t all h e r sisters had arrived at her father's house, Sat, too went to h e r father's house a l t h o u g h she had not b e e n invited. T h e father accorded to her an h o n o u r inferior to t h a t accorded to other daughters a n d which was disagreeable to her as well.

1.2.13.49-61

125

49-50. T h a t goddess who h a d b e e n infuriated a n d a n n o yed spoke to h e r father : " O Lord, by according t o m e a wel come a n d h o n o u r inferior to t h a t of my younger sisters, O father, by dishonouring me thus, you have d o n e a despicable t h i n g . I am t h e eldest a n d t h e most excellent. It behoves you to honour m e . " 5 1 . On being told thus, D a k s a spoke to h e r w i t h his eyes t u r n e d red : " T h e s e girls, m y daughters, are m o r e w o r t h y o f respect a n d m o r e excellent t h a n you. 52. O Sat, their h u s b a n d s also a r e highly respected by m e . T h e y a r e highly proficient in t h e Vedas, endowed with good power of p e n a n c e j possessing g r e a t Yogic power a n d very pious. 53-54a. O Sat, all of t h e m are superior to T r y a m b a k a , on account of their good qualities a n d a r e m o r e praiseworthy. T h e y a r e my excellent sons-in-law, viz. : Vasistha, Atri, Pulastya, Agiras, P u l a h a , K r a t u , Bhrgu a n d M a r c i . 54b-56. Since arva always defies a n d disregards m e , I do n o t h o n o u r a n d welcome you. I n d e e d Bhava is antagonistic to m e . " T h u s spoke D a k s a t h e n , on account of his deluded mind, t h e consequence of which was a curse u n t o himself a n d to t h e g r e a t sages w h o were m e n t i o n e d by h i m . On being told father t h u s thus t h e infuriated goddess said to h e r

5 7 . " S i n c e you insult me a l t h o u g h I am devoid of defects verbally, m e n t a l l y a n d physically, O father, I am a b a n d o n i n g this b o d y b o r n of y o u " . 58. T h e n , being infuriated a n d aggrieved on a c c o u n t of t h a t dishonour, goddess Sat bowed down to t h e self-born lord a n d spoke these w o r d s . 59-60a. " W h e r e v e r I am b o r n again w i t h a brilliant b o d y w h e t h e r l a m n o t b o r n (of a w o m b ) o r w h e t h e r I a m b o m of a righteous person, I should necessarily a t t a i n t h e status of the virtuous wife of t h e self-possessed three-eyed lord alone." 60b-61. Seated there itself she entered t h e Yogic t r a n c e . She united h e r soul ( t o t h e supreme l o r d ) . W i t h h e r m i n d she r e t a i n e d t h e gneyi Dhran. T h e n t h e fire b o r n of h e r

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soul rose up from all her limbs. K i n d l e d by the wind it reduced her body to ashes. 62. T h e trident-bearing lord h e a r d a b o u t t h a t d e a t h of Sat. a k a r a came to know a b o u t their conversation factually. H e n c e , the lord b e c a m e angry with Daksa a n d the sages. Rudra said : 6 3 . " B h r l o k a is spoken of as the first one a m o n g all t h e worlds. At the behest of P a r a m e s t h i n (supreme l o r d ) , I shall sustain it always. 64. All the lustrous worlds stand by on being held on to this e a r t h . At his behest, I shall hold them here always. 65. T h e r e is the fourfold classification of the D e v a s . Still they p a r t a k e of food at one place. I will not p a r t a k e of food along with t h e m . Therefore, they will offer it separately unto m e . 66-68. O D a k s a , since, on a c c o u n t of me sinless Sati h a d been insulted, a n d all other d a u g h t e r s were praised along w i t h their husbands, h e n c e when the Vaivasvata M a n v a n t a r a begins, these great sages who are not b o r n of a w o m b will be b o r n again d u r i n g my second Y a j a " . After announcing this to all of them, he cursed Daksa once again, " I n the Cksusa M a n v a n t a r a when ukra's Homa is performed by Brahma (?), you will become a h u m a n king in the family of Cksusa. 69-71. You will be born as the grandson of Prcnabarhis a n d the son of Pracetas. You will be born by the n a m e of Daksa itself, as the son of M r i s , the d a u g h t e r of khins (trees). W h e n t h e Vaivasvata M a n v a n t a r a arrives, there also, O evil-minded one, I will cause obstacles in a holy rite e n d o w e d w i t h virtue t h o u g h it m a y be difficult of a c c e s s " . Sta said : 72. O n h e a r i n g that, Daksa cursed R u d r a once again : " S i n c e , on a c c o u n t of me you r e n d e r e d evil to t h e sages, the B r h m a n a s will n o t worship you along with t h e Devas in the course of a Y a j a .

1.2.13.73-86

127

73. O ruthless one, after offering the A h u t i unto you in the course of their holy rites, they will touch t h e holy w a t e r a g a i n . At the close of the Yuga, they will a b a n d o n heaven a n d will stay here a l o n e " . 74-75. Thereafter, he ( R u d r a ) is not worshipped along with the Devas. He is worshipped separately. T h e r e u p o n , Daksa w h o was t h u s addressed by R u d r a of u n m e a s u r e d , splendour a n d cursed a b a n d o n e d his body origin a t i n g from the self-born lord, a n d was born a m o n g h u m a n beings. 76. After realising t h e lord a n d deity of Yajas, Daksa, t h e householder, worshipped him with the entire Yaja along with the other deities. 77. After the a d v e n t of the Vaivasvata M a n v a n t a r a , t h e lord of mountains begot of M e n t h e goddess U m who h a d b e e n the noble lady Sat previously. 78. She who h a d b e e n t h e noble lady Sat previously b e c a m e U m afterwards. S h e is t h e wife of Bhava always. Bhava is never a b a n d o n e d by h e r . 79-80. J u s t as t h e noble lady Aditi follows for ever K a y a p a , the son of M a r c i ; just as goddess r follows N r y a n a , just as ac follows M a g h a v a n (i.e. I n d r a ) , (so also sat follows B h a v a . ) T h e s e following noble ladies never leave off their h u s b a n d s , viz. : Laksm does not leave off Visnu, U s does not leave off Srya (the S u n ) nor does A r u n d h a t leave of Vasistha. 8 1 . T h e y r e t u r n a n d are b o r n again a n d again i n t h e K a l p a s along w i t h t h e m . T h u s D a k s a was b o r n as t h e son of Pracetas in t h e Cksusa M a n v a n t a r a . 82. This has been h e a r d by us t h a t on a c c o u n t of t h e curse he was b o r n second t i m e as king, as the son of M r i s a n d the ten P r a c e t a s . 83-86. T h e seven g r e a t sages, Bhrgu a n d others were born formerly in the first T r e t yuga of the Vaivasvata M a n v a n t a r a . T h e y a s s u m e d b o d y from V a r u n a , a t t h a t sacrifice of the great lord.

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Between Daksa, the Prajpati, a n d T r i y a m b a k a , the intelligent self-possessed Lord, there was intense enmity con tinued from their previous birth. H e n c e intense enmity should never be pursued at the time of personal antagonism. D u e to merits a n d demerits, the living being does not leave off the awareness of what is intensely conceived in the m i n d , though it m a y pertain to t h e previous birth. T h a t should not be pursued by a learned person. 87. T h u s began the story t h a t rids one of sins a n d 1 t h a t pertains to D a k s a . It has been formerly urged for n a r r a tion by you. 88. This story h a d been recounted in the context of 2 n a r r a t i o n of t h e line of the Pitrs. Henceforth, I shall recount the Devas in the same order as that of the Pitts. 89. Formerly, in the beginning of the T r e t yuga in the Svyambhuva M a n v a n t a r a , there were the Devas well-known as Ymas a n d they were the sons of Y a j a .
3

90. T h e y were the well-reputed sons of Brahma. Since they were Ajas ( u n b o r n ) , they are Ajitas ( u n c o n q u e r e d ) . These are the mental sons of Svyambhuva. T h e y are n a m e d akta. 9 1 . Therefore, these are r e m e m b e r e d as the three groups of Devas (? Yma, Ajita a n d a k t a ) . T h e C c h a n d a j a s * were thirty-three in t h e creation of S v y a m b h u v a . 92-94. T h e twelve Y m a s are recounted as follows : Yadu, Yayti, Vivadha, T r s a t a , M a t i , Vibhsa, Kratu, Prayti, Viruta, D y u t i , V y a v y a a n d S a m y a m a . Y a d u a n d Yayti were two Devas ( ?) T h e twelve Ajitas a r e as follows : Asama, Ugradrsti, Sunaya, uciravas, Kevala, V i v a r p a , Sudaksa, M a d h u p a , Turya, Indrayuk, Yukta a n d U g r a .
3. 2. This a n d a number of verses from this chapter are found inV.P.Ch.3I Daksa, in the 2 n d incarnation, was a descendant of Pitr-gods (vide sacrifice

V . 4 0 a b o v e ) . H e n c e the story of D a k s a a n d the destruction of his by iva is inserted here. 3. * From

this verse, the section of the race of gods (Deva-vamia) begins.

V.P.31.5 reads chandogSh 'Chanters of the Sma-veda'.

1.2.13.95-107

129

95-96. T h e twelve aktas are recounted as follows : J a n i m a n , Vivadeva, J a v i s t h a , M i t a v n , J a r a , V i b h u , V i b h v a , Rcika, D u r d i h a , ruti, G r n n a a n d B r h a t . These were Somapyins in the S v y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a . 97. These Ganas were lustrous, valorous a n d very powerful at the outset; lord Vivabhuk was t h e i r I n d r a . 98-100. T h e Asuras w h o lived t h e n were their cousins a n d kinsmen. T h e Suparnas, Yaksas, G a n d h a r v a s , Picas, U r a g a s a n d Rksasasthese along w i t h the Pitrs (and the D e v a s ) c o n s t i t u t ed t h e eight Devayonis (divine groups), they passed away in the S v y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a . T h e y have thousands o f subjects ( p r o g e n y ) . T h e y were richly e n d o w e d with majestic lustre, b e a u t y , longevity a n d physical strength. T h e y are n o t m e n t i o n e d in detail here, lest there should be irrelevancy of context. 101-102. T h e S v y a m b h u v a creation should be u n d e r stood by means- of t h e current o n e . 1 T h e past creation is observed t h r o u g h the present one which is Vaivasvata in regard to t h e subjects, deities, sages a n d Pitrs. U n d e r s t a n d t h e seven sages who h a d b e e n existing before. 103. Bhrgu, Agiras, Marci, Pulastya, P u l a h a , K r a t u , Atri a n d Vasistha, these seven (?) were in t h e S v y a m b h u v a Manvantara. 104-105. Agndhra, Agnibhu, M e d h , M e d h t i t h i , Vasu, J y o t i s m n , D y u t i m n , H a v y a , S a v a n a a n d S a t t r a t h e s e were t h e ten sons of S v y a m b h u v a M a n u . T h e y were extremely m i g h t y with t h e velocity of the wind. T h e y were kings of g r e a t magnificence in the first M a n v a n t a r a . 106-107. T h a t race along with the Asuras, t h e excellent G a n d h a r v a s , t h e Yaksas, t h e U r a g a s , t h e Rksasas, t h e Picas, t h e h u m a n beings, the S u p a r n a s a n d the groups o f Apsaras c a n n o t be r e c o u n t e d in d u e o r d e r even in t h e

1. T h e author regards the first M a n u ( S v y a m b h u v a ) a n d the present M a n u ( V a i v a s v a t a ) as more important a n d gives so to say a comparative statement between the events etc. in these two Manvantaras.

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course of hundreds of years. Since their n a m e s a r e m a n y where is t h e limit to their n u m b e r in t h a t family. 108. Those subjects who were in t h e S v y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a w i t h t h e n a m e s of the Yugas ( ?) passed a w a y d u e to the great efflux of t i m e in t h e order of Ayanas, years a n d Yugas. The sages asked :J 109. W h o is this lordly K l a ( T i m e ) ? W h o is this a n n i hilator of all living beings? Of w h a t is he the source of origin? W h a t is his beginning, w h a t is the intrinsic essence, his soul ? 110. W h a t is his eye? W h a t is t h e form? W h a t a r e r e m e m b e r e d as his limbs? W h a t is his n a m e ? W h a t is his self ? M e n t i o n these factually. Sta said ; 111. Let t h e real n a t u r e of K l a ( T i m e ) be listened t o . 2 After listening, let it be r e t a i n e d in the m i n d . T h e sun is his source a n d t h e period of t h e twinkling of t h e eye is his beginning. He is called Sakhycaksus ( H a v i n g t h e n u m b e r for his eyes). 112. T h e d a y a n d night together constitute its form. T h e J\fimesas(moments)are his limbs. T h e year (Samvatsara) is his essence. His n a m e is Kaltmaka (one whose soul is t h e d i g i t ) . 113-115. T h a t lord of subjects is of t h e n a t u r e of the present, future a n d past times. U n d e r s t a n d t h e condition of the K l a divided i n t o five, by m e a n s of t h e day, t h e fortnight, the m o n t h , t h e reasons a n d the Ayanas. T h e first (year) is Samvatsara; t h e second one is Parivatsara; the third one is Itfvatsara ; the fourth is Anuvatsara; a n d the fifth a m o n g t h e m is Vatsara. T h a t p e r i o d of time is t e r m e d Yuga.3
1. 2. T h i s is a n e w section dealing w i t h the nature of K l a ( T i m e ) . Cf. ff. season .VV.111-112 describe the person of K l a , while V . l 13 gives the five

V.P.31.22

divisions of K l a ( t i m e ) viz. the day, the fortnight, the m o n t h , the a n d the Ayana. 3.

K l a is n o w identified w i t h Yuga. It is comprised of five years w h i c h

a r e n a m e d as (1) Samvatsara, ( 2 ) Parivatsara, ( 3 ) Id vatsara, ( 4 ) Anuvatsara

1.2.13.116-126

131

116. I shall explain t h e i r principle (Tattva). Even as it is being recounted, u n d e r s t a n d it t h a t w h i c h is .mentioned as Kratu a n d Agni is considered Samvatsara. 117-120. This sun, the son of Aditi, a n d t h e fire of time is Parivatsara. Soma (the moon) which is of the n a t u r e of t h e essence of waters, which has two movements, t h e b r i g h t a n d the d a r k ones (i.e. t h e bright half a n d t h e d a r k half of the m o n t h ) is Idvatsara a n d has been decisively d e t e r m i n e d so in the Purnas. He w h o purifies the worlds with his seven times seven bodies (i.e. 49 M a r u t s ) ; he w h o blows favourable to t h e w o r l d t h a t wind is Anuvatsara. He w h o was b o r n of t h e Ahamkra (ego) of B r a h m a as Udagrudra*that blue-red (complexioned) R u d r a should be known as their Vatsara. I shall explain his Satattva (essential n a t u r e ) ; u n d e r s t a n d it even as it is being r e c o u n t e d . 121. D u e to the c o n t a c t of limbs a n d m i n o r limbs, t h e K l t m a n (the soul of time) is t h e great-grandfather. He is t h e lord and source of origin of R k , Yajus a n d S m a n ; he is t h e m a s t e r of t h e five ( i . e . day, fortnight e t c . ) . 122-126. He is Agni, Y a m a , K l a , S a m b h t i a n d Praj p a t i . He is source of origin of t h e sun. He is m e n t i o n e d as Samvatsara by learned m e n . T h e sun should be known as Parivatsara. He is the source of origin of t h e divisions of K l a ( T i m e ) , of t h e m o n t h s , seasons a n d t h e t w o Ayanas; of t h e p l a n e t s , stars, chillness, h e a t , r a i n , span of life a n d holy rites; t h e B h s k a r a (sun) is t h e source of origin of the smaller divisions a n d t h e d a y s ; he is Vaikrika ( a n evolute ?), of kindly disposition, the son of B r a h m a a n d the L o r d protector of subjects. He is one. He is (in a w a y ) not o n e . He is day, m o n t h , season a n d g r a n d f a t h e r . He is Aditya, Savitr,

and ( 5 ) Vatsara. T h e following verses describe the " p r i n c i p l e " as to h o w a n d w h y ( 1 ) Kratu-Agni, (2) T h e Sun-god, ( 3 ) S o m a or the M o o n - g o d with Pitrs, ( 4 ) T h e Wind-god and (5) Rudra should be associated with these five years. * U d a g r u d r a = U d a g r a Rudra. Or we m a y adopt the reading of V.P.31.32a. ahankrd rudan rudrah / ' R u d r a w h o roared out of haughtiness a n d conceit'.

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Bhnu, J v a n a (Enlivener) a n d h o n o u r e d by B r a h m a . He is the Prabhava (source of b i r t h ) a n d Apyaya ( e n d or t h a t in which they merge themselves at d e a t h ) o f all living beings. Therefore, Bhskara the presiding deity of the T r s (constellations), should be known as the second Parivatsara. 127-129. Since Soma (the m o o n god) is the lord of all medicinal herbs, since he is the grandfather, since he is t h e enlivener of all living beings, since he is the lord, causing Toga (acquisition of w h a t is n o t a t t a i n e d ) a n d Ksema (preservation of w h a t is a c q u i r e d ) ; since he always looks after a n d upholds the universe by m e a n s of his r a y s ; since he is the source of origin of the Tithis (days of the l u n a r fortnight), j u n c t i o n s of Parvans, full m o o n a n d t h e N e w m o o n ; since he causes the n i g h t ; since he is the Prajpati w i t h n e c t a r i n e soulfor all these reasons S o m a ( M o o n ) w i t h t h e Pitrs is r e m e m b e r e d as Idvatsara. F o r the following reasons V y u (the W i n d g o d ) is Anuvatsara : 130. In t h e world, he is the propeller of all activities of the living beings t h r o u g h the five types of vital winds viz. : Prna, Apna, Samna, Vyna, and U d n a . 131. He causes the unified a n d simultaneous activities of t h e five units of t h e physical body. viz. : t h e sense organs, the m i n d , t h e intellect, t h e m e m o r y a n d t h e strength. 132. He is t h e soul of a l l ; he is the lord of all worlds t h r o u g h the (spatial winds) Avaha, P r a v a h a e t c . He exists t h r o u g h his seven times seven bodies (known as M a r u t s ) t h a t r e n d e r h e l p t o others. 133-134. He is the m a k e r of the destiny of all living beings; he is t h e Prabhajana ( v i o l e n t gust of wind a l s o ) ; he perpetually causes t h e well-being of all living beings; he is the source of origin of fire, waters, e a r t h , t h e sun a n d t h e m o o n ; t h e wind is P r a j p a t i : he is the soul of all t h e worlds; he is the great grandfather a n d he causes days a n d nights. H e n c e , it is t h a t .Vyu ( w i n d g o d ) is Anuvatsara. 135. All these four ( i . e . K l a , the sun, the M o o n a n d the wind g o d ) a r e lords of subjects; they a r e b o r n of t h e flanks ( o f B r a h m a ) ; they a r e t h e fathers of all the worlds. T h e y have b e e n glorified as the souls of the worlds.

1.2.13.136-146 136-137. Bhava c a m e o u t crying, t h r o u g h t h e m o u t h of - r a h m who was m e d i t a t i n g . T h e g r e a t lord is mentioned (in t h e Vedas)~bf Rsi ( s a g e ) , Vipra ( B r h m a n a ) , the soul of t h e living beings, the g r e a t grandfather, the lord of all living beings a n d t h e Pranava ( O m ) . It is t h r o u g h t h e p e n e t r a t i o n of t h e tman (soul) t h a t t h e limbs a n d m i n o r limbs of t h e living beings take shape. 138-139. , R u d r a who causes Unmda (Madness) a n d (at the same time) blesses, is called Vatsara. T h u s t h e sun, t h e m o o n , t h e fire, the wind a n d R u d r a a r e all identifiers with Yuga ( ? ) . L o r d R u d r a who is the soul of K l a is always the cause of annihilation. L o r d R u d r a entered this universe by m e a n s of his own brilliance. 140-141. D u e to t h e contact with t h e soul t h a t is t h e support, by means of the bodies a n d t h e appellations^(ne enters t h e u n i v e r s e ) . Therefore, t h r o u g h his own vitality he has t h e status of Deva, Pitr a n d K l a a n d this status blesses t h e worlds. It is t h e greatest. So R u d r a is always worshipped by those w h o are t h e knowers of t h a t ( R u d r a ?) 142-144. Since the lord is the master of the lords of sub jects, since he is Prajpati, since he is t h e conceiverof all living beings, since Nilalohita is t h e soul of all, since R u d r a resuscit ates the fading a n d declining medicinal herbs a g a i n a n d a g a i n ; since at the time when medicinal herbs decline, t h e lord is worshipped by t h e Devas, t h e leader of w h o m is Prajpati a n d w h o seek fruits eagerly desired by t h e m ( H e is worshipped by offering P u r o d a in three K a p l a s ) otherwise called T h r e e 1 A m b a k a s S o t h e lord is called Tryambaka. 145. T h e three Vedic metres viz. : Gyatrl, T r i s t u b h and Jagat are remembered by the name Tryambakas. O u t of love they a r e t h e sources of origin of t h e vegltable kingdom. 146. T h e P u r o d a offering consecrated by t h e repeti tion of those three metrical verses united into one is called Trikapsla because it has three means a n d it is instilled with their virility in three ways. 1. This is a repetition of the explanation of the identification of Tryam baka and the three Kaplas (pot-sherds) on which Puroda is offered.

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Brahman (la Purna

147. H e n c e t h a t P u r o d a is Tryambaka. Therefore, he ( t h e lord R u d r a ) is also declared as Tryambaka. T h u s the Yuga is m e n t i o n e d by learned m e n as one t h a t consists of five years. 148. T h e Samvatsara t h a t has been mentioned by Brh m a n a s as one having five selves became a unit of six selves 1 with the names of Madhu (spring) a n d other seasons. 149-151. T h e five rtavas are the sons of the Rtus. T h u s the creation is recounted briefly. T h u s the u n a t t a c h e d K l a with m a n y measures a n d units removes the lives of living beings a n d runs like the rapidly speeding c u r r e n t of water. T h e progeny of these, c a n n o t be e n u m e r a t e d authorita tively, because they a r e i n n u m e r a b l e . T h e group of sons- a n d grandsons is endless. Glorifying this family of great lords of subjects of holy rites a n d meritorious fame, one shall achieve great Siddhi (spi ritual a t t a c h m e n t ) .

CHAPTER FOURTEEN The race of Priyavrata t. Description of Continents and their Sub-Divisions Sta said : 1. In all the M a n v a n t a r a s of the past a n d the all the subjects a r e b o r n w i t h similar identification in to names a n d forms. 2
1. 2. six divisions according to season (rtus). (dvtpas) with the descen

future, regard

T h e year, said to be of five souls (vide V . l 1 3 ) , is again divided into T h i s is the m a i n thesis of the Purna. T h i s chapter deals with Puranic

cosmography. It associates the names of continents Bh. P.V 16.1-26, M t . P . 1 1 2 , 121, 122.

dants of S v y a m b h u v a M a n u . For similar description vide A . P . I 0 7 , K P . I . 4 0

1.2.14.2-9

135

2. T h e D e v a s w h o are of eight types are t h e overlords in t h a t M a n v a n t a r a . T h e sages a n d the M a n u s a l l of t h e m serve the same purpose. 3. T h e creation of the great sages was already r e c o u n t e d . Now u n d e r s t a n d t h e race of Svyambhuva M a n u , t h a t is being r e c o u n t e d in detail a n d in d u e order. 4-5. Svyambhuva M a n u h a d ten grandsons w h o were similar to him. T h e entire e a r t h consisting of seven continents was colonised by them along with its towns, oceans a n d mines in every sub-continent in the first T r e t yuga of the Svyam bhuva Manvantara. 6. T h i s (Earth) was colonised by those sons of Priya v r a t a , the grandson of S v y a m b h u v a ( M a n u ) w h o were endow ed with progeny, strength a n d p e n a n c e . 7. K m y t h a t extremely fortunate d a u g h t e r of K a r d a m a the P r a j p a t i , bore u n t o Priyavrata heroic sons endowed with their own progeny. 1 8-9. She gave b i r t h to two daughters, viz. : S a m r t a n d Kuksi. Both of t h e m were splendid. She gave b i r t h to ten sons also. T h e brothers of those two d a u g h t e r s were ten in n u m b e r , valorous a n d similar to the Prajpatis. T h e y were Agndhra, Agnibhu, M e d h a s , M e d h t i t h i , Vasu (later mentioned as Vapusmn), Jyotismn, Dyutimn, Havya, Savana a n d Sattra.

1.

T h e race of Priyavrata : Names of the Dvipa assigned as kingdom

N a m e s of Priyavrata's Sons . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Agnidhra Agnibhu Medhas Medhtithi Vasu (Vapusmn) Jyotismn Dyutimn Havya Savana Sattra

Jamb
Plaksa lmala Kua Krauca ka

Puskara

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Brahmnda Purna

10. Priyavrata crowned seven of t h e m in seven-continents as kings with d u e religious rites. U n d e r s t a n d t h e m as well as those continents. 11. He m a d e t h e excessively powerful Agnldhra, the lord of J a m b d v p a . M e d h t i t h i was m a d e by h i m the lord of Plaksadvpa. 12. He crowned V a p u s m n (Earlier mentioned as V a s u ) as king in the lmala dvpa. T h e lord m a d e J y o t i s m n , the king in K u a dvpa. dvpa; 13. He coronated D y u t i m n as the king in K r a u c a Priyavrata m a d e H a v y a the lord of ka dvpa.

14-17. T h e lord m a d e Savana the overlord of Puskara. In P u s k a r a dvpa, Savana h a d two sons, viz. : M a h v t a a n d D h t a k i . These two sons were the most excellent ones t h a t parents could desire. In accordance with t h e n a m e of t h a t noble soul, his sub-continent is r e m e m b e r e d as M a h v t a varsa. In accordance with the n a m e of D h t a k i , his sub-conti n e n t is called D h t a k k h a n d a . H a v y a ( t h e lord of kadvpa) begot seven sons, rulers of Skadvipa. T h e y were, viz. : J a l a d a , K u m r a , Sukumra, M a n v a k a , K u s u m o t t a r a , M o d k a a n d the seventh one Mahdruma. 18-21 - 1 T h e first sub-continent of J a l a d a is called J a l a d a . T h e second sub-continent of K u m r a is glorified as K a u m r a . T h e t h i r d one S u k u m r a is remembered as the sub-conti n e n t of S u k u m r a . T h e fourth one is called Manvaka, the sub-continent of M a n v a . T h e fifth sub-continent K u s u m o t t a r a is t h a t of K u s u m o t t a r a . M o d k a the sixth sub-continent is glorified as that of Modka. T h e seventh sub-continent is M a h d r u m a in accordance with t h e n a m e of M a h d r u m a . All those seven sub-continents there are called after their names. 22-23.
1.

T h e r e were seven

sons b o r n of D y u t i m n , the

V V . 18-22. T h e seven sub-divisions of kadvipa are n a m e d after

the seven sons of H a v y a .

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137

lord of K r a u c a d v p a 1 viz. : K u a l a , Manonuga, Usna, P v a n a , A n d h a k r a k a , M u n i a n d D u n d u b h i . These were t h e sons of D y u t i m n . T h e y have after their own names, the splen did sub-continents situated in t h e K r a u c a d v p a . 24-26. T h e land of K u a l a n a m e d K a u a l a was very famous. M a n o n u g a is r e m e m b e r e d as the l a n d of M a n o n u g a . U s n a is remembered as the land of U s n a a n d P v a n a t h a t of P v a n a . T h a t land of A n d h a k r a is glorified as A n d h a k r a . M a u n i d e a was the land of M u n i a n d D u n d u b h i is r e m e m b e r e d as the land of D u n d u b h i . These seven lands in the K r a u c a d v p a were r a d i a n t ones. 27-30. J y o t i s m n too in the K u a d v p a h a d seven very powerful sons 2 viz. : Udbhijja, V e n u m n , V a i r a t h a , L a v a n a , D h r t i , the sixth one P r a b h k a r a a n d the seventh one r e m e m bered as K a p i l a . T h e first sub-continent is called U d b h i j j a ; the second sub-continent was V e n u m a n d a l a ; the third sub-continent was V a i r a t h k r a ; t h e fourth sub-continent is r e m e m b e r e d as L a v a n a ; the fifth sub-continent was D h r t i m a t ; t h e sixth sub c o n t i n e n t was P r a b h k a r a ; the seventh sub-continent n a m e d K a p i l a was glorified as t h a t of K a p i l a . T h e i r lands in the K u a d v p a h a v e the same names as they. 3 1 . T h e L o r d s of l m a l a were (as if) embellished with subjects endowed w i t h t h e disciplined conduct of life pertain ing to the various A r a m a s (stages of life). T h e y were t h e seven sons of V a p u s m n . 3 32. T h e y were :veta, H a r i t a , J m t a Rohita, V a i d y u t a , M n a s a a n d S u p r a b h a , the seventh one. 33-34. veta was the land of veta; S u h a r i t a was t h a t of H a r i t a ; J m t a was the land of J m t a a n d R o h i t a t h a t of R o h i t a . V a i d y u t a was the land of V a i d y u t a a n d M n a s a t h a t
1. 2. 3. VV.22-26 enumerate seven sub-divisions of Kraucadvpa which

are n a m e d after the seven sons of Dyutimn. W . 2 7 - 3 0 . T h e seven sub-divisions of K u a d v i p a are n a m e d after T h e seven sons of V a p u s m n mentioned in the next verse have given the seven sons of Jyotismn, king of Kuadvipa. their names to the Varsas or sub-continents they headed.

138

Brahmnda Purna.

of M n a s a . S u p r a b h a was the land of S u p r a b h a . All these seven were t h e protectors of the lands. 35. I shall r e c o u n t Plaksadvpa after the J a m b d v p a . T h e seven sons of M e d h t i t h i were the kings ruling over Plaksadvpa. 36-3 7 1 . These were the sons of M e d h t i t h i who are men tioned ( a s follows :) T h e eldest was n a m e d n t a b h a y a ; the second is r e m e m b e r e d as iira: Sukhodaya was the t h i r d ; t h e fourth is called N a n d a ; iva was the fifth a m o n g t h e m ; K s e m a k a is called sixth, a n d D h r u v a should be known as the seventh. 38-43. Those seven Varsas (sub-continents) are known after t h e n a m e s of those seven (sons). Therefore the following (are well k n o w n ) , viz. : n t a b h a y a , iira, Sukhodaya, A n a n d a , iva, K s e m a k a a n d D h r u v a . Those Varsas were all equal ( t o one a n o t h e r ) . T h e y were colonized in t h e different parts formerly in t h e S v y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a by those sons of M e d h t i t h i who were kings a n d rulers of Plaksadvpa. T h e subjects in t h e Plaksadvpa were m a d e to closely a d h e r e to t h e disciplined conduct of life of the various castes a n d stages of life. It is the D h a r m a 2 (piety, virtue) t h a t is t h e criterion for t h e classification of t h e V a r n a s a n d Aramas in the five conti nents beginning w i t h Plaksadvpa a n d ending with kadvpa ( i . e . Plaksa, lmala, K u a , K r a u c a and k a ) . Happiness, span of life, beauty, strength a n d D h a r m a (Virtue) are remem bered to be c o m m o n to all perpetually, in these five Dvpas. Plaksadvpa has been described. U n d e r s t a n d t h e J a m b d v p a . 44. P r i y a v r a t a installed Agndhra, the extremely power ful son of K m y a n d his eldest successor as the king and over lord of J a m b d v p a .

1.

VV.36-40 enumerate

seven sons of king Medhtithi, were named

w h o became after their

kings of seven founder-kings. 2.

Varsassub-continentswhich

W . 4 1 - 4 3 describe the c o m m o n features of the five continents from.

Plaksa to kadvipa.

1.2.14.45-58
1

139

45-47. N i n e sons were b o r n to h i m . T h e y were on a p a r w i t h the Prajpatis. T h e eldest was well known as N b h i . K i m p u r u s a was h i s younger b r o t h e r . Harivarsa was the third a n d the fourth was I l v r t a . R a m y a was t h e fifth son, H i r a n v n is m e n t i o n e d as his sixth son. K u r u was the seventh a m o n g t h e m . B h a d r v a is r e m e m b e r e d as the eighth a n d the n i n t h was K e t u m l a . U n d e r s t a n d their realms. 48-52 T h e father gave N b h i t h e southern V a r s a n a m e d H i m a ; h e gave K i m p u r u s a t h a t Varsa, called H e m a k t a . H e gave H a r i v a r s a t h a t sub-continent which is remembered as N a i s a d h a . He gave I l v r t a the sub-continent t h a t was in the m i d d l e of Sumeru. T h e father gave R a m y a , the sub-continent t h a t is r e m e m b e r e d as N l a . T h e sub-continent veta t h a t was situated to t h e n o r t h of it was given by the father to H i r a n v n . He gave to K u r u the sub-continent t h a t was to t h e n o r t h of rgavn. Similarly, he allotted to Bhadrva the sub-continent M l y a v a t . H e assigned the sub-continent G a n d h a m d a n a t o K e t u m l a . T h u s these nine sub-continents have b e e n n a r r a t e d by me, part by part. 53. Agndhra crowned those sons in d u e o r d e r in those sub-continents. Thereafter, t h a t pious-souled one b e c a m e enga ged in p e n a n c e . 54. T h u s the entire e a r t h consisting of the seven c o n t i nents was colonized by the seven sons of Priyavrata, who w e r e the grandsons of S v y a m b h u v a M a n u . 55. T h u s , when annihilation takes place, these seven settlements (continents) a r e created again a n d a g a i n b y t h e kings in all the seven sub-continents. 56-58. This is the n a t u r e nents a n d the K a l p a s . of colonization of the conti

W i t h regard to t h e eight sub-continents beginning w i t h t h a t of K i m p u r u s a (the following things should be n o t e d ) . T h e i r a t t a i n m e n t is n a t u r a l . W i t h o u t effort they a r e generally h a p p y . T h e r e s no annihilation or calamity in t h e m . T h e r e is
1. W . 4 5 - 5 2 enumerate the sub-continents in Jambdvpa. For the identification of mountains vide Ch. 1 Footnotes on p p . 11, 12.

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Brahmnda Purna

no fear from old age a n d d e a t h . T h e r e is neither D h a r m a (Virtue) n o r A d h a r m a (evil) a m o n g t h e m . T h e r e is no classi fication of people as the excellent, t h e middling and the base. In all those eight K s e t r a s (i.e. Varsas, sub-continents) there is no Tugvasth ( t h e state of Y u g a s ) . 59-61. I shall recount t h e procreation by N b h i in the sub-continent called H i m a . U n d e r s t a n d it. N b h i begot a highly lustrous son, of Meru-Dev. He was R s a b h a , 1 the most excellent of all kings. He was the eldest of all Ksatriyas. Heroic B h a r a t a was born of R s a b h a . He was t h e eldest of h u n d r e d sons. R s a b h a crowned his son a n d engaged himself in M a h pravrajy ( t h e great m i g r a t i o n of renunciation i.e. j o u r n e y or pilgrimage till d e a t h ) . He allotted the southern sub-continent named Hima to Bharata. 62-63. H e n c e learned m e n know this sub-continent as B h r a t a v a r s a 2 after his n a m e . Bharata's son was a virtuous scholar n a m e d S u m a t i . B h a r a t a crowned h i m in t h a t realm. After transferring the royal glory to his son t h e king entered t h e forest. 64. His son Tejasa was a lord of the subjects a n d con q u e r o r of enemies. T h e great scholar, I n d r a d y u m n a is remem bered as Tejasa's son. 65-66. P a r a m e s t h i n , his son, was b o r n after his d e a t h a n d his son was P r a t i h r a and t h e family came to be known after his n a m e . In his family a son well known as P r a t i h a r t r was b o r n . To t h a t intelligent P r a t i h a r t r , son U n n e t r was b o r n . B h m a n is. r e m e m b e r e d as his son. 67. His son was U d g t h a . Prastvi was was t h e son Prastvi a n d P r t h u was his son. his son. Vibhu

68. P r t h u ' s son was N a k t a . G a y a was N a k t a ' s son. N a r a was born as t h e son of G a y a a n d V i r t was the son of N a r a . 69. M a h v r y a was the son of Virt. D h m a n . M a h n was the son of Dfaman and t h e son of M a h n .
1. 2. varsa. He is regarded as the first Tirthakara by Jains. J a i n a traditipn supports this theory regardin

His son Bhauvana

was was

He is mentioned

in the Bh.P. V.Chs. 4, 5 and in V P . 11.1-28. the n a m e of Bhrata

1.2.14.70-7515.1-3

141

70. T v a s t r w a s the son of B h a u v a n a . His son was Virajas. Rajas was the son of Nirajas a n d atajit was the son of Rajas. 7 1 . He h a d h u n d r e d sons. All of t h e m were kings. T h e i m p o r t a n t one a m o n g them was Vivajyotis. It is t h r o u g h t h e m , t h a t these subjects flourished. 72. This B h r a t a sub continent was m a r k e d by t h e m as one w i t h seven islands. Formerly, this Bhrat l a n d was enjoyed by those b o r n of their family. 73-75. E a c h set of Yugas consists of K r t a , T r e t e t c . ( T h e M a n v a n t a r a consists of) such seventy-one sets of Yugas. People belonging to their family h a d b e e n kings t h r o u g h o u t the past Yugas in the Svyambhuva M a n v a n t a r a . T h e y were h u n d r e d s a n d thousands. T h u s is the creation (race) of S v y m b h u v a by which this universe is filled w i t h sages, deities, Pitrs, G a n d h a r v a s , Rksa sas, Yaksas, Bhtas, Picas, h u m a n beings, animals a n d birds. T h i s is said to be their c r e a t i o n . It undergoes c h a n g e a l o n g with the Y u g a s .

CHAPTER FIFTEEN The length and extent of the Earth : Description of Jambdvlpa. Sta said : 1-3. On h e a r i n g a b o u t the settlement of the subjects t h u s , m a p y a n i asked Sta a b o u t the length a n d extent of t h e E a r t h * a s i t h a d been d e t e r m i n e d " H o w m a n y continents a r e there ? H o w m a n y oceans ? H o w m a n y mountains are proclaim ed ? H o w m a n y are the Varsas (sub-continents) ? W h a t are the
* V.P.34.1b reads : Prthivyyima-vistarau. It is better than B d . P . ' s V.P. reading accepted.

Prthivyodadhivistaram. H e n c e

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Brahmnda Purna

rivers declared therein ? M e n t i o n all these things to us in detail a n d factually such as the m a g n i t u d e of the great elements, t h e Lokloka m o u n t a i n , the transits, the extent and the move m e n t s of the m o o n as well as the sun. Sta said : 4-6. O ! I shall recount to you the length a n d extent of t h e e a r t h , the n u m b e r of the oceans a n d the n u m b e r and extent of the islands. T h e r e are thousands of different islands t h a t are included in the seven continents. T h e y c a n n o t be recounted in d u e order, because this world is studded a n d constantly (sur rounded by t h e m ) . I shall recount the seven continents along w i t h the moon, the sun a n d the planets. 7-8a. M e n m e n t i o n their m a g n i t u d e s by m e a n s of guess alone. O n e c a n n o t arrive by means of guess alone, at those beings (or things) which c a n n o t be even p o n d e r e d u p o n . T h a t which is b e y o n d n a t u r e is called Acintya ( t h a t which c a n n o t be even pondered u p o n ) . 8b-10. I shall r e c o u n t the j a m b d v p a as exists actually, consisting of nine V a r s a s . U n d e r s t a n d it t h r o u g h its extent a n d g i r t h in terms of Yojanas. It is m o r e t h a n a h u n d r e d thousand Yojanas all r o u n d . It is full of different rural countries and different kinds of splendid cities. It is filled w i t h Siddhas a n d C r a n a s a n d is embellished w i t h m o u n t a i n s . 11. ( I t is full of mountains) endowed with all kinds of minerals originating from clusters of rocks. It is full of rivers flowing from m o u n t a i n s . 12. J a m b d v p a is immense a n d glorious with huge zones all r o u n d . It is encircled by nine worlds t h a t evolve a n u m b e r of living beings. 13. It is surrounded on all sides by the briny sea the e x t e n t of which is e q u a l to t h a t of J a m b d v p a itself. 14.* T h e following are the six Varsaparvatas1 ( M o u n t a i n s
* 1. After verse 14 there read verse No.28 which tells: the six

mountains are N i l a , N i s a d h a , veta, H e m a k t a , H i m a v n and rgavn. T h e Varsa-parvatas are the mountains (mountain-chains) which d i v i d e o n e V a r s a (sub-continent) from another. T h u s they m a y be regarded as boundary mountains. T h e names and other characteristics are described in the following verses. T h e i r geographical location is given in supra C h . l Footnotes on pp. 11, 12.

1.2.15.15-24

143

dividing t h e sub-continents). T h e y have good ridges. On either side they merge i n t o the Eastern a n d Western oceans. 15. H i m a v n is practically covered w i t h snow. H e m a k t a is full of Heman (gold). T h e great m o u n t a i n N i s a d h a is equally pleasant in all t h e seasons. 16. M e r u is r e m e m b e r e d as t h e most beautiful. 1 It has four colours (like four castesVarnas). It is golden. On its top its e x t e n t is thirtytwo thousand Yojanas. 17. It is circular in shape. It is symmetrical a n d very lofty. It is endowed with t h e qualities of P r a j p a t i . It has different colours at its sides. 18. It is originated from the umbilical cord of B r a h m a born of t h e unmanifest one. In the east it is white in colour. H e n c e , it is on a p a r with the B r h m a n a s . 19. Its n o r t h e r n side has a n a t u r a l red colour. H e n c e , t h e Ksatriya-hood of M e r u on account of various reasons a n d purposes. ( ? ) 20-21. In t h e southern side it is yellow. So its Vaiyatva (state of being a Vaiya) is evident. In ^he West it is like the Bhrgapatra (A kind of leaf black in colour) all r o u n d . H e n c e it has t h e state of dra. T h u s t h e colours a r e r e c o u n t e d (as well as t h e castes). Its n a t u r e t h r o u g h colour a n d m a g n i t u d e has been explained. 22. T h e Nla m o u n t a i n is full of sapphires (has t h a t c o l o u r ) . T h e veta is white a n d full of gold. r g a v n has t h e colour of the peacock's tail a n d it is full of gold. 23. All these lordly m o u n t a i n s are frequented by t h e Siddhas a n d C r a n a s . T h e i r i n t e r n a l d i a m e t e r is said to be n i n e t h o u s a n d Yojanas. 24. T h e sub-continent of I l v r t a is in the middle of M a h m e r u . Its extent all a r o u n d is thus n i n e t h o u s a n d Yojanas.
1. T h e r e is a consensus a m o n g Purnas like K P . , M t . P . , M k . P . , V . P . , the traditional nodality to the conclusion that a n d Bd.P. about the shape and size of M e r u . M. Ali points out that ancient Persians, Greeks, Chinese, Jews, a n d Arabs repeat of M e r u . After discussing the problem, he comes

M t . M e r u is identical w i t h the Pamirs, in central Asia. H i s diagrammatic representation of the J a m b d v i p a a n d its cross-section (Fig.4) on p.65 of Geog. of the Purnas is interesting.

144

Brahmnga Purna

25. In its m i d d l e is the M a h m e r u like a smokeless fire. T h e southern side of M e r u is like the m i d d l e of t h e altar. I t s u p p e r half is its u p p e r surface. 26. T h e Varsa-Parvatas which b e l o n g to the six are two thousand Yojanas in extent a n d in h e i g h t . Varsas

27-31a. T h e i r length is said to be in a c c o r d a n c e with t h e extent of J a m b d v p a . T h e two m o u n t a i n s , (Nla a n d Nisa dha) a r e h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d Yojanas long. T h e other four m o u n t a i n s are shorter t h a n these. T h e m o u n t a i n s veta a n d H e m a k t a a r e each ninety thousand Yojanas long. T h e m o u n tains H i m a v n a n d rgavn a r e each eighty t h o u s a n d Yojanas long. T h e r e a r e J a n a p a d a s (territories or counties) in between t h e m . T h e Varsas are seven in n u m b e r . T h e y are encircled by m o u n t a i n s t h a t are difficult to cross on account of steep precipices. T h e y a r e criss-crossed w i t h different kinds of rivers. It was impossible to travel from one V a r s a to a n o t h e r (lit. they were m u t u a l l y u n a p p r o a c h a b l e ) . 31b. Animals of different kinds live in t h e m . T h i s H a i m a v a t a sub-continent is well k n o w n by the n a m e B h r a t a . 32-34. H e m a k t a is beyond this. It is r e m e m b e r e d by the name Kimpurusa. Naisadha sub-continent is beyond H e m a k t a a n d it is called H a r i v a r s a . I l v r t a is beyond H a r i v a r s a (and in the m i d d l e ) of M e r u . Nla is beyond I l v r t a a n d it wellknown by t h e n a m e R a m y a k a . veta is beyond R a m y a k a a n d it is wellknown as H i r a n m a y a . T h e sub-conti n e n t r g a v a t is beyond H i r a n m a y a a n d it is remembered as Kuru. 35. T h e two sub-continents in the south a n d t h e n o r t h should be k n o w n as situated in the form of a bow. F o u r others a r e stationed lengthwise a n d the m i d d l e one is 1 Ilvrta. 36. V e d y a r d h a which is on the hitherside of Nisadha,

1.

This Purna supports the Sapta-dvip (seven-continent) theory about

the earth. T h e distribution of the c o n t i n e n t s m a y be represented as under.

1.2.15.37-41

145

is known as the southern V e d y a r d h a a n d t h a t which beyond the Nllavn is the n o r t h e r n V e d y a r d h a . 1 37. In the southern side of V e d y a r d h a , there are three Varsas and on the n o r t h e r n side of V e d y a r d h a also there a r e three Varsas. M e r u should be known as existing in between t h e m a n d Ilvrta is in the m i d d l e of M e r u . 38. To the south of the Nla a n d to the n o r t h of Nisa d h a , there is a great m o u n t a i n stretching to the n o r t h n a m e d Mlyavn.2 39. It stretches a thousand Yojanas from N l a to N i s a d h a . It is glorified as one, thirtyfour thousand Yojanas in extension. 40. T h e m o u n t a i n G a n d h a m d a n a should b e known a s situated to its west. In l e n g t h a n d extent it is reputed to be like M l y a v n . 4 1 . M e r u , the golden m o u n t a i n , is in the m i d d l e of t w o circles. T h a t golden m o u n t a i n has four colours. It is s y m m e t r i cal a n d very lofty.
North: ( U t t a r a ) Kuru V a r s a rgavn M t . H i r a n m a y a Varsa veta M t . R a m y a k a Varsa Nla M t . I I I Ilvrta Varsa Meru Mt. Ilvrta V a r s a

Nisadha Mt. Hart V a r s a Hemakta Mt. Kimpurusa V a r s a Himavn (Himalaya) Mt. South Bhrata or H a i m a v a t a V a r s a D o e s the bowlike formation of these Varsas suggest the spherical shape of the earth ? 1. 2. Galled V e y a d d h a in J a i n (Ardha M g a d h ! ) canon. Purnas give different locations of G a n d h a m d a n a and M l y a v n .

So do modern scholars, as the n a m e s of extra-Indian mountains were adopted by the Indo-Aryans as they penetrated d e e p in the Indian Peninsula. T h u s M l y a v n d u e t o its association w i t h G a n d h a m d a n a a n d M e r u should b e identified with the Sarikol range, as G a n d h a m d a n a was the northern ridge of the great Hindukush arch with its northern extension, the Khwaja ern Karakorum a n d K u n l u n ( M . Ali.Geog. of Purrias, p p . Mahammad. T h e southern ridge of Hindukush is N i s a d h a which merged into North 58-59).

146

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Brahmnda Purna

42. T h e brilliant Sumeru shines, established like a king. It has t h e colour a n d brilliance of t h e m i d d a y sun. It is re fulgent like t h e smokeless fire. 4 3 . It is eightyfour thousand Yojanas high. It has en tered (down the ground level) sixteen thousand Yojanas. Its w i d t h is also sixteen thousand Yojanas. 44. Since it is stationed like a p l a t t e r its w i d t h on t h e t o p is thirty two t h o u s a n d Yojanas. Its girth all r o u n d is three times its w i d t h . 45-47. W h e n t h e mass is circular t h e reckoning is trian gular (?) (According to the t r i a n g u l a r reckoning) its girth all r o u n d is fortyeight thousand Yojanas. Now t h e m a g n i t u d e is recounted in t h e triangular reckoning. According to the qua d r a n g u l a r reckoning (?) t h e girth all r o u n d is laid down as sixtyfour thousand Yojanas. T h a t m o u n t a i n is highly divine a n d e q u i p p e d with divine medicinal herbs. 48-49. T h e entire m o u n t a i n is surrounded by worlds splendid a n d golden. All t h e groups of t h e Devas, t h e G a n d h a r v a s t h e serpents, a n d the Rksasas a r e seen on t h a t king of mountains, as well as the splendid groups of Apsaras. T h a t m o u n t a i n M e r u is encircled by worlds causing welfare of living beings. 50-53. F o u r lands ( R e a l m s ) a r e established on t h e four sides. T h e y a r e Bhadrvas ( w i t h e a s t ) , Bhratas ( s o u t h ) , K e t u m l a s i n t h e west a n d t h e K u r u s i n t h e N o r t h 1 which a r e the resorts of meritorious persons. At the side of t h e G a n d h a m d a n a , there is this a n o t h e r g r e a t G a n d i k ( h i l l ? ) . It is c h a r m i n g and fascinating in all t h e seasons. It is auspicious a n d pleasant. E a s t to West it extends to thirtytwo t h o u s a n d Yojanas. T h e (gross) length is
1. This appears to be the four-continent (Catur-dvip) theory about the North (Uttara)Kuru West. K e t u m l a (Mt. Meru) Bhrata South Bhadrva. East

e a r t h where the distribution of Varsas is as follows:

1.2.15.54-63 thirtyfour thousand Yojanas. T h e people auspicious holy rites are established t h e r e . Ketumlas

147 of

54. All t h e m e n there are black a n d very strong. T h e y have g r e a t inherent vitality. T h e w o m e n have the colour a n d lustre of the petals of lilies. All of t h e m a r e pleasing to behold. 55. T h e r e is a g r e a t divine jack-tree t h e r e . It has all the six tastes. It is v a r a (masterly a n d powerful). It is t h e son of B r a h m a . It is as swift as m i n d a n d wanders wherever it pleases. 56. T h e y drink the juice of its fruits a n d live for ten thousand years. At the side of t h e M l y a v n , in the east there is a wonderful G a n d i k Hill ? 57. It has t h e same length a n d extent as t h e western G a n d i k . Bhadrvas 1 should be known (as the p e o p l e ) t h e r e . T h e y a r e always d e l i g h t e d i n their minds. 58. T h e r e is a forest of Bhadralas (excellent silk cotton t r e e s ) . T h e g r e a t tree is the Black M a n g o tree. T h e m e n there are white?complexioned, highly enthusiastic a n d endowed with strength. 59. T h e women have the colour a n d lustre of t h e waterlilies. T h e y a r e beautiful a n d pleasing to b e h o l d . T h e y have t h e l u n a r brilliance a n d h u e . T h e i r faces resemble the m o o n . 60. T h e i r limbs a r e cool of touch like t h e m o o n . T h e y h a v e the o d o u r of lilies. T h e i r span of life is ten thousand years a n d is free from ailments. 61-63. By drinking the j u i c e of the black m a n g o t h e m have p e r p e t u a l y o u t h . all of

To the south of the veta a n d to the n o r t h of the Nila, 2 there is the Varsa ( s u b - c o n t i n e n t ) R a m a n a k a . H u m a n beings a r e b o r n there. T h e y are free from impurities. T h e y give im p o r t a n c e to amorous dalliance. T h e y are devoid of old a g e a n d b a d odour. T h e y are white-complexioned a n d richly endowed with nobility of b i r t h . All of t h e m are pleasing to
1. 2. This seems to be modern China. Identified with ancient Sogdiana as the description tallies w i t h the

land, plant-life a n d people of those times, M.AliIbid. p p . 83-84.

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Brahmnda Purna

behold. T h e r e also is a great N y a g r o d h a tree (holy fig tree) red (in c o l o u r ) . 64-66. T h e y m a i n t a i n themselves by drinking t h e j u i c e of its fruits. Those highly fortunate ones live for eleven thou sand f i v e h u n d r e d years. T h e y a r e excellent m e n a n d a r e always full of delight. To t h e south of the Srgavn a n d to the n o r t h of the veta there is the V a r s a n a m e d H a i r a n v a t a . 1 T h e r e is a river here, the H a i r a n v a t . M e n of g r e a t strength a n d good brilliance a r e born there. 67-69. T h e y are heroic Yaksas of great i n h e r e n t vitality. T h e y are rich a n d pleasing to behold. T h e y have g r e a t vigour a n d they live for eleven thousand five h u n d r e d years. In t h a t V a r s a , there is a g r e a t Lakuca (bread fruit) tree of six tastes. By d r i n k i n g the j u i c e of its fruits, they live with out ailments. T h e rgavn has three g r e a t a n d lofty peaks. 70. O n e of t h e m ( p e a k s ) is full of Manis (jewels). O n e is golden a n d ( t h e t h i r d ) one all sorts of Ratnas (precious s t o n e s ) ; it is embellished with houses. 7 1 . To t h e n o r t h of r g a v n a n d to t h e south of t h e sea a r e t h e K u r u s . 2 T h a t V a r s a ( s u b - c o n t i n e n t ) is sacred a n d frequented by t h e Siddhas. 72. T h e trees t h e r e h a v e Madhu ( h o n e y , wine) for its fruit. T h e y p u t forth p e r p e t u a l flowers, fruits a n d sprouts. T h e y yield g a r m e n t s a n d o r n a m e n t s b y w a y of fruits. 73. Some of t h e trees a r e very delightfully c h a r m i n g a n d they bestow all desires. T h e y e x u d e excellent h o n e y full of sweet smell, colour a n d taste.
1. Hairanvata V a r s a is closely associated w i t h the river Hairanvati

(mod. Zarafshan)both forms of the n a m e of the river m e a n ' T h e scatterer of gold'. In that case it must be presumed to be adjacent to S o g d i a n a M . A l i . ibid. pp. 8 4 , 8 5 . 1, 'Kuru or U t t a r a k u r u : T h i s region as described here a n d in other Purnas includes the basin of riversThe Irtysh,the O b , the T o b o l , in other words "Western Siberian R e g i o n s ' M.AliOp. Cit. p p . 8 4 , 8 5 . As M.Ali points out the m a i n tree w h i c h is supposed to feed the popula tion indicates the peculiar climate prevailing there.

1.2.15.74-8016.1-3

149

74. O t h e r trees are ksrins ( M i l k y ones) b y n a m e . T h e y a r e very delightful a n d they always exude milk c o m p a r a b l e to n e c t a r h a v i n g six tastes. 75. T h e entire ground is full of jewels w i t h fine golden particles for sand. It richly accords happiness in all seasons. It is devoid of m u d a n d dust. It is splendid. 76. Splendid h u m a n beings displaced a n d d r o p p i n g down from t h e world of the Devas are b o r n t h e r e . T h e y a r e whitecomplexioned a n d richly endowed with nobility of birth. All have steady p e r p e t u a l y o u t h . 77-80. W o m e n on a p a r with t h e celestial damsels give b i r t h to twins. T h e y d r i n k the milk of the Ksrin trees compar able to n e c t a r . T h e twins are born in a trice a n d they grow together. T h e i r conduct of life, habits, forms a n d features a n d lovable qualities are all equal. T h e y love one a n o t h e r a n d have t h e same activities a n d practices as the Cakravka birds ( R u d d y g e e s e ) . T h e y are always free from ailments a n d devoid of sorrows. T h e y resort to p e r p e t u a l pleasure. T h e y are of great vigour a n d vitality. T h e y live for fourteen thousand five h u n d r e d years. T h e y never carnally a p p r o a c h a n o t h e r men's'wives.

CHAPTER SIXTEEN The Description of Bhrata Sta said : 1. " T h e (mode of) creation of the sub-continents in t h e auspicious B h r a t a had been viewed thus alone, by those w h o were conversant with the greatest principles. W h a t shall I describe once again u n t o y o u ? " The sage said : 2-3. " W e wish to know (more a b o u t ) this sub-continent 1 B h r a t a w h e r e these fourteen M a n u s , S v y a m b h u v a a n d others were b o r n in t h e course of t h e creation of the subjects.
1. VP.II.3, T h i s topic is discussed in details in other Purnas also e.g. A P . 1 1 8 , V . P . 45.68-137.

150 O excellent one, recount t h a t to u s . " words of theirs


Romaharsana said :

Brahmnda Pur&na On h e a r i n g these

4. "I shall r e c o u n t to you all the subjects here in the B h r a t a Varsa. This is a mysterious sub-continent in the middle (of the universe) where the fruits ( o f K a r m a s ) are enjoyed w h e t h e r auspicious or inauspicious. 5. T h e sub-continent t h a t is to the n o r t h of the ocean as well as to the south of the H i m a v n , is called the sub-continent of B h r a t a where the subjects are Bhrat (pertaining to Bhrata). 6. M a n u i s called B h a r a t a because of his (efficiency in the) m a i n t e n a n c e a n d n o u r i s h m e n t of the subjects. T h a t sub continent is thus remembered as B h r a t a in view of the expres sion defined t h u s . 1 7. It is from here t h a t heaven a n d salvation a r e a t t a i n e d a n d people go to the m i d d l e (?) a n d u l t i m a t e e n d . 2 N o w h e r e else on the E a r t h has the holy rite been enjoined on the h u m a n beings. 8. U n d e r s t a n d t h a t there a r e n i n e different divisions or zones of B h r a t a V a r s a . 3 It should be known t h a t they a r e separated by oceans a n d it is impossible to traverse from one t o the o t h e r .
1. tradition 2. This is a n e w definition of Bharata attributing the credit to M a n u which attributed this name to Bharata the son of N b h i . Cf.

w h o is called Bharata, as he maintained the subjects. T h i s supersedes the old M t . P . l 14.5-6. T h i s is claimed as the special feature of India. D u e to this special importance, Bhrata is called Karmabhmi, cf. Bm.P.27.2, Mk.F.55.21-22, M t . P . 114.6-7 also Siddhnta iromani I I I . 4 . 3. Cf. M K . P . 5 7 . 5 , M t . P . l 13.7-9. T h i s is a n e w definition which inclu des w h a t is known as 'greater Bhrata' today. It indicates the period w h e n H i n d u culture w a s assimilated by countries in the south a n d south-east Asia. V . S . Agrawala identifies s o m e of the divisions of Bharata as follows: Indra-dvpa=Indradyumna Tmraparni=Ceylon Varuna-dvipa=Borneo Kaseruman=Malaya-dvipa. or Andamans N g a d v i p a = N i c o b a r s (Nakkavara in Cola inscriptions)

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151

9-11. T h e nine divisions a r e 1 ) I n d r a d v p a , 2) K a e r m n , 3 ) T m r a v a r n a , 4 ) G a b h a s t i m n , 5 ) Ngadvpa, 6 ) S a u m y a , 7) G a n d h a r v a , 8) V a r u n a a n d this 9) is the island surrounded by the sea. T h i s sub-continent (of B h r a t a ) extends north-south, from the source of the river G a g to Cape Comorin, a thousand Yojanas (1 Yojana = 12 K m ) . T h e extent obliquely(i.e. the b r e a d t h ) o n the n o r t h e r n p a r t is nine thousand Yojanas. 12. All r o u n d in the bordering regions the sub-continent is colonized by Mlecchas (barbarous t r i b e s ) . T h e K i r t a s live in the Eastern border lands a n d the Yavanas in the Western b o r d e r lands. 13. T h e Brhmanas, the Ksatriyas a n d the Vaiyas live in the central areas a n d the dras ( a r e scattered) indifferent parts. T h e y a r e well settled m a i n t a i n i n g themselves by m e a n s of performance of sacrifices, wielding of weapons a n d carrying on trading activities. 14-16. T h e m u t u a l inter-dealings a m o n g those different castes continue (indefinitely), based on virtue, wealth a n d love, in regard to their holy rites. T h e conception of t h e different stages of life as well as of the Pacamas (outcastes?) is duly maintained here among these people who have the tendency and endeavour to a t t a i n heaven and Moksa (Liberation). T h e ninth division which is an island is said to extend obliquely. He who conquers it completely is called S a m r t (Emperor).
It is suggested that GaBhastimn and Saumya m a y be identified with J a v a a n d Sumatra (Mt.P.a study, pp. 191-193). For the different opinions of scholars on the above identifications vide M. Ali: Geog. of Purnas, p p . 126-127. M. Ah contradicts the claim of Agrawala, Majumdar a n d others regarding the inclu sion of countries in south East Asia in Bhratavarsa (Ibid. pp. 128-130). M. A l i identifies t h e m as follows: Tmravarna=Indian Kaserumat=The peninsula plain belt south of the Kveri. the the deltas of Godvari a n d Narmad a n d Godvari coastal hilly between between

Mahnadi. Gabhastimn=The S a u m y a = T h e coastal belt west of the Indus. G a n d h a r v a = T h e trans-Indus region. V a r u n a = T h e Western coast of India. But these are mere speculations of scholars.

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17. I n d e e d this world is S a m r t . T h e firmament is r e m e m b e r e d as Virt. T h a t ( o t h e r ) world is remembered as Svart. I shall m e n t i o n in detail once again ( l a t e r o n ) . 18-19. T h e r e are seven m o u n t a i n s of excellent knots and ridges wellknown as Kulaparvatas} T h e y are M a h e n d r a , M a l a y a , Sahya, uktimn, the R k s a m o u n t a i n , the V i n d h y a and the P r i y t r a . These seven are Kulaparvatas. T h e r e are thousands of other m o u n t a i n s n e a r these m o u n t a i n s . 20-23. T h e y a r e not well known (i.e. well e x p l o r e d ) . T h e y possess good and essential things. T h e y a r e vast (in e x p a n s e ) . T h e i r ridges a n d peaks are of various shapes a n d sizes. T h e y a r e 2 M a n d a r a , t h e excellent m o u n t a i n , V a i h r a ,
1. O u t of the seven mountain ranges mentioned here the Mahendra,

M a l a y a , S a h y a ranges are \v:Il-known. T h e Vindhya of the Purnas included the Satpur range south of the N a r m a d , the M a h d e o Hills, the Hazaribagh R a n g e and the Rjamahal Hills. uktimn, according to De (p. 196) is the portion of the Vindhya-range joining Priytra and R k s a mountains including the hills of G o n d w a n a a n d C h h o t a Nagpur. But M. Ali. in the topographical M a p of Bhrata, shows it as a ring of ranges encircling the M a h n a d i basin, very nearly coinciding the present Mahkosala (Purnic region. T h e Priytra m o u n t a i n is the ring of ranges north corresponds with the Aravallis a n d (modern) of the Narmad, nearly encircling the catchment areas of the C h a m b a l a n d the Betw and thus Western Vindhya. T h e Rksa mountain represents the modern V i n d h y a from the source of the Sonar to the eastern ranges marking the catchment area of the river Son. ( M . Ali. 2. Op. Cit., pp. 112-113.) S o m e of these mountains are identified as follows: of Bihar is, however, popularly believed Daksina Kosala)

M a n d a r a A portion of the H i m a l a y a s to the east of Sumeru in Garhwal. T h e hill in the Banka sub-division as M a n d a r a ( D e , pp. 124-125). Vaihra Dardura (?) = T h e Nilgiri hills ( D e , p . 5 3 )

K o l h a l a = T h e Brahma -yont hill in G a y ( D e , p. 101) M a i n k a = T h e Sewalik range from the G a g to the Bias (De, p. 121) V a i d y u t a = T h e Gurla range, south of lake Manasasarovar; the aray said to rise in this mountain ( D e , p. 16) Vtandhama (?) Mus-tagh (De, p.104) 70) Krsnagiri = T h e Karakorum mountain, is

G o d h a n a = G a r a t h a Hills in Bna's Harsa-carita VI ( D e , p. Vaiga (De, p. 164).

Puspagiri = T h e part of the M a l a y a range, the source of the Krtaml or U j j a y a n t a = M t . Girnar (De, p. 2 1 1 )

1.2.16.24-29a

153

D a r d u r a , K o l h a l a , along w i t h Surasa, M a i n k a , V a i d y u t a , Vtandhama, Ngagiri, the m o u n t a i n P n d u r a (Palewhite i n c o l o u r ) , T u g a p r a s t h a , Krsnagiri, t h e m o u n t a i n G o d h a n a , the Puspagiri, Ujjayanta, the m o u n t a i n R a i v a t a k a , rlparvata, C i t r a k t a and t h e m o u n t a i n K t a a i l a . T h e r e are m a n y m o u n t a i n s other t h a n these. T h e y are smaller t h a n these, less well known a n d lesser n u m b e r of living beings d e p e n d e n t on t h e m . 24. T h e regions interspersed with these m o u n t a i n s a r e partially i n h a b i t e d by Aryas a n d partially by t h e Mlecchas (tribal-barbarous-people). T h e following rivers (beginning with) the G a g , the S i n d h u a n d the Sarasvat are utilised by them for d r i n k i n g purposes. 25-2 7a. T h e foregoing three a n d the following rivers originate from the foot of t h e H i m a l a y a s , 1 viz. : the S a t a d r u , t h e C a n d r a b h g , the Y a m u n a , the Saray, t h e Irvat, t h e Vitast, the Vip, the Devik, the K u h , t h e G o m a t i , the D h t a p p , t h e B u d b u d , the Drsadvat, the Kauik, t h e T r i d i v . t h e Nisthv, t h e G a n d a k a n d the Caksurlohit. 27b.29a. T h e following rivers are r e m e m b e r e d as depen d e n t on (i.e. originating from) the P r i y t r a m o u n t a i n : 2 T h e
R a i v a t a k a = M t . Girnar near J u n a g a r h in Gujarat. r i p a r v a t a = T h e famous hill in Eastern ghat in Kurnool Dist. Andhra Pradesh. C i t r a k t a K m p t n t h giri in Bundelkhand, M a d h y a Pradesh ( D e , p . 5 0 ) 1. The ranges of mountains a list described in note 1 p. 152 above are the Himalayas. the The watersheds w h i c h b o u n d wholly or partly the catchment areas of important of rivers rising from the the Candrabhg Vip

rivers in India. H e r e is The (Ravi), the atadru Vitast

m o d e r n names of the rivers are given in brackets: (Sutlej), (Jhelum), (Chenab), the Irvati (Deeg(Beas), Devika

a tributary of the R a v i ) , the K u h u ( K a b u l ) , T h e D h t a p p (rad, w i t h its h e a d streams), the Budbud (misprint for B h u d - R a p t i ) , the Drsadvat (Chitang, a tributary of the G h a g g a r ) , the Kauik headwaters. T h e Tridiva (?), the Nisthivi (?) T h e Caksurlohit ( B r a h m a p u t r a ? ) M . Ali. Op. Cit. pp.114-115. 2. T h e modern n a m e s of the rivers are bracketed: (Bans), big, Vedavat perennial (Berach), Vrtraghni (Bangangarivers of ancient Matsya-desha T h e Vedasmrti ( K o s i ) w i t h its three

U t a n g a n ) . T h e s e were the

{ n o w a part of M. P . ) T h e V a r n is W. Banas w h i c h flows west of Aravallis

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Brahmnda Purna

Vedasmrti, the Vedavat, river V r t r a g h n i , the V a r n , the N a n d a n , the S a d n i r ^ the M a h n a d I , t h e P, the C a r m a n v a t , t h e N p , the Vidia, the Vetravat, the K s i p r a a n d t h e Anant (Avant?). 29b-32a. These rivers originate from the Rksa v a n . 1 T h e y a r e sacred a n d their waters a r e crystal-like. T h e y are : T h e ona, the M a h n a d a , the N a r m a d , the Suras, the Kriy, the M a n d k i n , the D a r n , the Citrakt, the T a m a s , the Pippal, the yen, the K a r a m o d , t h e Picik, the Citropal, the Vil, the Vajul, the Vstuvhini, t h e (Sa) Neruj, t h e uktimat, M a i k u t l , the T r i d i v a n d the K r a t u . 32b-33. T h e following auspicious rivers of holy waters have originated from the foot-hills of the V i n d h y a ranges. 2

the Nandan (Sbarmati), the Sadnir (Sarasvati), the M a h a nadi, the P (If Pr=Prbat), the Carmanvatl (Chambal), the N p , ( G a m b h i r a ) , the Vidi (Bes), the Vetravati ( B e t w ) , t h e Ksipr ( i p r ) ; the Anaut (should be Avanti. It rises near M h o w ) M. Ah. Op. Cit. pp. 116-117) 1. T h e Purnic mountain ranges are so m u c h m i x e d up in our times that some rivers are attributed to either of t h e m : The ona ) ( T h e s e do not rise in the Puranic T h e M a h n a d a (mahnadi) ) (' R k s a Parvata. The Narmad )( T h e Suras (?) )( T h e Kriy (?) )( T h e Mandkin )( T h e Darn ( D h a s a n ) )( ) ( These are rivers T h e Citrakt ) ( from BundelT h e T a m a s (Tons) T h e Pippal ) ( Seems to be one river called ) ( khand ( M . P . ) ] I Pippaliyeni as in M t . P . , (mod. ) ( T h e yen ) ( n a m e : Paisuni) )( T h e K a r a m o d (Karam-n) )( T h e Picik )( T h e Citropal )( T h e Vil (Bewas near Sagar in M . P . ) T h e V a j u l (As in V . P . it should be J a m b l m o d . J a m m i . T h e Vastuvhini (Baghain, a tributary of the Y a m u n a ) T h e (Sa)Neruj (rather Sumeruj as in V . P . (Sonar-Bearma) T h e uktimati ( K e n ) M . Ah Op. Cit. pp. 118-119. 2. As noted above Puranic writers include even Satpur hills in t h e Vindhya ranges. T h e modern names of the rivers are given in Brackets: T h e Tp ( T h e T a p t i and T p i also) T h e Payosni ( P a i n - g a n g a D e , p . 150)

1.2.16.34-37

155

viz. : T h e T p , t h e Payosn, the N i r v i n d h y , t h e Srp ; t h e river N i s a d h a , t h e Vera, the V a i t a r a n l , t h e K s i p r , t h e V i , the K u m u d v a t , the T o y , t h e M a h g a u r i , t h e D u r g , a n d the A n n a i l . [ P r o b a b l y durg (difficult to cross) a n d annarather antail (rocky w i t h i n ) a r e adjectives of M a h g a u r . ] 34-35. T h e G o d v a r , the Bhmarath, the Krsnaven, the V a j u l , the T u g a b h a d r , the Suprayog, t h e Bhy a n d the Kver a r e t h e rivers o r i g i n a t i n g form the foot-hills of t h e Sahya r a n g e . 1 T h e y f l o w t o t h e south. 36. T h e following rivers h a v e originated from t h e m o u n t a i n M a l a y a . 2 All of t h e m a r e auspicious a n d they h a v e cool waters. T h e y are : the K r t a m l , the T m r a p a r n , t h e Puspajt a n d the U t p a l v a t i . 37. T h e following rivers r e m e m b e r e d as d a u g h t e r s of t h e m o u n t M a h e n d r a : 3 T h e T r i s a m , Rsikuly, T h e Vamjul, the Tridiv, t h e (A) bal, t h e Lglin a n d the V a m a d h a r .
T h e Nirvindhy (Newuj) R. mentioned in Meghadta T h e Srp or ipr T h e N i s a d h a (Sind, on this Narwar, the capital of Nisadhas was located) T h e Veni T h e Ksipr The Vl The Toy (Wainganga) (Baitarani) (Probably, the same as iipr) (?) (Suvarna-rekh) (Damodar) (Brhmani) T h e Vaitarani

T h e Kumudvati T h e Mahgauri

T h e following : Durg (difficult to cross) and anna (anta-) il (full of rocks) are probably the adjectives of the M a h g a u r i . M . AliOp. Cit. pp. 120-121. 1. Vajul easiness Varad). 2. M o d e r n names of these rivers are bracketed: the K r t a m l the Puspajti (or P u s p a j = P a m b i a r ) , the (Vaigai), t h e Tmraparn, 3. Utpalavat M o s t of these rivers continue the s a m e o l d (Majir), to b a t h e ) , the Suprayog the B h y (Vedavat. The n a m e s t h o u g h some of them are modified e.g. T h e Bhmarath ( B h i m ) , Krsnaven ( K r s n ) , the Its original n a m e signifies AP. correctly reads it as

(Varad,

(Periyar). M . A l i Op. Cit. pp. 122-23. T h e modern names of these rivers are given in brackets: T h e Trisam (Ghoda-hada, Bhagava, P a t a m a t h e s e three headwaters of the Rsikuly have this collective n a m e ) Rsikuly (repeated under rivers from uktimn), the V a j u l and (?), the Tridiv (collective n a m e for Vegavati, N g a v a t i the three headwaters of the Lglini). T h e Langulini (Lnguli) M . AhOp. Cit. p . 2 4 . Suvarnamukhi

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38. T h e following rivers are r e m e m b e r e d as originating from u k t i m n : x T h e Rsikuly, the K u m r i , t h e M a n d a g , the M a n d a g m i n , t h e K t p a n d t h e Palin. 39. All these rivers a r e identical w i t h t h e Sarasvati a n d t h e G a g . T h e y flow i n t o t h e sea. All of t h e m are rem embered as t h e mothers of the universe a n d dispellers of the sins of the worlds. 40-42. T h e y have h u n d r e d s a n d thousands of ancillary t r i b u t a r i e s . T h e following territories a n d realms have been founded on ( t h e banks of) these rivers: 2 t h e K u r u s , t h e Pclas, t h e lvas, t h e M d r e y a s . t h e j g a l a s , t h e rasenas, t h e B h a d r a k r a s , t h e Bodhas, the P a t a c c a r a s , t h e Matsyas, the Kualyas, t h e Saualyas, the K u n t a l a s , t h e Kis, the Kosalas, t h e G o d h a s , t h e Bhadras, the Kaligas, the M a g a d h a s a n d t h e U t k a l a s . T h e s e a r e t h e realms in the m i d d l e of t h e c o u n t r y 2 a n d most of them have been r e c o u n t e d .
1. T h e modern names are given in brackets: (the same as mentioned a b o v e ) . (Suktel, joins the M a h n a d i near Sonpur, O r i s s a ) , T h e The Mandagmini (Mahnadiproper), The Krp 125. India in (Jonk in Raipur Dist.. M . P . ) M . AltOp. Cit. p.

T h e Rsikuly T h e Kumr Mandag 2. they (Arp), Pals'ini (Mand),

T h e author of this P u r n a includes the following parts of

" M a d h y a d e a " . T h e s e are originally names of tribes applied to the land where settled: Kurus : Between the Ghaggar in the West and the G a g on the east

and with forest belt on the north a n d the south. Paclas :coterminus w i t h modern Rohilkhand w i t h the central portion of the G a n g a - Y a m u n a d o a b added to it. lvas: N e a r Kuruksetra to the west of the comprised P- 1 7 5 ) . Mdreya or Madra : T h e region between the Ravi and the Chinab in the Punjab ( D e , p. 1 1 6 ) . Jgala:generally Probably Cit. p . 1 3 5 ) . Bhadrakaras a n d Bodhas the M i d d l e country Pataccaras on the (along w i t h lvas) occupied the border land of bank of the Y a m u n a are located in Banda (Madhya-desha of Purnas). south associated with Kurus and called Kuru-Jjgala. it occupied the w o o d e d north eastern part of Kurus ( M . Ali.Op. Matsyadea. De thinks it (De, of some portion of former Jodhpur, Jaipur and Alwai states

district ( M . Ali. Op. Cit. p. 1 7 1 ) . T h e Matsyas:consisted of the territory of the former Alwar state and s o m e adjoining areas from former Jaipur a n d Bharatpur ( D e , p. 1 2 8 ) .

1.2.16.43-51a

157

43. T h e l a n d towards t h e n o r t h e r n extremity of t h e S a h y a m o u n t a i n where t h e river G o d v a r i flows, is t h e most fascinating r e a l m on t h e whole of the e a r t h . 44-45. A city n a m e d G o v a r d h a n a 1 was built there by R m a . Heavenly trees a n d divine medicinal herbs liked by R m a were p l a n t e d there by sage Bharadvja to please R m a . H e n c e t h e region of t h a t excellent city b e c a m e c h a r m i n g . 4 6 - 5 l a . T h e following ones a r e the realms in the n o r t h e r n p a r t s . 2 T h e Bhlikas, the V t a d h n a s , t h e Abhlras, t h e
1. N o w a village in Nasik District of Maharashtra. Formerly is mentioned several times it w a s are the in

an important centre of learning a n d Brhmanas c o m i n g from that k n o w n as Govardhana Brhmanas. It phia Indica). 2.

area

famous Nasik Inscription of usasadta (100 B . C . ) E . I . V I I I p. 7 8 . (EpigraGenerally realms or countries are n a m e d after t h e n a m e s of the

tribes or peoples settled there. T h e identifications of the realms on northern part are based on M. Ali's discussion in his Geog. of the Purrms, p p . 137-146. D. C. Sircar's G A M I is also referred to a n d only the p a g e no. is mentioned. The Bhlikas or Vhlikas=People of Balistan-region covered by the Bolon, Nari a n d G o k h rivers. It coincides w i t h former British Baluchistan. region.

But Balkh ( N . Afghanistan) according to D. C. Sircar, p. 3 2 . The Vtadhanas= probably Waziristan. But Panjab-Rajasthan Sircar p. 3 2 . The bhras=South of Sauvira but east of the Indus-Western Part of Hyderabad, District Sind. The Klatoyakas=Residents of K a l a t region The Suhmas ( ? ) = T h i s is in eastern India. The PtoZ<u=Rohilkhand the Churma island. The The GandharasKandaharlower Sindhu-Sauvlra-Mandals=Smdhu Kabul and valley. Sauvira are different the regions. The Tavanas Ionians, Greeks. Sauvira coincides w i t h Rohri-Khairpur region of Sind and portion is Sind. The Tusras=Tokharians in north Afghanistan, but p e o p l e on the T o c h i the according to M. Ali p. 142. The Pallavas or Pahlavas=Region adjoining the H i n g o l V a l l e y on Parikan The river. &ja=Scythians. remaining (?) The Carma-mandlas or Carma-khanda at the m o u t h of the river H a b a n d in Baluchistan. The Aparantas=This is the North-Western region called Aparita in V . P .

The Kulinda=The S a m e as Pulinda in M t . P. Kunets of K u l u . But formerly they extended to Saharanpur a n d AmbalaSircar p. 3 3 .

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Klatoyakas, the A p a r n t a s ( ? W e s t e r n e r s ) , t h e S u h m a s , the Pclas, t h e C a r m a m a n d a l a s , the G n d h r a s , t h e Yavanas, t h e S i n d h u s a u v r a m a n d a l a s , the Cnas, t h e T u s r a s , the Pallavas, t h e Girigahvaras (dwellers of m o u n t a i n caves), t h e akas, the B h a d r a s , the K u l i n d a s , t h e P r a d a s , the Vindhyaclikas, t h e Abishas, t h e U l t a s , the Kekayas, the D a a m l i k a s the Brhm a n a s , t h e K s a t r i y a s , the Vaiyas and the families of t h e dras, t h e K m b o j a s , t h e D a r a d a s , the Barbaras, the Agalauhikas, t h e Atris, along w i t h t h e Bharadvjas, t h e Prasthalas, the Daerakas, t h e L a m a k a s , the Tlalas, t h e Bhsikas a n d the jikas. Now u n d e r s t a n d the realms of t h e eastern p a r t s . 1

The PradaThe s a m e as Parita in V . P . = Mithankot region of Dera G a z i K h a n District Pakistan. But Parthians of Khorasan according to D . C . Sircar p. 3 3 . The Kekayas=eap\e of the country between the Beas (De, p. 9 7 ) . and the Sutlej

The Kmbojas=People from Kafistan w h o colonised the Kunar basin. The Daradas=The same ancient tribe living in the valley of the Kiseng a n g a in Kashmir. The Barbaras=People migrated from Barbaiy or N o r t h Africa. The PrasthalasThe district between Ferozepur, Patiala and Sirsa (De, 159). The DaSerakas M a l w a ? But Marwar region of RajasthanSircar, p.35. The Z.amofcu=Probably the same as Lampka or L a m g h a n of t o d a y associated with upper K a b u l 1. T h e ancient tribes and their locations from Eastern India are identi fied as follows: 77M Agas=The country about Bhagalpur including M o n g h y r The Colabhadras=The C o r o m a n d a l Coast (?) to The Airtas=Tipara a n d M o r u n g west of Sikkim. extreme east. ( D e , p. 1 0 0 ) . The Tomaras=The Garo hills of south west Assam (De, 7 ) .

T h e y lived from N e p a l (De, p. 2 0 5 ) .

The 7anganar= Country from the R m g a g river to the upper Saray <De p. 2 0 4 ) . The Hnadarvas Country round Manasa-Sarovar ? The MudgarakasMonghyr and country around (De, p. 7 8 ) . 132). (?) ( D e , p.

The .4ntogirii7=Rajmahal hills in Santal Pargana Bengal (De, P. 8 ) . B u t Sircar locates Antrgiri and Bahirgiri towards the north of Assam (p. 3 6 ) . The Maladas=A part of the district of S h a h a b a d T h e site of Vivmitra's Arama near Buxar ( D e , p. 100) M a l d a District of Bengal and Rajashahi and West Dinajpur of Bengal ( M . Ali p. 1 5 1 ) .

1.2.16.51b-59

159

51b-55a. T h e Agas, t h e Vagas, the C o l a b h a d r a s , the K i r t a tribes, the T o m a r a s , the Harhsabhagas, the K m l r a s , t h e T a g a n a s , the Jhillikas, fhe Ahukas, the H n a d a r v a s , t h e Andhravkas, the M u d g a r a k a s , the Antargiris ( t h e Bahirgiris, t h e Plavagus, the M a l a d a s , t h e Malavartikas, t h e S a m a n t a r a s , t h e Prvrseyas, the Bhargavas, the G o p a p r t h i v a s ( c o w h e r d kings), the Prgjyotisas, t h e P u d r a s , t h e Videhas, the T m r a liptakas, .the ,Mallas, t h e M a g a d h a g o n a r d a s . These a r e re m e m b e r e d as the realms in the E a s t . 55b-59. T h e n , there a r e t h e other realms of t h e dwellers of the southern territories. 1 T h e y are the Pruiyas, t h e K e r a l a s ,
The Prgjyotifas=K.maipa. District in Assam.

The Pundras= Between A g a and V a g a a n d on the north side of the G a g (De, p. 155) ( M . Ali, p. 1 5 1 ) . The Videhas=T'vr)mX The The country in the between the Kosi and the Gandak to the Midnapur Paranath District hills including Kontai north of the G a g ( D e , p. 3 5 ) . TimraliptakasTamluk Mallas=Country round (De, p. 2 0 3 ) , ( M . Ali, p. 152). (parts.of Hazaribagh a n d M a n b h u m Districts), but at Buddha's time they were at P v a n d Kusinagar (De, p. 123). The Magadha-Gonardas= M a g a d h a is South Bihar. a n d Sircar. The Bhargava-Agaya. was 1. Tanjore the Y a m u n a - M e g h n a D o a b (M.Ali, Op. Cit. p. 152), but he does not mention merely Bhrgava as in this text. T h e following identifications are based on D e . (p. 5 1 ) . ( p . 1 3 4 ) . But Sircar The CW<u=The Coromandal Coast to the South of the Pennar including The Affti<M=Travancore on the Malabar coast The Mahisikas = Southern M y s o r e ( p . De identifies Gonarda with G o n d a in O u d h ( p . 7 1 ) , but no such combined n a m e is found in De

suggests that they were probably people living on the Muri river (p. 3 6 ) . 1 2 0 ) . also Sircar p. 3 9 . 38. SetukasPeople of Setubandha, Rmevara.Sircar p.

The KaligasSouth Orissa. (Puri a n d G a n j a m Districts)Sircar p. 3 9 . The bhras=South-eastern portion of Gujarat about the m o u t h of the Narmad The (Sircar p . l . ) . Vaidarbhas=Vid&rbha, 'Mlaka', a part a of Maharashtra. (p.52). near Amaka 39). of Maharashtra p. (Maharashtra) part (Sircar

77K Dotwfoit<u=Dandakranya The Maulika=\ { p . 133). Mod. Aurangabad District p. 40.

The Amakas=Aurangabad district and B o d h a n country round about in N i z a m a b a d District(Sircar

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Brahmna'a Purna

t h e Colas, t h e Kulyas, the Setukas, t h e Msikas, t h e forest dwelling K s a p a n a s , t h e M a h r s t r a s , the Mahisikas, the entire r e a l m of t h e K a l i g a s , t h e Abhras, t h e Aiskas, t h e Atavyas (Forest-dwellers), the Sravas, t h e Pulindas, the Vindhyamauliyas, t h e V a i d a r b h a s , t h e D a n d a k a s , t h e Paurikas, t h e Maulikas, the Amakas, the Bhogavardhanas (those w h o increase sensual pleasures), the K o k a n a s , t h e K a n t a l a s , the Andhras, the K u l i n d a s , t h e Agras a n d t h e Mrisas. T h e s e are t h e lands of the s o u t h ; u n d e r s t a n d t h e western regions. 60-63a. (Now) know t h e realms in t h e western regions. 1 T h e y a r e t h e Sryrakas, t h e Kalivanas, the Durglas, t h e K u n t a l a s , t h e Pauleyas, t h e K i r t a s , t h e R p a k a s , t h e T p a k a s , Kartis, t h e whole of K a r a m d h a r a s , t h e Nsikas, t h e others w h o are in the valleys of t h e N a r m a d , t h e ( S a h a ) K a c c h a s , t h e (Sa) mheyas, t h e Srasvatas, t h e K a c c h i p a s , t h e Surstras, t h e A n a r t a s a n d t h e Arbudas. T h e above realms a r e t h e western ones. N o w listen to those w h o reside on t h e V i n d h y a s : 2
The (Sircar, Bhogavardhanas= ( M o d . Bhokardan T a l u q a of Aurangabad District p. 40). Maharashtra a n d N o r t h e r n C a n a r a District

The Ka(Ku)ntalasSouthern n o w a part of K a m a t a k a .

The Ifu/imftu=Garhwala ( p . 1 0 6 ) . But it is surprising t h a t it is m e n t i o n e d as a state in the S o u t h . 1. S o m e of these c a n be identified as follows: The Kirtas=Possibly a reference to K i r t a settlement in the West. The 7VaitAas=Nasik, n o w in Maharashtra. The KacchasCutch, now in Gujarat State. ( D e , p. 16). -77M narta=Gujarat a n d a part of M a l w a ( D e , p. 8 ) . The Arbuda=Country around mt. Abu 2. T h e following c a n be identified as per De and M. Ali. 77K KarsasThe country around R e w a ( D e , p. 9 5 ) . The Mekalas= Country round Amarkaijtaka, the source of the N a r m a d ( D e , p. 1 3 0 ) . The I/M:a/as=Orissa. 77i DaJrpa^ Modern Eastern M a l w ( S i r c a r , p. 4 3 ) . The Bhojas=Country around Bhilwara in K i n g d o m i n G o a (p. 4 3 ) . 77i Kiskmdhakas= Kikarava in other Purnas. Sircar identifies this Kiskandh w i t h m o d . Kalyanpur, S o u t h o f U d a i p u r Division (p. 4 3 ) . the C h a m b a l basin (M.Ali p. 1 5 9 ) . Sircar identifies t h e m w i t h the people of Vidarbha w h o founded a

1.2.16.63b-69

161

63b-66. T h e M a l a d a s , t h e Karsas, the Mekalas, t h e Utkalas, the D a r n a s , a m o n g t h e excellent ones the Bhojas, the Kiskindhakas, the Toalas, the Koalas, the T r a i p u r a s , the Vaidia, the T u h u n d a s , the Barbaras, the Satpuras, t h e Naisadhas, t h e Anpas, t h e T u n d i k e r a s , the Vtihotras a n d the Avantis. All these realms a r e founded on the ridges of t h e Vindhya. Hereafter, I shall recount the realms founded on t h e m o u n t a i n s (Hill-tribes). e T ^ a . 1 T h e y a r e t h e Nihiras, t h e Harhsamrgas, the K u p a t h a s , t h e T a g a n a s , the akas, t h e Apaprvaranas, t h e r n a s , the Darvas, the H h u k a s , the Trigartas, t h e M a n d a l a s , the K i r t a s a n d the T m a r a s . 68b-69. Sages have said t h a t there are four Yugas, in t h e Bhrata sub-continent, viz. K r t a , T r e t , D v p a r a a n d T i s y a ( K a l i ) . I shall m e n t i o n their detailed divisions wholly later on.

Continued The TolalasIt is the Southern part of K o s a l a or G o n d w a n round Tosali ( M o d . D h a n t i ) in Puri District (De, p. 4 3 ) . The Kosdlas Sircar identifies with D a k s i n a Raipur, Sitapur, Santalpur Districts. The Vaidiia= Eastern M a l w a w i t h Vidis' or Bhilasa as the capital. The Tripura=The region round TewarThis covers upper Narmad valley (present J a b a l p u r a n d parts of M a n d l a a n d Narasimhapur Districts.) The Naisadhas=Ma.rwax w i t h N a r w a r as the Capital The Anpas= S o u t h M a l w a . ( D e , p. 8 ) . The Vtihotras=The country is West ofHarda. The town vantis=Country (p.161). N o r t h W e s t Kashmir. This tribe around Ujjain. The Tundikera=tA. Ali locates it within the N a r m a d a basin around t h e Sainkheda The Nihras= Location uncertain, D. C. Sircar G A M I , p. 4 5 . The Harhsa-mrgas=Peopleot H u m z a i n The Kupathas=Hill tribes in 1. h a d a location t h e r e D . C. Sircar Ibid. p. 38 a n d 4 3 . the N o r t h West of India. T h e Mountain-system described in this w i t h M t . M e r u as the centre founded in the S o u t h by the Narmad a n d N o r t h East, West by the Vindhya. T h e centre was Satwas 30 miles N o r t h (De, p.141). about N i m a r Country on the N a r m a d (Southern) K o s a l a M o d . District

is substantiated by the geographer M. Ah. in Geog. of the Purnas, pp. 47-59. For the m o d e r n n a m e s of the Puranic mountains vide Supra Ch. 1. p.l 1 F N . K

162 CHAPTER SEVENTEEN

Brahman (la Purna

Varsas of Jambdvipa, Kimpurusa, Hari and Ilvrta* The sages said : 1. Recount to us the sub-continents of K i m p u r u s a a n d H a r i v a r s a as actually they a r e really. T h e sub-continent of B h r a t a has already been recounted by you. Sta said : 2. Listen attentively, O B r h m a n a s , to what you are desirous of hearing. T h e r e is a very large grove of Plaksa trees in the sub-continent K i m p u r u s a . It can be compared with the ^heavenly) N a n d a n a p a r k . 3. It is remembered t h a t the span of life in K i m p u r u s a is for ten thousand years. T h e m e n have golden complexion a n d the w o m e n are comparable to celestial damsels. 4. All people there, are free from ailments a n d sorrows. T h e y are perpetually joyous in their minds. T h e y have the lustre of hot glowing gold. 5. In the holy sub-continent of K i m p u r u s a , there is an auspicious tree oozing out (exuding) honey. All t h e K i m p u r u s a s drink its excellent j u i c e . 6. T h e y say t h a t the sub-continent H a r i v a r s a is beyond K i m p u r u s a . T h e people there a r e b o r n resembling gold in the colour of their complexion. 7. All the people in the sub-continent of H a r i v a r s a are those w h o have been d r o p p e d d o w n from the Devaloka (Region of the D e v a s ) . All of t h e m h a v e the characteristics and racial features of the Devas. T h e y d r i n k the auspicious sugarcane juice. 8. In t h e sub-continent H a r i v a r s a , all the people live for eleven thousand years w i t h o u t a n y ailment. All of t h e m are joyous in their m i n d s . 9-10. O l d age prematurely. does not affect t h e m n o r do they die

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163

T h e middle land which had already been described by m e , is known by the n a m e I l v r t a . T h e sun does not blaze very h o t t h e r e . T h e m e n d o not become aged. I n Ilvrta, the m o o n a n d t h e sun as well as t h e stars are not very bright. 11. M e n are born there with the lustre of t h e lotus. T h e y have t h e colour of their complexion resembling t h a t of the lotus. T h e y have eyes like lotus a n d fragrance like t h a t of t h e lotus petals. 12. T h e i r diet consists of the fruit and j u i c e of the rosea p p l e . T h e y do not have sweat trickling down from their bodies. T h e y are sweet-smelling. T h e y a r e intelligent. T h e y enjoy all sensual pleasures, a n d the fruits of their meritorious actions. 13-14a. T h e y are fallen down from the world of the Devas. T h e y have golden g a r m e n t s . T h e excellent m e n who live in the sub-continent I l v r t a have a span of life extending to thirteen thousand years. 14b-15. It ( I l v r t a ) extends to nine thousand (Yojanas) in every direction from t h e M e r u . Its overall a r e a is thirtysix thousand It is situated like a platter. Yojanas square.

16-17. T h e G a n d h a m d a n a m o u n t a i n is nine thousand Yojanas away from the M e r u on the western side. It extends to thirtyfour thousand Yojanas from n o r t h to south. It extends as far as the Nla a n d N i s a d h a m o u n t a i n s . Its height above the g r o u n d level is fortythousand Yojanas. 18. It goes down a thousand Yojanas deep into the e a r t h . Its girth also is the same. T h e m o u n t a i n M l y a v n is to its ( i . e . M e r u ' s ) east a n d its dimensions have been a l r e a d y r e c o u n t e d (as the s a m e ) . 19. T h e Nla m o u n t a i n is in the south a n d the N i s a d h a is in t h e n o r t h . T h e M a h m e r u is well established in their midst with its dimensions. 20. In t h e case of all these m o u n t a i n s , t h e girth is t h e same as the extent to which they go deep d o w n into t h e e a r t h . It is r e m e m b e r e d t h a t their total length is a h u n d r e d thousand Yojanas.

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21*. (?) T h e i r outward a p p e a r a n c e is circular (spherical) like t h e e a r t h e r n sphere (within t h e enveloping) ocean. T h e lengths dwindle down a n d they are t h e n r e m e m b e r e d ( m o r e or less) equal to a square. 22. T h e r e is a river composed of t h e j u i c e of t h e rose apple. It flows t h r o u g h the m i d d l e of t h e oblong-shaped I l v r t a dividing it ( i n t o t w o ) . It has the colour of t h e fresh collyrium. 23. On the southern side of the M e r u a n d to t h e n o r t h of the N i s a d h a , t h e r e is an ancient eternal Rose-apple tree n a m e d Sudarana. 24. It is perpetually laden w i t h blossoms a n d fruits. It is resorted to by Siddhas a n d C r a n a s . T h e whole continent is called J a m b d v p a after t h e n a m e of t h a t tree. 2 5 . T h e height of t h a t noble-souled lordly tree is one thousand a n d one h u n d r e d Yojanas. Everywhere it touches t h e firmament on all sides. 26. T h e thickness ( d i a m e t e r ) of its fruit is calculated by the sages with visions of principles (of reality) as eight h u n d r e d a n d sixty one Aratnis (I Aratni = 18-20 C m s . ) 2 7 . As they fall on t h e g r o u n d , these fruits m a k e a l o u d sound. T h e j u i c e of the fruits of t h a t J a m b (Rose apple) tree flows as a river. 28. This river c i r c u m a m b u l a t e s t h e M e r u a n d p e n e t r a t e s into t h e ground deep down a t the root o f the J a m b tree. T h e delighted ( i n h a b i t a n t s ) of I l v r t a always drink t h e j u i c e of the Jamb. 29. W h e n t h e j u i c e of t h e J a m b is d r u n k n e i t h e r old age n o r hunger, n e i t h e r weariness n o r d e a t h n o r .languor oppresses t h e m . \ 30. A type of gold n a m e d J m b n a d a is p r o d u c e d t h e r e . It is a glowing o r n a m e n t of t h e gods. It has t h e resemblance of I n d r a so far in lustre. 3 1 . T h e auspicious j u i c e of t h e fruits of t h e respective representative trees of all t h e sub-continents is hailed by all.

* V.P.46.21b and 22a is found combined here as Bd.P.I. 2.18.21. This being the translation of Bd.P., the text of the Bd.P. (though slightly confusing) is followed. . ,/

1.2.17.32-3718.1

165

W h e n it (the juice) becomes scattered over it ( t h e alluvial remains of it) become shining gold, an o r n a m e n t fit for gods. 32. It is d u e to the grace of god t h a t their ( of the i n h a b i t a n t s ) u r i n e a n d faeces scattered over all directions as well as bodies of the dead a r e swallowed up by (absorbed i n ) the e a r t h . 33. It is declared t h a t the Rksasas, Picas a n d the Y a k s a s a r e all 'the residents of the H i m a v a t . It should be known t h a t the G a n d h a r v a s live on the H e m a k t a along w i t h the groups of t h e Apsaras. 34. esa, Vsuki, T a k s a k a ( y e s ) all the serpents (live) on the N i s a d h a . T h e thirty three (groups of) Devas (gods) authorised to p a r t a k e of the shares in the Yaja, sport a b o u t on the Mahmeru. 35. T h e Siddhas a n d the B r a h m a n i c a l sages devoid of impurities live on the Nla full of V a i d u r y a (Lapis L a z u l i ) . It is mentioned t h a t the m o u n t a i n veta belongs to the Daityas a n d the D n a v a s . 36-37. T h e excellent m o u n t a i n r^ga-vn is the place w h e r e the Pitrs frequently move a b o u t . Living b e i n g s b o t h t h e mobile a n d the i m m o b i l e a r e settled in these nine sub continents with their different divisions duly s i t u a t e d . T h e i r prosperous growth, b o t h divine a n d h u m a n , is seen in diverse ways. It c a n n o t be a d e q u a t e l y e n u m e r a t e d . It should be believed by those w h o wish to b e * (?)

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN

The Description of the Jambdvlpa The Bindu Lakesource of the Gag : Its four streams Sta said : 1.
prehend.

In t h e midst of the H i m a l a y a n ridges, there is a

V.P.46.38banububhsata(be believed) by o n e desirous to c o m -

166
1

Brahmnda Purqa

m o u n t a i n n a m e d K a i l s a . T h e glorious a n d prosperous K u b e r a ^ lives there along w i t h t h e Rksasas. 2-3. T h e king, the overlord of A l a k , rejoices (there) with the celestial damsels a t t e n d i n g on h i m . T h e sacred splen did a n d chill water originating from the foot of t h e K a i l s a m o u n t a i n has formed a lake n a m e d M a d a 2 ( M a n d a , in V . P . 4 7 . 2 ) . It abounds in white lilies and it resembles a sea. T h e auspicious river M a n d k i n 3 (the G a g ) rises from t h a t divine (lake). 4-5. On its banks t h e r e is t h e great divine park called N a n d a n a v a n a . To t h e North-east of t h e Kailsa, in front of t h a t divine m o u n t a i n of all medicinal herbs, the m o u n t a i n full of jewels a n d minerals, t h e powerful m o u n t a i n of wonderful mysteries, there is a m o u n t a i n n a m e d C a n d r a p r a b h a . 4 It is perfectly white a n d it resembles splendid jewels. 6. At its foot there is a great divine lake n a m e d Svacchoda. F r o m t h a t divine lake rises a river n a m e d Svacchod. 7-8a. T h e r e is a g r e a t splendid divine p a r k on its banks called C a i t r a r a t h a . O n t h a t m o u n t a i n lives M a n i b h a d r a along w i t h his followers. He is t h e ruthless lord of t h e armies of Yaksas. He is surrounded by the G u h y a k a s .
1. T h e description of m o u n t Kailsa, t h o u g h a poetic one, shows that

the Purna writer w a s conVersant w i t h the topographical features of t h e Mnasa-sarovara basin.vide M. Ali. op.cit., pp. 55-58. 2. (1) (2) For understanding the Purnic presentation of the ancient riverAccording to Purnas, a river normally originates from a lake either over-ground or under-ground and is associated w i t h a mountain. T h e y believed that r i v e r s c a n penetrate through channels, mountain-ranges a n d can flow in if intervened by ridges. (3) 3. of Purpas. Probably this is the river U m and the Z h o n g C h h u w h i c h flows through Gauri K u n d a on the eastern flank of Kailsa into the R k s a s a T l (the twinlake of M n a s a S a r o v a r a ) M . Ali, p. 6 5 . 4. T h i s is probably the Surange La, the north-east range of Kailsa from w h i c h water flows into Lake K o n g y s T s o or Lake G o u n c h e M . Ali. p . 6 5 . A river with all its tributaries is sometimes treated as o n e river. U n l e s s m e n t i o n e d otherwise all the references are to M. Ali's. Geog. subterranean more than o n e current, system, the following points are to be n o t e d :

1.2.18.8b-18

167

8b-9a. T h e holy rivers the M a n d k i n I a n d t h e Svacc h o d a k enter the great ocean t h r o u g h the middle of the sphere of the e a r t h . 9b-10. To the south-east of the Kailsa, in front of the m o u n t a i n a b o u n d i n g in medicinal herbs a n d auspicious animals, the divine m o u n t a i n of diversified and wonderful components, the m o u n t a i n full of red arsenic, there is the great m o u n t a i n S r y a p r a b h a (having the lustre like t h a t of t h e s u n ) . It is red 1 in colour a n d it has golden peaks. 11. At its foot there is a great divine lake n a m e d L o h i t a . T h e great holy river n a m e d L a u h i t y a rises from t h a t (lake). 12-13a. On its bank is the great p a r k n a m e d D e v r a n y a which is devoid of sorrow. On t h a t m o u n t a i n lives M a n i d h a r a , the Yaksa of good self-control. He is surrounded by the Guhyakas who are gentle a n d highly virtuous. 13b-14. To the southern side of the Kailsa is the m o u n tain a b o u n d i n g in medicinal herbs a n d cruel, wild animals. In front of the three peaked Ajana that originated from the body of V r t r a , there is that very great m o u n t a i n V a i d y u t a possessing all sorts of minerals.
2

15. At its foot is the holy lake M n a s a , frequented by the Siddhas. F r o m it rises the holy river Saray t h a t is well known in all the worlds. 16-17. On its banks is the well-reputed divine forest n a m e d Vaibhrja. T h e r e lives the son of P r a h e t i , w h o is a Rksasa of self-control, a follower of K u b e r a , a n d of unlimited exploits ( b u t ) w h o is B r a h m p e t a (far removed from the V e d a s ) . He is surrounded by h u n d r e d s of Y t u d h n a s (demons) who a r e very terrible a n d who can traverse the skies. 18. To the west of the K a i l s a is the m o u n t a i n a b o u n ding in medicinal herbs a n d auspicious animals, A r u n a 3 ( P i n k
1. This red-coloured mountain is K a n g l u n g Kangri (a south-east range of K a i l s a ) a n d the river Lauhitya is the Brahmaputra. From a smalt lake at the foot of the mountain, the Brahmaputra enters T a m c h o k K h a m b a h , the headwater o f the Brahmaputra. M . Ali.p.66. 2. This is the peak Gurla M n d h t , since Lake M n a s a Sarovara lies below its northern face a n d the river Karnli ( M a p C h h u of T i b e t a n s ) a major tributary of the Saray rises h e r e M . Ali.p. 6 6 . 3. T h i s is the Ladakh or L e h r a n g e ( I b i d ) .

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in colour) the splendid a n d excellent m o u n t a i n full of gold a n d minerals. 19. This glorious m o u n t a i n is a favourite resort of Bhava. It resembles clouds(in c o l o u r ) . It is covered with splen did clusters of cliffs of gold. 20. T h e m o u n t a i n M u j a v n is highly d i v i n e . It a p pears to scrape the heaven by means of its hundreds of golden peaks. It is very difficult to climb or pass t h r o u g h as it is enveloped by show. 21-22. T h e r e stands Gira ( K i n g of m o u n t a i n s ) , called D h m r a - l o c a n a 1 (of smoke-coloured eyes). T h e Lake n a m e d ailoda 2 is at its foot. It enters the a n d St. 23-24. 'Surabhi'. On its briny sea in between the (rivers) Caksus banks is the well known divine forest

To the left a n d to the n o r t h of the K a i l s a is the auspi cious m o u n t a i n a b o u n d i n g in medicinal herbs a n d animals. In front of the excellent m o u n t a i n n a m e d G a u r a , full of H a r i t l a (yellow orpiment) there is the m o u n t a i n H i r a n m a y a . 3 This m o u n t a i n is divine, very great a n d full of precious gems a n d jewels. 25-26a. At its foot is the highly divine, splendid and c h a r m i n g lake n a m e d Bindusara. 4 It has golden sandy bed.

1. T h i s is N a n g a Parbat. (For details vide M. Ali.Op. cit. p. 66-67. 2. T h e lake a i l o d a seems to be the Wular lake w h i c h o n c e covered the w h o l e of Kashmir valley. T h e river i l o d a is the J h e l u m w h i c h still flows through it a n d runs towards the west between the I n d u s a n d the Sutlej (the C a k s u and Sit in the P u r n a ) M . Ah', p. 67. 3. Gaura, H i r a n m a y a a n d S o m a ( m e n t i o n e d later in v.27 and in V . P . ) are the T i b e t a n ranges north of Kailsa and are called n o w T a n g l h a , Aling Kangri a n d N y c h e n t h a n g l a M . Ali. ( p . 6 8 ) . 4. Bindusara c a n be explained in two w a y s : ( 1 ) a collection of drops of water: T h e basin between M t . Aling Kangri a n d K a i l s a T a n g l h a is dotted w i t h innumerable small and large lakes. ( 2 ) a lake of frozen particles of snow. In the past , the basin AlingK a n g r i a n d K a i l s a T a n g l h a w a s a n extensive snow-field. T h e P u r n a writer must h a v e known it through hearsay etc. According to De ( p . 3 8 ) it is on the R u d r a H i m a l a y a , t w o miles south of Gangotii.

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169

For t h e sake of getting the G a g , king B h a g r a t h a , the saintly king spent m a n y years n e a r it. 26b. He t h o u g h t " M y ancestors will go to heaven on being b a t h e d in the waters of the G a g . " After d e t e r m i n i n g t h u s , he performed p e n a n c e with -the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of his m i n d in iva. 27. T h e divine river T r i p a t h a g ( t h e G a g ) (lit. the river with three courses) was at t h e outset established there as t h e deity. T h a t river originating from the foot-hills of Soma flows in seven channels. 28. G o l d e n sacrificial posts studded with jewels have b e e n scattered there. akra performed a sacrifice "there along w i t h all t h e Devas and a t t a i n e d Siddhi (spiritual e n l i g h t e n m e n t ) . 29. T h e luminous Milky way t h a t is seen at night in the firmament n e a r clusters of stars is t h e divine goddess, t h e T r i p a t h a g 1 (the G a g ) . 30. Sanctifying the heaven a n d t h e firmament, the celestial river fell on the head of Bhava (god iva) a n d got blocked up by m e a n s of his Yogic M y . 3 1 . T h e lake Bindusaras was formed by those few drops of w a t e r t h a t fell from the infuriated G a g . Therefore it is r e m e m b e r e d as Bindusaras. 32. Being i m p e d e d smilingly by B h a v a ( i v a ) , the river goddess m e n t a l l y t h o u g h t of h u r l i n g d o w n a k a r a . 33-34. " I shall pierce ( t h e e a r t h ) " , she t h o u g h t (to herself), " a n d e n t e r the netherworlds t a k i n g a k a r a too along w i t h my c u r r e n t " . He understood w h a t she was desirous of
1. (1) Are the three ways of G a g its three stages ? M i l k y w a y in the sky, Gag. T h e s e are the three stages of the formation of that river w h i c h are symbo lised in the legend of the descent of G a g (Gagvatarana). T h e heavenly (mentioned in V . 3 0 and 3 5 ) G a n g e s (Aka G a g ) is a poetic n a m e for the galaxy in the north. But t h e blocking up of the G a g in the tresses of iva is the S n o w y or glacial stage and the melting of the snow-fields and glaciers is t h e release of the G a g . T h e legendary part played by king Bhagiratha in bringing the G a g to the scorched plains of northern Bhrata is still shrouded in mystery. ( 2 ) S n o w y or glacial G a g . ( 3 ) Fluvial

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doing a n d having realized her cruel i n t e n t i o n , he intended to conceal (absorb) the river within his limbs. 35-38. He blocked the river on his head as it fell on the ground with great force and velocity. In t h e m e a n t i m e he saw t h e king (i.e. Bhagratha) in front of him, weary with p r o t r u d i n g network of veins a n d with all his sense-organs overtaken by hunger. T h e n he remembered the boon g r a n t e d to him. He t h o u g h t " I have been propiti ated by this king earlier for the sake of the river ( G a g ) " . T h e n he recollected the words of B r a h m a t h a t he h a d h e a r d " H o l d the celestial r i v e r " ; t h e r e u p o n he controlled his anger. On being propitiated by means of severe p e n a n c e , he set river free for the sake of Bhagiratha. He released t h e river t h a t h a d been blocked by his own prowess. 39-41. On being released, the river began to flow in 1 seven channels. T h r e e of t h e m flowed towards t h e east a n d three to t h e west. T h e river G a g flows t h r o u g h seven chan nels. T h e NalinI, H r d i n a n d Pvan a r e those which flow towards the east. T h e St, the Caksus a n d the Sindhu flow towards the west. T h e seventh a m o n g t h e m followed Bhagira tha towards the south. 42. H e n c e t h a t river is Bhgrath. It joined the salt sea. All these seven (channels, rivers) sanctify the sub-conti nent named Hima. 43-45. O r i g i n a t i n g from the lake Bindusaras, those seven splendid rivers flow over different climes almost all of t h e m being the lands of the Mlecchas (Barbarous tribes) a n d reach the place where Vsava ( I n d r a ) showers, n a m e l y the lands of ilndhras, K u n t a l a s , Cnas, Barbaras, Yavarias. Andhakas, Puskaras, Kulindas a n d Acoladvicaras* ( ? ) . After dividing

1.

M. Ali.

(p. 6 9 ) identifies Nalini, Hrdini and P v a n i t h e east-

flowing riverswith the Yangtse, M e k o n g and Salween, the rivers flowing to the west, viz. the Sit, the Caksus and the Sindhu with the Yarkand, the Shyok a n d the Indus, while the southern river Bhgrath is the G a g . De however identifies * St w i t h t h e j a z a r t e s (p. 181) and the Caksus w i t h the O x u s or Amudaria (p. 4 3 ) . Aga-loka-varS caye, in V.P.48, 4 3 a .

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171

t h e land of sirhhavn in three parts, the river Sit flowed i n t o the western ocean. 46-47a. T h e river Caksus flows over the following climes viz. C i n a m a r u s , the T l a s , the Camasamlikas, the Bhadras, the T u s r a s , t h e Lmykas, the Bhlavas, the Pratas a n d the K h a a s . T h e n it falls i n t o the sea. 47b-49a. T h e S i n d h u flows over the following territor ies, viz. the D a r a d a s , along w i t h the Kamras, the G a n d h ras, the R a u r a s a s , t h e K u h a s , the ivaailas, the I n d r a p a d a s , the Vasati, (?) the Visarjamas* ( ? ) , the Saindhavas, the R a n d h r a k a r a k a s , the a m a t h a s , the Abhiras, the R o h a k a s , t h e u n m u k h a s a n d the r d d h v a m a r u s . 49b-52. T h e G a g sanctifies the following praiseworthy countries (climes) viz. t h e lands of t h e G a n d h a r v a s , K i n n a r a s , Yaksas, Rksasas, V i d y d h a r a s a n d the N g a s , the residents of K a l p a g r m a , the Pradas, the T a d g a n a s (their cousin t r i b e s ) , the K h a a s , the K i r t a s , t h e Pulindas, the K u r u s , t h e Bharatas, the Pclas, t h e Kis, the Matsyas, t h e M a g a d h a s , the Agas, the S u h m o t t a r a s , t h e V a g a s and the T m r a l i p t a s . Thereafter, obstructed by t h e V i n d h y a (?) it falls i n t o t h e briny sea. 53-55. T h e n the sacred H r d i n flows towards the east flooding t h e banks on either side, the territories of the N a i s a dhas, the T r i g a r t a k a s , the Dhvaras( fishermen), the Rskas, t h e N l a m u k h a s (bluefaced) the Kekaras, the Austrakarnas, the K i r t a s , the K l o d a r a s , the V i v a r n a s (outcastes), t h e K u m ras a n d the S v a r n a b h m i k a s * * (the golden grounds) t h a t h a d b e e n covered up to the extent as far as the sea shore on t h e east. 56-57. T h e n , the river Pvan too flows towards the east f l o o d i n g the Sup athas, the I n d r a d y u m n a lake, t h e K h a r a p a t h a s a n d t h e V e t r a a k u p a t h a s . T h r o u g h the middle o f J n a k * * * it flows over the K u t h a p r v a r a n a s . It enters the ocean of I n d r a d v p a , the briny sea.
* ** ments. *** V.P.48.45 reads: vadtimSca visarjayan / gold orna

V . P . 4 8 . 5 2 : Svarnabhfitn, 'who are beautified w i t h V.P.48.55a. Madhyenodyna-makarn

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Brahmnda Purdapa

58-6la. T h e n the river Nalin flows rapidly towards t h e east sanctifying the countries of the T o m a r a s . t h e H a m s a m r g a s a n d the H a i h a y a s ; piercing through the m o u n t a i n s in various places it flows over various eastern territories. After reaching the K a r n a p r v a r a n a s , it flows over the vamukhas because they are contiguous. After flowing over desert regions a b o u n d i n g in sand dunes, it flows over the V i d y d h a r a lands. It enters the briny sea after flowing t h r o u g h the m o u n t a i n o u s territories. 61b-62. These rivers have h u n d r e d s a n d thousands of tributaries. All of t h e m flow there where Vsava showers. T h e r e is a well-known fragrant (Surabhi) forest on the banks of the Vasvaukas (?) 63. T h e scholarly K a u b e r a k a (son of K u b e r a ) of great self-control stays on H i r a n y a r g a (Golden P e a k ) . He practises the performance of Yajas. He is very great a n d valorous and his strength a n d splendour cannot be m e a s u r e d . 64. He is surrounded by those scholarly Brahma-Rksasas who stay there. It is declared t h a t these four followers of K u b e r a are on a p a r with one a n o t h e r . 65. T h e prosperity of the residents of the m o u n t a i n should also be known in the same m a n n e r . In regard to virtue, love a n d wealth each is double t h a n the former (?) 66-67a. On the top of the H e m a k t a there is a lake n a m e d V a r c o v n . 1 T w o rivers viz. the Manasvin a n d the J y o t i s m a t rise from it a n d they flow on either side falling into the eastern a n d the western seas. 67b-68a. T h e r e is a lake n a m e d V i s n u p a d a 2 on the ex cellent m o u n t a i n N i s a d h a . T w o rivers rise from it. Nkull. T h e y are the G n d h a r v a n d the side of the

68b-69a. T h e r e is a great d e e p lake at t h e M e r u called C a n d r a - P r a b h a .

1. 2.

Noted

as Lake a y a n or N g a in other Furnas is the Lake ' N k river which

T s o ' w h i c h w i t h P a n g o n g T s o forms an extensive water-sheetM.Ali.p.71. M o d e r n Lake Chakmaktin, the source of the W a k h a n (p. 7 1 ) . flows west in the land of Gandharvas. It is in the W a k h a n region that M e r u a n d N i s a d h a c o m e closest t o e a c h other. M . Ali.

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173

T h e sacred river J a m b rises from it. It is r e m e m b e r e d t h a t J m b n a d a (gold) is obtained from it. ( T h e gold obtained from it is called J m b n a d a ) . 69b-70a. T h e lake P a y o d a 1 i s o n t h e m o u n t a i n N l a . I t is very clear a n d it a b o u n d s in lotuses. T w o rivers rise from it, viz. the P u n d a r k a n d the P a y o d . 70b-71a. T h e sacred Saray flows from the the mountain two rivers

Sveta.
It is indeed from the M n a s a lake t h a t J y o t s n a n d M r g a k m have originated.

71b-73. In the K u r u s i s the lake well k n o w n as R u d r a k n t a . 2 It a b o u n d s in lotuses, fishes a n d ( a q u a t i c ) b i r d s I t is created by Bhava. T h e r e a r e twelve other d e e p lakes here. T h e y a r e well known b y the n a m e J a y a . T h e y a b o u n d i n lot uses, fishes a n d (aquatic) b i r d s a n d they a r e like seas. F r o m t h e m two rivers, t h e n t originated. and the Mdhv have

74. In the sub-continents K i m p u r u s a etc., t h e lord does not shower rains. Excellent rivers flow here, with waters t h a t pierce t h r o u g h the ground. 75. T h e following three m o u n t a i n s of great knotty ridges extend towards the east. T h e y are immersed u n d e r the b r i n y sea. T h e y a r e the R s a b h a , t h e D u n d u b h i a n d t h e great m o u n tain D h m r a . 76. T h e m o u n t a i n s of great lofty cliffsthe C a n d r a , t h e K k a a n d t h e D r o n a extend towards the n o r t h . I n the nor t h e r n e n d they are immersed u n d e r the salt sea. 77. T h e m o u n t a i n s Somaka, V a r h a a n d the N r a d a extend towards the west w h e r e they have e n t e r e d t h e b r i n y sea.

1.

M.Ali.

( p . 7 1 ) identifies it w i t h the K a r a K u l of northern Pamirs.

It is a twin-lake mentioned as P a y o d a and Pundarika (like lakes Mnasasarovara a n d Rksasa T l in the Kailsa r e g i o n ) . 2. These are lakes in Siberia. It shows that the Puranic authors h a d some idea that there were big lakes in that region. I doubt Ali's identification of the Balkash a n d the Baikal with the J a y a lake.

174

Brahmnda Purna

78. T h e s e great m o u n t a i n s t h e C a k r a , the Balhaka a n d t h e M a i n k a , extend towards the southern sea. 79-81. I n between t h e C a k r a a n d the M a i n k a i n t h e south-east q u a r t e r , t h e r e is t h e fire n a m e d Samvartaka. It drinks t h e w a t e r . T h i s sub-marine fire is known by t h e n a m e Aurva. It has t h e face of a m a r e . T h e s e twelve m o u n t a i n s h a d entered the b r i n y sea formerly because of the fear of getting their wings c h o p p e d . T h e y were terrified by M a h e n d r a . This is seen in t h e white (i.e. circular m o o n on t h e full M o o n night) m o o n in the shape of a black r a b b i t ( o r d e e r a n d a r a b b i t ) . 82-84. T h e different divisions of B h r a t a have been re counted. T h e y are nine. W h a t has b e e n n a r r a t e d here is seen elsewhere too. T h e sub-continents vie w i t h one a n o t h e r in r e g a r d to good qualities, h e a l t h , span of life, piety, love a n d wealth. T h e living b e i n g s ' are endowed w i t h merits. In the different sub continents different classes of people live in the different p a r t s . T h u s this e a r t h sustains t h e cosmos stationed in the universe (i.e. the whole of this universe).

C H A P T E R NINETEEN

The Description of Plaksa and other Continents Sta said : 1. I shall succinctly recount (information about) t h e 1 c o n t i n e n t of P l a k s a in t h e m a n n e r it really is. Listen to this, O excellent B r h m a n a even as I speak a b o u t it factually. 2. Its w i d t h is t w i c e t h e w i d t h of J a m b d v p a . Its r o u n d girth ( p e r i m e t e r ) is twice its w i d t h .
1. This dvpa is next to J a m b d v i p a . Its n a m e Plaksa (a fig tree) indi c a t e s a l a n d of w a r m temperate climate. M.Ali, 'without hesitations', identi fies this w i t h the basin of the Mediterranean (Geog. of Purpas, p. 4 1 ) . T h e s a m e Plaksa still persists as Placia, a town in M y r i a .

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175

3. . T h e salty sea is encompassed by t h a t c o n t i n e n t . T h e r e the J a n a p a d a s ( t h e countries or rural regions) a r e all sacred. People do not die for a long time. 4. W h e n c e is the fear of famine there ? (i.e. there is no fear of famine t h e r e ) . W h e n c e is the fear of old age and sickness ? T h e r e too, there a r e seven holy m o u n t a i n s bedecked i n jewels. 5-6. T h e y are the receptacle of precious gems. T h e r e a r e rivers also. I shall m e n t i o n their names. In those five continents, viz. : Plaksadvpa a n d others, there a r e seven long and straight Varsaparvatas (mountains belonging to the sub continents) stationed in every q u a r t e r . I shall m e n t i o n the seven extremely powerful (sub) continents in the Plaksadvpa. 7. H e r e the first m o u n t a i n is G o m e d a k a . It is like the clouds. It is on account of its n a m e t h a t the sub-continent is also named Gomeda. 8. T h e second m o u n t a i n is t h e G a n d r a , which is endow ed with all types of m e d i c i n a l herbs. I t x is from here t h a t medicinal herbs were collected by t h e b r o t h e r s (Avins) for t h e sake of A m r t a ( N e c t a r ) . 9. T h e third m o u n t a i n is high a n d unscalable. It is n a m e d N r a d a . I t was o n this m o u n t a i n t h a t N r a d a a n d P a r v a t a were born formerly. 10-1 la. (Text partially defective) T h e fourth m o u n t a i n there is n a m e d D u n d u b h i . It was on this m o u n t a i n t h a t the Asura D u n d u b h i , who h a d the boon of having d e a t h as he pleased, was formerly overpowered by the Devas. T h i s d e m o n h a d a great desire for swinging in a rope-swing on a l m a l i (silk cotton) tree a n d this b r o u g h t a b o u t his d e a t h . l i b - 1 2 a . T h e fifth m o u n t a i n is n a m e d Somaka, where n e c t a r was formerly collected by the Devas. It was also b r o u g h t by G a r u t m a n ( G a r u d a ) for the sake of his m o t h e r . 12b-13a. T h e sixth leading m o u n t a i n is called by the n a m e S u m a n a s . I t was o n this m o u n t a i n t h a t H i r a n y k s a was killed by the divine Boar. 13b-14. T h e seventh m o u n t a i n t h e r e is V a i b h r j a . It is luminous. It is very lofty. It is crystalline. Since it shines w i t h its rays, it is r e m e m b e r e d as V a i b h r a j a .

176

Brahmnda

Purna

I shall m e n t i o n their sub-continents in d u e order a n d by their names. 15. T h e first sub-continent is G o m e d a . It is r e m e m b e r e d by t h e n a m e n t a b h a y a (having all fears s u b d u e d ) . T h e sub continent of (the m o u n t a i n ) C a n d r a is n a m e d iira. T h a t of t h e N r a d a is S u k h o d a y a . 16. Ananda is t h e sub-continent of t h e D u n d u b h i . iva is r e m e m b e r e d as t h e sub-continent of t h e Somaka. K s e m a k a is t h e sub-continent of t h e leading m o u n t a i n ( S u m a n a s ) a n d D h r u v a t h a t of the V a i b h r ja. 17. In all these (sub-continents) the Devas, t h e G a n dharvas a n d t h e Siddhas play a n d sport about along w i t h t h e C r a n a s . T h e y a r e being seen along with them. 18. T h e r e are seven rivers in every one of the sub-conti nents. T h e y flow i n t o t h e seas. I shall m e n t i o n these seven Gags by n a m e , O ascetics. 19. T h e following a r e t h e seven excellent rivers, viz. t h e A n u t a p t , t h e Sukh, t h e V i p , the T r i d i v , t h e K r a m u , the Amrt and the Sukrt. 20. Those rivers grow towards those places where Vsava (i.e. I n d r a ) showers ( r a i n s ) . T h e y have plenty of water a n d (swift) currents. T h o u s a n d s of o t h e r rivers flow i n t o t h e m . 21-22. T h e delighted people of these territories always drink (the waters o f ) these rivers. Those people, viz. the splendid ntabhayas, t h e joyous auspicious aiiras, the ivas, t h e n a n d a s , t h e Sukhas a n d t h e K s e m a k a s along w i t h t h e Dhruvas. T h e subjects w h o have settled in them are endowed with t h e disciplined c o n d u c t a n d behaviour of t h e V a r n a s (castes) a n d Aramas (stages in life). 23. All t h e subjects were strong a n d free from ailments. T h e y are devoid of sickness. A m o n g t h e m n o n e deteriorates a n d no one goes high up in arrogance (or there is no evolution ary a n d involutionary eras. 1
1. T h e terms Utsarpir a n d Avasarpirti are the J a i n terms to indicate timecycles. Utsarpipi is the ascending cycle a n d Avaiarpin is the descending cycle. T h e y are divided into six stages e a c h viz. good-good, good, good-bad, bad-good, bad, bad-bad ( M W p. 1 0 5 ) . T h e use of J a i n a terms like those of the Buddhists in a Brahtnanical work is not impossible. T h e n e x t verse ex plains this by assuming the existence of a perpetual Tret yuga.

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177

24. T h e r e is no peculiar state of affairs as p e r t a i n i n g to the Yugas, conditioned by the four Yugas. A period like T r e t yuga is perpetually present there. 25. T h e s e are the things to be understood in t h e five continents, Plaksadvlpa etc. T h e assignment of period is in conformity with the conditions of the region. 26-27. It should be known t h a t t h e people in these conti nents beginning w i t h Plaksadvlpa a n d ending with Skadvpa, are h a n d s o m e , well-dressed, strong a n d free from sickness. T h e y possess adequately happiness, long span of life, strength, h a n d s o m e features, health a n d virtuousness. M e n live u p t o five thousand years. 28-30. T h e continent of Plaksadvlpa is prosperous a n d vast. All r o u n d , it abounds in wealth and food-grains. It a b o u n d s in divine medicinal herbs a n d fruits. It possesses all types of medicinal plants and herbs. T h o u s a n d s of r u r a l a n d wild animals of all varieties surround t h e regions. O excellent B r h m a n a s , in its middle there is a great tree n a m e d Plaksa. It has been reckoned on a p a r with the J a m b tree (in t h e continent J a m b d v p a ) . T h e continent is n a m e d after t h a t tree. In a place in the middle of t h e inhabited country, it is worshipped by all the people. 31-32. T h a t continent of Plaksadvlpa is surrounded by a sea of sugarcane juice. 1 This sea is equal to Plaksadvpa in length a n d extent. T h u s t h e position of Plaksadvlpa has been recounted to you all succ nctly a n d in the proper order. Now u n d e r s t a n d the c o n t i n e n t lmala. 33-34. Thereafter, I shall (now) recount t h e third excel lent c o n t i n e n t l m a l a . 2 T h e ocean of sugarcane juice is encompassed by t h e con tinent lmala that is twice as m u c h as Plaksadvpa in extent. It should be known t h a t there too are seven m o u n t a i n s t h a t are the sources of precious stones.
1. 2. T h e Iksu is the river O x u s . T h e river is taken as a s e a ( D e , p . 1 7 9 ) . Puranic description of l m a l a dvpa leads, M. Ali to identify it

C a n it be regarded as a boundary surrounding Plaksadvpa ? w i t h tropical Africa bordering on the Indian ocean, including Madagasgar.

178 35. In those seven sub sources of precious gems.

Brahmnda Purna continents even the rivers are the

T h e first m o u n t a i n is n a m e d K u m u d a . It resembles sun in brilliance. 36-37a. It stands with lofty and rugged with clusters of cliffs. peaks

full of all minerals

T h e second m o u n t a i n here is well known by the n a m e U t t a m a . It encircles the firmament w i t h its peaks full of Haritala (yellow o r p i m e n t ) . 37b-38a. T h e third m o u n t a i n there is well reputed as Balhaka. It encircles the firmament with its peaks full of n a t u r a l collyrium. 38b-39a. T h e fourth m o u n t a i n is D r o n a a n d it is here t h a t the great medicinal herbs Vialyakaranl and Mrtasajivini (are found). 39b-40a. magnificently. K a k a is the fifth m o u n t a i n t h e r e . It rises up It is

It is perpetually endowed with flowers a n d surrounded by tree a n d creepers.

fruits.

40b-41a. T h e sixth m o u n t a i n there is M a h i s a . It is like a cloud. On it t h e water-originating fire n a m e d M a h i s a lives. 41b-42. T h e seventh m o u n t a i n there is called by the n a m e K a k u d m n . It is there t h a t Vsava saves duly from the subjects m a n y precious gems a n d keeps them to himself and approaches Prajpati with them43. T h u s , these are the seven m o u n t a i n s in the lm a l a continent. T h e y are bedecked in jewels. I shall m e n t i o n their splendid sub-continents. T h e y are only seven (in number). 44-48. T h e sub-continent of the m o u n t a i n K u m u d a is remembered as veta; t h a t of U t t a m a is L o h i t a ; t h a t of Balhaka is J m t a ; H r t a is remembered as (the sub-continent) of D r o n a . T h e sub-continent of K a k a is n a m e d V a i d y u t a and t h a t of M a h i s a is M n a s a . T h e sub-continent of the K a k u d m n is S u p r a d a by n a m e . These a r e the seven sub continents a n d ( t h e connected) m o u n t a i n s . U n d e r s t a n d the rivers in t h e m .

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179

T h e y are t h e J y o t i , nti, T u s t , C a n d r , ukr, Vimocan a n d Nivrtti the seventh a m o n g t h e m . T h e y are r e m e m b e r e d as the rivers in the different sub-continents. T h e r e a r e ' hundreds a n d thousands of other rivers flowing n e a r t h e m . No m a n is c a p a b l e of counting their n u m b e r . T h u s the situation of the continent lmala has been recounted to you. 4 9 . In its middle there is a great lmali (silk cotton) tree reckoned on a p a r with the Plaksa tree. It has large b r a n ches. T h e continent is n a m e d after the tree. 50. T h e lmala continent is surrounded on all sides by the sea of liquor t h a t is equal to lmala in extent. 5 1 . Listen to the subjects in the northern continents, O sages conversant with piety. U n d e r s t a n d t h e m even as I recount properly in the m a n n e r I have h e a r d . 52-53. I shall recount the fourth continent K u a d v p a 1 succinctly. T h e sea of liquor is surrounded on all sides by K u a d v l p a t h a t is twice as m u c h as lmala in extent. U n d e r s t a n d the seven m o u n t a i n s there as they are being described. 54. It should be known t h a t the m o u n t a i n V i d r u m a is t h e first m o u n t a i n in the K u a d v p a ; t h e second one is the mountain Hema. 55. T h e n a m e of the third m o u n t a i n is D y u t i m n . It is a m o u n t a i n resembling clouds. T h e fourth m o u n t a i n is n a m e d P u s p a v n a n d t h e fifth one is Kueaya. 56. T h e sixth one is Harigiri by n a m e a n d the seventh is remembered as M a n d a r a . T h e word (Manda means 'waters' a n d the m o u n t a i n is called M a n d a r a because it pierces or splits w a t e r . 57. T h e i r internal diameter is twice as m u c h as the cross-section (Pravibhga). T h e first sub-continent is U d b h i d a a n d the second one is Venumandala.
1. that After detailing the m a i n features of K u a dvipa M. Ali conclude*

it is identifiable with the tropical grass-lands viz. Iran, Irac and the

fringing lands of hot desert, o p . cit. (pp. 4 0 - 4 1 ) .

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Brahm&nda Purna

5 8 . T h e third sub-continent is R a t h k r a a n d the fourth one is r e m e m b e r e d as L a v a n a . T h e fifth one is D h r t i m a d V a r s a a n d the sixth Varsa is P r a b h k a r a . 59. T h e seventh one is n a m e d K a p i l a . In all those (sub continents) t h e Devas a n d the G a n d h a r v a s a r e the sanctifiers of the Varsas a n d the subjects* a r e the lords of t h e universe ( ? ) 60. T h e y play a n d sport a b o u t everywhere in great d e light. T h e r e are neither robbers n o r M l e c c h a (barbarous) tribes in t h e m . 61-62. T h e people a r e mostly white-complexioned a n d they pass away in the d u e order (i.e. the y o u n g e r ones only after the older o n e s ) . T h e r e too the rivers a r e seven. T h e y a r e D h t a p d , iv, Pavitr, Santati, Vidyut, D a m b h a n d M a h . T h e r e are hundreds a n d thousands of rivers o t h e r t h a n these. T h e y a r e not well known. 63-64. All those flow to that place where Vsava showers : Externally the K u a d v p a is incircled by the sea of ghee (clari fied b u t t e r ) . It should be known that the sea of ghee is equal to K u a d v p a in e x t e n t . T h u s the situation a n d position recounted to you all. of K u a d v p a has b e e n

65. Hereafter, I shall recount the extent of K r a u c a dvpa. 1 It is r e m e m b e r e d to be twice as m u c h as K u a d v p a in extent. 66-69. T h e sea w i t h ghee as its liquid content is in contact with K r a u c a d v p a . In t h a t continent, the excellent m o u n t a i n K r a u c a is the first m o u n t a i n . Beyond the K r a u c a is the V m a n a a n d beyond V m a n a is the A n d h a k r a . Beyond A n d h a k r a is the m o u n t a i n n a m e d Divvrt. T h e excellent m o u n t a i n Dvivida is
* 1. V.P.49.54a. reads prabhsu (they are like the lords of the universe)

in brilliance. A better reading. M. Ali examines the description of this Dvipa from different sources and concludes that 'the K r a u c a d v i p a of the Purnas is represented by the basin of the Black Sea. (op. cit. pp. 4 5 - 4 6 )

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181

beyond Divvrt. T h e great m o u n t a i n P u n d a r k a is beyond Dvivida. T h e D u n d u b h i s v a n a is m e n t i o n e d as the m o u n t a i n beyond P u n d a r k a . These are the seven m o u n t a i n s of the continent K r a u c a dvpa. T h e y are full of precious gems. 70. T h e y are covered with different kinds of trees a n d creepers endowed with plenty of flowers a n d fruits. T h e y are twice as m u c h as e a c h o t h e r in extent. T h e y increase the delight of residents. 71-74. I shall recount name. Understand them. the sub-continents thereof by

T h e land (i.e. V a r s a ) pertaining (adjacent) to K r a u c a is K u a l a ; that of V m a n a is M a n o n u g a ; U s n a is mentioned as t h e t h i r d V a r s a a n d it is beyond M a n o n u g a . Pvaraka is beyond U s n a a'nd A n d h a k r a is beyond Pvara. M u n i d e a ( l a n d of the sages) is r e m e m b e r e d by the learned m e n as the land beyond A n d h a k r a . D u n d u b h i s v a n a is m e n t i o n e d as the land beyond M u n i d e a . T h e land is p o p u l a t e d by Siddhas a n d C r a n a s . T h e people are remembered as mostly white complexioned. T h e r e too the rivers a r e r e m e m b e r e d as seven in n u m b e r in every sub-continent. T h e y are splendid. 75. T h e seven rivers Gaur, K u m u d v a t , S a n d h y , R t r i , M a n o j a v , K h y t i a n d P u n d a r k are r e m e m b e r e d as Gag. 76. T h e r e are thousands of o t h e r rivers flowing n e a r t h e m a n d a p p r o a c h i n g t h e m (i.e. flo wing into t h e m like t r i b u t a r i e s ) . T h e y are large w i t h p l e n t y of w a t e r . 77. T h e glorious K r a u c a Dvpa is surrounded on all sides by the sea w i t h curds a n d whey as its liquid c o n t e n t . T h i s sea is e q u a l to the K r a u c a D v p a in extent. 78-79. T h e Plaksadvpa a n d o t h e r continents have been succinctly r e c o u n t e d . It is impossible to describe in d u e o r d e r the n a t u r a l features of all these continents in detail even in t h e course of h u n d r e d s of years according to divine reckoning. It is difficult to describe in detail the creation a n d annihilation of t h e subjects therein.

182

Brahmnda Purna

80. I shall recount k a d v p a 1 definitely as it exists. Listen even as I recount factually a n d realistically. 8 1 . Its extent is twice as m u c h as t h a t of K r a u c a Dvpa. It stands encircling the sea w i t h curds and whey as its liquid content. 82. T h e r e the territories of t h e general public are very sacred. T h e people die after a long life. W h e n c e is there famine among t h e m ? (i.e. they do not experience f a m i n e ) . W h e n c e is the fear from old age a n d sickness ? 83. T h e r e too t h e r e are only seven splendid mountains bedecked in jewels. T h e seven rivers a r e sources of origin of precious gems. Listen to their names from m e . 84. T h e first m o u n t a i n M e r u is said to possess (i.e. to be inhabited b y ) the Devas, the sages and the G a n d h a r v a s . T h e m o u n t a i n n a m e d U d a y a is golden a n d it extends towards the ast. 85-86. T h e clouds take their origin there or go there for the sake of rain. To the west of it is t h e extremely great high m o u n t a i n J a l a d h a r a from which Vsava perpetually receives a large supply of water. Therefore, it pours showers a m o n g the subjects d u r i n g the r a i n y season. 87. To t h e n o r t h of it is t h e R a i v a t a k a , where t h e con stellation Revat is perpetually established in the firmament as ordained by Lord B r a h m a . 88. To the west of it is the extremely great m o u n t a i n n a m e d yma. D u e to it, it is said, t h a t the subjects here attained darkness of complexion formerly. 89. To t h e west of it, it is r e m e m b e r e d , is t h e great silvery m o u n t a i n Astagiri. To the west thereof is t h e " i m p o s s a b l e mountain" [Durgaaila), the great m o u n t a i n belonging to Ambik (Ambikeya) ( b u t Ambikeya in V . p . 49.83) 90. To t h e west of Ambikeya is the beautiful m o u n t a i n Kesarin equipped w i t h all medicinal herbs. It is from this t h a t Vyu, the Prajpati, b e c a m e possessed of K e s a r a * ?
1. Strangely enough, two scholars c o m e to different conclusions about the location of kadvipa. M. Ali identifies it with the M o n s o o n lands of Asia where teak abounds viz. M a l a y a , Siam, Indo-China a n d southern China, while De identifies it with Tartary including Turkestan in central Asia (pp. 172-173). * V a . P . 4 9 . 7 4 reads : sa caiva Keartyukto yato Vyuh prvyati. ' T h a t moun-

1.2.19.91-100

183

9 1 . T h e first V a r s a (sub-continent) is (away) from the m o u n t a i n U d a y a . T h a t great V a r s a i s r e m e m b e r e d a s ' J a l a d a ' . T h e second (Varsa) of J a l a d h a r a is remembered as S u k u m r a . 92. T h e ( V a r s a ) of R a i v a t a is K a u m r a ; t h a t of y m a is M a n v a k a . T h e splendid sub-continent of the Asta m o u n t a i n should be k n o w n as K u s u m o t t a r a . 93-95. T h e sub-continent of the m o u n t a i n mbikeya is M o d a k a a n d t h a t of K e s a r a is M a h d r u m a . T h e dimensions of the continent such as narrowness, length etc. is to be reckon ed in a c c o r d a n c e with the K r a u c a Dvpa. T h e great tree, the e m b l e m of t h a t continent is ka by n a m e a n d it has great height. It has great following (?) It deserves w o r s h i p * . T h e territories of the r u r a l folk are holy. T h e y are endowed with the system of Cturvarnya ( h a v i n g the four castes). T h e rivers too are extremely sacred (like) G a g . T h e y are of seven varieties (i.e. they are seven in n u m b e r ) . 96. T h e y are :Sukumr, K u m r , Nalin, Iksu, V e n u k * * (?) a n d the seventh one G a b h a s t i . Venuk,

97. T h e r e are other rivers too, thousands of t h e m w i t h sacred waters a n d cool currents. T h e y are splendid rivers flowing in the places w h e r e Vsava showers. 98. N e i t h e r their names nor their m a g n i t u d e can be adequately understood or fully e n u m e r a t e d . Those excellent rivers are very holy. 99. T h e delighted folks of the clime, O a m a p y a n a , drink the (waters of those) rivers. This continent is vast a n d is situated in the form of a wheel. 100. It is covered with the waters of the rivers a n d m o u n t a i n s that'resemble clouds,'that are wonderful a n d variegat ed by means of all sorts of minerals a n d t h a t are embellished w i t h jewels a n d corals.

tain is designated as Kesarin, w h e n c e the wind blows (all over the w o r l d ) . * V.P.49.77b reads mahnugh. ** : Tasya pjm prayunjate for Bd.P.'s tasya pjy somewhat

T h o u g h the list of the seven rivers of this continent is

different in V . P . 49.91-94., the reading Dhenuk from that list m a y be accept ed here to avoid repetition of Vertuk in the list of seven rivers in this text.

184

Brahmnda Purna

101. It is endowed with different kinds of cities a n d flourishing r u r a l territories. T h e trees therein a r e laden with flowers a n d fruits all r o u n d ( t h e year) a n d the c o n t i n e n t a b o u n d s in wealth a n d food grains. 102. It is surrounded on all sides by t h e sea with milk for its liquid c o n t e n t . T h e sea is equal to kadvipa in its extent. 103. T h e r e i n , the r u r a l regions, the m o u n t a i n s , a n d the rivers are splendid a n d sacred. T h e lands (sub-continents) are fully inhabited by persons following t h e discipline of the four castes a n d the stages of life. T h e y (the sub-continents), a r e seven in n u m b e r . 104. In those sub-continents there is no clash of castes or mixed castes. Since D h a r m a is practised unswervingly, the subjects enjoy exclusive happiness. 105. T h e r e is no greediness amongst t h e m nor the eagerness for deception as a result of rivalry a n d jealousy. T h e r e is no adversity a m o n g t h e m . Everything is extremely n a t u r a l a n d timely. 106. In t h e m there is no acquisition (imposition) of taxes. T h e r e is neither p u n i s h m e n t nor persons worthy of being p u n i s h e d . T h e y are conversant with virtue a n d piety. T h e y protect one a n o t h e r by means of their a d h e r e n c e to their own respective duties. 107. O n l y this m u c h c a n be described in regard to t h a t c o n t i n e n t . O n l y this m u c h need be h e a r d in regard to the resi d e n t s of kadvpa. 108-111. I shall describe P u s k a r a 1 t h e seventh continent. U n d e r s t a n d it. T h e ocean with milk as its liquid content is externally surrounded on all sides by the continent P u s k a r a 1 which is twice as m u c h as the kadvpa in extent. T h e r e is only one glorious m o u n t a i n w i t h huge rocky cliffs. It possesses peaks, clusters of cliffs of various (sizes a n d shapes), full of precious jewels. It is extremely lofty and it has variegated

1.

Puskara is identified by M.

Ali with J a p a n , M a n c h u r i a and De identifies it with

the a

South-eastern Siberia o p . cit.

(pp. 4 2 - 4 4 ) , while

portion of central Asia from the north of the O x u s including Western Tartary. Puskara is a Sanskritisation of Bhushkara or Bokhara, op. cit. (p. 1 6 3 ) .

1.2.19.112-122

185

ridges. T h i s great m o u n t a i n has diversified ridges in t h e eastern half of the continent. It is very extensiveof twentyfive t h o u s a n d ( Y o j a n a s ) w i t h a n u m b e r of ridges. It rises up from t h e g r o u n d level u p t o thirtyfour thousand (Yojanas). 112. T h e m o u n t a i n r a n g e M n a s o t t a r a covers half of t h e c o n t i n e n t . It is situated n e a r the sea-shore just like the rising m o o n . 113. It rises u p t o a height of'fifty thousand Yojanas. I t s circular extent all r o u n d is also the same ( n u m b e r of Yojanas.) 114. T h e same m o u n t a i n is known as M n a s a in t h e western half of the c o n t i n e n t . T h e r e is only one great m o u n t a i n of i n h e r e n t s t r e n g t h situated in two p a r t s . 115. T h e c o n t i n e n t is surrounded on all sides by t h e sea with sweet w a t e r as its liquid content. This sea is as extensive on all sides as the continent of Puskaradvpa. 116-117. It is remembered t h a t there are two splendid a n d sacred countries on t h a t continent. T h e y are opposite to t h e two ranges of the m o u n t a i n M n a s a . T h e sub-continent M a h v t a is outside the M n a s a m o u n t a i n r a n g e . It is said t h a t D h t a k k h a n d a is on its inner side. 118. T h e m e n there live for t e n thousand years. T h e y a r e free from sickness. T h e y have plenty of pleasurable experi ences. T h e y have a t t a i n e d m e n t a l powers ( t o a great e x t e n t ) . 119. T h e span of life a n d the h a n d s o m e features of all the people in b o t h the Varsas are declared to be the same. T h e r e is no distinction a m o n g t h e m as superior or inferior. T h e y a r e e q u a l in features a n d conduct. 120. T h e r e is n e i t h e r a robber n o r an oppressor. T h e r e is no jealousy n o r the fear of malicious envy. T h e r e is n e i t h e r seizure n o r t h e m e t i n g out of p u n i s h m e n t . T h e r e is n e i t h e r covetousness n o r (secret) a c c e p t a n c e (of gifts). 121. T h e r e is no (such distinction as) t r u t h a n d false hood or virtue a n d evil ( i . e . all a r e truthful a n d virtuous) . T h e r e is no agricultural activity or b r e e d i n g of cattle or t r a d e routes. 122. T h e three Vedas, the (fourteen) Vidys, the system of civil a n d criminal a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the desire to serve a n d arts a n d craftsall these are not present in either of the two sub-continents of P u s k a r a .

186

Brahmnda Purna

123. T h e r e is n e i t h e r rain nor (the flow of) rivers. T h e r e is neither chillness nor hot atmosphere. T h e r e are no water fountains breaking t h r o u g h (the ground) here. T h e r e are no m o u n t a i n cascades or springs. 124. T h e season there is just the same as in the n o r t h e r n K u r u s . T h e people a r e well pleased a n d contented in all the seasons. T h e y are devoid of the onslaught of old age. 125. T h u s the entire mode of activity a n d life in the D h t a k l k h a n d a a n d M a h v t a in the continent of Puskara has been r e c o u n t e d in t h e d u e order. 126. T h e c o n t i n e n t Puskara is surrounded by the sea with sweet w a t e r for its liquid content. This sea is equal to Puskara in extent a n d circumference. 127. T h u s , t h e seven continents are s u r r o u n d e d by the seven seas. T h e sea t h a t is immediately after a continent is equal to t h a t c o n t i n e n t . 128. T h u s , the m u t u a l increase in size, of the continents a n d the seas should be understood. T h e sea is called Samudra on account of the Samudreka1 (the state of being plentiful) of the waters. 129. T h e sub-continent is called Varsa2 because the four types of subjects enter (Vianti)' or live (Nivasanti) in it a n d also because it accords pleasure u n t o the subjects. 130. T h e root y ' r s means " t o sport a b o u t " a n d the root v/vrs means " t o s t r e n g t h e n . " Since the sub-continent enables the people to sport a b o u t a n d to stengthen their power for sexual dalliance, it is called Varsa. 131. T h e sea is always filled (is in flow-tide) in t h e bright half along w i t h the increase in the size of the moon. W h e n t h e m o o n wanes a n d decreases in size in the d a r k half, the sea also subsides. 132. It is n a t u r a l t h a t t h e sea gets filled when it fills itself. W h e n it becomes reduced it gets reduced (with d r a w n ) in itself.
1. 2. A popular etymology of Samudra 'a sea'. Varsa 'a sub-continent' is traced to a i ' t o enter', nivas, ' t o

live', r s ' t o sport' and v r s ' t o strengthen'.

1.2.19.133-144

187

133. J u s t as the w a t e r in the boiler a p p e a r s to increase d u e to its contact with fire, so also t h e w a t e r in the great ocean becomes increased by itself n a t u r a l l y . 134. D u r i n g the bright and d a r k fortnights w h e n t h e m o o n rises a n d sets, the waters in the sea increase a n d decrease i r r a q u a n t i t y that is neither m o r e nor less t h a n usual. 135. T h e increase and decrease in the q u a n t i t y of w a t e r of the sea in accordance with the increase a n d decrease in the size of the moon is five h u n d r e d a n d ten Agulas. 136. D u r i n g the Parvan days the increase a n d decrease of t h e waters of the ocean can be seen. T h e continents surr o u n d e d everywhere by w a t e r are remembered as Dvtpas because of Dvirpkatva (i.e. t h e state of having w a t e r on either side. 137. T h e sea is called udadhi because it is t h e u l t i m a t e 1 rest (Ayana) of water (Udaka). M o u n t a i n s w i t h o u t knotty ridges a r e r e m e m b e r e d as Giris a n d those with t h e m a r e Parvatas. 138. T h e m o u n t a i n G o m e d a i n t h e Plaksadvpa is there fore called Parvata. T h e lmali (Silk-cotton tree) is w o r s h i p ped by persons of g r e a t holy rites in t h e continent lmaladvpa.2 139. In t h e Kuadvpa, t h e s t u m p of K u a grass is (wor shipped) a n d it is called after its n a m e . In the K r a u c a d v p a t h e r e is t h e m o u n t a i n K r a u c a in the middle of t h e clime. 140. T h e m a i n tree in the ka Dvpa is ka a n d it is called after its n a m e . In t h e P u s k a r a d v p a , t h e Nj$grodha (holy fig tree) is bowed to by t h e i n h a b i t a n t s t h e r e i n . 141. T h e great lord B r a h m a , t h e overlord of t h e t h r e e worlds is worshipped t h e r e . B r a h m a , t h e Prajpati, lives in t h a t (sub-continent) along with t h e Sdhyas. 142. T h e r e , t h e thirtythree Devas perform the worship along with t h e great sages. T h a t lord, t h e most excellent of all the Devas is worshipped there by the Devas. 243-144. Different kinds of jewels a n d precious gems o r i g i n a t e (are q u a r r i e d ) in J a m b d v p a .
1. 2. Etymology of udadhi 'a sea'. VV 138-140 explain w h y particular continents are n a m e d l m a l a ,
1

K r a u c a , etc.

188

Brahmnia Purna

In all these continents, t h e size of t h e subjects is respect ively t w i c e those of t h e earlier ones on a c c o u n t of the span of life a n d state of health, their a d h e r e n c e to celibacy, truthful ness a n d control of the sense-organs. 145. T h e self-born lord protects the subjects b o t h t h e sluggish as well as scholarly in t h e two sub-continents t h a t h a d been mentioned in the Puskaradvpa. 146. Raising up his rod of chastisement, lord B r a h m a , t h e overlord of the three worlds, protects t h e subjects. T h a t lord is t h e Minister of Visnu. He is the father and grandfather. 147. T h e subjects always take in the meal t h a t a p p r o a ches t h e m ( automatically) by itself. T h e meal has great nutritive value and it consists of all the six tJksfST^ 148. T h e great sea with sweet water as its liquid content envelops the halves of P u s k a r a . T h e sea encircles it all r o u n d . 149. Beyond it, appears t h e existence of a great world. It is golden. T h e entire ground is like a single rocky slab. It is twice as large as the sea. 150. Beyond t h a t world is a m o u n t a i n t h a t is circular at t h e terminals. It is partially visible a n d partially invisible. It is called Lokloka. 151. On this side of t h a t M o u n t a i n is all brightness a n d beyond it is all darkness. I t s height is r e m e m b e r e d as ten thousand Yojanas. %52. Its extent is also t h a t m u c h . It c a n go over t h e e a r t h as he pleases. T h e loka (brightness) is in t h e midst of worldly activities and t h e absence of brightness (i.e. darkness) is beyond t h e m u n d a n e . 153. All t h e worlds are included in t h e half t h a t is bright a n d t h e dark regions are external ones. T h e (region having the absence of brilliance outside extends all round to t h e extent of t h e worlds within. 154. It is circumscribed all r o u n d . It is encircled by water. ( T h a t portion) b e y o n d t h e brilliant region stands encircl ing t h e cosmic egg. 155-156. These worlds a n d t h e e a r t h consisting of t h e seven continents are w i t h i n t h e cosmic egg. T h e worlds are Bhrloka, Bhuvarloka, Svarloka, M a h a s , J a n a , T a p a s a n d Satya

1,2.19.157-168

189

lokas. T h i s m u c h constitutes t h e g r o u p of worlds. This m u c h alone need be known a b o u t the u l t i m a t e end of the worlds a n d t h e great expanse beyond. 157. In t h e beginning of t h e bright h a l f of the l u n a r m o n t h t h e m o o n appears as t h o u g h it rests on a pot (i.e. is cre scent-shaped) in t h e western q u a r t e r . T h e body of the cosmic egg t o o is like t h a t . 158. It should be known t h a t there are thousands a n d crores of cosmic eggs like this, above, below a n d sideways. T h e cause of origin thereof is the u n c h a n g i n g t m a n . 159. E a c h of these is encircled by seven Dharanas*1 (? Varanascoverings) evolved of the P r a k r t i . In groups of t e n o r m o r e ( ? ) , they sustain one a n o t h e r . 160. All of t h e m are encircled m u t u a l l y a n d a r e evolved mutually. All round this Anda (Cosmic egg) is situated the Ghanodadhisea of solidified waters. 161-163. It stands, on being held all round by Vanoda (? Mistake for Ghanadd), solidified water. T h e circular zone of the solidified w a t e r stands on being held by Tejas (fiery m a t t e r ) all round, sidways a n d above. This fiery m a t t e r is like a ball of iron. It has a circular s h a p e . It stands on being held all r o u n d by solidified air. Simi larly, it is t h e ether t h a t holds a n d sustains the solidified a i r . 164. T h e Bhtdi (the cosmic Ego) holds the e t h e r a n d M a h n ( t h e great principle) sustains (supported) by t h e Infinite principle, the Avyakta (the unmanifest o n e ) . 165-168. I t . i s endless a n d unmanifest. It is subtle in t e n ways ( ? ) . It is boundless It is non-selfpossessed. It has neither a beginning nor an e n d . W h e n c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e supreme Being, it is n o n - p e r m a n e n t . It is Aghora (not t e r r i b l e ) . It has no support. It is free from ailment. It is m a n y t h o u s a n d Yojanas away. It is non-concealed. It is darkness itself. It has no brilliance. It is unlimited. It has no space ( o r s u p p o r t ) . It is u n k n o w n even u n t o the Devas. It is devoid of all activities. It is well known as the extremity of darkness. It is non-brilliant
* 1. V . P . 4 9 . 1 5 2 b reads Kranaih 'By causes'. T h i s is the Puranic concept of protective 'sheaths' round the uni

verse ( B r a h m n d a ) . T h e influence of Skhya categories is o b v i o u s .

190

Brahmnda Purna

at t h e extremity of the ether. It is within t h e limit. It is t h e great abode of t h e lord. 169-170. T h e ruti says t h a t t h a t divine a b o de is inacces sible to t h e Devas. T h e regions well-known to t h e learned ones a r e called 'Loka's. T h e y are situated within t h e jurisdiction of t h e great lord of t h e Devas. T h e regions which a r e b e n e a t h t h e M o o n a n d t h e sun, are called t h e worlds of t h e universe, by t h e wise. 171. T h e nether-worlds b e n e a t h t h e R a s t a l a a r e seven in n u m b e r a n d those above t h e m are also seven in n u m b e r . O B r h m a n a s , there are seven Skandhas (layers) of the wind along w i t h t h e Brahmasadana (abode of B r a h m a ) . . 172. I t s movement is five-fold from t h e P t l a (Nether world) to t h e heaven. This is t h e extent of the universe. This is t h e ocean of worldly existence. 173. T h e Living beings, originating from m a n y species go about ( h e r e a n d t h e r e ) . T h e y are beginningless a n d endless. T h e Prakrti stationed in (resting on) t h e B r a h m a n is the cause of t h e universe. It is mysterious a n d v a r i e g a t e d . 174. T h e creation of t h e lord is extensive. It is not c o m p r e h e n d e d even by t h e S i d d h a s , of g r e a t fortune a n d nobi lity who can u n d e r s t a n d things beyond t h e pale of sense-organs. 175-176. O excellent B r h m a n a , there is n e i t h e r decline or decay nor transformation, nor end of the e a r t h , w a t e r , fire, wind, ether, darkness, m i n d a n d the infinite body. T h i s is endlesr everywhere. So it is cited in wisdom. IJ7-179. Previously his n a m e has been m e n t i o n e d by me while recounting t h e n a m e s (of deities). It is he w h o has been wholly glorified by the n a m e of P a d m a n b h a . He is omnipresent. He is worshipped in all abodes, viz. on the earth, t h e nether-worlds, the f i r m a m e n t , t h e wind a n d t h e f i r e . ' U n doubtedly He is worshipped in all the seas a n d in t h e heaven. T h i s self-same L o r d of great splendour is worshipped in darkness as well, it should be known. 180. Lord J a n r d a n a is a great Yogin. His limbs are divided in m a n y ways. This lord of t h e worlds is worshipped in all t h e worlds in diverse ways. 181. T h u s t h e worlds b o r n of e a c h o t h e r a r e sustained m u t u a l l y . T h e s e Vikras (products or effects) of t h e Avikrin

1.2.19.182-191

191

( t h a t w h i c h does n o t u n d e r g o c h a n g e or distortion) are sustain e d b y t h e relationship o f t h e supporter a n d t h e s u p p o r t e d . 182. T h e e a r t h etc. are" t h e Vikras (effects). T h e y a r e restricted by e a c h other. T h e y are superior to each T>ther a n d t h e y have p e n e t r a t e d m u t u a l l y . 183. Since they have been c r e a t e d m u t u a l l y , t h e y have a t t a i n e d stability. In the beginning they were without VUesas. T h e y a r e called Viesas because they qualify others. 184. T h e three ( E l e m e n t s ) beginning with t h e e a r t h a n d e n d i n g w i t h Vahni ( f i r e ) * a r e limited ones. In view of t h e essence of the increase of qualities, they have Pariccheda ( e x a c t d e t e r m i n a t e n e s s , concrete s t a t e ) in p a r t i c u l a r . 185. T h e a c c u r a t e decision or j u d g e m e n t a b o u t t h e r e m a i n i n g principles is n o t perceived, owing to t h e i r subtle ness (auksmya). T h a t e a r t h is r e m e m b e r e d as Vylok (some t h i n g t h a t has a special brilliance?) b e y o n d all these other elements. 186-187. All the Bhtas (elements) a r e circumscribed on all sides ( a n d h e n c e a c c o m m o d a t e d ) in t h e space, (or firma ment) just as in a big vessel smaller vessels are a c c o m m o d a t e d a n d d u e t o their m u t u a l support become smaller (to each o t h e r ) . Similarly, t h e different elements a r e considered ensconsced in t h e lustre of t h e firmament. 188. T h e whole of these four elements are bigger a n d superior to one a n o t h e r . As long as these elements exist t h e period of creation lasts to t h a t e x t e n t . 189. It is as t h o u g h like an i n t e r t u r n i n g of threads t h a t t h e different elements are considered enmeshed into one a n o t h e r . T h e r e can be no generation of an effect if Bhtas (elements) are excluded. 190. H e n c e , the differences which are of the n a t u r e of effects are declared to be limited. T h e differences such as M a h a t a n d others are of t h e n a t u r e of cause. 191. T h u s , O B r h m a n a s , t h e real situation comprising of t h e seven continents, oceans etc. has been r e c o u n t e d by me topic by topic as it exists (realistically). * The reading in the printed text is vdyanta which is meaningless. It should be vahnyanta in view of the mention of three elements.

192

Brahmnda Purna

192. The p a r t i a l transformation of the Pradhna w i t h t h e cosmic form has been m e n t i o n e d in detail. T h e zones have been enumerated. 193. This entire universe is presided over by the glorious Lord. T h u s the seven groups of elements have m u t u a l l y penetrated. 194. O n l y this m u c h of the situation (of the universe) can be recounted by m e . O n l y this much has to be h e a r d (i.e. listened to a n d understood) in regard to the situation of t h e e a r t h a n d things connected w i t h it. 195. These seven Prakrtis sustain one another. I am not able to e n u m e r a t e t h e m w i t h reference to their extents a n d dimensions. 196. T h e Prakrtis are i n n u m e r a b l e , above, below a n d at the sides. T h e situation of the constellations is in firmament in different zones a n d regions. 197. T h e situation of t h e earth is thereafter in the form of circle or globe. Henceforth, O clever ones, I shall recount the situation of the e a r t h .

C H A P T E R

T W E N T Y

Tha Description of the Netherworlds* Sla said : l-2a. U n d e r s t a n d the details of the earth, the w.nd, the ether, the w a t e r a n d the fire which is the fifth o n e t h a t are b e i n g recounted later on, t h a t h a d b e e n recounted earlier along with the proofs thereof.

The Cosmic E g g consists of fourteen worlds follows:

arranged vertically

as

1.2.20.2b-4a

193

These elements are proclaimed as constituted of infinite ingredients a n d they a r e all-pervading. 2b-4a T h e e a r t h is t h e m o t h e r of all living beings. It sustains all animals a n d living beings. It is full of m a n y kinds of r u r a l regions a n d territories. It consists of m a n y towns a n d places of shelter. It possesses m a n y rivers, streams a n d m o u n t a i n s . It is crowded w i t h m a n y species of living beings. T h e e a r t h , the divine goddess, is sung a b o u t as infinite a n d extremely extensive.
Continued I. The Upper Regions : Satya Loka Tapo-loka Jana Loka

M a h a r Loka

I
II. III. The Middle Region : The The Lower ' '

Svar

Loka Loka

Bhuvar

Earth

R e g i o n s or Nether-worlds: Atala Vitala Sutala Taltala Rastala Mah-tala Ptla All these are supported by Lord esa, the Serpent-King. T h e s e lower regions are not dark or devoid of sunlight. T h e y are full of light a n d h a v e the affluence a n d comforts of the world of gods. Cf. B h . P.V.24, V P . V . 2 . V . P . 50.1-54. Baladeva U p d h y y a makes out a plausible case for identifying the Nether-worlds w i t h the continent of America,

43-49).

(vide

: Purna-Vimara, p p .

194

Brahm&n&a Purna

4b. T h e waters also should be understood as infinite t h e waters contained in the rivers, streams, oceans a n d small Teceptacles such as ponds a n d puddles, those situated on the mountains a n d in the firmament a n d those within the bowels of t h e earth. 5. Similarly, the element of fire pervades all the worlds. It is cited as infinite, all-pervasive a n d originating from everything. 6. Similarly, the E t h e r is r e m e m b e r e d as unscrapable, beautiful, and a c c o m m o d a t i n g all or various objects, endless a n d infinite. 7. T h e Vyu ( w i n d ) originated from t h e E t h e r . T h e waters are stationed within a n d above the e a r t h . T h e e a r t h is established on t h e water. 8. T h e E t h e r or the sky is t h a t which has nothing else g r e a t e r t h a n it. T h e n t h e e a r t h a n d t h e n the water. This is the opinion t h a t there is no state of being endless in regard to the Bhautika (objects evolved of the elements) * 9-10a. U n d e r s t a n d t h a t the e a r t h becomes developed d u e to the interaction (of. the elements). T h e s e q u e n c e t h e e a r t h , t h e w a t e r a n d t h e E t h e r is well known. In t h e seventh (Netherworld) R a s t a l a this is t h e situation (?) lOb-lla. T h e nether-world called R a s t a l a has the land p o r t i o n extending to ten thousand Yojanas. It has been reckon ed by noble-souled persons t h a t each of the n e t h e r l a n d s is m o r e extensive t h a n the former. lib-13a. T h e first one is Atala by n a m e . Thereafter is S u t a l a . T h e next one, one should know, is T a l t a l a . Atala (? or Vitala) is very extensive. Beneath t h a t is t h e world. n a m e d T a l a (should be Mahtala?) a n d beyond t h a t is R a s t a l a . Beneath all these, it is r e m e m b e r e d , is the seventh world, the Ptla. 13b-15a. T h e first portion of the ground is glorified as one w i t h black soil. T h e second world has pale white coloured g r o u n d . T h e third one has blue soil. T h e fourth one has yellow soil a n d the fifth one has a gravel-covered sbil. * The text is a bit obscure. V.P.50.9 (corresponding verse) reads:
taam onto hyanantasya bhautikasya na vidyale. 'In this way, there is no end to the

objects evolved from bhtasas they are infinite.'

1.2.20.l5b-31

195

T h e sixth world should be known as (consisting of) rocky g r o u n d s a n d the seventh one is r e m e m b e r e d as one with golden ground. 15b-20a. T h e well-known palace of the lord of the Asuras N a m u c i , the enemy of I n d r a is in the first nether-world. T h e following abodes too are in the first n e t h e r world, viz. the abode of M a h n d a , the city of akukarna, the palace of K a b a n d h a , Niskulda's town fully inhabited by delighted (jolly) people, the abode of the d e m o n Bhma, the abode of l a d a n t a , the city of Lohitksas and Kaligas, the town of vpaHa, the city of Dhanajaya and of the noble-souled N g e n d r a (Lord of serpents), the city of Kliya the serpent a n d t h a t of K a u i k a . T h u s it should be known t h a t there are thousands of cities ( a n d abodes) of the serpents, Dnavas a n d Rksasas in the first Nether-world with black soil. 20b-25a. In the second nether-world Sutala, O Brhmanas, a r e the abodes of the following, viz. the city of the first lord of the Daityas a n d Rksasas i.e. of M a h j a m b h a , the palace of Hayagrva, K r s n a a n d Nikumbha, the city of the Daitya n a m e d a k h a a n d t h a t of G o m u k h a , the abode of the demons Nla; M e g h a a n d K a t h a n a , the abode of K u k u p d a a n d t h a t of Mahosnsa, the city of K a m b a l a the serpent a n d that of Avat a r a a n d the city of T a k s a k a the noble-souled son of K a d r u . T h u s there are, O B r h m a n a , thousands of cities belonging to the serpents, D n a v a s a n d the Rksasas in the second nether world of pale white coloured soil. 25b-31. In the third nether-world is the well known city of the noble-souled P r a h l d a , A n u h r d a a n d Agnimukha, the city of (the D a i t y a ) n a m e d T r a k a , the city of Triiras, the city of iumra the city of T r i p u r a , the demon Purajana's city full of commotion, due to the gay, well-nourished people, the palace of Cyavana the Rksasa, the city of K u m b h i l a a n d K h a r a the leading Rksasas, t h e city of the ruthless V i r d h a with fire-emitting m o u t h , the city of H e m a k a the serpent as well as t h a t of P n d u r a k a , the city of M a n i n g a , the palace of K a p i l a , the palace of N a n d a k a the lord of t h e serpents, a n d t h a t of Vilksa. T h u s there are thousands of cities of the

196 serpents, Dnavas a n d Rksasas, O netherworld with blue soil.

Brahmn$a Purna B r h m a n a s in the t h i r d

32-34. In the fourth netherworld is the city of K l a n e m i the lion a m o n g Daityas, t h a t of the noble-soulcd Gajakarna, the city of Kujara, the vast a n d extensive city of Sumli t h e leading Rksasa, t h e abode of M u j a , L o k a n t h a a n d Vrkavaktra a n d the city of Vainateya, t h a t extends to m a n y Yojanas a n d t h a t is crowded with m a n y birds. All these are in t h e fourth netherworld. 35-38. In the fifth netherworld t h a t is covered with sand a n d full of gravel is the intelligent Virocana, the lion a m o n g Daityas, the abodes of Vaidyuta, Agni-Jihva a n d t h a t of H i r anyksa, the city of the intelligent Vidyujjihva, the lord of Rksasa, the city of Sahamegha, t h a t of M l i n , the leading Rksasa, the city of t h e serpent K i r m r a a n d those of Svastika a n d J a y . T h u s there are thousands of cities of the serpents, D n a v a s a n d the Rksasas in the fifth netherworld full of gravel. T h i s should be known (as the situation) for ever. 39-42a. In t h e sixth netherworld is the excellent city of Kesari, the lord of the Daityas, the cities of Suparvan, P u l o m a n a n d M a h i s a , a n d the city of the noble-souled Suresa, the leading Rksasa. It is there t h a t atarsa the son of S u r a m lives joyfully. T h e king of serpents n a m e d Vsuki, t h e affluent a n d glorious friend of M a h e n d r a (stays t h e r e ) . T h u s there are thousands of cities of t h e serpents, D n a v a s a n d the Rksasas in the famous sixth netherworld, R a s t a l a with rocky g r o u n d . 42b-46a. It should be known t h a t t h e city of Bali is in the seventh a n d the last netherworld P t l a . It is beyond every world. It is gay a n d full of m e n a n d women. It is full of Asuras, serpents a n d the h a p p y a n d joyous enemies of t h e Devas. T h e r e itself is the great city of M u c u k u n d a , t h e D a i t y a . It is teeming w i t h i n n u m e r a b l e great cities of Daityas full of bustle a n d com motion, thousands of the brilliant cities of the serpents, t h e great rising (flourishing) cities of the Daityas a n d t h e D n a v a s a n d t h e m a n y flourishing abodes of the Rksasas. 46b-47. O leading B r h m a n a s , at the extreme end of P t l a t h a t extends to m a n y Yojanas resides esa the noble-souled ( k i n g of serpents). His eyes are like the red lotus. He is devoid

1.2.20.48-58

197

of d e a t h a n d old age. His b o d y is as w h i t e as t h e inner p a r t of well-washed a k h a (conchshell). He wears blue clothes. He is very powerful. r" 48-49. His physical b o d y is h u g e . He is lustrous a n d mighty. He wears garlands of variegated colours. He has a t h o u s a n d faces (hoods) with m o u t h s shining a n d brilliant a n d resembling t h e golden-peaked ( m o u n t a i n ) in p u r i t y ( l u s t r e ) . H e has single K u n d a l a ( E a r - r i n g ) . H e appears splendid w i t h his thousand faces. He is refulgent, d u e to a series of tongues e m i t t i n g sparks of waving flames of fire. 50-54. W i t h his two thousand eyes t h a t have the reddish splendour of the rising sun a n d with his body t h a t is white a n d glossy, he a p p e a r s like t h e m o u n t a i n Kailsa surrounded by clusters of flames. He has t h e white complexion like t h e M o o n as well as the K u n d a flowers. H e n c e t h e cluster of his eyes shines like t h e cluster of m i d d a y suns on t h e p e a k o f t h e white M o u n t a i n ( v e t a P a r v a t a ) . He has a h u g e terrible body. W i t h it (resting) in his reclining pose on his couch, he a p p e a r s like^a thousand-peaked m o u n t a i n of vast dimensions (resting) over the e a r t h . This (enormously) huge lord of serpents, himself of great splendour, is being a t t e n d e d u p o n by extremely wise a n d noblesouled great serpents of h u g e physique. He is t h e king of all serpents. He is A n a n t a , esa, of excessive brilliance. 55. T h a t is t h e c o m m a n d m e n t ( o r act) of Visnu. T h a t is the final established b o u n d a r y (of t h e N e t h e r - w o r l d ) . T h u s t h e seven netherworlds t h a t could be discussed have b e e n recounted. 56-58. T h e y are always i n h a b i t e d by t h e Devas, t h e Asuras, the great serpents a n d t h e Rksasas. Beyond this is t o t a l absence of light. It c a n n o t be traversed by the Siddhas a n d t h e Sdhus (good p e o p l e ) . It is u n k n o w n even to t h e Devas. W i t h a desire to e x p a t i a t e on the general position, O excellent B r h m a n a s , t h e greatness of t h e earth, water, fire, wind a n d t h e e t h e r is u n d o u b t e d l y n a r r a t e d thus. Hereafter, I shall r e c o u n t t h e m o v e m e n t of t h e sun and the M o o n .

198
CHAPTER TWENTYONE
1

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The Solar System. Movements of Heavenly Luminaries: Division of Time Stasaid : I. As long as the Sun and the M o o n revolve, they areelevated by means o f t h e i r lustre a n d brilliance through their discus. 2-3. (?) T h e space covered by the brilliant refulgence of the sun and the m o o n is the e x t e n t of the seven seas a n d t h e continents. T h e light falls over half the extent of the e a r t h a n d the other side remains external. T h e sun a n d the m o o n illuminate the a r e a a r o u n d facing t h e m . In extent and m a g n i t u d e the heaven (i.e. the firmament) is remembered as equal to t h a t of t h e E a r t h . 4. T h e root \/av m e a n s illumination a n d protection. Revolving all r o u n d , the sun illuminates a n d protects the three worlds. H e n c e , on a c c o u n t of illumination a n d protection, he is remembered as ' R a v i . ' 2 5-6. Hereafter, I shall recount the m a g n i t u d e of the m o o n a n d the sun. T h e word Mahi ( e a r t h ) is (arbitrarily)-assigned to this sub-continent because of its state of being honoured (Mahitatvt) T h e Solar disc is as extensive as t h e d i a m e t e r of this sub con tinent of B h r a t a . U n d e r s t a n d t h a t in Yojanas (1 Yojana = 12 k m . ) . 7. T h e extent of t h e disc of the sun is n i n e thousand Yojanas. Its g i r t h is three times the extent.
1. T h e present chapter deals w i t h the ancient astronomical ideas in the pre-telescope age. Similar information about the stellar region regarding the size of the planets and other stars, movements of the Sun, the M o o n etc. are found in other Purnas like the Bh.P. V Chs. 21-24, M t . P. Chs. 124-128, V . P . II Chs. 8-12 and V . P. 1.50. 57 to Ch. 5 3 t h e last being textually t h e same as the Bd. P. and was useful in correcting the misprints in the present text. T h e astrological aspect of these planets etc. is found in G P . 59-64 sions of planets are o u t d a t e d due to advance of modern astronomy. 2. T h e author of this P u r n a is fond of giving popular etymologies. is normally traced to yjruaccording to Utfii IV 13ft T h u s Ravi 'the S u n ' and A P . 121 etc. S o m e of these ideas regarding the distances, positions and dimen

Ujjvaladatta, but here the author traces it to \ / a v " t o protect".

1.2.21.8-19 8. In d i a m e t e r as well as girth m o o n is twice as m u c h as t h e sun.

199 (Circumference), the

Now I shall recount the extent of the e a r t h in Yojanas. 9. T h e extent a n d girth (circumference) of the e a r t h consisting of seven continents has b e e n reckoned in p r o p e r measure in the Purnas. 10. I shall recount t h a t , after e n u m e r a t i n g t h e c u r r e n t Abhimnins (Deities etc. who preside or have the sense of possession e t c . ) . Those Abhimnins who have gone by are on a p a r with the c u r r e n t ones. 1!. T h e Devas who have gone by are on a p a r with t h e c u r r e n t ones in forms and n a m e s . H e n c e , I shall describe t h e surface of t h e e a r t h t h r o u g h the c u r r e n t Devas. 12. (I shall recount) the situation of world entirely t h r o u g h the c u r r e n t (Devas). the heavenly

T h e entire E a r t h is remembered as fifty crores (of Yojanas) in extent. 13-16. Its situation from an upword measure (?)is as far as the M e r u . H a l f the extent of the e a r t h is stated in terms of Yojanas. T h e extent of the e a r t h towards all t h e sides (quarters) from the m i d d l e of the M e r u is remembered as orte crore a n d eightynine lakhs (of Yojanas) a n d fifty t h o u s a n d * . H e n c e , the extent of the circular section of the e a r t h is roughly eleven crores a n d thirtyseven lakhs. This is reckoned as t h e extent of the surface of the E a r t h . 17-18. ( T h i s is reckoned as the extent of the e a r t h ) n a m e l y as m u c h is the extent in the firmament of the fixation of constellations, so m u c h is the situation of the revolution as far as the sphere of the e a r t h . By the measure of the Parysa (Revolution, R o t a t i o n ) , it is r e m e m b e r e d t h a t the firmament is equal to t h e e a r t h . This is recounted as the a b o d e of t h e seven continents.19. T h e situation of the spheres of the worlds is one over the o t h e r w i t h the g i r t h gradually reduced falling within t h e previous sphere.
It is considered as the radius of the circular zone.

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20. T h e entire situation has been laid down thus a n d in them the creatures stay. This m a g n i t u d e of t h e bowl of the Cosmic Egg has been recounted. 21-22. These worlds as well as this e a r t h with its seven continents are within this cosmic Egg. T h e worlds are Bhrloka Bhuvarloka, Svarloka, M a h a r l o k a , J a n a l o k a , T a p o l o k a a n d Satyaloka. These seven worlds have been created a n d they a r e a r r a n g e d in t h e shape of an U m b r e l l a . 23-24. T h e y are held by means of their own subtle coverings individually. These sources of origin a r e exterior eoverings a n d they are ten times m o r e t h a n ( w h a t they enve l o p e ) . T h e y are filled with special characteristics originating m u t u a l l y . All r o u n d this Cosmic Egg is present ( a s a fixed envelop) t h e solidified ocean. 1 25. T h e entire sphere of t h e E a r t h is held by t h e solidi fied water. T h e solidified ocean is held by a greater solidified fire. 26. T h e solidified fiery element is surrounded on all sides externally, sideways and upwards by a solidified wind element. Being held thus it rests stabilized t h e r e . 27. T h e solidified wind is surrounded by the firmament. T h e entire firmament is enveloped by the Bhtdi (i.e. A h a m k a r a E g o ) . T h e Bhtdi is enveloped by the (principle called) Mahat. 28. T h e Mahat is enveloped by t h e Pradhna t h a t is n i t e a n d it is of i m m u t a b l e n a t u r e . infi

I shall m e n t i o n in due order t h e cities of the g u a r d i a n s of the worlds. 29-32. ( I t is being mentioned) for the achievement of t h e proof of spreading t h e qualities of the l u m i n a r y bodies* (?) [Rather : T h e extent of the movements of the host of luminary bodies will now be described.]
1. Purnas believe that this cosmic egg is protected by sheaths consis ting of solid (ghana) gross elements, the earth being covered by the sheath of solidified water and the sheath of water being enveloped in the sheath of^ soli dified fire (ghana-teja)a.nd so on. T h e s e sheaths of gross elements are progres sively protected by sheaths of Ahakra Mahat a n d Pradhna. Skhya influence is evident on this belief. * T h e text is corrupt here. T h e line in V . P . 5 0 . 8 6 b is as follows :

1.2.21.33-41

201

To t h e east of M e r u a n d on t h e t o p of t h e M n a s a is the 1 city of M a h e n d r a . It is t h e excellent abode of Vasus (of w h o m I n d r a is t h e h e a d ) . It is d e c o r a t e d w i t h gold. To the south of t h e M e r u and on t h e top of t h e M n a s a itself, lives Vaivasvata Y a m a , (Yama t h e son of t h e Sungod) in the city called S a m y a m a n a . To t h e west of the M e r u a n d t h e t o p of t h e M n a s a it self, is t h e beautiful city n a m e d Sukh. It belongs to the intel ligent V a r u n a . V a r u n a , the lord of the a q u a t i c beings, lives in t h e city n a m e d Sukh. 33. To t h e n o r t h of t h e M e r u , on t h e top of the M n a s a itself, is t h e city of Soma, n a m e d V i b h v a r l . It is on a p a r w i t h t h e city of M a h e n d r a . 34. It is for t h e stabilization of V i r t u e ( D h a r m a ) a n d for the protection of all t h e worlds t h a t the g u a r d i a n s of the worlds (i.e. quarters) have stationed themselves in all t h e four quarters on t h e top of the M n a s a . 35. U n d e r s t a n d t h e m o v e m e n t of t h e sun d u r i n g t h e southern transit, as he goes to t h a t q u a r t e r . His m o v e m e n t is above all t h e guardians of t h e quarters. 36. D u r i n g his southern transit, the sun rushes forward like an a r r o w t h a t is discharged. He revolves always, t a k i n g t h e circle of luminaries with him. 37-38a. W h e n t h e sun is in t h e m i d d l e (of the firmam a n t ) at A m a r v a t (city of I n d r a ) his rising is seen in Samya m a n a belonging to Vaivasvata (i.e. Y a m a ) . At Sukh it shall be t h e middle of t h e night a n d t h e sun (appears t o ) set at V i b h (i.e. V i b h v a r l ) . 38b-39a. W h e n the sun is in t h e middle (of t h e firma m e n t ) a t S a m y a m a n a belonging t o Vaivasvata (i.e. Y a m a ) , h e is seen rising at Sukh belonging to V a r u n a . At V i b h it shall be t h e m i d d l e of the night a n d ( t h e sun appears to) set at M h e n d r i (Amarvat, the city of I n d r a ) . 39b-41. W h e n it is afternoon for t h e people of the south east ( o r t h e South a n d the E a s t ) , it is m e n t i o n e d as forenoon for
Jyotir-gana-pracrasya pramnam parivaksyate. bracket, in this verse above. 1. Cf V. P. II 8.9-11. The translation is given in the

202

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t h e people of t h e South-West (or, of those w h o a r e other t h a n t h e people of t h e s o u t h ) . It is t h e latter p a r t of t h e night for t h e m who are in t h e n o r t h . It is earlier p a r t of t h e night for t h e people of northeast. It is in this m a n n e r alone t h a t the sun shines in t h e n o r t h e r n worlds. 42. W h e n t h e sun is (in t h e middle of t h e sky) d u r i n g m i d d a y at Sukh, (the city) belonging to V a r u n a , he ( t h e sun) ( a p p e a r s ) to rise in Vibh, the city of Soma. 43-44. It is m i d n i g h t at Amarvat a n d it ( a p p e a r s to) set at Y a m a ' s city. W h e n t h e sun is (in t h e middle of the sky) during mid day at V i b h t h e city of Soma, the sun a p p e a r s to rise at AmarvatI of M a h e n d r a . It is mid-night at S a m y a m a n a ( Y a m a ' s city) and t h e sun sets at t h e city belonging to V a r u n a . 4 5 . T h e sun revolves rapidly like the whirling firebrand. Moving about, t h e sun traverses t h e revolving constellations. 46. ' T h u s t h e sun thereby moves to the south a m o n g t h e four quarters. T h e sun rises a n d sets again and again. 47. T h e sun w a r m s two Devlayas (abodes of gods i.e. those of I n d r a a n d others) in the forenoon a n d two (other) Devlayas in t h e afternoon. D u r i n g t h e m i d d a y also, he blazes with his own rays. 48. After rising up the sun blazes a n d increases in w a r m t h by means of his own rays till t h e midday. Thereafter, with his rays decreasing (in w a r m t h ) the sun sets. 49-50. T h e two quarters of t h e East a n d West are r e m e m b e r e d by m e a n s of sunrise a n d sunset. While it blazes in front, ( t h e heat is felt) b e h i n d as well as at t h e sides. W h e r e t h e sun a p p e a r s rising, it is remembered as sunrise to t h e people there-of, w h e r e t h e sun vanishes, it is called sunset in regard to t h e people t h e r e . * 51-54. T h e M e r u is to the n o r t h of all a n d the Lokloka 1 is in t h e south.
* every Cf. Ait. Br. 111.44 w h i c h clearly states that there is rising or setting day. 1. T h i s is a mythical m o u n t a i n surrounding the outermost border of

of the Sun. Also V P . I I . 8 . 1 6 . Contrast the Greek idea of having a new sun

the world. It is so called as it divides the visible wOrld from the region of dark ness. For its description vide W . 104-107 below.

1.2.21.55-64

203

D u e to the far distant position of the sun a n d d u e to his being covered by the line (horizon) of the e a r t h , the rays of the sun disappear (obstructed from sight). H e n c e it ( t h e sun) is not seen at night. T h e setting a n d rising of the planets, stars a n d the m o o n should be understood t h r o u g h the m a g n i t u d e of the a l t i t u d e of the sun. So also their rising a n d setting. T h e fire a n d the water have a white glimmer ( ? ) , while the e a r t h has a d a r k shadow. Since the sun is far off, it has no (fiery) rays even w h e n it has risen. Its redness is d u e to the fact t h a t it has no rays a n d t h e absence of heat is d u e to the redness. 55. Wherever the sun is seen occupying the line ( h o r i z o n ) , it is seen m o r e t h a n a h u n d r e d thousand Yojanas above. 56., W h e n the sun sets along with his rays, the lustre of the sun enters the fire at night. H e n c e it shines from a distance. 57. T h e heat of t h e fire enters the sun w h e n it rises u p . T h e sun blazes d u r i n g the d a y time on being united with t h e fire. 58. T h e lustre a n d the heat are the brilliance of the sun a n d the f i r e . T h e y shine a n d f l o u r i s h d a y and night, d u e t o their m u t u a l p e n e t r a t i o n . 59. In t h e n o r t h e r n as well as southern halves of t h e e a r t h , the night enters the water when the sun rises. 60-64. H e n c e d u e to the p e n e t r a t i o n of the n i g h t d u r i n g the day, t h e waters are cool then. W h e n the sun sets, the d a y penetrates the waters. H e n c e the waters are w a r m d u r i n g the night d u e to the penetration of the day. Both in t h e south e r n half and t h e n o r t h e r n half of the e a r t h , it is in this o r d e r t h a t the d a y a n d night enter the waters when t h e sun sets or rises. T h a t (part of time) is called ' d a y ' w h e n t h e r e is sun light a n d the night is called T m a s (full of darkness). T h e n i g h t is well defined due to this. T h e d a y is r e m e m b e r e d at t h a t (period of t i m e ) which is d e p e n d e n t on the sun. T h u s , w h e n t h e sun traverses the m i d d l e of t h e sky, it passes t h r o u g h parts of the e a r t h in t h e course of a M u h r t a

204

Brahmnda Purna

as it were (?) U n d e r s t a n d t h e n u m b e r of Yojanas here in t h e course of a M u h r t a . 65-67. It is one h u n d r e d a n d eightyone thousand Yojanas. This is t h e speed of the sun in a M u h r t a . W h e n t h e sun proceeds to t h e southern q u a r t e r w i t h this velocity, it covers the middle a n d t h e extremity of the quarter. T h e n d u r i n g t h e D k s i n y a n a , it whirls in the middle of the firmament. 68. U n d e r s t a n d t h a t it traverses in t h e southern q u a r t e r in the m o u n t a i n M n a s o t t a r a . T h e Visuva ( E q u i n o x ) is in t h e m i d d l e (?) 69. T h e circumference of the sun is estimated to be nine crores of Yojanas as well as fortyfive h u n d r e d thousands (i.e. 9,45,00000 Yojanas). 70-72. T h i s is laid d o w n as t h e m o v e m e n t (? t o t a l dis t a n c e traversed) of t h e sun in the course of a d a y a n d a night. W h e n t h e sun, in t h e equinox, it ocean. U n d e r s t a n d d u r i n g t h e equinox (3,81,00000). after r e t u r n i n g from t h e south, remains traverses t h e n o r t h e r n regions of t h e milkits girth in Yojanas. It is estimated t h a t it is three-crores a n d eightyone h u n d r e d

73-74. W h e n t h e sun is in t h e (constellation) r a v n a a n d U t t a r s d h it traverses the regions (quarters) to t h e n o r t h of t h e sixth ( c o n t i n e n t ) kadvipa. O B r h m a n a s , t h e magni t u d e of t h e n o r t h e r n q u a r t e r a n d t h e sphere (? of the sun t h e r e i n ) is estimated to be a crore of Yojanas. 75-77a. T h e divisions of t h e p l a n e t a r y system are : N.ga.-vithi,1 the n o r t h e r n one a n d Ajavthi, t h e southern one. T h e s e divisions comprise three asterisms e a c h . T h e constel lations M l a , P r v s d h U t t a r s d h are the points of rising in t h e Ajavthi while t h e contellations Avin, Bharan (lit. t h a t of which Y a m a is the deity) a n d K r t t i k are the
1. division vUhi. A c c o r d i n g to Varhamihira's Brhatasamhit, comprising asterisms Mla, Prvsdh Vthi is . and a particular Thus the Uttarsdh division of the planetary sphere comprising of three asterisms.

constitutes the Aja-Vthi, while As'vini, Bharani and Krttik form the Nga-

1.2.21.77b-91

205

t h r e e points ( c o n s t i t u t i n g ) i n t h e Ngavthi. T h e m a g n i t u d e of t h e n o r t h e r n orbit as well as the southern orbit is eighty h u n d r e d thousand a n d f i v e thousand eight h u n d r e d Yojanas ( ? ) (or 8 0 4 - 5 8 = 138 lakhs of Yojanas.) 77b-79a. I shall henceforth m e n t i o n t h e distance b e t ween t h e q u a r t e r s in Yojanas. T h i s distance is eight h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d four h u n d r e d a n d thirty t h r e e Yojanas (?) T h u s t h e distance b e t w e e n t h e quarters has been m e n t i o n ed in Yojanas. 79b-80a. I shall m e n t i o n t h e distance b e t w e e n t h e t w o quarters a n d M e r i d i a n s , t h e southern a s well a s t h e n o r t h e r n , in Yojanas. U n d e r s t a n d it. 80b-81. T h e exterior a n d t h e interior distances between t h e quarters a n d t h e m e r i d i a n s are seven million a n d o n e h u n d r e d a n d seventyfive thousand Yojanas. 82. D u r i n g U t t a r y a n a t h e sun goes r o u n d t h e i n t e r n a l zones. D u r i n g t h e D a k s i n y a n a it goes r o u n d t h e e x t e r n a l zones always in t h e d u e o r d e r . 83. T h e r e a r e one h u n d r e d a n d e i g h t y t h r e e zones i n t h e n o r t h . I n t h e south also t h e sun traverses t h a t m u c h . 84-85. U n d e r s t a n d the m a g n i t u d e of t h e zone in Yojanas. It is seventeen thousand two h u n d r e d a n d t w e n t y o n e Yojanas (in magnitude). 86. T h i s m a g n i t u d e of t h e zone has thus been recount
r

ed in so m a n y Yojanas. *iflJ' ct( T h e d i a m e t e r of t h e zone is laid obliquely., ZyJeli"** 87-88. Everyday the sun traverses those (zones) m d u e order. J u s t as the o u t e r r i m of t h e p o t t e r ' s wheel comes b a c k quickly (i.e. revolves), so also t h e sun functions quickly d u r i n g his S o u t h e r n transit. H e n c e , he traverses a m a j o r p o r t i o n of t h e E a r t h in t h e course of a s h o r t e r period. 89-91. D u r i n g D a k s i n y a n a , on a c c o u n t of his rapidity, t h e sun covers t h i r t e e n a n d a half constellations in t h e course of a d a y of twelve M u h r t a s . He covers t h e same n u m b e r of cons tellations d u r i n g t h e night of eighteen M u h r t a s . J u s t as t h e central region of t h e p o t t e r ' s wheel whirls slowly so also, d u r i n g his n o r t h e r n transit t h e sun traverses w i t h less r a p i d i t y . H e n c e , d u r i n g his n o r t h e r n transit, t h e sun

206

Brahmnda Purna

traverses with less velocity. H e n c e , he covers a lesser portion of t h e e a r t h in t h e course of a greater period. 92-93. After t h e advent of t h e n o r t h e r n transit, t h e d a y consists of eighteen M u h r t a s , the sun of slow speed traver ses thirteen a n d a half constellations d u r i n g t h e day. He covers t h e same n u m b e r of constellations d u r i n g t h e n i g h t of twelve Muhrtas. 94. T h e Potter's wheel whirls still m o r e slowly at t h e Navel, in t h e same m a n n e r , like the l u m p of clay in t h e middle, t h e pole star ( D h r u v a ) revolves. 95-96. T h e y say t h a t t h e d a y a n d the night together consist of thirty M u h r t a s . Whirling in between the two quarters, D h r u v a revolves in circles. J u s t as the navel of the potter's wheel remains there itself, so also, it should be known t h a t D h r u v a whirls there ( w i t h o u t changing its place) itself. 97-99. It ( p o l e star) whirls in circles in between the two q u a r t e r s . T h e m o v e m e n t of the- sun is slow by d a y a n d quick at night. D u r ng the n o r t h e r n transit the' m o v e m e n t of t h e sun by d a y is slow a n d very quick by the night. D u r i n g t h e southern transit the m o v e m e n t of t h e sun by the d a y is quick a n d t h a t by t h e night is slow. 100. T h u s , by means of regular a n d irregular move m e n t s a n d proceeding along its orbit, t h e sun divides days a n d nights. 101. These g u a r d i a n s of the four quarters are stationed on the Lokloka m o u n t a i n . Agastya ( t h e star C a n o p u s ) quickly traverses over t h e m . 102-106. D a y a n d night he undergoes these diverse motions to t h e south of t h e Ngavth a n d to t h e n o r t h of t h e Lokloka. O u t s i d e t h e p a t h of V a i v n a r a , he is the extender of the worlds. As long as t h e lustre of the sun shines from behind, there is brightness in front of a n d at t h e sides of t h e Lokloka. T h e m o u n t a i n is ten thousand Yojanas in height. It is partially lighted a n d partially not lighted ( i n d a r k n e s s ) . It is c i r c u l a r all r o u n d . T h e stars, the m o o n a n d t h e sun, along w i t h

1.2.21.107-116

207

t h e planets a n d the groups of constellations shine within t h e b o u n d a r y of the world encircled by the m o u n t a i n Lokloka. T h e world is only this'lar. Beyond this is darkness. 107-111. This ( m o u n t a i n ) has t h e illumination on the side of the world. Beyond the worlds, it is devoid of illumina tion. T h e inter-space b e t w e e n , U s ( N i g h t o r D a w n ) a n d Vyusti ( M o r n i n g ) joins t h e Lokloka accepted by t h e s u n * ( ? ) Therefore, they call it Sandhy (Twilight). U s is remember ed as n i g h t a n d Vyusfi is r e m e m b e r e d as the day, by the Brhmanas T h e demons were bent on devouring the sun a n d t h e fire at the time of dusk. A curse was cast on these wicked persons at t h e instance of P r a j p a t i . (They h a d ) Aksayalva ( t h e state of imperishability) of t h e body b u t they were m a d e to die. T h r e e crores of demons are well known as M a n d e h a s . Every d a y they seek the rising sun. These evil-minded ones wish to d e v o u r the sun t h a t blazes. 112-113. A terrible battle ensued \between the sun-god a n d those demons. T h e r e u p o n , the Devas, the most excellent B r h m a n a s and god B r a h m a performed t h e Sandhy-prayer a n d poured water charged with the M a n t r a s of G y a t r i along with O m k r a (the symbol of) B r a h m a n . 114-115. W i t h a sudden flash of splendour t h e n t h e sun shone w i t h fierce rays. He b e c a m e excessively resplendent with great strength a n d valour. Protected by t h e B r h m a n a s , he rises a h u n d r e d thousand Yojanas upwards a n d proceeds a h e a d . Protected by t h e sages Vlakhilyas a n d his brilliance along with his rays ( h e is held aloft.) 116. Fifteen Nimesas constitute one K s t h . T h i r t y K s t h s make one K a l . T h i r t y Kals make a M u h r t a a n d t h i r t y such M u h r t a s m a k e a full day consisting of day and night.
* V P. gives a better reading : sryab, parigraham i.e. It is the sun w h o called interim

joins a n d therefore the period is called S a n d h y ( t h e joining p e r i o d ) . Or : As it j o i n s together Lokloka which surrounds the sun, it is S a n d h y (the c o n n e c t i n g link between light a n d darkness). It is the period b e t w e e n us as ( d a w n ) a n d the morning.

208

Brahmnda Purna

117-123. T h e shortening or the lengthening of days by means of units of time h a p p e n s duly. T h e S a n d h y ( j u n c t i o n ) spreads over a period of a M u h r t a . It is r e m e m b e r e d as t h e limit for the shortening or lengthening of the days. Rising from t h e circle of the horizon, when the sun traverses for a period of three M u h r t a s , t h a t is r e m e m bered as F o r e n o o n . 1 It is a fifth of t h e d a y t i m e . T h e period of time of three M u h r t a s after the forenoon is called Sagava. T h e period of three M u h r t a s from Sagava is called Madhyhna ( M i d d a y ) . T h e period of three M u h r t a s from the m i d d a y is remembered as Aparhna ( A f t e r n o o n ) . A period of three M u h r t a s alone is r e m e m b e r e d by scholars as the unit of t i m e , (A p e r i o d of three M u h r t a s ) after the Aparhna is called Syhna ( E v e n i n g ) . T h e r e a r e only three (sacred ?) M u h r t a s in a d a y of fifteen M u h r t a s . It is r e m e m b e r e d t h a t an equinotical day has fifteen M u h r t a s . D u r i n g the southern transit a n d the n o r t h e r n transit, the nights and days increase a n d decrease. T h e d a y swallows the night and t h e night swallows the d a y . 124. T h e equinox is expected to be in t h e m i d d l e of the A u t u m n a n d the Spring. T h e m o o n has e q u a l n u m b e r o f Kals in the night a n d day. 125. A period of fifteen days is m e n t i o n e d as a P a k s a (fortnight). T w o Paksas m a k e a m o n t h a n d two solar mo nt hs m a k e a season. 126-129. T h r e e seasons (make one A y a n a ) , a n d two Ayanas m a k e a solar Year. (Defective T e x t ) . Nimesas are Vidyutas2*. Fifteen of t h e m m a k e a K s t h . T h i r t y K s t h s make a K a l (?) It consists of one h u n d r e d a n d sixty M t r s . T h i r t y M t r a s increased by two a n d seven consist of thirtysix of the latter ( ? ) . W i t h sixtytwo a n d seventythree M t r s constitute K a l . It has forty thousand a n d eight h u n d r e d
1. 2. T h e s e verses state the five parts of the day, e a c h part b e i n g of three It appears that a n e w term called Vidyut is introduced in the units by twink Muhrtas in duration. of T i m e here, *V.P.50.179 reads ;nimesdi krtah Klah "The time covered ling of the e y e 'etc'.

1.2.21.130-137

209

Vid.yv.ts. T h e y a r e seventy (?) K n o w for certain t h a t they a r e ninety. T h e y say t h a t t h e r e a r e four h u n d r e d ' a n d t w o Vidyuts ( ? ) 130. T h i s should be considered as t h e excellent p a r t . N d i k G h a t i ( 2 4 minutes) is t h e cause hereof. T h e five (units of time beginning with Sarhvatsara are diversified, d u e to four 1 measures (?) (See verse 137). 131-132. T h e decisive basic u n i t of all time is called 2 Yuga ( A g e ) . T h e first year is Sarhvatsara. T h e second is Parivatsara. T h e third is I d v a t s a r a . T h e fourth is A n u v a t sara. T h e fifth is V a t s a r a . T h e i r period of time is called Y u g a . 133-134. In a solar Yuga, there shall be three t h o u s a n d (lit. t h i r t y h u n d r e d ) Parvans (junctions) a n d one t h o u s a n d eight h u n d r e d a n d thirty risings of t h e sun (i.e. days.) T h e r e shall be t h i r t y R t u s a n d ten Ayanas (Defective T e x t ) . T h e r e a r e t h r e e h u n d r e d a n d sixtyfive days ( 5 + 3 0 0 + 6 0 ) in a solar year. 135. T h i r t y units of days a n d nights m a k e one solar m o n t h . Sixtyone such days m a k e one R t u . 136. T h e extent of a solar Ayana is eightythree days. one h u n d r e d a n d

137. T h e following a r e the four measures (for c a l c u l a t i n g time) viz.: Saura (Solar), Saumya ( L u n a r ) , JVksatra (sidereal) a n d Svana (based on S a v a n a calculation of days from sunrise to s u n s e t ) . T h e s e measures a r e decisively mentioned in the Purnas.

1.

V. 137 gives the four measures of systems in calculating time

(or

year) viz. Saura (Solar), Saumya (Lunar), Nksatra (sidereal). 2. This Purna records the age-old tradition that the Y u g a period consisted of five years. Even in the Vedic times Y u g a was of five years and the names of those five years (with a slight variations in the n a m e Idvatsara viz. Id-lduVatsara) are the same as given here (vide Tai.S.V.7.1-3, Vj.S.27.45, Atharva VI 5 5 . 3 ) . Tai. Br. I. 4 . 1 0 . 1 identifies Sarhvatsara, Parivatsara etc. with god Agni, Aditya etc. K a u t i l y a in ArthaSUra II Ch. 20 in measures of time declares "A Yuga consists of five years" (Paca-Sarhvatsaro Tugam). This. Purna records the same.

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Brahmanda Purna

138. T h e r e is a m o u n t a i n n a m e d Srgavn towards t h e n o r t h of t h e veta. It has three peaks w h i c h a p p e a r to touch t h e surface of t h e firmament. 139. T h a t m o u n t a i n is said to be rgavn, due to those peaks. Its girth a n d sectional d i a m e t e r a r e equally glori fied (? are t h e s a m e ) . 140. Its m i d d l e a n d eastern peak is golden. T h e southern peak has crystal-like lustre a n d it is m a d e of silver. 141. T h e excellent n o r t h e r n peak is full of all kinds of jewels. T h u s , d u e to t h e t h r e e peaks, t h e m o u n t a i n is well known as r g a v n . 142. D u r i n g t h e time in between t h e A u t u m n a n d t h e Spring, t h e sun proceeds with a m e d i u m speed a n d he resorts to its eastern peak. 143. H e n c e , the dispeller of darkness makes t h e day a n d night equal. Divine green-coloured horses are yoked to his great chariot. T h e y a p p e a r as though they are smeared with t h e rays red as lotus. 144. To t h e close of Mesa a n d Tula, t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e d a y from sunrise to sunset is fifteen M u h r t a s . T h e night is also equally long. 145. W h e n the sun enters the first degree or p a r t of the constellation Krttik, it should be known t h a t t h e moon enters t h e fourth p a r t of the constellation Vikh. 146. W h e n t h e sun moves t h r o u g h t h e third p a r t of t h e constellation Vikh, it should be known t h a t t h e moon has occupied the top of t h e constellation K r t t i k . 147-149. T h e great sages say t h a t one should know t h a t time as Visuva ( E q u i n o x ) . O n e should u n d e r s t a n d t h e equinox t h r o u g h t h e position of t h e sun a n d should see the time t h r o u g h the m o o n . W h e n t h e d a y a n d t h e n i g h t are o f equal d u r a t i o n , it shall be t h e Visuva. T h e n d u r i n g t h e equinox, religious gifts should be offered to t h e m a n e s a n d to t h e B r h m a n a s parti c u l a r l y "because it h a p p e n s to be t h e face of gods. 150. ( T h e following a r e to be known in connection with t h e various units of t i m e ) : t h e y are namsa ( m o n t h of a s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n ) , Adhimsa ( I n t e r c a l a r y l u n a r m o n t h ) , K a l , K s t h , M u h r t a k a , P a u r n a m s (full m o o n ) , Amvasy ( N e w

1.2.21.151 154

211

m o o n ) , Sinvl, K u h (different kinds of new m o o n ) , R k a n d 1 A n u m a t i (kinds of full m o o n d a y ) . 151. T h e months of M g h a , P h l g u n a , C a i t r a , Vaikha, J y e s t h a a n d A s d h a constitute U t t a r y a n a ( N o r t h e r n t r a n s i t ) . T h e m o n t h s of rvana, B h d r a p a d a , Avina, K r t t i k a , M r g a rsa a n d P a u s a constitute D a k s i n y a n a . 2 152-154. T h e five years called rtavas should be as t h e sons of B r a h m a . known

H e n c e , the Rtus should be known. T h e y are r e m e m b e r e d as rtavas on account of t h e Rtus. H e n c e , from this Parvan, Amvsy should be known as having Rtus as its face. H e n c e , from this Parvan, the Visuva should be known. It is always con ducive to t h e welfare of the Devas a n d t h e Pitrs. O n e should n o t lose sense regarding rites concerning t h e Pitrs a n d the Devas, after knowing t h e P a r v a n .

1.

T h e Amvsy (the n e w m o o n d a y )

m i x e d with

the 14th

Tithi (vide

is Sinivli a n d that w h i c h merges with the 1st Tithi of the next fortnight is K u h . It is treated as a divinity a n d invoked for wealth and Sons, d a y ) m i x e d with the 14th tithi is Anumati, while that mixed f a m o u s son. 2. This verse records the ancient n a m e s of the m o n t h s w i t h in translation. The which modern n a m e s Caitra, Vaikha c a m e to be identified. For the convenience of readers the modern n a m e s are g i v e n correspondence of ancient a n d modern names of the months is as follow: OUTerm Tapas Tapasya Madhu Mdhava ukra uci Nabhas Nabhasya Isu Orja Sahas Sahasya New Term Atharva V I I 4 7 . 1 ) . According t o Nirukta X I 29, Paurnamsi (the full m o o n w i t h the 1st d a y of the next fortnight is Rk. In vedic times it was worshipped for a rich and

Mgha Phlguna Caitra Vaikha Jyestha Asdha rvana Bhdrapada Avina Krttika Mrgairsa Pausa

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155. H e n c e , Visuva t h a t is present everywhere (?) is al ways r e m e m b e r e d by t h e subjects. T h e ( m o u n t a i n ) Lokloka is called so because t h e world is r e m e m b e r e d on account of (?) its being illuminated ( b y t h e s u n ) . 156. T h e guardians of the q u a r t e r s are stationed in t h e middle of the Lokloka. Those four (?) noble-souled guardians r e m a i n till t h e a n n i h i l a t i o n of all living beings. 157. T h e y are S u d h m , Vairja, K a r d a m a , a k h a p , H i r a n y a r o m a n , Parjanya, K e t u m n a n d Rjasa. ( P e r h a p s they are in pairs a n d hence called four ? ) . 158. T h e y are free from Dvandvas ( m u t u a l l y opposed pairs) and false prides. T h e y are boundless a n d free from parigrahas (acceptances of 'gifts from o t h e r s ) . These guardians of quarters a r e stationed on t h e Lokloka in all t h e four directions. 159. To t h e N o r t h of the star A g a s t y a * a n d to t h e south of Ajavth is t h e p a t h w a y called P i t r y n a . It is outside t h e path Vaivnara. 160. T h e r e stay the sages w h o are endowed with progeny a n d w h o perform A g n i h o t r a sacrifices. Those w h o stay in t h e p a t h of pitryna are those w h o continue t h e series of worlds ( w h o p e r p e t u a t e t h e lines or r a c e of t h e worlds). 161. T h e southern p a t h is of those w h o , being Rtviks,. c o m m e n c e t h e work of procreation of living beings by t h e i r blessings a n d a r e desirous of t h e world. 162. In every Yuga, they establish D h a r m a t h a t goes astray. T h e y perform austerities. T h e y strictly a d h e r e t o t h e bounds (of d e c e n c y ) a n d pursue t h e a r t of learning. 163. H e r e , in this world t h e predecessors a r e b o r n in t h e houses of t h e successors (those w h o c o m e after) a n d t h e successors are b o r n on t h e d e a t h of t h e predecessors. 164. R e p e a t e d l y b e i n g b o r n t h u s , they r e m a i n till t h e a n n i h i l a t i o n of all living beings. These sages w h o a r e house holders a r e eightyeight t h o u s a n d i n n u m b e r . 165-168a; T h e y resort to t h e s o u t h e r n p a t h of t h e sun as long as t h e m o o n a n d t h e stars are existent. T h i s is t h e t o t a l
* Tadapastasya is 'of the star Agastya*. wrong. V . P . 50.209a reads correcdy yad Agastasya.

1.2.21.168b-176

213

s u m ( i . e . 88000) of those persons w h o perform holy rites a n d who resorted to t h e c r e m a t i o n grounds. T h e i r r o u t i n e activities in t h e world consist of creation of living beings, activities p r o m p t e d by desire or h a t r e d , indulgence in s e x u a l l n t e r c o u r s e , activities i n d u c e d by lust a n d resorting to sensual objects. T h o s e Siddhas (persons with spiritual a t t a i n m e n t ) w h o resorted to c r e m a t i o n grounds on these or similar grounds a n d those sages w h o seek progeny a r e ( r e - b o r n in t h e D v p a r a age. 168b-169. T h e p a t h w a y t h a t is towards the n o r t h of N g a v i t h a n d to t h e south of t h e g r o u p of seven sages (i.e. t h e G r e a t B e a r ) is t h e n o r t h e r n p a t h of t h e sun. It is r e m e m bered as Devayna. Those w h o stay t h e r e a r e Siddhas of g r e a t celibacy, free from impurities. 170-173. T h e y contemptuously h a t e progeny. H e n c e , d e a t h is c o n q u e r e d by t h e m . These sages of sublimated sexual urge a r e eightyeight t h o u s a n d in n u m b e r . T h e y closely cling to the n o r t h e r n p a t h , till the a n n i h i l a t i o n of all living beings D u e to their association with t h e world, avoidance of sexual intercourse, abstention from desires a n d hatreds, eschewal of creation of living beings, non-lustful contacts a n d seeing defects in sound etc. (i.e. sensual objects), they have b e c o m e Siddhas. A n d also d u e to various other reasons also. H e n c e they b e c a m e i m m o r t a l . I m m o r t a l i t y is considered to be ( t h e a t t a i n m e n t ) of those w h o stay till t h e a n n i h i l a t i o n of all living beings. 174-175a. T h e y a p p r o a c h their wives once again for t h e s u s t e n a n c e of the three worlds.* O t h e r s of sublimated sexual urge a r e sinners as well as meritorious on a c c o u n t of their killing t h e child in t h e w o m b or performing horse sacrifices. T h e y wither a w a y at t h e end of a n n i h i l a t i o n of all living beings. 175b-76. To t h e n o r t h a n d above the worlds of the sages, w h e r e D h r u v a is r e m e m b e r e d to be present, is t h e divine region ofVisnu, t h e third o n e in t h e firmament. It is t h e shining

* This is strange of those Orddhva-retas sages. V . P . 5 0 . 2 2 2 a TTailokya-sthiti-klo'yam apunarmirgagminah /

reads:

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world on reaching which no one is affected by sorrow or p a i n . It is the greatest region of V i s n u w h e r e D h a r m a , D h r u v a a n d o t h e r Sdhakas of t h e world stay.

C H A P T E R

TWENTYTWO*

The Description of the Divine Luminaries Varieties -of clouds: Divisions of Stratosphere : The chariot of the Sun-God Sta said : 1. All t h e Antaras (i.e. M a n v a n t a r a s ) d u r i n g t h e creation of S v y a m b h u v a have b e e n r e c o u n t e d . I shall r e c o u n t all t h e future ones in d u e order. 2. On h e a r i n g this, the sages asked R o m a h a r s a n a a b o u t t h e m o v e m e n t of the S u n , t h e M o o n a n d t h e planets. The sages said : 3-4. " H o w do these luminaries revolve in t h e strato sphere w i t h o u t a n y clash or confusion or without a n y structural formation? Does any one m a k e t h e m revolve or do they re volve of their own accord? O excellent one, we wish to under stand this. N a r r a t e this u n t o us. Sta said : 5. This is something t h a t confounds all living beings. U n d e r s t a n d this even as I tell you. A l t h o u g h this is visible and directly p e r c e p t i b l e , it perplexes t h e people. 6. T h e star t h a t (diffuses light) in t h e four quarters and is established at t h e tail of t h e iumra(i.e. a collection of stars resembling a d o l p h i n or a G a n g e t i c porpoise) is D h r u v a ,
This chapter corresponds to V . P . Ch. 5 1 .

1.2.22.7-15
1

215

t h e son of U t t n a p d a . He is, as t h o u g h , t h e m a i n pivot to w h i c h all t h e stars a n d planets a r e a t t a c h e d . 7. It is reported t h a t it is he w h o p e r p e t u a l l y makes t h e . m o o n a n d t h e sun revolve along with t h e planets. As it ( t h e s u n ) revolves like a wheel, t h e stars also follow it. 8. T h e g r o u p of luminaries, t h e sun a n d t h e m o o n , t h e stars-and constellations a l o n g with t h e planets move a b o u t , 2 at t h e will of D h r u v a . 9-10. T h e y a r e fastened to D h r u v a by m e a n s of b o n d s in the form of rows of winds. T h e i r j u n c t i o n , difference, time, m o v e m e n t , rising a n d setting, portentious p h e n o m e n o n , t h e s o u t h e r n and n o r t h e r n transits, the equinox a n d t h e colours of t h e planets ( ? ) a l l these function, d u e to D h r u v a . 11. R a i n , heat, snowfall, day, night, t h e twilight, t h e welfare a n d woes of t h e subjectsall these take place d u e to Dhruva. 12. Presided over by D h r u v a , the sun takes up w a t e r a n d showers i t . 3 This sun whose rays a r e ablaze, is t h e fire of t h e destruction of the universe. 13-15. In the course of his revolution, O Brhmanas,. he illuminates t h e quarters. W i t h t h e mass of his rays a n d a c c o m p a n i e d by the wind all r o u n d , the sun takes away t h e w a t e r of t h e entire world, O excellent B r h m a n a s . T h e m o o n transmits the entire w a t e r d r u n k b y the sun. T h e torrential c u r r e n t of w a t e r ( D o w n p o u r of r a i n ) functions t h r o u g h JVdis (veinlike vessels) accompanied b y t h e wind. T h e w a t e r t h a t oozes out of t h e moon remains in t h e food (i.e. p l a n t s a n d food crops).

1.

For a better and detailed description h o w all the stars

a n d constel

lations are located as different parts of the b o d y of this heavenly porpoise (Uumra) vide Bh. P. V. 23.4-7. This system of heavenly luminaries is p o e t i cally c o m p a r e d to the body-of a porpoise and L o r d V s u d e v a is stated therein to h a v e assumed the form of the iSumra. 2. 3. Bh. P. ibid V. 2 attributes the power of setting in m o t i o n this stellar W 12-17 describe the ancient c o n c e p t of the water-cycle. T h e i r system to the Almighty K l a ( T i m e ) a n d not to D h r u v a . belief in the indestructibility of water ( V . 1 7 ) is surprisingly modern, but t h e later description from 19b fF shows old climatological concepts.

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16. Being obstructed by the wind, t h e clouds scatter water over t h e e a r t h . T h u s water is continuously thrown up ( i . e . t u r n e d into v a p o u r ) a n d d r o p p e d d o w n . 17. T h e r e is no total distruction of w a t e r . T h e same w a t e r gets transformed. It is for t h e sake of sustenance of all t h e worlds t h a t this cosmic M y has been created (by the lord). 18-19a. T h e three worlds along with t h e mobile a n d immobile beings a r e pervaded by this M y . T h e sun is the lordly creator of t h e worlds. Endowed with a thousand (innu m e r a b l e eyes) he is t h e lord of the universe. He is the mighty lord of the subjects, the creator of the entire universe. 19b-20. T h e water t h a t has fallen down from t h e m o o n , from the sky, is conducive to the welfare of all t h e worlds. T h e entire universe has the moon as its support. This has been truthfully recounted. T h e Usna ( h o t virility) oozes out of t h e sun, a n d t h e ita (chill virility) functions from t h e m o o n . 2 1 . These two, viz. t h e m o o n of cool virility a n d t h e sun of hot virility, sustain the world by m e a n s of their combi nation. T h e river G a g with the M o o n as support, is holy. Its waters are free from impurities. 22. ( T h e G a g ) , the great rivers beginning with Bhad r a s o m a n d the waters ( h u m i d s ) t h a t flow within the bodies of all living beings mobile a n d immobile, become smoke (i.e. vapour). 23. W h e n t h e mobiles a n d immobiles get heated ( a n d b u r n t ) they spread everywhere as vapour. 24. Clouds are formed t h e r e b y . It is r e m e m b e r e d t h a t t h e abode (waters) is full of clouds (or, is in the form of clouds). W i t h his rays t h e sun takes up water, the very splendour, from all living beings. 25. In c o m b i n a t i o n with t h e wind, the rays (of t h e sun) carry the waters from t h e ocean t h a t water (then) becomes the nectar-like life-giver u n t o the plants. \ 26. T h e n , as t h e season approaches at t h e p r o p e r time, the sun changes (the saltish w a t e r into sweet water) a n d gives

217 w a t e r to the rays. clouds by m e a n s of his white a n d non-white

27. T h e waters stationed in the clouds fall down when they are wafted by t h e wind. Accompanied by the wind ( t h e y spread everywhere), for the welfare of all living beings. 28-29. T h e n for six m o n t h s it continues to r a i n in order t h a t all living beings m a y flourish. T h e t h u n d e r i n g sound per tains to t h e wind a n d the lightning originates from fire. T h e Meghatva ( t h e s t a t e of being a cloud) is indicated t h r o u g h t h e root y/Mih ( t o p o u r d o w n ) , since the cloud showers ( r a i n ) . T h e wise people know t h e cloud as Abhra because t h e waters do n o t fall d o w n (na bhramyanti).1 30. T h e origin of t h e clouds is threefold. 2 T h e y are of different kinds in view of their sources of origin. T h e y are gneya (fiery o n e s ) , Brahmaja ( b o r n of Brahma) a n d Paksaja (born of W i n g s ) . 3 1 . T h e three kinds of clouds have been e n u m e r a t e d . shall m e n t i o n t h e m a n n e r of their origin. I

gneyas a r e said to be originating from h e a t . T h e y p r o d u c e smoke ( v a p o u r ) . 32. Cold winds a n d winds on cloudy days are their characteristics. T h e y take the shapes of buffaloes, boars a n d intoxicated elephants. 33. Assuming these forms, they come to t h e E a r t h , sport a b o u t a n d w a n d e r h e r e a n d t h e r e . T h e y are n a m e d Jimtas. Living beings are b o r n of these clouds. 34. T h e y are devoid of lightning streaks. T h e y h a n g down w i t h torrents of w a t e r . T h e y are silent clouds of huge bodies. T h e y are u n d e r the control of vaha (A kind of wind) .

1. is derived

T h i s is a fanciful derivation of Abhra from \/abhr 1-suffixac (i.e.a) o f water.

'a cloud'. N o r m a l l y Abhra or from ap + bhrsuffixa,

m e a n i n g "bearer

2. V V . 30-46 g i v e the pseudo-scientific classification of clouds as believ ed by the ancients. S o m e of the poetic flashes of imagination interesting. vaha, Pravaha, Vioaha, Udvaha, Samvaha, bearing clouds of different types and functions. herein are Parivaha are wind-

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35. T h e y shower r a i n from within one a n d a half to three kilometres. T h e y shower r a i n on t h e tops a n d ridges of the m o u n t a i n s a n d r o a r out. 36. Those clouds n a m e d Brahmajas a r e born of the b r e a t h of god B r a h m a . T h e y cause i m p r e g n a t i o n of t h e w h i t e cranes a n d t h e y sustain their young ones in t h e w o m b . 37. I n d e e d they a r e endued w i t h streaks of l i g h t n i n g a n d reverberations of t h u n d e r i n g t h a t are pleasing. D u e to their continuous r u m b l i n g sound, t h e e a r t h expresses horri pilation in t h e from of (plants a n d trees) sprouting from it. 38. Like a queen who has b e e n installed (on t h e t h r o n e of) a kingdom, she a t t a i n s t h e freshness of y o u t h once again. Strongly a t t a c h e d to t h e rains, she becomes t h e source of t h e life of beings. 39. Those clouds d e p e n d on Pravaha, t h e second type of wind. These clouds (shower r a i n ) from within twelve to eighteen kilometres. 40. Those clouds n a m e d Puskarvartakas a r e b o r n of t h e Wings. Its conception is threefold. T h e shower is glorified as continuous d o w n p o u r . 4 1 . T h e wings of very powerful m o u n t a i n s t h a t h a d in creased in size a n d w h o used to go w h e r e v er as they pleased, were chopped off by I n d r a who wished to secure t h e welfare of all living beings. 42. Those clouds n a m e d Puskara (were born of those wings). T h e y increased in size competing w i t h the waters. F o r t h e reason, they are t e r m e d Puskarvartakas (revolving Puskaras). 4 3 . T h e y assume m a n y forms. T h e i r t h u n d e r i n g sound is very terrible. T h e y are t h e creators of t h e torrential r a i n at t h e end of t h e K a l p a s . T h e y control t h e Sarhvartaka fire (which b u r n s d o w n the universe t h e n ) . 44. These (clouds) shower r a i n at t h e close of t h e Yugas. ( T h u s ) those third (sets of clouds) have been r e c o u n t ed. T h e y h a v e m a n y forms, configurations a n d aggregates. They fill the Earth. 45-46. T h e y carry the wind a h e a d . On being resorted to, they conclude t h e K a l p a s . An$a-Kaplas a r e t h e pieces of t h e shell of t h e cosmic egg (evolved out of Prakrti) which

1.2.22.47-58

219

were formed w h e n t h e egg was b r o k e n a n d t h e four-faced, selfp o t e n t god B r a h m a was b o r n therein, t h o s e very pieces of t h e cosmic egg a r e all known as clouds. 47-48. Smoke is conducive to development of all o f t h e m w i t h o u t a n y distinction. T h e most excellent a m o n g t h e m is Parjanya. T h e E l e p h a n t s of t h e quarters a r e four in n u m b e r . (Although) these a r e separate, the source of origin of elephants, mountains, clouds a n d serpents is t h e same a n d water is r e m e m b e r e d as t h a t origin. 49. O n b e i n g directed t o make t h e plants a n d trees flourish, Parjanya a n d t h e Diggajas (Elephants of t h e q u a r t e r s ) shower snowdrops d u r i n g H e m a n t a (early w i n t e r ) , b o r n of cool virility. 50-52a. T h e sixth wind n a m e d Parivaha is their support. T h i s powerful (wind) holds up the G a g of t h e firmament, the holy divine river of exquisite nectar-like water. T h e G a g is situated in t h e p a t h of Sviti (i.e. firmament) in three cur rents. W i t h their huge trunks, the elephants of t h e quarters receive the waters oozing from the G a g a n d scatter t h e m in the form of w a t e r spray. T h a t is r e m e m b e r e d as dew-drops. 52b-53. T h e r e is t h e m o u n t a i n r e m e m b e r e d as H e m a k t a in t h e southern region. To the n o r t h of the H i m a l a y a m o u n t a i n , t h e r e is the extensive city m e n t i o n e d by the n a m e P u n d r a stretching from n o r t h to south. 54-56. T h e r a i n t h a t falls over it has originated from snow-drops. T h e r e u p o n t h e wind n a m e d V a h a f l o w s over t h e H i m a l a y a , sprinkling the great m o u n t a i n w i t h w a t e r . It brings t h e m o u n t a i n u n d e r its control by m e a n s of its own effort. After crossing t h e H i m a l a y a s it utilises the b a l a n c e of rain w a t e r for t h e development of t h e western region. ( T h u s ) two types of r a i n for t h e purpose of develop m e n t of two types of vegetation have been recounted. 57. T h e clouds and their activity of causing t h e develop m e n t (of various things) all these have been recounted. T h e sun alone is m e n t i o n e d as t h e creator of showers. 5 8 . T h e rainfall has its root (source) in t h e sun w a t e r ; proceeds from (functions on a c c o u n t of) t h e sun. It is after being presided oyer by D h r u v a t h a t t h e sun works for r a i n .

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59-60. T h e wind presided over by D h r u v a withdraws t h e shower once a g a i n . T h e p l a n e t comes o u t of t h e sun, wanders t h r o u g h o u t t h e entire assemblage of t h e stars a n d constellations a n d in the e n d enters t h e sun presided over by D h r u v a . Henceforth, u n d e r s t a n d the s t r u c t u r e of t h e chariot of the sun.1 61-62. T h e sun-god proceeds by m e a n s of a golden c h a r i o t t h a t has a single wheel w i t h five spokes a n d three naves, a n d a single r i m w i t h six phases. I t s horses a r e green. T h e whole c h a r i o t embellished w i t h gold, shines brightly. 63. T h e g i r t h a n d t h e extent of t h e chariot is t e n t h o u s a n d Yojanas ( 1 Y o j a n a = 1 2 k m . ) I n m a g n i t u d e , its poleshaft is twice t h e c e n t r a l cockpit. 64. His chariot is divine a n d golden. It is yoked w i t h horses as swift as t h e wind. It has no i m p e d i m e n t anywhere. It was for a specific p u r p o s e t h a t it was c r e a t e d by B r a h m a . 65. T h e Cchandas (Vedic M e t r e s ) h a v e assumed t h e forms of horses a n d are stationed in t h e direction of t h e wheel. T h e chariot has characteristics s i m i l a r ' t o those of t h e chariot of Varuna. 66. It is by m e a n s of this shining c h a r i o t t h a t t h e sun traverses t h e firmament. N o w (know) t h a t t h e following a r e the different parts of the c h a r i o t of t h e sun. 67-68. the year. The p a r t s a r e d u l y constituted by t h e parts of

T h e d a y is remembered as t h e nave of t h e single wheel of the solar c h a r i o t . T h e five rtavas a r e t h e five spokes. T h e six seasons are r e m e m b e r e d as constituting t h e r i m . T h i s is r e m e m bered as the inner seat of the chariot. T h e two_Ayanas (transits) are t h e two poleshafts. 69. M u h r t a s a n d K a l s a r e r e m e m b e r e d as t h e beauti ful trappings a n d fittings. K s t h is r e m e m b e r e d as its nose a n d t h e Kfana ( M o m e n t ) is its axle.
1. V V . 61-62 g i v e a symbolic description of the Chariot of the S u n .

T h e significance of e a c h part of the chariot, the horses yoked etc. is given in V V . 67 ff below.

1.2.22.70-82

221

70. T h e Mmesa is its axle tree at the b o t t o m . T h e Lavas a r e r e m e m b e r e d as its shaft. T h e n i g h t is its wooden fender. D h a r m a i s its f l a g s t a f f t h a t has risen u p t o ( a great h e i g h t ) . 7 1 . A r t h a (Wealth) a n d K a m a (Love) these r e m e m b e r e d as the tips of t h e yoke a n d the axle. T h e V e d i c metres in the form of t h e the yoke by t h e left. 72. T h e seven Metres are Gyatr, J a g a t , Pakti, Brhat a n d U s n i k . two a r e carry

seven horses Tristup,

Anustup,

73. T h e wheel is fixed to the Axis a n d t h e axis is laid on D h r u v a . T h e Axis whirls along w i t h the wheel a n d D h r u v a whirls (?) along w i t h the Axis. 74. Propelled by D h r u v a , the great wheel whirls along with t h e Axis. T h u s is the structure of his chariot in view of specific purpose. 75. Similarly, by m e a n s of c o m b i n a t i o n the shining chariot has been evolved. By m e a n s of t h a t shining c h a r i o t , lord sun-god traverses the firmament. 76. T h e r e are two rein-cords fixed to the extremities of the yoke a n d the axis of the chariot. Those two rein-cords re volve in D h r u v a (and perform the function) of a p a i r of wheels. 77-78. T h e extremities of the yoke a n d t h e axis of t h e chariot t h a t move in circles in the firmament are c a u g h t hold of by D h r u v a . Both the rein-cords whirl on the axis a n d they follow D h r u v a w h o too revolves. 79. T h e extremities of the yoke a n d t h e axis of the chariot revolve all r o u n d along with t h e rein-cords like t h e r o p e fixed to a peg. 80. D u r i n g U t t a r y a n a the rein-cords b e c o m e reduced ( i n l e n g t h ) as they move in circles. D u r i n g t h e D a k s i n y a n a t h e y increase in size. 8 1 . T h e two rein-cords of the c h a r i o t fixed to t h e extre mities of t h e yoke a n d t h e axis are c a u g h t hold of by D h r u v a a n d the two rein-cords lead the sun. 82. W h e n presided over by D h r u v a , those two reincords are dragged, the sun revolves in circles within ( t h e o r b i t ) .

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83-84. T h e intervening distance between t h e quarters is eight t h o u s a n d circles (?) W h e n t h e rein-cords a r e released by D h r u v a , t h e sun once again revolves in circles outside ( t h e o r b i t ) . It moves r o u n d in quick circles.

C H A P T E R

T W E N T Y T H R E E

Information about Heavenly bodies (Stars, Planets etc.).: The movement of the Polar Star Sta said : 1. T h a t chariot is occupied a n d presided over by t h e Devas, Adityas, sages, G a n d h a r v a s , Divine damsels, Grmanis, Serpents a n d d e m o n s . 1 2-5a. T h e s e abide in the sun m o n t h s each in d u e o r d e r . 2 for t h e period of two

T h e following reside in t h e sun continuously in t h e m o n t h s o f M a d h u a n d M d h a v a ( C a i t r a a n d Vaikha) viz. (gods) D h t r a n d A r y a m a n ; (sages) Pulastya, Pulaha, the P r a j p a t i ; (serpents) Airvata, Vsuki, Karhsa, B h m a ; R a t h a krt, a n d R a t h a u j a s t h e s e two a r e cited as Yaksas; ( G a n d h arvas) T u m b u r u , N r a d a ; (divine damsels) Susthal a n d
1. This sublime concept of the Solar chariot is based on Tajurveda 15.15.19. H e r e D e v a s , S a g e s and Gandharvas represent light and immortalitythe actinic portion of the solar spectra. T h e serpents, Grmanis a n d Rksasas signify heat or death or the T h e r m a l field of the spectra. T h i s H e p t a d of the sun signifies the m u t u a l difference in the different " W a v e l e n g t h s " of the seven colours. T h i s m a y b e called the Puranic V I B G Y O R . 2. T h e s e verses ( 2 - 2 4 ) enumerate the names of the different devas, sages e t c . t h e heptad w h o occupy the solar chariot every month. T h e s e verses are c o m m o n to t h e description of the Solar chariot in other Purnas <hg. the M t . P. 125. 1-34, V . P. 5 2 . 1-26 w i t h slight differences in the n a m e s of the occupants of the chariot.

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Pujikasthal, ( p r o t e c t o r - d e m o n s ) , H e t i a n d Praheti these two are cited as Ytudhnas. 5b-8a. T h e following reside ( i n the sun)^ d u r i n g the m o n t h s of uci a n d ukra: (Jyestha andAstfha); ( G o d s ) M i t r a a n d V a r u n a ; the sages cited being Atri a n d t h e famous V a s i s t h a ; (Apsaras) Sahajany, M e n a k ; Pauruseya, a n d V a d h a w h o a r e cited a s Raksasas, the G a n d h a r v a s H h a n d H h ; Yaja (probably Yaksa a n d not Y a j a ) : R a t h a s v a n a , R a t h a c i t r a , a n o t h e r n a m e d Ngasksaka ( r a t h e r N g a called Taksaka) and Rambhaka. 8 b - l l . O t h e r deities also reside in the sun. T h e follow ing g r o u p (of Devas a n d others) resides in t h e sun d u r i n g t h e months of Nabhas and Nabhaya (rvana and Bhdrapada) viz. (Gods) I n d r a a n d Vivasvn; (sages) Agiras, B h r g u ; the s e r p e n t s : E l p a t r a a n d a k h a p l a ; ( G a n d h a r v a s ) Vivvasu a n d Ugrasena, veta a n d A r u n a ; (the two Apsaras) wellknown as P r a m l o c a n d Anumloc a n d the two Y t u d h n a s (demons) S a r p a a n d V y g h r a . 12-15. O t h e r p u r e deities a n d sages reside (in the sun) d u r i n g the a u t u m n (vina a n d K r t t i k a ) ; (gods) Parjanya a n d P s a n ; (sages) Bhradvja along with G a u t a m a ; Parvasu a n d S u r u c i the G a n d h a r v a s ; Vivc a n d G h r t c t h e two (Apsaras) of splendid characteristics; A i r v a t a a n d D h a n a j a y a the wellknown serpents a n d yenajit a n d Susena w h o are Senns (commanders) a n d Grdmanis (or Y a k s a s ) . Apas a n d V t a these two are cited as RksasasAll these always stay in t h e sun d u r i n g the m o n t h s of Avina a n d K r t t i k a . 16-19. T h e following stay in the sun d u r i n g the two m o n t h s of Hemanta ( E a r l y Winter) ; t h e y are t h e two (Devas) Arha a n d Bhaga; ( t h e two sages) K y a p a a n d K r a t u ; the two serpents M a h p a d m a a n d K a r k o t a k a ; t h e two G a n d h a r v a s Citrasena a n d Urnyu; t h e two celestial damsels Urva a n d Prvacitt; T r k s a a n d Aristanemi who are Senn (com manders) as Y a k s a s a n d Vidyutsphrja a n d atyu who a r e cited as Y t u h n a s ( d e m o n s ) t h e s e reside in the sun in the m o n t h s of Saha a n d Sahasya (Mrgarsa a n d P a u s a ) . 20-23. T h e following reside in t h e sun during t h e m o n t h s ofiira ( l a t e w i n t e r ) . T h e y a r e (gods) T v a s t r , Visnu (sages) J m a d a g n y a , V i v m i t r a ; the two serpents K a m b a l a

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a n d Avatara who are t h e sons of K a d r u ; t h e two G a n d h a r v a s D h r t a r s t r a a n d Sryavarcas; ( t h e two celestial damsels) T i l o t t a m and R a m b h ; the d e m o n B r a h m p e t a a n d the o t h e r wellknown d e m o n Y a j p e t a , a n d Rtajit a n d Satyajit who a r e cited as G a n d h a r v a s * ( r a t h e r Y a k s a s ) a l l these, O excellent sages, reside in the sun d u r i n g t h e m o n t h s of T a p a s a n d T a p a s y a (Mgha and Phlguna.) 24. M a k i n g the Pitrs, Devas a n d H u m a n beings well nourished, O B r h m a n a s , Savitr t h e cause of days a n d nights goes on revolving. 25. These Devas reside in t h e sun for periods of two m o n t h s in d u e order. T h e s e twelve groups of seven ( o r h e p tads) identify themselves w i t h t h e i r place of office a n d residence. 26. By m e a n s of their splendour they increase the excel lent splendour of t h e sun. By m e a n s of words ( a n d prayers) composed by themselves, sages eulogise t h e sun. 27. T h e G a n d h a r v a s a n d t h e Apsaras serve h i m b y means of songs a n d dances. T h e G r m a n i s , Yaksas a n d Bhtas perform the worship of his rays. 28. T h e serpents carry the sun, t h e demons follow h i m . F r o m sunrise to sunset, t h e Vlakhilyas surround the sun a n d lead h i m on. 29-31. T h e sun w h o is t h e lord of all these, blazes with his brilliance in accordance w i t h t h e virility, austerities, virtues, contacts, realities a n d s t r e n g t h of these (Devas etc.) T h u s , these stay in t h e sun for periods of two m o n t h s viz. t h e sages, t h e Devas, t h e G a n d h a r v a s , t h e serpents, t h e groups of celestial damsels, t h e G r m a n i s (or groupleaders) or t h e Yaksas a n d especially t h e d e m o n s . 32-33. T h e s e blaze, shower rains, shine, blow and create. On being glorified they dispel t h e inauspicious demerits of all living beings. T h e s e remove t h e auspicious merit of evil-minded m e n . In some respects they r e m o v e t h e sins of m e n of good c h a r a c t e r and conduct.
* This is w r o n g as t h e pair of Gandharvas is already cited. T h e reading should be Grimattyau as in V . P . 5 2 . 2 2 .

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225

34. All these followers of the d a y revolve along with t h e sun. T h e y shower rain on the subjects, they scorch t h e m a n d they delight t h e m (too). 35-36. T h e y protect all the living beings till the desti n a t i o n of the M a n u s . In the M a n v a n t a r a s of t h e ( M a n u s ) of t h e past a n d future as well as those w h o are present, this is the abode of those w h o identify themselves. T h u s those fourteen sets of seven reside in the sun course of the fourteen M a n v a n t a r a s . in t h e

37. T h e sun releases h e a t energy d u r i n g the summer. He scatters rain d u r i n g t h e rainy season a n d snow (during w i n t e r ) . He is t h e maker of d a y and night. He keeps up his m o v e m e n t in accordance with ( t h e changing) seasons a n d gratifies the Devas, t h e Pitrs a n d the h u m a n beings with t h e rays suitably a d a p t e d . 38. By means of t h e (ray) n a m e d Susumna, the sun develops the m o o n in the b r i g h t half d a y by d a y a n d m a k e s i t complete ( o n t h e full moon d a y ) . H e propitiates t h e Devas by means of the nectar. T h e Devas imbibe it d u r i n g t h e d a r k half. 39. W h e n the nectar of the moon is d r u n k , t h e m o o n loses all his digits except one during the d a r k half. At t h e close of it, the m o o n does not ooze out nectar from its rays. T h e Devas, t h e pitrs, t h e Saumyas a n d the Kvyas imbibe t h a t nectar. 40. M e n conquer (satisfy) h u n g e r by means of food stuffs a n d beverages a n d medicinal herbs developed by m e a n s of rain, with waters lifted up a n d released by means of his rays by t h e sun. 4 1 . It is d u r i n g the bright half t h a t the Devas a r e p r o pitiated by means of n e c t a r a n d the pitrs ( a r e d o n e so) d u r i n g the d a r k half (of the m o n t h ) . ( T h e s u n ) perpetually sustains the h u m a n beings by means of food. He holds them well by m e a n s of his rays. 42. T h e sun is being led by green horses. At t h a t t i m e , he removes (evaporates) w a t e r by means of his green rays. At t h e time of discharge (of w a t e r ) , he releases the water. T h u s the sun sustains the mobile a n d immobile beings. 4 3 . T h e sun is being led by green horses. He drinks

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w a t e r by means of thousands of green rays. Being carried by 1 green horses, t h e sun releases it. 44. T h u s the sun traverses the q u a r t e r s by m e a n s of his swift chariot w i t h one wheel. T h e horses are splendid b u t they do not have t h e usual p a c e * (? Akramaih). 45. In t h e course of a day a n d night, t h e sun traverses t h e e a r t h consisting of t h e seven continents a n d oceans by means of his c h a r i o t with a single wheel. 46-48. T h e chariot is yoked with only seven horses. T h e y are the V e d i c Metres t h a t have assumed the form of horses. T h e y are stationed towards the place where t h e wheel is fitted. T h e y assume t h e forms as they wish. T h e y are green, imperishable; they (? are a c c o m p a n i e d ) by tawny-coloured masters expounding t h e B r a h m a n . In the course of a year those horses traverse eightythree h u n d r e d circles. It traverses t h e external as well as the i n t e r n a l circular zones, in t h e course of days. T h e y have been yoked in t h e beginning of the K a l p a a n d they continue to b e a r till the a n n i hilation of all living beings. 49. S u r r o u n d e d by Vlakhilyas, they w a n d e r b o t h night a n d day. T h e sun is eulogised by great sages by means of words ( a n d prayers) of t h e highest order a n d composed by themselves. 50. He is served by G a n d h a r v a s a n d groups of celestial damsels by m e a n s of songs a n d dances. T h e lord of the day (i.e. t h e sun) thus revolves a n d wanders by means of horses t h a t gallop a n d t h a t are as swift as birds. 5 1 . T h e chariot of Soma (the Moon) has t h r e e wheels. 2 His horses h a v e t h e lustre of K u n d a (white J a s m i n e ) flowers. T h e y are t e n in n u m b e r a n d they a r e yoked to t h e left as well as to t h e right. T h e m o o n traverses by m e a n s of this. 52. T h e y traverse t h e stars supported by the Vlthi ( t h e p a t h of t h e f i r m a m e n t ) . T h e y gain velocity by m e a n s of t h e
1.. T h i s verse practically repeats V. 42 in different words. * T h e text is defective. T h e corresponding verse in the V . P . 5 2 , 4 3 b reads: bharaU tair aksatairavaih sarpate 'sou divi ksaye /' w i t h those auspi cious unbroken horses he proceeds in the region of the sky. 2. W 51-79 describe the mythological description of the chariot of t h e m o o n . Its scientific significance is not clear.

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227

support of D h r u v a . T h e shrinking a n d lengthening of its rays a r e r e m e m b e r e d as being like those of the sun. 53. It should be known t h a t t h e chariot of the moon has t h r e e wheels w i t h horses on either side. T h e chariot is b o r n (i.e. evolved) out of t h e w o m b of t h e waters along with the horses a n d t h e charioteer. 54. It has three wheels with h u n d r e d spokes. It is yoked with ten excellent white horses. T h e y are slim a n d divine. T h e y are u n i m p e d e d a n d they have t h e swiftness of the m i n d . 55-57. T h e y are yoked b u t once a n d they continue to b e a r it till t h e elapse of the Yugas. In t h a t c o m p a c t chariot, t h e r e are w h i t e serpents encircling t h e chariot (?) Horses of t h e same colour, having t h e lustre of conchshells carry h i m ( t h e M o o n ) . T h e names of t h e ten horses of the moon are Yajus, C a n d a m a n a s , Vrsa, Vjin, N a r a , H a y a , the famous horses Gavisnu, H a m s a , V y o m a a n d M r g a . 58. These (horses) carry t h e Moon-lord with great dedication ( a n d r e s p e c t ) . T h e m o o n traverses (its o r b i t ) s u r r o u n d e d by t h e Devas a n d t h e pitrs. 59. At t h e end of the dark half a n d at the beginning of t h e bright half, when the sun is steady in the opposite direction, t h e m o o n is filled u p , a n d as days pass by (the digits are reinstilled). 60. W h e n the (nectarine) b o d y of the m o o n has been i m b i b e d by the Devas, it becomes exhausted on t h e fifteenth d a y . T h e n , w i t h a single r a y t h e sun makes it well developed. 6 1 . By means of the r a y called S u s u m n a (the sun) fills a p a r t (of the moon) (digit by digit) every d a y . On being replenished thus by t h e S u s u m n a ( r a y ) , the white and bright digits increase. 62. D u r i n g t h e d a r k half, t h e digits become reduced a n d t h e y a r e developed (replenished) d u r i n g the b r i g h t half. T h e m o o n is t h u s developed, d u e to t h e power of t h e sun. 6 3 . On t h e full M o o n d a y , it appears b r i g h t in a com plete disc. In t h e b r i g h t half, t h e m o o n is thus fully replenished d a y b y day. 64-65. F r o m t h e second d a y of t h e d a r k half to t h e fourteenth day, t h e Devas imbibe t h e n e c t a r o f t h e moon t h a t is of t h e n a t u r e of t h e essence of the waters a n d t h a t is wholly

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juicy. Drinking this liquid n e c t a r of the moon, t h e Devas become delighted. It is d u e to the splendour of the sun t h a t , this n e c t a r i n e juice has been collected together in t h e course of half a month. 66. T h e n e c t a r of the m o o n is for their food (consump t i o n ) . It is resorted to for a single night on the full m o o n day by all the Devas and Pitrs along with the sages. 67. On being imbibed gradually by the Pitrs a n d the Devas at the beginning of t h e d a r k half, t h e digits of the m o o n which face the sun b e c o m e reduced gradually. 68. T h i r t y three, three h u n d r e d (?) a n d three and t h r e e thousand a n d t h r e e Devas imbibe (the juice of) t h e moon. 69. On being sucked thus, the black digits of the m o o n increase. H e n c e , the white digits become reduced a n d the d a r k ones become increased. 70-72. T h u s , t h e m o o n is sucked daily by the D e v a s . After imbibing it for a period of half a m o n t h , t h e excellent Devas go away on the New M o o n day. T h e Pitrs (thereafter) resort to the M o o n on the New M o o n day. T h e n on the fifteenth d a y when the digits are left over a little, t h e groups of Pitrs resort to the last r e m a n a n t (of t h e digits) in the afternoon. F o r a period of two Lavas, they imbibe t h e K a l s (of t h e m o o n ) t h a t a r e left over. 73. T h e n e c t a r of Svadh oozes from its rays on t h e N e w M o o n day. After d r i n k i n g t h a t Svadh for their own satisfac tion ( t o t h e full) for t h e period of a m o n t h , those ( P i t r s ) go away. 74. T h e m o o n is scorched by the sun (i.e. sunlight) t h a t is present in the S u s u m n a . Similarly, the n e c t a r i n e m o o n is imbibed by the Devas in the dark half. 75. T h e y a r e of three (varieties), the Saumyas, the Barhisads a n d the Agnisvttas. Those w h o are m e n t i o n e d as Kvyas are all Pitrs. 76. T h e K v y a s are Sarhvatsaras, those w h o a r e remem bered by t h e B r h m a n a s as Pacbdas (the five y e a r s ) . Saumyas should be known as t h e R t u s a n d Barhisads a r e remembered as. t h e Mas as ( M o n t h s ) . 77-78. T h e Agnisvttas a r e the Artavas, O B r h m a n a s , these a r e the creations o f the Pitrs. O n being d r u n k b y t h e

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Pitrs on t h e fifteenth day, t h e digit of t h e m o o n t h a t is one f i f t e e n t h . p a r t becomes r e d u c e d o n t h e N e w m o o n d a y . T h e n in t h e n e x t fortnight it becorpes replenished. 79. T h e increase a n d decrease of the m o o n a r e r e m e m b e r e d (as occurring) on t h e sixteenth d a y at the beginning of a fort n i g h t . It is t h u s t h a t t h e increase and decrease in the m o o n occur on a c c o u n t of t h e sun. 80. Again (i.e. h e n c e f o r t h ) , I shall describe t h e chariots of the stars, planets a n d R h u . 1 T h e chariot of t h e son of t h e M o o n ( B u d h a ) is b r i g h t a n d full of the splendour of water. 8 1 . T h e chariot of Bhrgava ( t h e Venus) is glorious a n d it resembles the sun in s p l e n d o u r . It has t h e r a m b l i n g sound of t h e cloud. It is e q u i p p e d with b a n n e r , flagstaff a n d o t h e r paraphernalia. 82-83. It is yoked with various excellent horses of different colours b o r n of the earth. It is fitted with t h e following t e n horses, viz. veta, Piaga, Sraga, Nla, Pita, Vilohita, K r s n a , H a r i t a , P r s a t a a n d Prni. T h e y are o f g r e a t g r a n d e u r . T h e y a r e n o t lean. T h e y have the speed of t h e wind. 84-86. T h e excellent c h a r i o t of t h e M a r s also is glorious a n d golden. It has eight horses. W i t h u n i m p e d e d red horses b o r n of fire a n d capable of going everywhere, the p r i n c e (i.e., the Mars) goes a b o u t . T h e y have straight m o v e m e n t as well as those curved clockwise a n d curved anticlockwise ones. T h e J u p i t e r (Brhaspati) of the family of Agiras, t h e scholarly p r e c e p t o r of t h e Devas, moves a b o u t in golden chariot by m e a n s of eight grey horses b o r n of water. T h e y a r e divine horses w i t h t h e speed of t h e w i n d . Staying for a year in a constellation, he goes a h e a d along w i t h V e d h a s * (Brahma) (?) 87-90a. R i d i n g in a c h a r i o t of black steel (iron) fitted with strong horses b o r n of t h e firmament, t h e S a t u r n proceeds a h e a d very slowly.
1. * W 80-92 describe the chariots of other planets such as Budha, Sarvagah 'one w h o c a n go everywhere a n d anywhere' in V.P.52-87.

ukra etc.

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T h e horses of R h u are eight in n u m b e r , a n d black in colour. T h e y have t h e speed of the m i n d . His c h a r i o t is full of darkness. T h e horses a r e yoked b u t once a n d they d r a w it (to t h e e n d ) . H a v i n g come out of t h e sun, R h u goes to the M o o n d u r i n g P a r v a n days ( t h e Full m o o n d a y s ) . 90b-91. T h e horses of the c h a r i o t of K e t u are eight in n u m b e r a n d they have t h e speed of t h e wind. T h e y have the colour of t h e smoke of straw. T h e y are strong. T h e y are tawnycoloured like donkeys. T h u s these horses of t h e planets along with the chariots have been described. 92. All of them are fastened to D h r u v a by m e a n s of gaseous rays; T h e y are fully developed. While whirling duly they blaze as well. 93. ( R e p e t i t i o n ) T h e y are fully developed d u e to invisible gaseous rays. Being b o u n d ( t o D h r u v a ) by means of these, the m o o n , t h e sun a n d the planets revolve in the firmament. 94-95. Those groups of luminaries follow D h r u v a t h a t whirls. J u s t as t h e b o a t is carried on along w i t h t h e ( c u r r e n t of) water in the river, so also these abodes of gods (? planets etc.) are carried by t h e gaseous rays. T h e groups of gods mov ing about in the firmament are not seen. 96. T h e r e are as .many bonds of gaseous rays as there are stars. All of t h e m are fastened to D h r u v a . T h e y whirl them selves a n d they m a k e others also revolve. 97. J u s t as t h e oil-rollers whirl a n d cause t h e wheel also to whirl so also do t h e luminaries fixed ( t o D h r u v a ) on all sides by m e a n s of gaseous rays. 98. Urged by t h e whirlwind, they m o v e a b o u t like a firebrand. (Since t h e w i n d ) carried t h e luminaries, ( t h e wind is r e m e m b e r e d as Pravaha. 99. T h u s t h e g r o u p of planets a t t a c h e d to D h r u v a , moves a b o u t . This G a n g e t i c porpoise a n d D h r u v a should be known as m a d e up of constellations in t h e firmament. 100-107. If a sin is c o m m i t t e d in the day, it is dispelled by seeing it (Dhruva) d u r i n g t h e night.

1.2.23.108

231

He lives as m a n y or m o r e years as t h e r e are stars support ed by the G a n g e t i c porpoise in the firmament. T h e heavenly Gangetic porpoise should be known w i t h its p a r t s (The various limbs of this porpoise are m e n t i o n e d subsequently). A u t t n a p d a ( D h r u v a the son of U t t n a p d a ) should be known as its u p p e r jaw. Yaja should be known as t h e other (i.e. lower j a w ) . D h a r m a is based on its head, (i.e. constitutes its h e a d ) . N r y a n a should be sought for in the h e a r t a n d the p a i r of Avins in the forelegs. V a r u n a a n d A r y a m a n a r e its h i n d thighs. Its penis is Sarhvatsara a n d M i t r a clings to the Apina ( a n u s ) , Agni, M a h e n d r a , M r c a , K a y a p a a n d D h r u v a are i n the tail. T h e four stars in the milky way do n o t set. T h e stars, the moon, the sun a n d the planets along w i t h the constellations are fixed in the heaven, some with the faces u p , others with faces turned away and all of t h e m curved. T h e y are presided over by D h r u v a . T h e y go round D h r u v a who is the central pivot in the heaven a n d who is an excellent lord. D h r u v a is r e m e m b e r e d as the fourth a n d the last one after Agni, Indra and Kyapa. 108. On t h e top of the M e r u M o u n t a i n , single-handed he whirls when he pulls t h e m with face down. He observes M e r u a t the b o r d e r a n d circumambulates it.

1. VV 100-104 describe the various parts of the heavenly porpoise ( i u m r a ) .

(stellar)

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Purna

CHAPTER TWENTYFOUR
The arrangement of the Heavenly Luminaries the source of Light to Luminaries :

The sun, Sta said :

1. On h e a r i n g this, the sages who were in d o u b t R o m a h a r s a n a once again the answer (for the s a m e ) .

asked

2. W h a t has been described in details by your h o n o u r is about the abodes. Now describe to us how m a y be the abodes cf gods a n d how are the luminaries. 3-6. M e n t i o n everything decisively, the facts concerning t h e Luminaries.
Vyu (The Wind god) said :

On h e a r i n g their words, Sta of great concentration a n d m e n t a l purity, delivered the most excellent speech t h a t dispelled their doubts.
Sta said

"I shall mention to you the origin of t h e sun a n d the moon, the details as mentioned by the wise a n d intelligent sages of great wisdom. I shall recount how the sun, the m o o n a n d the plants came to be remembered h e r e as Devagrhas (Divine abodes, abodes of t h e D e v a s ) . Thereafter, I shall r e c o u n t the origin of the three types 1 of Agni (Fire) viz. t h e divine one, the terrestrial one and the one born of water (i.e. lightning) . 7. W h e n the night of Brahma, born of t h e unmanifest one, d a w n e d , this (visible comet) t h a t h a d not been manifested a n d developed was completely enveloped by the darkness of the night.
1. Agni (the fire g o d ) w a s regarded as a very great deity by the V e d i c

Aryans a n d different n a m e s according to its functions were given to it in the R V . T h e Purnas amplified the tradition. T h e fire is given the credit of move ments of the S u n w h i c h is regarded as the source of all the p l a n e t s n a y e v e n of the three worlds. It is the fire w h o through the different N d i s or rays of t h e sun evaporates water a n d causes seasonsthe summer, t h e rainy season a n d the winter. Cf. M t . P . 128.4-23.

1.2.24.8-18

233

8-9a. W h e n this universe r e m a i n e d in the form of all t h e original .BAate (Elements ) a n d t h e specific particularities (distinc tions) h a d been destroyed (i.e. h a d n o t been developed), the self-born lord who manages t h e activities of t h e universe, moved a b o u t like a Khadyota (glow-worm) i.e. he w h o illuminates firmament) with a desire to manifest himself. 9b-10. At the beginning of t h e world he saw t h e fire supported by the E a r t h and W a t e r . T h e lord encased it for t h e purpose of light a n d divided it i n t o three parts. T h e fire t h a t is sanctifying in this world is called t h e Parthiva (Terrestrial fire). 11. T h a t which blazes in the sun is remembered as uci ( p u r e ) . Abja ( b o r n of water) should be known as Vaidyut (Lightening etc.) I shall recount their characteristics. 12. T h e fires born of water a r e three, viz. : Vaidyut ( L i g h t e n i n g ) Jthara (gastric) a n d Saura ( S o l a r ) . It is on a c c o u n t of this, t h a t t h e sun blazes in t h e heaven after drinking water by m e a n s of his rays. 13. T h e (fire) Vrsya (originating from Varsa or rain) contained in lightening, does not become cool by m e a n s of water. T h e fire t h a t abides within the stomach of h u m a n beings does not become cool by means of water. 14. H e n c e , t h e solar fire, t h e V a i d y u t a fire a n d t h e gastric fire a r e fires t h a t have w a t e r for their fuel. Some a m o n g t h e waters are considered Tejas (fiery splen d o u r ) a n d some are seen as having w a t e r for their fuel. 15. T h e Nirmathya fire (i.e. the fire p r o d u c e d by c h u r n ing or friction) has wood for its fuel. T h a t fire is brought u n d e r control by m e a n s of water. T h e Pavamna fire (sanctifying fire) has sparks a n d flames a n d t h e gastric fire is r e m e m b e r e d as devoid of lustre. 16. ( T h e same is the case w i t h ) t h e fire without h e a t t h a t is in t h e zone (of t h e s u n ) . It is white a n d it illuminates. W h e n the sun sets along with its rays (i.e. w i t h d r a w i n g all t h e rays), t h e solar lustre enters fire d u r i n g night. H e n c e it glows from far off. 17-18. T h e h e a t of t h e fire, of the terrestrial fire, enters the sun as it rises w i t h its rays. H e n c e t h e fire blazes. T h e

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power of illumination, a n d h e a t are (respectively) t h e solar a n d fiery splendour. 19-20. By p e r m e a t i n g each other, they m a k e e a c h o t h e r nourish a n d develop. In t h e n o r t h e r n hemisphere as well as in the southern o n e , when the sun rises, the night enters waters. H e n c e , waters become hot d u r i n g the "day a n d cold on account of the entrance a n d p e r m e a t i o n by t h e n i g h t . 2 1 . W h e n t h e sun sets, t h e d a y enters waters. H e n c e , d u r i n g t h e night, the waters are seen white ( a n d sparkling). 22. It is in this order t h a t in t h e southern a n d n o r t h e r n hemispheres, the d a y a n d the night enter water at t h e times of sunrise a n d sunset. 23. T h e sun t h a t blazes imbibing water by means of his rays, is r e m e m b e r e d as t h e divine uci ( p u r e ) fire t h a t is com bined with the terrestrial fire. 24-27. This fire uci has a thousand feet (rays). It resembles one holding a p o t . W i t h a thousand JVds (vein like rays) spread all r o u n d , it takes up the waters of the rivers, oceans, wells, canals etc. b o t h blowing a n d stationary. Its thousand rays exude cold showers, snowfall as well as hot ones. A m o n g t h e m , four h u n d r e d veins h a v e variegated forms a n d they shower ( r a i n ) . These veins t h a t cause downpour of rain are n a m e d as follows : C a n d a n s , Sdhys, K t a n s , Aktans a n d Amrts. 28-31. T h e r e are t h r e e h u n d r e d rays other t h a n these a n d they exude snow. These Veins t h a t b r i n g a b o u t snowfall a r e by n a m e Drys (visible), Meghs, Ymys a n d Hrdins ( Rumbling ones). Those rays of limited lustre are called C a n d r s by n a m e . T h e white ( p u r e ) rays t h a t cause h e a t a r e three h u n d r e d n u m b e r a n d their n a m e s are ukls, K u h a k s , Vivabhrts. T h e sun brings a b o u t t h e satisfaction of h u m a n beings, Pitrs ( M a n e s ) a n d Devas after distributing t h e m impartially among them. He gratifies h u m a n beings by m e a n s of m e d i c i n a l herbs, the m a n e s by m e a n s of Svadh-offerings a n d all t h e Devas by m e a n s of n e c t a r . in

1.2.24.32-40

235-

32-33. D u r i n g Vasanta ( s p r i n g ) a n d Grisma ( s u m m e r ) , t h e sun blazes by m e a n s of t h r e e h u n d r e d rays. D u r i n g the r a i n y season a n d a u t u m n h e showers (rain) b y m e a n s of four h u n d r e d rays. D u r i n g H e m a n t a (early w i n t e r ) a n d iira (later w i n t e r ) , he scatters snow by means of t h r e e h u n d r e d rays. ( T h e t w e l v e suns) are I n d r a D h t r , Bhaga, P s a n , M i t r a , V a r u n a , A r y a m a n , Amu, Vivasvn, T v a s t r , Savitr a n d Visnu. 34-35. T h e sun d u r i n g the m o n t h of M g h a is V a r u n a ; 1 Psan in P h l g u n a ; lord Amu in t h e m o n t h of C a i t r a a n d D h t r in t h e m o n t h of V a i k h a . I n d r a is t h e sun in t h e m o n t h of J y e s t h a a n d t h e sun in t h e m o n t h of Asdha is Savitr. 36-37a. Vivasvn is t h e S u n i n t h e m o n t h of Srvana, Bhaga is r e m e m b e r e d as the S u n in t h e m o n t h of P r s t h a p a d a ( B h d r a p a d a ) . A r y a m a n is t h e S u n in t h e m o n t h of Avayuja (Avina) a n d T v a s t r is t h e sun in the m o n t h of K r t t i k a . M i t r a is the sun in t h e m o n t h of M r g a r s a a n d Visnu, t h e eternal one, is t h e sun in P a u s a . 37b-40. In t h e activity as the sun, T a r u n a has five thousand rays. P s a n blazes with six thousand rays a n d L o r d Amu blazes w i t h seven t h o u s a n d rays; D h t r w i t h eight t h o u s a n d a n d I n d r a with n i n e thousand rays. Savitr moves (about) w i t h ten thousand rays a n d Bhaga w i t h eleven t h o u s a n d rays. M i t r a blazes w i t h seven t h o u s a n d rays a n d T v a s t r blazes with eight thousand rays.
1. Month Caitra Vaikha Jyesfha T h i s tabular statement shows the monthwise Name of the ruling Sun Amu Dhtr Indra Savitr Vivasvn Bhaga Aryaman Tvastr Mitra Visrui Varuna Psan distribution of theRays 7000 8000 9000 10000 9000 11000 10000 8000 7000 6000 5000 6000

sun-gods a n d their capacities and functions:

Asdha
rvana Bhdrapada

Avina
Krttika Mrgairsa Pausa Mgha Phlguna

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Brahmnda Pur&na

A r y a m a n moves a b o u t w i t h ten thousand rays a n d Vivasvn (not Parjanya as in the text) blazes with n i n e thousand rays. Visnu scorches the e a r t h by means of six thousand rays. 41-42. D u r i n g the V a s a n t a season, t h e sun is tawnycoloured ; x d u r i n g the G r s m a season, t h e sun has golden lustre: d u r i n g t h e Varsa (rainy) season, he is white in colour a n d d u r i n g a u t u m n , he is yellowish white in colour. D u r i n g Hemanta (early winter) t h e sun is copper-coloured. D u r i n g iira (late winter) he is red in colour. T h u s the colours of the sun caused by the seasons h a v e been (traditionally) proclaimed. 43. T h e sun infuses strength in the medicinal herbs; he makes the Pitrs (stronger) by means of S v a d h ; he infuses n e c t a r in the Devas. T h u s he gives three things to t h e three. 44. In this m a n n e r the thousand rays of the sun achieve the requisite things of the people of t h e world. T h e y differ inas m u c h as they exude snow, r a i n or hot rays. 45. T h u s , is t h e white resplendent sphere n a m e d sun. It is t h e foundation a n d source of origin of the stars, planets a n d t h e moon. 4 6 . All these, viz. the moon, the stars a n d t h e planets should be known as originating from the sun. T h e m o o n is the l o r d of all stars a n d t h e sun is the king of planets. 4 7 . T h e r e m a i n i n g five planets should be known as gods moving a b o u t as they please. 48. U n d e r s t a n d the sources of origin of the remaining p l a n e t s b e i n g described well. Skanda, the commander-in-chief of t h e a r m y of t h e Devas, is cited as t h e p l a n e t A g r a k a ( t h e Mars). 49-51. Scholars conversant w i t h the Vedic knowledge c a l l N r y a n a by the n a m e B u d h a (the Mercury) . Y a m a ( a n i n c a r n a t i o n of) R u d r a , the son of Vivasvn a n d the lord of t h e world, is the great p l a n e t anaicara ( t h e Saturn) who is t h e most excellent a m o n g B r h m a n a s a n d who orbits very slowly.

1. the sun.

W . 4 1 - 4 2 g i v e the traditional seasonwise colours or complexions of

1.2.24.52-60

237

T h e t w o resplendent great planets are t h e preceptors o f t h e Devas a n d Asuras. B o t h of t h e m viz. ukra (the Venus) a n d B r h a s p a t i ( t h e J u p i t e r ) a r e the sons of Prajpati. T h e r e is no d o u b t t h a t t h e entire u n i t of the three worlds has t h e sun as its root ( s o u r c e ) . 52-54. T h e entire universe including t h e Devas, Asuras a n d h u m a n beings originate from t h e sun, O, l e a d i n g Brhmanas. All t h e brilliance of R u d r a , U p e n d r a ( V i s n u ) , I n d r a a n d C a n d r a ( t h e M o o n ) , the dwellers o f t h e heaven, t h e brightness of all luminaries, t h e entire splendour of all the worlds (is t h a t of t h e s u n ) . He is the soul of all; he is t h e lord of all t h e worlds; he is a great god; a n d Prajpati t h e lord of t h e subjects). T h e S u n alone is t h e root of t h e three worlds. He is t h e highest deity. It is from h i m t h a t everything is b o r n a n d everything gets merged in h i m alone. 55. T h e existence a n d non-existence of t h e worlds h a v e formerly e m a n a t e d from t h e sun. T h e p l a n t t h a t should be u n d e r s t o o d by t h e whole universe, O, B r h m a n a s , is the brilliant sun of great lustre. 56-57. (The units of time) K s a n a s , M u h r t a s , days,, nights, fortnights, t h e whole months, the seasons, t h e years a n d the Yugas get merged i n t o this a n d a r e b o r n a g a i n a n d again. H e n c e , there is no reckoning of time w i t h o u t the sun. 58-60. W i t h o u t t h e reckoning of time, there is n e i t h e r (the study of) scriptures, n o r (religious) initiation n o r t h e daily routine of religious duties. If the seasons are not. well defined, how can there be flowers, roots a n d fruits ? H o w can the crops or fruits of trees come out ? H o w can medicinal herbs a n d grasses grow? W i t h o u t the sun t h a t blazes in the universe a n d who r o b s (evaporates) water, t h e r e will be complete cessation a n d n o n existence of all sorts of h u m a n activity a n d the activity of o t h e r creatures b o t h in t h e e a r t h a n d in the h e a v e n . He alone is t h e ' T i m e ' . He is the ' F i r e ' . He is t h e lord of t h e subjects. He has twelve souls ( i n t h e form of twelve dityas (the sun g o d ) .

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6 1 . He scorches t h e t h r e e worlds inclusive of t h e mobile a n d immobile beings, O excellent B r h m a n a s . He is the mass of splendour t h a t dispels t h e darkness of t h e entire world. 62. After resorting to t h e excellent p a t h of the wind, he gives heat to this e n t i r e universe by means of his rays, at t h e sides, above a n d below, nay, at all sides. 63-64. J u s t as a bright l a m p suspended in the m i d d l e of a house dispels simultaneously the darkness at t h e sides, above a n d below, so also t h e sun w h o has a thousand ( i n n u m e r a b l e ) rays, w h o is t h e lord of planets a n d t h e universe, illuminates by m e a n s of his rays t h e entire universe everywhere on all sides. 65. T h e most excellent a m o n g the thousand rays of the sun cited by me before, a r e t h e seven rays t h a t are t h e sources of origin of t h e p l a n e t s . 1 66-68. T h e y a r e declared as follows: S u s u m n a , H a r i kea as well as V i v a k a r m a n ; Vivaravas (and a g a i n a n o t h e r ray) Sampadvasu, Arvvasu a n d Svart. It is t h e solar r a y S u s u m n a t h a t causes t h e nourishment of t h e M o o n t h a t wanes. This S u s u m n a is glorified as one t h a t spreads sideways a n d u p w a r d s . H a r i k e a , t h a t is in front, is glorified as t h e source of origin of t h e stars. 69-72a. V i v a k a r m a n , the ray to t h e south, right, n u r tures B u d h a ( M e r c u r y ) . Vivaravas the ray to the west, behind, is r e m e m b e r e d by l e a r n e d m e n as the source of origin of ukra (the V e n u s ) . T h e ray S a m p a d v a s u is t h e source of origin of L o h i t a (the M a r s . )
1. T h i s is a peculiar w a y of associating the particular ray of the sun as Name of the planet or star so introduced The moon stars in general ukra The (The Venus) Mars t h e source of origin of particular p l a n e t : Name of the ray of the sun Susumna Harikea Vivaravas Sampadvasu Arvvasu Svart Vivakarman

T h e Jupiter T h e Saturn Budha (Mercury)

1.2.24.72b-78 T h e sixth r a y Arvvasu is t h e source of origin pati (the J u p i t e r ) . T h e r a y Svart (the S a t u r n ) . causes

239 of Brhas-

the d e v e l o p m e n t of^anaicara

T h u s , it is d u e to the power of t h e sun t h a t the p l a n e t s , stars a n d constellations r e m a i n in the firmament. N a y , this entire universe is sustained. 72b-73. T h e stars a r e termed Naksatras because they do not become reduced (JVa-notKsiyante become r e d u c e d ) . 1 T h e s e Ksetras (abodes) h a p p e n before on a c c o u n t of t h e rays (?) T h e sun, the creator of the star, takes up their abodes. 74-76. T h e stars a r e so called because they r e d e e m (trant) those persons who have crossed t h e planets by m e a n s of m e r i t a n d w h o have resorted to t h e m (once a g a i n ) at t h e e n d of the m e r i t (i.e. w h e n merits h a d b e e n enjoyed fully.) T h e y a r e Trakas because they a r e white a n d sparkling. T h e sun is n a m e d ditya because it takes up (-s/d- ' t o take') a n d dispels t h e splendour a n d darkness pertaining to t h e heaven, e a r t h a n d n i g h t (dnt). T h e root \/Su-\/Savana is considered in this connection in t h e sense of Syandana (flowing) . T h e sun is considered Savitr because it causes t h e e x u d a t i o n of waters a n d sparkling splendours. 77. T h e root \/Cad is cited so as to m e a n " t o d e l i g h t " . I t i s considered t o m e a n ' ' t o b e w h i t e " , " t o b e n e c t a r i n e " , and " t o be cool". 78. T h e divine spheres of t h e sun a n d the m o o n are sparkling a n d white. T h e y are of t h e form (or full of) of fire a n d w a t e r . T h e y move a b o u t i n t h e f i r m a m e n t . T h e y resemble auspicious r o u n d p o t s .

1. H e r e are (i) (ii)

W . 72-77. O u r author some but specimens:

takes

interest

in

popular not get

etymologies. diminished* but here it

Naksatra 'a s t a r ' m ksyanU "Those w h i c h do grammatically it is \Znaksa. +tron. A d i t y a is normally Aditinya=ya is traced to +

(the son of A d i t i )

y ' d i ' t o take*.

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79. T h e sphere of t h e m o o n is r e m e m b e r e d to be consist ing of dense water. T h e white a n d brilliantly sparkling sphere of t h e sun is composed of dense fiery splendour. 80-83. All the divine ones enter these abodes completely d u r i n g all the M a n v a n t a r a s . 1 T h e y resort to t h e stars, planets a n d t h e sun. T h e y are the abodes of the divine ones a n d are called after t h e m respectively. T h e sun enters the Saura Sthna (the Solar abode) and the m o o n the Saumya Sthna (the L u n a r a b o d e ) . ukra ( t h e Venus) enters t h e a b o d e pertaining to ukra t h a t is very brilliant a n d has sixteen flames. Brhaspati (the J u p i t e r ) enters Jaiva (intended for J u p i t e r ) abode a n d L o h i t a (the M a r s ) enters t h e L a u h i t a a b o d e . L o r d anaicara ( t h e S a t u r n ) enters t h e abode pertain ing to t h e S a t u r n . B u d h a (the M e r c u r y ) enters the a b o d e m e a n t for Budha, a n d S v a r b h n u ( R h u ) stays in t h e abode pertain ing t o Svarbhnu ( R h u ) . 84. All t h e stars enter the Naksatras (abodes m e a n t for constellation) a n d stars. All these a r e t h e l u m i n a r y abodes of those w h o a r e pious-souled a n d meritorious. 85. These ( a b o d e s ) have been created by t h e self-born lord ( B r a h m a ) at the beginning of a K a l p a a n d they have b e g u n to function since t h e n . These abodes r e m a i n till the annihilation of all living beings ( a t the end of the w o r l d ) . 86-87. In all t h e M a n v a n t a r a s , the same a r e the abodes of all t h e Devas. T h e Abhimnins (those w h o identify themselves) abide by these divine abodes. T h e past ones live along with the past ones a n d t h e future ones along with t h e future Devas. T h e present ones live along with t h e present Sthnins (those who identify themselves w i t h t h e abodes) a n d Devas. In this M a n v a n t a r a the planets a r e r e m e m b e r e d as Vaitnikas ( p e r t a i n ing to Sacrifices).
1. W . 80-92. T h e idea i s that w h a t w e see a s stars o r planets are the

abodes, the occupants of w h i c h change per M a n v a n t a r a . In this M a n v a n t a r a , the occupants h a v e got their position due to performance of sacrifices and hence they are called Vaitnikas. T h e n a m e s of the present gods o c c u p y i n g (the present m o o n g o d ) . these planets are also given e.g. Vivasvn (the present sun g o d ) , V a s u , son of T v i s i

1.2.24.88-99a

241

83. Vivasvn, the son of Aditi, is the sun in the Vaivasvata M a n v a n t a r a . T h e lord Vasu n a m e d Tvisi, the son of D h a r m a , is remembered as the m o o n . 89. Lord ukra, belonging to Bhrgu clan, should be known as the performer of sacrifices on behalf of the Asuras. T h e lordly son of Agiras, of massive splendour is r e m e m bered as the p r e c e p t o r of the Devas. 90. B u d h a is fascinating to the m i n d . He is r e m e m b e r e d as the son of Tvisi. anaicara (the Saturn) is t h e ugly son of Sarhj a n d Vivasvn. 9 1 . T h e youthful lord Mars was born of Vike a n d Agni. T h e stars that are n a m e d Rksas are remembered as t h e daughters of Daksa. 92. S v a r b h n u ( R h u ) is the son ofSirhhik. He is an Asura causing distress to all living beings. T h u s the Abhimnins (those who identify themselves) with the m o o n , the stars, the planets a n d the sun have been recounted. 93. T h e s e a r e mentioned as the abodes a n d those who occupy the abodes are deities. T h e abode of Vivasvn ( t h e S u n ) of a thousand rays is ukla ( w h i t e a n d resplendent) a n d fiery. 94. T h e a b o d e of Tvisi of a thousand rays is white a n d sparkling a n d consists of water. T h e abode of M a n o j a (i.e. the Mercury) of five rays, is r e m e m b e r e d as dark in colour as well as pya ( w a t e r y ) . 95. T h e abode of ukra is a lotus a m o n g the sixteen rays. It is watery, white a n d sparkling. T h e Lohita ( r e d ) abode of B h a u m a (the Mars) is watery. 96. T h e big abode of Brhaspati is green and watery. It has twelve rays. T h e abode o f M a n d a (the S a t u r n ) is said to be black a n d watery. It has eight rays. 97-99a. T h e abode of Svarbhnu is Tmasa ( d a r k ) . It is t h e abode of those who cause the distress of all living beings. All the stars should be known as watery a n d they have a single ray each. T h e y are the shelters u n t o those of meritorious fame. In colour they are perfectly white. T h e y should be known as full

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of dense water. T h e y have been created even at t h e beginning of t h e K a l p a . T h e y are r e m e m b e r e d to be intrinsically lumi nous d u e to t h e contact w i t h the rays of t h e sun. 99b-103. T h e d i a m e t e r of the sun is r e m e m b e r e d as nine thousand Yojanas. 1 T h e extent of its sphere is three times t h a t . T h e area of the moon's sphere is r e m e m b e r e d as twice the area of the sun. Svarbhnu is equal to t h e m b o t h . It moves b e n e a t h t h e m . It has been created after taking out the shadow of the E a r t h a n d has a spherical shape. T h e t h i r d large a b o d e of S v a r b h n u which is full of dark ness, comes out of the sun during P a r v a n days (i.e. New M o o n , Full M o o n etc.) a n d goes towards the moon. D u r i n g Solar Parvans it comes back to the sun from the m o o n . It is called S v a r b h n u because it pushes away (Nudate) the heaven (Svar) by m e a n s of its splendour (Bhs). 104. T h e diameter a n d extent of the sphere of Bhrgava ( t h e Venus) it laid down as one-sixteenth of t h a t of the moon. 105. Brhaspati ( t h e J u p i t e r ) should be known as onefourth less t h a n t h e Venus ( i . e . three fourths of its size). T h e M a r s a n d S a t u r n are remembered t o b e three-fourths of J u p i t e r in e x t e n t . 106-107. In d i a m e t e r a n d extent, M e r c u r y is threefourths of either of t h e m . T h e forms of t h e stars a n d constellations are similar to those of M e r c u r y . Those t h a t have bodies are equal in length a n d extent t o M e r c u r y . A m a n conversant with reality should know t h a t the stars are usually in conjunction with the m o o n . 108. T h e stars a n d constellations differ in extent from o n e a n o t h e r b y f i v e h u n d r e d , four h u n d r e d , three h u n d r e d a n d also two h u n d r e d Yojanas. 109. T h e spheres of t h e stars are lesser t h a n the earlier o n e s . T h e r e is no star smaller t h a n the ones with one a n d a half Yojanas.
1. V V . 99-126. T h e s e are the ideas of the ancient Indians about the of planets and the heavenly bodies

locations, dimensions a n d "movements

in the pretelescope days. Cf Bh. P. V. 2 2 . 8-17.

1.2.24.110-123

243

110. T h r e e planets a m o n g t h e m which orbit very far away and above all are the Saturn, the J u p i t e r a n d the M a r s . It should be known that they orbit very slowly. 111. T h e great planets beneath them are the four fast moving ones, viz. the sun, the moon, the Mercury and the Venus. 112. T h e r e are as m a n y crores of stars all round as there a r e constellations. T h e movement of these constellations has been duly regulated by god B r a h m a . 113-116. T h e movement of the sun through them in accordance with the Ayanas (Solar transit) is high and low. W h e n ( t h e sun) is in the n o r t h e r n transit, the moon is seen moving fast during the Parvan days with its rays, not very clear. This is because it is very high. (?) W h e n the sun is in the southern p a t h , it resorts to the lower p a t h . It is always surrounded by the line of E a r t h (? h o r i z o n ) during the New Moon and the Full Moon days. It is not seen at the regular time and it sets quickly. H e n c e , on the new moon day, the moon stationed in the n o r t h e r n p a t h is seen in the southern p a t h ; b u t it is not seen so regularly. 117. H e n c e , in view of the movements of the luminaries, the sun a n d the moon set a n d rise at the same time (every day) during the equinotical days. 118. In the northern paths, the times of rising and setting are different. During the new moon a n d full moon, they should be understood as following the circle of luminaries. 119. W h e n the sun orbits through the p a t h of the southe r n transit, it does so beneath all the planets. 120. Making its sphere vast and wide, the moon orbits above it. T h e entire galaxy of stars orbits above the moon. 121. T h e M e r c u r y orbits above all the stars. T h e Venus orbits above the M e r c u r y . T h e M a r s does so above the Venus a n d the J u p i t e r above the M a r s . 122. T h e Saturn is above it a n d the sphere of the seven sages ( G r e a t Bear) is above it. D h r u v a (the Pole Star) is situated above the G r e a t Bear. 123. T h e intervening distance between the stars a n d t h e planets high above is two hundred thousand Yojanas.

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124. T h e planets, the m o o n a n d the sun orbit in the firmament with divine splendour. In their regular movement, they duly come into c o n t a c t with the constellations. 125. T h e planets, the stars a n d the sun m a y be low, high or straight d u r i n g their m u t u a l contact or w h e n separate, yet they look at the subjects simultaneously. 126. These are situated face to face. T h e y come i n t o contact mutually. T h a t their m u t u a l conjunction is without any confusion should be u n d e r s t o o d by learned m e n . 127-128. T h u s is the r e g u l a t e d a r r a n g e m e n t of t h e E a r t h , the luminaries, t h e continents, the oceans, t h e m o u n t a i n s , the sub-continents, t h e rivers a n d those who stay in t h e m . T h e planets have their origination in these constellations. 129. Vivasvn, the son of Aditi, the first a m o n g t h e planets, the sun-god, was b o r n in .the constellation Vikh in the Cksusa M a n v a n t a r a . 1 130. Tvisiman, t h e son of D h a r m a , the lord m o o n god, the son of Vasu, the cool-rayed cause of nights was b o r n in the constellation K r t t i k . 131. ukra ( t h e Venus) who is endowed with sixteen fiery flames (rays) a n d w h o is the son of Bhrgu a n d w h o is t h e most excellent a m o n g stars a n d planets was b o r n in the s t a r Tisya (Pusya) after t h e sun. 132. T h e p l a n e t Brhaspati ( t h e J u p i t e r ) who has twelve fiery flames ( r a y s ) , w h o is the son of Angiras a n d w h o is the preceptor of the Universe, was b o r n in the P r v p h l g u n .
1. W . 129-137 g i v e the stars Name of the Planet ( i ) T h e S u n god, the son o f Aditi ( i i ) T h e m o o n god, T v i s i m a n , the son of D h a r m a (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) ukra (the V e n u s ) the son of Bhrgu Mars, son of Prajpati anaicaa, son of the S u n g o d Budha god ( v i i i ) K e t u , son of M r t y u (ix) R h u (Mercury) son o f the m o o n Dhanis{h les Bharani Krttik Tisya (Pusya) (or constellations) under w h i c h these The star of birth. Vikh

planets were ' b o m ' .

Brhaspati (Jupiter) the son of Agiras Prv-Phlguni Purvsdh Revati

1.2.24.133-141

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133. It is m e n t i o n e d in the ruti t h a t the p l a n e t (Mars) of nine fiery flames, who has a red-complexioned body a n d who is t h e son of P r a j p a t i was bofn in the constellation Prvsdh. 134. anaicara (the S a t u r n ) , the son of the" sun, was b o r n in the constellation R e v a t . He has seven fiery flames. T h e p l a n e t Budha ( M e r c u r y ) , the son of the m o o n was born in the constellation D h a n i s t h . He has five fiery flames. 135. ikhin (i.e. K e t u ) w h o is full of darkness, who is the sun of M r t y u , who causes the annihilation a n d decline of the subjects a n d who is a mighty planet t h a t destroys every thing, was born in the constellation of Ales. 136-138. T h e d a u g h t e r s of Daksa (i.e. the 27 stars) were b o r n in their respective stars n a m e d after t h e m . R h u who has a n a t u r a l l y dark sphere, who has the virility of the Tamas quality a n d who is the planet attacking the m o o n a n d t h e sun, was b o r n in the constellation Bharan. These stars a n d planets beginning with Bhrgava ( t h e V e n u s ) should be c o m p r e h e n d e d because they become devoid of goodness at t h e time w h e n the constellation of nativity is being harassed. T h e y are affected by that defect (and are redeem e d ) , d u e to the devotion to the planets. 139. T h e first a m o n g all these planets, it is said, is Aditya (Sun) - 1 ukra is (thefirst) a m o n g the stars a n d the planets a n d K e t u is the first a m o n g meteors. 140. D h r u v a is the pivotal peg a m o n g the planets scatter ed a b o u t in all the four quarters. rav sth i.e. D h a n i s t h (is the first ?) a m o n g the stars a n d the n o r t h e r n transit is the first a m o n g transits. 141. T h e first a m o n g the five Varsas (years) is remem bered as Sarhvatsara. iira (late W i n t e r ) is t h e first a m o n g seasons a n d M g h a is the first a m o n g the M o n t h s .
1. W . 139-144 give w h a t i s the 'first' o r the most important one a m o n g V a s a n t a S a m p t a therein) a n d

the stars, divisions of time etc. It is worth noting that M g h a is regarded as the first m o n t h of the year (probably due to iira as the 1st R t u (season) a n d not the spring. T h e second point of impor tance is the emphasis of the Y u g a being a period of five years beginning w i t h D h a n i s t h and ending w i t h ravana Naksatra.

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Purina

142. A m o n g fortnights, the bright half a n d a m o n g Tithis ( l u n a r fortnightly days) Pratipat is the first. T h e d a y is glorified as the first a m o n g the divisions of day, n i g h t etc. 143. T h e first a m o n g the M u h r t a s is t h a t which has R u d r a as its deity. T h e unit of t i m e Ksana has nimesa as its first, O excellent ones a m o n g those w h o know T i m e . 144. T h e Yuga (Era) consisting of five years begins with D h a n i s t h a n d ends with ravana. D u e to the peculiar movement of the like a wheel. sun, this revolves

145. T h e sun is hence r e m e m b e r e d as K l a ( T i m e ) by those who know t h a t (i.e. t i m e ) . He is the lord. It is he w h o makes the four, types of living beings function or desist from action. 146-147. T h e venerable lord R u d r a himself is the cause of the functions of T i m e . T h u s is t h e regulated a r r a n g e m e n t of luminaries as conditioned by the affairs (of the w o r l d ) . It is evolved by the L o r d ( G o d ) , for the sake of regular functioning of the world. This is compressed (?) in r a v a n a * (?) D h r u v a by m e a n s of U t t a r -

148. It is extensively spread all r o u n d a m o n g t h e m . He is situated in t h e form of a circle. He is m a d e to function in telligently at the beginning of the K a l p a by the L o r d . 149. He is the support. He is the Abhimnin (one w h o identifies himself) with all. He is the soul of the luminary bodies. He is the miraculous transformation of P r a d h n a of the Cosmic form. 150. It is impossible for all h u m a n beings to compre h e n d factually the movements b o t h inward a n d outward, of the luminary bodies, by means of their physical eye. 151. T h e learned m a n should comprehend a n d r e t a i n in belief, by means of scripture, inference, perception, a n d reasoning after testing intelligently a n d carefully.

V . P.53.119a reads: utpannah iravanensau :

' I t started by ravana'

1.2.24.15225.5

247

152. O B r h m a n a s of the most excellent intellect these are five expedients ( m e a n s ) to c o m p r e h e n d the g r o u p of lumin aries viz. : eye, scripture, water, picture a n d calculation.

CHAPTER TWENTYFIVE
The Origin iva Sta said : of the Epithet Milakantha1

swallowing poison.

1. After r e c o u n t i n g this (astronomical information in the last c h a p t e r ) Lord V y u (The W i n d god) of very great intellect a n d who is (always) engaged in what is conducive to the welfare of t h e world, commenced the Japa ( m u t t e r i n g in an u n d e r t o n e t h e M a n t r a ) t h a t was to be c h a n t e d when the sun reached t h e middle of the sky. 2. All those sages who h a d assembled there a n d w h o h a d perfect control over their O w n selves, stood up with palms j o i n e d in reverence. 3 . T h e W i n d god p r a y e d : " O N l a k a n t h a , obeisance to you w h o ought to be worshipped at t h e end of religious observances, a n d who are the lord of all living beings, a n i m a ting them all." 4-5. On hearing this, those sages of p u r e souls, of Praise w o r t h y religious observance and famous as V akhilyas, eightyeight thousand in n u m b e r , who, of sublimated sexual impulse, walked by t h e side of the sun (as his associates) a n d subsisted on leaves, (of trees), wind a n d water, submitted to V y u as follows :
1. T h i s popular story as to h o w Siva's throat b e c a m e blue due to drink

ing the deadly poison Klakfa appears in the M b h . (Adi. 18.41-43) a n d other Purnas. T h e text of this chapter from V. 6 onwards is the same as that of t h e V . P. 54.10 ff.

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6-7. "O excellent Wind-god, O most excellent one a m o n g those conversant with meritorious things, we wish to h e a r (more a b o u t ) w h a t is m e n t i o n e d by you as " N l a k a n t h a " . It is the most meritorious thing a m o n g sacred ones. O excellent o n e , recount t h a t u n t o us. O P r a b h a j a n a (Wind-god), by your grace, we wish to hear everything. 8. W h a t is the reason whereby the neck of the lord of Ambik (i.e. god iva) had become blue ? O lord, we wish to h e a r this particularly from your m o u t h (i.e. as directly mentioned by y o u ) . 9. All verbal utterances are impelled by you, O Vyu. T h e function of speech is dependent on Varna (sound of letters) and Sthna (place of a r t i c u l a t i o n ) . 10. T h e intelligent enthusiasm is activated by you. It is (only) when you sanctify them that the r e m a i n i n g Vamas be gin to function. 11. T h e existence of the Varnas is only d u e to you, from whom the utterances recede and wherein the colours of the body are rare. O Anila (wind g o d ) , you are always omni present (and have access everywhere). 12. Excepting you, O S a m r a n a (wind g o d ) , there is no o n e who pervades everything. This living world is directly perceptible to you from all sides, O Anila (wind-god). 13. You know the lord of speech, Ivara, the leader (controller) of minds. Tell us wherefore (for what) is there an aberration of the colour a n d feature in the region of his neck (throat)." 14. On hearing the words of those sages of sanctified souls, Vyu who has great splendour a n d w h o is revered by the world, replied. 15. " F o r m e r l y , in Kxtayuga, there was a B r h m a n a called Vasistha w h o was extremely interested in deciding the ( m e a n ing of) Vedas. He was a righteous soul. He was the m e n t a l son (of B r a h m a ) . He was a Prajpati. 16-19. He asked K r t t i k e y a who has a peacock as his excellent vehicle. He h a d stolen the collyrium from the eyes of the wives of the d e m o n M a h i s a (i.e. he m a d e t h e m widows by killing M a h i s a ) . He is a noble soul ( n a m e d ) Mahsena, whose voice resembles the r u m b l i n g sound of the

1.2.25.20-40

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clouds. He a p p e a r e d to see the joyous ebullitions of the m i n d of U m , by assuming t h e false form of a boy. He took away t h e life of K r a u c a , and delighted the h e a r t of Gaur, ( H e submitted) : "O excellent one, w h a t is this r a d i a n t thing, resembling collyrium, seen in the neck (of iva) which is as (white and) lustrous as t h e K u n d a flower a n d the M o o n ? H o w has it happened so ? N a r r a t e this to m e , a suppliant who am brilliant, devoted a n d have perfect self-control. 20. O extremely fortunate one, it behoves you to detail everything without excluding a n y t h i n g . N a r r a t e this auspicious a n d sacred story t h a t destroys all sins. Please tell us this story for my d e l i g h t . " 2 1 . On hearing those words of t h a t noble-souled Vasistha, S k a n d a , t h e extremely resplendent destroyer of the army of the enemies of gods (i.e. Asuras), replied: 22-23. '"Listen to these words repeated by me, O most excellent one a m o n g eloquent persons, (I am r e p e a t i n g ) w h a t has been h e a r d by me before, as I sat on the lap of U m . T h i s is the conversation of the noble-souled arva (iva) with Prvat. I shall recount t h a t , O great sage, for your delight. 24-40. On the beautiful peak of the Kailsa m o u n t a i n , lord iva the destroyer of the body of M a d a n a (God of Love) was seated comfortably on a rocky slab covered with gold a n d bedecked with p u r e pearls, jewels, a n d gems. T h e beautiful peak of the Kailsa is variegated on a c c o u n t of different kinds of minerals. It resembled the sun at m i d d a y a n d h a d the lustre of molten gold. It h a d stairs built of d i a m o n d s a n d crystals, with steps of rocky surfaces of variegated forms. It was full of gold a n d was divinely variegated on account of t h e different kinds of minerals. It is interspersed with various kinds of trees and creepers l a d e n with different kinds of flowers a n d fruits. It was filled w i t h Hamsas (swans) a n d K r a n d a v a s (ducks). It was beautified by C a k r a v k a birds (Rud dy geese). M a n y bees were singing ( h u m m i n g ) at a high p i t c h there. It was resonant with the continuous sound of water-falls. Its caves were resounded with the sounds of intoxicated peacocks a n d K r a u c a birds. It was filled with bevies of celestial d a m sels. It was beautified by Kinnaras. T h e chirping sound of the different varieties of Jvamjvaka birds (a m y t h i a l bird with

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two heads) spread everywhere in it. In m a n y places, t h e cooing sound of the cuckoo-birds was h e a r d . It was frequented by Siddhas a n d C r a n a s . It h a d t h e sound of oxen whose sound resembled the rumblings of clouds. T h e r e were other sounds as well. T h e elephants were agitated on a c c o u n t o f V i n y a k a a n d they left their caves. T h e r e were sounds of t h e musical instruments like Vn ( l u t e ) and o t h e r (musical i n s t r u m e n t s ) . T h e y were fascinating to the ears. Groups of people were swing ing by m e a n s of Dols (swings). It was resorted to by be vies of ladies. It was echoing w i t h the sound of the bells fitted to the swings suspended from t h e flagstaff. T h e r e were m a n y musical i n s t r u m e n t s such as t h e Vallakis (lutes) a n d Venus (flutes). It was as m u c h resounded as t h o u g h there were thirty peacocks (crying). T h e caves were filled w i t h t h e sounds of vocal music, drums, musical instruments which were played u p o n a n d which were b e a t e n and also with (hurryings for play) a n d disputes ( a r g u m e n t s ) . Swans, pigeons a n d ' r o y a l cranes were happily perched t h e r e . T h e lord of t h e Gatias (i.e. V i g h n a r j a ) was sporting a b o u t w i t h various kinds of fixations (poses), of t h e body. T h e lord of t h e B h t a s ( S p i r i t s ) was s u r r o u n d e d by Bhtas of various sorts. ( F o r example) some h a d t h e faces of lions and tigers. Some were p r o d u c i n g terrible cries. T h e y h a d terrific speed. O t h e r s h a d the faces of deer, sheep, elephants a n d horses O t h e r s were hideous with faces of cats or form of foxes. Some were short, some were t a l l ; some were very lean. Some h a d p r o t r u d i n g bellies; some h a d h u g e bellies; some h a d short-shanks; some h a d lips h a n g i n g loose; others h a d huge palm-like shanks. Some h a d t h e ears of cows; some h a d a single e a r s ; some h a d h u g e e a r s ; some h a d no e a r s ; some h a d m a n y feet; some h a d huge feet; some h a d single foot; some h a d no foot; some h a d m a n y eyes; some h a d large eyes; some h a d a single eye; some h a d no eye; some h a d a single curved t o o t h ; some h a d huge curved t e e t h ; some h a d m a n y curved t e e t h ; some h a d no curved t o o t h at all. Some h a d huge h e a d s ; some h a d m a n y h e a d s ; some had no head at all. Some h a d a single t o n g u e ; some h a d huge tongues; some h a d m a n y tongues; some h a d no t o n g u e at all. T h e d a u g h t e r of t h e K i n g of m o u n t a i n s spoke thus l o r d iva. to

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41-43. "O lord, M a s t e r of the past a n d t h e future, O lord whose a u t h o r i t y has been m a r k e d by a bullock (i.e. b u l l b a n n e r e d o n e ) , there is something sparkling in your neck, O g r e a t lord, resembling a cloud. O lord, O destroyer of t h e b o d y of K a m a , w h a t is this t h a t shines in your white neck ? It is n o t very d e e p a n d manifest. W h a t is t h e cause ? W h a t is t h e reason t h a t your neck is bluish, O lord? N a r r a t e all these d u l y (as I have got curiosity a n d ) I am eager ( t o h e a r i t ) . " 44. On h e a r i n g t h e words of Prvat, t h e lover of Prvat, akara, r e c o u n t e d the story fully e n d u e d w i t h auspiciousness. Mahevara said : 45. Formerly, when t h e milk-ocean was being c h u r n e d by the Devas a n d Dnavas for the sake of Amrta (nectar), a terrible poison as sparkling as the d a r k fire cropped u p . 46. On seeing, O lady of excellent face, t h e m u l t i t u d e s of Devas a n d Daityas b e c a m e dejected. All of t h e m a p p r o ached Brahma. 47. On seeing the frightened groups of Devas, B r a h m a , of great splendour, asked : "O highly fortunate ones, why are you frightened? W h y are you dejected in t h e m i n d ? 48. Three-fold prosperity a n d power has been conferred by me on you all, O excellent Devas. By w h o m has your prosperity been t u r n e d off? 49. You a r e t h e lords a n d masters of the three worlds. All of you a r e free from ailments. In the creation of subjects there is no one who dares to transgress my behest. 50. All of you move a b o u t in aerial chariots. All of you go a b o u t as you please. (All of you are very c o m p e t e n t ) in regard to spiritual things, worldly beings a n d providential ones for e v e r ) . 5 1 . You are c o m p e t e n t to make all t h e subjects function in accordance w i t h the consequence of their previous actions. H e n c e , why are you all agitated due to fear like t h e deer harassed by lion ? 52. W h a t is your misery? W h a t is your distress? W h e n c e has fear befallen you? It behoves you to explain quickly all these things d u l y " .

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5 3 . On h e a r i n g t h e words of Brahma, the supreme soul, those Devas, leading Daityas a n d D n a v a s accompanied by the sages said: 54-59a. " O P i t m a h a (Brahma, t h e grandfather) when the ocean was being churned by the Devas and Asuras, a terrible poison h a d t u r n e d u p . It resembled serpents a n d black bees. It was like the blue cloud. It h a d the sparkling lustre of the Sarhvarta fire ( t h e fire t h a t b u r n s down " - universe at t h e e n d of a K a l p a ) . It h a d cropped up like tue god of d e a t h a n d destruction. It h a d the fiery splendour of the sun at the end of the Yugas. It h a d t h e brilliance of the sun capable of annihi lating t h e three worlds. It spread all r o u n d . J a n r d a n a of reddish white body h a d been rendered black on being scorched by t h a t poison whose lustre is on a p a r w i t h the d a r k fire of u l t i m a t e destruction. On seeing J a n r d a n a of white reddish limbs being r e n d e r ed black by its b u r n i n g , all of us b e c a m e frightened a n d we sought refuge in you a l o n e " . On h e a r i n g the frightful words of t h e Devas a n d the Asuras, B r a h m a of g r e a t splendour, the grandfather of the worlds replied: 59b-63. "O Devas, sages a n d ascetics, listen all of you. "The poison t h a t has t h e lustre of the d a r k fire of destruction a n d w h a t we all know as Klak(a has a p p e a r e d while the great ocean was being churned. I m m e d i a t e by its very a p p e a r a n c e , Devas lost all lustre a n d they did not shine the m o m e n t it c r o p p e d u p . N e i t h e r Visnu, n o r I nor all the leading Devas can b e a r t h e b r u n t of its a t t a c k excepting god a k a r a " . After saying this, B r a h m a who h a d t h e lustre of the interior of a lotus, whose source of origin is lotus, who was n o t b o r n of any w o m b a n d w h o was t h e foremost a m o n g those w h o were canversant w i t h t h e Vedas, r e m e m b e r e d Orhkra a n d m e d i t a t e d on the divine lustre ( t h a t is present all r o u n d . Thereafter god B r a h m a , began to eulogise. Eulogy of God Siva z 1 64.
1.

" O V i r p k s a (Lord ofuneven-three-eyes) obeisance

In Purnas it is customary to attribute the highest epithets to the

<leity eulogised. S o m e t i m e s it results in a string of n a m e s or adjectives. H e r e

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u n t o you. H a i l to you of divine eyes. Salute u n t o t h e lord with t h e P i n k a bow in his h a n d . Obeisance to t h e god with a t h u n d e r b o l t in his h a n d . 6 5 . Obeisance to t h e lord of t h e three worlds. Salute to the lord of all living beings. Bow to t h e slayer of t h e enemies of t h e Devas. H a i l to the lord with the m o o n , t h e sun a n d t h e fire for his eyes. 66. Obeisance u n t o thee w h o a r e B r a h m a , R u d r a a n d V i s n u . Bow to the S m k h y a ; to the Yoga. Obeisance to t h e assemblage of all spirits ( i n c a r n a t e ) . 67. H a i l to t h e destroyer of t h e body of M a n m a t h a (God of L o v e ) . Obeisance to t h e lord with T i m e (kla) for his back. Obeisance to R u d r a of excellent semen. Bow to t h e lord of the Devas a n d to the V e h e m e n t one. 68. O b e i s a n c e to K a p a r d i n (one having m a t t e d h a i r ) , to S a k a r a the terrible one. H a i l to H a r a , t h e b e a r e r of a skull, one of hideous features, Obeisance to iva the bestower of boons. 69. Obeisance to t h e destroyer of the. three cities (of d e m o n s ) . Bow to the destroyer of t h e sacrifice (of D a k s a ) . H a i l to t h e lord of the mothers. Obeisance to t h e Vrddha (the ancient god) ; Obeisance to uddha (the p u r e o n e ) , to the Mukta ( L i b e r a t e d o n e ) ; obeisance to t h e mighty one. 70. Obeisance to the sole hero a m o n g the t h r e e worlds, to the m o o n , to V a r u n a ; to Agra (the foremost o n e ) , to Ugra ( t h e terrible o n e ) ; to Vipra (knower of t h e Vedas) of m a n y eyes. 7 1 . Obeisance to Rajas, to Sattva; obeisance u n t o you of unmanifest origin. Bow to t h e E t e r n a l o n e ; to t h e non-eternal o n e ; and to the eternal-cum-non-eternal one. 72. H a i l to the manifest one, to the Unmanifest one, as well as to the manifest-cum-unmanifest one. Obeisance to
g o d iva is regarded as equivalent to the Para Brahman a n d in addition to his mythological exploits, epithets applicable to the Para Brahman are i n c l u d e d in this eulogy. We find i v a so glorified in T a i . Sarhhit I V . 5 ( R u d r d h y y a ) a n d the Mah Nryanya U p a . X 17-21. T h e Sahasranmas Purnic (garlands of a thousand The Visnusahasraepithets) of these deities is a development.

n m a in the M b h . is perhaps the earliest example of this.

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t h e Cintya ( o n e w h o c a n be c o n t e m p l a t e d u p o n ; obeisance to the Acintya (one w h o is beyond contemplation) ; Obeisance to t h e Cintya-cum-Acintya one. 73. Obeisance to the dispeller of distress of all t h e worlds; Bow to t h e lord w h o is fond of N r y a n a ; Obeisance to arva, the lover of U m , H a i l to t h e lord m a r k e d with t h e face of N a n d i n ? (nandi-vaktrkitya) * 74. H a i l to ( t h e lord identifying himself with) Paksa ( f o r t n i g h t ) , Msa ( M o n t h ) and Ardhamsa (half a m o n t h ) ; obeisance to (the Lord, the identifier w i t h ) the S e a s o n a n d Sarhvatsara( y e a r ) ; Bow to t h e lord of m a n y forms, to the lord with shaven h e a d , to the lord bearing a staff, to t h e lord wearing a mailed a r m o u r . 75. Obeisance to the lord with t h e skull in his h a n d ; Bow to the god having quarters for his r a i m e n t ( t h e n a k e d o n e ) ; to one with a tufted h e a d ; Obeisance to the lord with a bow and a chariot, a n d to the celibate god with self control. 76-78. Obeisance to t h e e m b o d i m e n t of Rk, Yajus a n d S m a v e d a ; obeisance to Purusa, the supreme lord- Bow u n t o you who are worthy of being eulogised by prayers composed like this." After eulogising like this, O lady of excellent face, B r a h m a bowed down ( a n d praised once a g a i n ) . "O lord R u d r a , (even) after knowing my devotion as well as t h a t of t h e Devas, you do not manifest yourself. T h o u g h you h a d released y o u r ( m a t t e d ) h a i r a n d got it splashed with t h e waters of t h e G a g , ( y e t ) you are too subtle, to be contemplat ed u p o n , on a c c o u n t of y o u r supreme Yogic p o w e r " . T h u s I was eulogised formerly by lord B r a h m a , the fireatoT--of the worlds, by means of various kinds of hymns originating from t h e V e d a s a n d V e d g a s (ancillary parts of the v e d a s ) . T h e r e u p o n , I spoke to P i t m a h a B r a h m a in i m p o r t a n t words: 79-80. "O lord of the worlds, O lord of the past, present a n d future, O lord of the universe, O B r a h m a , w h a t should be d o n e by me u n t o you. Tell m e , O lord of holy r i t e s " .
* V . P . 5 5 . 7 6 reads : nand-cakrkitya 'marked with the cakra of Nandi*

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On hearing these words, the lotus-eyed B r a h m a replied. 81-82. "O lord of the past, present a n d future, let this be h e a r d , O lord, (cause rbf everything), O lotus-eyed lord, w h e n t h e ocean was being c h u r n e d by the Devas a n d Asuras, a terrible poison resembling'clouds a p p e a r e d . O lord, It a p p e a r e d like blue clouds. It had a lustre similar to t h a t of S a m v a r t a fire. 83. On seeing it, all of us were frightened and agitated in t h e m i n d . O great lord, swallow it up with a desire for t h e welfare of t h e worlds. 84. You alone are c o m p e t e n t to swallow it. T h e r e is no o n e o t h e r t h a n you O great lord, to bear the b r u n t of its advance". 85-87a. On hearing these words of B r a h m a the P a r a m e s t h i n , O lady of excellent face, I accepted the proposal saying, " s o b e . i t . " T h e n I began to drink the poison t h a t was like the god of d e a t h . Even as I d r a n k t h e extremely terrible poison t h a t accorded g r e a t fright u n t o the Devas, O lady of excellent complexion, my t h r o a t t u r n e d black imme diately. 87b-88. On seeing it, w h i c h had the lustre of the petals of lily, which a p p e a r e d like a serpent clinging to my neck a n d which was like T a k s a k a t h e king of serpents, who h a d risen up a n d begun to lick w i t h his tongues, B r a h m a of great splendour, t h e g r a n d f a t h e r of the worlds spoke t h u s : 89-90a. " Y o u shine splendidly O g r e a t lord of excellent holy rites,'with this (such) n e c k " . On h e a r i n g his words, O d a u g h t e r of t h e most excellent o n e a m o n g t h e m o u n t a i n s , t h e terrible poison was held by me in t h e t h r o a t itself. Therefore, I became N l l a k a n t h a (Bluethroated god). 90b. I d r a n k it even as the groups of Devas, Daityas, Yaksas, G a n d h a r v a s , Bhtas, Picas, serpents a n d Rksasas were looking on, O lady of excellent face. 9 1 . T h a t K l a k t a , t h e poison o f terrible action, was r e t a i n e d b y m e i n m y t h r o a t . O n seeing i t b e i n g c o n t a i n e d thus, t h e groups of Devas a n d Daityas b e c a m e extremely surprised.

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92. Thereafter, O lady of the gait of intoxicated ele p h a n t , the groups of Devas along w i t h the D a i t y a s , serpents a n d Rksasas said t h u s w i t h palms joined in reverence. 93. " O how wonderful a r e y o u r strength, virility a n d exploit, O lord. Y o u r b o d y a n d Yogic power a r e simply wonderful. 94. O lord of the Devas, your s u p r e m a c y is extremely wonderful, O destroyer of t h e b o d y of M a n m a t h a . You alone are Visnu. You are the four-faced (lord B r a h m a ) ; You alone are t h e god of d e a t h . You alone are the Bestower of boons. 95. Y o u alone are t h e sun a n d the m o o n . You alone are the manifestation of this world of mobile a n d immobile beings. You alone are the (element called) fire. You alone are the element wind. You alone are t h e ( e l e m e n t called) e a r t h . You alone a r e the w a t e r (you constitute all t h e e l e m e n t s ) . 96. You alone are t h e creator and sustainer of the entire world of mobile a n d immobile beings. You alone are its annihilation (i.e. a n n i h i l a t o r ) " After saying these words, the l e a d i n g Devas bowed d o w n their heads. T a k i n g S o m a ( ? N e c t a r , M o o n ) with them, they went away by means of aerial chariots with a speed equal to t h a t of Wind, till they all r e a c h e d the M e r u , t h e great moun tain. 97-98. T h u s t h e highly meritorious a n d extremely holy (story a b o u t the n a m e ) N l a k a n t h a has been recounted. I t is well known in t h e t h r e e worlds. This story t h a t destroys sins has been directly recounted by t h e self-born lord ( B r a h m a ) himself. 99. I shall m e n t i o n t h e extensive benefit acquired by t h e person w h o retains in m e m o r y this splendid n a r r a t i v e proclaim ed by B r a h m a . 100. O lady of great b e a u t y a n d excellent h i p , all poi sons w h e t h e r mobile or immobile (solid or liquid?) a r e immedia tely destroyed on coming into c o n t a c t with his body. 101. It subdues all t e r r i b l e inauspicious features. It dispels a n d decreases ( t h e effect of) evil d r e a m s . T h e person

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attains the state of a lover u n t o women and an h o n o u r a b l e person in the council of the king. 102. He wins arguments. He becomes victorious in b a t t l e . W h e n travelling, he does so with safety and welfare. His house is full with perpetual prosperity. 103-105. O lady of excellent face, I shall describe t h e m o d e of a t t a i n m e n t of his b o d y . 1 His moustache becomes reddish brown. His t h r o a t becomes blue. His h a i r is beautifully m a r k e d by the moon. He has three eyes and he wields a t r i d e n t in his h a n d . His vehicle is a bullock. He holds P i n k a b o w in his h a n d . He is prosperous with the strength a n d exploit equal to t h a t of N a n d i n . At my behest he traverses t h e seven worlds. His gait ( m o v e m e n t ) is u n i m p e d e d like t h a t of the wind in t h e sky. 106-107. Acquiring a strength equal to t h a t of mine, he stands steady till the annihilation of all living beings. I shall m e n t i o n the goal of those persons who d e v o u t l y listen to my story, O beautiful lady, I shall m e n t i o n t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n h e r e a n d hereafter. T h e B r h m a n a acquires Vedic knowledge. T h e K s a t r i y a conquers the e a r t h . 108. T h e Vaiya acquires profit. T h e d r a shall a t t a i n happiness. T h e sick m a n is rid of his ailments. T h e fettered one is released from imprisonment. 109. T h e p r e g n a n t w o m a n obtains a son; the virgin gets a good husband. Every one obtains the lost wealth here and hereafter. 110. By hearing this divine story a m a n obtains t h e same benefit or merit as t h a t obtained by d u l y offering as gift a h u n d r e d thousand cows to the B r h m a n a s . 111. He who retains in m e m o r y a foot or half a foot, a. q u a t r a i n or a distitch (of this story) goes to the world of R u d r a for ever. 112-113. He who reads this entirely w i t h the m i n d directed towards m e , in the presence of deities a n d Brhmanas.
1. god iva. T h i s is the attainment of Srpya 'Similarity. of appearance' with,

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a t t a i n s the world of R u d r a . He should have faith a n d devotion for ever. O goddess, the m a n should always r e a d devoutly a n d m a k e others read so. 114. A prayer greater t h a n this, there never had been before nor will ever be. Neither the Yaksas, n o r the Picas, neither the goblins nor Vinyakas (spirits creating i m p e d i m e n t ) shall bring a b o u t a n y obstacle in t h e house of t h a t person where this prayer is kept. 115. O lady of lotuslike eyes, the greatness of this prayer has been mentioned by me to you as I am delighted. It is destructive of m u l t i t u d e s of sins. It is accompanied by t h e merit of holiness. It is sung by t h e four-faced lord himself. 116. After recounting this story endued w i t h the fruits of meritorious deeds to t h e goddess, the lord whose m a t t e d hair has been fixed w i t h t h e m o o n a n d who is fond of G u h a ( K r t t i k e y a ) went to Kailsa cave on the back of his Bull. H e was a c c o m p a n i e d b y U m . 117. This story t h a t dispels sins has been h e a r d by me from Prajpati. It is r e c o u n t e d to you. After learning this entirely along with all the c h a r a c t e r istics, the excellent B r h m a n a proceeds to the region of the sun.

CHAPTER TWENTYSIX The The Sages said : 1. " W e wish to h e a r completely about t h e greatness of M a h d e v a , t h e lordship of t h a t noble soul and t h e details of his excellence in s u p r e m a c y . "
1. T h e story of h o w the L i g a of g o d S i v a appeared is told in different P u r n a s like L i g a , 17; K P I I 3 8 ; V . P . 5 5 . T h e L i g a of iva is not the phallus

Origin of the Liga-Image of iva

1.2.26.2-12a Sta said :

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2. " T h i s has been declared by Visnu formerly in the course of his conquest of the three worlds after binding Bali, t h e lord of the three worlds, of great prowess. 3-5. T h e consort of ac ( I n d r a ) was delighted when the Daityas were destroyed. Thereafter, all the Devas c a m e to see the eternal lord. T h e y c a m e to the place where the lord of cosmic form abides near the milk ocean. T h e Siddhas, t h e B r h m a n a sages, the Yaksas, the G a n d h a r v a s , t h e groups of divine damsels, the serpents, t h e divine sages, t h e rivers and the m o u n t a i n s a p p r o a c h e d the great soul and the supreme Being, H a r i a n d began to eulogise him. 6. " Y o u are the supporter a n d the maker (of the uni verse) O Lord, you create t h e worlds. It is d u e to y o u r grace, t h a t the three worlds a t t a i n ever-lasting welfare. 7-8. All the Asuras have been defeated. Bali has been imprisoned by y o u " . On being thus addressed by Devas (gods), Siddhas a n d the great sages, Visnu, t h e s u p r e m e M a n , replied to t h e Devas. "O excellent Devas, let this be h e a r d . I shall explain the reason. 9-10a. I have a t t a i n e d Siddhatva (state of a great Siddha) d u e to t h e grace of t h a t lord who is the creator of all living beings, who is the personification of the destructive principle a n d who is the lord and cause of T i m e , by w h o m the worlds a n d I have been created along with B r a h m a , by m e a n s of his My. 10b-12a. Formerly, when t h e three worlds h a d been swallowed (enveloped) a n d merged in t h e darkness a n d all was unmanifest, a n d while I, with all the living beings within my belly, lay there alone, I h a d a t h o u s a n d heads, eyes a n d feet a n d h a d t h e conch, discus a n d the club in my h a n d s , I was lying on t h e p u r e expanse of w a t e r .
but a c o l u m n of fire, the beginning or the foot a n d top of w h i c h c o u l d not be probed by gods V i s n u a n d Brahma. T h e Liga-worship is a Purnic trans formation of V e d i c fire-worship.

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12b. In the m e a n t i m e I espied the lord of u n l i m i t e d lustre, from afar. 13. He resembled a h u n d r e d thousand suns. He shone by m e a n s of his own splendour. He was a four-faced person (Purusa) of great Yogic power a n d golden lustre. 14. He was a lord wearing a skin of black antelope, a n d he was a d o r n e d with a Kamandalu ( w a t e r p o t ) . This excellent person ( B r a h m a ) reached me in a trice. 15-16. T h e n B r a h m a w h o is (reverently) bowed to by the worlds, spoke to me : " W h o a r e y o u ? W h e n c e have y o u come ? W h y do you stay here ? T e l l m e , O lord. I am t h e creator of a l l worlds. I am selfborn. I have faces all round," On being addressed thus by B r a h m a , I spoke to h i m : 17-18. " I n d e e d I am t h e creator of t h e worlds a n d t h e a n n i h i l a t o r as well a g a i n a n d a g a i n . " Conversing thus, we desired to conquer each other. We saw a flame blazing to t h e n o r t h of us. O sinless ones, on seeing t h a t flame t h e n we were surprised. 19-20. At t h e splendour a n d power of t h e lustre of iva, we remained with palms j o i n e d in reverence. We saw t h e mass of splendour increasing in size. It was excessively miraculous. B r a h m a a n d I hastily rushed towards t h a t massive flame. T h a t circular mass of flames stood up piercing heaven a n d earth. 2 1 . In t h e m i d d l e of t h a t massive splendour, we saw t h e extremely resplendent Liga of the size of a m e r e span. It was unmanifest (?') yet endowed with extensive lustre. 1 22. T h a t ( L i g a ) in t h e m i d d l e was n e i t h e r of gold n o r of silver n o r was it m a d e of rock. It could not be specified. N o r could it be contemplated u p o n . It was visible a n d invisible again a n d again. 23. It was richly endowed w i t h thousands of sparks. It was surprisingly mysterious. It was e n d u e d w i t h g r e a t reful gence a n d it was increasing in size tremendously.
1 . T h e identity o f R u d r a a n d A g n i (the f i r e - g o d ) i s stated i n R V . I I . 1.7, the atapatha Br. I l l 3.1.10; VI 1.3.10; the Taittariya Br. I. 1.5. 8-9., T h e T n d y a Br. X I I 4.24.

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24. Clusters of flames spread everywhere. It was fright ful to alt living beings. It was extremely terrible in its features. I t a p p e a r e d t o pierce heaven^and E a r t h . 25. T h e n B r a h m a told . m e , " Y o u go quickly b e n e a t h . L e t us find out the e n d of this noble-souled Liga. 26. I shall go u p w a r d s until its end is s e e n . " After m a k i n g this stipulation, we w e n t u p w a r d s as well as beneath.27. T h e r e u p o n , I went far below for a thousand years, b u t I could not find its end. I became frightened thereby. 28. Similarly, B r a h m a went u p w a r d s , b u t he too did not r e a c h its e x t r e m i t y . He too r e t u r n e d along w i t h me to t h a t vast expanse of water. 29. We were surprised a n d frightened of t h a t great soul. W e were d e l u d e d b y t h e M y o f that great Being. O u r con sciousness got lost a n d we stayed t h e r e (helplessly). 30. T h e r e u p o n , we m e d i t a t e d on the lord with faces on all sides, the imperishable lord w h o is the source of origin a n d the cause of dissolution of all the worlds. 31. We m a d e obeisance, with palms joined in reverence, to t h e trident-bearing iva (arva), the lord of extremely terrific voice, of terrible features and curved fangs, to t h a t great unmanifest lord. 32. " O b e i s a n c e to you, O lord of worlds a n d Devas. Salutations u n t o you, O lord of Bhtas, O highly noble soul. O b e i s a n c e to you, O lord who have achieved perma n e n t Yogic powers. H a i l to you, O L o r d established over t h e universe. 33. Y o u are P a r a m e s t h i n (the highest d e i t y ) , t h e s u p r e m e B r a h m a n , t h e imperishable great region; you a r e t h e eldest one. Y o u are V m a d e v a , R u d r a , Skanda a n d L o r d iva. 34. You a r e Y a j a ; you a r e V a s a t k r a ; you a r e O r h k r a ; you are the subduer of e n e m i e s ; you are Svhkra, t h e obeis a n c e , t h e consecration of all holy rites. 35. You are S v a d h k r a , Yaja, holy rites a n d observances, the Vedas, t h e worlds, t h e Devasthe lord alone is everything all r o u n d . 36. You a r e the quality of sound of the firmament; you a r e the source of origin a n d cause of dissolution of all living

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beings, you are t h e quality of smell in the e a r t h , t h e quality of taste in the waters a n d the colour in Tejas (fiery e l e m e n t ) , you are the great lord. 37. O lord of the Devas, you a r e t h e quality (called) touch in V y u (wind) ; you form the body of the m o o n . 38. O L o r d of t h e Devas, you a r e knowledge in the in tellect; you are t h e seed of Prakrti. 39. You are t h e annihilator of all t h e worlds; you are K l a identical with the god of D e a t h , t h e cause of destruc tion. You sustain the t h r e e worlds, O Lord, you alone create them. 4 0 . W i t h your eastern face you assume t h e form of I n d r a ; with your southern face you withdraw the worlds again. 4 1 . W i t h your western face you are stationed in V a r u n a undoubtedly. O excellent one a m o n g the Devas, with y o u r n o r t h e r n face you are S o m a . 42-45. In one way or in m a n y ways, O Lord, you a r e the source of origin a n d cause of dissolution of t h e worlds. O Lord, from you are b o r n these viz.: t h e Adityas, the Vasus, R u d r a s , M a r u t s , t h e Avins, the Sdhyas, the V i d y d h a r a s , the Ngas, the Cranas, t h e ascetics, t h e Vlakhilyas a n d others w h o have performed good holy rites a n d m a n y others. O lord of Devas, from you are born these viz.: U m , St, Sinvl, K u h , Gyatr, Laksm, Krti, D h r t i , M e d h , Lajj, K n t i , Vapus, Svadh, T u s t i , Pusti, Kriy, Sarasvat, t h e goddess of speech, S a n d h y a n d R t r i ( N i g h t ) . 46. O L o r d endowed with t h e potential strength a n d influence of ten thousand sets of t e n thousand suns, obeisance be to you, O lord, as white as a thousand moons. Obeisance be to you who hold Vajra ( t h u n d e r b o l t ) a n d P i n k a bow. Obeisance be to you, O lord, w i t h arrows a n d bow in your hands. 47. Obeisance to you, O lord, whose limbs a r e embellished w i t h Bhasma (sacred a s h ) . H a i l to you, O lord, t h e destroyer of K a m a ' s body. Salute u n t o you, O lord H i r a n y a g a r b h a ; obeisance u n t o you, O lord of golden r a i m e n t . 48. Bow to you, O lord of golden w o m b . O b e i s a n c e to you, O lord of golden navel; H a i l to you, O lord of g o l d e n

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semen. Obeisance be to you, O lord, mysterious with a thou sand eyes. 49. Obeisance be to you, O lord of golden colour. Salute to you, O lord of golden h a i r ; obeisance be to you, O lord of golden h e r o i s m * ( ? ) ; obeisance be to you, the lord w h o distributes gold. 50 Obeisance be to you, O lord a n d master of gold; Bow to you, O lord with the sound of gold. Obeisance to you, O lord with the P i n k a in your h a n d ; salute to you, O bluethroated akara". 5 1 . On being eulogised thus, the lord of great intellect a p p e a r e d before us. T h e lord of Devas, the source of origin of the Universe, w h o h a d the lustre of ten million suns. 52. M a h d e v a of great lustre b e c a m e filled with pity. He spoke to us as if he was a b o u t to swallow the sky with a t h o u s a n d crores of mouths. 53. His neck was like a conch-shell in shape. His belly was well shaped He was bedecked in different kinds of orna ments. His limbs were variegated on a c c o u n t of different jewels. He wore different kinds of garlands a n d had applied different kinds of u n g u e n t s . 54. T h e lord had P i n k a in his h a n d ; he held t h e t r i d e n t ; he was worthy of being worshipped by the D e v a s ; he h a d serpents as the sacred t h r e a d ; he was the cause of freedom from fear u n t o the Devas. 55. At t h a t time, he burst u n t o a laughter, the sound of which was similar to t h a t of Dundubhi (a big d r u m ) a n d was c o m p a r a b l e to the rumbling sound of t h e cloud. T h e s o u n d filled the whole universe. 56-57. We two were frightened at t h a t great sound. T h e n M a h d e v a s a i d , " O excellent ones a m o n g the Devas, I am delighted. Both of you see the great Yogic power. M a y all fear be eschewed. Both of you are eternal a n d a r e formerly b o r n of my limbs. 58. T h i s B r a h m a , the grandfather of the worlds is my right h a n d . Visnu who is never defeated in any b a t t l e , is my left h a n d .
* V . P . 5 5 . hiranya-cira 'of golden dress or garments'.

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59-60. I am pleased well with both of you. I shall give u n t o you t h e boon as you please''. T h e n , delighted in our minds we bowed d o w n at t h e feet of the lord. We said to M a h d e v a who was standing in w i t h grace. front of us

"O lord of the Devas. you a r e delighted; if a boon has to he bestowed by you, let us be devoted to you for e v e r . " The Lord of gods said : "O highly fortunate extensively". ones, let it be so. C r e a t e subjects

After saying so, t h e lord vanished there itself. 6 1 . T h u s the potentiality of t h a t intelligent lord has b e e n recounted to you. T h i s is the greatest knowledge. T h e unmanifest one is t e r m e d iva (Auspicious). 62-63. O n l y those w i t h the vision of knowledge see this subtle Being w h o c a n n o t be c o n t e m p l a t e d u p o n . We shall make obeisance to that lord of t h e Devas. ' ' O M a h d e v a , Obeisance be to you, O M a h e v a r a , S a l u t e be to y o u . " Sta said : 64. "After hearing this, all t h e Devas went to their respective abodes, paying h o m a g e a n d respects u n t o a k a r a t h e great soul. 65. H e who recites this h y m n u n t o t h e lord, t h e great soul, obtains all desires a n d gets rid of all sins. 66. All this was n a r r a t e d to t h e m by Visnu, the power ful one, d u e to the grace of M a h d e v a , a b o u t the eternal B r a h m a n . T h u s everything regarding the power of M a h e v a r a has been described to you.

1.2.27.1-9
CHAPTER TWENTYSEVEN

265

iva cursed by Druvana sages i1 Their repentance and Prayer : Installation of iva LigaThe In junction Regarding Ash-bath The sages said : 1. R e c o u n t once again, O S t a of great intellect, the greatness of M a h d e v a . We a r e eager a n d curious to listen to it. 2. H o w did t h e lord assume a loathsome form in the forest D r u v a n a resorted to by the groups of divine sages? T h e great sages gained wisdom thereby. 3. On knowledge t h a t it was M a h d e v a , they b e c a m e excited a n d confused. In o r d e r to propitiate h i m they wor shipped h i m b u t Bhava ( L o r d iva) did n o t become pleased with t h e m . 4. All these activities of the lord of the Devas m a y kindly be recounted to us in n u m b e r as they took place. You a r e the most excellent one a m o n g intelligent persons.'' Sta said : 5. " L e t this righteous activity be heard while I recount it, O alert ones. It is, d u e to his compassion towards the devotees, t h a t this h a d been carried o u t by t h e lord of the Devas. 6. ( T h i s h a p p e n e d ) O B r h m a n a s , formerly on the splendid a n d auspicious peak of the H i m a l a y a s in the K r t a yuga. T h e r e is a forest of D e v a d r u trees which is beautiful a n d full of m a n y trees a n d creepers. 7-9. M a n y sages perform austerities here a n d carry on 2 holy ascetic rites. S o m e of t h e m h a d only aivla (moss) for
1. This story h o w and w h y iva was cursed by sages in the D r u - V a n a L i g a for worship is narrated

and h o w they subsequently adopted the iva

i n the L P , K P , V . P , m e n t i o n e d above. T h e D r u - V a n a m e n t i o n e d here i s in the H i m a l a y a s (vide V 6 b e l o w ) and not in Maharashtra as given in De 53-54. 2. W . 7-9 illustrate the different vows observed b y sages while per forming penance.

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their food. Some of t h e m lay within water. Some of them h a d the ethereal space (for their s t a y ) . Some of them supported themselves on the tips of their big toes. Some h a d their teeth serve the purpose of Ulkhala (threshing M o r t a r , i.e. they a t e the grains of corn chewing t h e m with their t e e t h ) ; others were Amakuttas ( w h o p o u n d e d their grains on rocks before e a t i n g ) . Some r e m a i n e d seated in heroic postures (Virsana). O t h e r s followed the way of life of the deer. All those sages of great intellect spent their time in severe penances. 10-12. T h e n the lord came to t h a t forest in order to confer grace on t h e m . His limbs were grey d u e to the appli cation of Bhasman ( a s h e s ) . He was n a k e d . He h a d hideous features. His hairs were dishevelled a n d ugly. His teeth were terrific. His h a n d s eagerly got hold of a firebrand. His eyes were reddish brown. His penis a n d scrotum resembled red chalk. His face was beautified by reddish white colour. 13. 'At some places he laughed boisterously and terribly. At some places he showed surprise a n d began to sing. At some places he began to d a n c e expressing amorous sentiment. At some places, he began to cry again a n d again. 1 14. D e l u d e d a n d e n c h a n t e d by h i m the wives of the sages immediately prevented h i m from dancing. After coming to the h e r m i t a g e as a guest, he began to beg again a n d again. 15. He created a wife u n t o himself, similar in form a n d bedecked in o r n a m e n t s . He roared a n d bellowed like a bull a n d brayed like a donkey. 16. He began to befool t h e m m a k i n g all the embodied ones laugh. T h e r e u p o n , the sages became angry. T h e y w e r e over-whelmed by fury. 17. Fascinated by his deluding power ( M y ) they a p p r o a c h e d h i m in order to curse him. " S i n c e you sing (bray) like a (donkey) you will become a donkey.

1.

T h e s e verses describe the P u p a t a way of behaviour or

penance. Pu-

Vide P u p a t a Sutra's (with K a u n d i n y a ' s C o m . ) C h . I l l stras 1-19.

patas are instructed to b e h a v e in such a w a y whereby the practitioner of t h e Vrata is insulted (avamalah). T h e strange behaviour of iva described in this and subsequent verses is found prescribed in Piupata-Strai.

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18-19. Or you will be Rksasa, Pica (Evil spirit) or a D n a v a . " As they pleased, those infuriated sages cursed him with different kinds of curses. T h e y cursed t h a t lord of t h e universe b u t t h e powers of austerities of all of t h e m were repelled a n d m a d e futile against akara. ^. 20. J u s t as t h e stars in the sky do n o t shine on a c c o u n t of refulgence of t h e sunf so also their splendour ( p o w e r of p e n a n c e ) ( b e c a m e ineffective) on akara. 2 1 . It is h e a r d t h a t t h e full-fledged Yaja, the cause of all prosperity of B r a h m a , the noble soul, met with destruction on account of t h e curse of sages. 22. On a c c o u n t of the curse of Bhrgu, V i s n u of very supreme prowess and splendour h a d to take ten births a n d w a s m a d e miserable for ever.
1

2 3 . Formerly, the penis of I n d r a along with his scrotum, O sages conversant with V i r t u e , was m a d e to fall down on the e a r t h by t h e infuriated sage G a u t a m a .
2

24. T h e Vasus were forced to stay in the w o m b on account of a curse. It is on account of the curse of sages t h a t N a h u s a was turned into a s e r p e n t .
3

25. It was by B r h m a n a t h a t the ocean of milk was r e n d e r e d unfit to be d r u n k . D h a r m a ( G o d of D e a t h ) was cursed by t h e noble-souled Mruiavya. 4 26. These a n d m a n y others u n d e r w e n t m u c h torment excepting M a h e v a r a , t h e lord of the Devas with u n e v e n ( t h r e e ) eyes. 27. T h u s , e n c h a n t e d by him, they did n o t recognize a k a r a . T h e r e u p o n , all those sages spoke to each other.
1. 2. 3. palace. 4. Adi. Ch. T h e sage 107. M n d a v y a w a s wrongfully impaled b y g o d Y a m a . H e (And he was born of V i d u r a ) M b h therefore cursed h i m to be a dra. VR V I I 51.11-16 Pulom. his adultery w i t h states that Bhrgu cursed Visnu as he killed

Bhrgu's wife

T h i s punishment was m e t e d out to Indra for

G a u t a m a ' s wife Ahaly, vide VR 1.48 17-28. M b h . U d y o g a . 17, 14-18 states h o w N a h u s a was cursed by A g a s t y a palanquin quickly to aci's w h e n he g o a d e d h i m w i t h his foot to carry his

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28. " T h i s is n o t the right code of c o n d u c t laid down for us householders. N o r is it t h e rite of those engaged in t h e vow of celibacy or t h e forest-hermitages. 29. T h i s is not seen as t h e D h a r m a of recluses. T h i s is great injustice a n d m i s d e m e a n o u r whereby this person is deluded, O B r h m a n a s . 30. M a k e his Liga d r o p down. This is n o t the D h a r m a 1 (a code of c o n d u c t ) of sages a n d ascetics. Speak sweet words. R e s o r t to (at least) o n e G a r m e n t . 31-33. W h e n the Liga is a b a n d o n e d ( d r o p p e d ) by you, y o u will be accorded d u e worship. On h e a r i n g these words of t h e sages, lord a k a r a , the destroyer of t h e eyes of Bhaga, said in polished speech, as t h o u g h he was laughing boisterously. " T h i s Liga of ours c a n n o t be m a d e to fall down forcibly by all t h e gods beginning with B r a h m a . H o w t h e n be t h e other ascetics. O excellent B r h m a n a s , I shall m a k e this L i g a fall down." 34-36. T h e y u t t e r e d the sentence " S t a y in the h e r m i t a g e or go a w a y " . On being spoken to thus, lord M a h d e v a b e c a m e delight ed in t h e activities of t h e sense-organs. Even as all of t h e m were observing, t h e lord vanished there itself. W h e n t h e lord vanished a n d Bhava ( G o d iva) was trans formed i n t o a Liga, there was no a p p e a r a n c e of a n y living b e i n g in the range of the three worlds. Everything was agitated a n d n o t h i n g shone. 37. T h e sun did not shine; the fire became devoid of lustre. T h e stars a n d t h e planets b e c a m e contrary (to their normal state). 38. T h e Kratus (sacrifices?) of t h e sages who had plenty of resources and w h o were engaged in activities conducive to t h e b i r t h of children a n d w h o used to a p p r o a c h their wives o n l y at t h e p e r m i t t e d period after t h e days of menstruation, did not function properly.

1.

T h e sages were obviously ignorant of the Pupata w a y of life.

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269-

39. W i t h o u t t h e sense of My-ness (mamatva) a n d devoid of egotism, they tried to perform the holy rite once a g a i n . (But) all their potentiality a n d all their splendour b e c a m e lost. 40. At t h a t time their mind did not become concentrated in D h a r m a (holy rites e t c . ) . All of t h e m gathered together a n d went to the region of god B r a h m a . 4 1 . After going to t h e abode of B r a h m a a n d on seeing the Lotus-born deity, at his abode all of t h e m fell at his feet a n d n a r r a t e d t h e a c c o u n t a b o u t iva. 42. " H e is formidable a n d frightful. His h a i r is stiff a n d rough. His teeth a r e terrific. His hands are eager to get hold of an owl* (?) 43-44. His penis along with t h e scrotum is r e d a n d embellished (painted) w i t h red chalk. He was always ( f o u n d ) remaining at the sides of our daughters-in-Law a n d daughters, particularly those w h o had their babies ( ? ) with them. ( H e was found) staying near t h e m with an u n n a t u r a l desire. T a k i n g h i m to be a m a d fellow, we insulted h i m . 45. He was scolded a n d beaten. His Liga (? penis) w a s taken out. It is to alleviate his anger t h a t we have sought refuge in you. 46-48. We do not know Explain it to us, O g r a n d - f a t h e r " . this m a t t e r (thoroughly).

On h e a r i n g these words of the sages L o r d B r a h m a meditated a n d found out that it was arva (god i v a ) . Then with great c o n c e n t r a t i o n , h e replied t h u s : " T h i s is lord M a h d e v a . He should be known as the g r e a t lord. His great region is not a t t a i n e d easily. Heis t h e lord of the gods, sages a n d m a n e s . 49. At the end of thousand Yugas, when t h e r e is the annihilation of all embodied beings, this lord M a h e v a r a b e comes K l a (God of d e a t h ) a n d destroys ( e v e r y t h i n g ) .
* Probably ulmuka 'fire-brand' a n d not ulka as in the text. In V . l I

a b o v e he is stated to h a v e a firebrand in his hand.

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50. He alone creates all subjects singly a n d by m e a n s of his own vigour. He alone is the discus-bearing lord (Visnu) whose chest is characteristically m a r k e d by rvatsa. 5 1 . He is called Yogin in the K r t a Yuga a n d K r a t u in the T r e t Yuga. In the D v p a r a , he is r e m e m b e r e d as Klgni a n d as D h a r m a k e t u in t h e K a l i age. 52. T h r e e forms of R u d r a should be known a n d realized by learned m e n . T h e Tamas form is Agni, t h e Rajas form is B r a h m a a n d Sattva is Visnu, t h e illuminator. 53. O n e form of his is remembered as having the quar ters for his g a r m e n t (i.e. n a k e d ) . It is n a m e d iva. It is in him t h a t t h e B r a h m a n endowed w i t h Yoga resides. 54-55. H e n c e , O leading Brhmanas, after subduing your anger a n d controlling sense-organs p r o p i t i a t e the lord I n a , t h e imperishable lord, t h e lord of the Devas. After making a replica of t h e Liga of t h e great soul in the same form as was seen by you, resort to L o r d with t h e t r i d e n t in his h a n d . 56. T h e r e u p o n , you will see t h e lord of t h e Devas who c a n rarely be seen by ignorant a n d foolish persons who have not mastered their own selves. On seeing h i m , all ignorance a n d evils shall be d e s t r o y e d . " 57. T h e r e u p o n , they c i r c u m a m b u l a t e d B r a h m a of u n m e a s u r e d vigour. Becoming devoid of all grief, they r e t u r n e d a n d settled in t h e forest of D e v a d r u ( H i m a l a y a n cedar) trees once again. 58-59. T h e y b e g a n to p r o p i t i a t e the lord in the m a n n e r described by B r a h m a in the various dry lands, on the m o u n t a i n s of variegated forms, in t h e caves a n d on the sandy banks of rivers splendid a n d v a r i e g a t e d . T h u s w h e n a year elapsed completely and the spring season arrived, the lord c a m e to t h a t forest assuming that very same form. 60. T h e g r e a t G o d entered t h a t penance-grove a n d forest wherein m a n y trees and creepers h a d p u t forth flowers, w h e r e t h a t p a r t of tract h a d b e e n r e s o n a n t with t h e d r o n e of swarms of bees a n d which was filled with the sweet notes of the cuckoo.

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271

61-66. T h e n all those sages eulogised h i m with great m e n t a l purity a n d concentration and worshipped h i m with waters, different kinds of garlands, incense a n d fragrant scents. Those highly f o r t u n a t e ones worshipped h i m in the c o m p a n y of t h e i r wives, sons a n d a t t e n d a n t s . W i t h gentle words they spoke thus to Gira. " I t behoves you to forgive all o u r actions (of omission a n d commission) whatever has been p e r p e t r a t e d mentally, verbally a n d physically d u e to our i g n o r a n c e of the lord of the Devas. O akara, the conduct of life of B r a h m a a n d other Devas is mysteriously esoteric, elaborate, inscrutable and difficult to comprehend. We do not know how to welcome you. We do n o t know at all a n y of your movements. O M a h d e v a , O lord of the universe, you are as you are, obeisance be to you. Only noble-souled ones eulogise you, the lord of the Devas, the great lord. 67. Obeisance be to Bhava, Bhavya (splendid o n e ) , Bhvana (sanctifier) a n d U d b h a v a (source of o r i g i n ) . H a i l to the lord of spirits, the lord of infinite s t r e n g t h and .virility. 68. Bow to the lord of tawny-complexioned body the destroyer, the imperishable one, the changing one. Obei sance to t h e lord, to the s u p p o r t e r of the c u r r e n t of G a g water. Bow to the lord who is the s u p p o r t ; salutations to the soul of good qualities. 69. Obeisance to T r y a m b a k a ( t h e three-eyed l o r d ) . H a i l to the lord who wields the excellent t r i d e n t . Bow to you (identical with) K a n d a r p a . Obeisance be to you the S u p r e m e Soul. 70. Obeisance to akara, the bull-bannered one. H a i l to the lord of G a n a s (groups of goblins, the a t t e n d a n t s of i v a ) . O b e i s a n c e to K l a with the staff in his h a n d s ; obeisance to the lord with the noose in his h a n d s . 71-73. Obeisance to the lord w h o is the m a i n deity in the V e d i c M a n t r a s ; a n d to you of h u n d r e d tongues. W h a t ever is there in the world, the past, the present, the future, the m o b i l e a n d immobile beingsall the visible worlds have originated from y o u r person. O a m b h u , welfare u n t o you, p r o t e c t us. Therefore be pleased with us. W h a t e v e r m a n

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does, w h e t h e r o u t of ignorance or knowingly, it is the lord alone who does it by m e a n s of his Yogic M y . " 74-76. After eulogising thus with delighted minds, t h e sages requested t h e l o r d : "Being endowed with the power of p e n a n c e , we may see you as before. M a y your Liga be stationed in the n o r m a l posture as before. Obeisance to the Digvsas (the naked one) having garland like clusters of Kikins (bells in t h e trinkets). Salute to the hideous one, to the terrible one, to the lord of frightful face. Obeisance to you who are devoid of form, who have excellent form and who have multiforms. 77. Obeisance be to K a t a r h k a t a (golden-formed o n e ) , obeisance to R u d r a ; obeisance to Svhkra. Hail to you, t h e e m b o d i m e n t of all vital airs; S a l u t e to you t h e lord with the G u n a s for his bodies. 78. O b e i s a n c e to Durgandha (foul-smelling o n e ) , to Sugandha (fragrant o n e ) ; Salute to the lord with t h e t r i d e n t in his h a n d s ; Obeisance to lord rkantha with the dark-blue tuft. H a i l to N i l a k a n t h a , t h e lord who has applied the ashes in the cremation ground for u n g u e n t . 79. O b e i s a n c e to t h e lord identical with t h e trio of G u n a s . H a i l to you the Viva ( o n e identical with the u n i v e r s e ) , the Vedhas ( C r e a t o r ) , Bow to t h e lord who resides always in t h e cremation g r o u n d ; Obeisance to the lord of t h e form of the Preta ( D e p a r t e d Soul *) 80. You are B r a h m a a m o n g t h e Devas 1 and Nlaloh i t a a m o n g the R u d r a s . T h e soul of all living beings, you a r e called P u r u s a by t h e Srhkhyas. 8 1 . You are the g r e a t M e r u among t h e m o u n t a i n s and t h e M o o n a m o n g the stars. Among the sages you are Vasistha a n d Vsava ( I n d r a ) a m o n g t h e Devas. 82. You a r e O m k r a a m o n g t h e Vedic M a n t r a s , J y e s t h a s m a n a m o n g the S m a n M a n t r a s . You a r e t h e lion among t h e beings of t h e forest. You are t h e supreme vara.
1. G o d iva is the best o n e a m o n g all gods etc. Cf. Bh. G. for such a list of excellences a n d every such excellence is H i s part : Tad yad vibhtimai sattvarh.... mama Ujomasambhaaam / Bh. G. X 4 1 .

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83-86. You are the Bull a m o n g the domestic a n i m a l s . You a r e the lord worshipped in all the worlds. - Although you exist in all ways a n d manners, we see you alone in t h e beings t h a t come up in front of us as n a r r a t e d by B r a h m a . Lust, Anger, greed, distress a n d arrogance, we wish tocheck these, O P a r a m e v a r a (be pleased). W h e n the M a h s a m h a r a n a ( t h e g r e a t u l t i m a t e a n n i h i lation) arrives, fire is created by you, O lord, who are of selfgoverned spirit, by pressing t h e h a n d against the forehead. At t h a t time all the worlds a r e surrounded all r o u n d by flames, on account of t h a t fire. 87-88. Hence, all these are on a p a r with the fire. T h e r e a r e m a n y hideous fires. All the living beings, mobile a n d immobile, all animals are b u r n e d by the fire originating from you. O lord of Devas, be the saviour of all of us as we a r e being b u r n e d . 89-91. F o r the welfare of all the worlds you sprinkle ( w i t h nectar) all the living beings; O lord of great fortune. O M a h e v a r a , the onlooker of auspiciousness. C o m m a n d us O lord, we shall carry out your behest. We arc u n a b ' e to find a n y possible limit to your millions a n d millions of forms. O lord, obeisance u n t o y o u " . Thereafter, the lord a n d Master said these words : 92-9,3. " N o learned m a n shall speak insultingly u n t o those persons w h o are devoted to my Bhasman (holy Ashes), who have b u r n t all their sins by means of ashes, who carry o u t everything ihey say, who have control over their sense-organs a n d who are B r h m a n a s engrossed in m e d i t a t i o n . No one w h o desires welfare both here a n d hereafter, shall transgress t h e m n o r shall they speak words u n p l e a s a n t to them. 94. T h e m a n of deluded m i n d who censures them, censure. M a h d e v a . He who worships t h e m always worships a k a r a . Act like this. Welfare u n t o you all. You will obtain (achievement of) spiriiual power from m e . " 95. After u n d e r s t a n d i n g the unparalleled and excellent holy rite t h a t is destructive of the great darkness (of ignorance) a n d that had been recounted by iva, those people got rid of their fear, greed, delusion a n d anxiety. T h e y all fell ( a t his feet), simultaneously a n d bore ( t h e m ) by means of their heads..

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96-97. T h e n those delighted B r h m a n a s b e g a n to per form the ablution of lord M a h e v a a who assumed his usual P r k r t i k a form by means of very p u r e scented water mixed with K u a grass a n d flowers. T h e y b e g a n to sing with various kinds of esoteric H u k r a s in sweet notes : 98. " O b e i s a n c e u n t o you, O lord with the quarters for y o u r garments (i.e. n a k e d ) ; Bow to the lord wearing Kikins (small tinkling ornaments or bells) ; Salutation to the lord half of whose body is female. Obeisance to the lord w h o p r o m u l g a t e d Smkhya and Yoga. 99. Bow to the lord dark in colour, w i t h t h e clouds for his vehicle; Obeisance to the lord wearing the hide of an e l e p h a n t as his g a r m e n t . Salute to the lord wearing the skin of an a n t e l o p e as the u p p e r g a r m e n t . Obeisance to the lord h a v i n g a s e r p e n t for his sacred t h r e a d . " 100. Obeisance be u n t o a k a r a who has well construc ted a n d wonderfully variegated ear-rings. Bow be to you with well-wreathed garlands for o r n a m e n t s . H a i l to you w i t h the excellent hide of a lion for garment, O lord wielding a huge axe". 101. W h e n the L i g a was installed once again with a desire for the welfare of all the worlds, those excellent sages devoted to the duties of the different castes carried t h e m o u t . 102. T h e n the great God who was pleased, replied to those sages : " O sages of excellent holy rites, I am pleased w i t h your p e n a n c e . Choose the b o o n s . " 103-105. T h e n those sages viz. Bhrgu, Agiras, Vasistha, Vivmitra, G a u t a m a , Atri, Sukea, Pulastya, P u l a h a , K r a t u , Marci a n d K a y a p a , all of t h e m endowed w i t h great penance, bowed down to M a h d e v a a n d said these words : O lord, we wish to u n d e r s t a n d theseAsh-bath, naked ness, V m a t v a (left-handed r i t u a l ) , P r a t i l o m a t (contrary a c t i o n ) a n d Sevy&sevyatva ( s t a t e of being worthy of being served a n d of being unworthy of b e i n g s e r v e d ) " . The Lord said 106. this Purna.
1.

:1 m e n t i o n the
author of

"I shall explain this to y o u . I shall

V V . 106-128 describe P u p a t a V r a t a according to the

1.2.27.107-117

275

e n t i r e story (i.e. details) now. I am Agni accompanied by S o m a . Soma has resorted to Agni. 107. T h e y say t h a t all t h e worlds have resorted to t h e fire m a d e a n d u n m a d e (i.e. artificial a n d n a t u r a l ) . T h e whole world, mobile a n d immobile, is b u r n e d m a n y times by fire. 108. Everything can be achieved through Bhasman. It is excellent a n d sacred. He (the devotee) sprinkles the living beings after assimilating t h e power a n d essence of ashes. 109. It is only after performing the holy rites in fire t h a t one will perform the rite of Tryyusa (trebling the span of life). O n e is rid of all sins t h r o u g h Bhasman (ashes) which is *my vigour. 110. Bhasman is so called because it illuminates (every t h i n g ) auspicious a n d renders it fragrant. It is glorified as Bhasman because it instantaneously destroys all sins. 111. T h e Pitrs should be known as smaps (Imbibing h e a t ) ; t h e Devas are b o r n of Soma (the Soma juice or the m o o n ) . T h e entire universe consisting of the mobile a n d t h e immobile beings is constituted by Agni a n d Soma. 112. I am Agni of great splendour. This my Ambik, is S o m a ; Agni, Soma a n d I form ourselves the Purusa with Prakrti. 113. H e n c e , O highly fortunate ones, Bhasman is spoken of as my vim a n d vigour. T h e position is this t h a t I retain my own vigour by m e a n s of my own body. 114. Ever since then, /it is t h r o u g h Bhasman t h a t safety is assured in the lying-in-charnbers. It is t h r o u g h Bhasman t h a t protection is sought in the world in inauspicious circumstances. 115. A devotee whose soul is sanctified by m e a n s of Ash-bath, w h o has conquered anger a n d who has subdued his sense-organs does n o t go back (i.e. is not b o r n a g a i n ) after coming n e a r m e . 116. T h e holy rite P u p a t a is (not inferior t o ) Yoga; the holy rite of K p l a is based on Yoga. This P u p a t a rite is laid down before. It is most excellent. 117. All t h e r e m a i n i n g framins (persons of various stages in life) have been created afterwards by t h e self-born lord ( B r a h m a ) . T h i s creation which is of t h e n a t u r e of bashfulness^ delusion a n d fear, has been evolved by m e .

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Brahm&nda Purna

118. Deities a n d the sages are b o r n only naked. O t h e r s , t h e h u m a n beings in t h e world, all of t h e m are b o r n without any garment. 119. Even the persons who a r e covered with a silken g a r m e n t are ( n o better t h a n ) n a k e d , should t h e sense-organs be u n c o n q u e r e d . T h e y a r e well h i d d e n (covered) if they are duly subdued. It is not t h e g a r m e n t t h a t is t h e real reason (about n u d i t y a n d n o n n u d i t y ) . 120. Forgiveness, fortitude, non-violence, absence of a t t a c h m e n t to all (worldly things) a n d equal indifference to b o t h h o n o u r a n d d i s h o n o u r t h e s e constitute the excellent covering g a r m e n t . 121-124. He w h o smears his limbs (body) with t h e Bhasman a n d renders t h e m grey in colour, he w h o m e n t a l l y meditates on Bhava ( i v a ) , he w h o takes his b a t h with Bhas man, (becomes free from sins). E v e n if a person commits thous ands of misdeeds a n d takes an a s h - b a t h , the Bhasman b u r n s all t h e sins, just like fire t h a t burns a forest by m e a n s of its reful gence. H e n c e , if a person exerts himself always a n d takes Ash-bath three times a day, he a t t a i n s Gnapatya (the state of being a follower of G a n a p a t i ) . After performing all kinds of Kratus (sacrifices), after taking in t h e excellent n e c t a r if the people m e d i t a t e on M a h d e v a , if they m e r g e themselves ( i n him) a n d a r e sanctified by identifying themselves w i t h him, they shall a t t a i n i m m o r t a l i t y (Moksa) t h r o u g h t h e n o r t h e r n path. 125-126. T h o s e w h o , t h r o u g h t h e S o u t h e r n P a t h , resort to t h e c r e m a t i o n ground, a t t a i n all these s u p e r n a t u r a l powers viz.Anim (minuteness), Mahim (greatness) Laghim (light ness), Prpti ( a b i l i t y to r e a c h t h i n g s ) , Garim (heaviness), t h e fifth quality, Prkmyam (freedom of w i l l ) , itva (Masterliness), Vaitva (ability to control) a n d Amaratva ( i m m o r t a l i t y ) . 127-129. I n d r a a n d o t h e r D e v a s performed Kmika ( c o n d u c i v e to the a t t a i n m e n t of desires) holy rites and became, persons of well-known s p l e n d o u r after a t t a i n i n g great Aivarya (prosperity a n d p o w e r ) . All of you be free from a r r o g a n c e a n d delusion a n d devoid of p a s s i o n ; let y o u r c o n d u c t be free from t h e defects of Tamas a n d Rajas. U n d e r s t a n d this excellent holy rite t h a t

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attacks all sins. P e r f o r m this v r a t a which is a g r e a t favourite of Paupati (iva). If a n y o n e r e a d s this w i h p u r i t y , faith a n d control of t h e sense-organs he shall become purified in soul a n d rid of all sins. He goes to t h e world of R u d r a .

CHAPTER TWENTYEIGHT Meeting of Pururavas and Pitrs Performance of annual obsequies on the New Moon Day The sage said : 1. O S t a ! K i n g P u r u r a v a s , t h e son of I l , used to go to t h e heaven on the New M o o n d a y in every m o n t h . H o w was it ? H o w did he p r o p i t i a t e the Pitrs ( M a n e s ) . Sta said :

2. O rhapyani, I shall n a r r a t e his power. I shall n a r r a t e the c o n t a c t of t h e noble-souled son of I l with t h e sun as well as w i t h t h e m o o n . 3-5. I shall tell you a b o u t t h e increase a n d t h e decrease in t h e size of t h e m o o n t h a t has its essence within, d u r i n g the two fortnights, t h e b r i g h t one a n d t h e d a r k one. I shall state t h e decision in r e g a r d to one with t h e Pitrs (Pitrmatah) as well as to one belonging to t h e Pitrs (Pitryasya). I shall n a r r a t e t h e acquisition of n e c t a r from t h e m o o n as well as t h e propi tiation of t h e P i t r s ; I shall m e n t i o n t h e sight of t h e Pitrs viz. t h e Kvyas, t h e Agnisvttas a n d t h e Saumyas. I shall m e n t i o n h o w P u r u r a v a s p r o p i t i a t e d t h e Pitrs. I shall m e n t i o n all these in d u e order as well as t h e P a r v a n s . 6 . W h e n t h e sun a n d t h e m o o n come into c o n t a c t w i t h t h e star, t h e y stay in A m v s y (New M o o n ) for a n i g h t in t h e same zone.

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7. T h e n d u r i n g every new m o o n day, he (Pururavas) goes to see the sun-god a n d the moon-god, his n a t u r a l a n d p a t e r n a l grandfathers. 8. After paying respects to t h e m , he waits there biding his time. He waits for t h e exudations of n e c t a r from t h e following moon, for the sake of the Pitrs. 9. W i t h a desire to perform the m o n t h l y r d d h a , P u r u ravas, the learned son of Il, worships Soma ( t h e M o o n ) P i t r m n (one with t h e P i t r s ) , after resorting to the heaven. 10-11. He considers b o t h Kuh ( t h e New M o o n merged with t h e 1st T i t h i of the next fortnight) a n d Sinvl ( N e w M o o n mixed w i t h the 14th T i t h i ) . H e worships K u h when there a r e two Lavas* of it as b a l a n c e . He worships Sinvl in accordance w i t h t h e m a g n i t u d e of the digit (of the m o o n ) . After worshipping it, he bides his time a n d surveys. 12-14. He imbibes the n e c t a r oozing out from the m o o n for the sake of satisfaction for t h e whole m o n t h , by means of fifteen exudations of the n e c t a r . D u r i n g t h e d a r k fortnight when his a r m s get b u r n e d by (the S u n ' s ) r a y s * * ( h e pacifies t h e m ) by means of honey exuding from the m o o n immedi ately. D u r i n g the fortnights when there a r e n o w i n d s * * * ( ? ) t h e leading king propitiates the Pitrs in t h e heaven, in accordance with the injunction p e r t a i n i n g to the rite for P i t r s . 15. He propitiates the Pitrs viz. 1 K v y a s a n d Agnisvttas.
* the eye). ** Here Bd.P.V.13a reads: krsna-pakse bhujm prty dahyamnarh tathamSubhih / T h i s is obscure (to say the least). For this line V . P . 5 6 . 1 2 a reads: krsna-pakse tad ptv duhyamnam being milked by the rays in that manner'. ***Bd.P. meaningless. oblation to 1. 14. a reads nirvtesvatha paksesu 'In windless fortnights' is V . P. 56.13a reads instead: nirvpanrtham dattena 'given as (for the propitiation of) Pitrs. performed a S o m a sacrifice (probably Saumyas here-of); those w h o offered cooked tathmsubhih / ' T h e n , in the dark half of the month, having drunk (nectar) as it w a s Lavaa m i n u t e division of time

Saumyas, Barhisads,

( = t h e sixth part of twinkling of

In a t a p a t h a Br. II 6. 1.7, those w h o

are Somavantah Pitarah

oblations like Cam were Barhisadah Pitarah; those w h o offered no sacrifice

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279-

Rtam* ( m e a n s ) w h a t is m e n t i o n e d as Agni. It is con sidered to be Samvatsara. 16. T h e Rtus (seasons) were b o r n of it (i.e. S a m v a t s a r a t h e y e a r ) . T h e rtavas were born of the R t u s . T h e rtavas a r e w h a t are called Ardhamsas (half m o n t h s or fortnights). (Hence) t h e Pitrs are t h e sons of Rtus. 17. T h e Rtus are grand-fathers. T h e Msas ( m o n t h s ) a n d Ayanas (transits of t h e sun) are t h e sons of A bda ( y e a r ) . T h e Devas a r e the great-grand-fathers; the ( g r o u p of) five years are t h e sons of B r a h m a . 18. T h e Saumyas should be known as b o r n of t h e m o o n (Somaja). T h e Kvyas should be known as t h e sons of K a v i ( u k r a ) . U p a h t a s are r e m e m b e r e d as Devas. Somajas a r e r e m e m b e r e d as Somaps (Imbibers of S o m a ) 19. jyaps ( I m b i b e r s of oblated ghee) a r e r e m e m b e r e d as Kvyas. T h e classes of Pitrs are t h r e e . T h e y a r e of t h r e e classes namely Kvyas, Barhisads a n d Agnisvttas. 20-22. Those w h o are householders as well as Tajvs (performers of sacrifices) are certainly Rtus a n d Barhisads. T h o s e who are householders b u t are not Tajvs (performers of sacri fices) a r e t h e rtavas a n d Agnisvttas. T h e K v y a s are Astakpatis (lords of Astakas or the eighth d a y of t h e l u n a r fortnights for three m o n t h s in which Pitrs are to be p r o p i t i a t e d ) . N o w u n d e r s t a n d the five Abdas thereof. T h e i r Samvatsara is indeed Agni a n d Srya ( t h e Sun) is Parivatsara. Soma (the M o o n ) is mentioned Idvatsara a n d V y u
but were c o n s u m e d by fire in cremation after death were Agnisvtth P i t a r a h . Cf. V. P. 3 0 . 6-7. Later, during the Smrti period, the classes of Pitrs increased a n d had. different connotations. Thus here in V V . and imbibers of S o m a . Householders 18-23 Saumyas are sons of S o m a sacrifices are Rtus and It a d d s performing

Barhtsads.The non-performers of sacrifices are rtavas a n d Agnisvttas. W. and 72-73 96. * Brhmana T h e reading rturagnis tu in V P. 5 6 . 1 4 . a is 1.4.10.8. preferable to below.

one m o r e division viz. Kvyas, the sons of K a v i (ukra?) w h o imbibe g h e e v i d e For more details of this classification vide infra II. iii 10 V V . 53, 75, 93 rtamagnis Taittirlya

tu hereof, as rtu (seasons of the y e a r ) are considered as Pitr (vide

280
is Anuvatsara. R u d r a c o n s t i t u t e a Yuga. is Vatsara u n t o them.

Brahmnda Purina Those five Abdas

23. T h o s e (Pitrs) w h o imbibe the n e c t a r in the heaven every m o n t h on the new m o o n day, are r e m e m b e r e d as Kvyas TJsmaps a n d Divkrtyas. 24-25. As long as P u r u r a v a s was alive, he propitiated t h e m with the nectar, since it exudes from the moon every m o n t h a n d it delights t h e m , it is nectar u n t o the Somapyin Pitrs, (those w h o imbibe S o m a t h e m o o n ) . T h u s it is called Saumya A m r t a (nectar p e r t a i n i n g to the m o o n ) , Sudh and Madhu ( h o n e y ) . 26. T h i r t y t h r e e Devas ( w h o are called) Cchedanas* (Those who cut off ?) d r i n k the fifteen digits of the m o o n gradually in the d a r k fortnight, (after t u r n i n g them) into watery form. 27-30. After drinking t h e n e c t a r for half a m o n t h , they go away on the C a t u r d a (fourteenth) day. On being d r u n k thus by all the Devas^ the m o o n reaches a point on the New M o o n day when it remains with only a fifteenth p a r t . On the New M o o n day, it is developed by S u s u m n duly. 1 T h e n , for a period of two Lavas, the Pitrs drink the n e c t a r . W i t h a single ray (i.e. the S u s u m n ) the sun deve lops the m o o n when it becomes reduced on being drunk. Again t h e Somapyins drink it. W h e n all the digits are exhausted ( t h e s u n ) develops the m o o n once again. 3 1 . D a y by day, in d u e order, a p a r t (a digit) of the m o o n is developed by the S u s u m n . T h e black digits become reduced a n d the white ones develop it. 32. T h u s the body of the m o o n developed by the vigour of t h e sun, appears sparkling, white a n d perfectly circular on the full M o o n day. 33. T h u s , such is the achievement of the Moon during the two halves, the d a r k a n d the bright ones. It is in this m a n n e r t h a t the M o o n is P i t r m n (one with the M a n e s ) . He is r e m e m b e r e d as being Idvatsara.
* Cf. V. 1. Probably a misprint for Chanda-jh 'born of Chanas, V e d a or prosody'. P. 56.25a. V i d e Supra ch. X X I V , W . 67-68.

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34. He is shining a n d resplendent with his fifteen exuda tions of n e c t a r . Henceforth, I shall recount t h e Parvans (days of changes of t h e m o o n ) a n d the Sandhis ( m e e t i n g points) of Parvans. 35. J u s t as there are knotty joints in the S u g a r c a n e a n d b a m b o o , so also there are d a r k a n d bright Parvans in t h e l u n a r fortnights. 36. T h e differences between the full M o o n a n d t h e N e w M o o n a r e t h e knots a n d joints. T h e l u n a r days beginning with Dvitiy constituting t h e fortnight a r e the Parvans. 37. It is on the first of t h e fortnights t h a t t h e rite of Anvdhna is performed. H e n c e , the Pratipat is at t h e beginning (the first) of all Parvans. 38. T h e period of two Lavas in the evening at t h e begin ning of Anumati ( t h e 15 th d a y t h e P r n i m mixed with t h e 14th Tithi) is called Dvilava. W h e n t h e P r n i m is mixed with the Pratipadthe next T i t h i , the period of two Lavas on t h a t Full m o o n night* should be known as Aparhna. 39. T h e period of evening after A p a r h n a t h a t has elapsed on t h e first d a y of the d a r k half, is also accepted as p a r t of P a u r n a m s (Full M o o n ? ) 40-41. W h e n t h e sun is stationed at a deviation of half m e r i d i a n (?) line, at a distance of a Yuga (Yoke) a n d when t h e m e r i d i a n of the m o o n has risen by the distance of a Yoke (Yuga) t h a t period is called Vyatpta. T h i s is because ( t h e sun a n d the moon) glance at each other after t h e elapse of t h e full M o o n ( p e r i o d ) a n d at t h a t time they are on a p a r with each other.1 42. On seeing t h a t period indicated by t h e sun, (the worshipper) moves towards e n u m e r a t i o n (?) T h a t is t h e p e r i o d for V a s a t k r i y . T h e period is laid d o w n immediately. 43-44. T h e j u n c t i o n at n i g h t in the full fortnight of t h e full m o o n is also Prnim (full M o o n ) . H e n c e , d u r i n g t h e night
* 1. rkyh (of t h e R k ) of V . P . 5 6 . 3 5 for rkym here-of is preferable. T h e text is a bit obscure but Sryasiddhnta X I . 1-2 defines Vyatpta

more clearly: " W h e n the m o o n a n d the sun are on opposite sides of either solstice and their minutes of declination are the same, it is Vyatpta, T h e s u m of their longitudes is half a circle i.e. 180. N o r m a l l y there are 13 vyatptas in a year.

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of full M o o n , the m o o n becomes very reddish or (pleasing ( ? ) Virajyate). Since during t h e after-noon when the Vyatipta is full, t h e m o o n a n d the sun in full-fledged form glance at each other, it is called P r n i m . 45. Since the Pitrs along w i t h the Devas approve -of it, the period previous (?) to the P r n i m (i.e. the 14th T i t h i with which it is m i x e d ) is remembered as Anumati. 46. T h e full M o o n d a y is called Rk because at that time the m o o n shines very splendidly in the sky. Wise people say t h a t it is Rk because of the delightful n a t u r e (Rajant) of the M o o n . 47. W h e n the m o o n a n d the sun stay in the same star together (amclose to, n e a r b y ) on the fifteenth night from Rk ( t h e full m o o n d a y ) it is regarded as Amvsy. 4 8 . After e n d i n g or separating (?) t h a t Amvsy day, the sun a n d the m o o n see each other after coming together. W h e n this h a p p e n s it is called Dara ( t h e New M o o n d a y ) . 49. (Defective T e x t u p o n 5 9 ) . On t h e Amvsy (New M o o n ) d a y the period is of two Lavas in the j u n c t i o n of the 15th a n d the 1st d a y of a l u n a r fortnight. It is of the d u r a t i o n (of pronouncing) two letters K u - h u . T h e r e are three periodic changes of the m o o n . * 50. T h e period w h e n the moon vanishes is Amvsy a n d it functions from t h e m i d d a y . T h e moon reaches the sun in half a day a n d t h e night. 51-52.** Along with the sun it goes to the Samudra p e r i o d which is in between Kuhu a n d sinivli in the m o r n i n g . T h e periods of c o n t a c t a r e two. I n v a r i a b l y it occurs a Midday (?). 53. On t h e Pratipat d a y of t h e bright half, w h e n t h e discs of the sun a n d t h e m o o n are being separated, it is t h e time for huti ( o b l a t i n g of ghee i n t o fire) a n d t h e Vasafkriy of
* Kuhu. ** T h e text is defective and obscure, sagama in V . 5 1 b is probably day'. V . P . 4 6 b (if taken for 51a hereof) Sagava. 'the second division of the amvsy w h i c h m i x e d w i t h the pratipad of the next fortnight is called

reads sryena sahas muktarh gatvi Prtastanotsavau.

1.2.28.54-67

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Dara (the N e w M o o n ) . Amvsy should be known as t h e Rtumukha ( t h e face of the season) of this P a r v a n . 54. W h e n the m o o n wastes away d u r i n g t h e d a r k half, Amvsy is a P a r v a n by d a y time. T h a t is w h y the jun__is '* ecUrjsed Grhyateis_ caught) d u r i n g t h e d a y t i m e on t h e Amvsy day. 55-56. It is eclipsed d u r i n g the d a y . Therefore, A m v s y becomes reduced by d a y ( ? ) . T h e n a m e s of t h e days of the l u n a r fortnight have been fixed by the scholars in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e increase of the digits of the M o o n of watery n a t u r e . T h e n b o t h the moon a n d t h e sun reveal them selves. 57. By t h a t p a t h alone it (? the moojn) comes out of the solar sphere gradually. T h e m o o n touches (remains i n c o n t a c t w i t h ) t h e sun for the whole of t h e d a y a n d n i g h t except for a period of iwo'Lavas. 58. T h a t period of Dara is the time for Ahuti a n d Vasatkriy offering of oblation with the u t t e r e n c e v a s a t . The period comes to an e n d (within w h i c h ) the cry Ku-h is u t t e r e d by a cuckoo. 59. Amvsy m e a s u r e d by t h a t time is declared as Ku-h. T h e m a g n i t u d e of Sinvl is t h a t period of the m o o n which remains after the m o o n has decreased in size. 60-61. T h e sun enters the A m v s y . Therefore, it is r e m e m b e r e d as Sinivli. T h e period for these except Ku hu is a p e r i o d of two Lavas for Anumati, R k a n d SinivSli. Ku-hu is r e m e m b e r e d as having (only the time necessary for the cuckoo to u t t e r ) Ku-hu. 62. W h e n , in t h e m i d d l e of P r n i m t h e V y a t p t a (deviation) of the m o o n a n d t h e sun has come together, it is accepted as Pratipat. It is a period of P a r v a n extending to t h e Mtrs. T h a t is also t h e p e r i o d in t h e m i d d l e of Ku-hu a n d Sinivli which is called Smudra (spot or m a r k ) ( ? ) . 63-67. ( P a r t l y defective t e x t ) . T h e period o f P a r v a n i n the sphere of t h e sun a n d t h e fire a n d t h e m o o n is on a p a r w i t h the digits (Kalsama* (?) when t h e digits a r e e q u a l ) .
* Kalirayah ' d e p e n d e n t on K a l s ' in V P. 56.58.

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T h u s in t h e bright half, during the night, at t h e joints of the parvans the glorious m o o n in a perfect circle is eclipsed. Since t h e m o o n is replenished, the P r n i m is on t h e fifteenth digits a d d e d on gradually d a y by day. H e n c e , fifteen digits ( a r e acquired) by the m o o n a n d the sixteenth digit is its own. H e n c e , t h e (complete) wastage of the waters (?) of the m o o n takes place on the fifteenth n i g h t . T h u s , t h e r e a r e t h e pitrs, Devas, Somaps, Somavardh a n a s , Artavas a n d R t u s . T h e f l o u r i s h i n g a n d prosperous Devas worship t h e m . Henceforth, I shall describe the P i t r s who a r e the par takers of the m o n t h l y rddhas. 68-70. (I shall also describe) their m o v e m e n t a n d the acquisition of t h e r d d h a a l o n g with its principles. It is, n o t possible to u n d e r s t a n d t h e m o v e m e n t , to a n d fro, of t h e dead persons even by means of well-known austeri ties. H o w then c a n it be understood by means of t h e physical eye ? These Laukika (worldly) Pitrs a r e r e m e m b e r e d after the Devapitrs ( d i v i n e M a n e s ) . T h e Devas are Saumyas, Kvyas, Ayajvans a n d Ayonijas. 1 All those Pitrs a r e Devas. T h e real Devas m a k e t h e m speak. 71. T h e h u m a n Pitrs are those other t h a n they a n d they a r e r e m e m b e r e d as Laukikas n a m e l y father, g r a n d f a t h e r a n d the great-grandfather 72. T h o s e who perform Yajas by means of S m a n M a n t r a s a r e r e m e m b e r e d as Somavants. T h o s e w h o perform Haviryajas are r e m e m b e r e d as Barhisads. 73. T h e Homins (those w h o perform homas) w h o perform Yajas on behalf of Ayjyas (those u n w o r t h y of Yajas) are r e m e m b e r e d as Agnisvttas. T h e S&yujyagas (those w h o a t t a i n the salvation of complete identity) are also r e m e m b e r e d a m o n g t h e m by the B r h m a n a s on account of t h e similarity in Dharmas (holy r i t e s ) .
1. (ayonija) As per V . P. 56-64, these classes of Pitrs are n o t born from a w o m b

1.2.28.74-87

285

74. T h o s e who are well-versed in the p a t h s of the h o l y duties p e r t a i n i n g to their ramas (stages in life) a n d a r e en dowed w i t h faith in rituals do not b e c o m e weary a n d exhausted, in the e n d (i.e. at the times of d e a t h ) . 75-78. If t h e devotees a r e engaged in these holy rites till their d e a t h in seven ways viz. p e n a n c e , celibacy, Yaja, progeny r d d h a , learning a n d c h a r i t a b l e gifts, they go to h e a v e n a n d rejoice there a l o n g w i t h those Devas, Pitrs, Sksmajas (subtle-borns) a n d Somayjins (those w h o perform S o m a sacrifices). T h e y perform worships like the Pitrs. If w a t e r libation is offered by the members of their families a n d t h e i r kinsmen, (the Pitrs k n o w n as) Somalaukikas p a r t a k e o f m o n t h l y rddhas a n d b e c o m e c o n t e n t e d . T h e s e (Pitrs) w h o p a r t a k e of m o n t h l y r d d h a s are Manusyapitrs (Human Manes). 79-86. T h e r e are some Pitrs other t h a n these. T h e y a r e entangled i n births d u e t o their K a r m a n s . T h e y only h a v e d r o p p e d off from the duties of t h e A r a m a s ; those w h o a r e devoid of S v a d h a n d S v h ; wicked souls w i t h bodies p i e r c e d ; those w h o h a v e b e c o m e ghosts in t h e a b o d e of Y a m a ; those w h o bewail their evil actions after r e a c h i n g the p l a c e of t o r t u r e ; long-lived o n e s ; extremely dried ones; those w i t h m o u s t a c h e s ; those without g a r m e n t s ; those w h o are over whelmed w i t h h u n g e r a n d thirst; those w h o r u n a b o u t h e r e a n d t h e r e ; those w h o wish to a p p r o a c h rivers, lakes, tanks a n d wells; those w h o a r e desirous of taking away o t h e r s ' food stuffs; those who a r e being taken away to different places; those w h o are being m a d e to fall in different p l a c e s ; those who un dergo tortures a g a i n a n d again in the following hells viz. mala, Vaitarani, Kumbhl-pka, Karambhavluk, Asipatra-vana a n d ilSampesana d u e to their o w n previous actions. T h e s e miserable Pitrs r e m a i n i n g t h e r e do not perish. If three P i n d a s (Balls of rice) a r e given to t h e m on D a r b h a grasses not by the left (i.e. by the right) by their kinsmen on the g r o u n d by reciting their n a m e s a n d G o t r a s (lineage) they delight those Pitrs w h o a r e stationed in the places of ghosts. 87. T h o s e w h o do not r e a c h t h e place of t o r t u r e , those who fall a n d d r o p d o w n in five ways a t t a i n t h e state of

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immobile beings. At the end of t h a t they a r e b o r n in low families on a c c o u n t of their own actions. 88-91. T h e y a r e b o r n in wombs of different forms in the a n i m a l kingdom or they a r e born in a m a n n e r u n a p p r o v e d in religious texts. If they offer r d d h a in t h e different Births by means of those articles of diet which they themselves subsist by, t h a t r d d h a becomes fruitful. W h e r e v e r the c r e a t u r e lives, it acquires food in a c c o r d a n c e with w h a t h a d been offered (as r d d h a previously) at t h e p r o p e r time, duly to deserving persons. 1 J u s t as the calf finds out its mother-cow even w h e n the cows are lost (i.e. w h e n m a n y cows are tethered together) so also the M a n t r a takes to the Pitrs t h e food-stuff offered in t h e rddha. It is in this m a n n e r t h a t r d d h a duly a n d faithfully offered by means of M a n t r a s is n o t fruitless. 92. K u m r a (god Skanda) recounted these different things after seeing t h e m w i t h his divine eyes. He is conversant with the d e p a r t u r e s a n d arrivals of t h e d e a d ones as well as t h e acquisition of r d d h a by t h e m . 93. T h e y are r e m e m b e r e d as Bhlkas, U s m a p s a n d Divkrtyas. T h e d a r k fortnight is their d a y a n d the b r i g h t fortnight is the night for their sleep. 94. T h u s these Pitrs are Devas a n d t h e Devas are the Pitrs. T h e R t u s (seasons), Artavas a n d A r d h a m s a s ( h a l f months) are r e m e m b e r e d as Pitrs m u t u a l l y . 95. T h u s these Pitrs, Devas a n d h u m a n Pitrs become pleased w h e n the holy rites a r e accompanied by faith. W h e n they are pleased the d e s c e n d a n t s also a r e pleased. 96. T h u s this search for a n d investigation into t h e n a t u r e of the Pitrs w h o imbibe Soma ( h a s been c o m p l e t e d ) . It is this principle of t n e Pitrs t h a t has b e e n decisively r e c o u n t e d in t h e Purnas. 97-100. T h e period of the Full M o o n a n d the N e w M o o n a n d the place of t o r t u r e h a v e been succinctly recounted to you. T h i s is t h e e t e r n a l creation.
1. W . 88-91 justify t h e performance o f rddhas.

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287

T h e Universal form of creation h a s been m e n t i o n e d o n l y partially. It is impossible to e n u m e r a t e in full. It should be trusted faithfully by one w n o wishes for prosperity. I n d e e d , this creation of S v y a m b h u v a M a n u has b e e n b e g u n b y m e a n d n a r r a t e d i n detail a n d i n accordance w i t h t h e sequence. W h a t m o r e shall I describe to you ?

C H A P T E R

TWENYNINE

Cycle of Yugas : Characteristics of Yugas1 The sage said: 1. I wish to h e a r a b o u t t h e n a t u r e a n d principle ( o r reality) of those sets of four Y u g a s , w h i c h were before in t h e Svyambhuva Manvantara. Sta said: 2. W h a t I have a l r e a d y described in t h e context of ( t h e description of) t h e E a r t h etc, the set of four Yugas is a m o n g t h e m . I shall r e c o u n t it. .(All of you listen a n d ) u n d e r stand. 3-4. T h e r e a r e six aspects to be m e n t i o n e d in regard to t h e set of four Yugas. viz. Yuga, t h e difference of Yugas,
1. T h o u g h this P u r n a fallowed the vedic tradition a n d regarded a and Note the author follows Manu 1.61-74, years of 79-86. gods According to

Yuga-period as consisting of five years (vide Supra ch. 21.131-132 t h e r e o n ) , here h i m the 1st Yuga, Krta extends over 4 0 0 0 transitional period to the n e x t Y u g a

w i t h a twilight

period {sandhy) of 4 0 0 D i v i n e (of g o d ' s ) years before its actual advent a n d a ( S a n d h y m a ) of 4 0 0 celestial years. by and followed and by 100 T h e three other Yugas viz Tret, D v p a r a a n d K a l i consist respectively of a period of 3 0 0 0 , 2 0 0 0 a n d 1000 divine years preceded Sandhy a n d Sandhyrha e a c h extending over a period of 3 0 0 , 2 0 0

g o d s ' years. T h i s theory is adopted by Purnas e.g. K P . I. chs 51 a n d 5 3 , N P . I . ch. 4 1 , M b h . V a n a chs 149, 188, V P . I . 3 , V . P . chs 2 1 , 2 2 , 5 7 , 5 8 .

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Y u g a d h a r m a (peculiar characteristics of the Y u g a ) , Yuga-Sandhi, ( t h e j u n c t i o n of Yugas ), Yugmaka ( t h e p a r t of the Y u g a ) a n d the Tugasandhna (joints of two Y u g a s ) . I shall n a r r a t e these factually in details. I shall e n u m e r a t e every thing and I shall indicate t h e exact n u m b e r ( w h e r e necessary). 5. After calculating the h u m a n year by means of worldly reckoning, I shall m e n t i o n t h e set of four Yugas cal culating the same by means of h u m a n years. T h e smallest u n i t of times is equal to the time taken for a winking. 1 T h e time for the u t t e r a n c e of a short syllable should also be understood the same. 6. Fifteen Nimesas m a k e one Ksfk. T h i r t y Ksfhs m a k e a Kal. T h i r t y Kals shall be a Muhrta. T h e d a y a n d the night together consist of thirty Muhrtas a n d they are equal to each o t h e r . 7-8a. It is the sun who divides the h u m a n a n d worldly day a n d night. T h e r e , t h e d a y is m e a n t for holy rites a n d other activities a n d the n i g h t is intended for sleep. 8b-9. A night a n d a day of t h e Pitrs make a (human) m o n t h . T h e i r further division is as follows: T h e dark fortnight is their day a n d the bright fortnight is their night fot the p u r pose of sleep. T h i r t y h u m a n m o n t h s m a k e one m o n t h of Pitrs. 10. T h r e e h u n d r e d a n d sixty h u m a n m o n t h s "make o n e year of the Pitrs.
1. called W . 5-21 give the divisions o f T i m e a d o p t e d i n calculating Yugas.

T h e smallest unit of time is the period required for winking of the eye and is Nimesa: 15 N i m e s a s = K s { h ; 30 K s t h s = K . a l 3 0 K a l s = M u h r t a ; 3 0 M u h r t a s = D a y and night 30 d a y s = A M o n t h ; = O n e d a y 30 Human m o n t h s = l H u m a n Uttaryana H u m a n Daksinyana (and n i g h t ) of Pitrs M o n t h o f Pitrs

360 H u m a n m o n t h s = 1 Year of Pitrs (6 m o n t h s ) = D a y of the D e v a s (6 m o n t h s ) = N i g h t of D e v a s

1 H u m a n year = a c o m p l e t e D a y (day a n d n i g h t ) of D e v a s 30 Human y e a r s = a month of Devas 3 6 0 H u m a n y e a r s = O n e year o f D e v a s 3030 H u m a n y e a r s = l Saptarsi year 9 0 9 0 H u m a n years = 1 D h r u v a year 360,000 H u m a n y e a r s = 1000 Years o f gods.

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11-12a. A h u n d r e d years according to h u m a n calcu lation are considered to be equal to three years a n d t e n m o n t h s of the Pitrs. 12b-13. W h a t is remembered as one h u m a n year accord ing to worldly calculation is one d a y a n d night of the Devas. It has b e e n so decided in the scriptural texts. T h e divine d a y a n d night m a k e one year. T h e i r further division is as follows: 14. T h e n o r t h e r n transit (of the Sun) is the d a y a n d the southern transit is the night (of D e v a s ) . T h e further cal culation in regard to the divine night a n d day is as follows: 15-16. T h i r t y h u m a n years are remembered as a divine m o n t h . A h u n d r e d h u m a n years should be understood to be equal to three divme m o n t h s and ten divine days. T h i s is r e m e m b e r e d as the divine reckoning. T h r e e h u n d r e d and sixty years according to h u m a n reckoning a r e glorified as one divine year. 17. A year of the seven sages ( G r e a t Bear) is consi dered to be e q u a l to three thousand a n d thirty h u m a n years. 18. T h e year of D h r u v a is r e m e m b e r e d as e q u a l to n i n e thousand a n d ninety years according to h u m a n calculation. 19. T h i r t y six thousand years according to reckoning should be known as equal to a h u n d r e d is remembered as divine reckoning. the h u m a n years. This

20-21. T h r e e h u n d r e d a n d sixty thousand h u m a n years constitute a thousand divine yearsso say the people w h o are conversant w i t h n u m b e r s a n d calculation. 22. It is thus t h a t t h e sages sang a b o u t the divine cal culation. Now (I shall n a r r a t e ) the reckoning of the n u m b e r of Yugas according to the divine calculation. 23. Wise persons and sages have said t h a t there are four Yugas i n B h r a t a subcontinent. 1 T h e y are K r t a , T r e t , Dvpara and Kali. 24. T h e first one is K r t a y u g a by n a m e . Thereafter, T r e t i s m e n t i o n e d . T h e n D v p a r a a n d K a l i . O n e shall reckon these as the Yugas.
1. only. It is strange that Yugas should be restricted to India (Bhrata)

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25-28. T h e y say t h a t K r t a Yuga consists of four thousand years. T h e Sandhy (junction or transition p e r i o d ) consists of so m a n y (i.e. four) h u n d r e d years. T h e p a r t of the j u n c t i o n (with the next Yuga or Sandhyrha) is equal to the Sandhy period. In the other three Yugas also along with their Sandhys a n d SandhymSas the thousands a n d the hundreds function u n d e r t h e same principle. T h e extent of T r e t a n d D v p a r a is t h r e e thousand a n d two thousand years in d u e order. T h r e e h u n d r e d and two h u n d r e d years constitute the Sandhys a n d the Sandhymaas are also equal to t h e m . Excellent B r h m a n a s say t h a t K a l i Yuga consists of a thousand years. Its Sandhy is one h u n d r e d years a n d Sandhyma is e q u a l to andhy. 29. Yugasakhy (the total n u m b e r of years in all the four Yugas together) is m e n t i o n e d as twelve thousand (divine) years for the four yugas viz. K r t a , T r e t , D v p a r a a n d K a l i . 30. In this connection the years are found to be as follows in accordance with the h u m a n c a l c u l a t i o n : 1 I shall mention the n u m b e r of years in t h e K r t a Yuga. U n d e r s t a n d it. 3 1 . T h e K r t a Yuga consists of one million four h u n d r e d a n d forty thousand h u m a n years. 32. T h e d u r a t i o n of the T r e t Yuga is one million a n d eighty thousand h u m a n years. 33. T h e d u r a t i o n of the D v p a r a Yuga is seven h u n d r e d a n d twenty thousand h u m a n years. 34. Similarly, t h e d u r a t i o n of the K a l i h u n d r e d a n d sixty thousand h u m a n years. Yuga is three

1.

According to this Purna the period of Yugas is as follows: Yuga Krta Tret Dvpara Kali Total Tears 1440,000 1080,000 720,000 360,000 3600,001 Years 3600,000

w i t h Sandhy a n d Sandhymas 4 3 2 0 , 0 0 0 years.

1.2.29.35-46

291

35-36. (Partially defective t e x t ) . Excluding t h e periods of Sandhays a n d Sandhyrs'as the d u r a t i o n of the four Yugas is three million six h u n d r e d thousand h u m a n years. Including the Sandhys a n d the Sandhyrhas t h e d u r a t i o n of the four Yugas is four million t h r e e h u n d r e d and twenty thousand years according to h u m a n reckoning. 37. T h u s the sets of four Yugas n u m b e r i n g seventyone a r e called M a n v a n t a r a . 38-40. U n d e r s t a n d t h e n u m b e r of years in the M a n v a n t a r a . T h e r e are three h u n d r e d a n d six million seven h u n d r e d a n d twenty t h o u s a n d years according to h u m a n reckoning in a M a n v a n t a r a . It is not m o r e . This reckoning of M a n v a n t a r a is r e m e m b e r e d by Brhmanas conversant with calculation. T h u s the d u r a t i o n of a M a n v a n t a r a has been recounted along w i t h the Yugas. 4 1 . T h e n a t u r a l * (?) K r t a Yuga is endowed with four t h o u s a n d years ( ? ) . I shall m e n t i o n the b a l a n c e of T r e t as well as D v p a r a a n d K a l i . 42. No m a t t e r can be m e n t i o n e d in two ways simulta neously (?) T h o u g h it has come traditionally in due order, these two Yugas have not been recounted to you before. 43-46. It was not recounted because I was engrossed in the description of the line of sages. too m u c h

In the beginning of the T r e t Yuga, 1 M a n u a n d the seven sages e x p o u n d e d the various D h a r m a s . T h e seven sages expounded the following holy rites viz. r a u t a D h a r m a ( t h e holy rites mentioned in rutis)recommend ed by B r a h m a , such as concerning taking a wife a n d perform ing Agnihotra. T h e y expounded m a t t e r mentioned in Rksamhit,
* 1. Probably Prathamam ' T h e first' as in V . P . 58.38. W . 43-92 describe the Tuga-dharma. o f the T r e t Y u g a :

V e d i c Mantras a n d Siddhis of the previous K a l p a w h i c h were 'lost' at t h e e n d o f that K a l p a manifested themselves t o sages. T h e V e a a s formed only o n e undivided Samhit. G o d Brahma (re-) established the duties of various castes and stages in life (Varnrama-dharma). T h e institution of kingship P. was firmly rooted. It was a covetable picture of a happy, society. Cf M t . -Ch. 142.

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Yajussaiihit a n d Smasamhit. These are the holy rites characterised as r a u t a D h a r m a . Svyambhuva M a n u expounded the traditional holy rites characterised by customs a n d conventions. T h e s e rites a r e connected w i t h the conduct of life of the people of different castes a n d stages of life. He expounded t h e m along w i t h truth fulness, celibacy, learning a n d austerities. 47-48. In the first T r e t Yuga, t h o s e . M a n t r a s alongwith Traka (i.e. Orhkra) a n d other examples manifested themselves without any conscious effort or previous knowledge, u n t o t h e seven sages a n d M a n u . T h a t is because of the p e n a n c e per formed by t h e m a n d their saintly endeavour. 49-50. Those Siddhis (spiritual powers a n d achievements) which a p p e a r e d before the Devas in the first K l p a , of their own accord (appeared before these also i.e. seven sages a n d M a n u ) . W h e n the original Siddhis ceased to exist, others b e g a n to function. T h o u s a n d s of those M a n t r a s which existed in t h e K a l p a s gone by manifested themselves in their intellect once again. 5 1 . T h e R k , Yajus, S m a n a n d A t h a r v a n M a n t r a s w e r e uttered by the seven sages a n d M a n u expounded the S m r t a D h a r m a ( D h a r m a as laid down in S m r t i s ) . 52. In the beginning of T r e t , the undivided compact Vedas alone were the bridges (i.e. the sole authority) u n t o D h a r m a . But owing to the contraction in the period of longe vity they are a b a n d o n e d in she D v p a r a s . 53. It is by means of their p e n a n c e t h a t t h e sages study the Vedas d u r i n g D v p a r a , etc. T h e Vedas are devoid of beginn ing a n d end. T h e y are divine. T h e y h a v e been evolved by t h e selfborn lord before. 54. T h o u g h they are the same in meaning, righteousness, holy rites a n d ancillary subjects, they u n d e r g o changes in every Yuga. 55.. T h e Ksatriyas have rambhas (enterprises) as their Yaja (sacrifice); the Vaiyas have Havis (offerings of ghee etc.) for Y a j a ; the Sdras have service for Yaja a n d excellent B r h m a n a s have J a p a ( c h a n t i n g of M a n t r a s ) for Yaja. 56. T h e n , in t h e T r e t Yuga, people of all castes were

1.2.29.57-68

293

joyous ( b e c a u s e ) they were well-protected by D h a r m a . T h e y regularly performed holy rites, a n d were h a p p y a n d prosperous. 57. Ksatriyas obeyed trie B r h m a n a s . T h e Vaiyas obeyed the Ksatriyas. T h e dras obeyed the Vaiyas. T h e ' p e o p l e co o p e r a t e d w i t h one a n o t h e r . 58. T h e i r activities were auspicious; so also were their castes and stages of life. T h e y were p u r e in t h e t h o u g h t s of the m i n d , in the u t t e r a n c e of words a n d in their physical activity. 59-60. In the T r e t Yuga, the initiation of all activities was never fruitless. It b e c a m e fulfilled. In the T r e t Yuga, span of life, intelligence, strength, b e a u t y , health a n d piety were c o m m o n to all. At t h a t t i m e , B r a h m a established different castes a n d stages in life. 6 1 . Again, the subjects out of delusion kept up those D h a r m a s ( b u t ) w i t h m u t u a l antagonism. T h e y then a p p r o a c h e d Manu. 62. S v y a m b h u v a M a n u , the Prajpati (lord of the subjects) saw the reality of situation. After m e d i t a t i o n , he begot two sons of a t a r p . 63. T h e y were P r i y a v r a t a a n d U t t n a p d a . T h e y were the first kings. Thereafter, kings were born. T h e y wielded the staff of L a w a n d O r d e r . 64. T h o s e kings were called Rjans because they delighted a n d pacified the subjects. T h o s e with h i d d e n sins could not be controlled by those kings. 65. Y a m a , king of D h a r m a a n d son of t h e Sun-god is r e m e m b e r e d as their chastiser. T h e classifications of castes a r e said to have been b e g u n in the T r e t . 66. It was then t h a t M a n t r a s were gathered together by the sages w h o were the sons of B r a h m a . It was only then t h a t the Yajas were initiated by the gods. 67-68. In the S v y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a , the Yaja was formerly initiated by the Devas by means of all requisites, gathered by Y a m a a n d ukra along with Vivabhuj a n d Devend r a of great prowess. Truthfulness, c h a n t i n g of M a n t r a s , p e n a n c e and charity constitute D h a r m a i n the T r e t .

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' 69. At the end of a thousand Righteous activities, t h e D h a r m a of nonviolence begins to function. It is t h e n t h a t heroes are born with great strength a n d span of life. 70. T h e y h a d renounced punishments. T h e y w e r e ex tremely fortunate a n d highly righteous. T h e y were expounders of B r a h m a n . T h e i r eyes were extensive like the petals of a lotus. T h e y h a d broad, wide chests a n d their limbs were well-knit together. 71. T h e sovereigns of t h e world in the T r e t Yuga were capable of agonizing even lions; they were extremely vigorous. T h e i r mode of walking was like t h a t of intoxicated elephants. T h e y were great wielders of bow ( g r e a t experts in a r c h e r y ) . 72-73. T h e y were fully e q u i p p e d with all good c h a r a c teristics. T h e y were Nygrodhaparimandalas. T h e word. Nyagrodha denotes t h e two arms. H e n c e , Nyagrodha means Vyma (Extended a r m s ) . He whose height extends as m u c h as a Vyma, he whose girth a n d height a r e equal, should be known as Nyagrodhaparimandala (a well-built m a n ) . 74. T h e following seven things viz. a discus, a chariot, a jewel, a spouse, a treasure, a horse a n d an e l e p h a n t t h e s e are considered to be t h e seven jewels of e m p e r o r s . 1 75. T h e y say t h a t t h e following seven are t h e i n a n i m a t e jewels of the sovereign over t h e world, viz. a discus, a chariot, a jewel, a sword. T h e excellent shield is the fifth, the flag a n d the treasure. 76. (The seven jewels of an E m p e r o r ) having life are mentioned as follows : T h e Q u e e n , t h e family priest, the com mander-in-chief, t h e chariot-maker, t h e minister, t h e horse a n d the elephant. 77. These jewels a r e divine ones. T h e y have been (naturally) acquired by t h e noble-souled ones. These fourteen (jewels) should be assigned to all Emperors.
1. V V . 74-77 describe two lists of seven 'jewels' of an emperor (Cakra-

vartin). H e r e 14 jewels are mentioned. A similar list of royal jewels is found in Pali literature. T h e representation of the 2 n d cent B.C. of a Cakravartin at J a g a y y a p e t t a shows these 'jewels' a n d o n e more featureat the touch of Cakravarti's h a n d above (towards the sky) it shows g o l d coins.

1.2.29.78-89

295

78. In all the M a n v a n t a r a s of the past a n d future, e m p e r o r s are born on the E a r t h from a p a r t of Visnu. 79. . Emperors a r e . b o r n in the T r e t Yuga of all t h e M a n v a n t a r a s of the past, present a n d future. 80. T h e following four shall be very wonderful a n d excellent in regard to those kings :viz. strength ( o r a r m y ) , D h a r m a (virtue, p i e t y ) , happiness a n d wealth. 8 1 . W e a l t h , d h a r m a , love, fame a n d victory are acquired by the kings on a p a r with one a n o t h e r a n d without coming into conflict. 82. T h e y over-power even the sages by means of A n i m (minuteness) a n d other Aivaryas, the power of lordship^ learning a n d p e n a n c e . 83. (They overpower) Devas, D n a v a s a n d h u m a n beings by means of strength a n d austerity. T h e y a r e also born with s u p e r h u m a n characteristic features present in their own bodies. 84-86. T h e hairs are soft a n d glossy; t h e foreheads a r e h i g h ; the tongue is one t h a t wipes off clean. T h e lips a n d eyes have the lustre of c o p p e r ; (their chests) are m a r k e d with. rvatsa scar; the hairs are lifted u p . T h e arms extend as far as the knees; the h a n d s are coppercoloured. T h e y are slim in the hips; their girth is as m u c h as t h e extended a r m s . T h e y have the shoulders of the lion a n d they u r i n a t e like lions. T h e i r gait is like t h a t of lordly e l e p h a n t s ; they have l a r g e chin-bones; they h a v e the lines of wheel a n d fish on the soles of the feet a n d those of conch a n d lotus in the palms. 87-89. T h e kings are eightyfive thousand in n u m b e r a n d they shine without ageing. T h e movements of the sovereigns in four viz. t h e sky, t h e sea, the subterraneous regions a n d in m o u n t a i n o u s region, a r e unobstructed. Sacrifice, charity, p e n a n c e a n d truthfulness a r e m e n tioned as the D h a r m a s specially significant in t h e T r e t . At t h a t time D h a r m a (Righteousness) begins to function with the classification of castes a n d stages of life. D a n d a n t i (Polity, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of law a n d o r d e r ) functions for t h e establishment of the b o u n d s of decency.

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90-92. All t h e subjects are delighted a n d well built. T h e y a r e free from ailments. T h e i r minds are full (i.e they a r e joyous). It is remembered t h a t there was only one V e d a with four feet (parts) in the T r e t Yuga. At t h a t time m e n lived u p t o three thousand years, endowed with sons a n d grandsons. T h e y used to die in d u e order. T h i s is the characteristic feature of T r e t Yuga. U n d e r s t a n d the T r e t S a n d h y ( t h e transition from T r e t Yuga or j u n c t i o n ) . T h e characteristic features a r e reduced by one-fourth in the Sandhy from t h e m a i n Yuga a n d still further reduced by one-fourth in t h e Sadhyma from the Sandhy.

CHAPTER

THIRTY*

The Inauguration of the Sacrificial Cult Fall of King Vasu for Denunciation of Sacrifices mapyani said : 1. H o w could Yaja begin to function formerly in the Svyambhuva M a n v a n t a r a , at the beginning of the T r e t Yuga. N a r r a t e it factually to m e . 2-4. W h e n the Sandhy (the period between two Yugas) elapsed along with the K r t a Yuga, when ( t h e time u n i t ) called K l a [kal] began to function at the advent of T r e t Yuga, when the creation of r a i n h a d taken place a n d (the plants a n d ) the medicinal herbs had grown, when the pra c t i c e of culti vation a n d agriculture h a d been fully established, when the people devoted to the stage of life of a householder established the classification of castes a n d stages of life with keen insight, then how was Yaja initiated after gathering together all the requisites ?"
This Chapter corresponds to Ch.5B.76 ff. of V . P .

1.2.30.5-16 5. O n hearing this S t a said :

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L e t this be h e a r d , O rhapyani, how in t h e beginning of T r e t Yuga, Yaja started functioning. 6-9. I shall recount in t h e p r o p e r order ( h o w Yaja b e g a n ) formerly in the S v y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a . W h e n the Sandhy the transitional-period ( o r j u n c t i o n ) elapsed along w i t h K r t a Yuga, when t h e period called K l a began to function at t h e a d v e n t of T r e t Yuga, when the crea tion of r a i n h a d taken place a n d ( t h e plants a n d ) t h e medicinal herbs h a d grown, when t h e practice of cultivation a n d agricul t u r e h a d been fully established, when the people b e c a m e devoted to the life of householders a n d after establishing t h e classification of t h e castes a n d stages of life, they a r r a n g e d t h e mantras into a well-knit c o m p e n d i u m , they included those M a n t r a s in holy rites (for t h e sake of welfare) h e r e and here after. At t h a t time lord I n d r a (the enjoyer of t h e universe) initiated t h e Yaja. 10. (They started the Y a j a ) alongwith all the gods a n d with all the requisites gathered together. T h e great sages came to his horse-sacrifice which was being lavishly performed. 11-16. All those who had come asked h i m even as he was performing the Yaja with the animals w o r t h y of being sacrificed. W h e n the Rtviks (sacrificial priests) were busy with their ritualistic fire-worship as the activities concerning t h e performance of Yaja; when the priests (authorised i n ) singing the S m a n M a n t r a s h a d begun their sweet notes; when t h e leading Adhvaryus (sacrificial priests) h a d quickly started their pro ceedings ; when all the flocks of t h e animals (procured for a n d ) worthy of being sacrificed h a d b e e n c u t a n d struck, w h e n t h e Havis offerings were being poured i n t o the fire by B r h m a n a s performing A g n i h o t r a ; when all t h e Devas t h e p a r t a k e r s of the Yaja, h a d been invoked in the due orderthose Devas who are of t h e n a t u r e of Indriya (the presiding deities of sense-organs) were t h e partakers of Yajathey worshipped those Devas w h o existed at the beginning of t h e K a l p a t h e g r e a t sages, the Adhvaryus, rose up at the time of squeezing a n d crushing (of

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the S o m a j u i c e ) . On seeing t h e miserable flocks of animals, t h e great sages collectively asked I n d r a - ^ ' " W h a t is t h e p r o c e d u r e of your Yaja P 17. This is highly unrighteous a n d sinful. It (this sacrifice) has been spread (performed) w i t h a desire for rites involving violence to life). In your Yaja, O excellent god, t h e killing of animals is involved. 18. An evil thing has been started for t h e destruction of D h a r m a on account of this injury to t h e animals. This is not . D h a r m a ; it is A d h a r m a ( s i n ) . Violence is not called as D h a r m a (Righteous). 19. If your honour wishes to perform the Yaja in accordance with the scriptures, perform the Yaja by means of D h a r m a t h a t does not infringe established institutions. Perform t h e Yaja according to the. injunctions laid down (in scriptures). 20-21. O excellent god ! (sacrifice should be performed) with sacrificial seeds which a r e kept for a m a x i m u m period of three years a n d which do not p u t forth sprouts. In t h e m (such seeds described a b o v e ) no violence ( t o life) exists (is involved). O highly intelligent one, this is t h e D h a r m a laid down formerly by B r a h m a " . T h u s I n d r a , t h e enjoyer of t h e Universe, (was asked) by t h e sages w h o perceived reality. 22. T h e n a great argument took place between I n d r a a n d t h e great sages" By w h a t means should the Yaja be performedby mobile (living) beings or immobile articles ?" 2 3 . . After stating the principle the great sages b e c a m e dejected on account of the a r g u m e n t . After coming to terms with I n d r a , they asked Vasu who was moving a b o u in t h e firmament. 24. "O king of great intellect, how ( w h a t ) is the proce d u r e for Yaja found out by you. O lord, son of U t t n a p d a , explain a n d dispel o u r d o u b t s " . 25. O n hearing their words, Vasu, w i t h o u t considering t h e pros a n d cons recollected the Vedas a n d Scriptural texts.
1

1. W . 16-21 record the Brahmanical protest against animal-sacri fices. T h e y state that the seeds w h i c h are 3 years old and incapable of germination should be used instead of animals in sacrifice.

1.2.30.26-35 He then explained the principle of Yaja.

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26. "Sacrifice should be performed with whatever is duly b r o u g h t " said the king. 'Sacrifice should be performed by means of animals worthy of being sacrificed or by means of seeds a n d fruits. 27-29. Violence is but n a t u r a l to a sacrificesuch is my (opinion) as well as w h a t is mentioned in philosophical texts a n d scriptures. J u s t as the Devats, so also t h e M a n t r a s , a r e symbols of violence. T h i s is said by great sages endowed with austerities over a long period, t h r o u g h their philosophical texts a n d T r a k a a n d o t h e r ( M a n t r a s ) . This has been said o n t h e basis of their authority. H e n c e , it behoves y o u all to achieve it provided those M a n t r a s a n d statements are considered a u t h o r i tative by you, O B r h m a n a s , so, let t h e Yaja be continued a n d allowed to function. Otherwise, your words will be otherwise (false)". 30. After being answered to in this m a n n e r , those saints w i t h souls united with B r a h m a n of unified souls, realized t h e inevitability a n d hence restrained their speech. 3 1 . I m m e d i a t e l y after saying this, t h e king entered R a s t a l a ( n e t h e r worlds). After being a traverser of t h e u p p e r regions Vasu (now) c a m e to be a traverser of t h e n e t h e r worlds. 1 32. By means of t h a t s t a t e m e n t he had b e e n a resident of t h e (nether) surface of t h e world. K i n g Vasu w h o t r i e d to dispel doubts in regard to D h a r m a , w e n t down. 33. H e n c e , even t h o u g h one m a y be conversant w i t h m a n y things, one should n o t express a n y t h i n g by way of clari f i c a t i o n o f d o u b t s when a l o n e a n d single-handed. D h a r m a h a s m a n y an opening. Its way is subtle a n d it goes a long way. 34. H e n c e , nothing definite can be stated by anyone in the m a t t e r of D h a r m a including the Devas a n d t h e sages b u t excepting S v y a m b h u v a M a n u . 35. H e n c e , nonviolence has been declared by great sages

1. The fall of king Vasu for supporting animal sacrifices showed how that institution of animal sacrifice became condemned at the time of this Purna.

300
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Brahmnda Purna

as the gateway to D h a r m a . T h o u s a n d s a n d millions of sages have gone to heaven by means of their own austerities. 36-38. Therefore, the great sages do not praise either charity or Yaja. By giving roots and fruits or greens a n d vegetables gleaned by them or waterpot in accordance with their capacity, m a n y ascetics have become well-established in the heavenly world. Non-harassment, absence of greed, penance, mercy to the living beings, control of sense-organs, celibacy, truthfulness, tenderness, forgiveness, fortitudethese are the roots of the eternal D h a r m a , but they a r e very difficult to achieve. 39-41. It is h e a r d (traditionally) that m a n y sinless B r h m a n a s , Ksatriyas a n d others have achieved spiritual power by m e a n s of p e n a n c e . T h e y are Priyavrata, U t t n a p d a , D h r u v a , M e d h t i t h i , Vasu, S u d h m a n , Virajas, akha, Pndyaja, Prcinabarhis, Parjanya, H a v i r d h n a a n d o t h e r kings. T h e s e a n d m a n y others have gone to heaven by means of their jausterities. T h e y a r e saintly kings of great inherent strength whose r e p u t a t i o n has been firmly established. 42. H e n c e , by all reasons, p e n a n c e is superior to Yaja. It is due to his p e n a n c e that this whole universe h a d been formerly created by B r a h m a . 4 3 . H e n c e , Y a j a does not follow it ( p e n a n c e ) anywhere. This (world) is regarded as based on penance. Articles (of sacrifice) and M a n t r a s a r e the bases of Y a j a . P e n a n c e is of t h e n a t u r e of non-intake of food. 44. O n e attains the Devas by means of Yaja and Vairja by m e a n s of p e n a n c e . Brahminical holy rites (are achieved) by m e a n s of r e n u n c i a t i o n a n d t h e victory over P r a k r t i t h r o u g h Vairgya (absence of passionate a t t a c h m e n t ) . 45-48. O n e attains Kaivalya (salvation) t h r o u g h know ledge. These are declared as five goals. T h u s great a r g u m e n t took place between t h e Devas a n d t h e sages in connection w i t h the functioning of t h e Yaja formerly d u r i n g S v y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a . Thereafter, on seeing h i m (Vasu ?) struck d o w n by means of t h e power of D h a r m a , all of t h e m ignored the words of Vasu
1 . W . 35-48 establish the superiority o f J n a mrga over Karmamrga, including a n i m a l sacrifices.

1.2.31.1-6 a n d went departed, Yaja was after, this

301 away as they c a m e . W h e n the groups of sages t h e Devas concluded t h e Yaja. It was thus that initiated in the S v y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a . T h e r e Yaja has been modified along with the Yugas.

CHAPTER THIRTYONE Narration of the Four Yugas : Castes and Stages of Life Sta said : 1. Henceforth, I shall recount the position of the D v 1 p a r a Age once again . W h e n T r e t Yuga passes by, D v p a r a Sets in. 2. T h e Siddhi t h a t t h e subjects h a d in t h e T r e t Yuga becomes defunct along with t h e subjects, when T r e t Yuga elapses at t h e beginning of D v p a r a . 3. In D v p a r a the m i x t u r e a n d combination of the castes begins to t a k e place a m o n g the subjects. All activities a r e affected adversely ( a n d get i n v e r t e d ) . 4. T h e m a i n activity in D v p a r a is declared as a com b i n a t i o n of Rajas a n d Tamas with all these viz. t h e emphasis on Yajas*, administration of justice, pride, a r r o g a n c e , forgiveness a n d strength. 5. T h e D h a r m a that had been in existence in the first K r t a Y u g a continues to function in T r e t Yuga. After b e c o m i n g agitated a n d intensely affected in D v p a r a , it becomes extinct i n t h e K a l i Yuga. 6. In t h a t Yuga, t h e r e is u t t e r destruction of ( t h e classification of) the castes. Similarly, the different stages of
1. This chapter depicts the state of the society, religion, religious texts etc. in the D v p a r a Age. T h e deterioration and confusion of social, religious a n d other conditions provide a back-ground to the Chaos in the K a l i A g e . * instead V . P. 5 8 . 4 reads ycft vadhah pano 'Begging, killing, gambling* of yajftvadhranam in this text.

(A
302 V

A Grt"fu*eJ

Wry
Brahmnda Parana

life get j u m b l e d a n d mixed u p . T h e ruti a n d S m r t i come to be at variance with each o t h e r in t h a t Yuga. 7. O w i n g to the difference between ruti a n d Smrti no definite conclusion can be arrived at. Because of the absence of definiteness, there is no (clear-cut) principle of Dharma. 8-10. O w i n g to t h e absence of (a specific) D h a r m a , there is difference of opinion even a m o n g friends. O w i n g to m u t u a l difference a n d confusion in the points of view there is no definite conclusion such as " T h i s is D h a r m a . T h i s is n o t Dharma." T h e confusion in the points of view results from ambigui ty a n d u n c e r t a i n t y of t h e causes, inconclusiveness in r e g a r d to the effects ( o r decisions) a n d difference of opinion a m o n g the people. H e n c e , u t t e r confusion a n d contradiction is b r o u g h t a b o u t in t h e scriptural texts by persons with different points of view. 11. It is laid d o w n t h a t there is only a single unified V e d a with four feet (i.e. sections, books) in the T r e t Yuga. In view of the fact t h a t there is reduction in t h e span of life, the V e d a is distinctly classified in the D v p a r a age. 12-13. T h e S a m h i t texts of Rk, Yajus a n d S m a n a r e recited by t h e great sages differently with changes in the settings ( a r r a n g e m e n t s ) o f M a n t r a a n d B r h m a n a portions a n d a l t e r a t i o n s in t h e notes, accents a n d letters. Changes are b r o u g h t a b o u t d u e to t h e changes in the (presiding) sages a n d M a n t r a s a n d confusion in the view-points. T h e y are similar in c e r t a i n places a n d altered utterly in certain places d u e to difference in t h e points of view. 14. T h e B r h m a n a s , Kalpa-Stras a n d M a n t r a P r a v a c a nas (different scriptural texts) a n d other texts as well have a similar plight. O t h e r s follow these b u t some oppose it a n d stand apart. 15. T h e y begin to function in D v p a r a Age a n d recede d u r i n g the K a l i Y u g a . T h e r e was only one dhvaryava (Yajur V e d a ) b u t later it split i n t o two. 16-18. By means of c o m m o n a n d c o n t r a d i c t o r y m a t t e r s , t h e whole scriptural text has b e e n confounded.

1.2.31.19-28

303

W i t h the schools of dhvaryava (Yajur V e d a ) confused a n d confounded in various ways, with alternative readings in Atharva, Rk a n d S m a h M a n t r a s , there was a lot of unrest (confusion) in D v p a r a . T h e y h a d m a n y divisions a n d sub divisions a n d alternatives. T h e y began to function in D v p a r a a n d b e c a m e extinct in K a l i . 19. Effects of these contrary h a p p e n i n g s take place in Dvparaeffects such as absence of rain, then d e a t h a n d sickness a n d o t h e r calamities. 20. On a c c o u n t of miseries verbal, m e n t a l a n d physical, t h e y have despondency a n d absence of interest in worldly m a t t e r s . D u e to despondency a n d dejectedness, they begin to p o n d e r over modes of relief from misery. 2 1 . T h r o u g h the ponderings they a t t a i n disinterested ness in worldly affairs a n d absence of a t t a c h m e n t . T h r o u g h this detachedncss they begin to see defects. T h r o u g h the sight of defects there is the possibility of Ajna (ignorance) in Dvpara. 22. To those Ajnins (ignorant persons) in t h e first S v y a m b h u v a M a n v a n t a r a in the D v p a r a Yuga, enemies of the scriptural texts crop u p . 23. T h e r e are uncertainties a n d indecisive alternatives in the science of Ayurveda, in the Agas (ancillary subjects), in t h e J y o t i s a (Astronomy a n d Astrology) in the Arthastra (Economics) a n d in Hetu-stra (Science of dialectics). 24-26. T h e r e are similar alternatives in the Bhsyas (commentaries) a n d Vidys (learning) of the Prakriy Sutras a n d K a l p a Sutras (scriptural texts). T h e r e are different Smrtistras ( L a w Codes etc.) a n d there are separate Prasthnas (Schools a n d Systems). T h e s e occur in the D v p a r a Yuga because of the difference of opinion a m o n g m e n . It is with very great difficulty t h a t agricultural a n d other professions flourish ( d u e to the efforts) m e n t a l , verbal a n d physical. In the D v p a r a , it is preceded by great physical strain of all living beings. T h e r e is greediness ( i n the p e o p l e ) . T h e professional activity is primarily commercial. T h e r e is no definiteness in the principles. 27-28. T h e r e is the composition of scriptural tracts based on V e d a s ( b u t ) there is mixing a n d mingling of D h a r m a s . T h e

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discipline of the classification of castes a n d stages of life come to nought. Lust a n d a n g e r flourish in D v p a r a . Passion, greed a n d m u r d e r begin to prevail in D v p a r a . It is in D v p a r a t h a t Vysa 1 classifies t h e Veda into four sections. 29-30. W h e n D v p a r a comes to a close, its Sandhy (twilight or transitional period between D v p a r a a n d K a l i Yugas) too functions in t h e same m a n n e r . T h e characteristic feature of D v p a r a , devoid of good qualities becomes establish ed. In t h e same m a n n e r the Sandhyma also functions. ( N o w ) U n d e r s t a n d (the details) basis of w h a t remains of D v p a r a . of K a l i Y u g a 2 on t h e

31-33. " T h e a c c e p t a n c e (of characteristic features etc.) of t h e K a l i age is based on t h e residue of t h e SandhymSa of D v p a r a . Violence, jealousy, u n t r u t h , M y ( d e c e p t i o n ) and m u r d e r of asceticsthese a r e t h e characteristic features of Kali age. ( O f course) t h e subjects achieve (certain things) a n d t h a t is the entire D h a r m a . D h a r m a declines. It is doubtful whether agricultural activities flourish despite t h e activities, m e n t a l , eulogistic a n d physical. T h e r e are fatal sicknesses in the K a l i age a n d there is t h e perpetual h e a d a c h e of h u n g e r a n d fear. 34. T h e r e is terrible fear of d r o u g h t . T h e r e are calami ties in all the countries. In the K a l i age, the S m r t i has no a u t h o r i t y (i.e. is nfot regarded as an authority) over t h e people. 35. In the K a l i age, the subjects die at various ages Some one dies even as a child in the w o m b . A n o t h e r dies in t h e p r i m e of youth. Some people die as old m e n while some people die d u r i n g their childhood.

1. Vysas. 2.

Vysa, 'arranger'

(of V e d i c Mantras into different S a m h i t s ) is a. mention 28

designation. Every D v p a r a has a different Vysa. Purnas

Almost all Purnas depict a g l o o m y picture of the Kali A g e . V i d e 229-230, M t . P. 144. 32-47, Bh.P. X I I . m u c h of that des

M b h . Vana ch. 188, 190, Br. P. chs

1-2, V P . V I . l . It appears that that was probably the state of the society w h e n these Purnas c a m e to be written, though unfortunately cription applies even today.

1.2.31.36-47

305

36. T h e r e is d a n g e r a n d fear u n t o the subjects owing to wrongly performed sacrifices, negligent studies (of the V e d a s ) , evil actions, misleading religious texts a n d the faults in the holy rites performed by the B r h m a n a s . 37. Violence, deception, malicious jealousy, anger, envy a n d intolerance occur in m e n in the K a l i age. T h e r e is passion and greediness everywhere in every creature. 38. After reaching the K a l i Yuga a great excitement is aroused At t h a t time, the m a x i m u m age is when a thousand years are c o m p l e t e d * (?) 39. T h