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Variation of Parameters

If the functions P, Q, and f are continuous on an open interval I, and if the functions y1 and y2 are linearly independent solutions of the homogeneous equation corresponding to the nonhomogeneous equation, y + P(x)y + Q(x)y = f (x) then a particular solution of equation(1) is y2 (x)f (x) dx + y2 (x) W (y1 , y2 )(x) and the general solution is yp = y1 (x) y = c1 y1 (x) + c2 y2 (x) +yp yh Will always give a particular solution yp provided that that the associated homogeneous equation can be solved. No restriction on f (x), however the integrals may not always be evaluated by elementary analytical methods, however they can usually be calculated by using Trapezoidal rule or some other numerical techniques. This method can be generalized for higher-order dierential equations.
MSW MTH 291

(1)

y1 (x)f (x) dx W (y1 , y2 )(x)

(2)

(3)