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Definition: - Green plants are autotrophic and synthesize food by the process of
Photosynthesis. Action spectrum of photosynthesis determined by T.W. Englemonn in
1882 using green alga. The scientist measured rate of photosynthesis as the amount of O2
released, which he detected by using bacteria that are attract by O2 .
Study on Photosynthesis originated only about 300 years ago. Joseph
Priestley (1733-1804) showed the plants have the ability to take up CO2 from the
atmosphere and release O2.

Photosynthesis:- it is the process of preparation of food by green plants(with chlorophyll

pigment) in the presence of sunlight using carbon dioxide and water as raw material. The
overall reaction of the Photosynthesis is summarized in the following equation:-

6 CO2 +12 H2O C6 H12 O6 +6H2O+6O2


Oxygen is released as a waste product and it is liberated from water and not form carbon
dioxide. (In below Figure).

In the process of Photosynthesis, glucose is the main Photosynthesis product.

Photosynthesis is the only process by which solar energy is converted into chemical

(A) Photosynthesis Pigment. – Chlorophyll: Chlorophyll is green pigment present in the

leaves of the plants. Chlorophyll is photoreceptor molecule that plays an important role in
the Photosynthetic process. There are different types of pigment molecule like
chlorophyll-a (Blue Green), chlorophyll-b (Yellow Green), xanthophylls (Yellow) and
Carotene (red) present in Plants. Chl-a and Chl-b ate the most Common. Chlorophyll
molecule entrap the radiant energy from the visible sunlight which can be split up into 7
colours of wave lengths. Chl-a and Chl-b absorb blue, violet and red wave lengths more
intensely and cannot absorb green light, hence the plants look green.
(B) Sites of Photosynthesis- Chloroplast: Leaves are the photosynthetic organ in plants.
Chloroplast (Plastids) are the more localized in the leaves. There are Photosynthetic
organelles of the cell. These can be observed under electron microscope.

(C) Raw Material for Photosynthesis: the synthesis of carbohydrates( Sugar) requires two
substances. These are carbon dioxide(CO2) and Water(H2O).
1. CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2): - in atmosphere only 0.03% of total atmosphere is Carbon
Dioxide. It is released in the atmosphere by respiration decay, decomposition and
combustion. The land plants take the CO2 from atmosphere through the Stomata.
2. Water (H2O):- Water is the second substance required for the Photosynthesis. In the
chloroplast, photolysis (Break down) of water (H2O) molecule into hydrogen and oxygen
takes place.

The entire process photosynthesis is complete in two phases:
1. LIGHT PHASE depends upon light and also called photochemical reaction.
2. DARK PHASE does not required light and called dark reaction or purely chemical

(A) Light Reaction:- It is the photochemical phase of Photosynthesis. It occurs in the

thylakoids of chloroplasts. These photosynthetic pigments absorb light energy in the
form of photons. Light reaction involves following steps:

1. Phase 1 (Photolysis of water) : in the step H2O splits up into H+ and OH- , H+
is used to reduce NADP (Nicotinamide Adenine dinucleotide Phosphate) to
NADPH2 which is used in dark Reaction. While OH- is utilized to evolve free
O2 and release H2O molecule. The oxygen produced is given out of the leaf.
Water is used by plants

2. Phase 2 ( Photophosphorylation ) : in this step the chlorophyll molecule when

exposed to light is excited and emits electrons. These electrons are made
available to number of electron acceptors and ATP is formed ADP and
inorganic Phosphate. This ATP is used in dark reaction as energy source.

The highly reactive of H+ and OH- of water undergo quick changes. OH- produces
water and oxygen. Water is used by the plants whereas oxygen is released into the
atmosphere. H+ (In dark Reaction) combine with CO2 to produce glucose. At the
end of light reaction, following changes have occurred:
(a) Formation of ATP. (b) Formation of NADPH2. (c) released of O2 .

(B) DARK REACTION : it is immediately followed after light reaction. This occurs in
the stroma of chloroplast. In the dark reaction ATP and NADPH2 are used to reduce
CO2 in the chloroplast for synthesis of carbon hydrates. At the end of cycle
carbohydrate is synthesized and RuBP is regenerated. Melvin Calvin and Andy
Bemnson discovered this cycle and it is known as Calvin – Benson Cycle.
Products of photosynthesis are glucose and oxygen. oxygen is used in respiration
process of various living-beings. Glucose through various metabolic pathways from
many compounds that are needed for growth and development of body.


Two types of factors influence the process of photosynthesis:


Factors Affecting Photosynthesis


- Chlorophyll Contents - Light
- Accumulation of Products - Carbon Dioxide
- Structure of leaves - Water
- Temperature
- Oxygen

1. Chlorophyll Contents: There is no direct relationship between the rate of
photosynthesis & chlorophyll contents. It is said that entrapping, converting
and storing of radiant energy depend on the quantity of Chlorophyll.
2. Accumulation products: - The product produce during photosynthesis, if not
consumed or Trans located, result in stoppage of process gradually.
3. Structure of Leaves: the structure, position and distribution of stomata affect
the process directly.

1. Light: Light affect the photosynthesis by its intensity, quality, and duration.
Light intensity increase the rate and green light decreased the rate of
2. Carbon Dioxide: High concentration of CO2 increased the rate of
photosynthesis but very high concentrate of CO2 become toxic to the plants.
3. Water: The Water is essential raw material for the process. Water deficiency
decreases the rate.
4. Temperature: Photosynthesis process involves the activity of a number of
enzymes. Most of enzymes function at optimal temperature from 200 to 350C .
5. Oxygen: Excess of oxygen lowers the rate of Photosynthesis.