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'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 1

tcef; (1)

'Drdkua&pDrdwfquf

'Drdkua&pDqdkonfrSm
(Democracy)
'Drdkua&pDqkdonfrSm EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:w&yfr[kwfyg? 0g'w&yfr[kwfyg? vl@tzJG@tpnf;ESifh EkdifiHawmfukd
tkyfcsKyf&mwGifusifhoHk;aom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfw&yfomjzpfonf? Aristocracy, Autocracy,
Bureaucra- cy, Democracy paom a0g[m&rsm;. tqH;k owf 'cracy' [laoma0g[m&onf
tkyfcsKyfa&;[k t"dy`g,f &onf? 'Drkdua&pDpepf okd@r[kwf 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHa&;pepf[k ajymqkdoHk;pJG&mwGifvnf;
'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepf ukd tajccHaomEkdifiHa&;pepfudkom &nf!Gef;jcif;jzpfonf? 'Drkdua&pDukd
EkdifiHa&;pepfw&yftjzpf
&+jrif&efr
[kwfyJ
EkdifiHa&;pepf}uD;wckvHk;xJrS
jynfolrsm;
trsm;oabmwlnDvufcHonfh EkdifiHa&;oDtkd&Djzpfaom tkyf csKyfa&;pepftjzpf &+jrif&efjzpfonf? xkd@a-umifh
'Drkdua&pDonf tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfw&yfomjzpfonf?
Democracy [laom a0g[m&onf *&dbmomrS qif;oufvmjcif;jzpf_yD; demos ESifh
kratia(kratia rSw qifh cracy jzpfvm) ukd aygif;pyfjcif;jzpfonf? demos .t"dy`g,frSm
jynfolrsm;[lIjzpf_yD; kratia . t"dy`g,frSm tkyfcsKyfjcif; okd@r[kwf tm%m[lI t"dy`g,f&onf?
'Drkdua&pDqkdonfrSm jynfolvlxku wkduf &kduftkyfcsKyfjcif;[k t"dy`g,f&onf? ,if;rSm 'Drdkua&pD.
t&kd;&Sif;qHk;ESifh a&S;tusqHk; t"dy`g,fjzpfonf?
rsufarSmufacwfwGif 'Drkdua&pDusifhoHk;jcif;ESifh t"dy`g,faumuf,l&mwGif uJGjym;jcm;em;r+rsm; &Sdvmygonf?
jynfolrsm;qkdonfrSm rnfolwdk@enf;? if;wkd@udk rnfolwkd@u ukd,fpm;yoenf;? tm%m odk@r[kwf tkyfcsKyf
a&;qdkonfudk rnfolwkd@u rnfokd@ usifhoHk;-uoenf;? ponfht"dy`g,faumuf,lr+ uJGjym;jcif;tay:
urBmay: wGif 'Drkdua&pDukd tuJGuJGtjym;jym; usifhoHk;aeonfukd awG@&onf? qkdvkdonfrSm 'Drkdua&pDudk
txl;y emr0daoo wvHk;vHk;ESifh wJGzuftoHk;y-ujcif;jzpfonf? rnfokd@yif uJGjym;jcm;em;aom
emr0daooESifhwGJ zufxm;onfh 'Drdkua&pD jzpfapumrl 'Drkdua&pD[laoma0g[m&yg&Sdaeoa&G@
a,bk,soabmw&m; (basic concept) um; twlwlom jzpf&ayrnf?
'Drkdua&pDudk B.C ig;&mpkcef@ *&drd@jyEkdifiHi,frsm;(city states) wGif pwifusifhoHk;cJhonf?
'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyf a&;pepfatmufwGif atoifrd@om;rsm;twGuf Oya'a&SarSmufwGif tcGifhta&;wlnDr+/
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 2

v$wfawmftwGif;Y ajyma&;qkdcGifhnDwlnDr#&Sdr+wkd@udk azmfaqmifxm;-uonf? jynfolrsm;[k t"dy`g,f&aom


demo onf jynfol vlxktm; tkyfcsKyfrnfh Oya'rsm; a&;qJGjyXmef;olrsm; jzpfojzifh jynfolrsm;onf
tcsKyftjcmtm%m
&Sdaom
tkyfcsKyfolrsm;jzpfvmonf?
xkd@a-umifh
'Drkdua&pDonf
vltenf;pkuav;uom
tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrsm;
jzpfonfh
t&pPwkdua&pD(aristocracy)/
atmfvD*gcD(oligarchy) wkd@ESifhvnf;aumif;/ vlwOD;wa,mufwnf;u tkyf csKyfaompepfrsm;jzpfonfh
oufOD;qHydkifbk&ifpepf(absolute monarchy) atmfwkdua&pD(autocracy) wkd@ESifhvnf;aumif;
jcm;em;onhf jynfol@tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfjzpfonf? 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfwGif tkyfcsKyfa&; ,EW,m;rsm;Y
jynfolwkd@ukd,fwkdifjzpfap/ ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;jzpfap yg0ifaeonf? xkd@a-umifh 'Drkdua&pDonf
tm%m&Sdolwkd@uom tkyfcsKyfa&;,EW,m;tm;vHk;ukd xdef;csKyfxm;onfh pepfrsm;jzpfonfh tm%mydkiftm
%m&Sif0g' (authoritarianism) wygwDtm%m&Sifpepf(totalitarianism) wkd@twGif;Y
rjzpfay:Ekdifonhf tkyfcsKyfa&; pepfrsKd;jzpfonf?
Demos [laom jynfolrsm;wGif rnfolwkd@yg0ifonf[laom tcsufESifhygwfoufI 'Drkd ua&pDorkdif;w
av#muf uJGjym;r+/ ajymif;vJr+rsm;&SdcJhonf? B.C ajcmuf&mpkESifh ckepf&mpkrsm;wGif jynfolrsm;[laom
a0g[m& .y&0k%ftwGif;yg0ifaom vlpo
k nf 'Drkdua&pD pwifxGef;um;aom B.C ig;&mpkwGif jynfolrsm;[k
&nf
!Gef;aoma0g[m&.
abmiftwGif;&Sd
vlpkxuf
usOf;ajrmif;onf?
EkdifiHa&;wGif
yl;aygif;aqmif&GufEkdifaom
t
cGifhta&;/
rJay;EkdfifaomtcGifhta&;rsm;onf
rsufarSmufacwf
taetxm;wGif&Sdaom tajctaeodk@ tqifh qifh ausmfjzwfajymif;vJvmcJh&onf? xkdajymif;vJr+jzpfpOf
wav#mufwGif rnfolwkd@onf jynforl sm;jzpfo enf;qkdonfhar;cGef;udk &+awmifhaygif;pHkrS tacstwif
aqG;aEG;cJh-uonfudk jrifawG@cJh&onf? ,ae@tcsdefxd t ouf(18)ESpf rjynfhao;olrsm;onf rJay;cGifh/
Oya'ESifhtnD EkdifiHa&;wGif yl;aygif;aqmif&GufcGifh r&=uao;ay? xkdolrsm;onf EkdifiHwck okd@r[kwf
vl@tzJG@tpnf;wck. jynfolrsm;jzpfaomfvnf; 'Drkdua&pDa0g[m&u &nf!Gef;aom rJay;cGifh&
jynfolrsm;um; r[kwfay?
wkduf&kduf'Drkdua&pD
jynfol@tkyfcsKyfa&;vkyfief;rsm; csrw
S f&mwGif EkdifiHa&;ygwDtp&Sdaom -um;cHtqifhr&SdbJ jynfolvlxk}uD;w&yf
vHk; tm%mykdifpkd;um 0ifa&mufvkyfaqmifjcif;udk wkduf&kduf'Drdkua&pD [kac:onf? 'Drkdua&pD pwifxGef;um;cJh
aom *&drd@jyEkdifiHi,fav;rsm;wGif B.C ig;&mpku usifhoHk;cJhaom 'Drkdua&pDonf wdkuf&kduf'Drkdua&pDjzpfonf?
vlOD;a&enf;_yD; tcsif;csif;qufqHr+yvkyf&mwGif vG,fulaom vl@tzJG@tpnf;twGif;Yom wkduf&kduf'Drkd ua&
pDukd usifhoHk;Ekdif=uonf? tar&duefwGif 17=18 &mpk ESpfrsm;twGif;u rd@jytpnf; ta0;rsm;yvkyf=u&mwGif
wkduf&kduf'Drkdua&pDudk usifhoHk;cJhonf? vl@tzJG@tpnf;onf ao;i,f_yD; qufqHa&;vG,fulaom urBm@tcsKd@t
&yfa'orsm;wGif wkduf&kduf'Drdkua&pDukd usifhoHk;aeqJjzpfonfukd awG@&onf? t*Fvef tcsKd@t&yfa'orsm;ESifh
a0ve,fwGifvnf;aumif;/ tar&duefjynfaxmifpk tcsKd@jynfe,frsm;wGifvnf;aumif;/ qGpfZmvefjynf
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 3

axmifpk. tcsKd@uefwGef (Canton- qGpfZmvefjynfaxmifpk tzJG@0ifjynfe,f)rsm;wGifvnf;aumif;


usifhoHk; aeqJjzpfonf?
vlOD;a&rsm;jym;aom EkdifiH}uD;rsm;tm;vHk;vdkvkd ukd,fpm;y'Drkdua&pDudk usifhoHk;=uonf? odk@aomf tcsKd@EkdifiH
rsm;wGif tcsKd@aomudpPrsm; jynfolvlxku wkduf&kdufyg0ifygwfoufEkdifaom 'Drkdua&pD vkyf[efrsm;udk usifhoHk;
ae-uonf? xkdvkyf[efum; vlxkqENcH,lyJG (refremdum) yifjzpfonf? qGpfZmvef/ jyifopf/ 'def;rwf/ o pa-w;vsESifh tar&duef jynfaxmifpk. tcsKd@jynfe,frsm;tygt0if ,ae@ 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiH[k owfrSwfcH&
aom EdkifiHwcsKd@wGif usifhoHk;v#uf&Sd-uonf? xdkvlxkqENcH,lyJGrsm;onf oufqkdif&m EkdifiHa&; udpP&yfrsm;t
wGuf wkduf&kduf'Drkdua&pDjzifh qHk;jzwfcsufcH,ljcif;jzpfonf?

ukd,fpm;y'Drkdua&pD
(Representative Democracy)
vlOD;a&rsm;jym;aom EkdifiHrsm;wGif 'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk usifhoHk;&mwGif jynfolrsm;tm;vHk; wkduf&kdufyg
0ifcGifh&&ef tcuftcJrsm;pGm&Sdojzifh udk,fpm;vS,frsm;rSwqifh 'Drkdua&pDudkusifhoHk;aom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk
azmfaqmifusifhoHk;jcif;jzifh ukd,fpm;y'Drkdua&pDpepf ay:vm&onf?
ukd,fpm;y'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepf xGef;um;vm&jcif;. t"duta-umif;t&if;onf vlOD;a&rsm;jym;vm
jcif;a-umifhjzpfonf? 'Drkdua&pDudk ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;rSwqifh usifhoHk;vm&m 'Drdkua&pDudk rxdckdufapEkdifaom
udk,fpm;yapEkdifonfh,EW,m;rsm; azmfaqmifa&;rSm txl;ta&;}uD;aom udpPjzpfvmonf? udk,fpm;y tkyf
csKyfa&;,EW,m; tqifhqifhwGif jynfol@udk,fpm;vS,frsm;yg0ifaeap&ef vdktyfonf? xdk,EW,m;tqifhqifhY
yg0ifolrsm;rSm jynfol@ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; r[kwfbJ tm%mydkifrsm;ukd,fwkdif okd@r[kwf tm%mydkifrsm;. ukd,f
pm;vS,frsm;omjzpfygu tm%m&SiftkyfcsKyfa&;okd@ OD;wnfoGm;ayvdrfhrnf? wkduf&kduf'Drkdua&pDudk usifhoHk;ae
ao;a-umif; txufwGifwifjycJhonfh wcsKd@EdkifiH/ wcsKd@jynfe,frsm;rSwyg; urBm@t&yfa'otm;vHk;wGif ukd,f
pm;y'Drkdua&pDudk usifhoHk;v#uf&dS-uonf? xkda-umifh 'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepf ta-umif;avhvmygu
avh
vmr+trsm;pkonf
udk,fpm;y'Drkdua&pDpepfta-umif;jzpfonf?
wenf;tm;jzifh
'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepft a-umif; avhvm&mwGif ppfrSefaomudk,fpm;yjcif; [kwfr[kwf/ xkdodk@
udk,fpm;yEkdif&ef &kyfywf0ef;usif &Sdr&Sd wkdk@tay: tajcwnfavhvmjcif;jzifh 'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf.
ppfrSefr+&Sdr&Sdudk wGufq-u&onf? xkd@a-umifh udk,fpm;jyK 'Drdkua&pDudk ppfrSefaom udk,fpm;yjcif;/ xkdokd@
ukd,fpm;yEkdif&ef &kyfywf0ef;usif&Sdjcif;wkd@ESifh quf pyf&kyfvHk; azmfoGm;Ekdifonf?
ukd,fpm;yjcif;pepf ay:aygufvmjcif; orkdif;a-umif;
udk,fpm;yjcif;pepf ay:aygufvmjcif;orkdif;a-umif;ESifhpyfv#Of;I tjiif;yGg;zG,f tcsufrsm;&Sdaeonf[k okaw
oDwcsKd@u axmufjy-uonf? 'Drkdua&pDonf a&S;acwf *&dEdkifiHESifh a&mrrd@wdk@wiG f xGef;um;cJhaomfvnf;
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 4

EkdifiH a&;t& udk,fpm;yjcif;pepfudk *&dESifha&mrrd@om;rsm; oabmayguf raygufukd rnfolr#rodacs? ,ck


vlodrsm; aom t*Fvdyfa0g[m& representative onf vufwifbmompum; representare
u qif;oufvmjcif; jzpf_yD; a&S;acwf*&dEkdifiHa&;pum;vHk;rsm;wGif rawG@&a-umif; okawoDrsm;u
axmufjy-uonf?
tv,facwfOa&my(Medieval Europe) EkdifiHrsm;wGif udk,fpm;yjcif;pepfukd pwifusifhoHk;vmonfukd
awG@&onf? bk&ifhw&m;&Hk;rsm;ESifh bk&m;&Sdckd;ausmif;rsm;wGif tr+tcif;rsm;ukd -um;emaomtcg
udk,fpm;vS,f rsm;jzifh aqmif&Gufvm-uonf? udk,fpm;yjcif;pepfudk rd@jypnfyifom,ma&;udpPrsm;wGif
usifhoHk;vm-u onf? xdkrSwqifh EkdifiHa&;e,fedrdwfxJ 0ifa&mufvm_yD; yk*~dKvfwOD;csif;pD. tusKd;pD;ygG;ukd
ukd,fpm;yEkdifolrsm;
jzifh
pkaygif;zJG@pnf;xm;onfh
tzJ@G rsm;udk
azmfaqmifvm-uonf?
Ttqifhokd@a&muf&Sdvmjcif;onf
EkdifiHa&;t
&
wkd;wufr+&&Sdjcif;[k
qkdEkdifouJhokd@
vlOD;a&wkd;wufrsm;jym;vmjcif;a-umifhjzpfonf [kvnf;qdkEdkifonf? xkd tcsdefu udk,fpm;ytzJG@rsm;wGif
rif;rsKd;rif;EG,fwkd@. ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;/ bk&m;&Sdckd;ausmif;rsm;rS ud,
k fpm;vS,f rsm;/ c&dkif/ rd@&Gmrsm;rS
udk,fpm;vS,frsm; ponfjzifh pkaygif;yg0ifae-uonf? xkdoltm;vHk;udk rsufarSmufacwf EdkifiHa&;t&
E+dif;,SOf-unfhv#if tm;vHk;onf jynfol@ukd,fpm;vS,f ppfppfrsm;jzpf-uonf[kum; rqdkEkdif?
udk,fpm;yjcif;pepf tv,facwfuwnf;u Oa&mywGif pwifcJhonf[kom qdkEdkifygonf? xkd@a-umifh xkdt
csdefutpkd;&rsm;udk ukd,fpm;ytpkd;& (represen-tative govemment) rsm;jzpfonf[k
owfrSwf&efum; cufonf?
,aehacwfumvwGif vufcHxm;aom ukd,fpm;yjcif;pepfrSm 16=17 &mpkESpfrsm;twGif;u &SdcJhaom tuGif;
rJhoufOD;qHykdifbk&ifpepfudk ,SOfydiftHwk&mrS ay:xGufvmcJhjcif;jzpfonf? xdkudk,fpm;jyKpepf. t"dutESpfom
&rSm tm%muef@owftpkd;& (limited government)rsm; azmfaqmifa&;jzpfonf? tpkd;&rsm;onf
jynf olvlxkukd tvkyftauG;y&efomjzpfonf? rnfonhfenf;ESifhr# jynfolvlxk. t&SifocifozG,f
rjzpftHhyg [k okawoD b&ifh (A.H. Birch) u a&;om;cJhbl;onf? tpkd;&rsm;onf if;wkd@
ESpfouf&may:vpDudk a&G; cs,jf cif;xuf ttkyftcsKyfcH(jynfol)rsm;u rnfonfht&mrsm;onf
if;wkd@.tusKd;pD;yGg;rsm;jzpfonf[k azmf jyonfhudpPrsm;tm; taumiftxnf az:ay;rnfhay:vpDrsm;
csrSwf&efomjzpfonf?
16=17
&mpkESpfrsm;
twGif;wGif
rnfonfh
t&mwkd@onf
jynfolvlxktusKd;pD;yGg;rsm;jzpfa-umif; tav;ay; awG;ac: xkwfazmfol enf;vSao;onf? rnfokd@yifjzpfap
16=17 &mpku pwifcJhaom jynfolwdk@. tusKd;pD;yGg;ta-umif; awG;ac:r+ onf ,ae@acwf
ukd,fpm;ytpkd;&w&yf ppfrSefr+&Sdr&Sd pOf;pm;csdefxkd;&mwGif pHxm;&onfh tawG;tac:jzpfvm ygonf?
okd@&mwGif xkd&mpkESpfrsm;twGi;f ukd,fpm;vS,fqkdolrsm;rSm rif;rsKd;rif;EG,fESifh bk&m;&Sdckd;ausmif;rsm;.
ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; jzpfaeao;onfudkvnf; awG@&onf? xkdolwkd@onf bk&ifudk t}uHay;&onfh tzJG@tjzpf
wnf&Sdae-uonf?
EkdifiHzJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfykH tajccHOya'ESifhtnDom tkyfcsKyf&rnf[laom tawG;tac:xGef;um;vmaomtcg t
v,facwfESifh 16=17 &mpkESpfrsm;u ukd,fpm;ypepfwGif&SdcJhaom tm;enf;csufrsm;ukd xkwfy,fvkdufEkdif-u
onf? xkdtajctaersKd;wGif bk&ifonf EdkifiHukd ukd,fpm;y&ol taeeJ@om usef&Sd_yD; EkdifiHa&;&mudpPrsm;onf
trSefwu,f jynfolukd ukd,fpm;yEkdifolrsm;. vuftwGif;okd@ a&muf&SdoGm;awmhonf? Ttqifha&muf
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 5

aomtcg udk,fpm;ypepfESifh trsm;qENt& tkyfcsKyfjcif;pepfaygif;pyfum udk,fpm;y'Drdkua&pD xGef;um;vmcJh


onf?
okd@jzifh
tajccHOya'ESifhtnD
tkyfcsKyfaompepf
(constitution-alism)ESifh
ukd,fpm;y'Drkdua&pDwkd@ onf ,SOfwJGxGef;um;vmcJhonf? udk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzihf pkzJG@xm;onfh
ygvDrefonfvnf; udk,fpm;vS,fwOD; csif;pDtaejzihf if;wkd@udk,fpm;y &aomrJqENe,fukd axmufiJh&ouJhodk@
wckvHk;tusKd;pD;yGm;jzpfaom wpfEkdifiH vHk; tusKd;pD;yGm;udk vnf; a&Swef;wif pOf;pm;ay;vm&onf?
acwfopfvpfb&,ftawG;tac: xGef;um;vm;jcif; (18-19 &mpk)
18=19 &mpkrsm;wGif vpfb&,ftawG;tac:rsm; xGef;um;vmjcif;onf 'Drkdua&pDtkyf csKyfa&;pepfckdifrma&;
udk rsm;pGmtaxmuftuljzpfaponf? tm%muef@owftpkd;&rsm; (limited government)
azmfaqmif a&;/ tajccHOya'ESifhtnDtkyfcsKyfaompepf (constitutionalism)rsm; azmfaqmifa&;/
vlyk*~dKvfwOD;csif;pD.
tcGifhta&;rsm;
(in-dividual
rights)
tmrcHcsuf&Sdaom
vl@tzJG@tpnf;wnfaqmufa&;wkd@onf
vpfb
&,f0g'ESifhygwDrsm;.
t"duusaom
tawG;tac:rsm;jzpfvmonf? ,ae@tcg 'Drkdua&pD tpkd;&w&yf [kwf r[kwfudk tuJjzwf&mwGifyif
tqdkygtcsufrsm;ESifh E+dif;,SOf csdefxkd;ae-u&onf? xkd@a-umifh ,ae@xGef;um;ae aom 'Drkdua&pDudk
vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pD (liberal democracy) [kac:-uonf? 'Drdkua&pDudk usifhoHk;&mwGif
vpfb&,f0g'. tajccHoabmw&m;rsm;t& usifhoHk;jcif;jzpfonf[k qdkEdkifonf? ,ae@ ppfrSefaom 'Drkd
ua&pD[k ajymqkdaeaom 'Drdkua&pDonf a,bk,stm;jzifh vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pD[kyif em;vnf&ayrnf?
xkdokd@ 'Drkdua&pDudk vpfb&,f[laom a0g[m&ESifh ,SOfwJGajymqkd&ef &Sdvmonfhtcg if;.E+dif;,SOfbufrsm;t
jzpf jynfol@'Drkdua&pD (people's demo-cracy) [lIvnf;aumif;/ 'Drkdua&pDopf (new
democracy) [lIvnf;aumif; ay: aygufvm&onf?
vpfb&,ftawG;ac:onf 18 &mpkaESmif;ykdif; jyifopfawmfvSefa&;ESifh tar&duefawmf vSefa&;t_yD;wGif
pwifxGef;um;cJhonf[k qkdEkdifaomfvnf; tcdkiftrmay:xGef;vmaom umvrSm 19 &mpk tv,fYjzpfonf?
t*FvefEdkifiHwGif vlvwfwef;pm;rsm;wkd;wuf rsm;jym;vmaomtcg if;wkd@onf bk&if.vkyfykdifcGifhtm%m
rsm;udk ,SOfydiftHwkum woD;yk*~v vGwfvyfcGifhrsm;udkazmfxkwf&if;jzihf 19 &mpktv,fumvrsm;wGif vpf
b&,f tawG;tac:rsm; xGef;um;vmcJhonf? 19 &mpktxd t*FvefEdkifiHa&;wGif EkdifiHa&;ukd,f pm;yr+rsm;udk
tkyfcsKyfa&;/ pD;yGg;a&; tppt&m&m csKyfukdifxm;Ekdifaom ya'o&mZf rsKd;EG,frsm;uom xdef;csKyfxm;EkdifcJh
onf? pufr+vkyfief;rsm; wkd;wufxGef;um;vm_yD; twwfynm&Sif/ todynm&Sif/ tvkyform;ponfh vlwef;
pm;aygif;pHk t*FvefwGif 19 &mpktv,fykdif;Y ay:xGef;vmaomtcg ya'o&mZfrsm;. Ekid if aH &;vuf0g;}uD;
tkyfr+udk
qef@usif,if;jzifh
vpfb&,ftawG;tac:
ckdifrmvmcJhonf?
xkd@a-umifh
vpfb&,ftawG;tac:onf tcGifhtvrf;t&mwGif vlom;tcsif;csif; twef;tpm;ra&G; nDr#r+ukd
azmfaqmifrnfh wOD;csif;vGwfvyfr+ukd OD;xdyfxm;aom tawG;tac:jzpfonf? 'Drkdua&pDonf
vlwef;pm;rcJGjcm;bJ vlyk*~dKvfwOD;csif;pD EkdifiHa&;wGif yl;aygif;aqmif&GufEkdifr+ tcGifhtvrf; nDwlr#wljzpfr+ukd
tmrcHcsufay;onf? vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDonfom vl@ tzJG@tpnf;ESifh udkufnDqHk;aom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf/
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 6

EkdifiHa&;pepfjzpfojzifh urBm}uD;wGif aemufqHk;Y vpfb&,f 'Drkdua&pDonf EkdifiHa&;Y tm;vHk;udk


tpm;xkd;ae&m,loGm;rnf jzpfonf[k tar&duefokawoD zlul,m;rm; (Francis Fukuyama) u
orkdif;vrf; qHk;avm (The End of History? 1989) aqmif;yg;wGif azmfjy cJhonf? okd@aomf
xdkpmtkyfyg tcsKd@tcsufrsm;ESifhywfoufIum; ynm&Sifrsm;t-um;wGif tjiif;yGm;aeqJjzpf onf?
taemufEkdifiHrsm;wGif vlwkdif;twGuf EkdifiHa&;tcGifhtvrf; nDr#r+udk tmrcHaom 'Drkdua&pD EkdifiHa&;p epfukd
vpfb&,f0g' oabmw&m;rsm;u rsm;pGmtaxmuftulyv#uf &Sdonfukd awG@&onf?

tusKd;wltkyfpkrsm;ESifh jynfol@qEN/ jynfol@toH


(Interest groups and public opinion)
'Drdkua&pDonf jynfol@tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf jzpfonfqkdonfESifhtnD jynfol@toHonf 'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;udpP
rsm;wGif a&Swef;rSyg0ifvm&onf? okd@&mwGif jynfol@qE/N jynfol@toH qkdonfukd wpkwpnf;wnf;taejzifh
owfrSwf&efum; tcuftcJ&Sdygonf? jynfolvlxk}uD;wGif tv$maygif;pHk vlrsKd;aygif;pHk bmomaygif;pHk yg0ifae
&um; xkdoltm;vHk;onf wxyfwnf; woHwnf;jzpfaom jynfol@qEN/ jynfol@toH qkdonfukd xkwfazmf
&ef rsm;pGmtcuftcJ&Sdwwfygonf? xkdtcgrsKd;wGif jynfol@qEN/ jynfol@toHrsKd;pHkrSm uJGjym;jcm;em;aom t
v$m/ vlrsKd;/ bmom ponfhe,fy,frsm;rS qif;oufvm&onf? xkdtcg udk,fusKd;pD;yGm;wl&mrsm;jzifh zJG@pnf;
xm;onfh tkyfpkrsm;onf EkdifiHa&;wGif pkaygif;I yg0ifvm-uonf?
tcsKd@u tusKd;wltkyfpkrsm; 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHa&;wGif yg0ifvmjcif;udk a0zef-uonf? txl;ojzifh rmhpf=vDeif
uGefr+epf EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:onf vlwef;pm;tv$ma-umifh jzpfay:vm&aom ukd,fusKd;pD;yGm;tkyfpkudk
qef@ usifa0zefonf? 19 &mpkwGif t*FvefEkdifiHwGif &SdcJhaom 0Spf(Whig)rsm;. EkdifiHa&;v$rf;rkd;r+ukdaxmufjy&if;
tusKd;wltkyfpkrsm; EdkifiHa&;wGifyg0ifvmjcif;udk tqdk;bufrS a0zef-uonf? ,ae@acwfwGifrl 19
&mpkacwfu
0Spftv$m.
EkdifiHa&;ukdcsKyfudkifxm;r+rsKd;
rnfonfhvlwef;pm;w&yfukdr#
'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHa&;pepfwGif cGifhryay? xkd@tjyif vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHrsm;wGif vlvwfwef;pm;
ynmwwfrsm;/
ukefonfrsm;/
tvkyform;rsm;uJh
odk@aom
oufqdkif&mtv$mtoD;oD;.
xkxnfyrm%onf 19 &mpkacwfuESifhrwl }uD;xGm;vmonf? wenf;tm;jzifh 0Spf tv$mukd
z,f&Sm;EkdifcJh_yDjzpfonf?
xkd@tjyif
uGefrlepf0g'u
vl@tzJG@tpnf;ukd
&+jrif&mwGif
twef;tpm;&+awmifhwckwnf;rS &+jrifjcif;jzpfonf? vl@tzJG@tpnf;}uD;wGif twef;tpm;(tv$m)tjyif vl
rsKd;a&;uJGjym;jcm;em;r+/ bmoma&;uJGjym;jcm;em;r+wkd@onf EkdifiHa&;wGif eufeJaomjy\emrsm;tjzpf yg0if
v#uf&Sdonfudk OayuQmjyKIr&ay? qkdAD,uf jynfaxmifpk. uGefrlepfacgif;aqmifrsm;onf &+yfaxG;vSaom
qkdAD,ufjynfaxmifpk. vlrsKd;a&;jy\emrsm;udk twef;tpm;jy\emajz&Sif;v#if vlrsKd;a&;jy\em ajz&Sif;
_yD;jzpfonf [laom t,ltqt& twef;tpm;a&;udo
k m t"duxm; ajz&Si;f cJhonf? vlrsKd;udk udk,fpm;y
v#uf qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpk}uD;rS EkdifiH(15)ck uJGxGufoGm;jcif;onf &+yfaxG;vSaom vlrsKd;a&;jy\emudk
twef;tpm;jy\em ajz&Sif;a&;&+awmifhwckwnf;rS csnf;uyfIr&a-umif; oufaojyvkdufjcif;jzpfonf?
xkd@
a-umifh
twef;tpm;tv$mtjyif
tjcm;aomyHkoeftrsKd;rsKd;
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 7

tusKd;pD;ygG;trsKd;rsKd;udk&nf&G,fvkyfudkifae
aomolrsm;
todtrSwfy&rnfom? xkdtusKd;pD;ygG; trsKd;rsKd;&Sdolrsm;
ajymif;vJzJG@pnf;vkduf-u_yD; EkdifiHa&;wGif yg0ifvm-uonf?

EkdifiHa&;b0xJwGifyg0ifae-uonfukd
wl&mwl&m tusKd;wltkyfpkrsm;tjzpf

tcsKd@aom tusKd;wltkyfpkrsm; tpkd;&ay:vpDudk rsm;pGmv$rf;rkd;Ekdifonfukd awG@&onf? xkdokd@ v$rf;rkd;Ekdifjcif;t


ay: tpkd;&u ajymif;vJrypfEkdifojzifh vlwdkif; wef;wlnDr#jcif;[laom 'Drkdua&pD.tajccHrludk xdckdufa-umif;
tcsKd@ua0zefaxmufjy-uonf? xkd@a-umifh xdkodk@aomrnDr#r+udk xdef;!d&efqkdonfh oabmw&m;t&
tpdk;& udk vkyfykdifcGifhtm%m ykday;a&;ukd tcsKd@u vkdvm;awmif;qkdvm-uonf? xkdtcgrsKd;wGif
tpdk;&tm%monf jynfolvlxkxHrS oufqif;&rnf[laomrlESifh aoGzDoGm;_yD; &Hzef&Hcg tm%m&Sifpepfokd@
OD;wnfoGm;wwfonf? 'Drkdua&pDonf jy\emrsm;udk _idrf;csrf;pGm !dE+dif;tajz&Smjcif;ukd jyXmef;onf?
xkdjyXmef;csuft&
uGm[r+rsm;
udk
tajz!day;rnfh
enf;vrf;rsm;
pkdufxlvm-uonf?
tjcm;aomtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrsm;wGif cGifhryonfh tusKd; wltkyfpkrsm;t-um; jyoemrsm;ajz&Sif;a&;
enf;vrf;rsm;ukd 'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfwGif awG@&SdEdkifonf? xkd@ a-umifh tusKd;wltkyfpkrsm;a-umifh
vl@tzJG@tpnf;wGif
jy\emtcsKd@&SdEkdifaomfvnf;
ajz&Sif;Ekdifrnfhenf;vrf;
rsm;&Sdojzifh
'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfukd xdckdufonf[k tcsKd@u &+jrifjcif;ry-uacs? tusKd;wltkyfpkrsm;onf
rnfokd@aom EkdifiHa&;pepf/ tkyfcsKyfa&; pepf wGifrqkd ay:aygufaernfomjzpfonf?
udk,fusKd;pD;yGm;tkyfpkrsm; 0g tusKd;wltkyfpkrsm;taejzifh EkdifiHa&;wGif yg0ifywfoufjcif;ESifh tpdk;&u ,if;wkd@t
usKd;pD;yGm;twGuf oifhav#mfaom ay:vpDcsrSwfa&;wGif enf;vrf;(3)oG,fjzifh qufpyfay;v#uf&Sdonf? if;
enf;vrf;(3)oG,frSm tpkd;&Xme}uD;rsm;ESifh wkduf&kdufqufoG,faejcif;/
EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;tay: v$rf;rkd;jcif;/
jynfol@qEN/ jynfol@toHukd v$rf;rkd;jcif;jzifh oG,f0kdufqufoG,faejcif;
wkd@jzpfonf?
'Drdkua&pDESifh A[k0k'fvl@tzJG@tpnf;
txufwGif wifjycJhouJhokd@ vl@tzJG@tpnf;wck/ EkdifiHwckwiG f rsm;jym;vSpmG aom tusKd;wltkyfpkrsm; yg0if&yf
wnfae-u_yD; EkdifiHa&;wGif ywfoufv#uf&Sd-uonf? aemuf qufwJGjy\emrsm;onfvnf;
ay:aygufv#uf&Sd
-uonf? 'Drkdua&pD EkdifiHa&;pepfwGif xkjd y\emrsm;udk ajz&Si;f &ef
pepfwusenf;vrf;&SmazGonfhtaejzifh qENtm;vHk; udk,fpm;ycGifh&onfh uGefqkdpDa&;&Sif;'Drkdua&pD
(consociational democracy) [lonfukd tqkdyg vl@tzJG@tpnf;rsm;wGif usifhoHk;vm-uonf?
wenf;tm;jzifh uGefqdkqDa&;&Sif; 'Drdkua&pDonf tusKd; wltkyfpkrsm;. jyoemu EdkifiHa&;wGif eufeufeJeJ
&Sdvmaomtcg xdkjyoemrsm;udk pepfwus ajz&Sif;ay;onfh taejzifh 'Drdkua&pDxJY EdkifiHa&;tpDtrHw&yf
jyKvkyfusifhoHk;jcif;jzpfonf? tusKd;wltkyfpkrsm;tcsif;csif;-um; Yaomfvnf;aumif;/ vlrsKd;uJGrsm;tcsif;csif;um;wGifaomfvnf;aumif;/
bmomuJGtkyfpkrsm;tcsif;csif;-um;
wGifaomfvnf;aumif;/
ta&twGufrsm;olu enf;olukd tEkdif,ljcif;rsKd;rS umuG,fEkdif&ef txl;pDrHjyXmef; csufrsm;jzifh
uGefqkdpDa&;&Sif; 'Drdkua&pDudk az:xkwfusifhoHk;-uonf?
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 8

rwluJGjym;jcm;em;aom vlrsKd;rsm;aexdkifonfh EkdifiHrsm;wGif omref'Drdkua&pD usifhpOf&kd;&kd; jzpfonhf trsm;pk


qENt&tkyfcsKyfjcif;/ tenf;pkqENudkav;pm;jcif; qdkonfhrlw&yfwnf;ESifh jy\emrsm;udkajz&Sif;&efvHkavmuf
r+r&Sday? qkdAD,ufjynfaxmifpkwGif vlrsKd;a&;jy\emrsm;udk uGefrlepfEkdifiHa&;pepfu pepfwusajz&Sif;EkdfifpGrf;
r&SdcJhojzifh aemufqHk; tpGef;a&muftrsKd;om;a&;0g'rsm;u uGefrlepfpepfudk tEdkif&oGm;&onf? qkdAD,ufjynf
axmifpk yduJGjcif;onf 'Drkdua&pD tEkdif&jcif;r[kwfbJ trsKd;om;a&;0g'u tEkdif&jcif;omjzpfa-umif;
tcsKd@ok
awoDrsm;u
oHk;oyf-uonf?
xdk@a-umifh
A[k0k'fvl@tzGJ@tpnf;w&yfwGif
oifhwifhav#mufywfaom jy\em ajz&Sif;a&;enf;vrf;rsm; az:xkwfa&;onf EdkifiHpnf;vHk;nDnGwfpGm
a&&SnfwnfwHhcdkifjrJa&;udk taxmuftul jzpfapaom tcsufjzpfonf?
qGpfZmvefEkdifiHonfvnf; uJGjym;jcm;em;aom vlrsKd;}uD;(4)rsKd;xufrenf; aexkdifonfhEkdifiHjzpf_yD; vlrsKd;a&;uGJ
jym;r+a-umifh jzpfay:vmrnfh jy\emrsm;ukd ausmfv$m;Edkif&eftwGuf uGefqkdpDa&;&Sif;'Drkdua&pDukd pepfwus
usifhoHk;aeonfudk awG@&onf? xkd@twlyif bmomw&m;uJGjym;r+/ EdkdifiHa&;tawG;tac: uJGjym;r+&Sdaom
vl@t
zJG@tpnf;EkdifiHwckukd
pnf;vHk;nD!GwfpGm
wnfwHhaeatmif
Oa&myEkdifiHwcsKd@wGif
uGefqkdpDa&;&Sif;'Ddrkdua&pD p epfwus usifhoHk;v#uf &Sdonf?

'Drkdua&pDESifh EkdkifiHa&;nDr#r_
(Democracy and political equality)
'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHa&;pepfwGif EkdkifiHom;tm;vHk;. EkdifiHa&;nDr#r+udk tmrcHonf? Tae&mwGif EkdifiHa&;nDr#r+qkd
onfrSm tb,fenf; ar;p&m&Sdvmygonf? if;wkd@ukd rnfonfhpHrsm;t& rnfokd@wkdif;wmrnfenf;?
ynm&Sifrsm; t"dy`g,fzGifhqkdcsufukd a,bk,swifjy&v#if EkdifiHa&;nDr#r+qkdonfrSm rJay; cGifh&Sdolwkdif; rJwjym;
pDrJay;cGifh&Sd_yD; xkdrJjym;wkdif;onf wlnDaomwefzdk;&Sd&rnf [lIjzpfonf? qif;&Jcsrf;om/ usm;r/ bmom/ vl
rsKd;/ EkdifiHa&;,Hk-unfr+ cJGjcm;r+r&SdbJ EkdifiHa&;wGif tqifhtwef;wlnDpGm yl;aygif;aqmif&GufcGifhyifjzpfonf?
rJay;ykdifcGifh&Sdaom rJjym;ESifh wefzdk;wlnDjcif;jzpf&ef vkdouJhokd@ xdef;csKyfr+/ _cdrf;ajcmufr+r&SdbJ rJay;cGifh&Sda&;onf
vnf; EkdifiHa&;nDr#r+twGuf r&Sdrjzpfvkdtyfonf?
tcsKd@aomEdkifiHrsm;ESifh EkdifiHa&;pepfrsm;wGif rJay;ykdifcGifh&Sdolwkdif; wlnDaomrJjym;ta&twGuf ay;cGifh&uonf r[kwfay? wkdif;jynftkyfcsKyfol/ ynmwwfol/ pD;yGm;csrf;omol/ tpkd;&0efxrf;/ tvkyform;/
v,form; ponfjzifh tv$mcJGjcm;um rJay;aponfhpepfukd usifhoHk;cJh-uonf? xdkokd@aomrJay;jcif;udk
tav;uJaomrJ ay;pepf(weighted voting system) [kac:onf? tav;uJaomrJay;pepft&
EkdifiHa&;nDr#r+ukd azmf aqmifEkdifrnf r[kwfay?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 9

EdkifiHa&;nDr#r+&Sd&ef vlwOD;csif;pDtvdkuf tcGifhta&; nDr#r+&Sd&rnfjzpf_yD; xdkEkdifiHa&;nDr#r+ &&Sdp&ef vkdtyfaom


tpDtrHrsm; jyKvkyf&ef vdktyfvmonf? Oyrm= a,muFsm; rdef;r tcGifhtvrf;nDr#r+/ vlrsKd;wrsKd;ESifhwrsKd;t
-um; tcGifhtvrf;nDr#r+ ponfwdk@&Sd&ef tpDtrHwcsKd@jyKvkyf&ef vkdtyfvmonf? ae@pOf EkdifiHa&;jy\em
tcsKd@onf nDr#r+&Sdjcif; r&Sdjcif;ukd tajcwnfjiif;cHk&mrS jzpfay:ae-uonf? rnfokd@aom tajctaewGif
nDr#r+
&Sdonf[lIum;
twdtusajym&ef
cufcJvSygonf?
vlr+ody`HokawoDrsm;u
nDr#r+jy\emESifhywfoufI tqHk;owfajz&Sif;Ekdifaom tajctaersKd; rnfonfhtcgwGifr# &Ekdifrnf
r[kwfa-umif;qkd-uonf?
EkdifiHa&;t&
nDr#r+onf
ocsFmbmomnDr#uJhokd@
ody`Henf;t&
oufaojyEdkifonfr[kwfbJ
pdwfcpH m;r+ESifh ykdIoufqkdifae
jcif;a-umifh jzpfonf[kqdkonf?
vlwdkif;onfwlnDpGmjzpfwnfvm-u_yD;
vGwfvyfaomolrsm;jzpf-uonf?
xkd
trSefw&m;onf
jiif;qkdIr&Ekdifaom t&mrsm;jzpfonf [k tar&duef vGwfvyfa&; a-unmpmwrf;a&; om;&mrSm
yg0ifcJhol aomrmhpf*sufzmqef (Thomas Jefferson, 1743-1826) u a&;om;cJhbl;onf?
vlwkdif;onf wlnDpGmarG;zGm;jzpfwnfvm-u&m tcGifhtvrf;t&mwGifvnf; tm;vHk;wef;wljzpfr+udk tmrcH&
rnfjzpfonf?
'Drkdua&pDpepfwGif vlwkd@. tajccHEkdifiHa&;tcGifhta&;qkdif&mwkd@ESifh ywfoufaomudpPrsm;Y nDr#r+udkom tm
rcHonf? vlwkdif;.pD;yGm;a&;ESifh tjcm;&kyfykdif;qkdif&mnDr#r+udk taumiftxnfazmf&ef odk@r[kwf tmrcH&ef
onf 'Drkdua&pD.t"duwm0ef r[kwfawmhbJ 'Drkdua&pDudk usifhoHk;jcif;yaom vl@tzJG@tpnf;twGif;&Sd EkdifiH
a&;pepfukd 0kdif;0ef;wnfaqmufonfh tjcm;aomursm;. wm0efomjzpfonf? tb,fa-umifhqkdaomf
'Drkdua&pDonf tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfomjzpf_yD; pD;yGm;a&;ESifhvlwkd@. tjcm;&kyfykdif;qkdif&m nDwlnDr# wkd;wufa&;oD
tdk&Dw&yf r[kwfjcif;a-umifhjzpfonf?

'Drkdua&pDusifh0wfrsm;
'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfonf taumif;qHk;jzpfonf? tb,fha-umifhqkdaomf tjcm;aomtkyfcsKyfa&;pepf
rsm;onf 'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfxuf qkd;aoma-umifh jzpfonf [k tdENd,EkdifiH vGwfvyfa&;&_yD; yxrOD;
qHk;0ef}uD;csKyfjzpfol ae&l; (Jawaharlal Nehru, 1889-1964) uajymcJhbl;onf? ,ae@tcsdeftxd vl@tzJG@t
pnf;wGif usifhoHk;cJhaom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrsm;xJwGif 'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfonf taumif;qHk;jzpfonf[k
vltrsm;u vufcHxm;Iom 'Drkdua&pDqDokd@ toGiful;ajymif;a&;udk ud;yrf;ae-ujcif; jzpfonf? 'Drkdua&pD
xuf omvGefaomaumif;rGef tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrsm; &Sdonf[k tcsKd@aom tawG;tac:ynm&Sifrsm;ESifh EkdifiHa&;
orm;rsm;u ajymqkdwwf-uonf? xkdokd@ ajymqkdcsufrSefonf rSm;onfudk twdtusjiif;csufxkwf&efrSm
cuf cJygonf? tb,fh a-umihfqdkaomf 'Drkdua&pDonf _yD;jynfhpHkaom tkyfcsKyfa&;w&yfr[kwfjcif;/ xkdtkyfcsKyf
a&;pepft& ajz&Sif;r&Ekdifao;aomjy\emrsm; &Sdaeao;jcif;u 'Drkdua&pDxuf aumif;rGefaomtkyfcsKyfa&;
pepfw&yf arG;zGm;ay;&ef tajccHta-umif;w&m;rsm;tjzpf vltrsm;odjrifxm;-uIjzpfonf? okd@aomf
,ae@ tcsdeftcgwGif 'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfxuf omvGefaumif;rGefonfqkdaom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk
raz:xkwf Edkifao;onfrSm aocsmaeonf? xdk@a-umifh 'Drkdua&pD. tm;enf;csufrsm;udk
axmufjya0zefr+wckwnf;jzifh 'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepf wckvHk;udk ypfy,fjcif;/ qefhusifjcif;um; rvG,ful?
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 10

'Drkdua&pD usifhpOftwkdif;om aexdkifusihf}uH_yD; 'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepftwGif;Y yg0ifywfouf&rnfom


jzpfonf?
'Drkdua&pDusifhpOfukd rnfokd@em;vnfoabmayguf&rnfenf;? trsm;pkqENtwkdif; tkyfcsKyfjcif;ESifh tenf;pkqEN
udk av;pm;jcif;onf 'Drkdua&pDusifhpOfyifjzpfonf[I
l tcsKd@u ajzayvdrfhrnf? a,bk,stm;jzifhrSefuefonf?
odk@aomf 'Drkdua&pDusifhpOfwGif xkdxufav;eufaom t&mudpPrsm;yg0ifaeonfukd owdcsyf&ayrnf? &SmazG
azmfxkwf usihfoHk;wwf&ayrnf?
'Drkdua&pDonf jy\emrsm;udk _idrf;csr;f pGmtajz&Sm&ef tcGifhtvrf;ay;onf? rnfonfh EkdifiHa&;pepf/ tkyfcsKyf
a&;pepfwGifrqkd jy\emrsm;ray:ayguf&ef wm;jrpfEdkifrnfr[kwfay? ay:aygufvmaom jy\emrsm;udkajz
&Sif;&ef toHk;csonfhenf;vrf;rsm;uom xkdEkdif iHa&;pepf/ tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf. ckdifrmr+udk tmrcHcsufay;onf?
'Drkdua&pDusifhpOftwGuf xkwf,lEkdifaom oDtkd&DrSm trsm;pk.qENt& tkyfcsKyfjcif;/ tenf;pkqENukd av;pm;
jcif;qkdonfh oDtkd&Djzpfonf? vlwdkif;onf rdrdqENoabmxm;rsm; ukdwifjycGifh/ xkdtwkdif;vkyfaqmifcGifukd
vkdvm;-uonf? 'Drkdua&pDwGif qENoabmxm;udk wifjyr+tcGifhta&; tjynfht0ay;xm;onf? okd@aomf
vlwkdif; rdrdqENtwkdif; vkyfaqmifcGifh&a&;rSm t_rJwrf;jzpfEkdifrnfr[kwfay? vlwkdif;wGif uJGjym;jcm;em;aom
qENo abmxm;udk ukd,fpD&Sdae-uonf? xkduJGjym;r+rsm;udkpkpnf;_yD; trsm;qHk; oabmwl vufcHEdkifrnfh qEN
t&om aqmif&GufcGifh&Sdayrnf? xkdqENonf trsm;pkqENjzpfojzifh tenf;pkqkdaom ukd,fpm;ycGifhr&onfh
qENrsm;usef&Sdaeayrnf? xdktcg tenf;pkonf if;qENESifh rukdufnDapumrl trsm;pkqENtwkdif; aqmif&Gufr+
udk yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufjcif;/ vdkufemusifh}uHjcif; y&ayrnf?
trsm;pkqENt& tkyfcsKyfjcif;jzpf_yD; tenf;pkqENudk av;pm;vkdufemjcif;qkdonfh 'Drkdua& pDtajccH usifhpOfrludk
vufcHxm;&kHjzifh vlenf;pk. ukd,fpm;ycGifhr&vkdufqENudk av;pm;&ma&muf_yD[k rqdkEkdifao;acs? trsm;pkqEN
t& tkyfcsKyfjcif;udkom t"duxm;v#if trsm;pk. tm%mtv$JoHk;tkyfcsKyfr+(majority tyranmy)
tjzpfodk@ OD;wnfoGm;aom tawG@t}uHKrsm; urBmhEdkifiH trsm;tjym;wGif awG@cJh&_yD;jzpfonf? tenf;pkqENudk
trSef
wu,fav;pm;a-umif;
jyoonfhtaejzifh
tenf;pkqENyg
qHk;jzwfcsufcsrSwf&mwGif
udk,fpm;yyg0ifEkdifaprnfh
enf;vrf;rsm;
&SmazG&efvdktyfvmonf?
tcsKd@aom
'Drkdua&pD
vl@tzJG@tpnf;rsm;wGif &SmazGazmfxkwf usifhoHk; ae_yDjzpfonfukd awG@&onf? qENrJ tcsKd;tpm;tvkduf
ay:vpDa&;&m
qHk;jzwfcsufcsrSwf&mwGif
yg0ifcGifh&
atmifpDrHxm;aom
tm;vHk;qENudkudk,fpm;jyKaom'Drdkua&pD(consensus
democracy)
qdkonfudk
Oa&my
tcsKd@EdkifiHrsm;wGif 19 &mpk aESmif;ykdif;uwnf;u azmfxkwfusihfoHk;cJhonf? tm;vHk;qEN udkudk,fpm;jyKaom'Drkd
ua&pDukd usifhoHk;Ekdifaomtcg tenf;pk.qENrJrsm;onf vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm; OayuQmycH&jcif;rsKd; r[kwfawmh
ay? tm;vHk;qENudkudk,fpm;jyKaom 'Drkdua&pDESifh E+dif;,SOfavhvmoifhonfh 'Drkdua&pDrSm tenf;pkqENudkvHk;0
ypfy,f_yD; trsm;pkqEN oufouft&om ay:vpDa&;&m qk;H jzwfcsrSwfonhf trsm;pkqENtajcy'Drkdua&pD w
enf;tm;jzifh tEkdif&olut&m&mudkqHk;jzwfaom'Drkdua&pD (winner take all) jzpfonf?
xdk'Drkdua&pDudk tcsKd@u trsm;pktm%m tvGJoHk;pm;r+[k a0zef-u&mrS qENtcsKd;us 'Drkdua&pDukd
azmfxkwfusifhoHk;vmjcif; jzpfonf?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 11

vlenf;pk.qENukd qHk;jzwfcsufcsrSwfr+vkyfief;pOfrsm;wGif ykdIav;eufpGm yg0ifciG fhyaompepfudk uGefqkdpDa&;


&Sif;'Drkdua&pDwGif awG@&onf? if;'Drkdua&pDyHkpHrsm;udk vlenf;pkqENtm; av;pm;r+jyonft
h aejzifh azmfxkwf
usifhoHk;vm-ujcif;jzpfonf?
'Drkdua&pDusifh0wfESifh EdkifiHa&;twkduftcHyjcif; oabmw&m;
'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfonf jynfolvlxk tcsKyftjcmtm%mykdifaom tkyfcsKyfa&; pepfjzpfonf? tjcm;
aom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrsm;uJhodk@ tm%mukd vlwOD; okd@r[kwf vlwpku vuf0g;}uD;tkyfxm;jcif;rsKd;ukd 'Drkdu
a&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfu cGifhyrnfr[kwfay? oufqdkif&m vl@tzJG@tpnf;w&yfukd tkyfcsKyf&mwGif vkdtyfrnfhtm
%mrsm;udk xkdvl@tzJG@ tpnf;twGif; rSDwif;aexkdifolrsm;t-um; cGJa0jzef@-uufxm;&onf?
jynfolvlxktcsKyftjcmtm%mydkifr+ESifh xdktcsKyftjcmtm%mudk jynfolwOD;csif;pDt-um; nDwlnDr#
cGJa0ydkif qdkifxm;a&;qkdaom 'Drkdua&pD. tajccHoabmw&m;udk tm;vHk;u vufcHxm;aomfvnf;
jynfolwOD;csif;pD EdkifiHa&;udpPtm;vHk;wGif wkduf&kdufyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr+ukd tjynfht0vrf;zGifhxm;
&eftcuftcJ&Sdvmojzifh jynfolvlxkudk ukd,fpm;yEkdifyEkdifaom udk,fpm;vS,frsm; jzpfay:vm&onf?
EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm; EkdifiHa&;wGiyf g 0ifywfoufae&jcif;onf udk,fpm;y'Drkdua&pD. 0daoowckjzpf_yD;
'Drkdua&pD. tajccHoabmw&m;jzpf aom jynfolvlxktcsKyftjcmtm%mydik fa&;ESifh vlwOD;csif;pDt-um;
xdktm%mrsm;
cGJa0xm;a&;qkdonfrSm
vnf;
jynfolukdukd,fpm;yaomygwDrsm;t-um;
tm%mcJGa0a&;tjzpfokd@ ajymif;vJvmcJhonf? 'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfw&yfwGif tm%m&ygwD/
twkduftcHygwD[lI &Sdaejcif;onfyif xkkdygwDrsm;t-um; tm%mcJG a0xm;jcif;udk &nf!Gef;aejcif;jzpfonf?
ygwDwckonf
tpkd;&zJG@Ekdifavmufatmif
a&G;aumufyJGwGiftEkdif&v#if
tpdk;&zGJ@_yD;
EkdifiHudk
tkyfcsKyfcGifh&Ekdifaomfvnf;
if;ygwDonf
wygwDtm%m&Sifpepf(totalitarianism)
usihf
oHk;aomEkdifiHrsm;rS ygwDrsm;uJhokd@ t&mudpPtm;vHk;ukd xif&mpkdif; vkyfaqmifcGifhr&Sday? xkdtm%m&ygwD
(governing party)onf ygvDreftwGif;Y twkduftcHygwD(opposition party)rsm;.
qef@usifbuf ar;cGef;xkwfr+/ twkduftcHyr+wkd@udk pepfwusESifh pdwf&Snfvuf&Snf jyefvnfajz-um;ay;&ef
wm0ef&Sdonf? tm%m&ygwDukd jynfolvlxktrsm;pku axmufcHxm;ouJhokd@ twkduftcHygwDudkvnf;
ta&twGufwck&Sd aomjynfolvlxku axmufcHxm;onfukd arhxm;Ir&ay? xdk@a-umifh jynfolvlxk
wOD;csif;pDt-um;
tm
%mcGJa0a&;qkdonfudk
ygwDrsm;t-um;
tm%mcJGa0a&;toGifokd@ul;ajymif;vkdufjcif;onf
,ae@urBmwGif
xGef;um;aeaom
ukd,fpm;y'Drkdua&pDyifjzpfonf
qdk-ujcif;jzpfonf?
odk@jzifh
'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHrsm;wGif
tm%m
&ygwDESifhtwkduftcHygwDrsm;t-um; tm%mcJGa0a&;pepf cdkifrmrnfhEkdifiHa&;pepfrsKd;ukd zefwD;xm;uayonf?
ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHrsm;wGif tm%m&ygwD/ twkduftcHygwDrsm;[lI &Sdae-uonf? twkduftcHEkdifiHa&;tif
tm;pkonfvnf; trsm;tjym;&SdEkdifonf? twdkuftcHvkyfjcif;onf 'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepftwGif; rjzpfr
aeyg0if&_yD; EkdifiHa&;pepft&yif tm;ay;&rnfh udpPjzpfonf? okd@&mwGif EkdifiHa&;twkduftcHvkyfjcif;onf w
jcm;enf;vrf;woG,fjzifh tajzukdjyqkdjcif; jzpf&efvkdtyfonf? t"dy`g,frSm ta-umif;t&mwckukd
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 12

tm%m&yg wDuaqmif&Guf&mrSm rSm;,Gif;onf[ka0zefaom twkduftcHygwD(rsm;)onf rSefuefonf[k


ajymqkdEkdifaom
tjcm;enf;vrf;udk
jyqdk&efwm0ef&Sdonf?
tjcm;enf;vrf;woG,fjzifh
tajzukdjyqdkjcif;r[kwfaom
EdkifiHa&;t
wkduftcHyvkyfjcif;onf
tysufoabmukdaqmif_yD;
'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfcdkifrma&;udk tm;ay;Edkifaom EkdifiHa&;twkduftcHvkyfjcif;rsKd; rjzpfEkdifay? wjcm;enf;
tajzudkjyqdkEdkifaom EkdifiHa&;twkduftcH vkyfjcif;rsKd; uom 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHa&;pepf wnfwHhckdif_rJr+ukd
taxmuftulyEkdifonf?
twdkuftcHygwDESifh tm%m&ygwDrsm;t-um; twdkuftcHjzpfr+onf &Hzef&Hcg EkdifiHa&; ydwfqkd@r+ (political
deadlock) bufodk@ OD;wnfoGm;jcif;rsKd;vnf; r-umc% }uHK-u&onf? xkdtajctaeonf EdkifiHa&;wGif
ppf wyfu yg0ifpGufzufvmatmif zdwfac:aeouJhokd@jzpfae_yD;/ ppftm%m&Siftrsm;pkuvnf;
xkdtm;enf;csuf ukd tcGifhaumif;,lcJh-uonf?
,ae@ jynfaxmifpkorRw*smr%DEkdifiH(Federal Republic of Germany) [kvo
l drsm;aom
*smr%DEkdifiH onf 'kwd,urBmppf}uD;rwkdifrD(1918-1933)umvrsm;twGif;u 0kdifrmorRwEkdifiH(Weimar
Republic)
tjzpfzJG@pnf;ay:aygufcJhzl;onf?
xkd0kdifrmorwEkdifiHvufxufwGif
trsm;tm;jzifh
tm%m&ygwDrSm
EdkifiHa&;t
awG;tac:t&
tv,ftvwfvrf;pOfukd
,Hk-unfaom
vpfb&,fygwDjzpfonf? xkdvpfb&,ftpkd;& &if qkdifae&aom EkdifiHa&;twkduftcHtiftm;pkESpf&yfrSm
vuf,mEkdifiHa&;
tawG;tac:&Sd
olrsm;jzpfonfh
trsKd;om;0g'Drsm;ESifh
vuf0JEkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:&Sdolrsm;jzpfonfh uGefrlepfrsm;jzpfonf? vpfb&,frsm;onf urBmhEkdifiHtrsm;pkwGif
vuf0JESifhvuf,m EkdifiHa&;tiftm;pk ESpf&yfpvHk;. bHk&efoluJhokd@ twdkuftcHycH-u& onf?
0kdifrmorwEkdifiH. 0kdifrmtpdk;&onf vuf0JESifhvuf,m tiftm;pkESpf&yfpvHk;. twkduftcHtiftm;udk
rvGefqefEdkifbJ tpkd;&tjzpfrS E+wfxGufay;&onftxd jzpfcJhonf?
tm%m&ygwDwckudk zwfcsEkdifygu twkduftcHygwD(rsm;)onf tpkd;&zJG@pnf;&ef jyifqif&awmhonf? Tt
qifhwGif 0kdifrmorwEkdifiHY t}uD;tus,f jy\emuH&awmhonf? vuf0Jtiftm;pkESifh vuf,mtiftm;pk
rsm;onf vpfb&,ftpkd;&udk twkduftcHy&mwGifomwlnD_yD; ESpfckaygif;_yD; tpdk;&zJG@pnf;a&;twGuf EkdifiHa&;
tajccHoabmwlnDr+ukd rnfonfhenf;ESifhr# &atmifrvkyfaqmifEkdifcJhay? 0g'a&;&mt& uGefrlepf0g'onf
trsKd;om;a&;0g' tajccHaygufzGm;vmaom t&pPwkdu&ufrsm;(Aristocrat) (tcsKd@rSm oufOD;qHykdifbk&ifp
epfukd tm;ay;olrsm;)ESifh uGefqmaA;wpfrsm;ukd okwfoif&Sif;vif;&efjzpfonf? xkdtcsufukd &k&Sm;atmufwkd
bmawmfvSefa&;u oufaojyv#uf&Sdonf? xkd@a-umifh 0kdifrmorwEkdifiHwGif twkduftcHvkyfaeaom tif
tm;pktcsif;csif;t-um;wGifvnf; EkdifiHa&;ydyuQrsm; &Sdaejyefonf? Ttajctaersm;a-umifh 0kdifrmorw
EkdifiH umv awmufav#mufwGif vpfb&,ftpkd;&u tm%m&vkduf/ tcsdefumvwckwGif twkduftcHrsm;u
zwfcsvdkuf/ wzef twkduftcHrsm;u tpkd;&rzGJ@Edkifjyefojzifh vpfb&,fu tm%mjyef&vkduf/ r-umcif jyef
zwfcscH&vkduf ponfhoHo&mxJwiG f tpdk;& rwnfr_idrfr+jyoem awmufav#muf&ifqdkfvmcJh&onf?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 13

xkdtajctaeonf
EkdifiHa&;twkduftcHrsm;u
tjcm;enf;vrf;woG,fjzifh
tajzudk
jy
qkdjcif;oabmw&m;t& EkdifiHa&;twkduftcH rvkyfEkdifjcif;a-umifh tpkd;&rwnf_idrfr+ukdom jzpfap_yD;
&vm'faumif;ukd raz:xkwfEdkifcJhay? if;. tusKd;tquftaejzifh [pfw vm. tm%m&Sifpepfu
0dkifrmorwEdkifiH EdkifiHa&;pefpwGif tpm;xdk; 0ifa&mufvmcJh onf?
'kwd,urBmppft_yD; *smr%Dukd ppfEdik fr[mrdwftzJG@0iftkyfpkrsm;ESifh qkdAD,uf jynf axmifpkwkd@u
cJGjcrf;ypfvkduf_yD;aemufwGif
taemuf*smr%DEdkifiHukd
jynfaxmifpkorw
*smr%DEkdifiHtjzpf
zJG@pnf;wnfaxmifvkduf-uonf? xkdtcg *smrefwkd@onf 0kdifrmorw EkdifiHvufxufu uHawG@cJh&aom
tm;enf;csufrsm;ukd a&Smif&Sm;Ekdif&ef if;. EkdifiHa&; pepfwGif EkdifiHa&;twkduftcHvkyf&mY
tyoabmaqmifap&ef tpDtrHrsm; jyXmef;vm cJhonf? jynfaxmifpkorw*smr%DEkdifiHonf
ygvDref'Drkdua&pD (parliamentary sys-tem of government) EkdifiHwckjzpfonf?
ygvDref'Drkdua&pD. vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm; t& tm%m&aeaomtpkd;&wkdif;onf ygvDreftwGif;Y
tcsdefra&G;t,Hkt-unfr&Sd t qkdukd wifoGif;cH&Ekdifonf? xdktqdkukd rJcJGqHk;jzwf&mY tpkd;&rS&H+;edrhfv#if
&mxl;rSE+wf xGufay;&onf?
0kdifrmorwEkdifiHvufxufu tm;enf;csufrsm;udk ukpm;&ef jynfaxmifpkorw *smr %DEkdifiHvufxuf
tajccHOya'wGif yk'frwck xnfhoGif;jyXmef; xm;onf? xkdyk'fr jy Xmef;csufrsm;t& rlv0ef}uD;csKyfESifh
tpdk;&tzJG@ukdrzwfcsrD twkduftcHrsm;onf if;wkd@ axmufcHaom 0ef}uD;csKyfESifh tpdk;&tzJG@ukd
t,ifa&G;cs,f&onf? xdkodk@a&G;cs,fjcif; ry Ekdifygu ,ciftpdk;&ukd zwfcscGifhr&Sday? xdkEkdifiHa&;vkyf[efudk
tyoabmt,Hkt-unf r&Sdtqkd(constructive non-confidence) [kac:onf? if;.
tESpfom&rSm EkdifiH a&;twkduftcHvkyf&mwGif tjcm;enf;vrf;woG,fjzifh tajzjyqkdjcif;jzpf&ef vkdtyfjcif;
okd@r[kwf EkdifiHa&;twkduftcHvkyf&mwGif tyoabmaqmif&ef vkdtyfjcif;yifjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;-urf;csif;oabmwlnDcsuf
'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfw&yfukd wnfaqmufrnfqkdygu twkduftcHtiftm;pkrsm; w&m;0if
ckdifckdifrmrm&yfwnfaeEkdifatmif EkdifiHa&;pepft&yif zefwD;xm;&efvkdonf? t wkduftcHtiftm;pkrsm;
&Sifoef&yfwnfaejcif;onf tm%m&tpkd;&rSonf tm%m&Sif tpkd;&tjzpf rul;ajymif;apa&;
xdef;csKyfEkdifa&;twGuf ta&;}uD;aom vkyfief;wm0efudk xrf;aqmif&efjzpfonf? tm%mcJGa0 tkyfcsKyfjcif;.
toGifoefvnf;jzpfonf? T um; 'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfatmufwGif twkduftcHtiftm;pkrsm;
vkdtyfcsuft& yg0ifae jcif;udk !Gef;qdkaejcif;jzpfonf? tjcm;wbufwGifum; twkduftcHtiftm;pkrsm;
EkdifiH a&;twdkuftcHvkyf&mwGif tyoabmaqmifjcif; okd@r[kwf tjcm;enf;vrf; woG,f jzifh jyqdkjcif;y&ef
vkdtyfonf?
twkduftcHtiftm;pkrsm;onf trsm;tm;jzifh tm%m&&Sda&;twGuf vkyfaqmifae-u aom
tzJG@tpnf;rsm;jzpfayonf? twkduftcHtiftm;pk tcsif;csif;t-um;wGif tedrfh qHk;tqifh EkdifiHa&;t&
oabmwlnDEkdifaomtcsuf(political threshold) onf tm %m&tpkd;&ukd twkduftcHvkyfjcif;
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 14

wrsKd;wnf;rjzpfoifhyg? tm%m&tpkd;&ukd zwfcs_yD; aemuf twdkuftcHtiftm;pkrsm; tm%m&vmcsdefwGif


yl;wJGvkyfaqmif&rnfh tedrfhqHk; tqifh EkdifiHa&;oabmwlnDr+rsKd; &Sdxm;oifhonf? xdkokd@ oabmwlnDr+r&SdbJ
twdkuft cHtiftm;pkrsm; tm%m&vmv#ifvnf; -um-umr_rJbJ twGif;ydyuQrsm;yif uHawG@Ekdif aumif; EdkifiHwum tawG@tuHrsm;t& txift&Sm; awG@&onf? xkd@a-umifh 'Drkdu a&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk
taxmuftulyvdkv#if
okd@r[kwf
tjcm;enf;vrf;woG,fjzifh
tajzukd
jyqkdjcif;enf;jzifh
EkdifiHa&;twkduftcHvkyfjcif;rSmvnf; 'Drdkua&pDusifhpOf w&yf yifjzpfvmonf?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 15

tcef;(2)

jynfol@tpdk;&

tar&dueforw tDA&m[ifvifuGef; (Abraham Lincoln, 1809-1856) u Ekdif iHhtpkd;&onf


jynfolrsmtwGuf jynfolrsm;u tkyfcsKyfaom jynfol@tpdk;&rsm; jzpf&rnf [k if;. 1863 ckESpfu rdef@
cGef;wckwGif
ajym-um;cJhonf? tar&duefjynfaxmifpkonf 'Drkdua&pD
xGef;um;r+t&mwGif
urBm@a&SaqmifEkdifiHwckjzpfae&um;
orw
tDA&m[if
vifuGef;.
jynfolrsm;twGuf
jynfolrsm;utkyfcsKyfaom jynfol@tpkd;& qkdonhf t ajccHoabmw&m;onf a&S;acwf
*&drd@jyEkdifiHi,fuav;rsm;wGif
xGef;um;cJhaom
'Drkdu
a&pDuJhokd@yif
acwfopf'Drkdua&pD
tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrsm;twGuf tajccHvrf;!Gef oabm w&m;jzpfvmonf?
orw tDA&m[ifvifuGef;. vrf;!Gefoabmw&m;ukd cJGjcrf;pdwfjzm-unfhv#if tpkd;&w &yfonf
tcsuf(3)csufESifh nD!GwfygrS 'Ddrkdua&pDtpkd;& jzpfEkdifonf? xdk(3)csufrSm jynfol@tpkd;& (government
of the people)/ jynfolrsm;utkyfcsKyfaomtpkd;& (government by the people)ESifh
jynfolrsm;twGuf tkyfcsKyfaomtpdk;& (gov-ernment for the people)wkd@jzpfonf?
jynfol@tpkd;& qkdaom vrf;!Gefoabmw&m;rSm tpkd;&tm%monf jynfolvlxkxH rS
oufqif;&rnf[laom
t"dy`g,f&onf?
jynfolrsm;utkyfcsKyfaomtpkd;&
qdkonfh
vrf;!Gefoabmw&m;onf jynfolwkd@u wkduf&kdufjzpfap/ udk,fpm;vS,frsm;rS wqifh jzpfap tpkd;&tzGJ@wGif
yg0ifzJG@pnf;_yD;/ tkyfcsKyfa&;tm%musifhoHk;&rnf[laom t"dy`g,f &onf? wefn;tm;jzifh tpkd;&zJG@pnf;&mwGif
jynfolrsm;.yl;aygif;yg0ifaqmif&GufcGifh/
Ekdif
iHa&;wGifyl;aygif;aqmif&GufcGifh(political
participation) jzpfonf? rsufarSmufacwf wGif jynfolrsm;onf tpkd;&zJG@pnf;a&;wGif
wkduf&kdufyg0ifjcif;r&SdawmhbJ udk,fpm;vS,f rsm;rSwqifh aqmif&Gufae-uonf? xkdukd,fpm;vS,frsm;udk
jynfolu vrf;!Gefr+ryEkdif awmhv#ifjzpfap/ jynfolvlxk. qENoabmxm;udk ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;u
OayuQmyvm aomtcgjzpfap xkdtpkd;&onf 'Drkdua&pDtpdk;& r[kwfawmhbJ yHkpHwrsKd;rsKd;jzifh tm%m
&Siftpdk;&tjzpfodk@ ajymif;oGm;onf? xkdokd@aom tm%m&Siftpdk;&rsm; ay:aygufjcif;r&Sd ap&ef
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tay: jynfolrsm;u xdef;csKyfEkdifa&;ESifh udk,fpm;vS,frsm;. w oD;yk*~vqENxuf
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 16

jynfolvlxktrsm;pk}uD;.qENu ykdIv$rf;rkd;EkdifpGrf;&Sda&;onf 'Drkdu a&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepftwGuf


r&Sdrjzpfvkdtyfcsuf}uD;jzpfonf?
xkdvkd
tyfcsuf}uD;udk
jznfh
qnf;Ekdif&ef
jynfolrsm;.EkdifiHa&;yl;aygif;yg0ifaqmif&GufcGifhukd vGwfvGwfvyfvyf usifh oHk;cGifh&&ef vkdtyfonf?
tpdk;&zJG@pnf;jcif;tygt0if EkdifiHa&;udpPt00udk jynfol@udk,f pm;vS,frsm;uom aqmif&Gufaeaom
rsufarSmufacwfumvwGif jynfolrsm;. EkdifiH a&;yl;aygif;aqmif&GufcGifh vGwfvyfr+r&SdbJ rnfonfhenf;ESifhr#
'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepf w&yfukd azmfaqmifEkdif rnfr[kwfay? Ttajctaeudk orw
tDA&m[ifvifuGef;.
jynfolrsm;utkyfcsKyfaomtpkd;&
[lonfh
vrf;!Gefoabmw&m;u
xdef;!day;Ekdifonf?

EkdifiHom;rsm;. EkdifiHa&; yl;aygif;aqmif&GufcGifh


(Political participation of the people)
'Drkdua&pD EkdifiHa&;pepfwck wkd;wufatmifjrifa&;twGuf EkdifiHa&;wGif Ekid if o
H m;rsm;. yl;aygi;f
aqmif&GufcGifhonf ta&;}uD;aomudpPjzpfonf? tpkd;&tkyfcsKyfr+ukd cH-u&rnfh EkdifiHom;rsm;onf
if;wkd@tusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf
if;wkd@ukd,fwkdif
tpdk;&zJG@pnf;a&;ESifh
EkdifiH
a&;wGif
wkduf&kdufyl;aygif;aqmif&GufcGifh&&ef vkdtyfonf? ,ae@ urBmay:&Sd EkdifiHrsm;t -um;wGif EkdifiHom;rsm;.
EkdifiHa&;yl;aygif;aqmif&GufcGifht&mY wajy;nDwlnDpGm &Sdaejcif; r[kwfbJ uJGjym;jcm;em;r+rsm;udk awG@&onf?
EkdifiHwkdif;vkdvkdY EkdifiHom;rsm;. EkdifiHa&;wGif yl;aygif;aqmif&GufcGifhukd vrf;zGifhxm;-u onf? okd@&mwGif
tcsKd@EkdifiHrsm;wGif EkdifiHom;rsm;. EkdifiHa&;yl;aygif;aqmif&GufcGifhonf tpdk;& tm%mykdifrsm;tay: rnfokd@r#
v$rf;rkd;r+r&Sdonfudk awG@&onf? xkdtcgrsKd;wGif 'Drdkua&pDqdkonfrSm t"dy`g,frJhv#uf&Sdonf? jynfolrsm;.
EkdifiHa&;yl;aygif;aqmif&GufcGifh
tqifhjrifhrS
'Drkdua&pDonfvnf;
tqifhjrifhEdkifrnf
jzpfonf?
EkdifiHa&;yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf
cGifht,ltqonf
'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepf
xGef;um;jcif;ESifhtwl
,SOfwJGay:aygufvm jcif;vnf;jzpfonf?
jynfolrsm;taejzifh if;wkd@tay: tkyfcsKyfrnfhtpdk;&rsm;udk a&G;cs,f&mwGif if;wkd@udk,f wkdif
0ifa&mufta&G;cHjcif;
okd@r[kwf
t&nftcsif;oifhjrwfoludk
a&G;cs,fwifajrmufjcif;
onf
EkdifiHa&;yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufjcif;. t&kd;&Sif;qHk; vkyf[efw&yfjzpfonf? okd@&mwGif xdk odk@ta&G;cHcGifh&&HkESifh
EkdifiHa&;wGif _yD;jynfhpHkaom yl;aygif;aqmif&GufcGifh &_yD[lIum; rqkd Ekdifyg? a&G;cs,fvkdufaomtpkd;& okd@r[kwf
jynfol@ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;udk yHkpHwrsKd;rsKd;jzifh xdef;csKyfr+&Sdae&efvnf; vkdtyfao;onf? okd@rSom
jynfolrsm;twGuf tkyfcsKyfaom jynfol@tpkd;&w&yfukd azmfaqmifEkdifonhf 'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepf
jzpfvmayrnf?
jynfolrsm;. EkdifiHa&;yl;aygif;aqmif&u
G fcGifhudk yHkoeftrsKd;rsKd;jzifhawG@Edkifonf? txuf YwifjycJhouJhokd@
tpkd;&zJG@pnf;&mwGif
ta&G;cHjcif;ESifh
t&nftcsif;oifhjrwfoludk
a&G;
cs,fay;jcif;onf
EkdifiHa&;yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr+ yHkoefwrsKd;jzpfonf? xdktpkd;& okd@r [kwf jynfol@udk,fpm;vS,f.
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 17

vkyf&yftay: rauseyfaom okd@r[kwf ay:vpDyjyifay; apvkdaomtcgrsm;wGif jynfolrsm;Y _idrf;csrf;aom


uef@uGufqENjyyJGrsm;
usif;yEkdifap&
rnf?
xkdokd@
qENjyyJGrsm;
usif;yEkdifjcif;onfvnf;
EkdifiHa&;yl;aygif;aqmif&GufcGifh
yHkoef
wrsKd;jzpfonf?
'Drdkua&pDxGef;um;aom
EkdifiHrsm;wGif
xkdokd@aomqENjyyJGrsm;u tpkd;& tay: twkdif;twmwcktxd v$rf;rkd;r+&Sdonfukd awG@ae-u&onf?
jrefrmEkdifiHwGif 1988 ckESpftwGif; jzpfyGm;cJhaomvlxkqENjyyJG}uD;ESifh ta&SOa&myuGef rlepfEkdifiHrsm;jzpf-u
aom [efa*&D/ ykdvef/ *smref'Drkdu&ufwpforwEkdifiH/ csufudkpvkdAufuD;,m;/ &kdar;eD; ,m;/
blvfa*;&D;,m;EkdifiHwkd@wGif 1988=1989 ckESpfrsm;twGif; jzpfay:cJhonfh vlxktHk uGqENjyyJGrsm;tm;vHk;onf
EkdifiHa&;acwfpepf ajymif;vJa&;udk awmif;qkdaom qEN xkwfaz:jyoyGJrsm;jzpfonf? wenf;tm;jzifh
if;wdk@onf jynfolwkd@. EkdifiHa&;acwfpepf wckudk jyKjyifajymif;vJ&ef awmif;qdkaeaom jynfolrsm;.
EdkifiHa&;yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr+ enf;wrsKd;jzpfonf? ta&SOa&my uGefrlepfEkdifiHtm;vHk; 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHa&;pepfokd@
ul;
ajymif;oGm;_yD;aomfvnf;
jrefrmEkdifiHwGif
ppftkyfpkcsKyfa&;
&Sdaeao;jcif;rSm EkdifiHa&;yl;
aygif;aqmif&Gufr+tcGifhta&;. xda&mufr+yrm% jcm;em;r+udk jyoaejcif;jzpfonf?
'Drkdua&pDxGef;um;onfh tcsKd@aomEkdifiHrsm;wGif tpdk;&u vkyfykdifcGifh&SdaomudpP jzpfvihf upm;
jynfolrsm;yg0ifywfoufcGifhudk vrf;zGifhay;um jynfolrsm;.EkdifiHa&;yl;aygif; aqmif&Gufr+ tcGifhta&;ukd
jrifhwifay;wwf-uonf? Oyrm oufqkdif&m udpP&yfwckpD twGuf jynfolvlxk. tqHk;tjzwfudkcH,laom
vlxkqENcH,laomvlxkqENcH,lyJG (referendum)rsm; usif;yjcif;jzpfonf?

jynfolvlxk tusKd;pD;yGm;
(Public Interest)
jynfolrsm;twGuf tkyfcsKyfaomtpkd;&[laom vrf;!Gefoabmw&m;onf tpdk;&tzJG@ wGifyg0if
aomyk*~dKvfrsm;. tusKd;pD;yGm;(interest) xuf ttkyfcsKyfcH jynfolvlxk. tusKd;pD;yGm;ukdt"duxm;I
tkyfcsKyfa&;ay:vpDcsrSwftaumiftxnfaz: vkyfaqmif& rnf[laom t"dy`g,fukd&aponf? 1990 ckESpf
urBm@_idrf;csrf;a&;Ekdb,fqk &Sif a':atmif qef;pk-unf EkdifiHawmf_idrf0yfydjym;r+wnfaqmufa&;tzJG@.
zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;jcif; rcH&rD ajym-um;cJhaomrdef@cGef;wckwGif jynfolvlxk[m tpkd;&aeapcsifovkd
aezkd@r[kwfbl;/ tpdk;&rsm;uom jynfolvlxkaeapcsifovkd aezkd@jzpfw,f [k xnfhoGif;ajym-um;cJh onf?
xkdrdef@cGef;. qkdvkd&if;t"dy`g,frSm orwtDA&m[ifvifuGef;. jynfolrsm;twGuf tkyfcsKyfaomtpdk;&qkdonfh
vrf;!Gefoabmw&m;.
t"dy`g,fESifh
twlwlyifjzpfonf?
jynfolvlxk.tusKd;pD;yGm;ukd
tkyfcsKyfaomtpkd;&rsm;u tav;xm; aqmif&Guf&rnf[l aom vrf;!Gefcsufjzpfonf? jynfolvlxk
tusKd;pD;yGm;qkdonfukd pD;yGm;a&;wckwnf; tjzpf &+jrifoHk;oyfv#if v$JrSm;ayvdrfhrnf? jynfolrsm
vGwfvyfaysmf&$ifaom b0wck &&Sdydkifqdkifa&;onf jynfolwdk@. tusKd;pD;yGg;jzpfonf? aysmf&$ifvGwfvyfaom
vl@b0wck twGuf pD;yGm;a&;tjyif tjcm;aomvkdtyfcsufrsm; &Sdaeao;onf? aysmf&$ifvGwfvyf aom
vl@b0wck
wnfaqmufEkdifa&;twGuf
r&SdrjzpftajccHvkdtyfcsufrsm;tjzpf
EkdifiH
a&;tawG;tac:ynm&Sit
f rsm;tjym;u
&+a'gifhrsKd;pHkrS
awG;ac:wifjycJh-u_yD;jzpfonf?
xdk

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 18

tawG;ta:ynm&Sifrsm;xJrS wOD;jzpfol *|efavmhcf (John Locke, 632-1704) . t,ltqrsm;wGif


,ckuJhodk@ avhvmawG@&Sd&onf?
EkdifiHom;wkdif;wGif
rdrdwkd@tusKd;pD;yGm;udk
trsm;qHk;taumiftxnf
az:Edkifa&;twGuf
tpdk;&tkyfcsKyfa&;vkyfief;udk vrf;!$efEdkifaomtcGifhta&;ESifh uef@owfEkdifaom tcGifht a&;rsm;&Sdonf?
xkdtcGifhta&;rsm;onf obm0u tyfESif;xm;aom tcGifhta&;rsm; (natural rights) tjzpf
*|efavmhcfu &+jrifonf? obm0tcGifhta&;rsm;wGif touf &Sif&yfwnfr+/ vGwfvyfr+ESifh ykdifqkdifr+ (life,
liberty,
and
property)
wkd@yg0ifa-umif;
*|efavmhcfu
cJGjcrf;wifjyxm;onf?
touf&Sif&yfwnfr+ESifh ywfoufqufpyfaom t cGifhta&;rsm;/ vGwv
f yfr+ESifh ywfoufqufpyfaom
tcGifhta&;rsm;/
OpPm"e
&SmazGykdif
qkdifr+ESifh
ywfoufqufpyfaom
tcGifhta&;rsm;onf
vlom;wkdif;aysmf&GifvGwfvyfr+t wGuf vkdtyfaomtcGifhta&;rsm; wenf;tm;jzifh jynfolvlxk}uD;
w&yfvHk;. tusKd;pD; yGm;vnf;jzpfonf? *|efavmhcf. obm0tcGifhta&; qkdonfudk touf&Sif&yfwnfr+/
vGwfvyfr+ESifh ykdifqdkifr+ tcGifhta&;rsm;[k em;vnf&rnfjzpfouJhokd@ rsufarSmufacwf wGif jynfolvlxk.
tusKd;pD;yGm; (public interest) [kqkdv#ifvnf; TtcGifhta&; rsm;yifjzpfonf? tjynfjynfqkdif&m
vl@tcGifhta&;
a-unmpmwrf;tygt0if
ukvo
r*~jyXmef;csufrsm;u
tmrcHonhf
tajccHvl@tcGifhta&;rsm;vnf; jzpfaeonf? xkdtcGifh ta&;rsm;onf obm0tcGifhta&;rsm;
yifjzpfonf[kvnf; rsufarSmufacwfwGif tod trSwfy-uonf?
touf&Sif&yfwnfr+/ vGwfvyfr+ESifhykdifqdkifr+ tcGifhta&;rsm;udk wJGzufIom yk*Kd~ vfwpfO;D csif;pD.
tcGifhta&;tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ jynfolvlxk}uD;. tusKd;pD;yGm;tjzpfvnf; aumif; owfrSwf&rnf jzpfonf?
tkyfcsKyfaom tpkd;&rsm;onf wckpD odk@r[kwf ESpfckudk uef@I tmrcHvkyfaqmifay;&Hkr#jzifh
tpkd;&wm0efaus_yD[k 'Drkdua&pDt&Sdeft[kefjzifhxGef; um;vmaeaom ,ae@acwfumvwGif qifajcay;I
r&Ekdifacs? tm&SwkdufEkdifiHrsm;ESifh tcsKd@aom wwd,urBm@EkdifiHrsm;onf 1993 ckESpf ZGefvtwGif;u
AD,ifemrd@wGif usif; ycJhaom urBm@vl@tcGifhta&; nDvmcHwGifvnf;aumif;/ tjcm;tcsed frsm;wGifvnf;
aumif; pD;yGm;a&;(ykdifqkdifr+tcGifhta&;)onfom EkdifiHom;rsm;twGuf t"duusojzifh if;udpPukdom
tpdk;&rsm;taejzifh wm0efcHvkyfaqmifay;rnfjzpfa-umif; ajymqkdum vGwfvyfr+tcGifhta&;ESifh (&Hzef&Hcg
!if;yef;ESdyfpufjcif;tm;jzifh touf&Sif&yfwnfr+t cGifhta&;rsm;) udk jiif;y,f ajymqkdcJhonf? wenf;tm;jzifh
'Drkdua&pDzGH@zd;_yD;
EkdifiHrsm;wGif
vufcHusifhoHk;onfh
_yD;jynfhpHkaom
jynfolvlxktusKd;pD;yGm;
(tajccHvl@tcGifhta&;) onftqkdygEdkifiHrsm;ESifh jcm;em;a-umif; ay:ay:wifwif jiif;qefvkdufjcif;jzpfonf?
'Drkd ua&pDokd@ ajymif;vJa&; t&Sdef&vmonfhtcg usqHk;uG,faysmuf&rnfh jiif;csuf jzpfay vdrfhrnf?
xkdokd@aom jiif;csufyvkyfonfh EkdifiHrsm;wGif w&kyfEkdifiHonf xdyfwef;rSyg0if_yD; pD;yGm;a&; vkyfief; wckwnf;udk
t"dutm&kHxm; vkyfaqmifv#uf&Sdonf? ,cktcg w&kyfEkdifiHonf urBmay:wGif pD;yGm;a&;zHG@zd;wkd;wufr+E+ef;
tjrifhrm;qHk; EkdifiHtqifhodk@ a&mufaeaomf vnf; w&kyfjynfolwdk@. wpfOD;csif;0ifaiGonf
'Drkdua&pDxGef;um;aom
urBm@ajrmuf
jcrf;EdkifiHrsm;rS
jynfolwpfOD;csif;pD.0ifaiGESifh
rsm;pGm
jcm;em;aeao;onf? jynfolvlxk. tusKd;pD;yGm;jzpfaom touf&Sif&yfwnfr+/ vGwfvyfr+ESifh
ykdifqkdifr+tcGifhta&;wnf;[l aom tuef@(3)uef@yg0ifonfh jynfol@tcGifhta&;udk w&kyftpkd;&taejzifh
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 19

ykdifqkdifr+ t cGifhta&;[laom tuef@udk pD;yGm;a&;zHG@zd;wkd;wufatmif yvkyfjcif;jzifh jznfhpGufae


onfESifhwlonf?
wydifeufwnf;wGif tjcm;tuef@ESpcf krS tcGifhta&;rsm;onfvnf; qkd;&Gm;oxuf qkd; &Gm;vmojzifh
aemufw}udrf vlxktkHuGaygufuJGr+qDodk@ OD;wnfaeonf? touf&Sif&yf wnfr+/ vGwfvyfr+ESifh ykdfifqkdifr+[lI
o&kyfcJGEkdifaom obm0tcGifhta&;rsm;tm;vHk; ykdif qkdifcGifhonf jynfolvlxk. tusKd;pD;yGm;jzpfonfudk
rnfolr# jiif;y,fI &Ekdifrnfr[kwf ay?
vlr_a&;ydnmOfyr_oDtkd&D
(Social Contract Theory)
tcsKd@aomEkdifiHa&;tawG;tac: ynm&Sifrsm;onf jynfolvlxk tusKd;pD;yGm;ukd txl;t av;ay; awG;ac:
azmfxkwf-uonf? EkdifiHa&; tawG;tac:ynm&Sif &l;qkd; (Jean Jacques Rousseau, 17121778)u jynfolvlxktusKd;pD;yGm;qdkonfudk taxG axGpdwfqEN (general will) [lI azmfxkwf
wifjyxm;onf? taxGaxGpdwfqENqkd onfrSm vl@tzJG@tpnf; w&yfvHk;twGuf pkaygif;um wnf&Sdonfh
bHktusKd;pD;yGm;jzpf_yD; if;onf t_rJwrf; rSefuefaeaomt&mjzpfa-umif; &l;qkd;uqkdonf? okd@&mwGif xkdt
axGaxGpdwfqENukd yHkazmfwnfaqmuf&mwGif EkdifiHom;wOD;csif;udk bmvkdtyfoenf;[k ar;cGef;xkwf&mrS
wkef@jyefvmaom pum;rsm;tay:tajccHI wnfaqmufv#ifum; t awmowfEkdfifrnf r[kwfaumif;ukdvnf; owday;ajym-um;cJhonf? xkdokd@ ar;vkdufygu wpfOD;csif;pD. qHk;cef;rwkdifaomavmbESifh
vkdtifqENrsm;udk awG@&rnfjzpfojzifh vl@t zJG@tpnf;}uD;twGuf tEW&m,fusa&mufEkdifygonf?
vl@tzJG@tpnf;}uD;. pkaygif;tusKd; pD;yGm;ESifh wpfOD;csif;.tusKd;pD;yGm;udk csKd;azgufjcif;r&Sdonfh
abmiftwGif;u yvkyfjcif;udk om taxGaxGpdwfqENtjzpf rSwf,l&ayrnf[k &l;qkd;u qkdonf?
&l;qkd;.tqkdt& tkyf csKyfaom tpdk;&rsm;onf jynfolvlxk tusKd;pD;yGm;jzpfaom taxGaxGpdwfqENudk jynf
olrsm;xHrS qENaumuf,laep&mrvkdbJ wm0ef&Sdolrsm;u tvkdtav#mufo&d Sd_yD; t aumif;qHk;jzpfatmif
pDrHcef@cJGtkyfcsKyf&rnf[laom tcsufukdazmfxkwfjcif;jzpfonf? odk@rS om jynfolvlxk}uD;uvnf;
if;wkd@tusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf
awmif;qkdwkdufyJG0ifr+yp&mrvkd
bJ
pdwfvufoufompGmjzifh
vl@tzJG@tpnf;}uD;wGif
yg0ifaexkdifEkdif-urnf[k
,Hk-unf
onf?
Toabmw&m;onf
vl@tzJG@tpnf;twGif; vlr+a&;ydnmOfyr+ oDtkd&Djzpf
a-umif; &l;qkd;u azmfxkwfcJhonf?
jynfolrsm;tcsif;csif; t-um;wGifvnf;aumif;/ jynf olrsm;ESifh tpkd;&tm%mykdifrsm;t-um;
wGifvnf;aumif;/ jynfolvlxktusKd;pD;yGm;ukd OD;xdyfxm;aeonfh at;csrf;wnf_idrfaom vl@tzJG@tpnf;
wnfaqmuf&ef ydnmOfy xm;&aom oDtkd&Djzpfonf?
&l;qkd;.tawG;tac:ukd toHk;csonfh tcsKd@aomyk*~dKvfrsm;onf &l;qdk;. taxGaxGqEN ukd
bufwbufwnf;rS rdrdvkd&m qJG,lt"dy`g,faumufum jynfolvlxkukd qENaumuf cHar;jref;&efrvkdbJ
tpkd;&oabmtwkdif;om t&m&mudk pDrHtkyfcsKyfjcif; yvkduf&m wyg wDtm%m&Sif 'Drkdua&pD
(totalitarian
democracy)
tjzpf
OD;wnfoGm;avonf?
'kwd,urBmppfrjzpfrDu
Oa&mywGifay:aygufcJhaom
tm%m&Sifrsm;jzpfonfh
rlqkdvdkeDESifh
[pfwvmwkd@onf
&l;qdk;.
taxGaxGpdwfqENukd bufwbufwnf;rS t"dy`g,faumuf ,lum jynfolvlxk tusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf[kqkdum
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 20

'Drkdua&pD tvJGoHk;r+a-umifh tm%m &Sifpepf (totalitarianism)ukd arG;xkwfay;vkdufavonf?


xdktm%m&Sifwkd@. t
a-umif;jycsufrSm jynfolvlxkonf if;wkd@tusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf if;wkd@ukd,fwkdif
azmf xkwfEkdif/ pDrHcef@cJGEkdifaom t&nftcsif;jynfh0r+ r&Sd[laom ta-umif;jycsufjzpfonf? Tta-umif;jy
csufrsKd;onf ,ae@ urBmay:wGif yHkoefrsKd;pHkESifh ay:aygufaeaom tm %m&SifrsKd;pHkwkd@. wlnDaom taumif;jycsuf jzpfaeonfukd awG@&onf?
vlr+a&;ydnmOfyr+oDt&dk D.
t"dutESpfom&onf
vlyk*~dKvfwpfOD;csif;pDonf
tusKd;wl
pD;yGm;wcktwGufvnf;aumif; wpfa,mufwnf; oD;jcm;&yfwnfjcif; ryEkdifojzifhvnf; aumif;/
vl@tzJG@tpnf;jzifh
aexkdifvmjcif;jzpf_yD;
tcsif;csif;-um;
apmifhxdef;&rnfh
usifh
0wfESifh
tcGifhta&;umuG,fr+ukd
azmfaqmifjcif;jzpfonf?
tusKd;wlpD;yGm;ukd
vkyfaqmif
&eftwGuf
tpkd;&tm%mykdifrsm;xm;&Sda&;udk oabmwlaomfvnf; yk*~dKvfwpfOD;csif;pD. vGwfvyfr+tcGifhta&;um;
xdckdufr+yonfukdum; vufcH-urnfr[kwfay? xkdtajct aersm;-um;wGif vlr+a&;ydnmOfyr+ukd
azmfxkwfjcif;jzpfonf? &l;qkd; xufapmv#ifpGm vlr+a&;ydnmOfyr+ oDtkd&Doabmw&m;ukd azmfxkwfcJhaom
xif&Sm;onfhEkdifiHa&;t awG;tac:ynm&Sif ESpfOD;&SdcJhonf? if;wkd@rSm a[fbfpf (Thomas Hobbes,
1588-1679)ESifh *|efavmhcf wkd@jzpfonf? xkdolESpfOD;wkd@. vlr+a&;ydnmOfyr+ oDtkd&Dtay:&+ jrifr+onf
tcsif;csif;t-um; }uD;pGmaomjcm;em;r+rsm; &SdouJhokd@ &l;qkd;. tawG;tac: rsm;ESifhvnf;
rsm;pGmjcm;em;aejyefonf? a[fbfpf. tvdkt& vlr+a&;ydnmOfyr+ oDtkd&D onf vl@tzJG@tpnf;}uD;
ab;tEW&m,fESifh uHudufvm&aomtcgwGif xkdab;tEW&m,f }uD;udk ausmfv$m;Ekdifa&;twGuf wpfOD;csif;
rpGrf;aqmifEkdifojzifh
pkaygif;umuG,f&ef
vkdtyfvmjcif;jzpf&m
vlyk*~dKvfwpfOD;csif;pDonf
vl@tzJG@tpnf;}uD;wGif tcsif;csif;yd nmOfy 0ifa&mufvm-uonf[kqkdonf? xkd@jyif tEW&m,fudk
ausmfv$m;Ekdifap&ef tcsKyf tjcmtm%mykdiftzJG@udk zJG@pnf;_yD; tm%mrsm; tyfESif;&ef vkdtyfonf[kqkdonf?
xkdt csKyftjcmtm%mt&om ab;tEW&m,fukd ausmfv$m;Ekdfif_yD; vkdtyfovkd xkdtm%mykdif tzJG@onf
toufoGif; armif;ESiftm; (coercion) ukdvnf; ykdifqkdifap&rnf[q
k kd onf? tm%mydkiftzJG@xH
tyfESif;xm;aom tm%monf tm%mtyfESif;ay;vkdufol rsm;u jyefvnfIxef;!djcif;yif ryEkdifaom
oabmaqmifonftxd a[fbfpfu vkd vm;onf? vl@tzJG@tpnf;}uD;onf tEW&m,fukd pkaygif;umuG,f&ef
vkdtyfaomtcg rsm;&SdouJhodk@ tpOfxm0& tEW&m,fusa&mufaejcif;rsKd;um; r[kwfwwfyg? tEW&m,f
usa&mufaomtcgrsKd;wGif
a[fbfpf.
vlr+a&;ydnmOfyr+oDtkd&Dukd
vl@tzJG@tpnf;t
wGif;
vufcHusifhoHk;EkdifzG,f&Sdaomfvnf; omref_idrf;csrf;aeaom tajctaersKd;wGif t oHk;0ifrnf r[kwfay?
a[pfbfpfu a-umuf&GH@jcif;ESifhu|Ekfyf tr$mtjzpf arG;zGm;jcif;cHcJh& onf [k ajymzl;onf? a[fbfpf.
b0tpOD;ykdif;wGif t*FvdyfjynfwGif;ppf. &kdufcwfr+ a-umifh pkd;&drfa-umuf&GH@r+rsm;ukd &ifqkdifcHpm;cJh&onf?
ol.tawG;tac:rsm;wGif xdkpkd;&drf a-umuf&G@Hr+rsKd; vl@tzJG@tpnf;twGif; usa&mufvmygu
z,f&Sm;ypfEkdifrnfh enf;vrf; rsm;ukd OD;pm;ay;awG;ac:&if; ol.vlr+a&;ydnmOfyr+ oDtkd&DwGif
xkdoabmw&m;rsm;u v$rf;rkd;ae&m,lcJhonf?
vlr+a&;ydnmOfyr+oDtkd&DESifhywfoufI xif&Sm;ausmf-um;aomyk*~dKvfwOD;rSm*|efavmhcf yifjzpfonf? ol.
vlr+a&;ydnmOfyr+oDtkd&Donf 'Drkdua&pDxGef;um;aom ,ae@acwf umvwGif axmufcHr+trsm;qHk;
&&Sdaeonf? *|efavmhcf. t,ltqrsm;onf a[mfbDpf ukd qef@usif&if; ay:xGufvmcJhonf? olu
vl@tzJG@tpnf;twGif; tcsKd@jy\emrsm;udk wpfOD;csif; ajz&Sif;&ef rpGrf;aqmifEdkfio
f jzifh Oya'rsm;ESifhtnD
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 21

tpkd;&w&yfukd zJG@pnf;_yD; vkyfaqmif&rnf[kqkdonf? xdkt,ltqt& *|efavmhcfu if;.vlr+a&;


ydnmOfyr+ oDtkd&Dudk pwifcJhonf? vlyk*~dKvfwpfOD;csif;pDonf rd@jyvHkcHa&;ESifh tumtuG,frsm;udk
vl@tzJG@tpnf;xHrS &,lcHpm;Ekdifa&;twGuf woD;yk*~v vGwfvyfcGifhESifh tcGifhta&;tcsKd@ ukd qHk;&H+;cH&ayrnf?
tm%mrsm;udk
tuef@towfESifh
ay;xm;aom
tpkd;&w&yfukd
azmf
aqmifxm;&rnf?
if;tpkd;&.wm0efonf
jynfolvlxk
tusKd;pD;yGm;udk
umuG,f&ef
twGufjzpfonf?
xkdokd@umuG,fay;jcif;wm0efudkxrf;aqmif&ef ysufuGufygu xdktpkd;& ukd z,f&Sm;EkdifcGifh&Sdonf? tb,fhaumifhqkdaomf tpdk;&zJG@pnf;&jcif;. t"du&nf&G,f csufukdu jynfolvlxkukd umuG,fay;rnfhwm0efukd
xrf;aqmif&ef jzpfaeaoma-umifh jzpfonf ponfjzifh *|efavmhcf. vlr+a&;ydnmOfyr+oDtkd&Du
azmfjyonf?
,ae@ 'Drkdua&pDxGef;um;aomurBm}uD;wGif a[mfbfpfESifh &l;qkd;wkd@. vlr+a&;ydnmOfyr+ oDtkd&Drsm;onf
jynfolrsm;bufu &yfwnfawG;ac:ay;jcif;xuf tkyfcsKyfoltpkd;&buf u &yfwnfawG;ac:ay;jcif;jzpfaumif;
trsm;u&+jrifvm-uonf?
okd@aomf
vl@tzJG@t
pnf;twGif;
vlr+a&;ydnmOf
yr+w&yf&Sdaeonfqkdonhftcsufukdum;
tm;vHk;vufcH
onf?
xkdydnmOf.
atmufwGifyif
vl@tzJG@tpnf;ukd tkyfcsKyf&ef tpkd;&rsm; zJG@pnf;xm; &rnfukdvnf; vufcHxm;-uonf? xkdtpkd;&onf
tpkd;&tusKd;pD;yGm;xuf jynfolvl xktusKd;pD;yGm;ukd t"duxm;I wm0efrsm;ukd xrf;aqmif&efukdvnf;
tm;vHk;u vufcH xm;-uonf? 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHa&;pepfESifh udkufnDaom tawG;tac:rsm;yg&Sdonfh *|ef
avmhcf. vlr+a&;ydnmOfyr+ oDtkd&Donfom ,ae@acwf 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHa&;wGif ae&m ,lv#uf&Sdonf?
*|efavmhcf. tawG;tac:rsm;twkdif; tm%mrsm; uef@owfxm;aom tpdk;&rsm;udkom azmfaqmifxm;uonf? jynfoludk trsm;qHk;tusKd;yrnfh tpdk;&rsKd;udk om jynfolvlku azmfxkwf-uayonf?
*|efavmhcfESifhwlaom tawG;tac:r+rsm;jzihf vlr+ a&;ydnmOfyr+ oDtkd&Dudk azmfxkwfaom
tjcm;xif&Sm;onfh yk*~dKvfrSm tar&duefvGwf vyfa&; a-unmpmwrf; (1776 ckEpS f) ukd a&;om;&mwGif
yg0ifol *sufzmqefjzpfonf?
'Ddrkdua&pD pD;yGm;a&;oDtkd&D
(Economic Theory of Democracy)
omrefjynfolrsm;taejzifh if;wkd@. tusKd;pD;yGm; tppftrSefukd azmfxkwf&ef pGrf;aqmif jcif; ryEkdifonfh
tajctaersKd;ESifh uH&aomtcgrsKd;&Sdwwfonf? xdktcgrsKd;wGif jynfol rsm;twGuf tkyfcsKyfaom ppfrSefonfh
'Drkdua&pD tpkd;&jzpfygu vkyfaqmif&ef enf;vrf; rSm todtjrif A[kokwuG,f0aom jynforl sm;xJrS
tpktzJG@ jynfol@acgif;aqmifukd,f pm;vS,frsm;rSwqifh azmfxkwfajymqkdaom jynfol@tusKd;pD;yGm;ukd
vkdufvHtaumift xnfazmfjcif;om jzpfonf? Tokd@aom vkyf[efrsKd;onf ukd,fpm;y'Drkdua&pDpepf xGef;
um;onhf ,ae@ urBm@EkdifiHa&;wGif a&Swef;rS ygaeonf? jynfol@ukd,fpm;vS,f vkyfrnfh olrsm;onf
omrefjynfolrsm;xuf EkdifiHa&;wGif u|rf;usifr+&Sv
d matmif ud;yrf;tm; xkwfaejcif;jzifh udk,fpm;y
'Drkdua&pDpepfwGif EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;tjzpf yg0ifae-uonf? EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;onf jynfolwkd@.
tusKd;pD;yGm;udk trSefwu,f vkyfukdifaqmif&Guf ay;onfh yk*~dKvfrsm;jzpf&efrSm vkdtyfcsuf}uD; jzpfvm_yD;
xkdokd@aom yk*~dKvfrsm;udkom jynfolvlxku if;wkd@.oDtkd&Dw&yf tckdiftrm ay:xGef;vma-umif;udk

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 22

tefoGefeD'Gef;pf u 1957 ckESpfwGif a&;om;xkwfa0aom 'Drdu


k a&pD pD;yGm;a&;oDtkd&D (an economic
theory of democracy) pmtkyfwGif a&;om;azmfjyxm;onf?
'Drkdua&pDEdkifiHa&;pepfwGif EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;ESifh EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;u jynfol@udk,fpm; vS,frsm;tjzpf
tm%m&&Sdvmatmif a&G;aumufyJGrsm;wGif 0ifa&muf,SOfydifyHkukd pD;yGm; a&;orm;rsm;aps;uGufwGif
a&mif;ukefudktjydKiftqdkif a&mif;csyHkESifh cdkif;E+dif;azmfjyjcif;
a-umifhxdkoDtdk&Dudk
'Drdkua&pDpD;yGm;a&;oDtdk&D[k 'Gef;pfu wif;pm;ac:a0:vdkufjcif;jzpf onf? jynfolvlxk-uD;onf
if;wdk@.tusKd;pD;yGm;udk az:aqmifay;rnfh yk*~Kvf/ EdkifiHa&; orm;rsm;udkom a&G;cs,fvdk-uonf?
tjyeftvSeftm;jzifh ta&G;cH&aom jynfol@udk,f pm;vS,f EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;uvnf; jynfol@tusKd;pD;yGm;
vdktyfcsufudk
od&SdjyD;
jznfh
qnf;taumiftxnfazmfay;Edkif&ef
vdktyfonf?
xdkoabmw&m;wGifjynfolvlxk-uD;
onf
aps;uGufESifhwljyD;
EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;onf
aps;uGuf(jynfolvlxk)tuduf a&mif; ukefrsm; (jynfol@tusKd;pD;yGm;udk az:aqmifay;rnfhay:vpDrsm;)
xkyfvkyfjcif;ESifh wlaeyg onf? a&mif;ukefESifhaps;uGuf o[ZmwjzpfygrS pD;yGm;a&;pepfwck
zGH@zd;EdkifrnfjzpfouJh odk@ jynfolvlxkESifh EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;t-um; qufoG,fr+o[ZmwjzpfygrS 'Drdkua&pD
EdkifiHa&;pepfw&yf atmifjrif jzpfxGef;Edkifrnfjzpfa-umif; 'Gef;pfu tcdkiftrmaxmufjy xm;onf?
'Gef;pf.oDtdk&Doabmw&m;rsm;udk 'Drdkua&p"DxGef;um;aom urBm@ajrmufjcrf; EdkifiHrsm; wGif
us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ avhvmawG@&SdEdkifonf? EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;onf a&mif;ukefrsm;ESifh wlaom if;wdk@.
jynfol@tud;pD;yGm;udk
yvkyfay;rnfhay:vpDrsm;
csjyumrJqG,fpD;&kH;
jcif;rsm;
yvkyf-uonf?
aps;uGufESifhwlaomjynfolvlxk-uD;onf if;wdk@.tusKd;pD;yGm; udk trSefwu,faz:aqmifay;Edkifrnf[k
,lqaomygwDodk@r[kwf ygwDudk,fpm;vk,frsm; udk tav;ay;a&G;cs,fvkduf-uonf?
'Drdkua&pDpD;yGm;a&;oDtdk&D
oabmw&m;wGifta&;-uD;aom
udpw
P ckrSm
EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;
EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;u jynfolvx
l kvdkvm;aom tusKd;pD;yGm;ta-umif; avhvmr+wenf; tm;jzifh
jynfol@toH jynfol@qEN (public opinion) udktcgrvyf pHkprf;od&Sdae&efyif jzpfonf? odk@rSom
aps;uGuf.0,fvdktm;udk ukefxkyfvkyfolurSefrSefuefuef xkyfvkyf Edkifayrnf? ,ae@'Drdkua&pD xGef;um;aom
EdkifiHrsm;wGif vlxkqENppfwrf; aumuf,lr+ rsm; yvkyfvsuf&Sd-uonfudk awG@&onf?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 23

tcef;(3)

tm%muef@owftpkd;&
Limited Government

tenf;qHk;tkyfcsKyfaom tpkd;&onf taumif;qHk;tpkd;&jzpfonf


Government Is the Best Which Governs Least
tpkd;&. vkyfykdifcGifhtm%mudk uef@owfxm;a&;onf 'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfwGif r&Sd rjzpf
vkyfaqmif&rnfh udpPjzpfonf? 'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepepfESifh qef@usifonfh t jcm;aom tkyfcsKyfa&;
pepfrsm;wGif
tpdk;&.tm%mudk
uef@owfxm;r+ryEkdifbJ
tpdk;&
uom
jynfolrsm;.
vGwfvyfr+tcGifhta&;ukd uef@owfxm;onfukd awG@&onf? 'Drkdu a&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfwGif jynfolwkd@.
vGwfvyfr+tcGifhta&;ukd xdckdufjcif;r&Sdap&eft wGuf tpkd;&.tm%mudk uef@owf&ef vdktyfjcif;jzpfonf?
'Drkdua&pDESifhqef@usifaom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrsm;wGif tpkd;&tcGifhtm%mudk usihfoHk;cGifh&Sd olrsm;onf
yHkpHwrsKd;rsKd;jzifh xkd&mxl;udk qufcHjcif;jzifh &&Sdwwf-uonf? xkd@a-umifh T enf;tm;jzifh tm%m&vmaom
yk*~dKvfrsm;onf if;wkd@vuf0,frS tm%mudk jynfol rsm;u xdyg;,SOfydifjcif;ryEdkifaom tm;enf;csufukd
tcGifhaumif;,lum
tm%mtvJG
oHk;pm;r+rsm;jzihf
tkyfcsKyfjcif;rsKd;jzpfvmonf?
tuGif;rJh
oufOD;qHykdifbk&ifpepf (abso- lute monarchism) wGif orkdif;wav#muf tkyfcsKyfa&;tm%mudk
qufcHjcif;jzifh &,l cJh-u_yD; tm%mtvJGoHk;pm;tkyfcsKyfr+rsm; ycJah -umif; 17=18 &mpkrsm;wGif ay:xGef;cJh
aom EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:ynm&Sifrsm;u tckdiftrm azmfxkwf ajymqkdcJhonf? 'Drkdu a&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfukd
tav;ay;awG;ac:aom ynm&Sifrsm;onf tqkdygtcsufudk tcdkiftrmaxmufjy_yD; tpdk;&.
vkyfykdifcGifhtm%mukd uef@owf&ef ud;yrf;vm-uonf? qufcHjcif;jzihf tm%m&&Sdvmaomtpdk;& odk@r[kwf
yk*~dKvf.tm%mudk uef@owf&ef twGuf enf;vrf;rsKd;pHkudk azmf xkwfcJh-uonf?
qufcHjcif;jzifh tm%m&&Sdaom EkdfifiHrsm;tjzpf jrifomaomEkdifiHrsm;rSm bk&if okd@r[kwf bk&ifr
tkyfcsKyfv#uf&Sdaom EkdifiHrsm; (kingdom) jzpf-uonf? okd@aomf xkdEkdifiHrsm; wGif bk&ifrsm;.
tm%monf tuGif;rJh oufOD;qHykdifbk&ifpepfuJhokd@ vkyfykdifcGifhtm%m r&SdawmhbJ tm%mukd atmufwGif
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 24

wifjyxm;aom enf;vrf;rsm;jzifh uef@owfxm;_yD; wu,hfvufawG@ tkyfcsKyfa&;udpP&yfrsm;wGif


jynfol@ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;u aqmif&Guf v#uf&Sdonf? xkdEkdifiHrsm;wGif tm%mudk qufcHjcif;jzihf &&Sdaom
bk&if okd@r[kwf bk&ifr onf EkdifiHawmf. OD;ao#mif (head of state) taejzifhom wnf&Sd onf?
urBm@EkdifiHtrsm;pkrSm
tm%mukd
qufcHjcif;enf;jzifh
&&Sdjcif;pepfr[kwfbJ
ajrmufaomorRwutkyfcsKyfonfh orRwEkdifiH (republic)rsm; jzpf-uonf?

a&G;cs,fwif
orRw wGif

txl;vkyfykdifcGifhtm%m&Sdaompepf (presidentialism) wGifjzpfap/ orRwu EkdifiHawmfOD;ao#mif


tqifhwGifom&Sd_yD; ygvDrefu txl;vkyfykdifcGifh&Sdaompepf (parlia- mentarism) wGifjzpfap
orRwtygt0if tkyfcsKyfa&;tm%mrsm;ukd usifhoHk;rnhf tm %mykdiftm;vHk;onf a&G;cs,fwifajrmufcH_yD;rS
tm%m&&Sdaom olrsm;jzpfonf? okd@&m wGif Tokd@a&G;cs,fwifajrmuf&kHr#jzifh tpkd;&.tcGifhtm%mukd
uef@owf&ef vHkavmuf aom ta-umif;w&m;w&yf r[kwfygacs? ta&G;cs,fcHyk*~dKvfrsm; tm%m&_yD;rS
'Drkdua& pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfESifh qef@usifv#uf tm%m&SiftkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrsm; azmfaqmifaeonf ukd
urBm@t&yfa'otawmfrsm;rsm;wGif awG@jrifae-u&onf? EkdifiHt}uD;tuJ tm%m udk qufcH,laeaom
bk&ifhEkdifiHrsm;wGif
usifhoHk;aeaom
'Drkdua&pDonf
a&G;cs,fwif
ajrmufjcif;enf;jzifh
tm%m&vmaomEkdifiHrsm;xuf
rsm;pGmtqifhjrifhrm;aeonfukd
vnf;awG@&onf?
xkd@a-umifh
tpkd;&.tm%mudk uef@owfa&;rSm EkdifiHawmfOD;ao#mif ae&mtwGufukd qufcH&&Sdjcif; okd@r[kwf
a&G;cs,fwifajrmufjcif; wckwnf;u tqHk; tjzwfay;Ekdifaom udpPr[kwfyg? qufvufIwifjyrnfjzpfaom
ta-umif;w&m;rsm; t&om tpkd;&. tm%mudk uef@owfEkdifjcif;qkdonfh tusKd;w&m;udk &&Sdayonf?
tpkd;&.vkyfykdifcGifhtm%m uef@owfa&;ESifh ywfoufI vlr+a&;ydnmOfyr+udk azmfxkwf ol *|efavmhcf.
wifjycsufrsm;wGif tckdiftrmawG@&Sd&onf? vlwkdif;wGif obm0utyf ESif;xm;aom tcGifhta&;rsm;&Sd_yD;
if;wkd@udk vGwfvyfpGm usifhoHk;cGifh&Sdonf? xkdokd@usifh oHk;&mwGif tjcm;olrsm;. vHkcHr+ESifh tcGifhta&;udk
xdckdufr+rsm; jzpfapEkdifojzifh xkdjzpf &yfrsKd;ukd xdef;!d&eftwGuf jynfol@udk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifh tpkd;&zJG@pnf;_yD;
vkyfykdifcGifhtm %mtyfESif;ay;&onf? Toabmw&m;onf vlyk*~dKvf wpfOD;csif;pDt-um;ESifh vlwOD;
csif;pDESifh vl@tzJG@tpnf;t-um; vlr+a&;ydnmOfyr+ oabmw&m; ay:aygufvm&jcif; onf
vlyk*~dKvfwpfOD;csif;pD. touf&Sifoef&yfwnfr+tcGifhta&;/ vGwfvyfr+tcGifht a&;/ ykdifqkdifr+tcGifhta&;ukd
vl@tzJG@tpnf;}uD;twGif; azmfaqmif&mwGif uHawG@&rnfh tcuftcJrsm;udk ajz&Sif;&eftwGufjzpfonf? xkd@aumifh vlr+a&;ydnmOfyr+t& ay: aygufvmaomtpkd;&tm; vlyk*~dKvfwpfOD;csif;pD. tcGifhta&;ukd
csKd;azguf&ef cGifhyrnfr [kwfay? xkd@a-umifh tpkd;&. vkyfykdifcGifhtm%mrsm;u yk*~dKvfwpfOD;csif;pD.
tcGifhta&; udk vl@tzJG@tpnf;twGuf vkdtyfcsuft&r[kwfbJ csKd;azgufvmv#if ckcHcGifh&Sda-umif;
*|efavmhcfu xkwfazmfcJhonf? *|efavmhcfonf if;.t,ltq tawG;tac:rsm;ukd 1688 ckESpfwGif
jzpfyGm;aom t*FvdyfawmfvSefa&;t_yD;wGif xkwfa0aom tpdk;&pmcsKyf ESpf&yf (two treaties of
government) pmtkyfwGif xkwfazmfcJhonf? t"dutm; jzifh bk&ifrsm;.vkyfykdifcGifhukd uef@owf&ef
xkwfazmfcJhjcif;jzpfaomfvnf;
'Drkdua&pDtkyf
csKyfa&;pepfw&yfwGif
r&Sdrjzpfvkdtyfcsufjzpfaom
tpkd;&.tm%mudk uef@owfa&;t wGuf ckdifrmaomtawG;tac:ukd azmfxkwfcJholtjzpf *|efavmhcfukd
todtrSwfy-u onf?
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 25

tpdk;&tm%mudk uef@owfxm;jcif;ESifh ywfoufI atmufygpHrsm;t& avhvmr+y-u onf?


(u) vlxktcsKyftjcmtm%mykdifr+
(c ) uk,
d pf m;ytpk;d &
(* ) umvtykdif;tjcm;tvkduf usif;yaom a&G;aumufyJGrsm;
(C) tajccHOya'ESifhtnD tkyfcsKyfjcif;
vlxk. tcsKyftjcmtm%mykdifr+
(Popular Sovereignty)
tpkd;&. tm%mudk uef@owfEkdifa&;twGuf vlxk. tcsKyftjcm tm%mykdifr+qkdonfh oabmw&m;onf
EkdifiHa&;pepftwGif; pdrhf0if,Hk-unfr+ &Sdaeap&ef vkdtyfonf? t xufwGif wifjycJhonfhtwkdif;
tuGif;rJhoufOD;qHykdif pepftxd vlxktcsKyftjcmtm %mykdifr+oabmw&m;onf EkdifiHa&;pepftwGif;
ouf0if,Hk-unfr+r&SdcJhay? tcsKyftjcm tm%monf bk&ifrsm;xHwGifom&Sdonf? bk&ifonf tuGif;rJhaom
tm%mrsm;udk ykdif qkdifonf? t&mcyfodrf;ukd vkyfEkdifonfqkdonfh oabmw&m;rsm;om tEkdif,laecJh onf?
tcsKyftjcmtm%mykdifr+qkdaom a0g[m&onf jyifopfbmompum; (sove- reign)rS vmjcif;jzpf_yD;
if;.t"dy`g,frSm xdyfqHk;Y&Sdjcif; okd@r[kwf tjcm;olrsm;. txGftxdyft&m [lIjzpfonf? 16 &mpkESpf
tv,fykdif;wGif ay:xGef;cJhaom jyifopf EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:ynm&Sif abm'if (Jean Bodin, 15291596)

utcsKyftjcm

tm%mwGif

tuGif;rJhjzpfaom

(absolute)

xm0&twnfjzpfaom

(perpetual)/ cJG jcm;r&aom (indivisible) [lonfh tESpfom&&Sdonf[k t"dy`g,fzGifhqkdcJhonf? okd@&m


wGif
abmf'ifu
tcsKyftjcmtm%mudk
bk&ifuusifhoHk;jcif;ESifh
ywfoufIrl
qef@usif
awG;ac:ajymqkdjcif;rsKd;rycJhay? abmf'if. aemufykdif; ay:xGufvmaom EkdifiHa&;tawG; tac: ynm&Sifrsm;
rnfolwkd@jzpfonfudk awG;ac:azmfxkwfcJh-uonf?
tcsKyftjcm tm%m.ykdif&Sif t&if;tjrpfukd &SmazGazmfxkwf&mwGif EkdifiHa&;tawG;t ac:ynm&Sifrsm;u
tqifhqifh tar;tajzyHkpHjzifh yvkyfcJh-uonf? yxr olwkd@ar;aom ar;cGef;rSm bk&ifonf
tcsKyftjcmtm%mykdif&Sif [kwfygovm; qkdonfh ar;cGef;jzpf onf? tajzum; r[kwyf g/ ta-umif;rSm
ae@w"l0 tkyfcsKyfa&;/ pDrHcef@cJGa&;rsm;udk aqmif&Gufaeolwkd@rSm ygvDrefomjzpfojzifh bk&ifonf
tcsKyftjcmtm%mxdef;csKyfa&; wGif wkduf&kdufywfoufjcif;r&SdIjzpfonf? okd@qkdv#if ygvDrefonf
tcsKyftjcmtm%m ukd ykdkifygovm; qkdonhftcsufukd 'kwd,ar;cGe;f tjzpf ar;vm-uonf? tajzum;
r[kwfyg ta-umif;rSm ygvDrefonf zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifh tnD
a&G;cs,fwifajrmufcH&aom jynfol@ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifhom zJG@pnf;xm;jcif;jzpf &m xkdukd,fpm;vS,frsm;onf
zJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya'ukd v$rf;rkd;jcif;/ uJGvJGqef@usifpGm aqmif&Gufjcif; ryEkdifIjzpfonf? okd@qkdv#if
zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'onf tcsKyf tjcm ykdif&Sif[kwfygoavm qkdaomar;cGef;udk
wwd,ar;cGef;tjzpf ar;vm-uonf? tajzum;r[kwfyg ta-umif;rSm xkdzJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk
tajccHOya'ukd jynfolvlxku jyifqifjcif; zsufodrf;jcif; yvkyfEkdifonf? jynfolvlxk}uD;udkum; rnfolu
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 26

v$rf;rkd;Ekdif ao;enf;/ jynfolvlxk}uD;um; tcsKyftjcmtm%mykdif&Sif jzpfygovm; qkdonfhar; cGef;udk


aemufqHk;ar;cGef;ar;vm-uonf? jynfolvlxk}uD;udk rnfonfht&mur# v$rf; rkd;jcif; ryEkdifawmhyg?
jynfolvlxk}uD;. usifhoHk;Ekdifaomtm%monf tuGif;rJhjzpf aom xm0&pOfqufrjywfaom
wpkwpnf;wnf;jzpfaom tm%mjzpfonf? xkd@a-umifh jynfolvlxk}uD;onf tcsKyftjcmtm%m.
t&if;tjrpfESifhykdif&Sifjzpfonf [laom tqHk;owftajzukd &&Sdonf?
txufyg pOf;pm;qifjcifr+wGif t"dy`g,ftaumufrvJGap&ef tcsuf(2)csufudk &Sif;vif; wifjy&ef vkdygonf?
yxrtcsufrSm
tcsKd@aomEkdifiHrsm;.
zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk
tajccHOya'
wGif
ygvDrefonf
tcsKyftjcmtm%mykdifa-umif; jyXmef;csufjzpfonf? xkdjyXmef;csuf onf jynfolrsm;. ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;jzihf
zJG@pnf;xm;onfh ygvDrefudk tcsKyftjcmtm %m tyfESif;xm;jcif;jzpf&m udk,fpm;vS,f qkdonhftwkdif;
tppftrSefr[kwfonfrSm xif&Sm;aeygonf? xkd@jyif xkdukd,fpm;vS,frsm;udk cef@xm;jcif;ukd y,fzsufjcif;ukd
yvkyf Ekdifaomtm%mrSm jynfolrsm;vuftwGif; &Sdaejcif;uvnf; tcsKyftjcmtm%mykdif&Sif rSm
jynfolrsm;omjzpfa-umif; xif&Sm;apygonf?
'kwd, &Sif;vdkonfhtcsufrSm zJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya'u tcsKyftjcmtm%mykdif r[kwfqkd aomtcsufjzpfonf?
tajccHOya'onf
tm%mwnfqJtcsdefwGif
tpdk;&tm%mykdif
rsm;a&m
jynfolrsm;uyg
vkdufemapmifhxdef;&aom Oya'jzpfonf? ok@d aomf if;udk jynf olrsm;u w&m;0ifzsufodrf;ykdifcGifh&Sd&m
jynfolrsm;uom
tcsKyftjcmtm%mykdif&Sifrsm;
jzpfonf?
tcsKd@EkdifiHrsm;wGif
ppfwyftm%modrf;r+rsm;jzpfyGm;_yD; tajccHOya'ukd zsuf odrf;wwf&m xkdtm%modrf;acgif;aqmifrsm;u
tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkifonf[lI
um;
qkdIr&yg?
ta-umif;rSm
tajccHOya'udk
w&m;r0ifzsufodrf;cGifhtm%monf jynfol rsm;rSvGJI tjcm; rnfol@wGifr#r&Sdyg?
xkd@a-umifh rsufarSmufacwfwGif tcsKyftjcmtm%mykdif&Sifonf jynfolvlxkomjzpf
a-umif;
tm;vHk;uvufcHoabmykduf_yD; jzpfonf? okd@aomf jy\emrSm vufawG@usifh oHk;&mwGif jynfolvlxk.
tcsKyftjcmtm%mykdifr+tcef;uukd ypfy,fjcif;jzpfonf? tcsKyftjcmtm%mykdif&Sif rnfoljzpfa-umif;
pOf;pm;qifjcifpOfu
tqifhqifhyvkyfcJh
aom
tar;ESifhtajzjzpfpOfwGif
tqifhqifhaom
EkdifiHa&;jzpfay:wkd;wufr+jzpfpOf (pro-cess of political progress)udk awG@cJh&_yD;jzpfonf?
xkdvkyfief;jzpfpOf t qifhwkdif;wGif vkdtyfcsufESifhtnD ay:vGifapygonf jynfolvlxkxHwGif tcsKyftjcmtm
%mykdifr+&Sdjcif;ukd ay:vGifapygonf? xkdEkdifiHa&;jzpfpOfudk jynfolvlxu
k
xdef;csKyfjcif;ry Ekdifygu
tm%mykdifrsm;onf tm%m&Siftjzpfokd@ OD;wnfoGm;_yD; jynfolvlxk. tcsKyf tjcmtm%mykdifr+
tcef;urSm t"dy`g,frJhoGm;avawmhonf?
jynfolvlxk tcsKyftjcmtm%mykdifqkdifr+ESifh wkduf&kdufqufpyfaeaom ta-umif;t&m w&yfrSm
jynfolvlxk. EkdifiHa&;yl;aygif;aqmif&GufcGifh &Sda&;yifjzpfonf? EkdifiHa&; yl;aygif; aqmif&GufcGifhukd taumif;trsKd;rsKd;jyum uef@owfjcif; ydwfyifwm;qD;jcif;onf jynfol vlxk tcsKyftjcmykdifr+udk
OayuQmyvkdufjcif;jzpfonf?
ukd,fpm;ytpkd;&
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 27

(Representative Government)
ukd,fpm;y 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHa&;pepftwGif;rS tpkd;&onf jynfolwkd@. ukd,fpm;ytpdk;& omjzpfonf? 'Drkdua&pD
EkdifiHa&;pepfxGef;um;a&;twGuf ppfrSefaom ukd,fpm;yr+ESifh ppfrSefaom ukd,fpm;ytpkd; &udk
azmfaqmifEkdif&ef vkdtyfonf?
ukd,fpm;ytpkd;& qkdonfrSm tb,fenf;? _Adwdo# EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:ynm&Sif ar;vf (John Stuart
Mill, 1806-1873) . t"dy`g,fzGifhqkdcsuftwkdif; ajz&rnfqkdv#if ukd,fpm;y tpkd;&qkdonfrSm
yvkyfaomtpkd;&r[kwf/ aygufzGm;aom tpkd;&jzpfonf? yvkyfaomtpkd;& r[kwfqkdonfrSm wpHkwa,muf
odk@r[kwf vlwpk. v$rf;rkd;csKyfuidk fr+ t& zJG@pnf;aom tpkd;&jzpfonf? aygufzGm;aom tpdk;&qdkonfrSm
jynfolvlxku arG;xkwfay;vkdufaom jynfol@udk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzihf zJG@pnf;xm;aomtpkd;&jzpf_yD; xkdt
pdkd;&onfom ukd,fpm;y tpkd;&jzpfonf?
tcsKd@EkdifiHrsm;wGif ukd,fpm;ytpkd;&wpf&yftjzpf yHkoeft& zefwD;ay;xm;r+rsKd; jzpf onf?
tESpfom&tm;jzifh wpHkwa,muf okd@r[kwf wpfpkwpfzJG@. -oZmv$rf;rkd;r+udk cH ,laeygu yvkyfaomtpkd;&
jzpfoGm;rnf? ukd,fpm;ytpkd;&w&yf r[kwfawmhyg? xkdokd@ aomtpkd;&rsm;onfyif zJG@pnf;&mY jynfolvlxku
aygufzGm;ay;jcif; (a&G;cs,fay;jcif;) rsKd;jzpfatmif yHkoeft& vkyf,lxm;_yD; vufawG@wGif jynfolvlxkukd
trSefwu,f ukd,fpm;ryawmhay? ppfrSefaom ukd,fpm;yr+ &Sdr&Sdudk rnfokd@aom rlrsm;jzifh wkdif;wm urnfenf;? ppfrSefaom jynfol@udk,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;onf if;ukd a&G;cs,fay;vkduf aom rJqENe,f&Sdf
jynfolrsm;. qENudk rsufajcrjywf od&Sdae&rnf? xdk@jyif ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0ifzJG@pnf;aeaom
tm%mydkiftzJG@ (ygvDrefjzpfap/ tpkd;&jzpfap) taejzihf ukd,fpm; vS,frsm;. tusKd; pD;yGm;ukd azmfaqmif&m
Xmejzpf&efxuf jynfolrsm;. tusKd;pD;yGm;ukd taumif;qHk;yvkyfay;rnfh enf;vrf;rsm; tajz&Sm&mXmeom
jzpf&ayrnf? udk,fpm; vS,fwpfOD;csif;pDtay:wGif oufqkdif&mrJqENe,f&Sd jynfolrsm;.qENjzifh csnfaESmiftm;
&SdouJhokd@ ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifh pkzJG@xm;aom tm%mykdiftzJG@onf wEkdifiHvHk;jynfol rsm;.qENjzifh
csnfaESmiftm;&Sd&rnf?
rJqEN&Sifrsm;. qENtm;jzifh csnfaESmifjcif;ukd rcH,laom wenf;tm;jzifh jynfol@qENukd av;pm;jcif;r&Sdaom
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tay: xdef;csKyfEkdifaom enf;vrf;rsm; jynfol@wkd@ vufxJwGif &Sdae&ayrnf? Tenf;vrf;rSm
trsm;tm;jzifh owfrSwfoufwrf;umv t ykdif;tjcm;tvkduf usif;ywwfonfh a&G;aumufyJGrsm;wGif
xkdukd,fpm;vS,frsm;ukd jyef vnf&kyfodrf;_yD; ukd,fpm;vS,fopfjzifh tpm;xkd;a&G;cs,faom enf;vrf;rsm;udk
toHk;rsm; -uonf? tcsKd@EkdifiHrsm;wGif ukd,fpm;vS,f.oufwrf; rukefqHk;rD umvtwGif;Yyif
rJqEN&Siftrsm;pku
awmif;qkdr+jzifh
xkdudk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk
wm0efrS
&kyfodrf;Ekdifaom
tcGifhtvrf;rsm;vnf;&Sdonf? okd@&mwGif Tenf;vrf;onf wnf_idfrfaom 'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk
xdckdufEkdifojzifh owfrSwfumv oufwrf;qHk;onfhtcgrS udk,fpm; vS,f tpm;xkd;jcif;enf;udk toHk;rsm;uonf?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 28

wEkdifiHvHk;&Sd rJqEN&Siftrsm;pk.qENudk vkdufavsm&jcif;a-umifh tcsKd@aom rJqENe,frsm; rSqENrJrsm;


atmifjrifr+r&aom tcgrsKd;vnf; uH&wwfonf? xkdtajctaersKd;rSm wpf EdkifiHvHk;tusKd;pD;yGm;udk
ta&;ay;&rnfh tajctae[k em;vnf&ef vkdtyfonf?
umvtykdif;tjcm;tvdkuf yvkyfaom a&G;aumufyJGrsm;
(Perodic Elections)
udk,fpm;y 'Drkdua&pDudkusifhoHk;aom EkdifiHa&;pepfwGif owfrSwfumv tykdif;tjcm;t vkduf
jynfol@udk,fpm;vS,f a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyJGrsm; usif;ya&;onf ta&;}uD;aom tcef;urS yg0ifonf?
Ta&G;aumufyJGrsm;jzifhom ppfrSefaom jynfol@ukd,fpm;vS,f rsm;udk tpOftpm;xkd;oGm;Ekdifayonf?
tm%m& tpkd;&w&yfonf Tokd@aom a&G; aumufyJGrsm;udk a&Smifz,fjiif;qefaev#ifjzpfap/
a&G;aumufyJGyvkyfay;aomfvnf; rdrd wkd@ jyefvnf tm%m&&Sda&;udkom w&m;0ifjzpfatmif yHkoGif;ay;onfh
taxmuftul u&d,mtaejzifhomtoHk;y&ef &nf&G,fv#ifjzpfap 'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrS aoGznf
oGm;avawmhonf? xdk@a-umifh a&G;aumufyJGrsm;udk owfrSwfumv tydkif;tjcm;t vkduf
rSefrSefusif;yay;&ef ta&;}uDouJhokd@ xkda&G;aumufyJGrsm;onf ppfrSefaomjynf ol@udk,f pm;vS,frsm;udk
a&G;xkwfay;Ekdifrnfh tcGifhtvrf; wenf;tm;jzihf vGwv
f yfI w&m;r#wr+&Sd&efvnf; vkdtyfygonf?
a&G;aumufyJGrsm; yHkrSefusif;y&jcif;. &nf&G,fcsufrSm jynfolvlxk. qENukd azmfxkwfjy ocGifhESifh xkdqENudk
ukd,fpm;yEkdifonfh ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; a&G;xkwfEkdifa&;jzpfonf? tpkd; &tm%monf jynfolvlxk.
qENtay:wGifom tajccH&rnf[laom oabmw&m; twGuf Tokd@aom a&G;aumufyJGrsm;onf r&Sdrjzpf
vkdtyfcsufjzpfonf? tjynfjynf qkdif&mvl@tcGifhta&; a-unmpmwrf; yk'fr (21) (*)wGif atmufygtwkdif;
tckdiftrmjy Xmef;xm;onfudk awG@&onf?
tpdk;&. tm%monf jynfolvlxk. qENoabmxm;ay:wGif tajccH&rnf? xkq
d EN oabmxm;rsm;udk
tcsdefumvtykdif;tjcm;tvkduf usif;yaom a&G;cs,f wifajrmufyJG rsm;wGif azmfxkwfjyoEkdifap&rnf?
xkda&G;cs,fwifajrmufyJGrsm;onf
nDr#r+tajccHay:
wGif
qENrJay;cGifh&Sd
jynfolrsm;u
wkduf&kdufv#Kd@0SufrJay;pepfukd
usifhoHk;aom
okd@r[kwf
tESpfom&tm;jzifh
wlnDaom
tjcm;yHkoefwrsKd;rsKd;t& usif;yaom a&G;cs,fwif ajrmufyJGrsm; jzpfap&rnf?
xkd@a-umifh ppfrSefaom jynfol@qENazmfxkwfcGifhESifh umvtykdif;tjcm;tvkduf a&G; aumufyGJrsm;
&usif;ya&;onf wdkuf&kdufqufpyfaeaom tusKd;ESifhta-umif;w&m;jzpf onf? xdk@jyiftqdkygyk'fr (21)wGif
qufvufaz:jyxm;onfrSm xdka&G;aumufyGJonf rnfodk@rnfyHk jzpf&rnfqdkonfhyHkoef wenf;tm;jzifh
vGwfvyfI w&m;r#waom a&G; aumufyGJrsm;. t*Fg&yfrsm;udk az:jyxm;onf? Todk@jyXmef;xm;&jcif;rSm
jynfol@qEN oabmxm;udk azmfjy&mwGif a&G;aumufyJGonf vGwfvyfIr#wr+&Sd&ef vdktyfa-umif;udk
tjynfjynfqdkif&m tawG@tuHrsm;t& awG@&SdcJh&jcif;a-umifh jzpfonf?
urBm@EdkifiHtm;vHk;vdkvdkonf jynfhol@qEN azmfxkwfjyoa&;twGuf umvtydkif;tjcm; tvdkuf
a&G;aumufyGJrsm;usif;ya&;udk jyXmef;xm;wwfaomfvnf; tcsKd@EdkifiHrsm;wGif xdka&G;aumufyGJrsm;udk
rdrdwdk@tm%m&&Sda&;twGuf w&m;0ifr+yay;yg&efom tpdk;&rsm; utoHk;yae-uonfudk awG@ae&onf?
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 29

txl;ojzifh uGefjrLepf wpfygwDpepf EdkifiHrsm;ESifh yHkomefwrsKd;rsKd;jzifh tm%m&SifjzpfaeaomEdkifiHrsm;wGif


usifhoHk;aeonfudkawG@&onf? xdkEdkifiHrsm;.a&G;aumufyJGrsm;udk vGwfvyfIw&m;r#wr+r&Sd[k owfrSwfuonf? odk@jzpf I vGwfvyfIw&m;r#wr+&Sdaom a&G;aumufyJGtjzpf owfrSwfEdkif&ef pHowfrSwfcsuf tcsKd@
vdktyfayvdrfhrnf? tjynfjynfqdkif&m a&G;aumufyJG avhvmcsufpmwrf; (inter- national election
observing) wGif vGwfvyfI w&m;r#wr+&Sdaom a&G;aumufyJG jzpf&ef tajccHtm;jzifh vkdtyfaom
atmufygpHrsm;udk azmfjyxm;onf?
1? a&G;aumufyJG usif;yaom EkdifiHwGif Ttajctaersm;ESifh jynfhpHk&rnf?
(u) tpkd;&tm%mykdifae&mtwGuf ta&G;cHcGifhESifh v#Kd@0SufrJay;r+ tcGifhta&; tygt0if
EkdkifiHom;rsm;. EkdifiHa&;vkyfief;pOf tqifhqifhwGif yl;aygif;yg0if aqmif&GufcGifh pGrf;&nfrsm;tay:
tusKd;ta-umif; qDav#mfr+r&Sdaom uef@owf wm;jrpfcsufrsm; rxm;&?
(c)a&G;aumufyJGwGif ta&G;cH&rnhf udk,fpm;vS,favmif;rsm;ESifh a&G;aumufyJG tpDtpOfrsm;udk
EkdifiHom;rsm;tm; today;wifjyjcif;/ EkdifiHa&;pnf;&Hk;r+ESifh v+H@ aqmfr+wkd@ yvkyfjcif;wkd@udk
cGifhyjcif;tvdk@iSm xkwfazmfajymqkdr+ vGwfvyfcGifh/ toif;tzJG@ zJG@pnf;jcif; vGwfvyfcGifhESifh
pnf;&kH;pka0;jcif; vGwfvyfcGifhwkd@ukd av;pm; cGifhyxm;&rnf?S
2? EkdifiHa&;ygwD okd@r[kwf ukd,pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm; a&G;aumufyJGwGif&Sdaom axmuf cHqENrJrsm;tvkduf
&mxl;qufcHcGifhESifh tm%mv$Jajymif;&,lcGifh tygt0if a&G;aumufyJG &vm'fukd av;pm;vkdufem&rnf?
EkdifiHwum vl@tcGifhta&; Oya'ynm&Sifrsm;tzJG@. tqkdyg pHowfrSwfcsuf}uD;ESpfckonf rnfonfh
'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHrqdk vkdufemusifhoHk;&ef vkdtyfcsuf[k qkd&ayrnf? tqkdyg tajctaersm;r&SdbJ
vGwfvyfIw&m;r#waom a&G;aumufyJGjzpfonf[k rqkdEkdifay?
'Drkdua&pDokd@ toGiful;ajymif;&ef awmif;qkdaeaom EkdifiHrsm;ESifh wwd,urBm@EkdifiHrsm; wGif
usif;yavh&Sdaoma&G;aumufyJGrsm;
vGwfvyfIw&m;r#wr+&Sda-umif;
tpdk;&tm%m
ykdifrsm;u
ckcHajymqkdjcif;ukd wefjyef&eftwGuf pHjytjzpfajymqkdEkdifaom rltcsKd@ukd Oya' ynm&Sifrsm;tzJG@u azmfxkwf
xm;jcif;jzpfonf?
ppfrSefI vGwfvyfr#waom a&G;aumufyJGjzpf&eftwGuf ,ae@acwf EkdifiHa&;ody`Hynm&Sif rsm;u
pHowfrSwfcsufrsm;tjzpf=
(u) rJay;cGif&Sdolrsm;tm;vHk; rJay;onfh a&G;cs,fwifajrmufjcif; (universal suffrage)
(c ) wkduf&kdufrJay; a&G;cs,fwifajrmufjcif; (direct election)
(* ) v#Kd@0SufrJay;pepfudk usihfoHk;jcif; (secret voting)
(C) vGwfvyfaom qENrJay;jcif; (free)
(i)rJay;cGifh&Sdolrsm;t-um; tcGifhta&;wlnDjcif; (equal)
ponfh &+awmifh rsm;rS tuJjzwf -uonf?
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 30

tcsKd@aomEkdifiHrsm;. zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'wGif if;wkd@. a&G;aumufyJGrsm;udk txufygrlrsm;t&


usif;y&rnf[k tckdiftrmjyXmef;xm;-uonf? Oyrm jynfaxmifpk orRw *smr%DEkdifiH. tajccHOya'wGif
awG@Edkifonf?
txufygrlrsm;wGif (c) (*) (C) wkd@onf a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyHkpepfudk azmf!Gef;jcif;jzpf _yD; (u) ESifh (i)
wkd@onf jynfolrsm;. rJay;cGifh tcGifhta&;ESifh oufqkdifonf? (u) jzpf onfh rJay;cGifh&Sdoltm;vHk; rJay;onfh
a&G;cs,fwifajrmufjcif;qkdaomrlonf rJay;cGifh&Sd jynfolrsm;tm;vHk; us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ rJay;&rnf[laom
t"dy`g,fjzpfonf?
EkdifiHwckt
wGif;
aexkdifoltm;vHk;
rJay;cGifh&onfum;
r[kwf-uyg?
oufqkdif&mEkdifiHrsm;. Oya'ESifh tnD rJay;cGifh&-ujcif;omjzpfonf? EkdifiHom;rsm;. rJay;cGifh
tcGifhta&;onfvnf; rsuf arSmufacwfwGif &&SdusifhoHk;aeaom tcGifhta&;rsKd;udk tpueOD;uwnf;u
&&Sdxm; aomtcGifhta&;um; r[kwfyg? ,ae@tcsdefwGif 'Drkdua&pD xGef;um;aeaom taemuf
EdkifiHrsm;wGifyif
19
&mpktxd
a,musFm;rsm;tm;vHk;yif
rJay;cGifh&-uonfr[kwfyg?
ypPnf;csrf;omuG,f0olrsm;om rJay;cGifh&-uonf? 19 &mpkESifh aemufykdif;umvrsm;rS om
a,musFm;rsm;tm;vHk; rJay;cGifh&-uonf? okd@&mwGif trsKd;orD;rsm; rJay;cGifhr&-u ao;acs? 20 &mpk
qef;ykdif;umva&mufaomtcg qkd&S,fvpf0g'Drsm;ESifh vpfb&,f0g'D rsm;u OD;aqmifwkdufyJG0ifvm-u&mrS
trsKd;orD;rsm; rJay;cGifh&vm-uonf? -opa-w; vswGif 1902 ckESpfYvnf;aumif;/ uae'gEkdifiHwGif 1917
ckESpfYvnf;aumif;/ tar&d uefjynfaxmifpkwGif 1920 ckESpfYvnf;aumif; trsKd;o rD;rsm; rJay;cGifh&vmuonf? *&dwf_Adwdef EkdifiHwGif 1928 ckESpfrS trsKd;orD;ESifh trsKd;om; wef;wlrJay;cGifh tcGifhta&; &vmuonf? qGpfZmvefEkdfifiHwGif 1971 ckESpfrSpI trsKd;orD;rsm; rJay;cGifh pwif&cJh aomfvnf;
tcsKd@aomuefwGefrsm;wGif 1981 ckESpftxd trsKd;orD;rsm;rJay;cGifh r&-u ao;acs? rsufarSmufacwfwGifrl
urBm@EkdifiHtm;vHk;vkdvdk t&G,fa&muf_yD;olwkdif; (tcsKd@EdkifiHwGif 18 ESpf tcsKd@EkdifiHrsm;wGif 21 ESpf) usm;r/
qif;&Jcsrf;om/ vlrsKd;bmom cGJjcm;jcif;r&SdbJ tm;vHk;rJay;Ekdifaom tcGifhta&;udk tmrcH-uonf?
txuftykd'f(u) yg rlonf TtcGifhta&;udk tmrcHjcif;jzpfonf?
tykd'f(i ) wGif azmfjyxm;aom rJay;cGifh&Sdolrsm;t-um; tcGifhta&;nDr#jcif;onfvnf; 'Drkdua&pD
a&G;aumufyJGwcktwGuf ta&;}uD;aom rlw&yfjzpfonf? TtcGifhta&;udk tmrcH&ef vkdtyfjcif;jzpfonf?
tcsKd@EdkifiHrsm;wGif usifhoHk;cJh-uaom tav;uJonhfrJ ay;pepf (weighted voting system) aumifhjzpfonf? tav;uJaom rJay;pepfqkd onfrSm rJay;cGifhtcGifhta&;csif; wlaomfvnf; qif;&J jcif;/
ynmwwfjcif;/ rwwfjcif; ponhf ta-umif;jycsufrsmjzifhvnf;aumif;/ vlrsKd;/ bmom/ tom;ta&mif
uJGjym;r+ a-umifhjzpfonf? Oyrm ynmwwf ygarmuQwOD;u rJ(3)jym;/ vlvwfwef; pm;rsm;u rJ(2)jym;/
omrefqif;&Jom;jynfolrsm;u rJ(1)jym; ponfjzifh jcm;em;aom rJay;ykdifcGihf rsKd; jzpfonf?
qkdAD,ufjynfaxmifpkwGif vDeifvufxufwGifvnf;aumif; tdENd,wGif ZwfedrfhZmwfjrifh t,l0g'aumifhvnf;aumif;/ awmiftmaz&duwGif tom;ta&mif vlrsKd; uJGjym;r+a-umifhvnf;aumif;
tav;uJaom rJay;pepfudk usifhoHk;cJh-uonf? *&dwf_AdwdefEdkifiw
H Giv
f nf; 1982 ckESpfrwkdifrDtxd
rde;f rrsm;ay;Edkifaom rJjym;onf a,musFm;rsm;ay;Edkifaom rJjym;xuf avsmhenf;cJhonf? ,ae@acwfwGifrl
t&G,fa&muf _yD;olwkdif; rJay;ykdifcGifht&mwGif nDwlr#wljzpfa-umif; urBm@EkdifiHtm;vHk;u vufcHxm;_yD;
jzpfonf?
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 31

txufwGif wifjycJhaom pHowfrSwfcsufESifh rlrsm;t&om vGwfvyfI w&m;r#wr+&Sd aom a&G;aumufyJGrsm;


jzpfvmEkdif_yD; xkda&G;aumufyJGrsm;uom ppfrSefaom jynfol@ udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk a&G; xkwfay;Ekdifayvdrf@rnf?
zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'ESifhtnD tkyfcsKyfjcif;
(Constitutionalism)
EkdifiHzJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'. wnf_idrfr+ESifh 'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepf wnf_idrfr+ onf
qufpyfr+&SdouJhokd@ tpdk;&.vkyfykdifcGifhtm%m xdef;csKyfa&;wGifvnf; vkdtyfcsuf w&yfjzpfonf? tpkd;&
tm%mykdifrsm;tm;vHk;onf tajccHOya't&cGifhyaom udpP&yf rsm;wGif vkyfykdifcGifh&Sd_yD; uef@owfxm;aom
udpP&yfrsm;wGif rnfokd@aom ta-umif;jy csufrsKd;ESifhr# yvkyfykdifcGifhr&Sday? tajccHOya'u
tpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm;. txufY &Sdjcif; jzpfonf? tcsKyftjcmtm%mykdif vGwfvyfaom EkdifiHwkdif;wGif
EkdifiHzJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'rsm;&Sd-uonf? tajccHOya'[kajymvkdufv#if tvkdtav#mufoabmayguf
_yD;jzpfonfhtcsufrSm
xkdOya'xJwGif
tpdk;&tm%mykdifrsm.
vkyfykdifcGifhESifh
wm0efcH&r+/
tpdk;&Xme}uD;rsm;zJG@pnf;xm;r+ESifh if;wkd@tcsif;csif;t-um; qufoG,fr+/ EkdifiHwckvHk; twkdif;twmESifh
ywfoufaom tm%mcGJa0a&;ESifh usifhoHk;r+/ EkdifiHom;rsm;. vGwf vyfr+tcGift
h a&;rsm; qkdif&mjyXmef;csuf
paomjyXmef;csufrsm; yg0ifaea-umif;yifjzpf onf? xkd@jyif tajccHOya'onf tpdk;&tm%mykdifrsm;ESifh
jynfolwODcsif;pD-um; qufqH a&;twGuf ta&;}uD;qHk;aom tcGifhta&;ESifh wm0efudk jyXmef;ay;onhf
Oya'jzpfonf qkdaomtcsufukdvnf; arhxm;Ir&ay? xkdr#ta&;}uD;aom tajccHOya'w&yfonf
oufqkdif&mEkdifiHwGif tajccHOya'ESifhtnD tpdk;&tm%mykdifrsm;a&m jynfolrsm;yg ae xkdifrS t"dy`g,f&Sdaom
tajccHOya'jzpfvmayrnf? 'Drkdua&pD EkdifiHa&;pepfukd taxmuf tulyaom tajccHOya' jzpfvmayrnf?
EkdifiHwck. zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'onf EkdifiHom;trsm;pk okd@r[kwf jynfol@ukd,f pm;vS,ftrsm;pk.
qENjzifhtwnfyxm;jcif;jzpf&m vlwpfpku tajccHOya'udk tvJGoHk; pm;yum tm%mvuf0g;}uD;tkyfzkd@
rjzpfoifhay? tcsKd@EkdifiHrsm;wGif tpkd;&tm%mykdif rsm;onf if;wkd@.vkyfykdifcGifhukd ausmfvGeftoHk;yum
vkduemapmifhxdef;&rnfh udpPrsm; ESifh wm0efcHr+rsm;wGif ysufuGufae-uonf? tpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm;.
ysufuGufr+onf jynfolvlxk}uD;twGuf }uD;rm;aom tcGifhta&;qHk;&H+;r+}uD; jzpfvmygonf? tpkd;&tm
%mydkifrsm;onf tajccHOya'abmiftwGif;u if;wdk@tm%m&&Sda&;udk yHkoeft& vkyf,lwwf-uygonf?
xkdokd@aom tpkd;&rsm;rSm if;wkd@tm%m&&Sdr+onf tajccH Oya' abmiftwGif;u&vmojzifh
w&m;0iftpdk;&rsm;jzpfa-umif; vdrfvnf0g'jzef@csDr+rsKd;vnf; &Sdwwfygonf? bmoma&; ta-umif;jycsufaumifhjzpfap/ EkdifiHa&;ta-umif;jycsuf
a-umifhjzpfap/ wpfygwDpepfudk xlaxmifusifhoHk;aomEkdifiHrsm;ESifh
uGefrlepfygwDrsm; tm %m&aeaomEkdifiHrsm;wGif awG@&wwfaom xkdtajctaersm;udk EkdifiHa&;ody`Hynm&Sif
rsm;u tajccHOya'ESifh rnD!Gwfaom tkyfcsKyfjcif; (unconstitutionalism) [k ac: -uonf?
tajccHOya'ESifh rnD!Gwfaom tkyfcsKyfjcif;[lI &Sdaejcif;. qef@usifbufjzpfonfh t ajccHOya'ESifh
nD!Gwfaom tkyfcsKyfjcif;jzifh 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHa&;pepf ckdifrma&;twGuf tpkd;&tm%mydkifrsm;. vkyfykdifcGifhudk
uef@owf&efESifh jynfolwkd@. vGwfvyfcGifhudk um uG,f&ef vkdtyfayonf? tajccHOya'ESifh nD!Gwfaom
tkyfcsKyfjcif;pepft& tpkd;&tm %mykdifrsm;onf if;wkd@ vkyfykdifcGifh&Sda-umif; tajccHOya'u
owfrSwfjyXmef;ay;onf xufykdI vkyfykdifcGifhr&Sday? tu,fI tajccHOya'u cGifhryaom okd@r[kwf
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 32

Oya'ESifh rnD!Gwfaom udpP&yfwckudk aqmuf&Gufygu ta&;,lcH&onftxd &Sdygonf? tjcm;


wzufwGifvnf; EkdifiHom;rsm;taejzifh tajccHOya't& tmrcHxm;aom tajccHtcGifh ta&;ESifh
vGwfvyfr+tcGifhta&;rsm;udk tjynfht0 cHpm;usifhoHk;ykdifcGifh &Sdvmonf? tajc cHOya'u
jyXmef;tmrcHxm;aom
tajccHtcGifhta&;w&yf&yfqHk;&H+;epfemygu
tpkd;&
tm%mykdifrsm;xH
ta&;qkdykdifcGifh&Sdonf? xkdtcGifhta&;udk tajccHOya't& ta&;qkd ukpm;ydkifcGifh (constitutional
remedy) [k ac:onf?
'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHa&;pepf ckdifrma&;ESifh tajccHOya'ESifhtnD tkyfcsKyfjcif;wkd@onf tjyeft vSefrSDwnf
jzpfay:ae&mwGif w&m;pD&ifa&; rdKif. tm%monfvnf; vGwfvyfI cdkifrmr+&Sd&ef vkdtyfygonf?
tb,fha-umifhqkdaomf Oya'yk'frwkdif;onf t"dy`g,f zGifhqkd olrsm;. qJG,lqENa-umifh tcsdefra&G;
trSm;trSef jiif;ckef&aom jy\emay:wwfonf? txl;ojzifh xkdjy\emrsKd;onf tpdk;&tm%mykdifrsm;ESifh
ykdIywfoufwwfygonf? tajccHOya'ESifhywfoufI trSm;trSef tjiif;tckef ay:aygufvmygu
aemufqHk;tqHk; tjzwfukd xkdEkdifiH. tjrifhqHk;w&m;&kH;u csrSwf&ygonf? Oyrm= tar&duefjynfaxmif pkESifh
jynfaxmifpkorRw *smr%DEkdifiHrsm;. w&m;&kH;rsm;onf xkdokd@aom tjiif;yGm;r+ aygif;rsm;pGmudk
qHk;jzwfay;_yD;jzpfonf?
xkdokd@ w&m;pD&ifa&;rdKifrSm tm%m&Sdjcif;a-umifh tpkd;&tm%mykdifrsm;u vkyfcsif&m vkyf_yD;
tajccHOya'ukd vufwvHk;jcm; a&Smif&Sm;zkd@ usKd;pm;jcif;rsKd;rS umuG,fEkdifygonf? xkd@a-umifh
w&m;pD&ifa&;rKdifonf
tjcm;aomtpkd;&Xmersm;.
v$rf;rkd;jcif;rS
uif;
vGwf&efvkdygonf?
w&m;ol}uD;rsm;taejzihf trSefw&m;twGuf rnfol@ukdr# iJhuGufaep &mrvkdbJ if;wkd@tm%mukd
vGwfvGwfvyfvyf usifhoHk;cGifh&ae&ef vkdtyfygonf? xkdw &m;ol}uD;rsm;onf touft&G,f/ ^m%fynm/
qifjcifwHkw&m;/ ukd,fusifhoduQmt&m wGif oifhjrwf&ef vkdtyfygonf? xkd@a-umihf w&m;ol}uD;rsm;ukd
a&G;cs,fjcif;xuf t&nf tcsif;oifhjrwfolrsm;udk cef@xm;_yD; &moufyef wm0efxrf;aqmifapygonf?
tajccHOya'ESifh rnD!Gwfaom tkyfcsKyfjcif;pepf&Sdonfh EkdifiHrsm;wGifvnf; pm&Gufay: wGif a&;om;xm;aom
tajccHOya'wGifrl jynfolwkd@. vGwfvyfr+tcGifhta&;ukd t aumif;qHk;azmfjyxm;wwf onf?
tajccHOya'.
tjcm;wae&mwGifrl
xkdvGwfvyfr+
tcGifhta&;rsm;ESifh
qef@usifbufjzpfrnfh
tpdk;&tm%mykdifrsm;. tm%musifhoHk;r+ t a-umif;udk jyXmef;xm;wwfygonf? vufawG@usifhoHk;aom
tcgwGif tpkd;&tm%mykdif rsm;. tm%musifhoHk;a&;udkom OD;wnfoGm;wwfavojzihf jynfolrsm;.
vGwfvyfr+ tcGifhta&;rsm;rSm t"dy`g,frJhoGm;&avonf? ,cif qkdAD,ufjynfaxmif pka[mif;.
tajccHOya'yk'fr(2)wGif EkdifiHawmftm%monf jynfolrsm;xHwGifwnf&Sda-umif;jy Xmef;xm;aomfvnf;
yk'fr(6)wGifrl uGefrlepfygwD. EkdifiHawmfudk OD;aqmifr+ta-umif;ukd jyXmef;xm;onf? wu,fvufawG@
usihfoHk;aomtcg uGefrlepfygwD. OD;aqmifr+ atmufwGif qkdAD,ufjynfolrsm;. vGwfvyfr+tcGifhta&;rSm
ar;cGef;xkwfp&m jzpfvmyg onf? xkd@twlyif jrefrmEkdifiHwGifvnf; uHawG@cJh&ygonf? 1974 ckESpf
tajccHOya' atmufwGif EkdifiHom;rsm;. vGwfvyfr+ tcGifhta&;rsm;pGmudk azmfjyxm;ygonf? aemuf qHk;
axmufcHxm;aom jynfol@v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;udk oufqkdif&mrJqEN e,fu axmufcHjcif;
ryawmhv#if &mxl;rSE+wfxGufay;&onf? okd@&mwGif tajccHOya' yk'fr(10)t& jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpf

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 33

vrf;pOfygwD. wpfygwDOD;aqmifr+
aysmufuG,faecJhonf?

pepfatmufwGif

jref

rmjynfolrsm;.

tcGifhta&;rSm

vHk;0

tajccHOya'ESifhtnD tkyfcsKyfjcif;pepf&Sdonfh EkdifiHrsm;wGif tpdk;&tm%mykdifrsm; tae jzifh


tm%mtvGJoHk;r+jzpfygu Oya'ESifhtnD ta&;,lcH&rnfjzpfonf? 1972=73 ckESpf u tar&duef
jynfaxmifpkwGif jzpfay:cJhaom 0gwm*dwf (Water Gate) ta&;tcif; pD&ifqHk;jzwfr+rSm
xif;&Sm;aomom"u wckjzpfygonf? orRw e,fqifonf &Dygbvpf uef ygwDrSjzpfjyD; olESifhydifbuf
'Drdku&ufwpfygwD. orRwa&G;cs,fwifajrmufyGJ rJqG,f pnf;&kH;r+enf;y&d,m,fudk 0gwm*dwf[dkw,fwGif
zGifhvSpfxm;aom 'Drdku&ufwpf&kH;cef;udk orRwepfqif. vlrsm;azmufxGif;0ifa&mufum cdk;,l-unfh&+cJhonf?
epfqifonfxdkt csdefu orRwjzpfjyD; 'kwd,t-udrfoufwrf;twGuf xyfrH,SOfydif ta&G;cHrnfh &Db&pf
uef. orRwavmif;vnf;jzpfonf?
xdktr+udpPa-umifh orwepfqiftm;ta&;,l&ef uGef*&uf. v$wfawmfESpf&yfpvHk;u qHk;jzwfjyD;
w&m;v$wfawmfcsKyf (supreme court) wGif-um;emppfaq;r+ yvkyfjyD; aemufwGif orRwepfqifudk
wm0efrS
z,f&Sm;cJhonf?
Todk@
orRwwOD;tm;
ta&;,l
Edkifjcif;udk-unfhv#if
tpdk;&tm%mydkiftm;vHk;onf
EdkifiHzJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk
tajccHOya'
abmiftwGif;Yom
tm%mrsm;usifhoHk;ydkifcGifh&SdjyD; if;wdk@tm;vHk;onfvnf; tajccHOy a'atmufYom &Sdaeonfqdkonfh
tcsufudkawG@&onf? 0gwm*dwf ta&;tcif;udk tqHk;tjzwf ay;ouJhodk@yif tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwGif
tajccHOya'ESifh
ywfoufI
tjiif;yGm;r+aygif;
ajrmufrsm;pGmudk
w&m;v$wfawmfcsKyfu
qHk;jzwfay;cJhjyD;jzpfonf?
jynfaxmifpkorRw *smr%DEdkifiHtygt0if tjcm;aom vpfb&,f'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHrsm; wGif tar&duefuJhodk@yif
v$wfvyfaom w&m;pD&ifa&;rdKifudk wnfaxmifxm;-u onf?
'Drdkua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf cdkifrma&;twGuf tpdk;&tm%m uef@owfa&;wGif EdkifiHzJG@ pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk
tajccHOya'ESifhtnD tkyfcsKyfjcif;pepfjzpf&ef tpdk;&tm%mydkiftm;vHk; onf tajccHOya'. atmufYom
&Sd&rnf? xdk@jyif w&m;pD&ifa&;rdKif. vGwfvyfr+ udkrnfolur# xdef;csKyfr+/ v$rf;rdk;r+ ryEdkifygrS xdkpepf
atmufjrifxda&muf ayvdrfhrnf?
zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'ESifhtnD tkyfcsKyfjcif;onf wdkif;jynftkyfcsKyfa&; vkyfief;rsm; wGif tajccHOya'u
v$rf;rdk;xm;jcif; 0g tjaccHOya'v$rf;rdk;a&; yifjzpfonf? tajccHOy a'v$rf;rdk;a&;. pHrsm;tjzpf
atmufygtcsufrsm;udk tcsKd@ ynm&Sifrsm;u tqdkjyKwifjy -uonf?
tajccHOya'jyXmef;csufESihf vufawG@b0jcm;em;
tajcHOya'rsm;. pm&Gufay:wGifa&;om;xm;csufrsm;ESifh vufawG@jzpf&yfrsm; jcm;em;r+&Sd wwfonf?
uGefjrLepfEdkifiH rsm;.tajccHOya'rsm;onf rl0g'a-unmcsufrsm;/ vrf;pOf
a-unmcsufrsm;jzifh
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 34

jynfhESufaewwfonf?
jynfol
vlxktusKd;twGuf
aumif;rGefpGm
vkyfaumifaqmif&Gufrnfh
tpdk;&trsKd;tpm;udkvnf;
az:jywwfonf?
EdkifiHom;rsm;.
tcGifhta&;ESifhywfoufIvnf;
obm0tavsmuf&Sdae_yD;jzpfonfh tcGifhta&;rsm;udk todtrSwfyjcif; r[kwfyJ tpdk;&uay;tyfonfh
tcGifhta&;yHkpHrsKd;jzifh
az:jywwfonf?
pifppf
EdkifiHom;tcGifhta&;rsm;onf
tpdk;&
uay;tyfrS&&SdaomtcGifhta&;rsKd;r[kwfyJ
obm0tavsmuf&Sd_yD;aom
tcGifhta&;jzpfomonf?
jynfolrsm;.
tcGifhta&;xuf
jynfolrsm;vkyfaqmif&rnfh
wm0efrsm;udk
woDwwef;}uD;
jyXmef;xm;jyefonf? vuf awG@wGif tpdk;&rsm;onf jynfolrsm;tcGifhta&;udk umuG,faom tpdk;&xuf
jynfol rsm;udkzdESdaom tpdk;&rsm;jzpfvmonfudk awG@cJh&onf? xdk@a-umifh xdktajccHOya'rsm; onf
vufawG@wGif EdkifiHom;tcGifhta&;udk umuG,f&ef twGuf EdkifiHom;rsm;ESifh tpdk;&t-um; csKyfqdkonfh
pmcsKyfoabmxuf tpdk;&. zdESdyfr+udk w&m;0ifr+yay;&aom Oya'rsKd;jzpfvmonf? xdkr#ruao;yJ
tm%mydkifrsm;tvdkus tajccHOya'udk t}udrf }udrf pdwfwdkif;us jyifqifr+rsm;udk tvG,fwul yvkyfujyefonf?
tpdk;&tm;vrf;!$efaom tajccHOya'
taemufwdkif;'Drdkufa&pDEdkifiHrsm;wGifum; tajccHOya'wGif tpdk;&ESifh tkyfcsKyfolrsm;u vdkufemusifh-uHu&rnfh
pnf;urf;owfrSwfcsufrsm;udk
OD;pm;ay;az:jyxm;onf;?
tjcm;
wzufwGifvnf;
EkdifiHom;rsm;.tcGifhta&;rsm; qHk;&+H;r+r&Sd&avatmif umuG,fEkdif/ uk pm;Edkifaomenf;vrf;rsm;ufdk
jyXmef;xm;onf? TtajccHOya'rsm;udk tvG,fwul jyifqifjcif;ryEdkifatmifvnf; wm;jrpfxm;&m
tkyfcsKyfolrsm;u if;wdk@tm%m&,la&; udk taxmuftuljzpfaprnfh jyXef;csufrsm;yvkyf&eftwGuf
tajccHOya'udk tvG,fw ulrjyifEdkifatmif wm;jrpfxm;avonf? xdkodk@aom tajccHOya'rsKd;udk
wcsKd@aomynm &Sifrsm;u tpdk;&vrf;!$eftajccHOya' (prescriptive constitutiton) [kac:-u
onf?
tpdk;&vrf;!$eftajccHOya'tjzpf
todtrSwfyccH&aom
tjccHOya'tm;vHk;onf
a&;om;pkzGJ@r+yHkomeftm;jzifh
wlnDcsifrSwlnDrnfjzpfaomfvnf;
xdktajccHOya'rsm;u
om
tajccHOya'v$rf;rdk;a&; (constitutionalism) ESifh Oya'vGrf;rdk;a&;oabmw &m;rsm;udk
az:xkwfay;Edkifonf?
tajccHOya'vGrf;rdk;a&;.
t"dy`g,ftESpfcsKyfrSm
jynfol
vlxk.
tcsKyftjcm;tm%mydkifr+oabmw&m;udk vufcHusifhoHk;_yD;/ tcsKyftjcmtm %mudk tpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm;u
jynfolrsm;udk,fpm;usifhoHk;&mwGif
jynfolrsm;u
t
uef@towfjzifh
v$Jtyfonfhtwdkif;om
usifhoHk;cGifh&Sdjcif;oabm jzpfonf? udk,fpm;y tpdk;&w&yfudk az:aqmif&mwGif wdktpdk;&onf jynfolvlxkudk
wm0efcH&jcif;onf tajccHOya'v$rf;rdk;a&;. ta&;}uD;aomrlw&yfvnf;jzpfonf? tpdk;&onf tm%mudk
usifhoHk;&mwGif tajccHOya'u uef@owfjyXmef;ay;onfhtwdkif;om usifhoHk;cGifh&Sdonf?

tpdk;&tm%muef@owfa&;

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 35

tajccHOya'rsKd;rsKd;wGif tpdk;&tm%muef@owfr+udk yHkpHtrsKd;rsKd;jzifh yvkyfxm;wwf onf? wcsKd@u


Oya'ya&;/ tkyfcsKyfa&;/ w&m;pD&ifa&; tm%mrsm;oD;jcm;pDxm;jcif; pepf (seperation of power)
udkvufcHusifhoHk; ouJhodk@ tcsKd@u tjyeftvSefxdef; !Sdonfhpepf (check and balance) wdk@udk
vufcHusifhoHk;-uonf? A[dktpdk;&tm %mudkuef@owfEkid f&ef wcsKd@url zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkyHkpHjzifh
tm%mrsm;udk axmif vdkufcGJa0usifhokH;jcif; y-uonf? vGwfvyfaom w&m;pD&ifa&; pepfxm;&Sdjcif;jzifh
tpdk; &tm%mydkifrsm;u tm%mtvGJoHk; tkyfcsKyfr+udk xdef;csKyfEdkifonf? tpdk;&u uef@owf xm;aom
tm%mrsm;xufydkIusifhoHk;jcif;a-umifh wpfpHkwpfOD;udk xdcdkuf epfemapv#if w&m;&Hk;rsm;wGif
av#mufxm;w&m;pGJqdkjcif;jzifh jyefvnfukpm;Edkifonf?
vlrsKd;tkyfpkuGJrsm;udk udk,fpm;yr+ay;jcif;
tajccHOya'rsm;wGif xdktajccHOya'oufa&mufr+&Sdaom vl@tzGJ@tpnf;. EdkifiHa&;/ o rdkif;a&;/ vlrsKd;a&;/
a'oEW& ponfh xljcm;r+rsm;udk az:!$ef;aom jyXmef;csufrsm;udkvnf; xnfhoGif;xm;avh&Sdonf? Oyrm=
tcsKd@aom tajccH Oya'rsm;Y trsKDo;orD;rsm;. Edkif iHa&;udk,fpm;yr+udk txl;jyXmef;csufrsm;taejzifh
awG@&ouJhodk@/ tcsKd@aom tajccH Oya'rsm;wGifum; vlenf;pkrsm;.EdkiHaf &;udk,fpm;yr+ rqHk;&+H;apa&;udk
umuG,faom jy Xmef;csufrsm; yg0if aeonfudk avhvmawG@&Sd&onf?
tajccHOya'ESifhnD!Gwfaom tpdk;& (Government according to the constitution)
tajccHOa'ESifhtnD zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmifaom tpdk;&rsm;om EdkifiHawmftm%mudk usifh oHk;EdkifcGifh&Sd_yD;
xdktpdk;&rsm;omv#if
w&m;0iftpdk;&rsm;jzpfonf?
tpdk;&rsm;.oufwrf;
onfvnf;
tajccHOya'ujyXmef;aom oufwrf;ESifh tnDjzpf_yD; xdkoufwrf;ukefqHk; v#if tpdk;&.oufwrf;onfvnf;
ukefqHk;onf? a&G;aumufyGJtopfrsm;yvkyfI tpdk;& tzGJ@topfudk zGJ@pnf;ap&onf? 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHwckwGif
a&G;aumufyGJrsm;udk
owfrSwfum
vtvdkuf
usif;yjcif;onf
w&m;0iftpdk;&rsm;udk
az:aqmif&eftwGufjzpfonf? xdkodk@ aom tajccHOya'ESifhtnD wnf axmifaom tpdk;&rsm;udk
w&m;0iftpdk;& (dejury government) [kowfrSwfonf?
tajccHOya't& zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmifjcif;r[kwfyJ EdkifiHawmftm%mrsm;udk &,lusifhoHk; aeaom tpdk;&rsm;udk
w&m;Oya'ESifhtnDr[kwfaom tpd;k & (defacto govern- ment) [kac:onf? w&m;Oya'ESifhtnD
r[kwf aomtpdk;&trsKd;tpm;wGif tm%m odrf;tpdk;&rsm;/ tdrfapmifh tpdk;&rsm; (care-taker
government) odk@r[kwf -um; jzwftpdk;& (interim government) wdk@vnf;yg0ifonf?
tajccHOya'wGifjyXmef; owfrSwfaom tpdk;&tzGJ@oufwrf;twGuf a&G;cs,fwifajrSmufjcif;cH&onfh
tpdk;&rsKd;udk om dejury government w&m;0if tpdk;&tjzpfowfrSwf_yD; useftpdk;&rsm;udk defacto
w&m;Oya'tnDr[kwfaom tpdk;&tjzpfowfrSwfonf?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 36

&efzef&efcg
'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHyifjzpfvifhupm;
jynfyEdkifiHrsm;ESifhppfjzpfyGg;jcif;a-umifhjzpfap/
obm0ab;tEW&m,fus a&mufjcif;a-umifhjzpfap ta&;ay:tajctae (state of emergency) aunmEkdifa-umif; tajccHOya'Y jyXmef;csufrsm;&Sdwwfonf? ta&; ay:tajctaea-unmjcif;onf
tajccHOya'v$rf;rdk;a&;udk xdyg;jcif;yifjzpf_yD; jynfol rsm;. tcGifhta&;udk xdyg;jcif;jzpf&m
ta&;ay:tajctaea-unmjcif;udk
twdkawmif;
qHk;aom
umvtwGif;wGifomyvkyf&efESifh
xdkumvtwGif;wGifvnf; tpdk;&tm%mydkif rsm; tm%mtvGeftusGHusifhoHk;r+ rjzpf&atmif wif;usyfaom
xdrf;csKyfr+rsm;vnf; yvkyf&avonf?
tm%mrsm;oD;jcm;pDxm;jcif; (Separation of power)
EdkifiHtwckwGif tpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm;u usifhoHk;aomtm%mrsm;udk Oya'ya&;/ tkyf csKyfa&;/ w&m;pD&ifa&;
[lIoHk;rsKd;cGJjcm;xm;onf? xdktm%moHk;rsKd;pvHk;udkjzpfap/ ESpfrsKd; udkjzpfap/ tm%mydkiftzGJ@wckwnf;u
usifhoHk;v#if tm%m&SifjzpfvmEdkifonf[k EdkifiH a&;tawG;tac:ynm&Sifrsm;u axmufjyonf?
EdkifiHom;rsm;.tcGifh ta&;udk tmrcHr+ r&Sdaom/ odk@r[kwf tm%mrsm;oD;jcm;pDcGJjcm;xm;r+r&Sdaom
vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wGif tajccH Oya'r&SdEdkif[k 1789 ckESpfutwnfyaom jyifopfvl@tcGifhta&;aunmpmwrf; ( the French declaration of the rights of man and of the
citizen, 1789) wGif jyXmef;xm;onf? 18 &mpkaESmif;ydkif;odk@ a&muf aomtcg tm%moD;jcm;
pDxm;jcif;onf

tm%muef@owftpdk;&

(limited

government)

rsm;az:aqmifa&;

ESi/hf

tm%mtvGJoHk;tkyfcsKyfr+ (tyranny) rSumuG,fa&;wdk@twGuf r&Sdrjzpfvdktyfcsuf jzpfonf[k trsm;u


vufcH,Hk-unfvm-uonf?
tqdkygt,ltqrsm;udk
vufcHusifhoHk;-uaomEdkifiHrsm;.
tajccHOya'rsm;onf
tqdkyg
EdkifiHawmftm%m}uD; oHk;&yftwGuf rdKif}uD;oHk;&yfudk oD;jcm;pDwnfaxmif_yD;/ vGwf vyfpGmusifhoHk;aponf?
txif&Sm;qHk;aom Oyrmtjzpf tar&duefjynfaxmifpk tajccH Oya'wGif awG@Edkifonf?
Oya'ya&;tm%mudk uGef*&ufuvnf;aumif;/ tkyfcsKyfa&; tm%mudk tpdk;&uvnf;aumif;/
w&m;pD&ifa&;tm%mudk w&m;&Hk;rsm;uvnf; aumif; oD;jcm;pDvGwfvyfpGm usifhoHk;aponf?
rnfonfhrdKifurS txGwftxdyfae&m udk r&ouJhodk@ rnfhonfhrdKif. vuf atmufcHvnf; r[kwfay?
odk@&mwGif
tajccHOya'tmvHk;onf
tar&duefjynfaxmifpktajccHOya'uJhodk@
rdKif
}uD;oHk;&yfwnfaxmifI
tm%moD;jcm;pDxm;jcif;pDxm;I
usifhoHk;jcif;um;r[kwfay?
Oyrm
_AdwdefEdkifiHwGifusifhoHk;aom
ygvDrefudktajccH
zGJ@pnf;onfh
tpdk;&pepf&SdaomEdkifiH
rsm;wGif
Oya'ya&;tm%musifhoHk;aomyk*~dKvfrsm;ESifh
tkyfcsKyfa&;tm%m
usifhoHk;aom
yk*~dKvfrsm;
Oya'yv$wfawmfxJwGif wydifeufwnf; tzGJ@0ifjzpfaeojzifh Oya'ya&;ESifh tkyfcsKyfa&;tm%m
a&maxG;,SufwifjzpfaeonfudkawG@&onf? xdkodk@a&maESmaejcif;udk yif wcsKd@u Oya'ya&;ESifh tkyfcsKyfa&;
tquftpyf&Sdonf[kqdkum taumif;bufrS &+jrif-uonf? tar&duefjynfaxmifpk tajccHOya't&
Oya'ya&;ESifh tkyfcsKyfa&; oD;jcm;pD&Sdjcif;a-umifh if;wdk@ESpfckt-um; EdkifiHa&;ydwfqdk@r+ (political
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 37

deadlock) jzpfay:aomtcg ajz&Sif;r&yJ &Sdwwf_yD;/ Oya'ytzGJ@0ifrsm;ESifh tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@0ifrsm;


v$wfawmfxJwGif twl&Sdae onfh _AdwdefyHkpH ygvDreftpdk;&pepf&Sdaom EdkifiHrsm;wGif xdkEdkifiHa&;ydwfqdk@r+udk
tvG,fwulajz&Sif;Edkifaom om"u rsm;&Sdonf? xdk@a-umifh wcsKd@u Oya'ya&;ESifh tkyfcsKyfa&;tm%mrsm;
v$wfawmfxJY wpdwfwydkif;tm;jzifh a&maESmaer+udk tjypfrjrif-uay? urBmhEdkifiHtrsm;pkwGif
_AdwdefyHkpHtpdk;&rsm;&Sdaejcif;u vnf; xdktcsufudk oufaojyvsuf&Sdonf?
rnfhodk@aomtpdk;&yHkpH &Sdonfjzpfap w&m;pD&ifa&;rdKifudkrl oD;oef@vGwfvyfatmif wnfaxmifxm;&Sdu&onf? xdkodk@vGwfvyfr+&SdygrS Oya'ytzGJ@ujzpfap/ tkyfcsKyfa&; tzGJ@ujzpfap tm%mudk
ausmfvGefusifhoHk;v#if jyefvnfxdef;!Sday;Edkif&ef w&m;pD&if a&;rdKifvGwfvyfr+&Sd&ayonf? Ttcsufonf
tajccHOya'v$rf;rdk;a&;twGuf aomf vnf;aumif;/ w&m;Oya'v$rf;rdk;a&; (rule of law)
twGufaomfvnf;aumif; r&Sdr jzpf tajccHvdktyfcsuf jzpfonf?
vlxktcsKyftjcmtm%mydkifr+ (Popular sovereignty)
jynfolrsm;twGuf tkyfcsKyfrnfh jynfol@tpdk;& (Representative government) w &yfudk
jynfolrsm;udk udk,fpm;yaom udk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifh yg0ifzGJ@pnf;aomXmersm;rS wqifhaz:aqmifxm;&onf?
udk,fpm;ytpdk;&onf ygvDrefudktajccHaom tpdk;&yHkpH aomfvnf;aumif;/ orRwOD;aqmifaom
tpdk;&yHkpHaomfvnf;aumif;
jzpfEdkifonf?
ygvD
refudktajccHaom
tpdk;&yHkpHjzpfygu
tkyfcsKyfa&;tm%musifhoHk;onfh tpdk;&tzGJ@udk jynf olvlxku oG,f0dkufaomenf;jzifhom a&G;cs,f&onf?
0ef}uD;csKyfEsifh 0ef}uD;rsm;tm;vHk; onf Oya'yv$wfawmfrS a&G;cs,fwifajrSmufcH&olrsm;omjzpfonf?
orRwOD;aqmif aom tpdk;&yHkpH&SdonfhEdkifiHrsm;wGif jynfolvlxku orRwudk wdkuf&dkufrJay;a&G;cs,fwif
ajrSmuf_yD; orRwu tpdk;&tzGJ@udk cef@tyfonf? Oya'ytzGJ@wGif v$wfawmfw&yfaomf vnf;aumif;/
ESpf&yfaomfvnf;aumif; yg0ifae&m xdkv$wfawmfrsm;udk jynfolvlxku a&G;cs,fwifajrmufaom
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifh zGJ@pnf;-u&onf?
rnfodk@aomenf;jzifh tpdk;&zGJ@pnf;onfjzpfap xdktpdk;&tzGJ@udk jynfolvlxku wdkuf&dkuf odk@r[kwf
oG,f0dkufaom enf;wckckjzifh a&G;cs,fwifajrSmufxm;jcif;jzpf&m xdktpdk;&. vkyf&nfudkif&nftay:rlwnf_yD;
wm0efrS z,f&Sm;Edkifolrsm;rSmvnf; jynfolrsm;omjzpf onf? jynfolrsm;.tqHk;tjzwfudkum;
tpdk;&tm%mydkifvkyfolrsm;u
jiif;qefcGifhr&Sd
ay?
jynfolrsm;.tqHk;tjzwfonf
tpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm;twGuf t_yD;owfjzpfonf? xdkoabmw&m; udk vlxktcsKyftjcmtm%mydkifjcif;
[kac:onf?
tajccHOya'ESifhnD/ rnD oHk;oyfjcif; (Constitutional review)
tajccHOya'rsm;u
rnfodk@yif
tpdk;&.tm%mudk
uef@owfxm;apumrl
vufawG@wGif
tpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm;. vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;onf tajccHOya'u cGifhyonfxufausmf vGefaom odk@r[kwf
tpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm; tcsif;csif;t-um; tjiif;yGg;&aom tajct aersm; ay:aygufwwfonf? xdkodk@jzpfv#if
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 38

tqHk;tjzwfay;&aom tm%mydkiftzG@JwzGJ@ vdktyfvmonf? tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwGif w&m;a&;rdKif.


tjrifhqHk;tm%mydkifw &m;&Hk;jzpfaom w&m;&Hk;csKyf (supereme court) udkwm0eftyfESif;onf?
jynfaxmifpk orRw*smr%DEdkifiHwGifrl txl;w&m;&Hk;wckjzpfaom tajccHOya'qdkif&mw&m;&Hk;(constitutional court) udk wm0eftyfESif;onf? jyifopfEkdifiHwGirf l oD;oef@tm%mydkift
zGJ@wzGJ@jzpfaom conseil constitutionnel udktyfESif;onf? EdkifiHtrsm;pkonf tar&d
uefjynfaxmifpkuJhodk@ w&m;a&;Xme. tjrifhqHk;w&m;&Hk;udk tm%mtyfESif;aompepf udk usifhoHk;onf?
xdktm%mydkiftzGJ@onf tajccHOya'ESifhnD!Gwfr+&Sdr&Sd oHk;oyfEdkifaom tm%mtjynfht0&Sd&ayrnf?
vGwfvyfaom w&m;a&;Xme (An indepedent judiciary)
tajccHOya'oHk;oyfjcif;vkyfief;udk vkyfaqmifEdkifaom w&m;a&;Xmjzpfap/ vkyfaqmifEdkif cGifhr&Sdaom
w&m;a&;Xmejzpfap Oya'v$rf;rdk;a&;udkaz:aqmifEdkif&eftwGuf Oya'ya&; ESifh tkyfcsKyfa&;Xmersm;.
v$rf;rdk;r+/ yg0ifywfoufr+ uif;vGwfaom w&m;a&;Xmersm; wnfaxmifxm;&Sd&ef vdktyfonf?
Oya'ya&;ESifh
tkyfcsKyfa&;Xmersm;onf
if;wdk@tm
%mrsm;udkusifhoHk;&mwGif
EdkifiHom;rsm;.tcGifhta&;rsm;udk xdyg;r+rsm; jzpfapwwfonf? xdktcgrsKd;wGif qHk;&+H;oGm;aom
EdkifiHom;tcGifhta&;rsm;udk
umuG,fEdkfif&eftwGuf
oD;
oef@vGwfvyfaom
w&m;a&;Xme
xm;&Sd&efvdktyfvmygonf?
&JESifhppfwyftm;xdrf;csKyfr+ (Controlling of police and army)
'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfESifh EdkifiHom;rsm;.tcGifhta&;rsm;udk umuG,f&mwGif tm; jznfhay;&ef
a&;zGJ@xm;aom Oya'rsm;udk &JwyfzGJ@rsm;u xdrfodrf;apmifha&Smuf&efwm0ef &dSfonf? odk@&mwGif
EdkifiHwdkif;vdkvdkwGif uHawG@ae-u&onfh jy\emw&yfrSm Oya'udk umuG,af pmifha&Smuf&ef zGJ@pnf;xm;aom
&JwyfzGJ@rsm;onfyif EdkifiHom;rsm;. tcGifht a&;rsm;udk csKd;azgufaomtzGJ@tjzpf awG@&ae&onf?
&JwyfzGJ@rsm;udk xdkodk@EdkifiHom; tcGifh ta&;csK;d azguf&ef cGifhryoifhay? Oya'ESifhtnDr[kwfaom
tcGifhta&;csKd;azgufr+rsm;t wGuf &Jrsm;onfyif Oya'a&S@arSmufwGif if;wdk@.vkyf&yfrsm;twGuf &ifqdkif&ef
wm0ef &Sdap&ayrnf?
xdk@twlyif ppfwyfonfvnf; EdkifiHom;rsm;.tcGifhta&;udk csKd;azguf&ef rnfonfhenf; vrf;ESifhr#
cGifhycsufr&Sday? ppftm%modrf;r+onf tajccHOya'ESifhrnD!Gwfaom vkyf&yf omjzpfojzifh
ppftm%modrf;r+jzpfpOf vkyfaqmifcJhaomudpP tm;vHk;twGuf vkyfaqmif olrsm;wGif wm0ef&Sdap&rnf?
rnfonfhEkdifiH. tajccHOya'ur# ppftm%modrf;r+udk tm;ray;acs? ppfwyfonf EdkifiHa&;vkyfcGifh&Sdaom
tzGJ@tpnf;w&yfr[kwfay? tb,f
a-umifhqdkaomf EdkifiHawmfrSaxmufyhHaom aiGa-u;vpmudk
&,lcHpm;aeaom yk*~dKvftm; vHk;onf EdkifiHh0efxrf;rsm;omjzpf&m xdk0efxrf;rsm;onf tpdk;&u
trdef@ay;apcdkif;aom tvkyfrsm;udkom vkyfcGifh&Sdjcif;a-umifhjzpfonf? tjcm;0efxrf;rsm;u EdkifiHa&;ESifh uif;
a0;&efajymqdkaepOfwGif ppfwyfu EdkifiHa&;vkyfjcif;/ tm%modrf;jcif;rsm;onf 'Drdkua&pD udk ppfwyfu

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 39

zsufqD;ypfjcif;ESifhwlonf? ppfwyfonf tjrJwrf;vdkvdk t&yfom;xdef;csKyf r+atmufYom &Sd&rnfh


EdkifiH0efxrf;tzGJ@omjzpfonf?

tcef;(4)

vGwfvyfr_. oabmw&m;rsm;
Concepts of Liberty
tajccHvGwfvyfcGifhrsm;
(Fundamental freedom)
'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk
vdkvm;awmifhw&jcif;
ta-umif;rsm;teuf
tjcm;aom
tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrsm;wGif
&&SdcHpm;jcif;ryEdkifaom
vGwfvyfr+tcGifhta&;
cHpm;cGifh&Sdjcif;
onf
wcktygt0ifyifjzpfonf?
a&bk,stm;jzifh
vGwfvyfr+tcGifhta&;[k
qdk&mwGif
vGwfvyfpGma&;om;xkyfaz:cGifh
a[majympnf;&Hk;cGifh/
pDwef;vSnfhvnfqENjycGifh/
ESpfouf
&mEdkifiHa&;tawG;tac:wGif
ouf0if,Hk-unfcGifh
bmomw&m;udk;uG,f,Hk-unfcGifh/
t
oif;tzJG@rsm;xlaxmifcGifh
ponfhtcGifhta&;rsm;udk
t"Duqdkvdkjcif;jzpfonf?
xdkvGwf
vyfr+
tcGifhta&;rsm;r&SdbJESifh
'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk
taumiftxnf
az:Edkifrnf
r[kwfyg?
xdktcGifhta&;rsm;udk wpfurBmvHk; twdkif;twmjzifh vufcHusifhoHk;Edkif&ef ukvor*~u tjynfjynfqdkif&m
vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;onf 'Drdkua&pD EdkifiHa&;pepf&SdrSom &SifoefEdkifaom tcGifhta&;rsm;jzpfonf?
vGwfvyfpGm a&;om;xkwfa0cGifh a[majympnf;&kH;cGifhwkd@onf EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm; 'Drkdua&pD pD;yGm;a&; oDtdk&Dt&
a&G;aumufyJGrsm;wGif 0ifa&muf,SOfydifa&;wGif r&Sdrjzpfvkdtyfaom tcGifhta&;rsm;jzpfonf? EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;
xkdtcGifhta&;r&SdbJaomfvnf;
tcGifhta&;&Sd
aomfvnf;
ygwDrsm;tcsif;csif;t-um;
nDr#r+r&Sdv#ifaomfvnf;aumif; xkda&G;aumufyJG rsm;udk vGwfvyfr+r&Sdjcif;/ w&m;r#wr+r&Sdjcif; ponfjzifh
owfrSwf-uayvdrfhrnf? jrefrm EkdifiHwGif 1990 ckESpfu EkdifiHawmf_idrf0yfydjym;r+ wnfaqmufa&;tzJG@ }uD;uyfr+atmuf wGif usif;ycJh&aom taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJGonf tqdkygtcGifhta&;r&Sdojzifh vGwfvyf I
w&m;r#wr+r&Sda-umif; a0zefcJh-uonf? xdka&G;aumufyJGwGif 'Drkdua&pDudk vkdvm; aomjynfolrsm;. tuyftwnf;-um;rSyif xkwfazmfjyovkdufaom qENrJrsm;onf 'Drkd ua&pDukdvkdvm;aom jynfolrsm;twGuf
aumif;aom&vm'f jzpfaomfvnf; xkd&vm'f udk-unfhI a&G;aumufyJGudk vGwfvyfI w&m;r#wr+&Sdonf
[lIum; ajym&efrjzpfEkdifacs? vGwfvyfI w&m;r#w&Sdr&Sdukd qHk;jzwf&mwGif &vm'fudk-unfhI
qHk;jzwfjcif;r[kwfbJ a&G;aumufyJGtudumv tajctaersm;t& vGwfvyfpGm a&;om;xkwfazmfcGi/hf a[m
ajympnf;&Hk;cGifh r&Sdjcif;wkd@tay:wGif rlwnfIom qHk;jzwfjcif;jzpfonf? vGwfvyfpGma&; om;xkwfazmfcGifh
a[majympnf;&Hk;cGifhwkd@onf a&G;aumufyJGrsm;twGufom ta&;}uD; onfr[kwf/ jynfolwkd@.
a&G;aumufxm;_yD;aom jynfol@udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tay: vkyf ykdifcGifh uef@owfa&;wGifvnf; jynfol@qENudk
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 40

av;pm;vkdufemap&ef aomfvnf;aumif; yvkyf&eftwGufvnf; vkdtyfaom tcGifhta&;rsm;jzpfonf?


TonfrSm pme,fZif; vGwfvyfcGifh (freedom of press) vnf;jzpfonf?
_idrf;csrf;pGmpDwef;vSnfhvnf qENjycGifhonfvnf; 'Drkdua&pD EkdifiHa&;pepftwGif;u jynf olrsm;twGuf
ta&;}uD;aom
tcGifhta&;w&yfjzpfonf?
jynfolrsm;onf
rdrdwkd@.
vkdtifqENrsm;udk
xkwfazmfjyo&eftwGufjzpfap tpdk;&tm%mykdifrsm;tay: uef@uGuf qENjy&ef ta-umif;ay:vmv#ifjzpfap/
_idrf;csrf;pGm pDwef;vSnfhvnf qENjycGifh&Sdonf? TtcGifhta&;onf tjynfjynfqkdif&m vl@tcGifhta&; aunmpmwrf;u
todtrSwfy
tumtuG,fay;xm;&Hkru
EkdifiHtawmfrsm;rsm;.
zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya't& vnf; tmrcHaom tcGifhta&;jzpfonf? 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHa&;pepf
ckdifrmr+&Sdaom EkdifiHrsm; wGif TtcGifhta&; usifhoHk;r+tm; vHk;0vkdvkdyif [ef@wm;xm;onfudk awG@&onf?
,ae@ urBm}uD;wGif vlwkdif;twGufa&G;cs,f&ef ta&miftaoG;pHkvSaom EkdifiHa&;tawG; tac: t,ltq
rsm;pGm&Sdaeygonf? vuf0Jvuf,m EkdifiHa&;a&mifpOfwef; (political spectrum) wGif
xnfhoGif;owfrSwfEkdifaom uGefrlepf0g'/ qkd&S,fvpf0g'/ qkd&S,f'Drkdu &uf0g'/ vpfb&,f0g'/
uGefqmaA;wpf0g'/ zufqpf0g' ponfh EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac: t,ltqrsm;onfvnf;aumif; wd,0g'
(feminism)/
obm0ywf0ef;usifxdef;
odrf;a&;0g'
(enviromentalism)
ponfh
EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:t,ltqrsm;onf vnf;aumif; bmoma&;ukd ta-umif;yjzpfay:vmonfh
bmoma&;tajccH0g' (fun- damentalism) onfvnf;aumif; vlom;tm;vHk;. ywf0ef;usifwGif
jzpfay;wnf&Sd aeonf? xkd0g'rsm;tay:tajccHI EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;onfvnf; r+dvkdaygufv#uf&Sdae onf?
'Drkdua&pD
EkdifiHa&;pepfwGif
ygwDpHk&Sifoef&yfwnfcGifhudk
vrf;zGifhay;xm;&ef
vkd
tyfonf?
rnfolwpfOD;wpfa,mufur#
wm;qD;ykdifcGifhr&Sday?
xdktcGifhta&;onf
jynf
olrsm;.
vGwfvyfpGmEkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:wGif ouf0if,Hk-unfcGifhyif jzpfonf? rdrdESpf ouf&m EkdifiHa&;ygwDokd@
0ifa&mufjcif;/ axmufcHjcif; okd@r[kwf EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac: rsm;udk avhvmjcif;/ E+dif;,SOfjcif;/ ouf0if,Hkunfjcif;wkd@ukd vGwfvyfpGm yvkyfykdifcGifh &Sd ap&rnf? TonfrSm ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pD EkdifiHa&;pepf.
tESpfom&yif jzpf onf?
tm%m&Sif EkdifiHa&;pepfwGif jynfolrsm;. rdrdESpfouf&m EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:wGif ouf0if,Hk-unfcGifhudk
ydwfyifxm;_yD; EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm; ay:aygufjcif;udkvnf; [ef@wm; xm;wwfonf? uGefrlepfyg
wDwckwnf;udkom EkdifiHawmfygwDtjzpf zJG@pnf;xm;_yD; t jcm;EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm; xlaxmifcGifhudk
ydwfyifxm;onf? rmhpf=vDeif0g' uGefrlepf EkdifiHa&; tawG;tac:wGif ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;rsm;.ygwD
(uGefrlepfygwD) wckwnf;uom tm %m&,laomtm%m&Sifpepfudk pdkufxl&rnf[laomtcsufudk
tcdkiftrm azmfaqmif xm;onf? *smref 'Drdku&ufwpforRwEdkifi(H a&S*smr%D)/ &dkar;&D;,m;/ pwmvifvuf
xuf qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpk uJhodk@aom uGefjrLepfEdkifiHrsm;wGif uGefjrLepfEkdifiHa&; tawG; tac:rsm;udk
jynfolrsm;.tm&HktwGif;
twif;t-uyf
oGyfoGi;f jyD;
xdktawG;tac:rsm;
udkqef@usifonfh
t&dyfta,mifr#jzifh zrf;qD;jcif;/ nif;yrf;ESdyfpufjcif;/ ao'%fpD&ifjcif; txd yvkyfwwf-uonf? OD;ae0if;
EdkifiHawmftm%modrf;r+ jzpfjyD;aemufjrefrmh qdk&S,f vpfvrf;pOfygwDudk wnfaxmifum jrefrmEdkifiHwGif
OD;ae0if;usifhoHk;cJhaom yHkpHonf vnf; xdktwdkif;yifjzpfonf? xdkuGefjrLepf/ qdk&S,fvpfEdkfifiHrsm;
'Drdkua&pDpepfodk@ toGif ul;ajymif;aomtcg yxrOD;qHk; zsufqD;ypf&rnfhtcsufrSm vGwfvyfpGm
EdkifiHa&;tawG; tac: ouf0if,Hk-unfr+udk ydwfyifonfh jyXmef;csufrsm;jzpfonf?
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 41

tD&efEdkifiHwGif 1979ckESpfwGifo#m;bk&ifudk z,f&Sm;aomawmfvSefa&;-uD;jyD;aemuf tm %m&vmaom cdkareD


(Ruhola Khomeini, 1902-1989) onftpPvmrftmom a&;tajccH0g'D (fundamentalst)
wpfOD;jzpfonf? wjznf;jznf;ESifh tpGef;a&muftajc cH0g'Dtjzpf a&muf&Sdaomtcg tm%m&SifwOD;tjzpfodk@
a&muf&SdoGm;avonf? tD&ef jynfolrsm;.vGwfvyfpGm EdkifiHa&;tawG;tac: ouf0if,Hk-unfcGifh
tcGifhta&; qHk;&+H; v#uf&Sdonf? Tjzpf&yfrsKd;onf bmomwckckudk EdkifiHawmfbmomtjzpf jyXmef;vdkuf
jcif;. aemufqufwGJ tusKd;tqufrsm;jzpfonf? 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHwckwGif bmomwckck udk
EdkifiHawmfbmomtjzpf jyXmef;&ef rjzpfwefaumif;ay? pdwftaxGaxG vltrsKd;rsKd;yg 0ifaewwfaom
EdkifiHwdkif;EdkifiHwdkif;onf bmoma&;t& vGwfvyfpGm udk;uG,f,Hk-unf cGifhudk cGifhyxm;&rnfomjzpfonf?
'Drdkua&pDESifh vGwfvyfaompD;yGm;a&pepf
(Democracy and Free Economic System)
'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHa&;pepfudk vdkcsif&jcif;ta-umif;t&if;rsm;wGif vGwfvyfpGmpD;yGm;&SmEdkif jcif;onf taumif;&if;w&yftjzpf yg0ifv#uf&Sdonf? EdkifiHawmfuxdef;csKyfaom pD;yGm; a&; (planned economy)
pepfrsm; atmifjrifr+r&Sda-umif;tcdkiftrm odjrifvmav av yk*~vduydkifqdkifr+udktajccHonfh
vGwfvyfaompD;yGm;a&pepfrsm;udk ydkIawmif;qdk vm-uonf? vGwfvyfaom pD;yGm;a&;pepf[k
qdk&mwGifvnf; rnfodk@aompD;yGm;a&;pepf om EdkifiHawmftwGif;usifhoHk;&rnf[laom uef@owfonfh
rnfhonfhjyXmef;csufrsKd;udkrS
r[kwfonfh
pD;yGm;a&;pepf
usifhoHk;cGifhudkom
qdkvdkonf?
awmif;qdak eaomtajctae udkvkduI
f
oifhawmfaom pD;yGm;a&pepfESifhay:vpDrsm;udk vdktyfovdk
csrSwfEdkifa&;udk vrf;zGifhay;xm;a&;jzpfonf? vGwfvyfaom pD;yGm;a&;pepfudk vGwfvyfaom aps;uGufpD;
yGm;a&;pepf (free market econmy) wckwnf;udkom oabmaygufvufcHxm;&ef vnf; r[kwfyg?
tb,fa-umifhqdkaomf aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepfonf pD;yGm;a&;pepfrsm; xJrS wckomjzpfonf?
,ae@'Drdkua&pDEdkifiH-uD;rsm;wGifyif
vGwfvyfaomaps;uGufpD;yGm;
a&;pepfwpfrsKd;wnf;udk
usifhoHk;aejcif;r[kwfbJ
tjcm;pepfrsm;ESifha&maESmI
aomfvnf;
aumif;/
tjcm;aompD;yGm;a&;pepfrsm;odk@ul;ajymif;I aomfvnf;aumif;/ usifhoHk;ae-u onfudk awG@&onf?
qufvufIvnf; ajymif;vJaeOD;rnfomjzpfonf?
vGwfvyfaom aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepfppfppf tajccHoabmw&m;rSm 0,fvdktm;aps; uGuftay:rlwnfI
ukefxkwfvkyfjcif;.
ul;oef;a&mif;0,fjcif;jzpfjyD;
tpdk;&.xdef;csKyfr+
vHk;0uif;&Sif;jyD;
vGwfvyfr+&Sda&;yifjzpfonf? TpD;yGm;a&;pepfudk avqmzJ (laissez-faere) [kvnf;vlodrsm;onf? (laissezfaire) a0g[m&onf jyifopfbmompum; jzpf_yD; vl0D(14) (Louis xiv) bk&ifvufxufwGif
ay:aygufvmjcif;jzpfonf?
xkdpD;yGg;a&;pepfonf tpkd;&.xdef;csKyfr+ enf;Edkifor#enf;atmif avsmhcsapaom vGwf vyfonfh
aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepf tajccHjzpfonf? udef;pD;yGm;a&;epf (keynesian economics) ay:ayguf
_yD;aemuf (laissez-faire) pD;yGm;a&; pepfppfppfrSm twef i,farS;rSdefoGm;cJh_yD; 1970 ckESpfrsm;wGif
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 42

jyefvnfqef;opfvmonf? vuf,m0g'opf (new right) ,Hk-unfolrsm;u xkdpD;yGm;a&;pepfudk


jyefvnfazmfxkwfvm-uonf?
Laissez-faire pD;yGm;a&;pepfonf t&if;&SifpD;yGm;a&;pepfatmufwGif t&if;&SifblZGm vlwef;pm;rsm;u
ukefxkwft&if;tESD;rsm;
ykdifqkdif-u_yD;
ypPnf;rJhrsm;u
t&if;&Sifrsm;.
puf&Hktvkyf&Hkrsm;wGif
0ifa&muftvkyfvkyfukdif-u&onf? t&if;&Sifrsm;u if;wkd@tjrwf tpGef;twGuf tvkyform;rsm;.vkyfcudk
avsmhayghjcif;/ em&Dydkckdif;jcif;/ tvkyfcGiftajc tae aumif;rGefatmif pDrHay;&ef ysufuGufjcif;wkd@a-umifh
jrifawG@ae&aom ydyuQrsm; vGwfajrmufap&ef &nf&G,fcsufjzifh um;vfrmhpf (Karl Marx, 1818-1883) OD;
aqmif_yD; ukefxkwft&if;tESD;rsm;ukd jynfolvlxku ykdifqkdifaom pDrHudef;pD;yGm;a&;pepf udk azmfaqmifvmuonf? xkd@tjyif pD;yGm;a&;pDrHude;f pepfudkom EkdifiHawmfwGifusifh oHk;&rnf[k jyXmef;csuf yvkyfvmonf?
pDrHudef;pD;yGm;a&;pepf wpfckwnf;jzifh pD;yGm;a&;udk atmifjrifatmif rvkyfEkdifa-umif; awG@jrif&_yD;jzpfonf?
laissez-faire pD;yGm;a&;pepfonfvnf; t-uyftwnf; tcuf tcJrsm;ESifh uHvm&onf? txl;ojzifh 1930
ckESpf ywf0ef;usifumvu wpfurBmvHk; pD;yGm;a&;uyf}uD; usa&muf&ifqkdif&aomtcg laissez-faire
pD;yGm;a&;pepf ,drf;,kdif vm_yD; pD;yGm;a&;pepfopfrsm; ay:xGef;vmonf? laissez-faire pD;yGm;a&;pepfonf
aps;uGufudk
tajccHIom
zG@Hzd;wkd;wuf&ojzifh
ta-umif;tm;avsmfpmG
aps;uGuw
f iG f
0,fvkdtm;usqif;aomtcg ukefxkwfvkyfr+yg usqif;&rnfjzpf_yD; tusKd;quftm;jzifh tvkyfvufrJhrsm;
rsm;jym;vmrnfjzpfonf? aps;uGuf. 0,fvt
dk m;onf obm0t av#muf0,fvkdtm; jrifhrm;wufvmrnf
r[kwfacs? tuef@towfrsm;&Sdonf? xkdt uef@towfrsm;udk acsmarmajyjypfatmif zefwD;ray;Ekdifygu
laissez-faire pD;yGm;a&; pepfwGif t-uyftwnf;tcuftcJrsm; uHvm&rnfjzpf_yD; tvkyfvufrJhrsm;jym;vm
rnf? 1930 ckESpf ywf0ef;usifu &ifqkdif&aom urBm@pD;yGm;a&; t-uyftwnf;onf laissez-faire
pD;yGm;a&;pepf. tqkdyg t-uyftwnf; yifjzpfonf? TonfrSm vGwf vyfaom aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepf
ppfppf. csKd@,Gif;csufrsm;a-umihfjzpf onf?
vGwfvyfaom aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepf ppfppf. tm;enf;csufrsm;udk tcdkiftrm a0zef axmufjyolrSm
_Adwdo#pD;yGm;a&;ynm&Sif *|efareudef; (John Maynard Keynes, 1883-1946) jzpfonf? olonf
xdt
k m;enf;csufrsm;udk axmufjy&if; pD;yGm;a&;pepf wpf&yfukd azmfxkwfcJh&m xkdpepfudk udef;pD;yGm;a&;pepf
(keynesianism) [k vlod rsm;onf/ udef;onf if;. pD;yGm;a&;pepfta-umif;udk 1936 ckESpfwGif
a&;om;xkwfa0 onfh tojym/ tusKd;tjrwfESifh tvkyf&&Sda&; oDtkd&D (general theory of
employment, interest and money) pmtkyfwGif azmfjyxm;onf? udef;u t"d u
axmufjy&mwGif aps;uGuf. tEWdr0,fvkdtm; (aggregate demand) wGif t uef@towf&Sdjcif;/ xkd@a-umifh
ukefxkwfvkyfr+ av#mhcsjcif;/ xkd@a-umifh tvkyform;rsm; tvkyfzwfcH&jcif; ponfh jzpfpOfoHo&mudk
axmufjyonf?
xkdjzpfpOfwGif aps;uGuf. tEWdr0,fvkdtm; tuef@towf&Sdjcif;udk ajz&Sif;ay;Ekdifygu ykd IacsmarmzG@Hzd;aom
pD;yGm;a&;obm0wckudk azmfxw
k fEkdifrnf[k axmufjycJhonf? aps; uGuf0,fvkdtm; tuef@towf&Sdr+
jy\emukd ajz&Sif;&efrSm laissez-faire pD;yGm;a&; pepfu ol@tvkdvkd ajz&Sif;&ef rpGrf;aqmifEkdifay?
xkdjy\emukd tpkd;&uom 0ifa&muf ajz&Sif;ay;Ekdifonf?
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 43

aps;uGuf. tEWdr0,fvkdtm;usqif;r+udk tpkd;&u wkduf&kdufajz&Sif;jcif;r[kwfbJ tvkyf vufrJhjy\em


jrifhwufvmjcif;udkumuG,f&ef udef;u wifjyonf? aps;uGuf0,fvkd tm; usqif;vmcsdefwGif tpkd;&taejzifh
tjcm;tvkyftukdifrsm; azmfxkwfzefwD;ay;jcif; jzifh tvkyfvufrJh jy\emudk ajz&Sif;ay;Ekdifonf?
vlxktusKd;y vkyfief;rsm;jzpfonfh pmoifausmif;aqmufvkyfjcif;/ if;wkd@wGif 0efxrf;cef@xm;jcif;/
vrf;azmufjcif; ponfh enf;vrf;rsm;jzpfonf? aqmufvkyfa&;vkyfief;opf azmfxkwfjcif;a-umifh
aqmufvkyfa&; ypPnf;rsm; aps;uGufwGif 0,fvkdtm;wufvmrnfjzpf_yD; aqmufvkyfa&;vkyfom;rsm; vnf;
tvkyf&&Sdrnfh qifhyGm;tusKd;oufa&mufr+ (multiplier effect) &Sdrnf[k udef; u azmfjyonf? okd@jzifh
tpkd;&onf pD;yGm;a&;uwGif vkdtyfcsuft& yg0ifywfouf& ayvdrfhrnf? tjcm;wzufwGifvnf;
tpkd;&onf taumufcGef ESKef;xm;udk avsmhcsay; &ef vkdtyfonf? tcGefaumufcHr+ avsmhcsjcif;onf
aps;uGuf. 0,fvkdtm;jrifhwifr+udk taxmuftulyonf? xkd@a-umifh udef;pD;yGm;a&;pepft&
tpdk;&rsm;taejzifh wydifeuf wnf;vky&f rnfh tvkyfrSm tvkyfzefwD;ay;rnfh jynfol@tusKd;y vkyfief;rsm;
azmfxkwf a&;ESifh tcGefaumufcHr+E+ef;xm; av#mhcsa&;wkd@jzpfonf?
odk@jzifh udef;pD;yGm;a&;pepfonf 1930 ckESpf aemufykdif;ESifh txl;ojzifh 'kwd,urBmppf_yD; umvrsm;wGif
a&yef;pm;vm_yD; tvkyfvufrJh jy\emukd ulnDajz&Sif; ay;EkdifcJhonf? pDrHudef;pD;yGm;a&;pepfatmufwGif
ukd,fpDudk,fiS tvkyftukdif&Sd-uaomfvnf; wOD;csif;. 0ifaiGESifh wEkid fiHvHk; trsKd;om;0ifaiGt&mwGif
vGwfvyfonfh
pD;yGm;a&;;pepfukd
vrf;zGifh
xm;aom
'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHrsm;ESifh
E+dif;,SOfv#if
rsm;pGmjcm;em;aeonfukd awG@&ayrnf? 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHrsm;wGif tvkyfvufrJhrsm;rSm pDrHudef; pD;yGm;a&;pepf&Sd
uGefrlepfEkdifiHrsm; xuf jrifhrm;aomfvnf; xkdtvkyfvufrJhjy\emajz&Sif;a&;ukd tpdk;&u wm0ef,l
aqmif&Gufay;v#uf&Sdonf? _AdwdefEkdifiHwGif 0ef}uD;csKyf rm*&ufoufcsm vufxufY vnf;aumif;
tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwGif orRw a&*if vufxufYvnf;aumif; t aumufcGef av#mhayghjcif; aps;uGuf.
0,fvkdtm;ukd jrifhwif&ef vkyfaqmifcJhr+rsm; odod omom &SdcJhonf? udef; pD;yGm;a&;pepfonf
vHk;0vGwfvyfaomaps;uGufpD;yGm;a&; pepf jzpfonfh Laissez-faire pD;yGm;a&;pepf. tm;enf;csufrS
jzpfay:vm&_yD; vGwfvyf aom pD;yGm;a&;pepfukd vrf;zGifhxm;onfh 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHrsm;wGif usifhoHk;aom
pD;yGm;a&; pepfwckjzpfonf? okd@&mwGif if;pD;yGm;a&;pepfonfvnf; _yD;jynfhpHkjcif; r&Sdojzifh a&G@
vsm;ajymif;vJaeaom jzpfpOfukd 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHrsm;wGif avhvmawG@&Sd&jyefonf?
txufwGifwifjycJhonfhtwkdif; tvkyfvufrJhjy\emajz&Sif;a&;rSm tpdk;&. wm0efjzpf a-umif;
tpdk;&rsm;u av;av;eufeufcH,lum ajz&Sif;ay;&onf? aemufqHk; tvkyft ukdifr&Sdao;olrsm;udkyif
tpdk;&uaxmufyHh_yD; if;wkd@. &yfwnfa&;ukd wm0ef,lay;& onf?
txufY wifjycJhaom vGwfvyfcGifh tcGifhta&;rsm;omru tvkyfvkyfykdifcGifhESifh ynmoif-um;ykdifcGifh/
usef;rm;a&; apmifha&SmufcHykdifcGifhwkd@onf EkdifiHom;rsm;. tcGifht a&;jzpfa-umif;udk tcdkiftrm ajymqkdvmuonf? Tt,ltqrsm;onf tar&duef jynfaxmifpkwGif 1930 ckESpfrsm;twGif; orRw &kdq,fb (F.D
Roosevelt, 1882-1945) vufxufwiG fvnf;aumif;/ _AdwdefEkdifiHwGif 'kwd, urBmppft_yD; 0ef}uD;csKyf
tufwvD (Arttle) . avbmtpkd;& vufxufwGifvnf;aumif; xGef;um;vm_yD; ,cktcg tar&duef/
uae'g/
-opa-wvs/
e,l;ZDvefEkdifiHrsm;ESifh
taemufOa&myEkdifiH
rsm;wGif
tqkdyg
oabmw&m;v$rf;rkd;r+t& jzpfay:vmaom vlr+zlvHka&;pepf (wel- farism) rsm; xGef;um;aeonf?
xkdpepft& tvkyfr&Sdolrsm;ukd if;wkd@ tqifhtwef;rD &yfwnfa&;twGuf vkdtyfaomaxmufyHha-u;/
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 44

emrusef;jzpfaomtcg tcrJh aq;0g;uk ocGifh/ ynmoif-um;cGifhwkd@udk A[kdtpkd;&u wm0ef,lvkyfaqmif


ay;v#uf&Sdonf? T vkyfief;rsm;twGuf tpdk;&wGif aiGa-u;vkdtyfvmayrnf? xkd@a-umifh pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;
rsm;wGif yk*~vduykdifqkdifr+ tajccHp;D yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm; &SdouJhokd@ tpdk;& ukd,fykdifjzpfap/ zufpyfjzpfap/
vkyfukdifEkdifaom pD;yGm;a&;vkyfuGufrsm; &Sdvmonf? wydifeufwnf;wGif udef; pD;yGm;a&;pepft&
jynfol@tusKd;yvkyfief;rsm; azmfaqmifjcif;ESifh aps;uGuf0,fvkd tm;udk jrifhwifay;&efvdktyfaom
tm;ay;r+rsm;udkvnf; yvkyfae&onf? xkd@a-umifh vlr+zlvHka&;pepf&Sdaom 'Drdua&pD EkdifiHwckwGif
yg0ifaeaom pD;yGm;a&;pepfudk avhvm v#if yk*~vdu ykdifqkdifr+tajccHt& aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepf/ udef;
pD;yGm;a&;pepf/ EkdifiHykdif pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;/ zufpyf pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief; ponfjzifh trsKd;pHkukd awG@&ayrnf? Tokd@
a&myGef;aejcif;ESifh ajymif;vJvmjcif;wkd@onf rnfokd@aom pD;yGm;a&;pepfonfom EkdifiH awmfwGif
usifhoHk;&rnf[laom uef@owfonhf jyXmef;csufrsKd;r&Sdonfh vGwfvyfaom pD; yGm;a&;pepfukd
vrf;zGifhay;xm;jcif;a-umifhjzpfonf?
xkd@a-umifh pD;yGm;a&; zG@Hzd;wkd;wufr+twGuf vGwfvyfpGm pD;yGm;a&;ay:vpDrsm; csrSwfjcif;/ pD;yGm;a&;pepf
ajymif;vJjcif; yvkyfEkdif&ef vkdtyfayonf? if;onfyifv#if 'Drkdua&pD Ekdif iHa&;pepftwGif;rS pD;yGm;a&;
vGwfvyfcGifhyifjzpfonf? xdkpD;yGm;a&;vGwfvyfcGifhukd vGwf vyfaom aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepf[k
t"dy`g,faumufvGJum EkdifiHawmfwGif vGwfvyf aom aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepfudkom usifhoHk;&rnf[laom
jyXmef;csufrsKd; uef@owfcsuf rsKd; ryvkyfoifhay? vGwfvyfaom aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&; pepfonfn
pD;yGm;a&;pepfrsm;xJrS pD;yGm;a&;pepf wckomjzpf_yD; pD;yGm;a&;vGwfvyfcGifht& ay:aygufwnf&SdEkdifjcif;om jzpf
onf? if;pepf wckwnf;udk usifhoHk;&rnf[k uef@owfvkdufv#if uGefrlepftm%m &SifEkdifiHrsm;wGif
yvkyfavh&Sdaom pDrHudef; pD;yGm;a&;pepfukdom usifhoHk;&rnf[laom uef@owfcsufrsKd;ESifhwloGm;_yD;
wkdif;jynftwGuftrSefwu,ftusKd;&Sdaom pD;yGm;a&;b0 jzpfcsifrS jzpfvmEkdifrnf? vGwfvyfaom
aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepfoufouf atmifjrifr+ r&Sda-umif;ESifh ajymif;vJjzpfay:vmaom pD;yGm;a&;pepfrsm;u
tpm;xkd;ae&m,lae a-umif; avhvmawG@&Sd&_yD;jzpfonf?
ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepfatmufwGif EkdifiHa&;ygwDtoD;oD;onf uJGjym;jcm;em;aom ay:vpD rsm;udk ukdifpGJum
ay:aygufvm-urnfjzpfonf? xdkay:vpDrsm;xJwGif pD;yGm;a&; ay:vpD onf ta&;}uD;qHk; ay:vpDwcktjzpf
yg0ifaeayrnf? ygwDtoD;oD;onf 'Drkdua&pD pD; yGm;a&;oDtkd&Dt& a&G;aumufyJGrsm;twGuf
rJqG,fpnf;&Hk;&mwGif rdrdwkd@ygwD. pD;yGm;a&; ay:vpDukd csjyrJqG,fr+rsm; rvJGraoG &Sdaeayrnf?
uJGjym;jcm;em;aom ygwDrsm;onf uJG jym;jcm;em;aom EkdfifiHa&;tawG;tac: t,ltqrsm;udk ouf0if,Hkunf-u&m if;wkd@. pD;yGm;a&;ay:vpDrsm;onfvnf; jcm;em;r+&Sdayrnf? vuf0JuGefrlepf/ qkd&S,fvpfESifh av
bmygwDrsm;. pD;yGm;a&;ay:vpD/ tv,fA[kdjzpfaom vpfb&,fygwD. pD;yGm;a&;ay: vpD/ vuf,mjzpfaom
uGefqmaA;wpfygwD.
pD;yGm;a&;ay:vpDrsm;onf
wxyfwnf;
us
wlnDaernfr[kwfay?
rJqG,fpnf;&Hk;yJGrsm;wGif jynfolwkd@onf if;wkd@twGuf tusKd; &SdqHk;jzpfrnf [k,lqaom pD;yGm;a&;ay:vpDudk
csrSwfay;Ekdifonfh ygwDudk rJay;axufcH
-uayvdrfhrnf? wpfzef vkdtyfcsufESifhtnD xkdygwDrsm;.
pD;yGm;a&;ay:vpDrsm;onf vnf;ajymif;vJaernfomjzpfonf? xkdokd@ ajymif;vJjcif;/ ESpfouf&may:vpDudk
a&G;cs,f jcif;udk cGifhyxm;jcif;onf 'Drkdua&pD EkdifiHa&;pepftwGif;rS pD;yGm;a&;vGwfvyfcGifhyifjzpf onf?
'Drkdua&pD EdkifiHa&;pepfwGif EdkifiHawmfrSwdkuf&dkuf tjynfht0 xdef;csKyfaompD;yG;a&;vkyf ief;rsm;vnf;
&SdEdkifonf? tpdwftydkif;tm;jzifh EdkifiHawmfu xdef;csKyfaomvkyfief;rsm; vnf;&SdEdkifonf? uGefjrLepfEdkifiHrsm;/
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 45

qdk&S,fvpfEdkifiHrsm;wGif EdkifiHawmfrSxdef;csKyfaom pD; yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;om t"dutm;jzifh &Sdwwfygonf?


jcm;em;csufrSm 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHrsm; wGif EdkifiHawmfrSxdef;csKyfaom pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief; ay:aygufvmjcif;rSm
vGwfvyfaompD; yGm;a&;pepfatmufrS jynfolrsm;.oabmwlnDcsuft& ay:aygufvmjcif;jzpfjyD; uGefjrL epf
qdk&S,fvpfEdkifiHrsm;wGif EdkifiHydkifpD;yGm;a&;pepfatmufwGif jynfolrsm;oabmwlrwl t"durusawmhbJ
EdkifiHawmfuxdef;csKyfaom pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm; xlaxmifvm&jcif; jzpfonf? xdkxufydkIav;av;eufeuf
ajym&v#if uGefjrLepfqdk&S,fvpf EdkifiHrsm;wGif EdkifiHydkifpD;yGm;a&; vkyfief;rsm;om &Sd&rnf[laomjyXmef;csufESifh
'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHrsm;wGif xdkodk@aom uef@owfr+r&Sdjcif;a-umifhjzpfonf? Tae&mwGif EdkifiHydkifpD;yGm;a&;pepfESifh
Edkif iHawmfu ydkifqdkifaompD;yGm;a&;vkyfief; qdkonfwdk@udk cGJjcm;jrifwwf&efvdkonf? pD;yGm;
a&;pepf[kqdkvdkufv#if EdkifiHawmfwckvHk;&Sd pD;yGm;a&; vkyfief;tm;vHk;udk v$rf;cHjyD; pD;yGm; a&;vkyfief;[k
ajymvdkufv#if pD;yGm;a&;pepftwGif;rS tuef@wckjzpfonf?
tysufoabm vGwfvyfr+ESifh tyoabm vGwfvyfr+ (jyefjyifa&;&ef)
(Negative Liberty and Positive Liberty)
vGwfvyfaomvlr+b0wckudk xlaxmif&eftwGuf trsm;oabmwl 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyf a&;pepfw&yfudk
xlaxmif-ujcif;jzpfonf? 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrSvGJv#if tjcm; t jcm;aom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrsm;onf
vlyk*~Kdvf
wpfOD;csif;pD.vGwfvyfr+
tcGifhta&;rsm;udk
uef@owfcsKyfjc,fxm;r+rsm;
&Sdonf?
vlyk*~dKvfwOD;csif;pDonf rdrdwdk@.vGwfvyfr+tcGifht
a&;rsm;udk 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHa&; pepftwGif;0,f
&,lcHpm;vdk-uonf?
xdkodk@cHpm;&mwGif
vl@tzJG@tpnf;ESifh
qef@usifjcif;r&Sdaom/
tjcm;aomolrsm;.tcGifhta&;udkvnf; xdcdkuf jcif;r&SdaomtcGifhta&;rsm;udkom cHpm;cGifh&Sd&rnf?
rdrdvkyfcsif&mvkyfEdkifaom
vGwfvyfr+
tcGifhta&;onf
'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHa&;pepfu
cGifhyaom
tcGifhta&;rsKd;r[kwfay?
vGwfvyfr+oabmw&m;wGif cHpm;cGifhESifhapmifhxdef;&rnfhwm0ef yg0ifaeonf? wenf; tm;jzifh rdrdtcGifhta&;
usifhoHk;r+ESifh wyg;olwdk@.tcGifhta&;udk av;pm;&r+wdk@onf wGJ v#ufom&Sd&ayrnf? vGwfvyfr+
oabmw&m;udkaz:xkwf-uaom EdkifiHa&;tawG;tac: ynm&Sifrsm;onf vlwpfOD;csif;pD. vGwfvyfcGifh
tcGifhta&;rsm;onf
obm0tav#muf
jzpfonfhtcGifhta&;rsm;jzpfonf[k
owfrSwf-uonf?
xdkobm0tcGifhta&;rsm;udkusifh
oHk;cGifhtcGifhta&;rsm;onf
vl@tcGifhta&;tmrcHcsuf&Sdaom
'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHa&;pepft wGif;Yom jzpfEdkifonf? odk@&mwGif obm0tcGifhta&;rsm;udk trsm;ESifh
o[Zmwjzpf onfh taetxm;wGifom usifo
h Hk;&ef vlr+a&; ydnmOfyr+ oDtdk&Dudk azmfxw
k o
f rl sm;u
ajymqdk-uonf?
obm0tcGifhta&;usifhoHk;r+udk rnfolrSwm;qD;Ir& wm;qD;ydkifcGifhvnf;r&Sdqdkonfh t jrifjzifh
rdrdvdk&mvkyfEdkifaom vGwfvyfcGifhonf tysufoabmvGwfvyfcGifh (negative liberty) omjzpfaumif; bmvif (Irish Brelin) u 1957 ckESpfwGifxkwfa0a&;om; aom vGwfvyfr+ oabmw&m;ESpf&yfrSm
(two concepts of liberty, 1957) pm tkyfwGif a&;om;az:jyxm;onf? txl;ojzifh vGwfvyfr+
tcGifhta&;rsm;udk tav;ay; ajymqdkwwfaom a&S;OD;vpfb&,f0g' tawG;tac:rsm;. vGwfvyfr+
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 46

tcGifhta&;rsm; onf tysufoabmvGwfvyfr+udk ydkIaqmifa-umif; bmvifu axmufjyxm;onf?


tb,fa-umifhqdkaomf xdkvpfb&,f0g'Drsm;onf
tcGifhta&;rsm;udk tav;ay;ajymqdk wwfaom
a&S;OD;vpfb&,f0g' tawG;tac:rsm;. vGwfvyfr+ tcGifhta&;rsm;onf tysufoabmvGwfvyfr+udk
ydkIaqmifa-umif; bmvifu axmufjyxm;onf? tb,f a-umifhqdkaomf xdkvpfb&,f0g'Drsm;onf
if;wdk@. vGwfvyfr+ tcGifhta&;qdkonfudk bufwbufwnf;rS tjrifjzifhusifhoHk;-u&m0,f
vl@tzJG@tpnf;ESifho[Zmw
rjzpfr+rsm;
ay:aygufvm;jyD;
tjyufoabmudkaqmifvmonf?
acwfopfvpfb&,f0g'[k ac:qdk aom 19=20 &mpk vpfb&,f0g' tawG;tac:wGifrl
vltzJG@tpnf;ESifho[Zmw jzpf aom vGwfvyfr+tcGifhta&; usifhoHk;r+udkom OD;pm;ay;awG;ac:vmuojzifh tyo abmvGwfvyfr+[k bmvifuqufvuf&Sif;jyonf? acwfopfvpfb&,f0g'onf
vlwpfOD;csif;aumif;pm;vGwfvyfr+ pOf;pm;awG;ac:vmr+&SdouJhodk@ vl@tzJG@tpnf;tvdkuf jidrf;csrf;om,ma&;
wdk;wuf0ajyma&;wdk@udkyg tav;ay;aomvkyf&yfrsm;udk awG@& onf? Oyrm= vlr+zlvHka&;pepf
wnfaxmifjcif;rsKd;jzpfonf?
rdrdwdk@wOD;csif;pD.
tcGifht
a&;udk
wefbdk;xm;ouJhodk@
vl@tzJG@tpnf;wdk;wufa&;udkyg wefbdk;xm;vm-uonf? vl@ tzJG@tpnf;-uD;wnfwJhaeygrS vlwpfOD;csif;
qufvufwnfwJhaernfqdkonfh oabmw &m;rsm; awG;ac:r+rsm;onf tyoabmvGwfvyfr+
usifhoHk;a&;twGuf t"duta-umif; w&m;jzpfonf?
jAdwdo# EdkifiHa&;tawG;tac:ynm&Sif ar;vfu obm0tcGifhta&;rsm;jzpfaom vGwf vyfpGm awG;ac:cGifh/
xkwfaz:ajymqdkcGifh/ aqG;aEG;cGifh/ vS+yf&Sm;aqmif&GufcGifhwdk@udk vGwfvyf r+rsm; (on libery) trnf&Sd
pmtkyfwGiftus,fw0ifh a&;om;azmfjyxm;onf? ar;vf onf tyoabmvGwfvyfr+udkom
t"duOD;pm;ay;wifjyoGm;onf? vGwfvyfr+tcGifht a&;qdkonfrSm rdrd.tcGifhta&;udk jyifyrS
0ifa&mufaESmuf,Sufjcif; ryEdkifjcif;omjzpfjyD; tjyeftvSeftm;jzifh rdrd. xdktcGifhta&;usifhoHk;r+onfvnf;
wyg;oludkrxdcdkufap aom rdrdzmomrdrd usifh-uHaexdkifr+qdkaom oabmw&m;udk ar;vfu
xkwfaz:cJhonf?
vGwfvyfr+qdkonfudk wpfOD;csif;tusdKpD;yGm;ESifh E+dif;,SOfI t"duOD;pm;ay;pOf;pm;v#if tysufoabm
vGwfvyfr+pDodk@
OD;wnfoGm;onf?
vl@tzJG@tpnf;ESifh
tjcm;yk*~Kvfrsm;udk
xdcdkufjcif;r&Sdaom
wpfOD;csif;vGwfvyfr+udk tpGrf;ukefcHpm;cGifh&Sdonf? vGwfvyfr+cHpm; &mwGif vl@tzJG@tpnf;ESifh
tjcm;vlyk*~Kdvfrsm;. tcGifhta&;udk xdcdkufr+r&Sdatmif usifh oHk;EdkifygrS tyoabmvGwfvyfr+jzpfonf?
pdwfwu
l dk,w
f l
wnfaxmifxm;aom
'Drdku
a&pDvl@tzJG@tpnf;wGif
tjcm;olrsm;ESifhtwl
,SOfwGJaexdkifEdkifrnfjzpfonf?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 47

tcef;(5)

EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;
Polotical Parties

'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHa&;pepfwGif EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm; 0ifa&muf,SOfydifjcif;ta-umif;udk 'Drdkua&pD pD;yGm;a&;


oDtdk&Dta-umif;
wifjypOfuaz:jycJhjyD;jzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;tydiftqdkif
,SOfydifjcif;onf
'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHa&;pepfwGif r&Sdrjzpfyg0ifaernfjzpfonf? jynfolvlxk
-uD;onf if;wdk@.tusKd;pD;yGm;udk
trsm;qHk;azmfaqmifay;Edkifrnf[k
,Hk-unfaomygwD
odk@r[kwf
ygwDudk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk
jynfol@udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tjzpf a&G;cs,f-uayvdrfh rnf?
EdkifiHa&;ygwDqdkonfrSm
(The Party Concept)
jAdwdo#EkdifiHa&;ody`Hynm&Sif tuf'frefbmhcf (Emund Burke) u EkdifiHa&;ygwD qkd onfrSm jynfolvlxk.
tusKd;pD;yGm;udk txda&mufqHk; azmfaqmifay;Ekdifrnfh rl0g'rsm; jzpfonf[k ouf0if,Hk-unfolrsm;u
xdkrludktajccHI pka0;zJG@pnf;xm;aom vlpkjzpf onf [kqkdonf? EkdifiHa&;ygwDqkdonfrSm rdrdwkd@udk
axmufcHrnfqkdygu xdkaxmufcHol wkd@. tusKd;pD;yGm;udk azmfaqmifay;rnf[k pnf;&Hk;um rdrdwkd@
tm%m&&Sda&;udk tm; xkwfaeaomwoD;yk*~vrsm;jzifh pkpnf;xm;aomtzJG@jzpfa-umif; t"dy`g,fzGifhqkduonf? vl@tzJG@tpnf;twGif;rS uJGjym;jcm;em;aom tpktzJG@rsm;udk ukd,fpm;yI aygif;pyfxm; aom
!Gef@aygif;tzJG@uav;rsm; jzpfonf[kvnf; tcsKd@uajym-uonf?
taemufwkdif;'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHrsm;pkwGif tufyfpfwdrf; (Leon D.Epstein) t"dy`g,f zGifhqkdonfh
trSwfwHqdyf a-unmr+ (ygwDay:vpD a-unmr+) wpfckatmufwGif if;wkd@ tm; tpkd;&tm%mtwGuf
a&G;cs,fwifajrmufay;&ef awmif;qkdaeaom avsmh&J&Jjzpf yif zJG@pnf;xm;aom rnfonhfvlpkukdrqkd
ygwD[kac:onf qkdaom t"dy`g,fzGifhqkdcsuf udk a,bk,s vufcHxm;-uonf?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 48

rnfokd@yifjzpfap ynm&Sifwkd@u &+awmifhpHkrSwifjy-uojzifh tenf;i,fuJGvJGaom t"dy`g,fzGifhqkdcsufrsm;


jzpfvmaomfvnf; EkdifiHa&;t& (ygwDrl0g't&) 'Drkdua&pD tkyf csKyfa&;pepfwcktwGuf 0ifa&muf,SOfydifjcif;
oabmw&m;rSm twlwlyifjzpfonf? xkd@ a-umifh a,bk,svufcHEkdifaomtcsufrSm rl0g'wckjzifh
EkdifiHa&;OD;aqmifr+ae&mtwGuf ,SOfydifta&G;cH&ef zJG@pnf;xm;aom vlpkvla0;onf ygwDjzpfonf[laom
tcsufjzpf onf? EkdifiHa&;OD;aqmifr+ ae&mtwGuf ,SOfydif&ef &nf&G,fcsurf &SdbJ zJG@pnf;xm;aom
tzJG@tpnf;rsm; 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHwckwGif &SdEkdifygonf? xkdtzJG@tpnf;rsm;onf EkdifiHa&;OD; aqmifr+ae&mtwGuf
,SOfydif&efqENr&Sdojzifh EkdifiHa&;ygwDr[kwfbJ &nf&G,fcsuf wckck twGuf zJG@pnf;onfh tzJG@rsm;omjzpfonf?
okd@&mwGif 'Drkdua&pD EkdifiHa&;pepftwGif;wGif tzJG@tpnf;rsm;ESifh ygwDrsm;onf qufEG,fI
&yfwnfaer+rsm;vnf; &Sdwwfygonf?
ttkyfcsKyfcHrsm;ESifh tkyfcsKyfolrsm;t-um; aygif;ul;ay;onfh vkyfief;wm0efudk aqmif &Gufjcif;onf
EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;. ta&;}uD;qHk;vkyfief;vnfywfr+wcktjzpf EkdifiHa&;ody`H ynm&Sifrsm;u &+jrif-uonf?
t&mudpPaygif;pHk pkaygif;yg0ifaeaom vl@tzJG@tpnf;wck twGif; EkdifiHa&;ygwrD sm;onf tay:ESifhatmuf
qufoG,fay;onfh vrf;a-umif;jzpf onf? EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;tcsif;csif; ,SOfydifr+&Sdonhf ('Drdkua&pD
pD;yGm;a&;oDtkd&D) pepfwGif ttkyfcsKyfcH jynfolrsm;. toHonf ygwrD sm;rSwqifh tkyfcsKyfcHjynfolrsm;xHokd@
pD;qif;aer+ oabmw&m; ckdifrmv#uf&Sdonfukd awG@&onf? okd@&mwGif ygwDrsm;onf if;wkd@ ajymvkd
jzpfapvkdaom ta-umif;t&mrsm;wGif jynfolvlxktay: v$rf;rkd;Ekdif
a-umif;udk vnf;awG@&onf?
txl;ojzifh wpfygwDpepfjzifh tkyfcsKyfaom EkdifiHrsm;wGif ygwD oabmw&m;rsm;udk jynfolvlxkxH
v$rf;rkd;r+&Sdap&ef enf;rsKd;pHkjzifh yvkyf-uonf? qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpkwGif 1930 ckESpfrsm;twGif;
pwmvifvufwufwGif
uGefrlepfygwD
atmufajcxk.
oabmxm;rsm;
onfvnf;aumif;/
jynfolvlxkoabmxm;rsm;onf vnf;aumif;/ vHk;0OayuQmycH&um A[kd. oabmw&m;rsm;uom
v$rf;rkd;xm;onf ukd awG@&onf? jrefrmEkdifiHwGif jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpf vrf;pOfygwDvufxuf tajctae
onfvnf; xkdokd@yifjzpfonf?
ygwD0ifatmufajcxku vufcH,Hk-unfr+udk azmfjycGifh/ ukd,fpm;ycGifh &Sdrnfh ygwDrsm;onf om }uD;xGm;_yD;
&Sifoefaeayrnf? ygwDrsm; pwifzJG@pnf;onfh umvjzpfaom jyifopfESifh tar&duef awmfvSefa&;rsm;t_yD;
ay:xGef;vmaom EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;onf tzJG@0ifrsm;. ,Hk-unfr++wcktay:wGif tajccH_yD; xkdokd@,Hkuonfhtwkdif; EkdifiHa&;b0xJwGif yg0if aqmif&Gufv#uf&Sdjcif;jzifhom xkdygwDa&&Snf&yfwnfr+udk
taxmuftul jzpfaponf? 18 &mpkaemufykdif;ESifh 19 &mpktwGif; ay:xGef;cJhaom vpfb&,fygwDrsm;onf
vpfb &,f0g' tajccHoabmw&m;udk ,Hk-unfolrsm;jzifh zJG@pnf;xm;_yD; vpfb&,f0g'Drsm; onf ,Hkunfonfhtwkdif; ukd,fpm;ytpkd;&rsm; azmfxkwfjcif;/ rJay;cGifh&Sdolrsm; (fran- chise) tjzpf tus,fjyef@qHk;
wdk;csJ@Ekdifa&;wkd@ukd
azmfxkwfcJh-uonf?
jyifopfawmfvSef
a&;(1789)ESifh
tar&duefawmfvSefa&;(1776)rwkdifrD tcsdefumvrsm;u ukd,fpm;y tpkd;&ESifh rJay;cGifh&Sdolrsm;tjzpf
azmfxkwfr+r&Sdao;csdefwGif EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;[lIvnf; r&Sdao;ay? xkdawmfvSefa&;rsm; t_yD;wGifrS ,Hkunfr+rsm;udk azmfxkwfjcif;ESifh xdkokd@azmf xkwfr+udk pkaygif;vkyfaqmifvmaom EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;vnf;
ay:aygufvm-ujcif;jzpf onf? Tokd@aom ygwDrsm;onf ygwD0ifatmufajcxk. qENESifh udkufnDpGm
vnfywf v#uf&Sdaom ygwDrsm;jzpfonf? tm%mykdif tm%m&Sif0g' (authoritarianism) ESihf wygwD
tm%m&Sif0g' (totalitarianism) wkd@udk arG;xkwfay;onfh uGefrlepf/ zufqpf uJhokd@aom
EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;onf 20 &mpktwGif;Y ay:xGef;vm-u_yD; if;ygwDrsm;. Ekdif iHa&;v+yf&Sm;r+ e,fy,fwGif
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 49

yg0ifr+onf EkdifiHa&;ygwDpwifay:xGef;pOfu &SdcJhonfh EkdifiH a&;ygwDrsm; (Oyrm=vpfb&,fygwDESifh


uGefqmaA;wpfygwD) . EkdifiHa&;v+yf&Sm;r+e,f y,fwGif yg0ifr+wkd@rSm qef@usifbufjzpfonf? uGefrlepf/
zufqpfygwDrsm;onf
atmuf
ajcxktzJG@0ifrsm;.
qENoabmxm;
wlnDr+tajccHay:wGif
zJG@pnf;jcif;rsKd;r[kwfbJ tr awygwDu vufcH,Hk-unfonhf oabmw&m; t,ltqw&yfudk
e,fy,fcsJ@xGifjcif; yvkyfvkdufjcif;jzifh EkdifiHa&;ygwDtjzpf ajymif;vJzJG@pnf;ay: aygufvm&onf? Tenf;jzifh
zJG@pnf;ay:aygufvmaom ygwDrsm;onf txuf(A[kd). oabmw&m;rsm;ukdom atmufajcokd@ jyef@EHS@&ef
tpOfwpkdufud;pm;vkyfaqmifae-u&onf?
wenf;tm;jzifh
T
okd@aomvkyf[efrsm;onf
atmufajcxk.qENudk OD;pm;ay;um azmfaqmif&onfh 'Drkdu a&pDusifhpOfESifh uGJvGJaeonfudk awG@&onf?
xkd@a-umifh uGefrlepf/ zufqpfygwDrsm; ydif bufr&Sd tm%m&vmaom EkdifiHrsm;onf 'Drkdua&pD
tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfxGef;um;jcif;xuf xdef;csKyfr+A[kdy tm%m&Sif0g'om xGef;um;vmonfukd om"ursm;t&
awG@cJh&_yD;jzpf onf? okd@&mwGif 'Drkdua&pDukd vufcHusifhoHk;aom trawb0rS wkd;csJ@zJG@pnf;vmonfh
EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;onf atmufajcxk.qENukd av;pm;I taumiftxnfazmfaqmif&Guf v#uf&Sdonfukdvnf;
awG@&onf?
'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHa&;pepfwck xGef;um;a&;twGuf EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm; zJG@pnf;r+ESifh EkdifiHa&; v+yf&Sm;r+e,fy,fwGif
yg0ifywfoufr+wkd@wGif atmufajcxkqENukd ukd,fpm;yaom 'Drkd ua&pD tajccHoabmw&m;ukd
usifhoHk;&efvkdtyfygonf?
ygwDzJG@pnf;r+rS
tpyI
'Drkdu
a&pDtajccHoabmw&m;r&Sdygu
xkdygwDuomydifbufr&Sd tm%m&vmaom tcgrsKd; wGif 'Drkdua&pDESifhqef@usifaom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfqDokd@
OD;wnfoGm;wwfygonf? 'Drkdua& pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfwck atmifjrifa&;twGuf EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm; zJG@pnf;r+/
EkdifiHa&;v+yf&Sm;r+ e,fy,fwGif yg0ifaqmif&Gufr+wkd@onf ta&;}uD;aom udpPjzpfonf?
a&G;aumufyJGtpDtpOfESifh rJqG,fyJGrsm;
(Election Programmes and Campaigns)
EkdifiHa&;ygwD toD;oD;onf a&G;aumufyJGwGif ,SOfydiftEkdif&a&;twGuf a&G;aumufyJG tudumvrsm;wGif
tpDtpOftcsKd@udk pepfwus vkyfaqmif-u&onf? xkdtxJwGif a&G;aumufyJG tpDtpOfrsm; xkwfjyefaunmjcif;ESifh if;tay:tajccHI rJqEN&Sifjynfol vlxkt-um; rJqG,fpnf;&Hk;jcif;rsm;rSm ta&;}uD;aom
tpDtpOfjzpfygonf?
a&G;aumufyJG tpDtpOfqkdonfrSm a&G;aumufyJGwGif rdrdwkd@ygwD tEkdif&&Sdygu rJqEN&Sifvl xk}uD;twGuf
rnfokd@tusKd;aus;Zl; jzpfxGef;rnfhvkyfief;rsm; aqmif&Gufay;rnfht
a-umif; xkdvkyfief;rsm;udk
taumiftxnfazmfrnfh vkyfief;pOftqifhqifh ta-umif;wkd@ udk if;wkd@ygwD. rl0g'rsm;tay:tajccHum
a&;om;xm;aom pm&Gufpmwrf;taxmuf txm;rsm;udk &nf!Gef;jcif;jzpfonf? a&G;aumufyJGtpDtpOfESifh
ywfoufI 'Drkdua&pD EkdifiHwcsKd@wGif uJGjym;jcm;em;aom tac:ta0:rsm; &Sd-uonf? tar&duefjynfaxmifpk
wGif tajccHvkyfief; (platform) [kvnf;aumif;/ ,lEkdufwufuif;'rf;EkdifiHESifh if;. EkdifiHa&;pepfukd
rSDjirf;aomEkdifiHrsm;wGif a-unmpmwrf; (manifesto) [kvnf;aumif;/ tcsKd@ Oa&myEkdifiHrsm;wGif
aqmif&Guf&rnfh tpDtpOf (action programme) [k vnf;aumif; a&G;aumufyJGtpDtpOfukd
trsKd;rsKd;trnfrSnfh-uonf? omreftm;jzifh Ekdif iHa&;ygwDtoD;oD;. a&G;aumufyJGtpDtpOfrsm;udk
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 50

pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm; tjcm;vlxkquf qHa&;enf;vrf;rsm;jzifh xkwfa0jzef@csD&Hkr#jzifh rJqEN&Sifvlxku


od&Sd_yD[kr,lqEkdifojzifh us,fus,fjyef@jyef@od&SdEkdif&ef vlxk-um;Y w&m;yJGrsm;yvkyfjcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;/
tjcm; enf;vrf;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ rJqG,fpnf;&Hk;r+rsm; yvkyf&p_rJjzpfonf? pme,fZif;rsm;wGif
ae&m,lvmEkdifatmif ud;pm;-u&onf? tcsKd@EkdifiHrsm;wGif wpfEkdifiHvHk;twkdif;twmjzifh xkwfv$ifhaom
a&'D,kd/ &kyfjrifoH-um;rsm;rSwqifh a&G;aumufyJGtpDtpOfrsm;udk &Sif;jy aoma&G;aumufyJG rJqG,fyJGrsm;
yvkyf-uonf? pme,fZif;rSvnf; ygwDtoD;oD;. a&G; aumufyJGtpDtpOfrsm;tay: a0zefoHk;oyfr+rsm;
yvkyf-uonf?
ESpfygwDpepf
(Two-Partism)
'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHrsm;wGif wpfygwDpepf (single party system) udk usifhoHk;avhr&Sdyg? ESpf
ygwDpepfudkaomfvnf;aumif; ygwpD Hkpepf (mulit-party system) udkaomfvnf; aumif; usifhoHk;uygonf? OD;pGmyxr ESpfygwDpepf usifhoHk;jcif;t-umif;ukd wifjyvkdyg onf?
ESpfygwDpepfukdusifhoHk;aom EkdifiHtjzpf taumif;qHk;erlemjy&v#if tar&duef jynf axmifpkyif jzpfonf?
tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwGif &Dygb&pfuef (republicam) ygwD ESifh 'Drkdu&uf (democrat) ygwD
ESpfckom&Sdonf? ygwDrsm; rsm;jym;pGm ay:xGef;vma&; udk jynfolrsm;u tm;ray;acs? xkdokd@
tm;ray;&jcif;rSm ygwDtrsm;tjym;ESifh wnf_idrf aomtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfukd azmfaqmif&mwGif tcuftcJrsm;
ykdIuH&Ekdifonfukd tar&d uefjynfolrsm;u odxm;ESifhouJhodk@ ESpfygwDxufydkaompepfudk usihfoHk;&ef
vkdtyfaom ta-umif;t&if;rsm; r&Sdjcif;a-umifhvnf; jzpfonf? okd@aomf tjcm;ygwDrsm; xlaxmifzJG@
pnf;cGifhukdum; ydwfyifxm;jcif;rsKd; r[kwfay?
_AdwdefEdkifiHukdvnf; ESpfygwDpepf usihfoHk;aom EkdifiHtjzpf okawoDtcsKd@u qkdonf? t b,fa-umifhqkdaomf
_AdwdefEdkifiH. EkdifiHa&;udk uGefqmaA;wpfygwD (conservative party) ESifh avbmygwD (labour
party) ESpfckuom tkyfpD;xm;Ekdifjcif;a-umifh jzpf onf? okd@&mwGif _AdwdefEdkifiH. ESpfygwDonf
tar&duefwGif
usifhoHk;aom
ESpyf gwDESifhum;
jcm;em;jyefygonf?
tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwGif
orRwa&G;aumufyJGukd ygwDESpfckrS udk,f pm;vS,favmif;rsm;uom 1825 ckESpf aemufykdif;rSpI
tkyfpD;xm;cJhonf? woD;yk*~v rsm;udk a&G;cs,fwifajrmufcHcGifh ay;xm;aomfvnf; ,cktcsdefxd ygwDrS
uif;vGwfaom woD;yk*~v orRw ta&G;cH&jcif;rsKd; r&Sdao;ay? Oya'yuGef*&uf v$wfawmfwGifvnf;
ygwD}uD;ESpfckrS
trwfrsm;om
ta&G;cH-u&onf?
Tokd@jzpf&jcif;wGif
tjcm;ygwDrsm;tm;
0ifa&muf,SOfydifcGifhukd
ydwfyifxm;jcif;
r[kwfbJv#uf
ygwDESpfckwnf;uom
tompD;&
,lxm;Ekdifjcif;jzpfonf? _AdwdefEdkifiHwGifrl ygvDrefatmufv$wfawmfwGif trsm;tm;jzifh uGefqmaA;wpfygwDESifh
avbmygwDwkd@u wckutEdkif&v#if usefwcku t"du twkduf tcHtjzpf tompD;&,lxm;aomfvnf;
tjcm;aomygwDi,frsm;onfvnf;
trwfae
&mtcsKd@ukd
tEdkif&v#uf
&Sd-uonf?
tar&duefjynfaxmifpkuJhokd@ ESpfygwDwnf;uom EkdifiHa&;udk v$rf;rkd;xm;jcif;r[kwfbJ ygwDi,frsm;uyg
twkduftcHrsm;tjzpf _Adwdo#EkdifiH a&;wGif yg0ifv#uf &Sd-uonf?
ESpfygwDpepf usifhoHk;jcif;. aumif;usKd;rsm;
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 51

(Advantages of Two-Partism)
a&G;cs,f&ef ygwDESpfckwnf;om&Sdygu jynfolvlxka&G;cs,f&ef vG,fuljcif;onfvnf; yx rtusKd;
aus;Zl;jzpfonf? ygwDESpfckwnf;rS jynfolvlxkxH tydiftqkdif csjypnf;&Hk;vm aomjynfol@tusKd;y
ay:vpDrsm;ukd jynfolvlxku tvG,fwul E+dif;,SOfod&SdEkdifjcif;jzihf a&G;cs,fr+ukd vG,fulapygonf?
'kwd,tusdKd;aus;Zl;rSm wnfjidrfaomtpdk;& zJG@pnf;Edkifjcif;jzpfonf? txl;ojzifhygvDref 'Drdkua&pD
(parliamentary
democracy)
ac:atmufvGwfawmfudk
tajccHzJG@pnf;
onfh
tpdk;&yHkoef&SdonfhEdkifiHrsm;wGif wnfjidrfaomtpdk;&w&yf zJG@pnf;Edkifa&;rSm ygwD ESpfckwnf;.
,SOfydifr+&v'fursm;pGm taxmuftulyonf? ygwDESpfckwnf;u udk,f pm;vS,frsm;uom
a&S;aumufyJGrsm;wGif,SOfydifv#if ygwDwcku xuf0ufausmftEdkif& v#if usefygwDutwdkuftcHjzpfvmonf?
tEdkif&ygwDonf wnfjidrfaom tpdk;&udkzJG@ pnf;Edkifayonf? jAdwdefEdkifiHwGif uGefqmaA; wygwDESifh
avbmygwDESpfckwnf;u
a&G;
aumufyJGwGif
t"dutcef;uefrS
yg0if,SOfydifae-ujyD;
ygwDwckckutEdkif&aejcif; jzpf &m wnfjidrfaomtpdk;&rsm;udk zJG@pnf;Edkifonf?
wwd, tusKd;aus;Zl;rSm omrefrJtrsm;pkpepfudk a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyHkpepftjzifh toHk; yaom EdkifiHrsm;wGif
ESpfygwDpepfonf 'Drdkua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk ydkIcdkifrmaponf? tb,fa-umifhqdkaomf omrefrJtrsm;pk
a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyHkpepft&
a&G;cs,f&efygwD
oHk;ck
odk@r[kwf
xdkxufydkaomygwDrsm;.
udk,fpm;vS,favmif;rsm;udk rJay;&ygu tjzpf rsm;wwfonfrSm rJqEN&Skifrsm;. xuf0ufausmfaxmufcHr+
r&&SdygbJESifh ta&G;cH&jcif;jzpf onf? xdktajctaersKd;wGif trsm;pkjzpfaom xuf0ufausmfqENrJrsm;rSm
jynfol@tkyf csKyf ay:vpDcsrSwf&mwGif qHk;&+H;&wwfonf? xdktcgtrsm;pkqENt& tkyfcsKyfaom 'Drdku
a&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrSm ar;cGef;xkwfp &mjzpfvmygonf? tu,fI ESpfygwDpepfudkom usifhoHk;ygu
tEdkif&aomygwD.udk,fpm;vS,fonf qENrJ.xuf0ufausmfudk&&SdonfrSm rvGJ{uefjzpfonf?
tdENd,EdkifiHonf jAdwdefuJhodk@yif ygvDreftpdk;&yHkpH&Sdaom EdkifiHjzpfjyD; &m*spf*ENDvufxuf txd
tdEND,EdkifiHa&;udk uGefu&ufygwDwckwnf;u vuf0g;-uD;tkyfxm;cJhonf? tcsKd@Edkif iHa&;okawoDrsm;u
tEND,EdkifiHonf wpfygwDpepf[kyif ac:xdkufonf[ka0zefcJh-u onf? wnfjidrfaomtpdk;&zJG@pnf;Edkif
a&;[laom tpdk;&&+axmifhrS-unfhv#if xdkodk@ygwD wpfckwnf;utEdki&f &SdjyD; tpdk;&zJG@pnf;Edkifjcif;rSm
taumif;qHk;jzpfonf? odk@aomftdENd, EdkfifiHwGif uGefu&ufygwDtEdkif&aejcif;onf ESpfygwDpepf,SOfydifjcif;.
&v'fr[kwfbJ ygwDpHkpepf,SOfydifjcif;. &v'fjzpfojzifh twdkuftcHbuf wGifrl nGef@aygif;jzpfoGm;av
awmhonf? twdkuftcHu nGef@aygif;jzpfaev#if tdEdN,uJhodk@ ygwDpHkpepfrSmvnf; t"dy`g,frJhjyD;
wygwDpepf[kyif tcsKd@ua0zef-uonf? ESpfygwDpepfwGifrl tpdk;&uwygwD/ twdkuftcHuwygwDjzpfonf?
rnfhonfhbufur#
nGef@aygif;zJG@&efrvdkojzifh
xdkygwDrsm;
.ay:vpDtqdk;taumif;udk
vdkufIEdkifiHa&;tvSnfhtajymif;udk jynfolvlxku tvG,f wulvkyfEdkifonf? tdENd,EdkifiHwGif
&m*spf*ENDrvkyf-uHcH&rD tcsdefuav;wGif twdkuftcH nGef@aygif;tzJG@u uGefu&ufygwDudktEdkif&aomfvnf;
wnfjidrfaomftpdk;&zJG@pnf;a&;udk rsm;pGm t[ef@twm;yv#uf&Sdonf? rl0g'rwlaom ygwDaygif;pHkonf
uGefu&ufygwDudk twdkuft cHy&mwGifom wlnD-ujyD; tpdk;&rl0g'rsm; csrSwf&eftwGufrl nDnGef@jcif;r&Sd uay? xdktwdkuftcH nGef@aygif;tzJG@ (coalition opposition) utpdk;& jzpfvm aomtcg
rwnfrjiddrfjzpfum tpdk;&tzJG@. 0ef-uD;csKyfonfvnf;r-umc%qdkovkd t ,Hkt-unfr&Sdtqdk (nonjyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 52

confidence) wifoGif;cH&onf? xdk@a-umifh ygvDref'Drdkua& pDtpdk;&&Sdaom EdkifiHrsm;wGif ESpfygwDpepfonf


tpdk;&wnfjidrfa&;udk rsm;pGmtaxmuft ulyonf?
pwkxWKtusKd;aus;Zl;rSm EdkifiHudkOD;aqmiftkyfcsKyf&mwGif wm0efcHr+tjynfht0ESifh twdt us&&Sdrnfh pepfudk
taxmuftulyaponf// ygwDESpcf kteuf wckudk EdkifiHudk tkyfcsKyf&ef jynfolvlxku a&G;cs,fay;vkduf&mwGif
EdkifiHudktkyfcsKyfcGifh&aom ygwDonf wm0efcHr+ vnf; tjynfht0&Sdonf? ygwDpHkpepfa-umifh
nGef@aygif;tpdk;&w&yfudk arG;xkwfay;vdkufyg u wm0efcHr+t&mwGif jywfjywfom;om;r&Sw
d wfay?
jynfol@tusKd;yrl0g'rsm; csrSwf ay;rnfhygwDrsm;udk jynfolvlxku a&G;cs,fay;ovdk tpdk;&ay:vpD
toD;oD;twGuf jynfvnfwm0efcH&rnfh ygwDudkvnf;jynfolvlxku twdtusod&Sdxm;&efvdktyfonf?
ESpfygwDpepfudkusifhoHk;aomEdkifiHrsm;wGif tpdk;&ay:vpDrl0g'rsm;tay: ygwDwckwnf;u jywfjywfom;om;
wm0efcH&ygonf? Todk@wm0efcHr+ESifhywfoufI tar&duef jynfaxmifpkorRw 0Jvfqif (Woodrow
Wilson, 1856-1924) u 1885 ckESpf wGif if;a&;om;xkwfa0aom uGefu&uftpdk;& (Congress
Govermment) trnf &SdpmtkyfwGif tpdk;&vkyfief;aqmifwmudpP&yfrsm;udk jynfolvlxku&kHunfay;um vkyf cGifhy&rnfjzpfovkd tpdk;&taejzifh trSm;usL;vGefygu rnfonfhyk*~dKvf/ ygwDudktjypfay;
&rnf qdkonfudkvnf; tvG,fwulod&Sdaeap &efvdkonf [k a&;om;az:jycJhbl;onf?
txufYwifjycJhaom ESpfygwDpepf. aumif;usKd;rsm;onf oufqdkif&mEdkifiH. tajct aet&udk
ESpfygwDpepfusifhoHk;v#if tqifajyEdkifjyD; xdkpepfrS ajymif;vJjcif; ryvdkolrsm; bufrS taumif;jrif
oHk;owfcsufrsm;jzpfonf[k ajymEdkifaomfvnf; trSefwu,f aumif;usKd;jzpfaponfh om"ursm;
vnf;awG@&onf?
EdkifiHwdkif;wGifESpfygwDpepfudkom
usifhoHk;&rnf[kuef@owfcsufr&Sdonfhtay:wGif
vdktyfcsuft&jzpfap/ tjcm;ta-umif; rsm;a-umifhjzpfap/ ygwDpHkpepfudkusifhoHk;aom EdkifiHrsm;tzdk@
odk@r[kwf ygwDpHkpepfudkvdk vm;olrsm;tzdk@ ESpyf gwDpepfudka0zefp&mrsm; ay:xGufaernfomjzpfonf?
ygwDpHkpepf
(Multi- Partism)
urBm@'Drdkua&pDEdkifiH trsm;pkonf ygwDpHkpepfudkusifhoHk;v#uf&Sd-uonf? pifppf ESpfygwD pepf[kqdkae-uaom
tar&duef/ jAdwdef EdkifiHrsm;onfyif ygwDpHkpepfEdkifiHrsm;jzpf-uonf? tb,fa-umifhqdkaomf
ygwDpHkzJG@pnf;cGifhudk cGifhyxm;ouJhodk@ ygwDi,frsm; zJG@pnf;ay: aygufae-ujcif;a-umifhjzpfonf?
ppfwrf;wckt& 1979 ckESpf jAdwdefEdkifiH taxGaxGa&G; aumufyGJwGif vpfb&,fygwDonf wpfEdkifiHvHk; qENrJ.
(138)&mE+H;&jyD; trwfae&m (11) ae&mtEdkif&cJhaomfvnf; jAdwdefEdkifiHa&;wGif ta&;ygr+r&SdbJjzpfaeonf?
xdkuJhodk@ yiftenf;tusOf;tEdkif&&Sdaom ygwDrsm;ESifh trwfae&mvHk;0r&aom ygwDrsm;tygt 0ifqdkv#if
jAdwdefEdkifiHwGifygwD(10)
ck&Sdonf?
jAdwdefEdkifiH.EdkifiHa&;aps;uGufudk
ygwD-uD;ESpf
ckwnf;u
tydkifpnf;ae&m,lxm;jcif;udk
ta-umif;yIom
ESpfygwDpepf[k
ac:-ujcif;
jzpfonf?
tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwGifvnf; xdk@twlyifjzpfonf? jAdwdefESifhuGmjcm;aom tcsufrSm &Dygb&pfuefESifh
'Drdku&ufygwD-uD; ESpfckrSvGJv#if tar&duefEdkifiHa&;wGif t jcm;ygwDi,frsm; vHk;0rwdk;Edkif-ujcif;jzpfonf?
odk@aomftar&duefjynfaxmifpkwGifvnf; tjcm;aomygwDi,frsm; &Sdaeojzifh tepfom&tm;jzifh
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 53

ygwDpHkpepfjzpfjyD; vufawG@tm; jzifh ESpfygwDpepfjzpfonf? ygwDpHkpepfudk vrf;zGifhxm;jyD; vufawG@wGif


ESpfygwDpepfjzpf vmaomjAdwdefESifh tar&duefEdkifiHwdk@onf xdkodk@jzpfEdkif jcif;udk taxmuftuljzpfap onfh
EdkifiHa&;ausmaxmufaemufcH
(political
culture)
a-umifhjzpfonf?
xdkodk@aom
EdkifiHa&;ausmaxmufaemufcHonf
EdkifiHtm;vHk;wGif
wajy;nDwlnDaeonfum;
r[kwf
yg?
uGJjym;jcm;em;aom
vlrsKd;rsm;pkaygif;aexdkifr+/
bmompHkpkaygif;aexdkifr+/
EdkifiHESifhEdkifiH
twGif;
pkaygif;aexdkifolwdk@. aemufcHordkif;a-umif;uJGjym;r+wdk@a-umifh EdkifiHa&;e,fy,f udk v$r;f rdk;onfhEdkifiHa&;
ausmaxmufaemufcH uJGjym;jcm;em;pGm jzpfay:&onf? xdkodk@ aomEdkifiHa&;ausm axmufaemufcHaumifhvnf; ygwDpHkpepfjzpfay:a&;udk rsm;pGmwGef; tm;ay;v#uf&Sdonfudk awG@&onf?
tdENd,Edkifa&;ausmfaxmufaemufcHonf jAdwdef/ tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwdk@ESifh jcm;em;yg onf?
tdENd,EdkifiHwGifbmompum;t& aomfvnf;aumif;/ bmoma&;t&aomfvnf; aumif;/ EdkifiHa&;
ouf0if,Hk-unfr+t&aomfvnf;aumif; uGJjym;jcm;em;aom vlrsKd;rsm; pkaygif;aexdkifv#uf&Sd-uonf?
xdktajctaeonftdENd,EdkifiHwGif
ygwDpHkpepfjzpfay:a&;t
wGuf
ta-umif;w&m;jzpfvmonf?
tdENd,EdkifiH.A[dktqifh Oya'yvGwfawmfwGif ygwD aygif;(30)ausmf udk,fpm;yyg0ifv#uf&Sd-uonf?
a'oEN&tqifhwGifrl ygwDaygif; (60) ausmf EdkifiHa&;e,fy,fwGif &yfwnfv#uf&Sd-uonf? xdkr#
rsm;jym;aomtdENd, ygwDrsm; onf vlrsKd;udkaomfvnf;aumif; uJGjym;jcm;em;aom EdkifiHa&;
tawG;tac:rsm;udkaomf vnf; tajccHxm;-uonf?
jrefrmEdkifiHwGif EkdifiHawmf_idr0f yfydjym;r+wnfaqmufa&;tzJG@ vufxufY EkdifiHa&;ygwD ajrmufrsm;pGm
zJG@pnf;ay:aygufvmjcif;onf EkdifiHa&;ausmaxmufaemufcH. xif[yfr+ rsm;jzpfonf? xkdygwDrsm;txJwGif
wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;
tajccHEkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;onf
jref
rmEkdifiHa&;
ausmaxmufaemufcHxJrS
wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm; a&myGrf;aexkdifr+udk xif [yfygonf? tcsKd@aom EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;onf
EkdifiHa&;t,l0g'ukd xif[yfygonf? okd@ aomf EkdifiHawmf_idrf0yfydjym;r+ wnfaqmufa&;tzJG@vufxufY
ay:aygufcJhaom EkdifiHa&; ygwDtrsm;pk}uD;rSm 'Drkdua&pDESifhvl@tcGifhta&; qkdif;bkwfrsm;wwfum
ay:aygufvm& jcif;rSm jrefrmppftm%m&Sifrsm;. zdESdyfr+a-umifh jzpfay:vm&aom pdwfcHpm;r+
(emotion) rS wdrf;!Gwfr+ (propensity) udk xif[yfaom EkdifiHa&;ausmaxmuf aemufcHa-umifh
jzpf&onf?
*smr%D/ qDG'ifuJhokd@aom EkdifiHrsm;wGif ygwDpHkpepf ay:xGef;&eftwGuf wGef;tm;ay;aom EkdifiHa&;
ausmaxmufaemufcHrSm tdENd, jrefrmuJhokd@aom EkdifiHrsm;ESifhrwl jcm;em;ae jyefonf? xkdEkdifiHrsm; wGif
vlrsKd;wGif vlrsKd;a&;ESifh bmoma&;t& uJGjym;jcm;em;r+r&Sd-u bJ trsm;tm;jzifh EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:udkom
tajcyI EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm; zJG@pnf;ay: aygufvm-uonf?
ESpfygwDpepfwGif &&SdcHpm;EdkifaomtusdKd;aus;Zl;rsm;onf ygwDpHkpepfwGif &&SdEdkif&ef rvG,f jcif;a-umifh tcsKd@u
ygwDpHkpepfukd a0zefr+rsm;&Sd-uonf? okd@&mwGif txufYwifjycJh onfhtwkdif; ygwDpHkpepfonf
EkdifiHa&;vkdtyfcsuft&om jzpfay:vm&ojzifh tm;enf; csufudk axmufjy&Hkr#jzifh xkdpepfudk usihfoHk;&ef
jiif;qefEdkifrnf r[kwfyg? ygwDpHpk epf usifh oHk;&ef awmif;qkdaeaom EkdifiHwckwGif rusihfoHk;&[k
wm;jrpfydwfyifr+a-umifh jzpfay:vm rnfh aemufqufwJG tusKd;tjypfrsm;u xkdpepf usihfoHk;jcif;a-umifh
jzpfay:rnfh tusKd;t jypfxuf ydkI}uD;rm;ayvdrhfrnf?
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 54

ygwDpHkpepf usifhoHk;aom EkdifiHwkdif;wGif 'Drkdua&pD rwnfr_idrfr+rsm; &ifqkdif&rnf[lIum; rajymEkdifyg?


qGpfZmvef/ qDG'if/ *smr%DuJhokd@aom EkdifiHrsm;onf ygwDpHkpepfudk atmif atmifjrifjrif usifhoHk;aeaom
EkdifiHrsm;jzpf-uonf? wnf_idrfaom 'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&; pepfudk azmfaqmifEkdfif-uonf? ygwDpHkpepf
atmifjrifa&;
ratmifjrifa&;onf
xkdEkdifiH
wGif&Sdaomjynfolrsm;.
'Drkdua&pDtcGifhta&;
usifhoHk;r+tay:wGifvnf;
rlwnfonf?
wpfzefjynfolrsm;.
'Drkdua&pD
tcGifhta&;usihfoHk;r+
wnf_idrfr+&Sda&;qkdonfrSmvnf; ae@ csif;ncsif; tv#iftjref &&SdEkdifaom tajctaersKd; r[kwfay?
jynfolrsm;taejzifh ESpf &Snfvrsm; vGwfvyfr+tcGifhta&;udk usihfoHk;_yD;rS wnf_idrfvmjcif;jzpfonf?
vGwfvyfr+ tcGifhta&; oufoufukd OD;wnfjcif;onf tysufoabm vGwfvyfr+jzpfa-umif;/ xkdt
cGifhta&;udk ESpf&Snfvrsm; jynfolrsm; usifhoHk;_yD;aomtcg tvdktavsmuf odvm-u onf? xdktcg
tyoabmvGwfvyfr+udk jynfolrsm; vufcHazmfxkwf usifhoHk;vm-u onf? xkdtcg tyoabm
vGwfvyfr+udk jynfolrsm; vufcHusifhoHk;EkdifygrS wnf_idrf aom 'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfukd
azmfaqmifEkdifrnfjzpfonf? xkdtajctaeodk@a&muf aomtcg ygwDpHkpepfonf wnf_idrfaom 'Drkdua&pD
tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk xdckdufaprnfr [kwfay?
ygwDpHkpepf/ 'Drdkua&pepf usihfoHk;&ef vkdtyfvm&jcif;ta-umif;t&if;rsm;xJ xkdpepft& ay:aygufvmaom
EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;xHokd@ EkdifiHwckvHk;&Sdtm%mrsm; r#woifhwifhav#muf ywfpGm jzef@usufxm;&ef vkdtyfcsufaumifhvnf;jzpfonf? txl;ojzifh A[k0k'f vl@tzJG@ tpnf;rsm;twGi;f xkdvkdtyfcsufrSm ydkIodomaeonf?
'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfonf vl@tzJG@tpnf;twGif; tm%mrsm;ukd cGJa0tkyfcsKyfjcif;jzpf&m
xkdokd@tm%mcJGa0r+onf EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm; EkdifiHa&;wGif 0ifa&muf,SOf ydijf cif;ESifhvnf; oufqkdifaeonf?
ygwDwck wnf;u tiftm;aumif;_yD; EkdifiHa&;udk vuf0g;}uD;tkyfxm;jcif;onf ygwDpHktrnfcH
wygwDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfjzpfvmEkdifonf? tm%m&ygwDwcku tvGeftu|H tjywft owfrJtrsm;pk
(extreme
majority)
jzihf
tEkdif&jcif;rsKd;onf
ESpf&Snfvrsm;jzpfaeyg
u
wygwDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfjzpfvmEkdif_yD; 'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk xdckdufapEkdifonf? xkdokd@ rjzpfap&ef
tEkdif&ygwDjzpfvifhupm; tjywftowf tvGeftu|H tEkdif&jcif;rsKd; xuf tpkd;&zJG@Ekdifavmufaom rJr#udkom
tEkdif&ap_yD;
twkduftcHygwDrsm;vnf;
tif
tm;aumif;pGmjzifh
&yfwnfcGifh&atmif
a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyHkpepft& vkdtyfaom tpDt rHrsm; jyXmef;csufrsm; yvkyfxm;oifhonf? tm%monf
tm%m&ygwDwckwnf;.
vufxJwGif
tjywftowfwnf&Sdaeygu
tm%m&ygwDrSonf
tm%m&SifygwDtjzpf OD; wnfoGm;Ekdif_yD; twkduftcHu tiftm;aumif;aev#if xkdokd@ jzpfjcif;rsKd;rS
umuG,fEkdif onf? xkd@a-umifh twkduftcHygwDrsm;ukdyg tm%m&Sdaprnfh ygwDpHkpepf azmfaqmifEkdifyg u
ckdifrmaom 'Drkdua&pDudk &apEkdifrnf?
a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyHkpepf
(Electoral System)
ESpfygwDpepf okd@r[kwf ygwDpHkpepfusifhoHk;jcif;ESifh qufpyfaeaom ta-umif;jcif;&mwpfck rSm ygvDref
taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJGwGif usihfoHk;aom a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyHkpepfjzpfonf? usihfoHk;aomygwDpepfESifh
vdkufavsmnDaxGjzpfrnfh a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyHkpepfukd a&G;cs,f usifhoHk;-uonf? ESpfygwDpepfudk usihfoHk;aom
tar&duef/ _AdwdefEkdifiHrsm;wGif usihfoHk;-u aom a&G;cs,fwifajrmufykpH epfonf ygwDpHkpepfusifhoHk;aom
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 55

Oa&myEkdifiH tawmfrsm; rsm;wGifawG@&aom a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyHkpepfESifh jcm;em;ygonf? tjyeftvSefoabm


qefqefyif a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyHkpepfuvnf; ESpfygwDpepf okd@r[kwf ygwDpHkpepfusihfoHk; a&;udk
jyXmef;ay;wwfygonf? Oyrm= _AdwdefEdkifiHwGif vuf&SdusihfoHk;aeaom a&G;cs,f wifajrmufyHkpepfukd
b,fvf*sD,H/ qGpfZmvef/ *smr%DEkdifiHwkd@wGif usihfoHk;aom a&G;cs,f wifajrmufyHkpepfodk@ ajymif;vkdufygu
_Adwdefudk ygwDpHkpepf usihfoHk;aomEkdifiHtjzpf ao csmayguf &nf!Gef;&ayvdrfhrnf? xkd@a-umifh ygwDpepf
usihfoHk;jcif;ESifhtwl a&G;cs,fwif ajrmufyHkpepfta-umif;ukd avhvm&ef vdktyfygonf?
urBmhEkdifiHrsm;wGif usihfoHk;aeaom a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyHkpepfudk t-urf;zsO;f tm;jzihf ESpf rsKd;cJGxm;Ekdifonf?
if;wkd@rSm rJtrsm;pkpepf (majority system) ESifh tcsKd;us udk,fpm; ypepf (propotional
representation) wkd@jzpfonf? odk@&mwGif vufawG@usihfoHk; &mY trsm;tm;jzifh xkdESpfrsKd;rS
qifhyGm;vmaom pepfrsm;udkvnf; toHk;y-uonfukd awG@&onf? xkd@a-umihf xkdESpfrsKd;pDta-umif;udk
avhvmjcif;ESifhtwl qifhyGm;pepfrsm;t a-umif;ukdyg ,SOfwJG avhvmoifhayonf?
rJtrsm;pkpepf
(Majority System)
rJtrsm;pkpepfqkdonfrSm rJqENe,fwck. ukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpf 0ifa&muf,SOfydifta&G;cH aom
ukd,fpm;vS,favmif;rsm;udk
rJqEN&Sifrs;u
rJay;a&G;cs,f-u&mwGif
qENrJtrsm;qHk;
&&Sdolukd
a&G;cs,fjcif;pepfjzpfonf? rJtrsm;pkpepfukd ESpfrsKd; xyfrHcJGjcm;Ekdifonf? if;wkd@ rSm omrefrJtrsm;pkpepf
(simple majority system)ESihf tjywftowf rJtrsm;pkp epf (absolute majority system)
wkd@jzpfonf?
omrefrJtrsm;pkpepfqkdonfrSm ,SOfydifta&G;cH-uaom ukd,fpm;vS,favmif;rsm;teuf rnfonfh
ukd,fpm;vS,favmif; wpfOD;OD;ur# qENrJ. xuf0ufausmf (50 &mckdifE+ef; ausmf) r&&Sdapumrl
trsm;qHk;axmufcHrJ&&Sdoludk a&G;cs,faom pepfjzpfonf? ygwDpHkp epfudk usihfoHk;aomEkdifiHrsm;wGif
rJqENe,fajrwckY ygwD(3)ckESifh txufrS udk,fpm;vS,f avmif;rsm; 0ifa&muf,SOfydifta&G;cHygu
rJrsm;jyef@oGm;_yD; ygwDwck. udk,fpm;vS,f wpfOD;wnf;u axmufcHrJxuf0ufausmfr&&Sdaom tajctaersKd;
r-umc%uH&wwf onf? tu,fI ygwDEpS fckwnf;. udk,fpm;vS,favmif;rsm;uom ta&G;cHygu wpfOD;
u xuf0ufausmf axmufcHr+&&Sd_yD; wpfOD;u xuf0ufatmuf axmufcHr+&&SdayrnfrSm rvGJ{uefjzpfonf?
okd@aomf ygwDaygif;pHkrS udk,fpm;vS,faygif;pHkudk a&G;cs,f&jcif;jzpfygu rnfolwpfOD;ur# xuf0ufausmf
axmufcHr+r&&SdbJ rJtrsm;qHk;&&Sdolukdom a&G;cs,f vkduf&onf?
urBmay:wGif t}uD;qHk; 'Drkdua&pD EkdifiHrsm;jzpf-uonfh tar&duefjynfaxmifpk/ tdENd, ESifh _AdwdefEkdifiHwkd@wGif
omrefrJtrsm;pkpepfudk
usifhoHk;-uonf?
tar&duefjynfaxmifpk
wGif
ygwD}uD;ESpfck.
ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;uom ,SOfydifta&G;cH-uojzifh wpfOD;OD;u ao csmayguf xuf0ufausmf
axmufcHr+&&Sdojzihf
ta&G;cH&olonf
rJqENe,f&Sdjynfolrsm;.
qENudk
udk,fpm;ycGifh&onf?
_AdwdefEdkifiHwGifvnf; t"dutm;jzifh ygwD}uD;ESpfckuom EdkifiHa&;aps;uGufudk csKyfukdifxm;Ekdifojzifh
udk,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;OD;onf xuf0ufausmf axmufcHrJ&Ekdifygonf? okd@aomf&Hzef&Hcg tjcm;aomygwDi,frsm;rS
ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;xH rJrsm;jyef@oGm;_yD; xuf0ufausmfaxmufcHr+r&&Sdapumrl ukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpf ta&G;cH&
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 56

wwfonf? xdktcgrsKd;wGif rJqENe,fajr&Sd xuf0ufausmfr#aom jynfol@qENrJrsm;onf wkdif;jynfudk


tkyfcsKyf&mwGif udk,fpm;yyg0ifcGifhr&bJ qHk;&H+;oGm;avawmhonf? Ttjzpf rsKd; _AdwdefEkdifiHa&G;aumufyJGwGif
&Hzef&Hcgom uH&wwfaomfvnf; r-umc%qkdovkd uH ae&aomEkdifirH Sm tdENd,EkdifiH jzpfonf?
tdENd,EkdifiHwGif ygwDaygif;pHkrS udk,fpm;vS,frsm; udk rJay;a&G;cs,fjcif;jzpfojzifh rJrsm;jyef@oGm;_yD;
rnfonfhygwD. ukd,fpm;vS,favmif;u r# xuf0ufausmfaxmufcHrJ r&&Sd-uay? wpfzef
wEkdifiHvHk;twkdif;twmESifhcHI ygwD wpfck (Oyrm=uGef*&ufygwD) u tEkdif&aomfvnf; vufawG@wGif
wpfEkdifiHvHk;jynfolt rsm;pk. qENukd udk,fpm;ycGifh &csifrS&onf?
xkd@a-umifh omrefrJtrsm;pkpepfonf ESpfygwDpepfukd usifhoHk;aom EkdifiHrsm;wGifom ykdI oifhawmfonfudk
awG@&onf? ygwDpHkpepf&Sdaom EkdifiHrsm;wGifrl trsm;pkqENrJrSm udk,f pm;ycGifhr&bJ qHk;&+H;wwfonf?
Tae&mwGif ar;cGef;xkwf&ef wck&Sdygonf? xkdar;cGef; um; tdENd,EkdifiHwGif ygwDpHkpepf&Sdygv#uf tb,faumihf omrefrJtrsm;pkpepfudk usihf oHk;ae&ygoenf;/ [laomar;cGef;jzpfonf? omrefrJtrsm;pkpepfa-umifh
jynfoltrsm;pk trsm;qHk;&aomfvnf; xkdpepft&om wnf_idrfaom 'Drkdua&pDtpkd;&ukd azmfaqmifEkdif
rnfjzpfonf? xdktcsufonf tdEdN,EkdifiHtwGuf t"duaomhcsufjzpfonf? tu,fI om
tcsKd;usudk,fpm;ypepfudk
usihfoHk;ygu
tdENd,EkdifiHwGif
ygwDaygif;pHkonf
ygvDrefxJ
Y
udk,fpm;ycGifh&jcif;ESifhtwl rwnfjidrfaom nGef@aygif;tpdk;&udkom zJG@pnf;&ayvdrfh rnf?
jrefrmEdkifiHwGif
1990
jynfhESpf/
arvuusi;f ycJhaom
a&G;aumufyJGwGifusif;yonfh
a&G;
cs,fwifajrmufyHkpepfonf omrefrJtrsm;pkjzpfonf? tcsKd@aomrJqENe,frsm;rS a&G;cs,f cH&onfh
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;onf qENrJxuf0ufaxmufcHr+&&Sdonfudk awG@&onf? wpf EdkifiHvHk; twdkif;twmESifhunfhv#if trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyfonf trwfae&m (80) &mcdkifE+H;ausmf tEdkif&aomfvnf;
tENrJtaejzifhrl (60) &mE+H;ausmfom &&Sdonf? xdk@ a-umifhqENrJxuf udk,fpm;ycGifh&aom udk,fpm;vS,f
rsm;aejcif;udk EdkifiHa&;odynm&Sif rsm;u ydkrdkudk,fpm;ycGifh&jcif;
[kac:onf? uae'g/ e,l;ZDvef/
EdkifiHrsm;wGifvnf; Tp epfudkusifhoHk;-uonf?
omrefrJtrsm;pkpepfonf ESpfygwpD epfudk usifhoHk;aom EdkifiHrsm;wGif txl;oifhav#mfyg onf?
ygwDpHkpepfusifhoHk;aom EdkifiHrsm;wGifrl wnfjidrfaom 'Drdkua&pDtpdk;& azmfaqmif a&;twGuf usifhoHk;u&mwGif trsm;pkqENrJrSm udk,fpm;ycGifhr&bJ qHk;&+H;Edkifygonf?
tjywftowfrJtrsm;pkpepfonf
omrefrJtrsm;pkpepf.
aysmhuGuf
tm;enf;csufrsm;
udk
ukpm;zmax;onfhtaejzifh
ay:aygufvmaompepfjzpfonf?
tjywftowftrsm;pk
pepf.
t"dutm;omcsufrSm rJqEN&Sifrsm;. xuf0ufausmf axmufcHr+&&SdrSom udk,f pm;vS,ftjzpf
ta&G;cH&jcif;jzpfonf? omrefrJtrsm;pkpepfwGif xuf0ufausmfaom qENrJrsm; qHk;&kH;Edkifaoma-umifh
trsm;pku tkyfcsKyfjcif;[laom 'Drdkua&pD. tESpfom& udk tjynfht0az:aqmifEdkif&efrSm
ar;cGef;xkwfp&mjzpfonf?
tjywftowf trsm;pkpepfudk ygwDpHkpepfusifhoHk;aom EdkifiHrsm;wGifom usifhoHk;onf? ESpfygwDpepf
&SdaomEdkifiHrsm;wGif ygwDESpfck. ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;ukdom rJay;a&G;cs,f&o jzifh tvdktav#muf
tjywftowf trsm;pkpepf. tESpfom&ukd &&Sd_yD;jzpfonf? ygwDpHk pepf&Sdaom EkdifiHrsm;wGifrl &Hzef&HcgwGif
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 57

xuf0ufausmfaxmufcHr+&&Sdaom uk,
d pf m;vS,f rsm;&Sw
d wfonf? tu,fI xuf0ufausmfudk
axmufcHr+&&Sdygu xkdolukd jynfol@ukd,f pm;vS,ftjzpf a&G;cs,fvkduf&Hkomjzpfonf? okd@aomf xuf0ufausmf
rnfolr# r&&Sdygu a&G;aumufyJG'kwd,tqifhyvkyf_yD; xuf0ufausmf axmufcHr+&&Sdatmif pDrH&onf? xkd okd@
'kwd,tqifhpDrHr+onf EkdifiHtvkduf uJjG ym;jcm;em;pGm &Sad ejyefygonf? t"dutm; jzifh vlodrsm;aom yHkpHrSm
jyifopfEkdifiHESifh -opa-w;vsEkdifiHwkd@wGif usifhoHk;aomyHkpHrsm; jzpf-uonf?
jyifopfEdkifiHwGif usifhoHk;aompepfukd 'kwd,t}udrf rJay;jcif; (second ballot) pepf [k ac:onf?
jyifopforRw a&G;cs,fwifajrmuf&mwGif Tpepfukd usifhoHk;onf? jyifopf orRw a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyJGonf
wkduf&kdufrJay; a&G;cs,fwifajrmufjcif; v#Kd@0Sufpepfudk usifhoHk;jcif;/ vGwfvyfaom qENrJay;jcif;/
rJay;cGifh&Sdolrsm;t-um; tcGifhta&;wlnDjcif; ESifh taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJGESifh a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyJGjzpfonf?
orRwavmif;tjzpf ygwD toD;oD;rS udk,fpm;vS,favmif;rsm;ESifh woD;yk*~v udk,fpm;vS,favmif;rsm;
0ifa&muf ,SOfydif ta&G;cH-uonf? yxrtqifhjzpfaom xkda&G;cs,fwifajrmufyGJwGif ukd,fpm;
vS,favmif;wpfOD;OD;u
wjynfvHk;jynfol@qENrJ
xuf0ufausmfaxmufcHr+&&Sdv#iforRw
tjzpf
ta&G;cH&rnfjzpfonf? okd@&mwGif yxrtqifh a&G;cs,fwifajrmufjcif; wpfenf; tm;jzifh
yxrt}udrfrJay;jcif;wGif rnfolwpfOD;ur# qENrJxuf0ufausmf axmufcHr+r &&Sdv#if 'kwd,tqifh
a&G;cs,fwifajrmufjcif; wenf;tm;jzifh 'kwd,t}udrf rJay;jcif; y vkyfapygonf? wpfOD;OD;onf
rJqEN&Sifrsm;. axmufcHr+ukd&&Sdayvdrfhrnf? xkdenf;jzifh a&G;cs,fcH&olonf orRwjzpfvmojzifh
xkda&G;cs,fwifajrmufyHkpepfukd 'kwd,t}udrf rJ ay;jcif;pepf[kac:onf?
xkdpepfESifh E+dif;,SOfavhvmoihfaompepfwckrSm zdvpfykdiforRw a&G;cs,fwifajrmufjcif; jzpfonf?
zdvpfykdiforRw a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyJGwGif ygwDtoD;oD;. udk,fpm;vS,f avmif;rsm;ESifh woD;yk*~v
ukd,fpm;vS,favmif;rsm; 0ifa&muf,SOfydif ta&G;cH-u&mwGif ta&G;cs,fcH&I orRwjzpfvmolonf
jynfol@qENrJxuf0ufausmf axmufcHrJ&&Sdolenf; vSonf? om"utm;jzifh 1992 ckESpf arv
orRwa&G;cs,fwifajrmufyJGwGif orRw avmif; (&)OD; 0ifa&muf,SOfydif ta&G;cH-u&mwGif orRwtjzpf
ta&G;cH&aom zD',f&m rkd@pf (Fidel Ramos) onf jynfol@qENrJ. 236 &mckdifE+ef;om axmufcHr+ &&SdcJhonf?
'kwd,trsm;qHk;
axmufcHr+&&SdolrSm
rkdif&D,mefqkdifwD*dk
(Mirian
Santigo)
jzpf_yD;
if;&&SdaomrJta&twGufrSm (20)&mckdifE+ef;ausmfjpzfonf? jyifopfEkdifiHwGif usihfoHk; aom 'kwd,t}udrf
rJay;jcif;pepft&omqkdv#if xkdESpfOD;ukd 'kwd,t}udrfajrmuf rJay; a&G;cs,fap_yD; tjywftowf
axmufcH&&Sdolu orRwtjzpf ta&G;cH&rnf jzpfonf?
jyifopfESifh zdvpfykdifEkdifiHwkd@onf orRwwGif txl;vkyfykdifcGifhtm%m&Sdaom tpkd;&rsm;&Sd
-uonf?
xkdokd@aom EkdifiHrsm;wGif orRwa&G;cs,fwifajrmufyJGonf EkdifiHa&;t& txl; ta&;ygr+&Sdojzifh
ygvDref'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHrsm;. ygvDrefatmufv$wfawmf taxGaxGa&G; aumufyJGuJhodk@yif ta&;}uD;aom
a&G;aumufyJGjzpfonf? ygvDref'Drkdua&pD tpkd;&yHkpH&Sd onfhEkdifiHrsm;wGif orRwa&G;cs,fwifajrmufjcif;onf
t"durusawmhbJ
ygvDref
atmufv$wfawmf
taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJGomt"duusawmhonf?
,ckacgif;pOfatmuf wGifwifjyaeaom a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyHkpepfonf EkdifiHa&;t& ta&;}uD;aom taxG
axGa&G;cs,fwifajrmufyJG. a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyHk pepfta-umif;jzpfonf?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 58

-opa-wvsEkdifiHonfvnf; tjywftowf rJtrsm;pkpepfudk usifhoHk;aom EkdifiHjzpfonf? okd@&mwGif opa-wvsEkdifiHwGif usifhoHk;aompepfonf jyifopfEdkifiHwGif usihfoHk;aomp epfESifhrwl uJGjym;aejyefonf? opa-wvs ygvDrefatmufv$wfawmf a&G;cs,fwifajrmuf yJGwGif usihfoHk;aom a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyHkpepfukd
v$Jajymif;ay;tyfEkdifaom rJjym; (tran- sferable or preferential vote) pepf[kac:onf?
TpepfwGif
jynfolvlxkonf
rJay;jcif;ukd
wpf}udrfomyvkyf&_yD;
a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyJG
&vm'ftay:rlwnfIom a&G; cs,fwifajrmufa&;aumfr&Sif tqifhqifh vkyfief;aqmif&Gufjcif; jzpfonf?
qENrJjym;tay:wGif
azmfjyxm;aom
ygwDtoD;oD;.
udk,fpm;vS,favmif;rsm;teufrS
rdrdESpfoufqHk;olwpfOD;udk qENya&G;cs,f&mwGif xdkolonf xkdrJqENe,fwGif tjywft owfrJtrsm;pkjzpfaom
xuf0ufausmfaxmufcHr+ &&SdcsifrS&&Sdayvdrfhrnf? tu,fI xkd olonf xuf0ufausmf axmufcHrJ&&SdcJhygu
xkdrJqENe,f. ukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpf ta&G;cH &rnfjzpfonf? tu,fI xuf0ufausmf axmufcHr+udk
rnfolwpfOD;ur# r&&Sdv#if om refrJtrsm;pkpepfudkom usihfoHk;ygu rJtrsm;qHk;&olwpfOD;udk
udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf a&G; cs,f&rnfjzpfonf? odk@aomf -opa-wvs a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyHkpepft&
xuf0ufausmf axmufcHrJr&&Sdv#if rnfonhfudk,fpm;vS,favmif;ukdr# a&G;cs,fjcif;ryyg? xuf0uf
ausmfaxmufcH&&Sdaom enf;vrf;ukd zefwD;xm;onf? xkdenf;vrf;t& rJqEN&Sifrsm;. rJjym;rsm;
qHk;&+H;avvGifhr+r&Sdatmifvnf; xdef;odrf;Ekdifonf? omrefrJtrsm;pkpepfwGif ukd,fpm;vS,favmif;wpfOD;ukd
rJqEN&SifwpfOD;u rJay;axmufcHaomfvnf; xkdukd,fpm; vS,favmif;u xkdrJqENe,fwGif rJtrsm;qHk;&&Sdygu
xkdolonf ta&G;rcH&awmhyg? xdkol ta&G;rcH&jcif;ESifhtwl xkdolukd rJay;axmufcHxm;aom qEN&Sif.
rJrsm;onfvnf; qHk; &H+;avvGifhoGm;awmhonf? xdkokd@aom qHk;&H+;avvGifhr++onf omrefrJtrsm;pkpepfwGif rJ
qEN&Sif qENrJrsm;. xuf0ufausmf yrm%&Sdwwfonf? -opa-wvsEkdifiHwGifrl udk,fpm; avmif;wpfOD;onf
tjywftowfrJtrsm;pk
axmufcHr+&&Sdatmif
pDrHvkdufjcif;jzifh
qHk;&+H;
avvGifhaom
rJta&twGufukdav#m@cs_yD; udk,fpm;ycGifh&aom rJta&twGufukd jrifh wifEkdifonf?
-opa-wvs rJay;pepfrSm Tokd@jzpfonf? rnfonfh ukd,fpm;vS,favmif;ur# xuf0uf ausmfjzpfaom
tjywftowfrJtrsm;pk axmufcHr+r&&Sdygu a&G;aumufwifajrmufa&; aumfr&Sifonf 'kwd,tqifh
tvkyfvkyf&onf? xkdokd@vkyfEkdif&ef rJqEN&Sifrsm;u rJay;pOf tcguwnf;u rnfonfhudk,fpm;vS,favmif;udk
'kwd,OD;pm;ay;/ wwd,OD;pm;ay; ponfjzifh azmfjyvkduf&onf? aumfr&Sifu rJa&wGuf&mwGif yxrOD;pm;ay;
qENrJt& qENrJtm;vHk;. xuf0ufausmfaxmufcHr+udk rnfolr#r&aomtcg rJtenf;qHk;&xm;ol .
rJjym;ay:wGif azmfjyxm;aom 'kwd,OD;pm;ay; yk*~dKvfrsm;xHokd@ xkdqENrJud ajymif;a&G@ ay;vkdufonf? xkdtcg
tjcm;olrsm;&&Sdonfh rJta&wGufonfvnf; wkd;jrifhvmayvdrfh rnf? xkdokd@ qENrJ v$Jajymif;ay;_yD;aomtcg
udk,fpm;vS,favmif;
toD;oD;
&&Sdaom
qENrJudk
xyfrHa&wGuf&onf?
xkdtqifhwGif
xuf0ufausmfqENrJ&&Sdol
ay:aygufygu
xdkoludka&G;cs,f_yD;
tu,fIr&&Sdygu
yxrt}udrf
v$Jajymif;_yD;aemuf rJtenf;qHk;&&Sd ol. rJjym;rsm;udk 'kwd,t}udrfajrmuf rJjym;v$Jajymif;jcif; yvkyf&onf?
Tokd@tqifh qifhyvkyfv#if w}udrf}udrfwGif ukd,fpm;vS,favmif;wOD;OD;onf aocsmayguf xuf0uf ausmf
axmufcHrJ&&Sdayvdrfhrnf? xkdokd@ qENrJjym;rsm;v$Jajymif; atmifEkdifjcif; a-umifh -o paw;vsa&G;aumufwifajrmufyHkpepfukd v$Jajymif;atmifEkdifaom jrJjym;pepf[kac:onf? Tenf;jzifh
tjywftowf rJtrsm;pkpepfukd azmfaqmifxm;onf? Tpepft& rJay; a&G;cs,fjcif;ukd -opa-w;vs
ygvDrefatmufv$wfawmf (house of representative) a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyJGwGif usifhoHk;onf?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 59

jyifopfEdkifiHESifh -opa-wvsEdik fiHwkd@onf tjywftowf rJtrsm;pkpepfudk usihfoHk;-u onfcsif;


wlaomfvnf; tjywftowfrJtrsm;pk&atmif yvkyfaomenf;vrf;rSm ESpfrsKd; jzpfonf? &+wfaxG;aom
vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;udk wDxGif;xm;jcif;rSm trsm;pku tkyfcsKyf jcif;qdkaom 'Drkdua&pDtajccHoabmt&
tkyfcsKyfrnfh&mxl;wm0efudk &,lrnhf jynfol@ udk,fpm;vS,fonf jynfoltrsm;pk. axmufcHr+ukd&&Sdap&ef
vkdtyfIjzpfonf? wbuf wGif xkdokd@&+wfaxG;aomvkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm; a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyHkpepfrsm;
wDxGifvm& jcif;onf ygwDpHkpepfa-umifhjzpfonf? ESpfygwDpepfukdom usifhoHk;ygu xdkokd@aom&+wf axG;r+rsKd;
&Sdrnfr[kwfyg? ygwDpHk'Drkdua&pDukd usihfoHk;jcif;qkd&m0,f 'Drkdua&pD tESpfom& tm;aumif;aea&;twGuf
&+wfaxG;r+rsm; ay:aygufvmjcif;jzpfonf[k qkdEkdifonf?
xkd@a-umifh 'Drkdua&pD EkdifiHrsm;wGif ygwDpHkpepfusifhoHk;jcif;ESifh a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyHkpepf owfrSwfjcif; wkd@onf
tusKd;ta-umif; qufpyfaeaom t&mrsm;jzpfonf? ,cktxd wifjycJhonfrsm;rSm 'Drkdua&pD
tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf. trsm;pku tkyfcsKyfjcif;[lonfh tESpf om& &&Sdatmif ygwDpHkpepftwGif;u
wDxGifzefwD;r+rsm;omjzpfonf? qufvufIwifjy rnfh tcsKd;usukd,fpm;yjcif; a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyHk
pepfonf ygwDpHk'Drkdua&pDpepfwGif 'Drkd ua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepftwGif;Y ygwDrsm;pHkpHknDnD
qufpyfyg0ifaeatmif zefwD;wDxGif r+jzpfonf?
tcsKd;us udk,fpm;ypepf
(Propotional Representation)
tcsK;d us udk,fpm;ypepfqo
dk nfrSm uJGjym;jcm;aom EkdifiHa&;ygwD toD;oD;tm; axmuf cHrJay;vdkufaom
rJjym;ta&twGuf tcsKd;tpm;tvkduf ygvDreftrwfae&mudk cJGa0,l jcif;pepf jzpfonf?
tcsKd;usukd,fpm;ypepfonf EkdifiHa&;ygwDtm;vHk; if;wkd@&&Sdaom axmufcHrJjym; ta& twGufay: rlwnfI
udk,fpm;ycGifh&apaom pepfjzpfonf? omref rJtrsm;pkpepfwGif rJ trsm;qHk;&&Sdolonf ukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpf
ta&G;cH&onf? tjywftowfrJtrsm;pkpepf wGif rJqEN&Sifpkpkaygif;. xuf0ufausmf awmufcHrJ&&Sdolonf
ta&G;cH&onf? xkdpepfESpf ckwGif tjcm;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;&&Sdonfh trsm;pkr[kwfaom rJjym;rsm;rSm
qHk;&H+;v#uf&Sd onf? xkdokd@aom qHk;&H+;r+r&Sdap&ef wenf;tm;jzifh jynfoludkukd,fpm;yaom qENrJjym;
rsm;tm;vHk; ygvDrefxJwGif yg0ifaeap&ef tcsKd;usukd,fpm;ypepfu pDpOfxm;jcif;jzpf onf?
tcsK;dusudk,fpm;ypepfwGif EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;tm;vHk; ygvDrefxJwGif udk,fpm;ycGifh &o jzifh ygwDpHkpepfonf
ykdItESpfom&&Sdonf[k qkdEkdifygonf? omrefrJtrsm;pkpepfESifh tjywftowfrJtrsm;pkpepfwGif ygwDaygif;pHk
ygvDrefxJY yg0ifukd,fpm;ycGifh&&ef rvG,f ulacs? xkd@a-umifh tcsKd;usukd,fpm;ypepfwGif rJay;jcif;ukd
ukd,fpm;vS,favmif; wpfOD; pDtay: rlwnf rJay;jcif;r[kwfbJ ygwDudk tajcwnf rJay;jcif;pepfukd
trsm;tm;jzifh usihfoHk;onf? okd@aomf ukd,fpm;vS,favmif;rsm;ukd tajcwnfI rJay;&aom tcsKd;us
udk,fpm;ypepfrsm;vnf; &Sd-uygonf? rJtrsm;pk pepfrsm;wGif rJqENe,fwckv#if udk,f pm;vS,fwpfOD;pDom
a&G;cs,f&aompepf (single member constituency) udkom usihfoHk;&efvkdaomfvnf;
tcsKd;usukd,fpm;ypepfwGifrl udk,fpm;vS,fpHknD rJqENe,f (multi member constituency)
pepfudk usifhoHk;onf? tb,fha-umifhqkdaomf tcsKd;us udk,fpm;ypepfwGif rnfoluukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpf
ta&G;cH&rnfqkdonfukd
qHk;
jzwfr+tm;
rJqENe,ftvkduf
yvkyfjcif;
r[kwfbJ
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 60

wEkdifiHvHk;twkdif;twmt&om qHk; jzwf&jcif;a-umifh jzpfonf? rJqENe,ftoD;oD;wGif ygwDESifh


udk,fpm;vS,favmif;aygif; pHkudk rJqEN&Sifrsm;u rJay;a&G;cs,f&mwGif toD;oD;onf uJGjym;jcm;em;aom
axmufcHrJ rsm;&&Sd-uonf? wEkdifiHvHk;wGif rJqENe,ftoD;oD;rS ygwDrsm;ESifh ukd,fpm;vS,favmif;
rsm;&&Sdaom axmufcHrJudk pkaygif;vkduf_yD; ygwDtoD;oD;ESifh udk,fpm;vS,favmif;toD; oD;&&SdaomrJrsm;udk
tcsKd;csvkdufonf? xdktcsKd;twkdif;ukd ygvDref&Sd trwfOD;a&udk tcsKd; cs cGJa0ay;vkdufjcif;jzpfonf?
urBmay:wGif tcsKd;u udk,fpm;ypepfukd yxrOD;qHk;taejzifh b,fvf*sD,HEkdifiHwGif 1899 ckESpfwGif
pwifusifhoHk;pOfu trwfOD;a& EkdifiHa&;ygwD oHk;ckom&Sdao;onf? xkdpepfudk usifhoHk;&ef pOf;pm;r+tajccHonf
EkdifiHa&;ygwDtm;vHk; ukd,fpm;ycGifh&a&;ESifh jynfol@qEN rJtm;vHk; tusKd;&Sd&Sd jynfol@ tkyfcsKyfa&;
ay:vpDcsrSwfr+wGif yg0ifEkdifa&;jzpfonf? ygwDpHk udk ukd,fpm;yr+&ap&ef pDrHay;&if; tcsKd;us
udk,fpm;yr+pepfonf ygwDpHk'Drkdua&pDukd ykdI tESpfom&ESifht"dy`g,f jynfh0aponf? okd@&mwGif
tjcm;wzufwGifrl wnf_idrfaom tpkd; &azmfaqmifa&;udk t[ef@twm;yrlr+rsm; &SdqJjzpfonf?
tDwvDEkdifiHonf tcsKd;us udk,fpm;ypepfudk usihfoHk;ae&mrS ygwDaygif;pHk ygvDreftwGif; !dE+dif;Ir&atmif
jiif;ckefr+ rsm; jzpfyGm;cJh_yD;aemufykdif; 1993 ckESpf qef;ykdif;wGif vlxkqENcH,lyJG usif;y_yD; omrefrJt rsm;pkpepfudk
ajymif;vJcJhonf?
ESpfygwdpepf okd@r[kwf ygwDpHkpepf xm;&Sdr+owfrSwfcsufESifh a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyHkpepf a&G; cs,fusifh
oHk;jcif;wk@donf tjyeftvSefrSDwnfIom jzpfay:wnf&Sdae-u&onf? xkdo abmw&m;twGif;rS a,bk,s
aumufcsufcsEdkifaom tcsufrSm ESpyf gwDpepfonf om refrJtrsm;pkESifh oihfav#mf_yD; ygwDpHkpepfonf
tjywftowf rJtrsm;pkpepf okd@r[kwf tcsKd;usudk,fpm;ypepfESifh ykdI oihfav#mfonf[laom
tcsufjzpfonf?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 61

tykdif;(2)
Part II

'Drkdua&pD. qef@usifbufrsm;

Opponents of Democracy

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 62

tcef;(6)

'Drkdua&pDESifh qef@usifaom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrsm;


Anti-Democratic Regimes

20 &mpkESpfrsm;twGif;wGif 'Drkdua&pDonf t&Sdeft[kefESifh urBmwpf0Srf;wGif wkd;wuf xGef;um;v#uf &Sduonf? rnfonfhEkdifiH/ rnfonfh vltzJG@tpnf;rqdk 'Drkdua&pDudk &+ axmifhpHk/ yHkpHaygif;pHkjzifh ajymqkd-u/
usihfoHk;-u/ csnf;uyf-uESifh &Sdae-uonf? yHkoeft rsKd;rsKd;jzifh tm%m&Sifjzpfaeaom vlyk*~dKvf/ vlpk/
tzJG@onfyifv#if 'Drkdua&pD[laom a0g [m&udk if;wkd@tusKd;pD;yGm; tm%mudk rxdckdufatmif yjyifzefwD;u_yD;aemufwGif 'Drdk ua&pDukd usihfoHk;-ua-umif; ajymqkdae-uonf// xkdokd@aom'Drkdua&pDonf tkyfcsKyfol
vlwef;pm;twGufomjzpf_yD; jynfol@tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfjzpfonfh 'Drkdua&pD. tESpfom& onf r+cif;ESifhrsm;pGm
uJGjym;v#uf&Sd-uonf? xdk@a-umifh 'Drkdua&pDudk qkdif;bkwfudkifumr# jzifh zHk;uG,fxm;wwf-uaom
tm%m&SiftkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrsm;udk jrifomap&ef EkdifiHa&; ody`Hynm&Sifrsm;u avhvmazmfxkwfcJh-uonf?
xkdokd@aom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrsm;udk jynf olvlxku OD;aqmifjcif;r[kwfbJ vlwpfOD;uaomfvnf;aumif;/
wpfpkuaomfvnf; aumif;OD;aqmifv#uf &Sdwwfonf?
oufOD;qHykdif bk&if tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf
( Absolute Monarchism)
oufOD;qHykdif bk&iftkyfcsKyfa&;pepfonf vlyk*~dKvfwpfOD;wnf;u EkdifiHawmftm%mukd t uGif;rJhykdif
qkdiftkyfcsKyfaom pepfjzpfonf? txl;ojzifh oufOD;qHydik fbk&ifpepfonf a&S; &kd;pGJt,ltqESifh
bmomw&m;tajccH ta-umif;t&if;rsm;a-umihf jzpfay:wwfonf? bk&ifxHwiG f bk&m;ocifu
tyfESif;xm;aom tcGifhtm%mrsm; &Sdonf[laom oabm w&m; t,ltqonf oufOD;qHykdifbk&ifpepf
usihfoHk;&jcif;. t"duta-umif;t&if; jzpfvmonf? bk&ifonf rnfonhft&mudkr# axmufiJhp&mrvdkbJ
tuGif;rJhvkyfykdifcGifh tm%mESifh tcsKyftjcmtm%mykdifoltjzpf cH,lonf? xkd@a-umifh oufOD;qHykdifbk&if
tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfonf tuGif;rJh tm%m&Sifpepfukd jzpfaponf?
tv,facwf (AD 1100-1400) vGefokd@a&mufaomtcg EdkifiHa&;tawG;tac:ynm&Sif rsm;u
bk&if.tuGif;rJhtm%mykdifr+udk tHwk,SOfydifum awG;ac:vm-uonf? t*Fvdyf jynfwGif;ppfESifh
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 63

jyifopfawmfvSefa&;}uD;t_yD; aemufykdif;wGif bk&if. vkyfykdifcGifhtm%m rSm tqifhav#mhcsuef@owf cHvkdufu&onf? txl;ojzifh 1789 ckESpf jyifopfawmfvSef a&;}uD;onf tuGif;rJhoufOD;qHykdifbk&ifpepfudk
rsm;pGmudkifv+yfcJhonf? jyifopfEkdifiHtae jzifh orRwEkdifiHtjzpfokd@ ul;ajymif;oGm;EkdifcJh_yD; Oa&myESifh urBm@tcsKd@
t&yfa'orsm;rS tuGif;rJh oufOD;qHykdifbk&ifpepf (absolute monarchism) rSonf pnf;rsOf;acHbk&if
pepf (constitutional monarchism) qDodk@ ajymif;vJoGm;cJh-uonf?
,ae@tcsdeftxd urBmay:wGif bk&ifrsm;tkyfcsKyfv#uf&Sdaom EkdifiHrsm;pGm &Sdaeao;onf? okd@&mwGif
jyifopfawmfvSefa&;}uD; rjzpfyGm;rDu urBmay:wGif&SdcJhaom tuGif;rJhoufOD; qHykdif tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfESifh
rsm;pGmjcm;em;aom pnf;rsOf;cHbk&iftkyfcsKyfa&;pepfwGif bk&if onf EkdifiHawmfOD;ao#miftaejzifhom&Sd_yD;
EkdifiHa&;tm%mtvHk;pHkwkd@onf jynfolukd,f pm;vS,frsm;xHwGifom &Sdygonf? jynfol@ udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk
'Drkdua&pDenf;vrf;us a&G;cs,fjcif;/ wm0efay;tyfjcif;/ wm0efrS&kyfodrf;jcif; wkd@yvkyf&monf? Oa&mywkduf
onf 'Drkdua&pDxGef;um;r+. A[kdcsufwGif yg0ifae_yD; ,ae@txd Oa&myEkdifiHtrsmpk onf
pnf;rsOf;cHbk&ifpepfjzifh tkyfcsKyfv#uf&Sd-uonf? tcsKd@avhvmolrsm;u _AdwdefEkdifiH udk pHyv#uf pnf;rsOf;cH
bk&ifpepfjzifh bk&ifrsm; qufvufwnf&Sdaejcif;onf 'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfokd@ toGiful;ajymif;a&;udk
tvdkufoifh vufcHcJhjcif;a-umifhjzpfa-umif; axmufjy-uonf?
tuGif;rJh oufOD;qHykdifbk&if tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfonf 'Drkdua&pDr&Sdaom 'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyf a&;pepfESifh
qef@usifaom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfjzpfonf? ,ae@ urBm}uD;wGifrl oufOD;qHykdif bk&ifpepf ppfppfjzifh
tkyfcsKyfv#uf&SdaomEkdifiHrsm; av#mhyg;oGm;_yD; pnf;rsOf;cH bk&ifpepf ESifh'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf qDokd@
OD;wnfoGm;aeavonf?
oufOD;qHykdifbk&if tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfuJhokd@ vlyk*~dKvfwpfOD;wnf; tkyfcsKyfaompepfwpfck&Sd ao;a-umif;
okawoDrsm;u todtrSwfy-u_yD; if;pepfukd vlwpfOD;wnf;u tkyfcsKyf aompepf (autocracy)
[kac:onf? xkdtkyfcsKyfaompepfonf jynfolrsm;. pD;yGm; a&;b0 vkH;0 c|wfcHusysufpD;aev#ifjzpfap
jynfolrsm; todynmacgif;yg;aom tajct aersKd;wGifomjzpfap/ ay:aygufEkdifa-umif; avhvmolrsm;u
oHk;oyf-uonf? &k&Sm;EkdifiH wGif Zmbk&ifvufxuf tkyfcsKyfa&;udk (autocracy) okd@r[kwf *k%fj'yf&Sdol
wpfOD; wnf;. tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfjzpfa-umif; avhvmoHk;oyfolrsm;u qkdonf?

t&pPwkdua&pD
(Aristocracy)
*&da0g[m& tm&pPwkdua&pDonf vufa&G;pOfvlwpku tkyfcsKyfjcif;[lI t"dy`g,f& onf? aristo rSm
vufa&G;pif taumif;qHk;rsm;[k t"dy`g,f&_yD; kratia (xkdrSwqifh cracy jzpfvm) . t"dy`g,frSm
tkyfcsKyfjcif;[lIjzpfonf? vufa&G;pif taumif;qHk;rsm; qkdonfudk vl@tzJG@tpnf;}uD;twGif;rS Zumwif
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 64

a&G;xkwf&rnf jzpfojzifh t&pPwkdua& pDonf jynfolrsm;tkyfcsKyfaom pepfjzpfonfh 'Drkdua&pDESifhuJGvJGaom


vlenf;pktkyfcsKyf a&;jzpfvmonf?
t&pPwkdua&pD ta-umif;ukd txl;tav;ay; awG;ac:a&;om;olESpfOD;rSm yvmwkd (Plato, BC 428-348)
ESifh t&pPwkdw,f (Aristotle, BC 384-322) wkd@ jzpf-u onf? yvmwkdonf ol.
orRwEkdifiHtrnf&SdpmtkyfwGif EkdifiHawmfudktkyfcsKyfrnfhvl wef;pm;tjzpf txl;avhusifhr+&Sdaomolrsm;
vkdtyfa-umif; xkdt&nftaoG;&Sd avhusihf _yD;olrsm;uom EkdifiHawmfukd tkyfcsKyf&rnf[laom
vufa&G;pifvlpk tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfukd azmfxkwfcJhonf? omreftm;jzifh-unfhv#if vl@tzJG@tpnf;ESifh EkdifiHawmf
wkd;wufa&;t wGuf tawmfqHk; twwfqHk;qkdonfh vufa&G;pifvlxku tkyfcsKyfa&; vkyfaqmifjcif;udk
trsm;u vufcHEkdifoa,mif &Sdygonf? vl@tzJG@tpnf; wckvHk;taejzifh cHiHkoHk;oyf
-unfh&mY
ynmwwfajrmufol/ t&nftcsif;jynfh0olqkdonfh taumif;qHk;rsm; a&G; xkwf&efrSm ynmwwfol/
t&nftcsif;&Sdolenf;aom vl@tzJG@tpnf;rsKd;wGifom jzpfEkdif onf? tpkd;&wkdif;onf jynfolvlxktwGuf
usef;rma&;/
ynma&;/
vlr+b0ESifh
vlaer+
tqifhtwef;wkd;wufa&;udk
tpOfwpkduf
vkyfaqmifae&rnfjzpfonfESifhtnD
jynfolvl
xk}uD;
wpf&yfvHk;taejzifh
ynmwwfol
t&nftcsif;&Sdolrsm;tjzpfokd@ tqifhqifhwkd; wuf ajymif;vJoGm;ayrnf? xkdtcgrsKd;wGif t&nftcsif;&Sdol
qkdolwkd@rSm rnfolwkd@jzpf onfqkdonfudk qHk;jzwfay;&rnfh olwkd@rSm jynfolvlxk jzpfvmonf?
jynfolvlxkudk qHk;jzwfcGifh ay;&rnfomjzpfonf?
vlwpfOD; okd@r[kwf vlwpkqdkonfrSm vlaer+tqifhtwef;edrhfusaom okd@r[kwf jynfol vlxk todynm
ryGifhvif;aom vl@tzJG@tpnf;rsKd;wGifom jzpfEdkifonf? xkdokd@aom vl@ tzGJ@tpnf;rsKd;wGifom todqHk;
twwfqHk;qdkaom vlyk*~dKvfrsm;udk a&G;xkwfEkdifayrnf? odk@&mwGif urBm@vl@tzJG@tpnf;}uD; wckvHk;onf
ykdIwkd;wufaom todynmyGifhvif; aom vl@tzJG@tpnf;}uD;tjzpfokd@OD;wnfajymif;vJv#uf&Sd&m vufa&G;pif
vlwpfpkuom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf qkdonfhpepfrSm pdwful;,Ofr#om jzpfawmhonf? tcsKd@aom EkdifiHrsm; wGif
vlwpkwkd@onf EkdifiHawmf. t&Sifocifrsm;ozG,f if;wkd@udk,f if;wkd@ a-unmum enf;rsKd;pHkjzifh
tm%mxdef;csKyfa&;udk ud;pm;wwf-uonf? Tokd@aom jzpf&yfrsKd;udk ppf wyfu EdkifiHa&;tm%m
csKyfudkifxm;aomEkdifiHrsm;ESifh uGefrlepfygwD acgif;aqmifrsm; tkyfcsKyfv#uf&Sdonfh EkdifiHrsm;wGif awG@jrifu&onf? xkdenf;jzifh tm%mxdef;csKyfolwkd@ onf if;wkd@udk,f if;wkd@ajymqkdjcif;ESifhwlonf? if;wkd@u
'Drkdua&pDudk azmfaqmifae onf[k auG;a-umfwwfaomfvnf; pifppf t&pPwkdua&pDukd toufoGif;aeuolrsm; omjzpfonf?
t&pPwkdua&pDonf 'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfESifh cJGjcm;avhvmEkdifouJhokd@ vlyk*~dKvfwpf OD;wnf;
tkyfcsKyfonfh oufOD;qHykdifbk&iftkycf sKyfa&;pepfESifh uJGjym;cm;em;r+&Sdaom tkyf csKyfa&;pepfvnf;jzpfonf?
t&pPwkdu&ufrsm; tm%m&&Sda&;twGuf oufOD;qHydkifbk&if rsm;udk qef@usifawmfvSefcJhaom
om"ursm;vnf; orkdif;wav#muf awG@uHcJh&_yD;jzpf onf? uGefrlepf/ qkd&S,fvpf tawG;tac:&Sdolwkd@.
tjrifwGif t&pPwkdua&pDonf vl wef;pm; rnDr#r+ESifhvlr+a&; ydruQrsm;udkom jzpfay:apEkdifonfhtwGuf
awmfvSefa&;jzifh y,f&Sm;ypf&rnf[kqkdonf?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 65

t&pPwkdua&pDonf ya'o&mZfpepf (deudalism) . tkyfcsKyfa&; pepf[kvnf; tod trSwfy-uonf?


xkdtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfwGif tm%m&aeolrsm;udk ya'o&mZfrsm; (0g) t&pPwkdu&ufrsm; (aristocrats) [k
ac:-uonf?
atmfvD*gcD
(Oligarchy)
*&d a0g[m& atmvD*gcDonfvnf; t&pPwkdua&pDuJhodk@yif vlenf;pk tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf[k t"dy`g,f&onf?
okd@aomf t&pPwkdua&pDu vufa&G;pifvltkyfpktjzpf avhusifhxm;ol rsm; odk@r[kwf if;wdk@zmom
if;wkd@auG;a-umfaeolrsm;u tm%mxdef;csKyfxm;aom vlenf;pk tkyfcsKyfa&;jzpf_yD; atmfvD*gcDurl
tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf wcktwGif;wGif wjznf; jznf;vlenf;pkom tm%m&&Sdvmjcif; qufvufxdef;csKyfxm;jcif;
oabmud ykdIaqmif onf?
atmfvD*gcDonf vlyk*~dKvfwOD;wnf;u tkyfcsKyfaom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfjzpfonf? oufOD; qHykdif
tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfESifh jynfolvlxk tkyfcsKyfa&;jzpfonfh 'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfESifh uGJvGJjcm;em;r+&Sdonf?
atmfvD*gcDonf csrf;omuG,f0olrsm; tm%m&&Sda&;ukd OD;wnf aprnfh vluHkxHtkyfcsKyfa&;
(plutocracy) jzpfa-umif; tcsKd@aom avhvmoHk;oyfol rsm;u axmufjy-uonf? wenf;tm;jzifh
csrf;omuG,f0r+ aiGyumoejzifh tm%m& ,laom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfjzpfonf[k qkdvkdjcif;jzpfonf?
19=20 &mpkESpfrsm;twGif;wGif atmvD*gcDukd EkdifiHawmfudktkyfcsKyfaom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf tjzpf
rawG@&awmhay? okd@aomf EdkifiHa&;ygwDtwGif; tkyfcsKyfa&;rsm;ESifh tvkyform;o r*~ toif;tzJG@twGif;
atmfvD*gcD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf jzpfay:aeonfudk avhvmawG@&Sd& onf? tqdkyg tzJG@tpnf;rsm;twGif;
acgif;aqmifr+ae&m &&Sdolwkd@onf 'Drkdua&pD t ajccHusifhpOfrsm;t& tm%m&vcsif;rsm;&Sd ouJhodk@
tcsKd@rSmcsrf;om-uG,f0r+t&deft0g a-umifh ae&m&vmolrsm;jzpfa-umif; avhvmolwcsKd@u axmufjyuonf? xdkolwdk@ onfaxmufcHay;rnfh atmufajcxkqEN&Sifrsm;udk tydkifpnf;&kH;xm;Edkifjcif;/ owif;jyef um;a&;vkyfief;rsm;udk xdef;csKyfxm;Edkifjcif;/ 'Drdkua&pDusifhpOfrsm;udk rsufuG,fyxm; jcif;wdk@yEdkifonf?
xdkta-umif;udk tus,fw0ifha&;om;az:jycJholrSm rdk,fu,f (Ro- bert D.Michels) jzpfonf?
if;a&;om;aom atmfvD*gcD oHr%dOya' (iron law of oligarchy) trnf&Sd avhvmcsufwGif
atmvD*gcDonf 'Drdkua&pDrusaom/ 'Drdku a&pDESifhqef@usifaom tkyfcsKyf a&;pepfjzpfa-umif; azmfjycJhonf?
'Drdkua&pDESifh qefhusifaom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrsm;tay: cHiHkoHk;oyfjcif;
'Drdkua&pD qef@usifaom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepftcsKd@ta-umif;udk t-urf;zsrf;r# wifjycJhyg onf?
xdkodk@wifjy&jcif;. t"du&nf&G,fcsufonf 'Drdkua&pDESifh qef@usifaom tkyfcsKyf a&;pepfrsm;ta-umif;
a&bl,scHiHkod&Sdjcif;jzifh 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfta-umif; avh vm&mwGif taxmuftul
yap&eftwGufjzpfonf? txufwGifaz:jycJhonfhtwdkif; urBm-uD;wGif 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfqDodk@

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 66

t&deft[kefjzifh ajymif;vJv#uf&Sd&m 'Drdku a&pDESifhqef@usifaom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk ay:ay:wifwif


usifhoHk;aejcif;rsm; rawG@&awmh ay?
'Drdkua&pDESifhqef@usifaom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfwGif t"dutm;jzifhvlwOD;wnf;uom ydkifpdk; tkyfcsKyfaompepf
(despotism)ESifh vlenf;pkuom tm%mydkifpdk;tkyfcsKyfaompepf[l I ESpfrsKd;cJGjcm;avh vmEdkifonf?
vlwOD;wnf;uomtm%m ydkifpdk;tkyfcsKyfaom pepfwGif oufOD;qHydkifbk&if tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfESifh
vlwpfOD;wnf;uom tkyfcsKyfaompepf[lI xyfrH awG@&Sd&onf? ,ae@tcgwGif oufOD;qHydkifbk&ifpepfppf (0g)
tuGif;rJhoufOD;qHydkifbk&ifp epfonf 'Drdkua&pDv+dif;wHydk;atmufwGif wdrfryfajymufuG,foGm;jyD;
'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyf a&;pepfudk tmrcHonfhpnf;r#Of;cH bk&ifpepftjzpf ajymif;vJoGm;avjyDjzpfonf? tcsKd@
aomEdkifiHrsm;wGif bk&ifr[kwfaomvnf; oufOD;qHydkifbk&ifuJhodk@ tm%mydkifpdk;aom vlyk*~dKvfwOD;wnf;u
tkyfcsKyfaersKd;jcif;&Sdv#if if;pepfudk (absolute) [kac:onf? xdk odk@aomvly*~dKvfwOD;wnf;u
tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfwGiftkyfcsKyfolonf vufatmufcHt&m &Sdrsm;ESifh jynfolvlxk. wifjycsufqENrsm;udk
iJhuGufp&mrvdkbJ
tuGif;rJhtkyfcsKyfa&;
vkyfydkifcGifh&Sd-uonf?
xdkodk@aomtpdk;&onf
pepft&oufOD;qHydkifbk&ifpepf r[kwfaomf vnf; tpdk;&yHkpHt& oufOD;qHydkiftpdk;& (absolute
government) jzpfa-umif; EdkifiH a&;ody`H ynm&Sifrsm;u uifyGef;wyf-uonf?
vlenf;pktkyfcsKyfaom vtkyfcsKyfaom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk t&pPwdkua&pDESifh atmfvD*gcD [lI
ESpfrsKd;cJGjcm;avhvmEdkifonf? t&pPwdkua&pDonf vufa&G;pOfvlwpk tkyfcsKyfa&; jzpfjyD; if;udk
uGefqmaA;wpf0g'. tqG,ftyGm;taiG@touftjzpf awG@Edkifonf? om "utm;jzifh t*FvefEdkifiH
ygvDreftxufvGwfawmf (house of lords) wGif cef@tyfcH &aom ynm&Sdrsm; (lords) qdkolrsm;udk
tcsKd@ut&pPwdku&ufrsm;tjzpf &+jrif-uonf? t*FvefEdkifiHonf oufOD;qHykdifbk&ifpepfrS pnf;r#Of;bk&ifcH
pepfodk@
tqifhqifhul;ajymif;
oGm;&mwGif
bk&ifudkaxmufcHjyD;
tajymif;tvJrvdkvm;olrsm;
(conservatives) tm; bk&ift}uHay;tjzpf cef@tyfjcif;rStpyI tcktcsdeftxd t*FvefygvDref
txufvGwf awmfwGif bk&ifodk@r[kwf bk&ifrudk udk,fpm;y&olrsm; yg0ifaeonf? xdk@a-umifhxdkol rsm;udk
tcsKd@ut&pPwdku&ufrsm;tjzpf a0zef-ujcif;jzpfonf? tjcm;aom yHkpHwckjzpf onfh atmfvD*gcDvlenf;pk
tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudkrl EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;tpnf;t&Hk;rsm;twGif; tkyfcsKyfa&;wGio
f m awG@&awmhonf?
,ae@tcsKd@urBmEdkifiHwGif tkyfcsKyfv#uf&Sdaom 'Drdkua&pDr[kwfonfh tpdk;&rsm;onf 'Drdkua&pDudk
wdkuf&dkufqef@usifaom tpdk;&jzpfonf qdk&efxuf 'Drdkua&pDtpdk;&rus aom tpdk;&jzpfonf[lI
ajym&efydkIoifhawmfonf? tb,fa-umifhqdkaomf xdktpdk;& rsm;onf 'Drkdua&pDudkwdkuf&dkufqef@usifaom
tpdk;&zJG@pnf;jcif;udk vdrRmyg;eyfpGm a&Smif &Sm;jyD; 'Drdkua&pDxGef;um;r+udkrl tjcm;wbufY
t[ef@twm;yv#uf&Sd-uonf? w enf;tm;jzifh 'Drdkua&pD &SifoefzJG@zd;r+udktm;ay;rnfh EdkifiHa&;
&kyfywf0ef;usiftjzpf t ydkif; (1) wGif wifjyxm;aom tajctaersm;udk qdkvdkygonf?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 67

tcef;(7)

'Drkdua&pD &Sifoefjcif;ryEkdifaom EkdifiHa&; &kyfywf0ef;usif

Political Atmosphere Where Democracy Can Not Exist

'Drkdua&pDukd EkdifiHa&;&kyfywf0ef;usifra&G; usihfoHk;Ekdifonfr[kwfyg? tcsKd@EkdifiHa&; &kyfywf 0ef;usifrsm;wGif


'Drkdua&pDonf vHk;0&Sifoefjcif;r&Sdonhftjyif xkdEikd fiHa&;&kyfywf0ef;usif wckvHk;onf 'Drkdua&pDESifh
qef@usifaeonfh taetxm;rsKd;vnf; jzpfwwfonf?
Tae&mwGif EkdifiHa&;&kyfywf0ef;usifqdkonfrSm oufqkdif&mEkdifiH okd@r[kwf vl@tzJG@t pnf;wGif wnf&Sdaom
EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac: tm%musihfoHk;rnfh Xme}uD;rsm;wnf axmifxm;r+/ vlwkd@.EkdifiHa&;v+yf&Sm;r+ESifh
yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr+ursm;wGif
vGwfvyfr+&Sd
r&Sd/
tkyfcsKyfolESifh
tkyfcsKyfcHolwkd@t-um;
qufoG,fr+taetxm; ponfwkd@ukd qdkvkd jcif;jzpfonf? xdkEdkifiHa&;&kyfywf0ef;usif uJGjym;jcm;em;r+.
&vm'frsm;tjzpf uGJjym;jcm; em;aom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrsm; ay:aygufvm&jcif;jzpf&m 'Drkdua&pD
tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf &Sif oefjcif; &Sdr&SdqkdonfrSmvnf; xkdEdkifiHa&; &kyfywf0ef;usifwGif rsm;pGmrlwnfaeayonf?
Ttcef;wGif 'Drkdua&pD&Sifoefjcif; ryEkdifonhf EkdifiHa&;&kyfywf0ef;usifukd jzpfay:ap onfhtaumif;t&if;rsm;xJrS
tcsKd@udk
wifjyoGm;rnf?
'Drkdua&pD&Sifoefjcif;ryEkdifaom
EkdifiHa&;&kyfywf0ef;usiftm;vHk;udk
wifjyjcif;r[kwfbJ
xkdEdkifiHa&;
&kyfywf0ef;usiftm;vHk;
udk
wifjyjcif;r[kwfbJ xkdEkdifiHa&; &kyfywf0ef;usifrsm;teuf ,cktcef;wGif wifjyrnfh ursm;
yg0ifaejcif;jzpfa-umif;ukdom t"du OD;wnfwifjy&ef &nf&G,fygonf?
tm%mydkif tm%m&Sif0g'
(Authoritarianism)
tkyfcsKyfcH&rnfh jynfolrsm;. oabmxm; (will) udk av;pm;r+vH;k 0rybJ tkycf sKyfol rsm;u if;wk@d
jzpfapcsifaom
qENoabmxm;rsm;udkom
jynfolvlxktwGif;
pkdufxl&ef
ud;yrf;jcif;/
tpkd;&zJG@pnf;wnfaxmifjcif;/
,if;wkd@ESifhywfoufI
'\ersm;
csrSwfjcif;
wkd@onf
tm%mykdiftm%m&Sif0g'. vkyf[efrsm;jzpfonf? 'Drkdua&pDonf jynfolvlxk . oabmxm;qEN

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 68

(public will) t& tkyfcsKyfjcif;jzpf&m tm%mykdif tm%m&Sif0g' u tkyfcsKyfolwkd@. oabmxm;qENudk


jynfolvlxktwGif; jzef@usufjcif;jzpfojzifh 'Drkdu a&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfESifh vHk;0 zDvmqef@usifyv#uf&Sdonf?
tm%mykdiftkyfcsKyf&Sif0g'onf tjcm;aom yHkoeftrsKd;rsKd;jzifh tm%m&Sifpepfrsm;jzpf aom zufqpf0g'/
uGefrlepf wygwDtm%m&Sifpepf (totaliterianism) wkd@ukd cJGjcrf; pdwfjzmaom yifrtm%m
&Sif0g'jzpfonf? tm%mykdif tm%m&Sif0g'[kqkdv#if tm%m &Sif0g'aygif;pHkudk v$rf;cHaom
a,bk,stac:jzpf_yD; ae@pOf EkdifiHa&;a0g[m&rsm;wGif us,f us,fjyef@jhyef@ ajymqkdjcif;ryawmhbJ if;rS
cGJxGufoGm;onfh tm%m&Sif0g' trsKd;tpm; rsm;udkom ajymqdkae-uonf?
tm%mykdif tm%m&Sif. t"du 0daoovuQ%mrsm;tjzpf tcsuf(3)csufudk avhvm oHk;oyfolrsm;u
azmfjy-uonf? if;wkd@rSm=
1? tkyfcsKyfcHrsm;. oabmxm;qENt& qHk;jzwfcsufESifh us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ rJay;cGifh tcGifhta&;rsm;onf
vHk;0eD;eD; OayuQmycHxm;&_yD; tkyfcsKyfolrsm.oabmxm; qENuom t&m&mukd atmifEidk jf cif;/
2? tkyfcsKyfolrsm;. qENt&om tkyfcsKyfjcif;ukd zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya't& uef@ owf xm;&ef
rpGrf;aqmifEdkifjcif;/
3? tkyfcsKyfr+tm%monf ttkyfcsKyfcHrsm;rS qif;oufvmjcif;r[kwfbJ if;wkd@zmom if;wkd@ ykdifqkdifaumif; tkyfcsKyfolrsm;u,lqjcif;ESifh xkdokd@tkyfcsKyfEdkifcGifh tm%m onf t&nftaoG;jynfh0r+a-umifh
&&Sdvmjcif;[k ajymqkdwwfjcif;wkd@jzpfonf?
txufygtcsuf(3)csufonf
tm%m&Siftm;vHk;.
bHkwlnDaom
oabmxm;jzpfonf?
xkdtcsufrsm;tay:wGif tajccH_yD;om tm%m&Sif0g'rsKd;pHkudk qifhyGm;-uonf? qufqpf tm%m&Sif0g'
uGefrlepf
wygwDtm%m&Sifpepf
ponfjzihf
tm%m&SifpepftrsKd;rsKd;
r
ay:aygufrD
tcsdefumvrsm;uwnf&SdcJhaom tm%m&Sifpepfrsm;ukd tm%mydkif tm%m &Sif0g'[k wdwdusus
ajymqkdr+&Sd-uonf?
tm%mykdif
tm%m&Sif0g'onf
vl@tzJG@tpnf;
twGif;
xdef;csKyfr+yonfqkdaomfjim;vnf;
aemufykdif;rSay:vmaom
tm%m&Sif0g'rsm;
ESifhE+dif;,SOfv#if
utuef@towfjzifhom xdef;csKyfr+ya-umif; EdkifiHa&;u|rf;usifolrsm; u axmufjy-uonf? xdk@a-umifh
tm%mydkif
tm%m&Sif0g'.
0daoovuQ%mrsm;t
jzpf
txufygtcsufrsm;udkom
wdwdususaxmufjyEdkifjyD; tjcm;aomtm %m&Sifrsm; wGifr+ jynfolvlxktay: xdef;csKyfr+ESifh wif;uyfr+rsm; ydkrsm;jym;aom 0daoovuQ%m rsm; &Sdaeonfudk awG@&onf?
rnfodk@yifjzpfap tm%mydkif tm%m&Sif0g'onf 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepf. tajccHo abmw&m;jzpfaom
jynfolvlxkqENESifhtnD tkyfcsKyfjcif;qdkaomtcsufudk vHk;0zDvm qef@usifum tkyfcsKyfolrsm;.
oabmxm;tENt&om tkyfcsKyfaomtavhtusifhudk az:xkwfjcif;jzpfonf? xdkodk@azmfxkwfaomvlpkonf
if;wdk@.qENudk wpfEdkifiHvHk;jynfol w&yfvHk;. qENjzpfonf[k tcdkiftrm,Hk-unfolwdk@jzpfonf?
xdkodk@tajctae ,Hk-unf r+udk jynfoltwGif;pdfrfh0ifapaom EdkifiHa&;&kyfywf0ef;usifjzpfygu
'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&; onf &SifoefjzpfxGef;rnf r[kwfay?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 69

wpfygwDtm%m&Sif0g'
(Totalitarianism)
wpfygwDtm%m&Sif0g' (totaliarianism) [laom a0:[m&udk (19=23=35) ckESpfrsm; wGif
tDwvDzufqpfacgif;aqmif
rlqdkvdkeD.
tm%m&Sif0g'udk
azmfjy&efpwiftoHk;ycJh
onfh
yxrurBmppftwGif;uwnf;u oaE<wnfcJhonf? txl;ojzifh wpfygwDtm%m &Sif0g'tjzpf
owfrSwfcH&aom tm%m&Sif0g' usifhoHk;onfhEdkifiH (3)ckESifh tm%m&Sif0g' (3) &yfrSm tDwvDEdkifiH
zufq0f0g'/ *sr%DtrsKd;om; qdk&S,fvpf0g' (german natio- nal socialism) (*smreftrsKd;om;
qdk&S,fvpf0g'udk emZD0g'[kvnf;vlodrsm;) ESifh qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpk. pwmvif0g' (stalinism) wdk@
jzpfonf?
tDwvDzufqpf0g'ESifh *smreftrsKd;om; qdk&S,fvpf0g'wdk@onf 'kwd,urBmppf jyD;qHk;jcif; ESifhtwl
aysmufuG,foGm;cJhonf?
pwmvifaoqHk;jcif;ESifhtwl
pwmvif0g'.
wif;-uyf
onfh
tcsKd@aomxdef;csKyfr+rsm;
ajzav#mhcJhonf?
xdkodk@qdkv#if
wpfygwDtm%m&Sif0g'
onf
uG,fajymufoGm;jyDavm[k
ar;p&m&Sdvmonf?
vuf&Sd&Sdaeao;aom
uGefjrLepfyg
wDrsm;
tkyfcsKyfv#uf&SdaomEdkifiHrsm;wGif tm%m&Sifpepf wnf&Sdaejcif;udk rnfodk@avhvm -urnfenf;[k
avhvmoHk;owfolrsm;-um; ar;cGef;xkwfvm-uonf?
xdkar;cGef;udk ar;jref;vmonfhtcsdefonf 'kwd,urBmppfjyD;umv ta&StkyfpkESifht aemuftkyfpk.
wif;rmr+umvvnf;jzpfonf? ta&S@tkyfpkEdkifiHrsm;onf uGefjrLepfEdkifiH rsm;jzpfjyD; taemuftkyfpkEdkifiHrsm;udkrl
uGefjrLepf0g' t&if;&SifEdkifiHrsm;[k azmfjy-uonf? uGefjrLepfESifh t&Sif;&Sifwdk@onf 0g'a&;&mt&
&efolrsm;jz0f-uonf? tjcm;wbufwGif avhvmawG@&SdonfrSm uGefjrLepfEdkifiHrsm;wGif xdef;csKyfr+rsm;ESifh
EdkifiHa&;t& xdef;csKyfr+ rsm;ydkrsm;jyD; t&Sif;&SifEdkifiH[kowfrSwfcH&aom taemuftkyfpkEdkifiHrsm;wGif 'Drdkua&pD
ydkrdk xGef;um;aeonfudk awG@&onf? xdef;csKyfr+ESifh EdkifiHa&;zdESdyfr+&Sdaom uGefjrLepf0g'udk
wpfygwDtm%m&Sif0g'[k 0g'a&;&mt& taemufEdkfifiHtkyfpk. &efoljzpfaer+wGif tcGifh ta&;,l&m/
wzufowfpGwfpJGv#if tcGifhta&;,l&m a&mufayvdrfhrnf[k ynm&Sifrsm; u oHk;owf-uonf? odk@qdkv#if
acwfopftm%m&Sif0g'jzpfvmrnfh wpfygwDtm%m &Sif0g'udk 0daoovuQ%m owfrSwfcsufrsm;
yvkyf&efvdktyfvmonf?

wpfygwDtm%m&Sif0g'. 0daoovuQ%m
(Characters of Totalitarianism)
txufwGifwifjycJhaom tDwvDzufqpf0g'twGif;rS wygwDtm%m&Sif0g'tjzpf owf rSwf&jcif; taumif;t&if;rsm;jzpfaom 0daoovuQ%mrsm;udk avhvmolrsm; OD;pGm aumufE+wfoHk;oyf-uonf?
if;avhvmoHk;oyfr+rS tcsuftvufrsm;pGmudk awG@&Sd& onf? xdk@twl rsm;jym;aom uGJvGJaomtajccHtajyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 70

umif;&if;rsm;rSwqifh pkpnf;aom t"dy`g,fzGifhqdkr+ yvkyfa&;wGif tcuftcJ&Sdvmonf? rnfodk@aom


bHka,bk,swlnD aomtcsufrsm;udk wpfygwDtm%m&Sif0g'. 0daoovuQ%mtjzpf owfrSwfrnfqdk onfh
abmifudkcsrSwfvm&onf? xdkabmifowfrSwfr+t& trsm;qHk;tusKH;0ifaom t csufrsm;rSm
atmufygwdk@jzpfonf?
yxrOD;pGm wpfygwDtm%m&Sif0g'ESifh a&S;a[mif;tm%m&Sif0g'rsm;jzpfonfh t&pPwdku a&pD/ atmfvD
*gcDwdk@t-um; uJGjym;jcm;em;r+rsm;udk azmfxkwfonf? xdkjcm;em;csufrSm wpfygwDtm%m&Sif0g'onf
vl@tzJG@tpnf;ESifh wEdkifiHvHk;&SdEdkifiHa&;/ vlr+a&;/ pD;yGm;a&; ESifh todn%fynmqdkif&m ursm;udk
xdef;csKyfxm;ygonf? Todk@tjzpftysuftajc taersm;onf (20)&mpktwGif;tcsKd@ae&mrsm;wGif
awG@uHae&aom tjzpftjyufrsm; jzpfvmonf? wygwDtm%m&Sif0g'onf wpfEdkifiHvHk;&Sd a&'D,dk/ &kyfjrifoHum;/ owif; Xme/ pme,fZif;u tm;vHk;udkxdef;csKyfxm;onf? jynfol@qufoG,fa&; u&d,mrsm;rS wqifh
tkyfcsKyfolrsm;ouf0if,Hk-unfaom 0g'wckckudk jynfolvlxk vufcHvmap&ef t_rJwrf;vdkvdk
0g'jzef@csDv#uf&Sdonf? wpfygwDtm%m&Sif0g'&Sdaom vl@tzJG@tpnf;ESifh EdkifiHa&;wGif ydifbuf[k,lqcH&aom
EdkifiHa&;tawG;tac:ESifh
ygwDrsm;v+yf&Sm;&yfwnf
cGifhr&Sday?
tcsKd@aomtm%m&Sirf sm;onf
if;wdk@ESifhuJGvJGaom EdkifiHa&;tawG;tac: &Sd onf[k ,lq&Hkr#jzifh zrf;qD;cHjcif;/ ESdyfpufnOf;yrf;jcif;rsm;
yvkyfwwfonf?
tar&dueforRw
umwm
vufxuf
trsKd;om;vHkcHa&;
t}uHay;rsm;tjzpf
wm0ef
xrf;aqmifcJhzl;olESpfOD;jzpfaom zuf'&ufcsf (Carl J.Friedrich) ESifh b&ufZufpuD (Zbigniew
Brzezinski)wdk@u
wygwDtm%m&Sif0g'wGif
atmufyg0daoovuQ%m
azmfjycJhzl;onf? ynm&Siftrsm;pkonf xdk0daoorsm;udk vufcHtod trSwfy-uonf?

(6)csuf&Sda-umif;

1? tawG;tac: (ideology) w&yfudk vl@tzJG@tpnf;twGif; bmoma&;/ ynma&;/ vlr+a&;e,f y,f


tm;vHk;wGifpdrfh0if jyef@ESJhaeatmif pdkufxlonf?
2? EdkifiHa&;ygwDwckwnf;u EdkifiHa&;b0wckvHk;udk xdef;csKyfum tm%m&,lxm;onf? xdk@jyif xdkygwDudk
vlyk*~dKvf wOD;wnf;u t"du xdef;csKyfxm;onf?
3? EdkifiHa&;ydifbufESifh oabmxm;uJGvJGolrsm;udk t-urf;zuf tif;tm;oHk;zdESdyfonfh &J uJhodk@ aom
vufeufudkiftzJG@tm;udk;jzifh &uf&ufpufpufESdyfuGyfwwfonf?
4? EdkifiHtwGif;&Sd 0g'jzef@csDa&; ,EW,m;tjzpf toHk;yEdkifaom owif;pm/ *sme,f/ a&'D,dk/ &kyfjrifoHum;ponfh vlxkqufoG,fa&; ud&d,mtm;vHk;udk xde;f csKyfum tkyfcsKyfolwdk@ udkifpJGaom 0g'taumif;ESifh vkyf&yfrsm;ta-umif;tpOft_rJ 0g'jzef@csDaejcif;?
5? tkyfcsKyfolrsm;vufxJwGif vufESufudkif wyfzJG@rsm;udk wvufudkiftjzpf xm;&SdjyD; EdkifiHa&;tm
%mtwGuf xifovkdtoHk;ywwfonf?
6? tkyfcsKyfolwdk@onf wEkdifiHvHk;. pD;yGm;a&;udk xdef;csKyfxm;onf?
txufygwifjycsufrsm;onf acwfopftm%m&Sif0g'jzpfaom wygwDtm%m&Sif0g'. t"duusaom
0daoovuQ%mrsm;yifjzpfonf? EdkifiHa&;tawG;tac:t,ltq trsKd; rsKd;wGif jzpfay:wwfaom
tm%m&Sif0g'onf tqdkyg 0daoovuQ%mrsm;ESifh udkufnD ygu wpfygwDtm%m&Sif 0g'jzpfonf?
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 71

uGefjrLepf t,l0g'ESifh zufqpfEdkifiHa&;t,l0g' uGJjym;aomfvnf; xdk0g'ESpfcktm; tajccHjzpfay:aeaom


tm%m&Sif0g'onf
txufyg
0daoovuQ%mrsm;ESifh
udkufnDaeojzifh
ESpfckpvHk;onf
wpfygwDtm%m&Sif0g'jzpfr+ t&mwGif twlwlyifjzpfonf? xkd@twl qkd&S,fvpftrnfcHI jrefrmEkdifiHukd
1962 ckESpfrS 1988 ckESpftxd wpfygwDtm%m&Sifpepfjzifh tkyfcsKyfcJhjcif;onfvnf; wpfygwDtm%m &Sif
0g'yifjzpfonf?
1988 ckESpf ppfwyfu tm%modrf;r+ jzpfyGm;_yD;aemuf tkyfcsKyfcJhaom EkdifiHawmf_idrf0yfyd jym;r+wnf
aqmufa&;tzJG@onfvnf; jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpf vrf;pOfygwDuJhokd@ EkdifiHa&;t,l 0g'w&yfudk jynfolvlxkxH
twif;t-uyf pJGuyfapjcif;rSvJGI ykdIyif qdk;&Gm;aom wpfyg wDtm%m&SifuJhokd@jzpfa-umif; tcsKd@
avhvmolrsm;u axmufjyonf?
,cktcsdefwGif wpfygwD tm%m&Sif0g'rsm;onf vlxk tcsKyftjcmydkifr+ESifh 'Drkdua&pDudk auG;a-umf&if;jzifh
tm%m&Sif0g'ukd wydkifeufusifhoHk;aeonfukd awG@&onf? tm%m &Sifrsm;onf vdrRmyg;eyfpGmjzifh
xdef;csKyfxm;aom ,EW,m;rsm;rSwqifh if;wkd@ pJGukdif aom0g'ukd tpGJt_rJ,Hk-unfapr+ponhf
0daoovuQ%mrsm;wGifrl twlwlyifjzpfonf?
wpfygwDtm%m&Sif0g'onf EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:wpfckwnf; ygwDwpfckwnf;ukdom pkdufxljcif;jzpf&m
vGwfvyfpGm EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:r+/ ,Hk-unfr+/ xkwfazmfajymqdkr+/ t oif;tzJG@ zJG@pnf;r+wkd@udk
vrf;zGifhay;xm;aom
'Drkdua&pD
tajccHoabmw&m;ESifh
zDvm
qef@usifyv#uf&Sdonf?
ydifbufEkdifiHa&;orm;rsm; ygwDrsm;udk ESdyfuGyfouJhodk@ EkdifiHom; rsm;. vGwv
f yfr+tcGifhta&;rsm;ukdvnf;
wpfygwD tm%m&Sif0g'u jiif;y,fonf? xkd@a-umifh wygwD tm%m&Sif0g'ESifh 'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf
t& jynfol@qENESifhtnD tkyfcsKyfa&;qkdonfrSm twl,SOfwJG&yfwnfjcif; ryEkdifay? zufqpf0g'/ trsKd;om;
qkd&S,f vpf0g'/ pwmvif. uGefrlepf0g'/ jrefrmhenf;jrefrmh[ef qdk&S,fvpf0g'rsm;ESifh 'Drkdua&pD
tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf ,SOfwJGr&Sda-umif;ukd tckdiftrm oufaojycJh_yD;jzpfonf?
xkdtm%m&Sifrsm;u ta-umif;jyajymqkdwwfonfrSm vl@tzJG@tpnf;wGifwoD;yk*~vrsm; zJG@pnf;yg0ifaeu&m tzJG@tpnf;tusKd;ukd t"duxm; vkyfaqmifjcif;onf wpfOD;csif;. vGwfvyfr+ tcGifhta&;xuf
ykdIta&;}uD;aom udpPjzpfonfqkdaom ta-umif;jycsuf jzpfonf? vl@tzJG@tpnf;}uD;. OD;wnfcsufukd
oGm;Ekdifa&;twGufvkdtyfygu tawG;t ac:oef@pifr+rsm;yif yvkyf&rnf[kqkdonf? tm%m&Sifrsm;.
xdef;csKyfr+onf EkdifiHa&; e,fy,fwGif 'Drkdua&pD tcGifhta&;rsm;ukd ydwfyif[ef@wm;xm;onfomru bmom
a&;udkvnf; if;wkd@vkdvm;aom EkdifiHa&;udk taxmuftulyrnfh bmoma&;tjzpf ajymif;vJvkd-uonf?
tm%m&Sifwkd@. EkdifiHa&;ygwD OD;aqmifr+okd@vkduf/ ygwDonf t_rJ wrf; trSefudkvkyfonf [lIvnf; auG;aumfwwfonf?
wpfygwDtm%m&Sif0g'onf
ppfudumvwGif
ay:aygufcJhaom
tDwvDzufqpf0g'/
*smr
%DtrsKd;om;qkd&S,fvpf0g'/ qkdAD,ufjynfaxmifpk pwmvif uGefrlepf0g'rsm;udk tajc wnfjzpfay:cJh_yD;
if;0g'rsm; wdrfryfoGm;cJhaomfvnf; wpfygwD tm%m&Sif0g'. 0daoo vuQ%mrsm; ,ae@
urBm@EkdifiHtawmfrsm;rsm;wGif awG@ae&qJjzpfonf? xkd 0daoo vuQ%mrsm;udk tpGJyI acwfopf
tm%m&Sif0g'[kvnf; ac:-uonf? rnfodk@aom EkdifiHa&;t,l0g' tajccHta-umif;w&m;a-umifhjzpfap/
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 72

ppftm%m&Sifrsm;ujzpfap t xufwGif wifjycJhaom 0daoovuQ%mrsm;&Sdaom tkyfcsKyfa&;tpkd;&w&yfudk


azmf aqmifxm;ygu wpfygwD tm%m&Sif0g'om jzpfonf? wpfygwD tm%m&Sif0g'&Sdaom EkdifiHa&;
&kyfywf0ef;usifwGif 'Drkdua&pD &SifoefEkdifrnf r[kwfacs?
zufqpf0g'
(Fascism)
'Drkdua&pD &Sifoefjcif;ryEkdifaom EkdifiHa&; &kyfywf0ef;usifrsm;wGif zufqpf0g'vnf; yg 0ifonf?
zufqpf0g'onf
vuf,mtpGef;a&muf
tm%m&Sif0g'vnf;jzpfonf?
zufqpf
0g'onf
yxrurBmppftwGif;wGif oaE<wnfcJhaomfvnf; v+yf&Sm;r+ tjrifhrm;qHk;umv rSm 1930 ckESpfrS 1945 ckESpf
rsm; twGif;jzpfonf?
rlqkdvkdeDonf tDwvDEkdifiHtwGif; zufqpfv+yf&Sm;r+rsm;udk 1920 ckESpf rwfvwGif pwif cJhonf?
t"dutm;jzifh 19 &mpk aESmif;ydkif;uwnf;u tDwvDEkdifiHa&;wGif xkd;azmuf0if a&mufaecJhaom
vpfb&,f0g'udk qef@usifwkef@jyef&ef &nf&G,fzJG@pnf;cJhonf? *smr%DEkdif iHwGif yxrurBmppf}uD;_yD;aemuf
xGef;um;vmaom emZD0g' v+yf&Sm;r+onfvnf; pif ppfwGif zufqpfv+yf&Sm;r+rsm;omjzpfonf?
zufqpf0g'ESifh zufqpfv+yf&Sm;r+rsm;onf jynfolvlxk axmufcHr+ESifh yll;aygif;aqmif&Guf&atmif
ud;yrf;&mwGif tpGef;a&muf rsKd; cspf0g' (ultra-patirotism) ESifh tpGef;a&muf trsKd;om;a&; 0g'
(ultra-nationa- lism) wkd@ukd tajccHonf?
rlqkdvkdeD. zufqpf0g'onf vpfb&,f'Drkdu&uf. tESpfom&rsm;udk OD;wnfwkdufckduf a&;jzpfonf?
vpfb&,f 'Drkdu&ufonf vGwfvyfaom pD;yGm;a&;t& pufr+vkyfief;rsm; zHG@zd;wkd;wufvmr+
aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&; us,fjyef@vmr+wkd@udk pD;yGm;a&;t& OD;pm;ay;ouJh okd@ tjcm;wbufwGif
vlyk*~dKvfwpfOD;csif;pD. vGwfvyfr+ESifh tcGifhta&;udk tmrcH&efjzpf onf? rlqdkvkdeDonf tDwvDEkdifiHwGif
bk&ifpepfESifh ya'o&mZf tkyfcsKyfa&;tajccHjzpf aom t&pPwkdua&pDudk vkdvm;oljzpfonf? vpfb&,f
'Drkdua&pDonf tm&pPwkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfukd z,f&Sm;_yD;aemuf xGef;um;Ekdifaom tajctae rsKd;jzpf&m
tm&pPwkd ua&pDukd vkdvm;aom rlqkdvkdeD. zufqpf0g'onf vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDudk OD;wnf wkdufckdufonf?
vkdtyfygu awmfvSefa&;udk awmif;qdkonf? okd@&mwGif awmfvSefa&;udk awmif;qkdonfjcif;wlaomfvnf;
uGefrlepfawmfvSefa&;ESifh
zufqpfawmfvSefa&;rSm
ajymif;jyefjzpfaeonf?
ESpfrsKd;pvHk;onf
vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDukd vufrcHaom ae&mwGif wlnDaomfvnf; uGefrl epfawmfvSefa&;vkyfjcif;.
&nf&G,fcsufonf tm&pPwkdua&pDESifh tm&pPwkdu&ufrsm; tjrpfjywf z,f&Sm;_yD; ypPnf;rJh tm%m&Sifpepf
pkdufxla&;jzpfonf? &k&Sm;atmufwdkbm awmfvSefa&;}uD;u Zmbk&ifudk zwfcsjcif;onf tm&pPwkdua&pDukd
z,f&Sm;_yD; ypPnf;rJh tm%m&Sifpepfudk pkdufxljcif; jzpfonf? zufqpfv+yf&Sm;r+rsm;url t&pPwkdua&pDukd
umuG,fa&;jzpfonf? xkdt&pPwkdua&pDukd z,f&Sm;rnfh vpfb&,f'Drkd u&ufrsm;(blZGmrsm;[kvnf; &Hzef&Hcg
ac:a0:oHk;pJG)udk awmfvSefjcif;jzpfonf? xkd@a-umifh uGefrlepfawmfvSefa&;ESifh zufqpfawmfvSefa&;
qef@usifbuf jzpfaejcif;a-umifh uGefrl epfrsm;ukd vuf0J[k owfrSwfv#if zufqpfrsm;u vuf,mrsm;
jzpfvm&jcif;jzpf onf?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 73

1930 ckESpf aemufydkif;wGif Oa&myEkdifiHtawmfrsm;rsm;ESifh vufwiftar&duEdkifiHtcsKd@ wkd@wGif rlqdkvkdeD.


zufqpf0g'rsm; jyef@ES@HcJhonf? if;wkd@tm;vkH;onf tpGef;a&muf trsKd; om;a&;0g'udk tajccHxm;_yD; &k&Sm;wGif
awmfvSefa&;atmifjrifpGm qifE$JcJhaom abmf&SD Apf (bolshevism) udk qefhusifa&; jzpfonf?
uGefrlepf0g'udk zufqpfv+yf&Sm;r+u qef@ usifjcif;. t"du&nf&G,fcsufonf t&pPwkdua&pDudk
umuG,f&efomjzpfonf? t&pP wkdua&pDonf 'Drkdua&pDESifh qef@usifaom tkyfcsKyfa&; pepfjzpfa-umif;ukd
wifjy_yD;_yDjzpf onf? xkd@a-umifh zufqpfv+yf&Sm;r+ESifh zufqpf0g'wnf&Sdaeaom EkdifiHa&;&kyfywf0ef;usif wGif
'Drkdua&pD &SifoefEkdifrnfr[kwfyg? 'Drkdua&pD[kajymqkd&mwGif ,ae@ urBm@vl@tzJG@ tpnf;u
OD;wnfajymif;vJa&G@vsm;aeaom vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDom jzpfonf[k ynm &Sifrsm;uqkdonf? xkd
vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDukd zufqpfv+yf&Sm;r+rsm;u OD;wnfwkdufckduf v#uf &Sdonf?
rlqv
kd edk o
D nf ol. OD;wnfcsufrsm; txajrmufatmifud;yrf;&mwGif rsKd;cspfpdwf"gwfudk v+@Haqmfay;Ekdifonfh
enf;emrsm;jzpfaom ppfwyfrsm;zJG@pnf;jcif;/ qifwl0wfpHkrsm; qif jref;apjcif;/ ppfa&;jytcrf;tem;rsm;
usif;yay;jcif;wkd@ukd vkyfaqmifonfhtjyif 0g'jzef@ csDa&;,EW,m;tpHu
k dk toHk;yum zufqpf0g' ouf0if,Hkunfapa&;udkvnf; tpGrf;ukef vkyaf qmifcJhonf? xkd@a-umifh zufqpf0g'udk wpfygwDtm%m&Sif0g'[k
ac:qkdjcif;jzpf onf? zufqpf0g' tawG;tac:onf 'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf. tajccHvkdtyfcsuf rsm;ESifh
qef@usif&jcif;rSm atmufygtcsufrsm;a-umifhjzpfonf?
1? oufqkdif&m vlrsKd;wrsKd;wnf;(Oyrm= tDwvD/ *smref/ *syef)uom txGftjrwfjzpf _yD; tjcm;aom
vlrsKd;pkESifh vlenf;pkwkd@onf vufatmufcHvlrsK;d rsm; jzpfonf? xkd r[mvlrsKd;}uD;tawG;tac:aumifhyif tjcm;aom vlrsKd;rsm;rSm ESdyfuGyfowfjzwf cH-u&onf? *smr%DwGif *sL;vlrsKd;rsm;onf
oef;ESifhcsDI owfjzwfcHchJ&onf? 'Drkdu a&pDukd tajccHaom EkdifiHa&;pepfwGifrl xkdvlrsKd;uJGrsm;tm;vHk;
vlrsKd;a&; ruJGjym;yJ wef;wltcGifhta&;&Sdatmif pDrHr+ enf;vrf;&Smr+rsm; &Sdonf?
2?

r[mvlrsKd;}uD; tawG;tac:udk tajccHaom EkdifiHawmtwGuf yk*~dKvfwOD;csif;pD. vGwfvyfr+


tcGifhta&;rsm; qHk;&H+;cH&rnf? tay:rScsrSwfxm;aom vrf;!Gefr+udk atmufajc&Sd zufqpfygwD0ifrsm;ESifh
jynfolvlxku vkdufvHtaumiftxnfaz:& ayrnf? 'Drkdua&pDukdtajccHaom EkdifiHa&;pepfwGif
ttkyftcsKyfcH jynfolvlxk!Gef -um;csuu
f dk tpkd;&u vkdufvHtaumiftxnfazmf&aom
vlxktcsKyftjcmtm %mykdifaom oabmw&m;udk tajccHonf? zufqpf0g'ESifh 'Drdkua&pDonf tm
%mjrpfzsm;cH&mESifh pD;qif;r+t&mwGif tay:rSatmuf qif;jcif;ESifh atmufrStay: wufjcif;[lI
zDvmqef@usifjzpfaeonf?

3? jynfol@udk,fpm;vS,frsm;yg0ifaom ygvDref'Drdkua&pDjzifh tkyfcsKyfjcif;udk zufqpf0g' u vHk;0ypfy,f_yD;


tm%m&Sifpepfjzifh tkyfcsKyfa&;udkom oGyfoGif;onf?
zufqpf0g'onf 'kwd,urBmppfwGif zufqpfEkdifiHrsm; ppf&H+;jcif;ESifhtwl uG,faysmuf oGm;_yD[k
qkdwwfaomfvnf; tcsK@dEkdifiHtcsKd@vl@tzJG@tpnf;rsm;wGif &ufpuf-urf;uwf aom zdESdyfr+rsm;udk tpJGyI
qufqpf[laom a0g[m&udk txl;yckdif;E+dif; ajymqkdae-u qJ jzpfonf?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 74

emZD0g'
(Nazism)
yxr urBmppf_yD;umv *smr%DEkdifiHwGif trsKd;om;qdk&S,fvpf (national socialist) trnfjzifh
ay:aygufcJhjcif;jzpfonf? 1933=45 ckESpfrsm;twGif; [pfwvm. OD;aqmifr+ atmufwGif tm%m&Sifpepfudk
xlaxmifusifhoHk;cJhonf? emZD0g'onf tESpfom&tm; jzifh zufqpf0g'ESifh twlwlyifjzpf onf? tenf;i,f
uJGvJGcsuf[kqkdEkdifaom tcsufrSm vlrsKd;a&;pdwf"gwfESifh EkdifiHjcm;wkdif;jynfrsm;tay: usL;ausmfa&;onf
zufqpf0g'xufykdI omvGefaom qENjyif;jyjzpfonf?
emZDpg'onfvnf; 'Drkdua&pDqef@usifa&; uGefrlepfqef@usifa&; yifjzpfonf? tpOft vm&Sd uGefqmaA;wpf
wcsKd@ESifhyl;wGJum
e,fcsJ@ay:vpD
csrSwf_yD;
tifyg,mxlaxmif&ef
ud;yrf;vkyfaqmifonf?
tpkd;&tm%muef@owfa&;ESifh vlwkd@vGwfvyfcGihfwGif tpdk;& 0if a&mufpGufzufa&;udk vufrcHyJ turf;zufr+rsm;udk tpkd;&u OD;pD;vkyfaqmifaponf?
t&D,ef (Aryan) tEG,f *smefvlrsKd;wdk@om urBmwGif txGftjrwf jzpfonf[laom t,ltqukd
pkdufxlum tjcm;aomvlrsKd;tm;vHk;ukd t-urf;zuf ESdyfuGyf&ef pDpOfcJhr+ atmufwGif *sL;vlrsKd;rsm;
oef;ESifhcsDI
ESdyfuGyfcHcJh&onf?
ygvDref'Drkdua&pD.
ae&mwGif
emZDtm%m&Sifpepft_yD;
tpm;xkd;pDrHudef;jzpfonf? xkdokd@yvkyf&mwGif vpfb&,f0g' ESifh vl@vGwfvyfcGifhrsm;udk pepfwus ESdyfuGyfxm;
onf?
'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfonf wkdif;jynfrwnf_idrfr+ukd jzpfaponf? xkdwkdif;jynfESifh vlrsKd;a&;
tusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf wygwDtm%m&Sif0g' wrsKd;jzpfonfh emZD0g'ukd pkdufxl &ef vkdtyfonf[kqkdonf?
emZD0g'. vkyfief;tm;vHk;onf zufqpf0g'ESifh twlwlyif jzpfonf? xkd@a-umifh emZD0g' ckdifrmaeaom
okd@r[kwf pkdufxlaeaom EdkifiHa&; &kyfywf 0ef;usifwGif 'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf &SifoefEdkifrnf r[kwfacs?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 75

tykdif;(3)
Part III

0daooy 'Drkdua&pDrsm;
Classified Democracies

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 76

tcef; (8)

EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:t& 0daooy 'Drkdua&pDrsm;


Democracies Clasified by Political Ideologies

tcsKd@aom EkdifiHa&;okawoDrsm;u EkdifiHa&;pepfw&yfudk twdkif;twmwckxd EdkifiHa&;t awG;tac:u


OD;aqmifa-umif;
oHk;oyf-uonf?
wenf;tm;jzifh
xkdEdkifiHa&;
tawG;t
ac:onf
oufqkdif&mEdkifiHa&;pepfudk &kdufcwfr+jzpfaponf? xkdtcsufonf 'Drkdua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;pepftay:wGifyg
tusKd;oufa&mufaponfukd avhvmawG@&Sd&onf? 'Drdku a&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrSm vl@tzJG@tpnf;twGif;
pwifxGef;um;vmaom umvtykdif;t jcm; uJGjym;r+&Sdaomfvnf; rsufarSmufacwfwGif usihfoHk;aeaom
'Drkdfua&pD. t,ltq rsm;onf pwifay:aygufcsdefrS &mpkESpfaygif;rsm;pGmu wdrfryfaecJh_yD; Oa&myESihf ajrmuf
tar&duEdkifiHrsm;wGif yGifhvif;a&; (enlightenment) tawG;tac:rsm; xGe;f um; vm onfh 18
&mpkwGifrSydkI tajcckdifvmonfudk awG@&onf? xdkyGifhvif;a&;tawG;tac: rsm;. v+yf&Sm;r+rsm;aemufwGif
jyifopfawmfvSefa&;}uD; (1789) ESifh tar&duefvGwfvyf a&;a-unmpmwrf; (1776) ckESpfwkd@udk
jzpfay:apcJhonf[kqkdonf? jyifopfawmfvSefa&; }uD;onf EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:rsm;. puf&Hkjzpfonf[k
EkdifiHa&; tawG;tac:udk avhvm olrsm;u tckid ftrm ajym-uonf? EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:rsm;
pwifxGef;um;vmr+onf jyifopfawmfvSefa&;ESifh tar&duefawmfvSefa&; _yD;aemufwGifay:vmjcif;jzpf_yD;
xkdt awG;tac:rsm;ESifhtwl,SOfwJGI ,ae@ 'Drkdua&pD. t,ltqoabmw&m;rsm;udkvnf; cdkicf dkirf mrm
azmfxkwfvm-uonf?
omreftm;jzifh 'Drkdua&pDonf tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfw&yfom jzpfonfqkdaomfvnf; rnf onfhtkyfcsKyf
a&;pepfrqkd EdkifiHa&;tawG;tac: wpfckckESifh qufpyfywfoufIom jzpf ay:&yfwnfae-uonf? 'Drkdua&pD
tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfxGef;um;vmaom tcsdefonf vl@t zJG@tpnf;wGif EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:aygif;pHk
jzpfay:vmaom tcsdefumvvnf; jzpfaeo jzifh xkdEkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:tm;vHk;u 'Drkdua&pDudk
rdrdbufvkdufatmif qJG,lt"dy`g,f zGifhqkdjcif;jzifh EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:t& 0daooyaom 'Drkdua&pDrsm;
rsufarSmufacwf vl@tzJG@tpnf;}uD;wGif awG@jrifae&ayonf?

vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pD
Liberal Democracy
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 77

vpfb&,f0g'. oabmobm0
(The Nature of Liberalism)
vpfb&,f0g' wpHkvHk;ukd avhvmjcif;ryaomfvnf; vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDta-umif;ukd avhvm&mwGif
taxmuftuljzpfap&eftvdk@iSm vpfb&,f0g' obm0. oabmo bm0udkrl tajccHr#udk
od&Sdxm;oihfonf?
vpfb&,f0g' pwifxGef;um;jcif;ESifhywfoufI tcsKd@aomynm&Sifrsm;u jyifopfawmf vSefa&; rwdkifrD 14
&mpk Oa&myEkdifiHrsm;ESifh 17 &mpkuwnf;u t*FvefEkdifiHwGif &SdcJh a-umif;/ xkdtcsdefu vpfb&,f0g'onf
uGefqmaA;wpf0g' (conservatism) ESifh qufpyfv#uf&Sdonf? okd@aomf ,ae@acwfwGif
xGef;um;aeaom vpfb&,f0g'onf jyifopfawmfvSefa&;rS pwifcJha-umif;ukd ynm&Siftm;vHk;vkdvkdu
vufcHxm;-uonf? xkd@a-umifh vpfb&,f0g'. oabmobm0ukd avhvmv#if jyifopfawmfvSefa&;ywf
0ef;usifumvu
jzpfay:aeaomorkdif;a&;ESifh
EkdifiHa&;aemufcH
ta-umif;w&m;udk
xnfh
oGif;pOf;pm;&efvkdonf? tb,fha-umifhqdkaomf xdktcsdefuwnf;u &SdcJhaom vpfb&,f 0g'.
oabmw&m;t,ltqwkd@onf rsufarSmufacwf vpfb&,f0g'. oabmw&m; t,ltqwkdif;yif
jzpfaeIjzpfonf? jyifopfawmfvSwfa&;ESifh tar&duefawmfvSefa&; twGif; umvrsm;wGif vpfb&,f0g'
(liberalism) [lonfukd a0g[m&taejzifh oHk;pJG jcif;r&Sdao;yJ vpfb&,ft,ltqrsm;uom
tqdkygawmfvSefa&;wGif v$rf;rkd;cJhonf? a0g[m&taejzifh pwifoHk;pJGr+rSm 1812 ckESpfY pydefEkdifiHYjzpf_yD; 1840
ckESpf aemufykdif; wGifrS us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ uskifhoHk;vmcJhonf?
vpfb&,f (liberal) wkd@onf vlwef;pm;tv$mw&yfjzpf_yD; xkdvlpkonf vlvGwf (free man)
vlwef;pm;ukd &nf!Gef;onf? vl@orkdif;wav#mufwGif aus;ykdif u|efykdifESifh u|ef rsm;
ajr&SifESifhajru|efrsm;&SdcJhjcif; ta-umif;t&if;rsm;u xkdokd@aomvGwfvyfyGifhvif; onfh vlwef;pm;tkyfpkukd
aygufzGm;ay;jcif;ESifhwlonf? vlvGwfvlwef;pm;wkd@onf ajr&Sif ya'o&mZf tkyfpkvnf;r[kwf/
aus;u|eftkyfpkvnf;r[kwfbJ pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;aumif; rGef_yD; ynmwwfol vlwef;pm;jzpfvmonf?
jyifopfawmfvSefa&;}uD;umv
jyifopf
vl@tzJG@tpnf;Yyg0ifaom
vlwef;pm;rsm;ukd
vuQ%mowfrSwfcsufyvkyfv#if rif;rsK;d rif;EG,fya'o&mZftkypf k/ vlvGwfvlwef;pm;rsm;ESifh aus;u|efuJhodk@
tzdESdyfcHjynfolvl xk}uD;[lI (3)rsKd;awG@&onf?
vlvGwfvlwef;pm;onf rif;rsKd;rif;EG,f ya'o&mZfwkd@u axmufcHaom tuGif;rJhouf OD;qHydkifbk&ifpepfukd
ajymif;vJypf_yD; EkdifiHa&;vGwfvyfcGifhESifh pD;yGm;a&;vGwfvyfcGifh&Sdaom vl@tzJG@tpnf;ukd azmfaqmifvkdonhf
tawG;tac:&Sdoltkyfpkjzpfonf?
xkdolwkd@onf
vGwfvyfpGm
pD;yGm;vkyfykdifcGifh/
vGwfvyfpGma&;om;a[majymxkwfa0cGifh/
vGwfvyfpGm
bmomw&m;ukd;uG,fcGifh/
vGwfvyfpGm
EkdifiHa&;ouf0if,Hk-unfcGifhwkd@udk wefzdk;xm; onf? xdkolwkd@twGuf vGwfvyfr+.*k%foduQm (the

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 78

value of liberty) ukd txl; wefzdk;xm;ol tkyfpjk zpfonf? xkdvlvGwfvlwef;pm; (liberal) wk@d .
ouf0if,Hk-unfr+ tawG;tac:onf vpfb&,f0g' (liberalism) jzpfvmonf?
vpfb&,f0g'onf vlyk*~dKvfwpfOD;csif;pD. vGwfvyfr+tcGifhta&;ukd wefz;dk xm;av;pm; aom
vl@tzJG@tpnf;wnfaqmufa&;udk vkdvm;onf? zdESdyfcsKyfcs,faom tpkd;&rsm;ESifh pepfrsm;ukdz,f&Sm;_yD;
vl@tzGJ@tpnf;0if vlyk*~dKvfwdk@u rdrdwdk@-urRm rdrdwkd@ zefwD;cGifh&Sd aom tpkd;&yHkoefukd azmfaqmifvkduonf? tpdk;&ukduef@owfaom tm%mrsm;ay; xm;_yD; vlyk*~dKvfwOD;csif;pD. vGwfvyfr+ukd
tmrcHcsuf&Sdrnfh zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOy a't& tkyfcsKyfaom tpkd;&rsm;ukdom vl@tzJG@tpnf;twGif;
azmfaqmif&efjzpfonf?
xkd
okd@aomtpkd;&rsm;onf
tpkd;&u
vkyfcsifovkdvkyfEkdifcGifhr&SdbJ
tkyfcsKyfcHvl@tzJG@tpnf; 0ifrsm;. qENt&om tpkd;&u vkyfaqmif&efjzpfonf? xkd@a-umifh
vpfb&,f0g'wGif atmufyg*k%fodumQ rsm; yg0ifaeonfukd awG@&onf?
(u) vGwfvyfr+. *k%foduQm (the value of the liberty) ukdwefzkd;xm;jcif;/
(c ) vlyk*~dKvfwpfOD;csi;f tay:wGif tajccHonfh0g' (individualism) jzpfjcif;/
(*) tajccHOya'ESifhtnD tkyfcsKyfaomtpdk;& (constitutional government) rsm;azmf
aqmifjcif;?
(C) pD;yGm;a&;pepfukd vl@tzJG@tpnf;u vkdtyfovkd jyXmef;EkdifcGifhukd vrf;zGifhay;a&; (free economic
system)ESifh tpkd;&u xdef;csKyfr+ uif;a0;a&; ponfwkd@jzpf onf?
txufYwifjycJhaom vGwfvyfr+. *k%foduQmudk wefzdk;xm;jcif;onf vpfb&,f0g'. rdKifjzpf onf[k
vpfb&,frsm;u ,Hk-unf-uonf? vGwfvyfr+t&mwGif ouf0if,Hk
-unfr+&Sdjcif;onf
vpfb&,ftawG;tac:. t"durdKifjzpfonf[k vpfb&,ftawG; tac:ynm&Sifrsm;u qkd-uonf?
txufyg t*Fg&yfrsm;onf vGwfvyfr+ *k%foduQmukd wefzkd;xm;jcif;tm; rSDwnfqufpyfIom
jzpfay:vm&onf? vGwfvyfpGm ajymqkdxkwf azmfa&;om;cGifh/ pD;yGm;a&;vGwfvyfcGifhESifh tajccHOya'ESifhtnD
tkyfcsKyfaom tpkd;&rsm; azmfaqmifcGifhwkd@onf vGwfvyfr+. *k%foduQmudkwefzkd; xm;av;pm;aom
vl@tzJG@t pnf;twGif;wGifrSjzpfEkdifaom t&mrsm;jzpfonf? vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pD [laoma0g[m& onf
'Drkdua&pDukd vpfb&,f0g'u ouf0if,Hk-unfaom vGwfvyfr+oabm w&m;rsm; jzifh 'Drkdua&pDukd
usihfoHk;jcif;ukd ukd,fpm;y ajymqkdaom a0g[m&jzpfvmonf?
wzef vpfb&,f0g'ukd a&S;a[mif; vpfb&,f0g' (classical liberalism) ESifh acwf opfvpfb&,f 0g'
(modern liberalism) [lI ESpfrsKd; xyfrH ydkif;jcm;xm;jyefonf? a&S;a[mif;vpfb&,f0g'tjzpf
ya'o&mZfpepfrS t&if;&Sifpepfokd@ ul;ajymif;umvrSpI 19 &mpk tukefykdif;txd xGef;um;vmaom
vpfb&,f0g'ukd &nf!Gef;jcif;jzpfonf? acwfopf vpfb&,f0gtjzpf 20 &mpkwGif xGef;um;aeaom
vpfb&,f0g'ukd tpGef; a&mufyk*~dKvfwOD;csif;pDtay: tajccHonfh0g'jzpf_yD; &Hzef&Hcg if;wkd@ajymaom
vGwfvyfr+ onf tysufoabmvGwfvyfr+rsm; jzpf-uonf? acwfopf vpfb&,f0g'onf vl
yk*~dKvfwpfOD;csif;pD. vGwfvyfr+ukdusifhoHk;&mwGif vl@tzJG@tpnf;ESifh o[Zmwjzpfrnfh vGwfvyfr+udkom
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 79

usifhoHk;&efjzpfojzifh tyoabmvGwfvyfr+udkom awmif;qkdaom 0g' jzpfonf? a&S;a[mif;vpfb&,f0g'u


acwfopfvpfb&,f0g'xuf ykdIjyif;xefaom oabmukdaqmifonf?
vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pD. twGif;oabm
(The Concept of Liberal Democracy)
vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDonf Oa&myEkdifiHrsm;/ ajrmuftar&duwkdufEkdifiHrsm;/ -op-wvs/ e,l;ZDvef
paomEkdifiHrsm;wGif usihfoHk;aom 'Drkdua&pDjzpfonf? wenf;tm;jzifh yxr urBmhEkdifiHrsm;wGif usifhoHk;aom
'Drkdua&pDyifjzpfonf[k qkdEkdifygonf? vpfb&,f'Drkdu a&pDonf ttkyftcsKyfcH jynfolrsm;.
qENoabmwlnDr+t&om usifhoHk;tkyfcsKyfaom 'Drkdua&pDjzpfonf? vpfb&,f'Drkd ua&pDEkdifiHwckwGif
tpkd;&rsm;onf tkyfcsKyfcHEkdifiHom; rsm;. tcGifhta&;udk tumtuG,fay;um vkdtyfcsufukd
jznfhqnf;ay;EkdifygrS tm%m wnf_rJEkdifonf? tb,fha-umihfqkdaomf xkdokd@aom tpdk;&rsK;dukdom
EkdifiHom;rsm;u if; wkd@tay:tkycf sKyf&ef qENoabmxm;ay;rnfjzpf_yD; EkdifiHom;wkd@. tvkdqENnukd rjznfh
qnf;Ekdifaom
tpkd;&rsm;ukd
a&G;aumufyJGrsm;wGifjzpfap/
tjcm;aom
'Drkdua&pD
vkyfxHk;
vkyfenf;rsm;ESifhtnDjzpfap/ z,f&Sm;ypf-uayrnf? okd@jzpfI vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pD tpkd;& rsm;onf
jynfolvlxktusKd;pD;yGm;ukd
tpkd;&
tusKd;pD;yGm;xufykdI
tav;teufxm;-u
&onf?
vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHrsm;wGif
a&G;cs,fwifajrmufjcif;qkdif&m
vkyfief;pOfrs;ukd
pkpnf;xm;onfh
a&G;cs,fwifajrmufjcif;qkdif&m Oya'rsm; vkyx
f ;kH vkyfenf;rsm; txl;t av;ay;cH&onf? tb,fhaumifhqkdaomf
'Drkdua&pDEkdifiH
[kwfr[kwfukd
tuJjzwf&mwGif
a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyJGrsm;ukd
tcsdefrSefusif;yjcif;&Sdr&Sd/ a&G;cs,fwifajrmufa&;aumfr&Sif rsm;ESifh a&G;cs,fwifajrmufyHk/ rJay;yHkpepfrsm;
w&m;r#wr+&Sdr&Sd/ a&G;cs,fwif;ajrmufyJG_yD; aemuf tm%mv$Jajymif;ay;r+tajctae tp&Sdonfh
tcsufrsm;udkvnf; txl;wvnf avhvmoHk;oyf&jcif;a-umifh jzpfonf? TtcsufESifh ywfoufI
tjynfjynfqkdif&m vl@ tcGifhta&; a-unmpmwrf;tykd'f(21)wGif jyXmef;xm;onfukd awG@&jcif;jzpfonf?
'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHrsm;wGif jynfolwdk@.qENrsm;ukd a&G;aumufyJGrsm;wGif vGwfvyfpGmxkwf azmfjyocGifh&a&;ESifh
xkda&G;aumufyJGrsm;udk umvtykdif;tjcm;owfrSwfcsdeftvkduf usif; ya&;rSm txl;yifta&;}uD;onf?
xkdvkdtyfcsufrsm;udk vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHrsm;wGif txl;ta&;ay; tumtuG,fyxm;onfukd
awG@&onf? vGwfvyfaom a&G;aumufyJG rsm;ESifh qufpyfI jzpfay:vmaom ta&;ygr+w&yfrSm ygwDpHkpepf
usihfoHk;a&;jzpfonf? xkda&G;aumufyJGrsm;wGif 0ifa&muf,OS fydifta&G;cHrnfh EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;onf if;wkd@.
ygwDay:vpDrsm;ukd rJqEN&Sifjynfolrsm;a&SarSmuf csjyxm;_yD; rdrdwkd@ygwD tEkdif&a&;t wGuf vGwfvyfpGm
rJqG,fpnf;&Hk;-uayvdrfhrnf? rJqEN&Sifrsm;onf if;wkd@ tusKd;pD;yGm;ukd trsm;qHk;azmfaqmifrnfhtpkd;&ukd
zJG@pnf;ay:aygufaponf? Toabmw&m;rsm;udk 'Gef;pf . 'Drkdua&pDoDtkd&D(1975) wGif tus,fw0ifh
azmfjyxm;onf? xkdoabmw&m; rsm;onf vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDtwGif; vGwfvyfaom a&G;aumufyJGrsm;ESifh
ygwDpHkpepf qufpyfta&;ygyHkwkd@ukd wifjyxm;jcif;jzpfonf?
vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHrsm;wGif zJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'ESifhtnD tkyfcsKyfaomt pkd;&rsKd;ukdom
yHkazmusihfoHk;-uonf? Tokd@aom pepf&Sdonfh vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDEkdifiH rsm;wGif EkdifiHzJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk
tajccHOya'u tpkd;&rsm;tay: tkyfcsKyfEkdifonf? &Hzef&Hcg tpkd;&rsm;onf EkdifiHzJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk
tajccHOya'. yk'fxD;/ yk'frrsm;ukd if;wkd@. vkd&m bufokd@ qJG,lt"dyg` ,fzGifhr+rsm;&Sdonf? xkdtajctae.
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 80

aemufqufwJGtaejzifh tajccHO ya'qkdif&m tjiif;yGm;r+rsm; jzpfay:vmwwfonf? xdktcsif;yGm;r+rsm;udk


ajz&Sif;&mwGif vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHrsm;wGifrl EkdifiHawmf. tjrifhqHk;w&m;&Hk;. tqHk;tjzwfudk cH,l u&onf? 'Drkdua&pDESifhqef@usifonfh tpkd;&rsm;&SdonfhEkdifiHrsm;wGif tpkd;&rsm;u tajc cHOya'udk
if;wkd@tusKd;twGufqkdv#if zsufqD;ypfwwf-uonf? tajccHOya' ckdifrmr+ukd vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pD
EkdifiHrsm;wGifykdI
awG@&onf?
vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHrsm;jzpfaom
tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwGif
vuf&SdusifhoHk;qJjzpfaom tajccHOya'onf 1789 ckESpfu wnf;u twnfycJyh_ D; qGpfZmvefEkdifiHwGif 1874
ckESpf/ t*FvefEkdifiHwGif 1832 ckESpf/ -opa-wvsEkdifiHwGif 1900 ckESpfrsm;uwnf;u twnfycJh-uonf//
xkdOya'rsm;ukd tcg tm;avsmfpGm jyifqifjznfhpGufr+ om&Sd-u_yD; tajccHOya'udk tajcrSpI zsufodrf;jcif;
ajymif;vJjcif;rsKd;r&Sd-uay? tm%m&Sifwykdif; EkdifiHjzpfcJhaom xkdif;EkdifiHwGif 1932 ckESpfwGif tajccHOya'
pwiftwnfyjyXmef;usifhoHk;_yD;onfrSpI 1992 ckEpS f 0ef}uD;csKyf c|rfvDykdif tpkd;&vufxuftxd
tESpf(60)umvtwGif; tajccHOya' rsKd;pHk (14)ckudk a&;qJGvkduf/ usifhoHk;vkduf/ zsufodrf;vkduf vkyfcJhzl;onf?
xkd@twl 1948 ckESpf vGwfvyfa&;&_yD;cgp ygvDref'Drkdua&pDusifhoHk;aom jrefrmEkdifiHwGif 1962 ckESpf ppfwyfu
tm%m odrf;aom tcg tajccHOya'ukd zsufodrf;cJhonf? xkd@jyif 1974 ckESpfwGif pwiftwnfyusifhoHk;
aom tajccHOya'udk (14)ESpft-umwGif ppfwyfu xyfrHzsufodrf;cJhjyefonf? 'Drkdua&pD wnf_idrfr+onf
tajccHOya'wnf_idrfr+ESifhrsm;pGmwnfrSD qufpyfaeonfqkdaom oabm w&m;ukd vpfb&,f
'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHrsm;wGif tjrwfwEdk;ESifh wefzdk;xm;wwf-uonf?
pme,fZif;vGwfvyfcGifhonf vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pD &Sifoefaea&;twGuf ta&;}uD;aom tcef;u rS
yg0ifonf? tjcm;aom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfESifh EkdifiHa&;pepfrsm;wGif cGifhyjcif; r&Sdaom/ cGihfyaomfvnf;
tuef@towf&Sdaom pme,fZif; vGwfvyfcGifhukd vpfb&,f 'Drkdua&pDEdkifiHrsm;wGif tjynfht0
cGifhyxm;onf? tm%m&SifEkdifiHrsm;wGif pme,fZif;ukd tpkd;& okd@r[kwf tm%m&ygwD. 0g'
jzef@csDa&;ud&d,mtaejzifhom toHk;yaecsdefwGif vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pD EkdifiHrsm;wGifrl vlvlcsif;
qufqHa&;vGwfvyfcGifhtwGuf toHk;y aom t"du ud&d,mtjzpfawG@&onf? vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDokd@
toGif;ul;ajymif;&ef tpDtpOf&Sdaom vl@tzJG@tpnf;wckonf pme,fZif; vGwfvyfcGifhukd cGifhy&rnfom
jzpfonf? xkdvGwfvyfcGifhukd tvGJoHk;pm;yv#if tysufoabm vGwfvyfr+oabmukd OD; wnfoGm;Ekdifaumif;udk pkd;&drfzG,f&m&Sdonf? okd@&mwGif xkdtqifhukd tcsdefwkdyif jzpfvifh upm; 'Drkdua&pDokd@um;
vG,fvG,fESifh a&mufEkdifrnf r[kwfay?
vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDESifh orkdif;vrf;qHk;
(Liberal Democracy and the End of History)
vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDonf taemufESifh ajrmufOa&my/ ajrmuftar&duESifh -opa-wvs wkduf EdkifiHrsm;wGif
atmifjrifv#uf&Sdonfqkdv#if
tjiif;yGm;zG,f
wpHkw&mr&Sdacs?
okd@
aomf
qkdAD,ufjynfaxmifpkyduJGjcif;ESifhtwl vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDonf tm&SESifh Oa&my EkdifiHrsm;txd jyef@ESH@oGm;_y;D
aemufqHk;wGif
urBm}uD;onf
vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDpepfqDokd@
OD;wnfa&G@vsm;oGm;avawmhonf?
0g'a&;&mt& wkdufyJG}uD;jzpfaom ta&Stkyfpk t aemuftkyfpk tm;ydifr+rSmvnf; qHk;cef;wkdifum
ydifbufr&Sdawmhaom vpfb&,f'Drkdu a&pDu ae&m,loGm;avawmhonf? orkdif;vrf;qHk;a&muf
avawmhonf ponfjzifh tar&duef ay:vpDokawoD zlul,m;rm; (Francis Fukuyama) u
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 81

orkdif;vrf;qHk; avm (the end of history, 1989) pmtkyfukd a&;om;xkwfa0vkdufjcif;ESifh ywf


oufIrl okawoDavmuwGif a0zefr+rsm; tajctwifaqG;aEG;r+rsm; ay:xGufcJhonf? xkda0zefcsuf
aqG;aEG;csufrsm;onf zlul,m;rm; ajymouJhokd@ urBm}uD;onf vpfb&,f 'Drkdua&pD urBm}uD;
jzpfrjzpfqdkonfh tcsufESifh trsm;tm;jzifh oufqkdifayonf?
1985 ckESpfwGif qkdAD,ufuGefrlepfygwD. taxGaxGtwGif;r+;csKyftjzpf rDac;vfa*:Am acsmh (Mikhail
Gorbachev) tm; cef@tyf_yD;aemufwGif uGefrlepfEkdifiH qkdAD,ufjynf axmifpkESifh ta&SOa&my&Sd
uGefrlepfEdkifiHrsm;wGif
tajymif;tvJrsm;pGmjzpfcJhonf?
jynfol
vlxk.
tHkuGqENjyr+rsm;u
uGefrlepfwygwDtm%m&Sifpepfudk ta&SOa&myrS 1989=90 ckESpfrsm;wGift_yD;wkdif z,f&Sm;cJh_yD;
ra&S;raESmif;rSmyif
qkdAD,ufjynfaxmifpkwGifvnf;
ed*Hk;csKyfcJhonf?
ywfusoGm;aom
tm%m&Siftpkd;rsm;.ae&mwGif vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pD tpkd;&rsm;u ae&m,lvm-uonf? xdk@twlyif
tmz&duY ESpf&Snfzrf;qD;jcif;cH&aom tmz&du trsKd;om;uGef*&ufacgif;aqmiftm; v$wfay;jcif; tygt0if
tm&SEkdifiHtcsKd@ wGif jzpfay:cJhaom EkdifiHa&;t& tajymif;tvJwkd@onf vpfb&,f'Drkd ua&pDokd@ OD;wnf aom
tajymif;tvJwkd@jzpfonf[k
zlul,m;rm;u
cJGjcrf;pdwfjzmoHk;oyfwifjyxm;onf?
xdktajymif;tvJjzpfaeaomEdkifiHwkd@wGif ynmwwfvlwef;pm;wkd@onf vGwfvyfpGmxkwf azmfajymqkdcGifhukd
ydkIawmif;qkdvm_yD; xdkrSwqifh ,SOfydifr+&Sdaom 'Drdkua&pD EkdifiH a&;wGif yg0ifaqmif&GufcGifhukd
ykdIawmif;qdkvm-uonf? pD;yGm;a&;bufu-unfhv#if vnf; pufr+/ vufr+ tHhrcef;xGef;um;aeaom
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pdfwful;,Ofr#omjzpfawmhI aps; uGufpD;yGm;a&;udk awmif;qdkolrsm;. vufwGifom tyfESH&ef tajctaeu
awmif;qdk vmonf? xkdtcsufrsm;onf vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDokd@ OD;wnfa&G@vsm;oGm;jcif;rsm; jzpf onf[k
zlul,m;rm;u axmufjyxm;onf?
vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDonf 'kwd,urBmhtkyfpk0if EkdifiHrsm;jzpfonfh ta&SOa&my uGefrlepf EkdifiHrsm;ESifh
qkdA,ufjynfaxmifpkwkd@wGif
ae&m,lcJh_yD[laom
zlul,m;rm;.
oHk;oyf
csufudk
tcsKd@okawoDwdk@uvufcHaomfvnf; tcsKd@uajymif;jyefbufrS a0zefr+rsm;vnf; &Sd-uonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh
qdkAD,uf
jynfaxmifpkwGif
uGefrlepfpepf
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vGwfvyfaom
orRwEkdifiH(15)ckay:xGufvmjcif;ukdaxmufI tcsKd@okawoDrsm;u qkdAD ,ufjynfaxmifpk. uGefrlepf0g'ukd
vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pD u tEkdif,loGm;jcif;r[kwfbJ trsKd;om;a&;0g' (nationalism) rsm;u
tEdkif&oGm;onf[k qdk-uonf?
tcsKd@u zlul,m;rm;tm; urBmay:wifxkxnfyrm% -uD;pGmaom vlOD;a&xkudk v$rf;rdk; aeao;onfh
t,l0g'wckusef&Sdaejcif;ESifh ywfoufI vpfb&,f'Dua&pD ordkif;vrf;qHk; a&mufra&mufudk
ar;cGef;xkwfvm-uonf? urBmvlOD;a&. oHk;yHkwyHkcef@r# &Sdaomrlq vifrsm;wGif jyif;xefaom
tpPvmefbmom tajccH0g' (fundamentalism) pdrfh0if aejcif;tay: vpfb&,f'Drdkua&pDu
xdk;azgufEdkifpGrf;&Sd r&Sdudk bDbDpDtoHv$ifh tpDtpOf wpfcku zlul,m;rm;udk ar;cGef;xkwfcJhonf?
zlul,m;rm;u ajzqdkonfrSm tpPvmrft ajccH0g'onf e,fcsJ@Edkifavmufonfh v$rf;rdk;EdkifpGrf;aom

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 82

0g'r[kwfbJ vpfb&,f'Drdku a&pDuom v$rf;rdk;EdkifpGrf;aom0g'jzpfI wae@ae@wcsed fcsdefwGif rlqvifvlxkuD;txd v$rf;rdk;xdk;azgufoGm;rnf[k ajymqdkcJhonf?


ppfat;wdkufyJGusqHk;jcif;ESifhtwl 'Drdkua&pDa&;awmif;qdkqENjyr+rsm;ESifh toGiful;ajymif; r+rsm;udk
urBmt&yfa'otcsKd@wGif awG@jrifae&onf? odk@&mwGif'Drdkua&pD[k qdk&mY urBm@t&yfa'otm;vHk;wGif
vpfb&m,f'Drdkua&pD
wrsKd;wnf;omppfrSefjyD;
urBm@EdkifiH
tm;vHk;
xdk'Drdkua&pDqDodk@
OD;wnfaeonf[kqdkv#ifum; tjiif;yGm;zG,ftcsKd@ ay:xGuf vmEdkifayonf? tb,fa-umifhqdkaomf
urBm@t&yfa'otcsKd@wGif vpfb&,f'Drdkua&pD r[kwfaom 'Drku
d a&pDrsm;wnf&SdaeqJ/ usifhoHk;aeqJjzpfI
jzpfonf? vpfb&m,f'Drdku a&pDu tjcm;aom'Drdkua&pDrsm;udk tpm;xkd;ae&m,ljyD; aemufqHk;wGif urBmuD;Y vpf b&,f'Drdkua&pDom use&f Sdaernfavmqdkonfhtcsufudk 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyf a&;pepfqD odk@
OD;wnfajymif;vJaeaom/ OD;wnfwdkufyJG0ifaeaom vl@tzJG@tpnf;rsm;/ EdkifiHrsm;u om wpfcsdefcsdefwGif
tqHk;tjzwfay;-u&rnfh udpPjzpfonf?
jynfol@'Drdkua&pD
People's Democracy
jynfol@'Drdkua&pDonf ypPnf;rJh'Drdkua&pD (proletarian democracy) yifjzpfjyD; xdka0g [m&rsm;onf
'kwd,urBmac: uGefjrLepfEdkifiHa&;pepf&Sdonfh EdkifiHrsm;. tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf udk &nf!Gef;az:jyjcif;jzpfonf?
jynfol@'Drdkua&pDudk 1917ckESpf/ &k&Sm;EdkifiHY abm&SDApf awmfveS fa&;tjyD; yxrOD;qHk;usifhoHk;cJhonf?
xdk@aemufwGif ta&SOa&myEdkifiHrsm;/ w &kwf/ AD,uferf/ usL;bm;/ ajrmufudk;&D;,m; ponfh EdkifiHrsm;wGif
usifhoHk;vmcJh-uonf? jynfol@'Drdkua&pDonf rmhpf=vDeif rl0g'rsm;tay:wGif t"du tajccHxm;jyD; taemuf
EdkifiHrsm;wGifusifhoHk;aom vpfb&,f'Drdkua&pDESifh rsm;pGmjcm;em;csuf&Sd onfudk awG@& onf? rmhpf.
tjrift& vpfb&,f'Drdkua&pDonf twkta,mifomjzpfjyD; vlwef; pm;ydyuQrsm; zdESdyfr+rsm;jzifh
jynfhESufaeonf[kqdkonf? if;vpfb&,f'Drdkua&pD qdk onfrSm t&if; &Sif'Drdkua&pD (capitalist
democracy) omjzpfonf[k qdkonf// a&G; aumufyJGrsm;wGif 0ifa&muf,SOfydifta&G;cHjcif;jzifh
EdkifiHa&;,SOfydifr+&Sdaom vpfb&,f'Drdk ua&pDonf jynfolvlxkudk tmrcHEdkifaom tpdk;&w&yfudk
azmfaqmifEdkifrnf r[kwf a-umif;rmhpfuqdkonf? xdk@a-umifht&if;&Sif vl@tzJG@tpnf;tm; "euG,f0aom
t&Sif; &Sifvlwef;pm;wdk@uom vuf0g;-uD;tkyfxm;onfudk ukpm;&ef uGefjrLepf tpdk;&rsm;u
jynfol@'Drdkua&pDudk azmfaqmifvm-uonf? odk@jzpfIjynfol@'Drku
d a&pD ta-umif;avh vmv#if
t"dutm;jzifh uGefjrLepfEdkifiHa&; tawG;tac:ta-umif;udk OyuQmyI avh vmr+yEdkifrnfr[kwfay?
uGefjrLepf0g'. oabmobm0
(The Nature of Communism)

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 83

uGefjrLepf0g'onf jyifopfawmfvSefa&;wGif tpysKd;cJh-uaom acwfydifEdkifiHa&;tawG;t ac:rsm; jzpfuonfh vpfb&,f0g'/ trsKd;om;a&;0g'/ wdk@ESifhtydif ay:aygufvmjyD; 1848 ckESpfwGif rmhpf (Kar
Marx,1818-1883) ESifhtdef*s,fvf (Friedrich Engels, 1820-1893) wdk@uuGefjrLepfaunmpmwrf; (the communist manifesto) udka&;om;jyD;aemuf tcdkiftrmay:xGef;vmaom
EdkifiHa&;tawG;t ac:w&yfjzpfco
Jh nf// Oa&myY pufr+awmfvSefa&;acwfwGif ay:aygufvmjcif;jzpf&m
t&if;&SifpD;yGm;a&; pepft wGif; tvkyfoRm;vlwef;pm; ypPnf;rJhrsm; *kwfaoG;pkwfcHae&r+udk ukpm;&ef
blZGmvlwef; pm; (bourgeois) wdk@udk ,SOfydiftHwkrnfh tawG;tac:tjzpf ay:aygufvmjcif;vnf;
jzpfonf?
vuf&Sdtcsdeftxd wnf&SdcJhaom vl@tzJG@tpnf;. ordkif;onf vlwef;pm;&kef;uef v+yf &Sm;r+rsm;.
ordkif;jzpfonf (the history all hiherto existing history is the history of class
struggle.) [kuGef jrLepfa-unmpmwrf; tcef;(1). yxrOD;qHk;pm a-umif;wGifazmfjyxm;onf?
uGefjrLepf0g'onf vltzJG@tpnf;.jy\emrsm;udk vlwef; pm;ydyuQrsm;. jy\emrsm;tjzpf
&+jrifoHk;oyfonf? vl@tzJG@tpnf;twGif; vlwef; pm;nDr#oGm;jyD; twef;tpm;jy\em uif;rJhoGm;ygu
tjcm;aomjy\emrsm;onf vnf; ajyvnfjyD;om;jzpfonf[k uGefjrLepf0g'u az:jycJhonf? xdk@aumifhuGefjrLepft awG;tac:wckvHk;ESifh uGefjrLepf0g'udkusifhoHk;rnfh EdkifiHa&;pepfw&yfvHk;u twef;tpm;
jy\em ajz&Si;f a&;&++axmifu
h om t"ducsOf;uyfcJhonf? xdka-umifh'Drdkua&pDqdkonfudk vnf;
twef;tpm; a&;jy\em ajz&Sif;a&;&+axmifhu csOf;uyfxm;onf?
uGefjrLepf0g'pwifay:aygufvmjcif;
ta-umif;&if;rsm;wGif
Oa&mywdkufY
pufr+vufr+
xGef;um;vmaomacwfwGif
ypPnf;rJhtvkyfoRm;rsm;*kwf
aoG;pkwcf aH e&jcif;/
pD;yGm;a&;t
ajctaeqdk;&Gm;aejcif;udk u,fwif&ef vkdtyfaejcif;onf t"dujzpfcJhonf? t&if;&Sifvl wef;pm;rSm
vlenf;pkjzpfjyD; trsm;pkjzpfaom tvkyfoRm;vlwef;pm;rsm;rSm ypPnf;rJhrsm; jzpfaeonf? xdk@aumifhpD;yGm;a&;&+axmifht& vlrsm;pkypPnf;rJhrsm;. tusKd;pD;yGm;udk az: aqmifay;&ef uGefjrLepf0g'u
OD;wnfxm;jyD; xdkodk@vkyfaqmifEdkif&eftwGuf EdkifiHa&;t& ypPnf;rJhrsm;tm%m&,l&ef vrf;!Gefxm;onf?
aemufqHk;ypPnf;rJh tm%m&Sifpepf (proletarian dictatorship) udk pdkufxl&efjzpfonf? xdk@aumifhuGefjrLepf0g'udkTodk@ ESpfydkif;cGJjcm;avhvmrnfqdkygu rSm;rnfrxifyg?
1? pD;yGm;a&;t& yk*~vduydkifqdkifr+udkzsufodrf;/ ukefxkwft&if;tESD;rsm;udk vl@tzJG@t pnf;u ydkifqdkifapjyD;
vl@tzGJ@tpnf;twGif; vlwef;pm;uGm[r+ r&Sdonfh vl@tzJG@t pnf;udk azmfaqmifa&;?
2? uGefjrLepfpD;yGm;a&;pepfudk taumiftxnfaz:Edkif&eftwGuf vdkufav#mnDaxGjzpf rnfh EdkifiHa&; pepfudk
ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;rsm;u pkaygif;az:xkwfa&; wdk@jzpfonf?
jynfol@'Drdkua&pDonf uGefjrLepfEdkifiHa&;pepfu azmfxkwfvdkufonfh 'Drdkua&pDyHkpHwrsKd; jzpfonf?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 84

pD;yGm;a&; twef;tpm;rsm; (economic classes) onf vl@tzJG@tpnf;twGif;wGif


ukefxkwft&if;tESD;
ykdifqkdifol
t&if;&Sifvlwef;pm;rsm;ESifh
xkdukefxkwft&if;tESD;rsm;udk
toHk;yvkyfukdifae&aom tvkyform;vlwef;pm;rsm;t-um;wGif tajccHI jzpfay:vm& onf? xkdpD;yGm;a&;
twef;pm;rsm;rSonf vlwef;pm;uGm[r+toGifokd@ ul;ajymif;oGm;_yD; vlwef;pm; ydyuQrsm;udk
jzpfay:apjyefaponf? ukefxkwft&if;tESD;tm;vHk;udk pufr+ acwfwGif t&if;&SifblZGmvlwef;pm;rsm;u
odrf;ykdufxm;Ekdifojzifh xkdokd@aom vlwef; pm;ydyuQukd jzpfay:aponf[k rmhpfu oHk;oyf_yD;onfhaemufwGif
vlwef;pm;nDr#oGm; _yD; ydyuQrsm;csKyf_idrf;oGm;a&;twGuf ukefxkwft&if;tESD;tm;vHk;ukd vlwef;pm; w&yf
vuf0,frxm;&SdbJ vl@tzJG@tpnf;tm; ykdifqdkifap_yD; ukefypPnf;xkwv
f kyfjcif;/ cJGa0jzef@zl; jcif;
ukefzvS,fjcif;vkyfief;rsm;udkvnf; vl@tzJG@tpnf;uom vkdtyfovkd pDrHaqmif&Guf oGm;&ef rmhpf.
tawG;tac:rsm;u vrf;!Gefxm;onf?
pD;yGm;a&;ESifh EdkfifiHa&;ywfoufqufpyfaer+ukd rmhpfu oHk;oyf&mwGif pD;yGm;a&;tm%m ykdifpkd;olwkd@u
pD;yGm;a&;tm;ta-umif;yI EkdifiHawmftm%mukd xdef;csKyfolrsm;jzpfvm
-uonf[k oHk;oyfonf?
ajr&Sifya'o&mZfacwfu ajrykdif&Sif}uD;rsm;ESifh rif;rsKd;rif;EG,f tkyfpw
k kd@onf pufr+awmfvSefa&;acwfwGif
blZGmvlwef;pm;toGifokd@ ul;ajymif;oGm;-u onf? ajr&Sifya'o&mZfacwfu tkyfpkd;olwkd@onf
pufr+acwfajymif;awmfvSefa&;acwf wGif ygvDreftwGif; xkd;azguf0ifa&mufvm_yD; if;wkd@udk,fwkdifjzpfap/
if;wkd@ukd,fpm; vS,frsm;ujzpfap/ EkdifiHawmftm%mudk xdef;csKyfxm;jyefonf? ajr&Sifya'o&mZfacwf u
tkyfcsKyfol vlwef;pm;rsm;. tkycf sKyfa&; tajccHtawG;tac:jzpfaom bk&m;ay; tkyfcsKyfa&;tm%m
(divine right) tpm; pufr+awmfvSefa&;acwfwGif vpfb&,f0g' (ueOD; vpfb&,f0g'jzpfaom
a&S;a[mif; vpfb&,f0g')u tpm;xkd;vmonf? xkd@
a-umifh blZGmwkd@. vpf&,f0g'qkdonfrSm
if;wkd@tkyfcsKyfa&;tm%m &a&;twGuft axmuftuly tawG;tac:om jzpfonf? xkdtawG;tac:t&
jzpfay:vmaom vpfb &,f'Drkdua&pDonf blZGmvlwef;pm;twGufomjzpf_yD; ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm;rJh 'Drkdua&pD
ac: jynfo@l 'Dru
dk a&pDudk azmfaqmif&efvkdtyfonf[k jynfol@'Drkdua&pDukd azmfaqmif &efvkdtyfonf[k
jynfol@'Drkdua&pDukd azmfaqmifolrsm;u ,Hk-unf -uonf?
jynfol@'Drkdua&pD. twGif;oabm
(The Concept of People's Democracy)
jynfol@'Drkdua&pDonf uGefrlepf0g' taumiftxnfaz:aqmifEdkif&eftwGuf vdkuf av#mnDaxGjzpfrnfh
EdkifiHa&;pepfudk
taxmuftulyaom
'Drdkua&pDjzpfonf//
uGefjrL
epfvl@tzJG@tpnf;odk@
ta&mufcsDwuf&eftwGuf (vdktyfygu t-urf;zufr+rsm;tygt 0if) awmfvSefa&;enf;jzpfaom
&&SdEdkifonf[kvufcHaom uGefjrLepfrsm;onf jynfol@ 'Drdkua&pDpepfudk azmfaqmifolrsm;jzpfonf?
uGefjrLepf0g'[m ypPnf;rJh0g'u ypPnf;rJh tm%m&Sifpepfudk xlaxmifjyD;rSom uGefjrLepftzJG@tpnf;udk
azmfaqmifEdkifrnf[k az:jy xm;onfhtwdkif; ypPnf;rJh'Drdkua&pD wenf;tm;jzifh jynfol@'Drdkua&pDonfom
uGefjrL epf0g'. tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfjzpfvm&onf?
uGefjrLepf'Drdkua&pDonf ypPnf;rJhrsm;. tusKd;pD;yGm;udk t"duOD;pm;ay; vkyfaqmif&m wGif
vlwpfOD;csif;pDtwGuf
nDr#aom
cGJa0jzef@jzL;r+&&Sda&;
(equal
distribution)
udk
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 85

t"duxm;vkyfaqmifonf? jynfol@'Drdkua&pD. nD!Gwfr+tcGifhta&;onf pD;yGm;a&;&+ axmifht&


nDr#r+omjzpfjyD; EdkifiHa&;tcGifhta&;t& nDr#r+r[kwfay? tb,fa-umifh qdkaomf vl@tzJG@tpnf;udk
uGefjrLepfvl@tzJG@tpnf;tjzpfodk@
ajymif;vJ&mwGif
ypPnf;rJhyg
wD.
tuGif;rJhOD;aqmifr+udk
vl@tzJG@tpnf;uemcH&ef jynfol@'Drdk ua&pDu jyXmef;xm; onf? TonfrSm EdkifiHa&;tm%mudk
ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; ygwDuom csKyfudkif&rnf[k qdkvdk&if;jzpfonf? uGefjrLepfEdkifiHrsm;tm;vHk;wGif
EdkifiHa&;tm%mudk uGefjrLepfygwDwck wnf;u csKyfukdifxm;onf? vl@tzJ@G tpnf;twGif;tjcm;aom
EdkifiHa&;ydifbuf tawG; tac:ESifh EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm; ay:aygufvm&jcif;/ EdkifiHa&;tm%m&,l&ef tm;xkwfvm
jcif;wdk@udk ypPnf;rJhygwDu t-urf;zufESdyfuGyf&efjzpfonf? uGefjrLepf0g'u vl@tzJG@tpnf; . jy\emrsm;udk
vlwef;pm;yd yuQrsm;tjzpfom &+jrifxm;ojzifh vlwef;pm;nDr#a&; tm; vkyfaqmif&mwGif EdkifiHa&;ygwDudk
ypPnf;rJhygwD wckwnf;u csKyfudkifxm;jcif;rSm tjzpfoifhqHk;[k ,Hk-unf-uonf?
tqdkygtcsufESifh ywfoufI jynfol@'Drdkua&pDESifh vpfb&,f'Drdkua&pDwdk@t-um; zDvm qef@usif
ajymif;jyefyv#uf&Sdonf? jynfol@'Drdkua&pDu vl@tzGJ@tpnf;twGif; nDr#r+t jzpf (pDyGm;a&;t&) cGJa0r+udk
t"duxm;jyD; EdkifiHa&;t& tcGifhta&;udk t"durxm;ay? vpfb&m,f'Drdkua&pDu vl@tzJG@tpnf;twGif;
nDr#r+qdkonfudk pD;yGm;a&;t& t"dur xm;bJ EdkifiHa&;tcGifhta&;udk t"duxm;onf?
vpfb&m,f'Drdkua&pDu EdkifiHa&;wGif vGwfvyfaomaps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepfudk usifhoHk;jyD; yk*~vduydkifqdkifr+ESifh
ukefoG,fr+udkcGifh yjyD; aps;uGuw
f GifvGwfvyfpGm,SOfydifa&;udk tm;ay;onf? xdk@a-umifhvpfb&m,f'Drdku
a&pDonf pD;yGm;a&ESifhEdkifiHa&;wGif vGwfvyfpGm,SOfydifEdkifaom tcGifhta&;t&mwGifvl wdkif;twGuf
nDr#r+&Sdap&rnf[laomrludk vufcx
H m;onf? t&nfjcif;&Sdv#if&Sdonfh t av#muf pD;yGm;a&;wGif
tusKd;cHpm;cGifh&SdjyD; EdkifiHa&;tm%mudkvnf; &,lEdkifcGifhudk vpfb &,f'Drdkua&pDu cGifhyonf? odk@&mwGif
vpfb&m,f'Drdkua&pDtpdk;&rsm;onf
rnfonfh
enf;ESifhr#
jynfolvlxkudk
zdESdyfjcif;ryEdkif&ef
tpDtrHrsm;xm;&Sdonf? jynfol@'Drdkua&pDrl EdkifiHa&;tm%mtwGuf ,SOfEdkif cGifhtcGifhta&;udk ay;rxm;ay?
ypPnf;rJhtm%m&Sifpepf atmufwGif jynfol@'Drdkua&pDudkqef@usifonf[k ,lqcH&olrsm;tm; ESdyfuGyfjcif;udk
t pdk;&udk,fwdkif yvkyfcGifh&Sdonf?
urBmay:wGif yxrqHk;aom jynfo@l 'Drdkua&pDudk usifhoHk;onfhqdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpk. abm&SDApf
awmfvSefa&;udk OD;aqmifcJhol vDeif (Vladimin Ilch Lenin, 1870-1924) uuGefjrLepf0g'udk
taumiftxnfazmfEdkif&eftwGuf vlxkawmfvSefa&;w&yf vdktyfa-umif; xdkvlxkawmfvSefa&;-uD;udk
ypPnf;rJhygwDu OD;aqmif&rnfjzpfa-umif; qdkonf? xdk@jyif xdkvlxkawmfvSefa&;-uD;jzifh blZGmwdk@.
t&if;&Sifpepfudk z,f&Sm;jyD;onf ESifh uGefjrLepfvl@tzJG@tpnf;udk ra&muf&Sdao;ojzifh ypPnf;rJhygwD.
OD;aqmifr+jzifh quf vufvkyfaqmif&ef vdkao;a-umif;/ xdka-umifhtm%mudk ypPnf;rJhygwDuom csKyfudkif
xm;&rnfjzpfa-umif;wdk@udk
tcdkiftrmajymqdkcJhonf?
xdk@a-umifhjynfol@'Drdkua&pDpepf
t&
ypPnf;rJhvlwef;pm; EdkifiHa&;tm%mudk csKyfudkifxm;jyD; vlwef;pm;ydyuQyaysmuf a&;udk vkyfaqmif&rnf[k
qdkonf? qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpkwGif abm&SDApfawmfveS fa&;
-uD;atmifjrifatmif qifE$JjyD;aemufwGif
uGefjrLepf0g'udk usifhoHk;vm-uaom EdkifiHwdk@ onf vDeifOD;aqmif taumiftxnfaz:cJhaom
jynfol@'Drdkua&;pDudk
twk,lvm-u
onf?
tcsKd@u
vDeif'Drdkua&pD
(leninist
democacy)[kvnf;wifpm;ac:a0g-uonf?
xdk@a-umifhjynfol@'Drdkua&pDudk o&kyfcJG-unfhv#if atmufygtcsufwdk@udk awG@jrifEdkifonf?
(u) vlxkawmfvSefa&;udk OD;aqmifrnfhygwDw&yf &Sd&rnf? if;ygwDonf ypPnf;rJhvl wef;pm;. ygwDjzpfonf?
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 86

(c) ypPnf;rJhygwDonf uGefjrLepfygwDjzpfvmjyD; xdkygwDu ydifbufr&SdbJ tkyfcsKyfa&;tm %mrsm;udk


xdef;csKyfxm;&rnf?
(*) ygwDtwGif;ESifh vl@tzJG@pnf;twGif; wif;-uyfaom 'Drdkua&pD A[dkOD;aqmifpepfudk usifhoHk;&rnf?
(C) yk*~vdu ydkifqdkfifr+udk zsufodrf;jyD; ukefxkwft&if;tESD;rsm;udk vl@tzGJ@tpnf;tm; ydkifqdkifapjcif; jzifh
vlwef;pm;rJh vl@tzJG@tpnf;udk wnfaqmufoGm;&efjzpfonf?
toGifuJGjym;aom jynfo@l 'Drdkua&pDrsm;avm
(Different Models of People's Democracy)
&k&Sm;YpwifusifhoHk;cJhaom jynfol@'Drdkua&pDonf tcsKd@aom uGefjrLepf/ qdk&S,fvpfEdkifiH rsm;wGif
usifhoHk;aeaom jynfol@'Drdkua&pDrsm;ESifh jcm;em;r+&Sdonfudk avhvmawG@&Sd& onf? taemufOa&m
yEdkifiHrsm;wGif&Sdaom uGefjrLepfygwDrsm;onf qdkAD,uf/ w&kwf/ usL;bm;EdkifiHrsm;wGifuJhodk@ tm%m&
uGefjrLepfygwDrsm;r[kwfbJ if;wdk@onf tjcm; aomEdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;ESifh tm%mtwGuf ,SOfydifaejcif;
tqifhwGifom&Sdonf? uGefjrL epfygwDrsm;u awmfvSefa&;enf;jzifh tm%m&vmaom EdkifiHrsm;wGif
EdkifiHawmftm%m udk csKyfudkifxm;Edkif-ujyD; ydifbufEdkifiHa&;tawG;tac:ESifh EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;udk csdKd;ESdrfxm;
um jynfol@'Drdkua&pDpepfudk atmifjrifpGmaz:xkwfEdkifcJhonf? taemufOa&my EdkifiHrsm; &Sd
uGefjrLepfygwDrsm;rSmrl
tm%mtwGuf
EdkifiHa&;t&
tjcm;ygwDrsm;ESifh
,SOfydifr+udk
vpfb&,f'Drdkua&pDtwGif;Y yvkyfae-uonf? tb,fa-umifhqdkaomf &k&Sm;YuGefjrLepf awmfvSefa&;
urBmwGif yxrqHk;atmifjrifpGm qifEJGEdkifonfhtcsdefuwnf;u taemuf Oa&myEdkfifiHwcsKd@wGif
vpfb&m,f'Drdkua&pD xGef;um;jyD;jzpfonf? vpfb&m,f'Drdkua&;pD . &dkufcwfr+udkom xdkuGefjrLepf
ygwDrsm;u cHpm;ae-u&onf? xdktajcaersKd;wGif rmhpf= vDeif uGefjrLepf0g'udk vufcHaomfjim;
xdkuGefjrLepfygwDrsm;tzdk@ jynfol@'Drdkua&pDpepf w&yf azmfxkwfEdkifa&;rSm rsm;pGmtcuftcuf&Sdaeayonf?
1970 ckESpfrsm;odk@ a&mufvmaomtcgwGif taemufOa&myuGefjrLepf ygwDrsm;tzdk@ jynfol@'Drdkua&pD
pepft&omuGefjrLepf0g'udk
atmifjrifatmiftaumiftxnfaz:rnf
qdkonfh
t,ltqrsm;
ydkIarS;rdefvmjyD;
if;wkd@zmomif;wdk@
rmhpf=vDeifuGefjrLepf0g'udk
yjyif,lxm;onfhuGefjrLepf0g'
oabmxm;w&yfudk xkwfaz:cJh-uonf? xdkuGefjrLepf0g' um; 1972 ckESpfwGif ruf'&pf (Mardrid) rd@Y
jyifopf/ tDwvD/ pydef EdkifiHwdk@rSuGefjrL epfygwDacgif;aqmifrsm; vufrSwfa&;xdk;twnfyxkwfjyefonfh
Oa&my uGefjrLepf0g' (Euro-commnism) yifjzpfonf?
okd@&mwGif Oa&my uGefrlepf0g'onf rmhpf=vDeifuGefrlepf0g'ukd xl;uJpGm jyefvnfrGrf;rH xm;aom
jyXmef;csufrsKd;um; txl;taxG &Sdonfr[kwfacs? pD;yGm;a&;ykdif;t& rmhpf= vDeifuGefrlepf0g'.
cJGjcm;pdwfjzmr+ukd vufcHxm;onf[k qkd&ayrnf? tb,fha-umifh qdkaomf Oa&my uGefrlepf0g'onfvnf;
vlwef;pm;uif;rJhaom vl@tzJG@tpnf; wnf aqmufa&;ukd OD;wnfxm;onf? Oa&my uGefrl epf0g'ESifh
rmhpf=vDeif uGefrlepf0g'wkd@t -um; jcm;em;v#uf&SdonfrSm EkdifiHa&;ykdif;wGifjzpfonf? rmhpf=vDeif0g'u
jynfol@'Drkdua& pDukd xlaxmifum EdkifiHawmftm%mudk uGefrlepfygwDu csKyfukdifxm; Ekdifa&;jzpfonf?
Oa&myuGefrlepfygwDrsm;tzkd@ vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pD xGef;um;aeaom vl@tzJ@G tpnf;t wGi;f 0,f
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 87

EkdifiHawmftm%mudk &,lEkdifa&;rSm tcuftcJrsm;pGm &Sdaeavonf? xkd@a-umifh uGefrlepf0g'.


rl&if;&nfrSef;csufjzpfaom vlwef;pm;rJh vl@tzJG@tpnf; wnfaqmufa&; [laom OD;wnfcsufudka&muf&ef
jynfol@awmfvSefa&;wpf&yf qifE$J/ xkd@aemuf jynfol@ 'Drkdua&pDudk wnfaqmufqdkonfh rmhpf=vDeif
uGefrlepf0g'vkyfenf;vkyf[eftpm; t jcm;enf;vrf;rsm;udk &SmazG,if; jzifh Oa&my uGefrlepf0g'
ay:aygufvm&onf? okd@jzpfI rl&if;pGJ uGefrlepf0g'D (orthodox communists) rsm;u Oa&my
uGefrlepf0g'ukd jyef vnfyjyifa&;[k owfrSwf-uonf? jyefvnfyjyifa&;0g' [lIum; Oa&myuGefjrLepf0g'
udk owfrSwf&ef rjzpfEdkfifyg? tb,fa-umifhqdkaomf EdkifiHa&;tawG;tac:ordkif;wGif jyef vnfyjyifa&;0g'
(Reformism) qdkonfrSm oD;jcm;t,ltqw&yftjzpf &Sdaeonf? Oa&myuGefjrLepf0g'onf
rl&if;pGJuGefjrLepf0g'u jyXmef;xm;aom EdkifiHa&;ydkif;t& vkyf [efudk yjyifr+rsm;jzifh usifhoHk;a&;udkom
azmfjyjcif;jzifhonf? xdk@a-umifh Oa&my uGefjrL epf0g'. 'Drdk ua&pDqdkonfrS rl&if;pGJuGefjrLepf0g'.
jynfol@'Drdkua&pDESifhum; wxyf wnf;wlnDjcif; r&Sdawmhay? xdk@twl vpfb&m,f'Drdkua&pDudkvnf;
Oa&myuGefjrLepf0g' u axmufcHxm;onfr[kwfay? Oa&m yuGefjrLepf0g'onf vpfb&m,f'Drdkua&pD vl@
tzJG@tpnf;twGif; uGefjrLepfvlwef;pm;rJh vl@tzJG@tpnf;wnfaxmifa&;twGuf EdkifiH a&;&kwfywf0ef;usifESifh
udkufnDatmif usifhoHk;ae&aom uGefjrLepf0g' wrsKd;jzpfonf?
wzef 1990 jynfhvGefESpfrsm;twGif; w&kwfEidk fiHwGif usifhoHk;vmaom yjyifajymif;vJa&;
ay:vpDrsm;onfvnf;
rl&if;pJGuGefjrLepf0g'.
jynfol@'Drdkua&pDESifh
uGJvJGcsuf&Sdaeonfudk
avhvmawG@&Sd&jyefonf?
ydkIxl;jcm;onfrSmw&kwfyjyifajymif;vJa&;
ay:vpDrsm;onf
Oa&myuGefjrLepfygwDrsm;. yjyifajymif;vJa&; ay:vpDrsm;ESifh uGJjym;aeonf? Oa&my uGefjrLepf0g'u
jynfolwdk@.
vGwfvyfr+
tcGifhta&;ESifhqENudk
av;pm;&aom
EkdifiHa&;
t&yjyifajymif;vJa&;ay:vpDrsm;jzpfonf// Oa&my uGefjrLepf0g'u jynfow
l dk@.vGwf vyfr+tcGifhta&;ESifh
qENudk av;pm;&aom EdkifiHa&;t&yjyif ajymif;vJa&; ay:vpDrsm; jzpfonf? Oa&myuGefjrLepf0g'
jynfolwdk@.vGwfvyfr+tcGifhta&;SESifhqENudk av;pm; aom EdkifiHa&;t& yjyifajymif;vJa&; ay:vpDjzpfjyD;
w&kwfEdkifiHwGifrl
EkdifiHa&;ydkif;t&
rl
&if;pGJuGefjrLepf0g'twdkif;
xm;&SdjyD;pD;yGm;a&;ydkif;wGif
yjyifajymif;vJa&;ay:vpDrsm;udk
usifhoHk;vm
jcif;jzpfonf?
w&kwfEdkifiHwGif
ydifbufEdkifiHa&;
tawG;tac:&Sdolrsm;ESifh uGef jrLepfygwDudk a0zefaomolrsm;tm; &ufpufpGmESdyfuGwfaeqJjzpfonf?
a&S;&dk;pJGuGefjrLepf 0g'ESifh armfuGefjrLepf0g' (maoism) t& qdkv#if vl@tzJG@tpnf;. ukefxkwft&if;tESD;
rsm;udk vl@tzJG@tpnf;uydkifqdkifapjyD; yk*~vduydkif qdkifr+tm;vHk;udk zsufodrf;ypfa&; jzpf onf? 1989
ckESpfw&kwfjynfY
wD,iferfrif;
&ifjyifY
ausmif;om;rsm;pk&Hk;I
'Drdkua&pD
awmif;qdkr+udk
w&kwftpdk;&u&ufpufpGm ESdyfuGyfcJhjcif;ESifh1989=90ESpf rsm;wGif ta&SO a&my&SduGefjrLefEkdifiHrsm;
'Drdkua&pD(zlul,m;rm;tqdkt&
vpfb&,f'Drdkua&pD)
qDodk@
ul;ajymif;oGm;jcif;/
1991ckESpfwGifqdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpk yduGJjyD; uGefjrLepf0g'usqHk;jcif; wdk@onf w&kwfuGefjrLepfygwDtzdk@
yjyifajymif;vJa&;vkyfief;rsm;
tv#iftjrefvkyf
aqmifa&;udk
zdtm;ay;vkdufjcif;yifjzpfonf?
w&kwfuGefjrLepfygwDtaejzifh yjyifajymif; vJa&;vkyfief;pOfrsm;udk pwifvmcJhonf? w&kwfuGefjrLepfygwD
(CCP) taejzifhEdkifiH a&;/ pD;yGm;a&;ESpfydkif;teuf rnfonfhtydkif;udk yjyifajymif;vJa&; yvkyfrnfenf;[k pOf;
pm;vm&onf? w&kwfEdkfifiHwnf&Sd&m tm&Swdkuf twGif;&Sd EdkifiHtrsm;pkonf pD;yGm;a&;udk t"duxm;
aqmif&Gufae-ujyD; EdkifiHa&;tm%mudkrl tpdk; &rsm;uom xdef;csKyfxm;Edkif -uonf? txl;ojzifh
ta&S@awmiftm&SEdkifiHrsm;toif; (ASEAN) tzJG@0ifEdkfifiHrsm; tm;vHk;vdkvkdonf ,cktcgurBmay:wGif
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 88

pD;yGm;a&;t&
zJG@zd;r+tjrefqHk;a'o
jzpfaejyD;
EkdifiHa&;t&
tm;vHk;aom
tpdk;&rsm;onf
tm%m&Sifwydkif;EdkifiHrsm;jzpfae-uonf? xdkEdkifiHrsm; .tawG;tac:w&yfrSm EdkifiHom;rsm;twGufEkdifiHa&;
tcGifhta&;xuf pD; yGm;a&;b0zlvHka&;uydkI t"duusa-umif; [lIyifjzpfonf? w&kwfEdkifiHonfvnf; xdk
tawG;tac:ESifh wxyfwnf;usaejyD; vkdtyfaejyDjzpfaom w&kwfjynftwGufyjyif ajymif;vJa&;udk
pD;yGm;a&;ydkif;u pwifvdkufonf? xdkyjyifajymif;vJa&;rSm rl&if;pGJuGefjrL epf0g'u wif;usyfpGmwm;jrpfcJhaom
yk*~vduydkifqdkifr+ESifh
aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;qdkonfudk
tqifhvdkuf
vdkufav#mcGifhycJhjcif;jzpfonf?
xdkyjyifajymif;vJr+rsm;t& w&kwf jynfolwdk@ twGuf ydkIom,m0ajymaom pD;yGm;a&;b0udk
&apaomom"ursm;vnf;awG@&onf? ,cktcg w&kwfEdkifiHonf urBmay:wGif tar&duefjynfaxmifpk/ *syef/
*smr%D wdk@rSv$J v#if urBmay:wGif "etiftm; tuG,f0qHk;EdkfifiHwcktjzpfodk@yif a&mufaeonf? xdk@t
jyifEdkifiHwckjcif;tvkduf E+dif;,SOfv#if pD;yGm;a&;zJG@zd;r+ trsm;qHk;tqifhodk@ a&mufaejyef onf?
xdk@a-umifh w&kwfEdkifiH. jynfol@'Drdkua&pDonf rl&if;pGKJuGefjrLepf0g'. jynfol@'Drdkua&pD rS aoGznfvmjyD;
yHkpHopfwrsKd;ESifh ay:aygufvmaom jynfol@'Drdkua&pDvm;[lI ar;cGef; xkwf&rvdk jzpfaeonf?
Oa&myuGefjrLepfEdkifiHrsm;. yjyifajymif;vJa&;a-umifh jzpfay: vmaomjynfol@'Drdkua&pDrsKd; vnf;r[kwf
tjcm;aomjynfol@'Drdkua&pDESifhvnf; w &kwfEdkifiH. jynfol@'Drdkua&pDrSmvnf; rwl uGJjym;aejyefonf?
jynfol@'Drdkua&pDESifh ordkif;vrf;qHk;
(People's Democracy and the End of History)
qdkAdD,ufjynfaxmifpkyduGJjcif;/
ta&SOa&mywGif
tajymif;tvJrsm;jzpfay:jcif;udkaxmuf
&+I
EdkifiHa&;okawoDrsm;u jynfol@'Drdkua&pDonf wnfjidrfItmrcHcsuf&Sdaom EdkifiH a&;pepfwckudk
az:aqmif&ef ud;yrf;r+rsm;usqHk;cJh&onf[k a0zefaxmufjy-uonf? O a&my uGefjrLepfygwDrsm;onf
uGefjrLepf0g'udk
ouf0if,Hk-unf-uaomfvnf;
jynfol@'Drdk
ua&pDt&
EdkifiHa&;pepfw&yf
wnfaqmufa&;udkrl rjzpfEdkif[kvufcHxm;-ujyD;jzpfonf? xdk@jyifw&kwfuJhodk@aom urBmay:wGif
tiftm;t-uD;qHk;aom uGefjrLepfygwD tm%m& EdkifiHwGifyif rl&if;pGJuGefjrLepf0g'ujyXmef;aom
jynfol@'Drdkua&pDppfppfyHkpHudk rawG@& awmhay?
qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpkwGif a*:bmacsmhtm%m&vmjyD;aemufwGif usifhoHk;vmaomyjyif ajymif;vJa&;
rlESpf&yfjzpfonfh *vyfpaemh (glasnost) ESifhygvufpx&dkif;,m; (peres- troika) wdk@onf
qdkAD,ufuGefjrLepf0g'udk jyefvnfyjyifa&;jzpfonf? xdkjyefvnfyjyif a&;rlESpf&yfonf jynfol@'Drdkua&pD udk
wdkuf&dkufxdcdkufvmonf? tb,fa-umifhqdkaomf rmhpf=vDeif rl&if;pJG uGefjrLepf0g' tom;usjyD;aom
qdkAD,ufuGefjrLepf0g'wGif
EdkifiHa&;
ESifhpD;yGm;a&;ESpfydkif;pvHk;udk
jyefvnfyjyif&efa*:bmacsmhu
tqdkyvdkufjcif;a-umifhjzpf onf? *vyfpaemh rlonf yGifhvif;a&;[kt"dy`g,f&jyD; ygwDtwGif;ESifh
qdkAD,ufv$wf awmftwGif; ydkrdkIyGifhvif;aom EdkifiHa&;aqG;aEG;r+/ tajctwifjiif;cHkr+rsm;udk ,cifESifhr wl
vGwfvyfcGifhay;&efjzpfonf? ygvufpx&dkif;,m;rlonf pD;yGm;a&;pepfudk jyefvnf wnfaqmuf a&;rljzpfonf?
xdkrlrsm;a-umifh qdkAD,ufyduGJjcif; rjzpfcJhv#ifawmifrS jynf ol@'Dru
dk a&pD EdkifiHa&;pepf ppfppf[lIum;
&SdEdkifrnfr[kwfajc?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 89

urBmt&yfa'orsm;wGif
jzpfay:ajymif;vJaeaom
tajctaersm;t&
jiif;Ir&Edkifaom
jrifomEdkifonfhtcsufrSm vpfb&,f'Drdkua&pD. y&0k'fuydkIydkI us,fjyef@vmjyD; jynf ol@'Drdkua&pD. y&0k'f
uydkIydkI usOf;ajrmif;oGm;jcif;ESifh toGifajymif;oGm;jcif;jzpfonf?

qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pD
Social Democracy
qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pD[laom
a0g[m&ESifhywfoufI
uGefjrLepf/
qdk&S,fvpf
EdkifiHa&;tawG;
tac:todkif;t0dkif;wGif a0zefr+rsm;pGmxGufay:cJhonf? qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pD. atmifjrifr+ rsm;udk
puif'Dae;AD;,m; EdkifiHrsm;ESifh tcsKd@aomOa&myEdkifiHrsm;wGif 'kwd, urBmppft jyD;aemufrSmrS
awG@jrif&aomfvnf; xdka0g[m&ay:aeonfrSm 19 &mpkaESmif;ydki;f uwnf; ujzpfonf? uGefjrLepfaunmpmwrf; w&m;0ifxkwfjyefjyD;aemuf ESpfaygif; (30) cef@t
-um 1875ckESpfwGif
*smr%DEdkifiHYqdk&S,f'Drdku&uf wpfygwD (social democratic party) pwifzJG@pnf;uwnf;u
jzpfonf? xdkpifuwnf;uyifuGefjrL epfa-unmpmwrf; a&;om;ol rmhpfu qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pDudk
a0zefr+rsm;yvkyfcJhonf?
1917ckESpfY &k&Sm;wGif abm&SDApfawmfvSefa&; atmifjrifpGmqifEJGjyD;aemufwGif EdkifiHa&; tawG;tac:t&
tm;ydifr+rsm; pwifcJhonf? 'kwd,urBmppf-uD;tjyD;aemuf ta&SO a&my/ tm&SESifh vufwiftar&du
EdkifiHtcsKd@wGif uGefjrLepftpdk;&rsm; ay:xGef;vmaom tcg urBm-uD;onf EdkifiHa&;tawG;tac: tm;ydifr+uD;rSonf ta&Stkyfpk/ taemuftyk f pk[lI urBm-uD;udk ESpfjcrf;cJGvkduf-uonf? t"dutm;ydifr+rSm
uGefjrLepf/ qdk&S,fvpf/ vuf0JEdkifiHa&; tawG;tac:ESifh vuf,m,dr;f vrf;pOf vpfb&,f uGefqmaA;wpfuJhodk@
aom vuf,mEdkifiHa&; tawG;tac:-um;Y jzpfonf? xdktajctaersKd;wGif vuf0J vufrus
vuf,mvnf;rusaom qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pDonf rnfonfhtkyfpkur# tav; teufxm;jcif;udk rcH&&Hkr#ru
a0zefr+udkomcHae-u&onf? tcsKd@qdk&S,f'Drdku&ufrsm;udk udk,fydkif tawG;tac:r&Sdolrsm; [lIyif a0zefuonf?
rnfodk@qdkap qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pDonf puif'DaeAD;,m; EdkifiHrsm;wGif txl;uJqHk;atmifjrif r+rsm;&vmcsdefwGif
0g'a&;&mt& tm;ydifr+ (ta&S@tyk fpk/ taemuftkyfpk tm;ydifr+) rSm vnf; jyD;qHk;oGm;csdefESifh
wdkufqdkfifaeonf? xdktajctaersKd;wGif qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pDonf wwd,enf;vrf; (third way)
EdkifiHa&;tawG;tac: opfayvm;[k xifrSwfcH&um ydkItm&Hkpdkuf avhvmjcif;udk cHvm&onfESifhwydif euf
apmapmua0zefoHrsm;vnf; uG,faysmufvmcJhonf? qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pDonf vpfb&,f'Drdkua&pD/
jynfol@'Drdkua&pD uJhodk@yif 'Drdkua&pDudk EdkifiHa&;tawG;tac:t& txl;yxm;jcif;jzpfonf? 'Drdkua&pDudk
txl;yaom a0g[m&jzpfonfh qdk&S,fonf qdk&S,fvpf0g' (socialism) rSvmjcif;jzpf onf?
qdk&S,f'Drdku&ufrsm; (social democrats) u ,Hk-unfonfrSm qdk&S,fvpfvl@ abmiftzJG@tpnf;
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 90

(uGefjrLepf0g'u ,Hk-unfouJho@dk yif vlwef;pm;nDr#aom vl@tzJG@t pnf;) tm; 'Drdkua&pDudk


tajccHaomEdkifiHa&;pepft&
wnfaqmufoGm;Edkifonf[lI
jzpfonf?
odk@&mwGifqdk&S,f'Drdku&ufrsm;ajymaom 'Drdkua&pDum; jynfo@l'Drdkua&pD r[kwfbJ vpfb&,f'Drdkua&pD
jzpfaeonf?
wenf;tm;jzifh
qdk&S,f'Drdku&ufrsm;onf
qdk&S,fvpfvl@abmiftzJG@tpnf;qDodk@
vpfb&m,f'Drdkua&pD vl@tzJG@tpnf;twGif;rS csD wufvdkolrsm;jzpf-uonf? xdk@a-umifhyif ,cktcg
qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pDudk wwd,enf;vrf; tjzpf &+jrifvm-ujcif;jzpfonf?
*smr%D qdk&S,f'Drdku&ufwpfygwD pwifzJG@pnf;uwnf;u ygwDonf rmhpf 0g'. tm; enf;csufrsm;udk
a0zefaxmufjycJhonf? txl;ojzifh awmfvSefa&;enf;jzifh qdk&S,fvpf vl@abmiftzJG@tpnf;odk@
ta&mufoGm;Edkifonfqdkaom rmhpf0g'. t,ltqudk qdk&S,f'D rdku&ufrsm;u vHk;0ypfy,fvdkufonf?
rmhpfuGefjrLepf0g'. vl@tzJG@tpnf;twGif; jy\ emrsm;ty: oHk;oyfcsufudkum; qdk&S,f'Drdku&ufrsm;u
vufcH-uonf? uJGvJGcsufum; qdk&S,fvpf vl@abmiftzJG@tpnf;odk@ oGm;&mvrf;a-umif;udk
a&G;cs,f&mwGifjzpfonf? qdk &S,f'Drdku&ufrsm;u vpfb&,f'Drdkua&pD EdkifiHa&;pepfwGiftjcm;aom
EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm; ESifhtwl uGefjrLepf qdk&S,fvpf odk@r[kwf xdk0g'udk rdKifyaom EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;u 0if
a&muf,SOfydifjcif;/ rJqEN&Sif jynfolrsm;udk vGwfvyfpGmqHk;jzwfapjcif;enf;wdk@ jzpfom EdkifiHa&;tm%m&,l&ef
vrf;a-umif;a&G;cs,fonf?
ypPn;f rJhtm%m&Sifpepf
pdkuf
xla&;
ESifh
jynfol@'Drdkua&pDudk
qdk&S,f'Drdku&ufrsm;u ,Hk-unfjcif;r&Sdacs? qdk&S,f'Drdku&ufrsm; . &nfrSef;csufyef;wdkifonf
qdk&S,fvpfvl@abmiftzJG@tpnf; jzpfaeojzifh uGefjrLepf/ qdk &S,fvpfrsm;ESifhwlaejyD; xdk&nfrSef;csufyef;wdkifodk@
oGm;a&muf&mvrf;a-umif; a&G;cs,fr+y &mwGifrl vpfb&m,f'Drdku&ufrsm;ESifh wlaeonf? xdk@aumifhqdk&S,f'Drdku&uf wdk@onf 0g'ESpfckudk cG,lxm;ojzifh qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pDudk ujym;EdkifiHa&;pepftjzpf
tcsKd@uowf rSwf-uonf? if;onfyif wwd,enf;vrf; jzpfonf[k &+jrifcH&onf?
qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pD. oabmobm0
(The Nature of Social Democracy)
qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pDonf qdk&S,fvpf0g'ESifh acwfopfvpfb&,f0g'wdk@. ujym;EdkifiHa&; p epfwckjzpfojzifh
qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pD. EdkifiHa&;tawG;tac:onfvnf; qdk&S,fvpf0g'ESifh acwfopf vpfb&,f0g'wdk@.
ujym;EdkifiHa&; tawG;tac:yifjzpfonf? topfzefwD;,l xm;aom EdkifiHa&;tawG;tac:w&yfum;
r[kwfacs? qdk&S,fvpf0g'udk vpfb&,fvl@ tzJG@tpnf;twGif;Y taumiftxnfaz:Edkifa&;onf
qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pD. t"du OD;wnf csufjzpfjyD; xdkOD;wnfcsuftxajrmuf atmifjrifatmif
taumiftxnfazmfrnfh t awG;tac:onf qdk&S,f'Drdku&uf tawG;tac:yifjzpfonf?
'kwd,urBmppf-uD;. &dkufcwfr+cHcJh&aom pD;yGm;a&;udk jyefvnfwnfaqmuf&ef vkdtyf aecsdefY
ppfjyD;umvYyif Oa&myYqdk&S,f'Drdkua&pD tv#iftjrefxGef;um;vmcJhonf? ppfrjzpfrDuwnf;u
Oa&myYwnf&SdcJhaom tawG;tac:jzpfonf? t&if;&Sifvl@tzJG@t pnf;wGif; qdk&S,fvpf0g'udk usifhoHk;vdkonfh
olrsm;onf jyefvnfyjyifxm;aom tawG; tac:tjzpf Oa&mywGif ay:aygufvmcJhjcif;jzpfonf? odk@&mwGif
rl&if;pJG rmhpf uGefjrLepf0g 'ESifh yduQrsm;pGmudk &ifqdkifaecJh&onf?
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 91

'kwd, urBmppfppfudumvtxd Oa&mywckvHk;udk vpfb&,f0g'uom v$rf;rdkxm;cJh onf?


vpfb&m,f0g'[kqdk&mwGif EdkifiHa&;ydkif;t& vlyk*~KdvfwOD;csif;pD. vGwfvyfr+udkt ajccHaom
EdkifiHa&;,SOfydifr+&Sdonfh vpfb&m,f'Drdkua&pDESifh pD;yGm;a&;tydkif;wGif vGwf vyfpGm,SOfydifEdkifaom
aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;udk tm;ay;jcif;wdk@yg0ifonf? 1930 ckESpfywf 0ef;usifumvwGif Oa&myYpD;yGm;a&;tuyftwnf; uHvmaomtcg aps;uGupf D;yGm; a&;atmifjrifa&;rSm tcuftcJESifh&ifqdkifvm&onf?
aps;uGufwGif0,fvdktm;usqif; vmaomtcg ukefxkwfvkyfr+tydkif;udkyg vdkufavsmnDaxG avsmhcsvm
&onf? xdktcg tvkyform;rsm;udk tvkyfrSxkwfy,fjcif;rsm; jzpfay:vmjyD; tvkyfvufrJhjy\emrSm
tusKd;tquftaejzifh
ay:aygufvmonf?
xdkjy\emudk
vGwfvyfpGm
,SOfydifcGifh&Sdaom
aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepfu ajz&Sif;oGm;EdkifpGrf;r&Sdacs? xdk@a-umifh t&Sif;&Sipf D;yGm;a&;pepf. tajccH
pD;yGm;a&;rl0g'jzpfaom
tpdk;&xdfef;csKyfr+uif;a0;jyD;
vGwfvyfpGm,SOfydifonfh
(laissez-faire)
pD;yGm;a&pepfonf tm;av#mhoGm;jyD; tpm;xdk;Edkifonfh
pD;yGm;a&;pepf udk awmif;qdkv#uf&Sdonf?
xdktcsdefwGif jAdwdo#pD;yGm;a&;ynm&Sif udef;u aps;uGufpD; yGm;a&;pepfudk taxmuftulyrnfh pepfw&yfudk
wifjycJhonf? xdkwifjycsufrSm aps; uGufwGif0,fvdktm; usqif;jyD; tvkyfvufrJhjy\em
uH&onfhtcgrsKd;wGif tpdk;&u tvkyfrsm;zefwD;ay;jcif; (Oyrm=vrf;azmufjcif;/ ausmif;rs;aqmufjcif;)jzifh
tvkyfo rm;rsm;twGuf tvkyfopfrsm; zefwD;ay;&efjzpfonf? xdkvkyfief;opfrS aiGrsm;&&Sdjcif;jzifh
aps;uGufwGif 0,fvkdtm; jyefwufvmjyD;aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;udk jyefvnfI yHkrSeftwdkif; vnfywfaeapayrnf?
udef;. tqdkygwifjycsufjzpfaom udef;pD;yGm;a&;pepfonf qdk &S,f'Drdku&ufrsm; us,fus,fjyef@jyef@
vufcHcJhaom pD;yGm;a&;rl0g; wpf&yfjzpfvmonf?
'kwd,urBmppfjyD;umvwGif
ppf'%fcHcJh&I
EdkifiHtoD;oD;wGif
ysufpD;cJh&aom
o,f,lydk@
aqmifa&;vkyfief;uJhodk@aom
trsm;ESifhoufqdkifonfhvkyfief;udk
tv#iftjref
jyefvnf
wnfaqmufa&;vkyfief;udk
OD;pD;&eftwGuf
tpdk;&.OD;aqmifr+udk
awmif;qdkvsuf&Sdonf?
xdkawmif;qdkr+rsm;rSwqifh
tpdk;&udk,fwdkif
A[dkrSOD;pD;vkyfudkif&aom
pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;
rsm;
ay:aygufvmonf? xdk@a-umifh qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pD. pD;yGm;a&;t&aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;/ udef;pD;yGm;a&;pepf/
A[dkrScsKyfudkifaom pD;yGm;a&;pepfwdk@udk cGifhyaom ta&mtaESm pD; yGm;a&; (mixed economy)
pepfjzpfonf?
vlwef;pm;uGm[r+a-umifh vlwef;pm;ydyuQESifh vlr+a&;tedtm&Hkrsm; jzpfay:&jcif;udk uk pm;&efvl
wef;pm;nDr#aom vl@abmiftzJG@tpnf;udk wnfaqmufzdk@vdka-umif; qdk&S,f'D rdku&ufrsm;u rmhpf.
oHk;owfcsufudk vufcHxm;onf? odk@&mwGif vlwef;pm;rJhvl@ abmiftzJG@tpnf; wnfaqmuf&ef
EdkifiHa&;vkyf[efwGifrl rmhpfuGefjrLepf0g'DESifh qdk&S,f vpf'Drdku&ufrsm;t-um; uGJjym;r+&Sdonf? rmhpf
uGefjrLepf0g'u uGefjrLepf awmfvSefa&; vrf;a-umif;udk a&G;cs,jf yD; qdk&S,f'Drkdu&ufrsm;url
vpfb&,f'Drdku&ufrsm;uJhodk@ wpf OD;csif;vGwfvyfr+ESifh EdkifiHa&; ,SOfydifr+t& aqmif&Gufa&;vrf;a-umif;udk
a&G;cs,fonf? xdk@t-urf;zufawmfvSefa&;tpm; EdkifiHa&;vpfb&,f0g' (political liberalism) udk
vufcHxm;onf?
qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pDonf vlwef;pm;jcm;em;r+udk xdef;nd&mwGif r#waom cJGa0jzef@jzL;r+ (fair distributio)
rludk vufcHxm;onf? rmhpf uGejf rLepf0g'ESifh jcm;em;aom tcsuf rSm rmhpf uGefjrLepf0g'u
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 92

nDr#aomcJGa0r+&&ef ukefxkwft&if;tESD;tm;vHk;udk
vl@tzJG@t pnf;u ydkifqdkifa&;r+udkjyXmef;
qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pDwGifrl xdkodk@aom jyXmef;csufrsKd;r&Sdyg? r# waom cJGa0r+ (fair distribution) ESifh
nDr#aomcJGa0r+ (equal distribution) rsm;wGif uGjJ ym;jcm;em;aom t"dy`g,frsm;&S-d uonf?
tjcm;aomenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh vl@t zJG@tpnf;twGif; r#waomcGJa0r+&&Sdap&ef pDrHxm;onf? xdkpDrHcsufum;
vlr+zlvHka&;EdkifiH awmf (welfare state) zJG@pnf;wnfaxmifa&; jzpfonf? vlr+zlvHka&; EdkifiHawmfpepfudk
jAdwdefEdkifiHY 'kwd, urBmppfumv0ef;usif 0ef-uD;csKyf tufwvD. avbmygwD tpdk;& vufxufwGif
pwifusifhoHk;cJhjyD; ,cktcg Oa&myEdkifiHtawmfrsm;rsm;ESifh -opa-wvs/ e,lZDvef/ ajrmuftar&du
EdkifiHrsm;odk@yg jyef@ESH@usifhoHk;vsuf&Sdonf? vlr+zlvHka&;EdkifiH awmfwGif vlwdkif;twGuf tedrfhqHk;tqifh
vdktyfaom
usef;rma&;/
ynma&;
urs;udk
tpdk;&u
tcrJhwm0ef,lay;&onf?
tvkyftudkifr&Sdao;olrsm;udk tvkyf&&ef tcGifht vrf;zefwD;ay;jcif;ESifh tvkyfvufrJh axmufyHhjcif;rsm;udk
tpdk;&u wm0ef,lay;&onf? vlr+zlvHka&; EdkifiHawmfpepft& vl@tzJG@tpnf;twGif;rS vlom;tm;vHk;. uG,f0r+udk w ajy;nDjzpfatmif yvkyfay;onfh tmrcHcsufum; r[kwfay? odk@&mwGif oufqdkif&mEdkifiH .
vlaer+tqifhtwef;ESifhtnD aexdkifEdkifrnfhpepfjzpfonf? vlr+zlvHka&; EdkifiHonf EdkifiH trsKd;rsKd;wGif
EdkifiHa&;ausmaxmufaemufcH trsKd;rsKd;jzifh ay:aygufvmwwfonf? qdk&S,f 'Drdkua&pD xGef;um;a&;twGugf
azmfaqmufvmaompepf[k qdk&efxuf xdkvlr+zlvHka&; EdkifiHawmfpepfudk qdk&S,f'Drdku&ufwpfrsm;u
vufcHusifhoHk;jcif; jzpfonf[k qdk&efum;ydk Ioifawmfayonf?
qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pDonf t&if;&SifpepfESifh uGefjrLepftpepfatmufwGif vlenf;pkrsm;uom tm%mudk
xdef;csKyfxm;aom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk qef@usifonf? xdkpepfrsm;onf vl@t zJG@tpnf;twGif;
rnDr#r+udkjzpfay:aponf[k
qdk&S,fu&ufrsm;u
&+jrifoHk;owf-uonf?
qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pDonf
vlwef;pm;wOD;jcif;pD. nDr#r+udk txl;ta&;xm;onf? nDr#r+ (equality) onf vGwfvyfr+ (liberty)
twGuf r&Sdrjzpfvdktyfonf [kqdkonf? vl wpfOD;csif;pDwGif nDr#r+r&Sdv#if rnfonfhvGwfvyfr+udkrS
&,lEdkifrnfr[kwf[k
qdk&mwGifEdkif
iHa&;vpfb&,f0g'udk
vufcHxm;onfhtav#muf
EdkifiHa&;v+yf&Sm;r+t&mwGif tm;vHk;nD wlnDr# tcGifhtvrf;&Sdr+/ zdk r rcJG nDr#r+tygt0if vlrsKd;a&;rcJG
nDr#r+&Sdaom vlwdkif;nDr# r+ESifh tedrfhqHk;tqifh vlaer+tqifhtwef;twGuf &&Sd&rnfh tcGifhta&;t&mwGif
nDr#r+ wdk@udk qdkvdkjcif;jzpfonf? xdk@a-umifh qdk&S,fvpf 'Drdkua&pDonf nDr#r+t&mwGif ,Hk-unf r+
(belief in equality) udktav;xm;onf?
xdk@a-umifh qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pD. oabmobm0udk avhvm&mwGif atmufygtcsuf (4) csufudk
awG@&ayonf?
(1) ta&mtaESmpD;yGm;a&; (mixed economy) udk vufcHjcif;/
(2) EdkifiHa&;vpfb&,f0g' (political liberalism) udk usifhoHk;jcif;/
(3)

vlr+zlvHka&;EdkifiHawmf (welfare-state) udk wnfaxmifI EdkifiHom;rsm;.


vlaer+tqifhtwef;twGuf tedrfhqHk;vdktyfcsufrsm;udk wm0ef,laqmif&Gufay;jcif;/
(4)vlwdkif;twGuf vdktyfaom nDr#r+tcGifhta&;twGuf ,Hk-unfcsuf jyif;xefjcif;wdk@ jzpfonf/

tqifhrD

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 93

vlwef;pm; toGiful;ajymif;a&;tay: qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pD. tjrif


(Social Democracy and Class Transformation)
vlwef;pm; toGif;ul;ajymif;a&;ESifh ywfoufI qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pDonf rmhpf0g'D/ qdk&S,f vpf0g'Dwdk@ESifh
uJGjym;aomtjrifrsm;&Sdonf? xdktjrifuJGjym;r+onfyif qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pD ay:aygufjcif; ta-umif;rsm;teuf
wcktygt0ifjzpfonf? rmhpf0g'D qdk&S,fvpfrsm;u t&if;&Sifvlwef;pm;aysmufjyD; tqifhtwef;cJGjcm;r+/
*kwfaoG;pkyfr+ uif;rJhaom tm;vHk; wlnDonfh vlwef;pm;jzpfa&;twGuf t&if;&Sifvlwef;pm;udk
z,f&Sm;ypf&rnf? xdkodk@z,f &Sm;ypf&mwGif t-urf;zufawmfvSefa&;jzifhom yvkyfEdkifonf[k
rmhpf0g'Dqdk&S,fvpfrsm; u ,Hk-unf-uonf? qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pDrsm;url xdkenf;jzifh vlwef;pm;
toGiful;ajymif; a&;udkvufrcHyJ vl@ordkif;. wdk;wufajymif;vJr+ jzpfpOfrsm;t& vlwef;pm;toGif ajymif;
a&;&Edkifonfudk axmufjycJhonf?
awmfvSefa&;wpf&yf qifE$J&efrvdkyJ t&if;&Sif*kwfaoG;pkwf vlwef;pm;uG,faysmufjyD; vl wef;pm;nDr#aom
vl@tzJG@pnf;odk@
a&mufEdkifa-umif;udk
*smrefEdkifiHa&;tawG;tac:ynm
&Sifvnf;jzpf/
qdk&S,f'Drdku&ufygwD0ifvnf;jzpfol bmpwdef; (Edward Bernstein, 1850-1932)u
*smrefEdkifiHwGifuHawG@cJh&aom tawG@tuHrsm;jzifh axmufjycJhonf?
bm;pwdef;u ,ckuJhodk@a&;om;cJhonf?
=v,form;rsm;&Jh b0onf ydkI epfrGef;p&mta-umif;r&Sdyg? (peasants do not sind)
=vlvwfwef;pm;rsm;onfvn;f vG,faysmufroGm;yg? (middle class does not disappear.)
=ydyuQrsm;onf -uD;yif-uD;jim; rjyef@yGm;Edkifyg? (crises do not grow even larger.)
=a0'emrsm;ESifh ajru|efrsm;. b0tajcaersm;onfvnf; ydkI qdk;rvmEdkifawmhyg? (misery and
serfdon do not increase.)
bmpwdef;u txufygaumufcsuftwGufol.avhvmoHk;oyfcsufrsm;udk ,ckuJhodk@wif jycJhonf?
t&if;&SifpD;yGm;a&pepfonf
twdkif;twmwcktxd
vlwef;pm;ydyuQudkjzpfap
aomfvnf;
ajymif;vJwdk;wufaeaom tajcaersm;u xdkydyuQudk uG,faysmufapEdkif onf// pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;tm;vHk;udk
vuf0g;-uD;tkyfEkdifaom t&if;&Sifvlwef;pm;uJhodk@ aomvlvwfwef;pm; pD;yGm;a&;vkef;ief;&Sifrsm;onf
wjznf;jznf;ESifh wdk;wufrsm;jym; vmaeonf? xdkwdk;wufvmr+t& us,fjyef@aom pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;wGif
rlvut &if;&Sifvlwef;pm; vltenf;pkom ydkifqdkifaom pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;wGif tvkyform; rsm;onfyif
tpk&S,f,mjzifh ydkifqdkifaomvkyfief;rsm; yg0ifvmonf? pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief; rsm;us,fjyef@vmjcif;onf
tvkyform;rsm;udkyif tpk&S,f,mjzifh ydkifqdkaomvkyfief;rsm; yg0ifvmonf? pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;
us,fjyef@vmjcif;onf tvkyform;rsm;udkyif ukef xkwft&if;tESD; ydkif&Sifrsm;tjzpfodk@ a&mufapEdkifaom
tcGifhtvrf;udk vrf;zGifhay;xm; onf?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 94

pufr+acwfajymif; awmfvSefa&;jyD;aemufwGif tvkyform;rsm;. vkyfief;cGifwGif tvkyf vkyf&aom


tajctaerSmvnf;
wdk;wufajymif;vJr+wdk@jzpfvmonf?
rlvuvkyftm;udk
omt"duxm;I
puf&Hktvkyf&Hkrsm;wGif tvkyfvkyfcJh&aom tvkyf-urf;tvkyform; (hard labours) rsm;onf
pufr+acwfajymif;awmfvSefa&;
tjyD;aemufwGif
twwfy
nm&Sifrsm;jzpfvm-uonf?
xdktwwfynm&Sifrsm;udk rSDcdktm;xm;jcif;ryyJ rnfonfh puf&Hktvkyf&Hk ydfkif&Sifur# pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;wckudk
atmifjrifpGm cef@cJGEkdifrnf r[kwfay? xdktajctaeonf *kwfaoG;pkwfaom t&if;&Sifvlwef;pm;udk
yaysmufapjyD; tvkyfo rm;rsm;u vlvyfwef;pm; p&if;0ifolrsm; jzpfvm-uonf? xdkjzpfpOfrsm;onf ypPnf;
rJhtvkyo
f rm; vlwef;pm;OD;a&udkavsmhcsjyD; vlvwfwef;pm;ta&twGuf rsm;vmjcif; jzpfonf?
xdktajctaeudk bmpwdef;u vlwef;pm;uGm[r+r&Sdapvdkaom qdk&S,fvpfp epfu t&if;&Sifpepfudk
atmifjrifpGm qufcHvdkufjcif; jzpfonf[k qdkonf?
rmhpfonf t&if;&Sifpepf-uD;xGm;vmjyD; vlwef;pm;ydyuQrsm;ydkIom -uD;xGm;vmrnf[k cef@rSef;csufrsm;udk
rSm;,Gif;aomaumufcsurf sm;tay:wGif
tajccHxm;onf[k
bmp
wdef;u
a0zefxm;onf?
t&if;&SifpepfatmufwGif
vlwef;pm;uGm[r+
wjznf;jznf;-uD;
vmjyD;
xdkuGm[r+a-umifh
tvkyform;vlwef;pm;rsm;u ydkIydkI qif;&JwGif;eufvm onf? xdkrSwqifh vlwef;pm;wif;rmr+jzpfvmjyD;
awmfvSefa&;tvkyfudk awmif;qdkvm onf? xdkawmfvSefa&;jzifh t&if;&Sifpepfudk usqHk;ap&rnf[k rmhpfu
cef@rSef;wGufcsufcJh onf? rmhpfwGufcsufouJhodk@ rrSefuefaom tajctaersKd;wGif awmfvSefa&;w&yfjzifh qdk
&S,fvpfpepfodk@ ta&mufcsDwufa&;qdkonfrSm rjzpfEdkifawmha-umif; bmpwdef;u qdk onf?
qdk&S,fvpfpepfonf t&Sif;&Sifpepfu arG;zGm;ay;onfh &v'fr[kwfbJ qdk&S,fvpf pepfudk ouf0if,Hkunfolrsm;u pkaygif;wdkufyJG0ifjcif;jzpfom &Edkifrnf[k bmpwdef;u ol.ody`Henf;us qdk&S,fvpf0g'
rnfodk@jzpfEkdifrnfenf; (how is scientific socia- lism possible) a[majymcsufwGif
azmfjycJhonf?
bmpwdef; t-uHya&;xm;ouJhodk@ ,ae@ atmifjrifaeaom qdk&S,f'Drdkua&pDtm%m& EdkifiHrsm;wGif
awmfvSefa&;jzifh toGiful;ajymif;a&; vrf;a-umif;udk a&G;cs,fjcif;r&SdbJ qdk &S,fvpfpepfudk ,Hkunfolrsm;. yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr+tm;jzifh vlwef;pm;nDr#r+&Sdaom vl@abmifqDodk@toGiful;ajymif;
aeonfudkawG@&onf? xkdokd@aom EkdifiHrsm;wGif qkd&S,f'D rkdu&ufrsm;onf tvkyform;or*~rsm;.tm;ukd
us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ ajcukwf,l_yD; OD; wnfcsufta&muf csDwufae-uonfukdawG@&onf? wydifeufwnf;wGif
t&if;&Sifvl wef;pm;ESifh uGefrlepfacgif;aqmif vlenf;pktkyfcsKyfa&;pepfrsm; atmufwGif vl@tzJG@t pnf;ukd
wkd;wufatmifjrifatmifrvkyfEdkif[k ,Hk-unfxm;-uonf? qGD'if qdk&S,f'Drkdu &ufwpfygwDvrf;pOf (the
swedish social democratic party programme) wGif xkdtcsufESifhywfoufI atmufygtwkdif;
jyXmef;xm;onf?
t&if;&SifpepfESifh uGefrlepfpepf ESpfckpvHk;onf vlom;rsm;twGuf w&m;r#w r+ESifhvHkcHr+ukd
azmfaqmifjcif;ryEkdif xkdpepfESpfckpvHk;onf trsm;jynfolrsm;. xdef; csKyfr+ vnf;r&Sd/ nDr#r+vnf;r&Sdaom
pepfrsm;t& pD;yGm;a&;t& t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk cJGa0ae-u onf? 'Drkdua&pD
qdwfokef;_yD;
tm%mtm;vHk;ukd A[kdOD;pD;pepft& csKyfukdifxm;aomp epfatmufwGif pdwful;,Ofr#om&Sdaom
tnDtr#cJGa0a&;qkdonfh a-unmcsufrsm;ESifh twl tqkdygrnDr#r+rsm; ay:ae-uonf?
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 95

qkd&S,f'Drkdua&pDonf rmhpf0g'D uGefrlepf/ qkd&S,fvpf0g'rsm;u vufcHxm;aom vlwef; pm;


toGiful;ajymif;a&;tjrifudk vufrcHbJ 'Drkdua&pD&Sdaom EdkifiHa&;vpfb&,f0g't wGif;Y qkd&S,fvpf0g'udk
vufcH,Hk-unfaom tvkyform;ygwDrsm; tvkyform;or*~ rsm;ESifhtwl vufwJGaqmif&Gufaom
toGiful;ajymif;a&;ukd vufcH-uonf?
wwd, urBm@EkdifiHrsm;. 'Drkdua&pD
Third World Democracy
wwd,urBm@EdkifiHrsm;.
'Drkdua&pDonf
vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pDESifhaomfvnf;aumif;
jynf
ol@'Drkdua&pDESifhaomfvnf;aumif; qdk&S,f'Drkdua&pDESifhaomfvnf;aumif; uGJjym;jcm;em; aom yHkpHtrsKd;rsKd;jzifh
&Sdwwfonf?
vpfb&,f'Drkdua&pD/
jynfol@'Drkdua&pDESifh
qkd&S,f'Drkd
ua&pDwdk@uJhokd@
urBmhEdkifiHrsm;.'Drkdua&pDudk txl;yaom EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:w&yfukd twdtus!Gef;qkd&ef rvG,fulacs?
wwd,
urBmhEkdifiHrsm;tcsif;csif;t-um;wGifvnf;
aumif;
EdkifiHwckESifhwck
rwluJGjym;aom
EdkifiHa&;ausmaxmufaemufcHrsm;u if;EkdifiH rsm;wGif 'Drkdua&pDukd xif[yfv#uf&Sd-uonf?
wwd,urBm@EkdifiHrsm;onf trsm;tm;jzifh 'Drkdua&pDqkdonfukd trnfcHr#om xm;wwf -u&m
if;wkd@.tpkd;&rsm;udk tm%mykdiftm%m&Siftpkd;&rsm;(authoritarian gover- nment)
tjzpfom
EkdifiHa&;ody`HokawoDrsm;u
owfrSwf-uonf?
xkdEdkifiHrsm;wGif
ygwDpHkpepfukd
vrf;zGifhxm;aomfvnf; ygwDwckwnf;ukdom txl;tcGifhta&;ay;xm;_yD; tjcm;aom EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;ukdrl
ESdyfuGyf xm;wwf-uonfukdvnf; awG@&onf?
wwd,urBmhEdkifiHrsm;. xl;jcm;pGmwlnDaeaomtcsufrSm ukdvkdeDb0rS vGwfajrmufvm -ujcif;jzpfonf?
ukdvkdeDb0rS vGwfajrmufa&; v+yf&Sm;r+rsm;twGif;wGif EkdfifiHtoD;oD;Y ppfwyfrsm;. tcef;uonf
ta&;}uD;ae&mY&SdcJhonf? vGwfvyfa&;&vm-u_yD;aom tcg EdkifiHawmfukd pDrHuGyfuJtkyfcsKyf&ef
pepfwuspkzJG@xm;aom EdkifiHa&;tzJG@tpnf; ygwD [lI r&SdaomtcsdefwGif ppfwyfrsm;onf wckwnf;aom
tzJG@tpnf;jzpfaewwf_yD;
EdkifiH
awmftm%mudk&,lum
tkyfcsKyfoGm;wwf-uonf?
EdkifiHa&;ody`Hynm&Sifrsm;u ppfwyf .vkyf[efonf 'Drkdua&p.&efoljzpfonf[k owfrSwf-uaomfvnf;
tqkdygEdkifiHrsm; wGif ppfwyfacgif;aqmifrsm;onf if;wkd@.EkdifiHtwGuf 'Drkdua&pDudk if;wkd@u rsKd;aphcs ay;um
taumiftxnfazmfay;ae&a-umif; ajymwwf-uonf? xkdokd@aom yHkomef 'Drkdua&pDukd tcsKd@u
vrf;!Gef'Drkdua&pD (guided democracy)[kac:-uonf? ta&S awmiftm&SEdkifiHtcsKd@ESifh tmz&du/
vufwiftar&du EdkifiHtcsKd@wkd@wGif awG@&onf?
wwd,urBmhEkdifiHrsm;. tpkd;&rsm;onf rdrdwkd@ tkyfcsKyfxm;aom vl@tzJG@tpnf;}uD;. tusKd;pD;yGm;xuf
tm%m&Sdxm;olrsm;u if;wkd@. tusKd;pD;yGm;ukdumuG,f&ef t"du xm; pOf;pm;-uonf? Ttcsufonf
'Drkdua&pDtwGuf }uD;rm;aom &efoljzpfa-umif; EkdifiHrsm;pGmrS tawG@tuHrsm;ukdaxmuf&+I
okawoDrsm;u axmufjy-uonf? xkdEdkifiH rsm;wGif EdkifiHzJG@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'ESifh
'drkdua&pDqdkonfukd tkyfcsKyfolwef;pm; rsm; tm%mwnf_rJa&;twGuf taxmuftulyud&d ,mozG,fom
toHk;y-uonf? xkdEkdifiHrsm;wGif tm%m&ygwDonf ppfwyfESifh&JuJhokd@aom vufeufudkifwyfzJG@rsm;/
jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?
(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 96

axmufvSrf;a&;tzGJ@rsm; tm;ukd;jzifh EdkifiHa&;ydifbufrsm;udk zdESdyfxm;wwf-uonf? xkdjzpf&yfrsm;udk


'Drkdua&pD xGef;um;aom taemuftyk fpk0if EkdifiHrsm;u vl@tcGifhta&; rSwfwrf;t-umif;jycsufjzifh
a0zefr+rsm; yvkyfvm-uonf? txl;ojzifh ppfat;wkdufyJG _yD;qHk;oGm;_yD;aemufwGif 0g'a&;&mt&
tkyfpkzJG@cJhaom taemufEkdifiHrsm;onf ,cktcg wwd,urBmhEkdifiHrsm;wGif 'Drkdua&pDESifhvl@tcGifhta&;
csKd@wJhr+rsm;buf OD;vSnfhvm-u onfukd awG@&onf?
ppfat;wkdufyJGumvtwGif; wwd,urBmhEkdifiHrsm;onf ta&StkyfpkESifh taemuftkyfpk }uD;ESpfck.
pD;csif;xkd;&mae&mrsm;tjzpf &SdcJhonf? xkdEdkifiHrsm;wGif tpkd;&ukd taemuftkyf pkEkdifiHwckutm;ay;v#if
EdkifiHa&;twkduftcHtiftm;pkudk ta&Stkyfpkutm;ay;_yD; t pkd;&u ta&Stkyfpkvkdvm;aom tpkd;&jzpfv#if
EdkifiHa&;twkduftcHtiftm;pkudk t aemuftkyfpku tm;ay;ulnDcJh-uonf? xkdtajc taeatmufwGif
xkdEkdifiHrsm;Y 'Drkdu a&pD qdwfokef;r+onfvnf;aumif;/ vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azgufr+onfvnf;aumif; a0zef
ajymqkdr+rsm;. a&Swef;ae&mokd@a&mufrvmbJ 0g'a&;&m tEkdif&a&;ukdom tkyfpk}uD;ESpf ckpvHk;u
tm&kHpkdufae-uonf? ppfat;wkdufyG_yJ D;qHk;oGm;aomtcgwGif wwd, urBmEkdif iHrsm;. 'Drkdua&pDtcGifhta&;
csKd@wJhr+ESifh vl@tcGifhta&; csKd;azgufr+rsm;rSm odomvm_yD; t,ifu ruHcJhzl;aom taemuftkyfpk0ifEdkifiHrsm;.
a0zefr+rsm;ukd ykdI cHvm-u&onf?
xkdtcg
wwd,urBm@EkdifiHrsm;onf
if;wkd@tcsif;csif;t-um;
pnf;vHk;nD!GwfEkdifrnfh
tawG;tac:wpf&yfcsrSwfum taemuftkyfpkEkdifiHrsm;. a0zefr+ukd ckcHvm-uonf? xkd tawG;tac:um;
jynfolrsm;. pD;yGm;a&;b0 ajyvnfatmif aqmif&Gufay;a&;onf 'Drkdua&pDESifh vl@tcGifhta&;wkd@xuf
ta&;}uD;onf?
taemufEdkifiHrsm;ESifh
,Ofaus;r+
jcm;em;aom
rdrdwkd@EkdifiHrsm;tzkd@
taemufEkdifiHrsm;wGif&Sdaom
vl@tcGifhta&;pHcsdefrsm;ESihf
jcm;em;onfh
vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;&Sdonf?
taemufEkdifiHrsm;. 'Drdu
k a&pDESifh vl@tcGifht a&;qdkonfrSm EdkifiHa&;ZdrfcHypPnf;rsm;omjzpfonf?
pm;0wfaea&;u EkdifiH a&;ZdrfcHypPnf; xufykdIta&;-uD;onf[laom tawG;tac: t,ltqjzpfonf//
xdkt,ltqt& t xl;ojzifh ta&S@awmiftm&SEdkifiHrsm;ESifh w&kwfEdkifiHwdk@onf taemuftkyfpkudk ckcH&m wGif
nD!Gwfv#uf&Sd-uonf?
rlvu
taemuftkyfpk
ta&Stkyfpk[laom
a0g[m&toHk;tE+ef;rsm;.
ae&mwGif
tpm;
xdk;0ifa&mufvmaom
a0g[m&opfrSm
awmifurBmajrmufurBmtkyfpk[lIjzpfonf?
rl
vu
taemuftkyfpktjzpf owfrSwfcH&aomae&mrsm;onf ajrmuftmwdwfpuf0dkif; teD;ESifh tDauGwmrsOf;
ajrmufbufjcrf;wGif wnf&Sdaoma-umifh xdkEdkifiHrsm;udk ajrmuf tkypf ktzJG@0ifrsm;tjzpf owfrSwfvdkufuonf?
wwd,urBmjzpfcJhaom
EdkifiHrsm;onf
tDauGwmrsOf;awmifbufjcrf;
odk@r[kwf
ajrmufurBmEdkifiHrsm;ESifh E+dif;v#if awmifbuf tjcrf;wGif&Sdjcif;a-umifh wwd,urBmtkyfpk EdkifiHrsm;tm;
awmifurBmjcrf;EdkifiHrsm;tjzpf owfrSwfvdkuf-uonf? ta&S@tkyfpk taemufpk a0g[m&rsm;onf
0g'a&;&mt &tm; ydifr+udk &nf!Gef;jyD; topfay:vmaom awmifurBm ajrmufurBm a0g[m&rsm;onf
'Drdkua&pDESifhvl@tcGifhta&;udk ta-umif;yac:a0:aom EdkifiHa&;tkyfpk tzJG@rsm;jzpfvm onf? xdk@jyif
ajrmufurBmjcrf;EdkifiHrsm;onf pD;yGm;a&;t& csrf;omuG,f0aom pufr+ EkdifiHrsm;.tkyfpkjzpfjyD;
awmifurBmjcrf;EdkifiHrsm;rSmrl qif;&Jaom zJG@zd;qJEdkifiHrsm;jzpfonf?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)

'Drdkua&pDbmom&yf- pmrsufESm 97

wwd,urBmEdkifiHrsm;.
tpdk;&rsm;onf
'Drdkua&pDudkusifhoHk;a&;ESifh
ywfoufI
jyifopf
EdkifiHa&;tawG;tac:ynm&Sif &l;qdk;. t,ltqrsm;udk tajccHxm;onfudk awG@&onf? &l;qdk;u
vl@tzJG@tpnf;udktkyfcsKyf&ef
taxGaxGpdwfqEN
(general
will)
w&yfvdktyf
a-umif;/
odk@&mwGifxdkpdwfqENudk jynfolvlxkwOD;jcif;qDwGif vdkufvHqENaumuf,ljyD;rS csrSwf&efcufcJojzifh
tpdk;&uwm0ef,l csrSwfay;&rnfjzpfa-umif;/ xdkcsrSwfr+udk EdkifiH om;tm;vHk;u vdkufem&rnfjzpfa-umif;
awG;ac:cJhonf? &l;qdk;onfvnf; vlr+a&; ydnmOfyr+ oDtdk&Doabmw&m;udk azmfxkwcf JholjzpfjyD; jynf
olvlxkuwifajrmufcJh aom tpdk;&uom vl@tzJG@tpnf;udktkyfcsKyfoifhonf[k xkwfaz:cJholvnf;jzpfonf?
xdktcsuft& &l;qdk;onf Oya'ESifhnD!Gwfaom tpdk;&. tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk vkdvm;ol jzpfa-umif;
ay:vGifonf? odk@aomfol.taxGaxGpdwfqENcsrSwfr+ oabmw&m;udkrl tm%m&Sifjzpfcsifaeaom
tpdk;&rsm;u wv$JtoHk;csvdkufjyD; vl@tzJG@tpnf;twGuf vdk tyfaom rl0g'tm;vHk;udktpdk;&u
csrSwf&ef[laomtcsufudk tusKd;&Sd&Sd toHk;csav awmhonf? wwd,urBmEdkifiHrsm;. tpdk;&rsm;onf
xdkodk@aomtpdk;&rsm;jzpfonfudk
rsufarSmufacwfurBmwGif
awG@jrifae&onf?
&l;qdk;.tawG;tac:rsm;onfvnf;
tm
%m&Sif0g'udktm;ay;aom
tawG;tc:rsm;tjzpf
rsufarSmufacwfEdkifiHa&;tawG;tac: ynm&SiftcsKd@u &+jrif-uonf?

jyifqifwnf;jzwfr+vkyfaeqJ pmrljzpfI oifwef;om;rsm; avhvm&eftwGufom jzefa0onf?


(Sept. 2001)