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LATEX 2

LATEX 2 ,
.
, LATEX.
LATEX AMS-LATEX (
) LATEX 2 .


1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.1
1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6 . . . . . . . . . . . .


2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 . . . . . . .
2.3 . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.5 . . . . . .
2.3.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 , . . .
2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5.1 . . . . .
2.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.1 xr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8 . . . . . . . . . . .
2.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.10.1 multicol . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11 . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.11.1

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4
4
4
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5
6
6
7

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7
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8
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
11
12
12
13
13
14
15
15
15
16
18
18

2002 . : syutkin@ns.kinetics.nsc.ru

19


5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20
20
21

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5


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21
21
22
22
23
23

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4


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24
24
24
24
24

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25
25
25
26
26
27


9.1
9.2 . . . . . . . . . .
9.3
9.3.1 shortvrb . . . . . . . .
9.3.2 alltt . . . . . . . . . .

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28
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29

10
10.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.1 . . . . . . . .
10.1.2 . . . . . . . .
10.1.3
10.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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30
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31
31

11
11.1 array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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35

12
12.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.1.1 . . . .
12.1.2 ,
12.1.3
12.2 , . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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39

8.1
8.2 .
8.3 . . .
8.4
8.5 .

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13
13.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2 . . . . . . .
13.3 . . . .
13.4 . . . . . .
13.5 . . . . . . . .
13.6 . . . . . .
13.7

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14
14.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3 *- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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42

15
15.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2
15.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.5 . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.6 textcomp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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45

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46


1
2

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7
26


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

. .
(). . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .
T1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .
textcomp. . . .
textcomp. . . . . . . .

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41
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45

1.1

.
\documentclass[options]{class}[release-date]
: LATEX class.cls, , . options
,
. options . release-date
class.cls.
//. :
\documentclass[a4paper,12pt]{article}[2000/05/19]
LATEX : article (), proc (), book (), report (), letter ()
slides ().
\documentclass LATEX
\usepackage[options]{package}[release-date]
\usepackage LATEX package.sty, . options release-date
, \documentclass. \usepackage
. , , ,
. :
\usepackage[dvips]{graphicx,color}
options \documentclass.
, ,
. ,
\nofiles
.

1.2


\begin{document}

...

\end{document}

, \end{document}, LATEX .
1.2.1

.
\input{file}
file.
tex. LATEX file
\endinput
\input . , file.

\input,
\include{file}
file.tex. \include
document.
LATEX ( \clearpage). LATEX
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\includeonly{files}
. files . - \include , LATEX
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, LATEX
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\listfiles

1.3

options \documentclass
, . options .
.
10pt|11pt|12pt . 10pt.
slides.
a4paper|a5paper|b5paper|letterpaper|legalpaper|executivepaper
. letterpaper. a5paper b5paper proc.
landscape .
oneside|twoside
. book twoside,
oneside. slides.
draft|final , .
final.
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notitlepage, titlepage. letter. titlepage
proc.
onecolumn|twocolumn .
onecolumn. twocolumn slide
letter, onecolumn proc.
leqno , .
fleqn , .
openbib .
slides letter.
openright|openany . report, openany, book,
openright.
5

1.4

1998 LATEX3
. LATEX.
inputenc ,
. , MS Windows, 1251,

\usepackage[cp1251]{inputenc}
inputenc, babel russian:
\usepackage[russian]{babel}
T2A , 1 ,
, .
,

\English

\Eng

, .

\Russian

\Rus

.
babel russian.
, babel
fontenc T2A:
\usepackage[T2A]{fontenc}
T2A LATEX , , .
, \-
\hyphenation.
,
babel :
\usepackage[russian,english]{babel}
english ,
. \Russian \Rus, \English \Eng.

\textcyrillic{text}

1.5

, % , LATEX .
verbatim tools
\begin{comment}

...

\end{comment}

, , LATEX .
1

.
, LATEX
.

1.6


\begin{filecontents}{name.ext}
contents
\begin{filecontents}{name.ext} contents

\end{filecontents}
\end{filecontents}

filecontents LATEX name.ext


( )
, contents ( %%).
- .

2
2.1

,
: . ,
, \marginpar.
. 39. , , . 1.
, ,
\setlength \addtolength.
6

1
?

\topmargin
6
?
\headheight
6
?
\headsep
6
?

1

6

\marginparsep


- \oddsidemargin
\evensidemargin
\marginparpush 6
?
\textheight
 \marginparwidth

\textwidth


?
\footskip
6
?

. 1: , , . \oddsidemargin
\evensidemargin (odd)
(even) , .

layout
tools. \layout ,
, . ,
- .

2.2

, , ,

\maketitle

\title{title}
\author{author(s)}
title author(s). \\.
.
\maketitle
\date{date}
date. \date , .
, \date {}.
\title, \author \date
\thanks{text}
text .
\maketitle , titlepage. , , 1-.
notitlepage, . article notitlepage, book,
report slides titlepage.
\author
\and
author(s) . LATEX, ,
. .
,
\begin{titlepage}

...

\end{titlepage}

. titlepage.
, , 1-.
article report
\begin{abstract}

...

\end{abstract}

. ,
titlepage. LATEX Abstract.
\abstractname
\renewcommand. babel russian
.
twocolumn , ,
. abstract (.
).
8

2.3

, letter,
. , . , , .
.
\protect.
\\.
LATEX , ,

secnumdepth
\setcounter. ,
\section, 1. ,
.
-. , .
.
2.3.1

\part[toc]{head}

\part{head}

. book report \part : Part


, head. article
. ,
head, toc. \part .
\part \part ,
.
Part
\partname
\renewcommand. babel russian .
2.3.2

book report :
\chapter[toc]{head}

\chapter{head}

: , openright,
, openany. book openright,
report openany.
\chapter Chapter . head . , head, toc. \chapter .
Chapter
\chaptername
\renewcommand. babel russian .
9

2.3.3

, :
\section[toc]{head}
\subsection[toc]{head}
\subsubsection[toc]{head}

\section{head}
\subsection{head}
\subsubsection{head}

head . ,
head, toc. -
.
2.3.4

\paragraph[toc]{head}
\subparagraph[toc]{head}

\paragraph{head}
\subparagraph{head}

head.
, \paragraph , \subparagraph . . ,
head, toc. - .
2.3.5

book
\frontmatter

\mainmatter

\backmatter

, , .
, (
). ,
\chapter , .
2.3.6

,
\appendix
Chapter, Appendix. ,
: A, B, C
. . article, , , \section.
Appendix
\appendixname
\renewcommand. babel russian .

2.4

,
\tableofcontents

\listoffigures

\listoftables

,
EX .

LAT

10

toc, lof lot, . toc- , lof- lot- \caption figure table.


, .

\addcontentsline{ext}{unit}{text}
text ext. unit ,
. toc- unit , , chapter subsection. lof- lot- unit figure table,
. text .

\addtocontents{ext}{text}
text ext. text .
: Contents, List of Figures
List of Tables, .
\contentsname

\listfigurename

\listtablename

\renewcommand. babel
russian ( article) (
book report), , .

tocdepth
, . \setcounter.

2.5

, . 1.
.

\pagestyle{style}
\thispagestyle{style}
\pagestyle style, .
. \thispagestyle style . :
plain . .
, book letter.
empty . letter.
headings . . book.
book report
\chapter, article proc \section.
\markright.
, book report
\section, article proc
\subsection.
\markboth, \markright.
11

myheadings headings, , \markboth / \markright. .


.
myheadings
\markboth{left}{right}
\markright{right}
( ), headings ( ):
. left ,
\markboth . right
, \markright \markboth
, , .
headings , , : . ,
, myheadings.
left right .
\protect.
2.5.1

\@oddhead \@evenhead,
\@oddfoot \@evenfoot, LATEX .
, ,
, :
\makeatletter
\renewcommand{\@oddhead}{\hfill\thepage\hfill}
\renewcommand{\@oddfoot}{}
\makeatother
, fancyhdr. .

2.6

\label{name}
name. aux- (, , . .) , \label. , equation, , table \caption,
. \refstepcounter.

\ref{name}
, name.
\pageref{name}
\pageref , ,
. varioref
tools
\vpageref[text1][text2]{name}
12

, , , . , on this page, ,
on the next page, ,
on the facing page, . ,
\vpageref on page \pageref. ,
\vpageref, , .
.
\vpageref , ,
. ,
text1, text2 .
varioref : russian,
.
2.6.1

xr

xr tools .
( tex)

\externaldocument[prefix]{filename}
prefix .
, \label{name},
\ref{prefixname}.

2.7


\footnote[number]{text}
text , number .
, . number ,
footnote.
\footnote minipage.

\footnotemark[number]
\footnotetext[number]{text}
, \footnote. \footnotemark
. .
\footnotetext, .
\footnote minipage , mpfootnote.
\footnotemark \footnotetext
.
,
\footnoterule
\renewcommand.
,
\footnotesep
\setlength.

13

2.8


\begin{thebibliography}{text}
bibitems
\end{thebibliography}
( ) ,
text. .

\bibitem[label]{id}
id . label ,
. enumiv.
label. enumiv
. label \protect.
.
\@biblabel,
LATEX . , ,
, :
\makeatletter
\renewcommand{\@biblabel}[1]{#1.}
\makeatother
References article Bibliography
book report. article
\refname
book report
\bibname
\refname \bibname \renewcommand.
babel russian , .

\cite[text]{id}
id. text () . , ,
.
\cite , .
, ,
, [3, 5, 4]. cite ,
, , [1, 35] [3, 5, 4, 1].
thebibliography
\newblock
, , , ,
. . \newblock .
openbib \documentclass ,
\bibindent

14

2.9

\pagenumbering{format}
. .
format :
arabic

roman

Roman

alph

Alph

, , , .
babel russian
asbuk

Asbuk

, .
, , .

2.10

twocolumn .

\twocolumn[preface]
( \clearpage), preface.
\onecolumn
. ( \clearpage).

\columnsep

\columnseprule
. .
\columnsep \columnseprule \setlength.
2.10.1

multicol

\twocolumn \onecolumn ,
. multicol tools
\begin{multicols}{n}[preface][skip]
text
\end{multicols}
. C
preface , text n . 10 .
,
,
\premulticols

15

skip. \premulticols 50 pt.


multicols , ,

\postmulticols
\postmulticols 20 pt.

\multicolsep
12 pt.
\columnsep \columnseprule.
LATEX .
,

unbalance
. ,
.
multicols figure table.
.

2.11
LATEX makeidx makeindex.
.
. , ,

\index{text}
. text ,
, . @, ! | makeindex.
", .
@ , .
makeindex , @,
, . : \index{alpha@$\alpha$}.
. !
. : \index{!}, \index{!}. .
, , ,
, . \index

, , \emph, |emph, . . \, |. :
\index{ |emph}.
.
\index{..|see{..}} \index{..|seealso{..}} . : \index{}\index{|see{}}. |see |seealso
\see \seealso \index.
. , ,
\makeindex
LATEX. \makeindex LATEX, ,
, name.tex, name.idx
16

\indexentry{text}{integer}
integer , \index text. LATEX
idx- text , , , \CYRYA.
. ,
. idx- makeindex.
name.ind
\begin{theindex}

items

\end{theindex}

theindex .
, ,
\item

\subitem

\subsubitem

, ,
, \emph{13}, 17. ,

\see{label}{page}

\seealso{label}{page}

makeidx. label , , page


, \index . ,
,
\indexspace
.
idx- , makeindex
, , . idx makeindex,
LATEX . ind-
, idx- , T2. MS Windows rumkidxw.bat.
idx- ( !):
rumkidxw name
. makeidx, .
, ,

\printindex
LATEX. \printindex \input ind- ( ).
Index,

\indexname
\renewcommand. babel russian .
\see \seealso see see also
, .
\seename

\alsoname

makeidx. russian babel . . .



, .
makeindex theindex.
17

2.11.1

Index, LATEX , ,
. .

\glossary{text}

\makeglossary
LATEX, , , name.tex, name.glo

\glossaryentry{text}{integer}
integer , \glossary text.
name.glo makeindex.
Index. ,
. makeindex.
theindex. , , glos.ist, :
keyword
"\\glossaryentry"
preamble "\\begin{theglossary}\n"
postamble "\n\n\\end{theglossary}\n"
theglossary:
\newenvironment{theglossary}
{\renewcommand{\indexname}{ }\begin{theindex}}
{\end{theindex}}
makeindex :
makeindex -s glos.ist -o name.gls name.glo
makeindex name.gls
theglossary.
name.gls \input.

LATEX , , , . .
,
, . , \section
section, table table.
page, enumerate
enumi, enumii, enumiii enumiv. minipage
mpfootnote.
.
. , ,
subsection section,
.
counter
\value{counter}
18


\thecounter
, , ,
.
\arabic{counter}
\fnsymbol{counter}

\roman{counter}
\Roman{counter}

\alph{counter}
\Alph{counter}

counter , (, . .
), ,
. russian babel
\asbuk{counter}

\Asbuk{counter}

, .
\renewcommand. ,
\renewcommand{\theequation}{\thesection,\alph{equation}}
(2,a).
counter
\newcounter{counter}[out-counter]
out-counter ,
. \arabic.
counter
\setcounter{counter}{integer}
\addtocounter{counter}{integer}
\addtocounter integer .

\stepcounter{counter}
\refstepcounter{counter}
counter , . , \refstepcounter :
\ref.

, .
cm (), mm (), in (, 1 in = 2.54 cm),
pt (, 72.27 pt = 1 in), bp ( , 72 bp = 1 in) pc (, 1 pc = 12 pt).
ex em:
x M, .
Computer Modern Roman 10 pt: 1 ex 4.3 pt, 1 em = 10 pt.

\newlength{cmd}
cmd .

\setlength{cmd}{length}
\addtolength{cmd}{length}
19

cmd length, cmd


length. , , -3.14cm 2em,
, , 0.5\textwidth.
, , , , .
, . ,
\setlength{\parskip}{5pt plus 2pt minus 1pt}
\parskip 5 pt, ,
, 2 pt 1 pt.

\fill
.
\stretch{p}
, \fill
p 1. , 0.5\fill ,
, , \fill. \stretch{0.5}.

5.1

\,

\quad

\qquad

0.1667 em, 1 em
2 em. .

\hspace{length}

\hspace{length}

length. , , \hspace ,
.
\hspace{\fill}, ,
\hfill

\hrulefill

\dotfill

\hfill, , ,
.
, ,
. ! ?
, LATEX , .

\@
, .

\frenchspacing

\nofrenchspacing

.
20

5.2

\vspace{length}

\vspace{length}

length,
. , , \vspace ,
.
\vspace{\fill}, ,
\vfill

\addvspace{length}
length. .

\smallskip

\medskip

\bigskip

,
\smallskipamount

\medskipamount

\bigskipamount

. 3 pt, 6 pt 12 pt.


\par
LATEX . , , \small \sloppy, ,
, : LATEX
, .
,
\parskip
, letter, .

6.1

LATEX ,
.
,
, LATEX
. ,
. -, , .
, , LATEX ,
. , LATEX ,
TEX
\tolerance

21

200. , LATEX . ,
, LATEX , ,
. \tolerance ,

\tolerance=500
, .

\sloppy
, \tolerance 10000. \sloppy . ,
, LATEX . , .
\sloppy
\begin{sloppypar}

...

\end{sloppypar}

\sloppy
\fussy

6.2

, , , ,
\parindent

\noindent
, .

\indent
, \parindent. ,
, LATEX .
\indent , .
\hspace{\parindent}.
, indentfirst tools.

6.3

TEX
\baselineskip2 . ,
,
.
\baselinestretch
2
\baselineskip :
.

22

.
1, .
\baselinestretch \renewcommand.
, .
\normalsize. ,
\renewcommand{\baselinestretch}{2}\normalsize
. .
\par.
,

\linespread{factor}
\baselinestretch, 1.5 factor MS Word, 2 .

6.4

\, LATEX . ,
. : ter\-ra in\-cog\-ni\-ta.
\- ,
.

\hyphenation{words}
,
. , \hyphenation{Micro-soft } soft
Microsoft .

6.5

\linebreak[n]

\nolinebreak[n]

. \linebreak
LATEX , \nopagebreak . n 0
4 : n, .
0 , 4 LATEX .
4.
, ,

: .13.

\\[length]

\\[length]

, - . length
.
23

7
7.1


\raggedbottom
LATEX .

\flushbottom
LATEX, ,
(. . 1).
.
, .

7.2

\pagebreak[n]

\nopagebreak[n]

. \pagebreak LATEX
, \nopagebreak . . n 0 4 :
n, . 0
, 4 LATEX . 4.
\nopagebreak , LATEX
.

7.3

, (. . 1),

\enlargethispage{length}

\enlargethispage{length}

- LATEX
. length.
.

7.4


\newpage

\clearpage

\cleardoublepage

\clearpage \cleardoublepage LATEX



. \cleardoublepage
, .
\newpage , .

24

LATEX .

\item[label]
label ,
, .
.

8.1


\begin{itemize}

items

\end{itemize}

: , \item
, . \item
label. .

\labelitemi

\labelitemii

\labelitemiii

\labelitemiv

(\textbullet), (\bfseries\textendash), * (\textasteriskcentered)


(\textperiodcentered), .
\renewcommand.

8.2


\begin{enumerate}

items

\end{enumerate}

: , \item
, . \item label. .

enumi

enumii

enumiii

enumiv

, \item , . \item
.
\labelenumi

\labelenumii

\labelenumiii

\labelenumiv

, (. 3).
: 1., 2., 3. . ., : (a), (b), (c) . ., : i., ii., iii. . .
: A., B., C. . .
, ,
. ,
\renewcommand{\theenumii}{\asbuk{enumii}}
.
, , . ,

25

\renewcommand{\labelenumii}{\theenumii).}
,
: )., )., ). . .
, , ,
\label. , \ref, . , ,
, 3a.
3(a)ii.

8.3


items

\begin{description}

\end{description}

, . label \item.
( \bfseries). label ,
.

8.4

(, )
,
. 2.

\itemindent
 -

6
?\parskip
6
\topsep [+\partopsep]
?


\labelsep
6
?\parsep

\listparindent
 -

\labelwidth
 -


\leftmargin

6
\itemsep +\parsep
?

\rightmargin
6
\topsep [+\partopsep]
?
6
?\parskip

. 2: ( ) ,
,
.

. \topsep.
\par,
\partopsep.
26


\parsep ( \parskip, ).
\parsep \itemsep.
, ,
.
, , .
. \leftmargin \rightmargin
.
, ,
\listparindent. . .
\labelsep ,
\labelwidth .
. c , \itemindent.
.
, .
, .
, , . . ,
itemize, enumerate description . ,
\begin{list}{def-label}{settings}
items
\end{list}
def-label , settings
\setlength, .
\usecounter{counter}
counter, . settings {}. ,
.
itemize, enumerate description, ,
list.
list, . 1, . 2 . .:
\newcounter{No}
\begin{list}{.\,\arabic{No}}{\usecounter{No}}
\item ...
\end{list}
enumerate, ,
\rightmargin .

8.5


\begin{trivlist}

items

\end{trivlist}

, , ,
. , \parsep
27

\parskip. , .
, ,
, .

9
9.1


\begin{center}

...

\end{center}


\centering
.

\begin{flushleft}

...

\end{flushleft}


\raggedright
.

...

\begin{flushright}

\end{flushright}


\raggedleft
.
: ,
. .
\\.
center, flushleft flushright trivlist
\item[] (. 8.5),
\topsep, \par, \partopsep. \setlength
\addtolength.
, center, flushleft flushright, , \par.

9.2


\begin{quote}
\begin{quotation}

...
...

\end{quote}
\end{quotation}

.
list \item[] (. 8.4),
\topsep,
\par, \partopsep. , .
quote quotation.
quotation , quote .
quote .
28

, quote quotation, , \par.

9.3


\begin{verbatim}
...
\begin{verbatim} . . .

\end{verbatim}
\end{verbatim}

, . -
.
: \end {verbatim}
. verbatim tools verbatim.
. ,
.
verbatim trivlist \item[] (.
8.5), \topsep,
\par, \partopsep.
\setlength \addtolength.
, verbatim, , \par.

\verb*text*

\verb*text*

text ,
. * , text, , | ". -
.
verbatim \verb .
9.3.1

shortvrb

shortvrb, LATEX,
\MakeShortVerb{\*}
* : , \verb. , \MakeShortVerb{\+}
\verb|text| +text+. .

\DeleteShortVerb{\*}
* .
9.3.2

alltt

alltt, LATEX,
\begin{alltt}

...

\end{alltt}

,
: . verbatim,
\, { } , alltt
\textrm{text} \(math\). math
\sp \sb,
^ _ alltt ( $).

29

10
10.1

\makebox[width][position]{text}
width text .
position l, c ( ), r s,
, , .
s , text , ,
. width , text. width

\width

\height

\depth

\totalheight

, , text.

\framebox[width][position]{text}
\makebox, .

\fboxrule

\fboxsep

. 0.4 pt 3 pt.

\mbox{text}

\fbox{text}

\makebox \framebox .
10.1.1

\settowidth{cmd-length}{text}
\settoheight{cmd-length}{text}
\settodepth{cmd-length}{text}
, text
cmd-length. \newlength.
10.1.2

\raisebox{offset}[h][d]{text}
text, offset . h
d . TEX,
.
10.1.3

\newsavebox{cmd}

30

cmd
\savebox{cmd}[width][position]{text}
\sbox{cmd}{text}

\begin{lrbox}{cmd} text

\end{lrbox}

cmd text. \savebox


, \makebox. text lrbox ,
\verb verbatim.
\usebox{cmd}

10.2

\parbox[align][height][inner-align]{width}{text}
text , width.
align: t b
; c ( )
. height,
inner-align: t, c ( ), b, s , , ,
. inner-align , align.
, , . .
\begin{minipage}[align][height][inner-align]{width}
text
\end{minipage}
minipage , \parbox.

10.3

\rule[offset]{width}{hight}
width hight, offset .

11

\begin{tabular}[align]{keys}
strings
\end{tabular}
, , ,
( table, ).
align .
: t, c ( ) b.
. t b ,
. ,

31

(. ),
.
keys. l, c, r p{width}: . l, c r
, . (l)
(r) (c). p{width} ,
width,
. \\
array, tabular, minipage, text \parbox,
\centering, \raggedleft \raggedright.

\tabcolsep
, slides, 6 pt.
l, c, r p{width}, keys |
@{text}. |
. @{text} :
text . @{}
.
| @{..} , ( ).
@-
\extracolsep{length}
length ,
.
, keys
*{n}{keys}, n , keys
. keys: |c|*{3}{p{5cm}|}.
&.
, , .
,
keys. . \\ (
\\[length])
\tabularnewline[length]
length .
\\ \tabularnewline . ,
,
\hline

\cline{i-j}

, i-
j- . , @-,
\vline
.

\multicolumn{n}{keys}{text}
n (n = 1, 2, . . .).

\renewcommand
\arraystretch
32

1.

\arrayrulewidth
, \hline, \cline
\vline. , slides, 0.4 pt.
,
\doublerulesep
. , slides, 2 pt.

11.1

array

array tools tabular.


, .
| : , .
!{text} text . @{..},
.
m{width} b{width} , width, m{..}
, b{..} , .
>{before} <{after} ,
(l, c, r, p{..}, m{..} b{..}) before
after. , >{\bfseries}c ,
\bfseries. , >{\(}c<{\)}
.

\newcolumntype{name}[n]{definition}
name c n definition (
, \newcommand). : \newcolumntype{B}{>{\bfseries}c}.
\showcols log- ,
.
tabular array ,
\extrarowheight
.
() t (b) , ()

\firsthline

\lasthline

\hline, , tabular, ,
, .
\firsthline \lasthline
.

\extratabsurround
2 pt.
33

11.2


\begin{tabular}{width}[align]{keys}
strings
\end{tabular}
width: , .
. ( )
, , .
@{\extracolsep{\fill}}. tabular tabular, array tabular
.
tabularx tools
\begin{tabularx}{width}[align]{keys}
strings
\end{tabularx}
width, ,
tabular, . ,
LATEX, keys X.
p{..}. m{..} b{..} array,
tabularx.
\tabularxcolumn{col.width}
\newcommand{\tabularxcolumn}[1]{p{#1}}. ,
\renewcommand{\tabularxcolumn}[1]{m{#1}}
X m{..}.
X, .
, ,
\hsize
X . , keys XX
>{\setlength{\hsize}{.5\hsize}X>{\setlength{\hsize}{1.5\hsize}X
. , ,
! X :
\multicolumn.
tabularx , .
\centering, \raggedleft \raggedright,

\arraybackslash
tabularx \footnote.
: \verb tabularx
%; , .

34

11.3

longtable
\begin{longtable}[position]{keys}
strings
\end{longtable}
. .
position l,
c ( ) r. , l r
.
keys, , tabular.
array , .
.
, , , . , , , ,
.
longtable . , . ,

\endfirsthead
.
, . ,
\endhead
, . ,

\endfoot
, . , ,
,
\endlastfoot
.

\caption[entry]{head}
, , \caption table,
Table, , head.
, entry, head .
\caption : \caption[]{head}.
.
\caption{head}
, .
,
\LTleft

\LTright

, \fill.
\setlength. , .

\LTpre

\LTpost
35

\bigskipamount.
\LTcapwidth
4 .

12
12.1

, (, . .), , : LATEX
, .

\begin{figure}[placement] . . .
\begin{table}[placement]
...

\end{figure}
\end{table}

. ,

\begin{figure}[placement]
\begin{table}[placement]

...
...

\end{figure}
\end{table}

. placement
. :
h .
- .
t .
b .
p , .
! , .
.
tbp.
\clearpage \cleardoublepage LATEX
, .

\suppressfloats[key]
, . . ,
t b, ! . key t b,
, .

\caption[entry]{head}
: Figure figure Table table,
,
head. , entry, head .

36

Figure Table
\figurename

\tablename

\renewcommand. babel russian . .


, ,
LATEX. caption2.

\captionlabeldelim

\renewcommand{\captionlabeldelim}{.}
12.1.1

topnumber

bottomnumber

totalnumber

,
, . 2, 1 3.
,
, ,

dbltopnumber
2.
! ,
.
12.1.2

\topfraction

\bottomfraction

, , . 0.7 0.3.
, , , ,

\dbltopfraction
0.7.

\textfraction
, .
0.2.

\floatpagefraction

\dblfloatpagefraction

,
- . 0.5. ,
p ,
.
37

, , \renewcommand.
! ,
.
12.1.3

, , .

\intextsep
,
h. 12 pt.

\textfloatsep

\dbltextfloatsep

- , t b. 20 pt.

\floatsep

\dblfloatsep

- , t b. 12 pt.

12.2

floatflt floatingfigure floatingtable


, .
, ,
. : rflt, lflt vflt.
vflt
. rflt lflt
.
floatingfigure :
\begin{floatingfigure}[position]{width}

figure \end{floatingfigure}

width , figure. position


. r, l p
, rflt, lflt vflt. v ,
.
, figure, \caption.
floatingtable :
\begin{floatingtable}[position]{tabular environmemt}
[\caption{text}]
\end{floatingtable}
tabular ( \parbox) . position ,
floatingfigure.
, table, \caption.
LATEX
. ,
.

38

12.3

\marginpar[left-text]{text}
text .
,
: .
.
left-text , .
\reversemarginpar
,
\normalmarginpar
.
,
, \marginpar. ,
.
, . , ,
. 1, . 7.

13
13.1

LATEX . encoding , , .
OT1. T2A. : family
, series , shape , size .
. ,
.
(encoding, family . .) , LATEX , , , .

. fd. . , Computer Modern Roman OT1
ot1cmr.fd.
LATEX . 13.2 13.5.

13.2

\rmfamily

\sffamily

\ttfamily

family,
\rmdefault

\sfdefault

\ttdefault

cmr, cmss cmtt Computer Modern.


,

39

\renewcommand{\rmdefault}{ptm}
Computer Modern Roman Adobe Times Roman,
family ptm ( psnfss).
\rmdefault, \sffamily \ttfamily family
( Times), ( Helvetica Arial) (
Courier).
, family
\rmdefault, \familydefault.

\textrm{text}

\textsf{text}

\texttt{text}

\fontfamily \usefont, 13.6,


.

13.3

\mdseries

\bfseries

series,
\mddefault

\bfdefault

m (medium) b (bold).
, series
\mddefault, \seriesdefault.

\textmd{text}

\textbf{text}

\fontfamily \usefont, 13.6,


.

13.4

\upshape

\itshape

\slshape

\scshape

shape,
\updefault

\itdefault

\sldefault

\scdefault

: n (normal), it (italic), sl (slanted) sc (small caps),


, , .
, shape
\updefault, \shapedefault.

\textup{text}

\textit{text}

\textsl{text}

\textsc{text}

\fontfamily \usefont, 13.6,


.

\emph{text}
text ,
, .
40

13.5

, , 13.5.
, .
1: size 10pt, 11pt 12pt .

\tiny
\scriptsize
\footnotesize
\small
\normalsize

5pt
7pt
8pt
9pt
10pt

size
6pt 6pt
8pt 8pt
9pt 10pt
10pt 11pt
11pt 12pt

\large
\Large
\LARGE
\huge
\Huge

12pt
14pt
17pt
20pt
25pt

size
12pt
14pt
17pt
20pt
25pt

14pt
17pt
20pt
25pt
25pt


13.6 \fontsize.

13.6

\fontencoding{encoding}
encoding. ,
\fontfamily{family}

\fontseries{series}

\fontshape{shape}

family, series shape.


\fontsize{size}{baselineskip}
size , baselineskip
. baselineskip 1520 % , size. ,
12 pt 10 pt.
\font... .
, ,
\selectfont
\font... \selectfont ( ). ,
\fontencoding{U}\fontfamily{psy}\selectfont ...
Adobe Symbol ( psnfss).

\usefont{encoding}{family}{series}{shape}
, , . ,

\usefont{T1}{pzc}{m}{it} ...
Adobe Zapf Chancery ( psnfss).

\symbol{code}
code . ( 0
255), .
, ".
41

13.7


\normalfont

\textnormal{text}
, .

14
14.1

\newcommand{cmd}[integer][default]{definition}
cmd. definition.
. integer 1 9 . default. definition
#n, n . ,
\newcommand{\F}[2][N]{#2_0,\ldots,#2_{#1}}
\F , N. , $\F[k]{x}$ x0 , . . . , xk , $\F{y}$ y0 , . . . , yN .

\providecommand{cmd}[integer][default]{definition}
cmd, ,
.
cmd
\renewcommand{cmd}[integer][default]{definition}

14.2

\newenvironment{name}[integer][default]{begdef }{enddef }
name. \begin{name} begdef, \end{name}
enddef. . integer 1
9 . default.
begdef enddef #n, n .
name
\renewenvironment{name}[integer][default]{begdef }{enddef }

14.3

*-

-. , , -
: - \par.
, , .
42

15

15.1

#, $, %, &, {, } _, LATEX ,

\#

\$

\%

\&

\{

\}

\_

\^ \~ {}.
\textasciicircum

\textasciitilde

: ^ ~. \
\textbackslash

15.2

LATEX , . () 2,
o, .
2: ().
\{o}
\.{o}
\H{o}

o`
o
o

\{o}
\"{o}
\c{o}

o
o
o

\^{o}
\c{o}
\d{o}

o
o
o.

\~{o}
\u{o}
\b{o}

o
o
o

\={o}
\v{o}
\t{oo}

\k{o}(a)

o
o

oo

(a) fontenc T1.

3 4 , .
. 4
T1. fontenc T1.
3: .
\aa
\oe

\AA
\OE

\ae
\l

\AE
\L

\o
\ss

\O
\SS

SS

!
?

4: T1.
\dh

\DH

\dj

\DJ

\ng

\NG

\th

\TH

chef-duvre () tete-`a-tete ( ) chef-d\oe{}uvre t\^{e}te-\{a}-t\^{e}te. bloe ()


bl\"{o}\ss{}e.

15.3
. . . . . . .
. ,
. OT1
".
43

(. . . ) (. . . ) (
, ). , , . . .
. . . .
babel russian,
<< >> "< ">,
,, " ".
T1 :
\guillemotleft
\guilsinglleft
\quotedblbase

\guillemotright
\guilsinglright
\quotesinglbase

\textquotedbl

"

fontenc T1.

15.4
- ,
daughter-in-law X-axis. -- ,
, , 1013. --- .
. , , \textendash
\textemdash .
russian babel ,
.
"--- . . , , .
, . ,
. , ,
.
, , , "--~. , ,
. "--~
, ("--~).
.
, "--*.
.

15.5
5 6 LATEX.
.
5: .
\dag
\ddag

\S
\P

\copyright
\textcircled{a}

a
O

\pounds
\dots

...

\No(a)

(a) russian babel

6: .
\textasteriskcentered
\textperiodcentered

\textless
\textbar

44

<
|

\textgreater
\textbullet

>

15.6

textcomp

textcomp ,
TS1 ( Text Companion). 7 8.
, txfonts.
7: textcomp.
\textminus
\texttimes

\textpm
\textdiv

\textleftarrow
\textrightarrow

\textuparrow
\textdownarrow

8: textcomp.
\textcelsius
\textonehalf
\textonesuperior

\textdegree
\textonequarter
\texttwosuperior

45

\textohm
\textthreequarters
\textthreesuperior


3
! ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .
" () . . . . . . . . . . . .
" ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .
"--* ( ) . . . . . . . .
"--- ( ) . . . . . . . .
"--~ ( ) . . . . . . . . .
"< ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .
"> ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .
" ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .
% ...............
() . . . . . . . . . . . .
( ) . . . . . . . . . . .
\, . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
,, ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .
\- . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
- (-) . . . . . . . . . . . .
-- ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .
--- ( ) . . . . . . . . . .
<< ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .
>> ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .
? ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .
\@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\ ..............
\" ( ) . . . . . .
\# ( # ) . . . . . . . . . . .
\$ ( $ ) . . . . . . . . . . .
\% ( % ) . . . . . . . . . .
\& ( & ) . . . . . . . . . . .
\ ( ) . . . . . .
\. ( ) . . . . . .
\= ( ) . . . . . .
\AA ( ) . . . . . . . . . .
\AE ( ) . . . . . . . . .
\DH ( ) . . . . . . . . . .
\DJ ( ) . . . . . . . . . .
\H ( ) . . . . . .
\L ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .
\NG ( ) . . . . . . . . . .
\No ( ) . . . . . . . . .
\O ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .
\OE ( ) . . . . . . . . .
\P ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .
\S ( ) . . . . . . . . . . .
\SS ( SS ) . . . . . . . . .
\TH ( ) . . . . . . . . . .
\\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\\ . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\^ ( ) . . . . . .
\_ ( _ ) . . . . . . . . . . .
\ ( ` ) . . . . . .
\aa ( ) . . . . . . . . . .
\ae ( ) . . . . . . . . . .
\b ( ) . . . . . .
\c ( ) . . . . . .
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\copyright ( ) . . . . . .
\d ( . ) . . . . . . . . . .
\dag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\ddag ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . .
\dh ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\dj ( d ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\dots ( . . . ) . . . . . . . . . . .
\guillemotleft ( ) . . .
\guillemotright ( ) . .
\guilsinglleft ( ) . . .
\guilsinglright ( ) . .
\k ( ) . . . . . . . . . .
\l ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\ng ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\o ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\oe ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\pounds ( ) . . . . . . . . . .
\quotedblbase ( ) . . . .
\quotesinglbase ( ) . .
\ss ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\t (  ) . . . . . . . . .
\textasciicircum ( ^ ) .
\textasciitilde ( ~ ) . .
\textasteriskcentered
(*) . . . . . . . . . . . .
\textbackslash ( \ ) . . .
\textbar ( | ) . . . . . . . . . .
\textbullet ( ) . . . . . .
\textcelsius ( C ) . . . .
\textdegree ( ) . . . . . .
\textdiv ( ) . . . . . . . . .
\textdownarrow ( ) . . .
\textgreater ( > ) . . . . .
\textleftarrow ( ) . .
\textless ( < ) . . . . . . . .
\textminus ( ) . . . . . . .
\textohm ( ) . . . . . . . . .
\textonehalf ( ) . . . . .
\textonequarter ( ) . .
\textonesuperior ( ) .
\textperiodcentered ( )
\textpm ( ) . . . . . . . . . .
\textquotedbl ( " ) . . . .
\textrightarrow ( ) .
\textthreequarters ( )
\textthreesuperior ( )
\texttimes ( ) . . . . . . .
\texttwosuperior ( ) .
\textuparrow ( ) . . . . .
\th ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\u ( ) . . . . . . . . . .
\v ( ) . . . . . . . . . .
\{ ( { ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\} ( } ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\~ ( ) . . . . . . . . . .

, .

46

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( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
a
abstract . . . . . . .
\abstractname . . .
\addcontentsline
\addtocontents . .
\addtocounter . . .
\addtolength . . . .
\addvspace . . . . . .
alltt . . . . . . . . . .
\Alph . . . . . . . . . . .
\alph . . . . . . . . . . .
\alsoname . . . . . . .
\and . . . . . . . . . . . .
\appendix . . . . . . .
\appendixname . . .
\arabic . . . . . . . . .
\arraybackslash .
\arrayrulewidth .
\arraystretch . . .
\Asbuk . . . . . . . . . .
\asbuk . . . . . . . . . .
\author . . . . . . . . .

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33
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. 8

b
\backmatter . . . . .
\baselinestretch
\bfdefault . . . . . .
\bfseries . . . . . . .
\bibindent . . . . . .
\bibitem . . . . . . . .
\bibname . . . . . . . .
\bigskip . . . . . . . .
\bigskipamount . .
\bottomfraction .

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22
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c
\caption . . . . . . . . . .
\caption . . . . . . . . .
\captionlabeldelim
center . . . . . . . . . . .
\centering . . . . . . . .
\chapter . . . . . . . . . .
\chaptername . . . . . .
\cite . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\cleardoublepage . .
\clearpage . . . . . . . .
\cline . . . . . . . . . . . .
\columnsep . . . . . . . .
\columnseprule . . . .
comment . . . . . . . . . .
\contentsname . . . . .

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35, 36
. 35
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. 28
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. 24
. 32
. 15
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.. 6
. 11

d
\date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\dblfloatpagefraction
\dblfloatsep . . . . . . . .
\dbltextfloatsep . . . .
\dbltopfraction . . . . .
\DeleteShortVerb . . . .
\depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
description . . . . . . . .
document . . . . . . . . . . . .
\documentclass . . . . . . .
\dotfill . . . . . . . . . . . .
\doublerulesep . . . . . .

8
37
38
38
37
29
30
26
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20
33

e
\emph . . . . . . . . . . . .
\endfirsthead . . . .
\endfoot . . . . . . . . .
\endhead . . . . . . . . .
\endinput . . . . . . . .
\endlastfoot . . . . .
\Eng . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\English . . . . . . . . .
\enlargethispage .
\enlargethispage
enumerate . . . . . . .
\evensidemargin . .
\externaldocument
\extracolsep . . . . .
\extrarowheight . .
\extratabsurround

40
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\fboxrule . . . . . . . . .
\fboxsep . . . . . . . . . .
figure . . . . . . . . . . .
figure . . . . . . . . . .
\figurename . . . . . . .
filecontents . . . . .
filecontents . . . .
\fill . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\firsthline . . . . . . .
floatingfigure . . .
floatingtable . . . .
\floatpagefraction
\floatsep . . . . . . . . .
\flushbottom . . . . . .
flushleft . . . . . . . .
flushright . . . . . . .
\fnsymbol . . . . . . . . .
\fontencoding . . . . .
\fontfamily . . . . . . .
\fontseries . . . . . . .
\fontshape . . . . . . . .
\fontsize . . . . . . . . .
\footnote . . . . . . . . .
\footnotemark . . . . .
\footnoterule . . . . .

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\footnotesep . .
\footnotesize .
\footnotetext .
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\headsep . . . .
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\include . . . .
\includeonly
\indent . . . . .
\index . . . . . .
\indexname . .
\indexspace .
\input . . . . . .
\intextsep . .
\itdefault . .
\item . . . . . . .
\itemindent .
itemize . . . .
\itemsep . . . .
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\label . . . . . . .
\labelenumi . .
\labelenumii .
\labelenumiii
\labelenumiv .
\labelitemi . .
\labelitemii .
\labelitemiii
\labelitemiv .
\labelsep . . . .
\labelwidth . .
\LARGE . . . . . . .
\Large . . . . . . .
\large . . . . . . .
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\leftmargin . .
\linebreak . . .

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\linespread . . . .
list . . . . . . . . . .
\listfigurename
\listfiles . . . . .
\listoffigures .
\listoftables . .
\listparindent .
\listtablename .
longtable . . . . .
lrbox . . . . . . . . .
\LTcapwidth . . . .
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m
\mainmatter . . . .
\makebox . . . . . . .
\makeglossary . .
\makeindex . . . . .
\MakeShortVerb .
\maketitle . . . . .
\marginpar . . . . .
\marginparpush .
\marginparsep . .
\marginparwidth
\markboth . . . . . .
\markright . . . . .
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\newblock . . . . . . .
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\newcommand . . . .
\newcounter . . . . .
\newenvironment .
\newenvironment
\newlength . . . . . .
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\newsavebox . . . . .
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\nofrenchspacing
\noindent . . . . . . .
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o
\oddsidemargin . . . . . . . 7
\onecolumn . . . . . . . . . . 15
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\pageref . . . . . . .
\pagestyle . . . . .
\par . . . . . . . . . . .
\paragraph . . . . .
\parbox . . . . . . . .
\parindent . . . . .
\parsep . . . . . . . .
\parskip . . . . . . .
\part . . . . . . . . . .
\partname . . . . . .
\partopsep . . . . .
\postmulticols .
\premulticols . .
\printindex . . . .
\providecommand
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\ref . . . . . . . . . . . . .
\refname . . . . . . . . .
\refstepcounter . .
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\renewenvironment
\renewenvironment
\reversemarginpar
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\Roman . . . . . . . . . . .
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\rule . . . . . . . . . . . .
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\Russian . . . . . . . . .

. . 24
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.... 6
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\savebox . . . .
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\settodepth . . . . .
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\slshape . . . . . . . .
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\smallskipamount
\stepcounter . . . .
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\tabcolsep . . . . . .
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\tablename . . . . . .
\tableofcontents
tabular . . . . . . . .
tabular . . . . . . .
\tabularnewline .
tabularx . . . . . . .
\tabularxcolumn .
\textbf . . . . . . . . .
\textcircled . . . .
\textcyrillic . . .
\textfloatsep . . .
\textfraction . . .
\textheight . . . . .
\textit . . . . . . . . .
\textmd . . . . . . . . .
\textnormal . . . . .
\textrm . . . . . . . . .
\textsc . . . . . . . . .
\textsf . . . . . . . . .
\textsl . . . . . . . . .
\texttt . . . . . . . . .
\textup . . . . . . . . .
\textwidth . . . . . .
\thanks . . . . . . . . .
thebibliography
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48

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\tiny . . . . . . .
\title . . . . . .
titlepage . .
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\topfraction
\topmargin . .
\topsep . . . . .
\totalheight
trivlist . . .
\ttdefault . .
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\twocolumn . .

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\updefault . .
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\usecounter .
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\usepackage .

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\value . . . .
\verb . . . . .
\verb . . . .
verbatim .
verbatim
\vfill . . . .
\vline . . . .
\vpageref .
\vspace . . .
\vspace . .

w
\width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

10pt . . . . . . . . . .
11pt . . . . . . . . . .
12pt . . . . . . . . . .
a4paper . . . . . . .
a5paper . . . . . . .
b5paper . . . . . . .
draft . . . . . . . . .
executivepaper
final . . . . . . . . .
fleqn . . . . . . . . .
landscape . . . . .
legalpaper . . . .
leqno . . . . . . . . .
letterpaper . . .
notitlepage . . .
onecolumn . . . . .
oneside . . . . . . .
openany . . . . . . .
openbib . . . . . . .
openright . . . . .
titlepage . . . . .
twocolumn . . . . .

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5
5
5
5
5
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5

twoside . . . . . . . . . . . 5

alltt . . . .
array . . .
babel . . .
caption2 .
cite . . . .
fancyhdr .
floatflt . .
fontenc . .
indentfirst

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29
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inputenc
layout . .
longtable
makeidx
multicol
shortvrb
tabularx
textcomp
varioref
verbatim
xr . . . .

...
...
..
...
...
...
...
..
...
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49

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bottomnumber
dbltopnumber
enumi . . . . . . .
enumii . . . . . .
enumiii . . . . .
enumiv . . . . . .
secnumdepth .
tocdepth . . . .
topnumber . . .
totalnumber .
unbalance . . .

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37
37
25
25
25
25
. 9
11
37
37
16