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PREFACE
This report is the practical part of the most vital practice of our MBA-HR program. The sole objective is to familiarize the student with the practical manipulation of business organization. This report has been written to know how big organizations like PTCL manage their teams to achieve their common goals. In the first phase of the report there is the general introduction about the company and then different terms have been explained, then the mission, values, different services and different strategies of the organization have been explained. In the next part, SWOT analysis of the firm have been done by the help of which it is identified that what are the strong areas of the company and where it lacks so that it can improve, and then in the end most important my experience while working in the PTCL as internee is explained. Author

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In the name of Almighty Allah who is most merciful, and who give me strength to accomplish honors. I take this opportunity to acknowledge my teachers efforts without which my success would not have been possible. Also would like to pay my gratitude to the very cooperative Executive staff at the PTCL CTH office, the venue of my internship training program. Also want to applaud my parents for their selfless efforts and cooperation.

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Executive Summary
This report is a necessary part of MBA degree program. The real purpose of the 6 weeks internship training program conducted at the PTCL head office is the review of the human resources techniques & systems adopted by the organization. Critically analyze the discrepancies and recommend suggestions for improvements. Although all the major departments, integral to the MBA course were covered thoroughly yet the focus of the training was the area of specialization, HR & A department. Human Resource Management practices followed by the company seen practically whether the company adopted them according to the international labor law standards or not. Privatization has a positive impact on the Human Resource practices in the organization. The HR staff is very competent and Job-fit. The organization is in a process of change. Change for PTCL has not been easy owing to its massive work force. Issues like lay-offs and downsizing has been a major concern for the HR department. According to a calculation, about half of the employees were laid-off after privatization. A central problem in the HRM systems of the company is lack of contact & feedback from & to employees there is a lack of co-ordination between different departments of the organization as well as into a specific branch. Another problem is lack of trained staff & political pressure for transfers/postings etc on middle management. Like wise lack of automation and state-of-the-art latest IT technology for correspondence between the contents of the company causing the delay in work and negatively affecting the over all performance of the company.

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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
PREFACE............................................................................................................2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.........................................................................................3 Executive Summary............................................................................................4 Table of Contents...............................................................................................5 Table of Contents...............................................................................................5 Chapter 1..........................................................................................................9 BRIEF HISTORY...............................................................................................9 Background...............................................................................................11 Overview...................................................................................................12 History ........................................................................................................13 PRESENT STATUS OF ORGANIZATION................................................................17 Structure of organization..............................................................................18 Vision..............................................................................................................20 Mission............................................................................................................20 Core Values.....................................................................................................20 Chapter 2........................................................................................................22 Company Management System......................................................................22 STAFF ROLE OF THE HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT....................................23 POLICY INITIATION AND FORMULATION..........................................................23 ADVICE.........................................................................................................24 SERVICE.......................................................................................................24 Control.........................................................................................................25 Employees/Personnel in various sections.......................................................25 Management of PTCL.................................................................................25 Job Descriptions ...........................................................................................29 HR&A TASK ASSIGNMENT (EXISTING)..........................................................29 Chapter 3........................................................................................................31 Management and Administrative Styles............................................................32 Impact of Management Styles on Motivation of Employees................................33 Impact of Management Styles on Productivity of the Employees........................33 Job Satisfaction of Employees...........................................................................33 Issues...........................................................................................................34 Right downsizing.......................................................................................34 Employee Moral.........................................................................................35 Denationalization.......................................................................................35 Service Concerns.......................................................................................36 Universal Access to Basic Services..............................................................38 Risks for national security..........................................................................38 Chapter 4........................................................................................................40 Production and Operations...............................................................................40 Technical & Operational Net Work.....................................................................40 Switching Technology...................................................................................40 Current PTCL Network...................................................................................41 TECHNICAL AND OPERATIONAL MILE STONES.....................................................42 Computerized Fault Management System......................................................42 Launch Of IN Platform...................................................................................42 Optical Fiber Junction Access Network...........................................................43

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PTCL Performance in production:...................................................................43 Expansion of Network and services improvement...........................................45 Conclusion ...................................................................................................47 PTCL: Future Prospects & Challenges ............................................................48 SUCCESS AND FAILURE OF THE PRODUCTS IN MARKET....................................49 SUCCESS...................................................................................................49 FAILURE....................................................................................................50 Chapter 5........................................................................................................53 Company Marketing Mix...................................................................................53 Product........................................................................................................53 V fone.......................................................................................................54 PTCL Landline............................................................................................57 EVO Wireless Broadband............................................................................60 Business DSL.............................................................................................64 Business VPN............................................................................................67 PTCL DIRECT..............................................................................................68 PTCL DialUP Internet..................................................................................68 PTCL Smart TV...........................................................................................70 SERVICES OF PTCL...........................................................................................75 Services for Consumers.................................................................................75 a) New Telephone Connections:..................................................................75 b) Value Added Services:...........................................................................75 SERVICES FOR CORPORATE CUSTOMERS........................................................79 Universal Access Number (UAN):................................................................80 Voice Messaging Service: (VMS).................................................................80 Virtual Private Network (VPN)....................................................................83 Digital Cross Connect (DXX).......................................................................83 BRIEF INTRODUCTION OF SUBSIDIARIES.........................................................85 UFONE.......................................................................................................85 COMPETITOR OF PTCL......................................................................................86 SUBSIDIRAY / PRODUCT COMPETITOR.........................................................88 1. Marketing Strategy of PTCL..........................................................................89 2. Market Segmentation...................................................................................90 POSITIONING STRATEGY...................................................................................91 MARKETING MIX...............................................................................................91 Product Planning:.........................................................................................92 Pricing Strategy:...........................................................................................92 4. PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY.............................................................................93 Advertising:..................................................................................................93 Sales Promotion:...........................................................................................93 CUSTOMER CARE & CUSTOMER SERVICES DEPARTMENT..................................94 REVENUE DEPARTMENT.................................................................................96 FUNCTIONS OF MARKETING DEPARTMENT...................................................97 Pricing Strategy ........................................................................................99 Penetration Pricing..................................................................................100 Economy Pricing......................................................................................100 Price Skimming........................................................................................100 Value Pricing...........................................................................................100 Distribution Strategy......................................................................................102 Channel of Distribution................................................................................102 .................................................................................................................102 Direct (In-house).........................................................................................102 PTCL Exchanges and One Stop Shop ---- End users........................................103 Indirect (Dealers)........................................................................................103 PUSH STRATEGY..........................................................................................104

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PULL STRATEGY..........................................................................................104 SWOT ANALYSIS.............................................................................................105 Strengths...................................................................................................106 Weaknesses................................................................................................107 Opportunities.............................................................................................108 Threats.......................................................................................................109 Concluding Remarks on SWOT Analysis........................................................110 Chapter 6.......................................................................................................111 Company Accounting and Finance System.......................................................112 FINANCIAL ANALYSIS......................................................................................112 RATIO ANALYSIS.........................................................................................113 LIQUIDITY RATIOS....................................................................................113 PROFITABILITY RATIOS................................................................................114 1) GROSS PROFIT MARGIN........................................................................114 2) NET PROFIT MARGIN ............................................................................115 4) RETURN ON EQUITY (ROE)....................................................................115 MARKETING RATIOS....................................................................................115 1) EARNINGS PER SHARE (EPS).................................................................115 2) DIVIDEND PER SHARE (DPS).................................................................116 Chapter 7.......................................................................................................118 Strategic Management Matrices......................................................................118 IFE.............................................................................................................118 COMPETITIVE PROFILE MATRIX (CPM)...........................................................121 Strategic Planning Matrices ........................................................................122 SWOT MATRIX..........................................................................................122 SPACE MATRIX.........................................................................................124 Space Matrix...........................................................................................125 BCG MATRIX............................................................................................129 THE GRAND STRATEGY MATRIX................................................................131 Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM).........................................132 Chapter 8.......................................................................................................133 Training Program...........................................................................................133 A Word about the training program at PTCL.................................................133 HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT FUNCTIONS...............................................133 TRANSFER, PROMOTION, LAYOFF.................................................................135 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT.....................................................................135 COMPENSATION ADMINISTRATION...............................................................136 HEALTH AND SAFETY...................................................................................137 DISCIPLINE AND DISCHARGE........................................................................137 LABOR RELATIONS......................................................................................138 BENEFITS AND SERVICES.............................................................................139 ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT....................................................................139 HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING......................................................................139 EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY.............................................................140 PERSONNEL INFORMATION SYSTEM.............................................................140 HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT OF THE PTCL:............................................141 RECRUITMENT:.........................................................................................141 TRAINING:...............................................................................................141 TRANSFER:..............................................................................................142 EVALUATION:...........................................................................................142 UNION:....................................................................................................142 WORK PLACE TRAINING:...........................................................................143 REFRESHING COURSES:............................................................................143 PAY PACKAGES:.......................................................................................143 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY:....................................................................144

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Glossary........................................................................................................148 Bibliography..................................................................................................154 www.google.com............................................................................................154 www.ptcl.com................................................................................................154 PTCL Management and Staff work experience...............................................154 Appendix and Annexure..................................................................................155 Balance Sheet..........................................................................................155 Profit and Loss Account............................................................................157 Cash Flow Statement...............................................................................158 Statement of Changes in Equity................................................................159 Finance Graphs........................................................................................160

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Chapter 1
Nine years into a new century, the telecom sector of world finds itself at crossroads after changing itself almost beyond recognition over the last 25 years. Privatization and competition are the order of the day, with a majority of countries having adopted these policies to advance their telecom sector. The results have been impressive; the industry has grown at unprecedented pace. Although there has been a phenomenal growth in Pakistan, especially in the cellular mobile communication and in the internet, yet the late density remains almost stagnant. So far PTCL is the sole land line service provider of Pakistan. PTCL is the giant of Pakistan telecommunication industry and enjoying the monopoly. This part of the report contains a brief introduction of PTCL. This introduction is divided into two parts, History and Current situation.

BRIEF HISTORY
Over the years, technology has changed the concept of communication and what was thought to be a fictional only a decade ago, has actually made its way through to our hands today. This is the future we dreamt of so fondly. Welcome to the modern age, of telecommunication, which have become complementary to our lives? But there must also be an anchor to introduce, allow, improve and channelize all these services and innovations sweeping through the globe. In Pakistan same anchor is Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited from the humble beginnings of posts & Telegraph Department in 1947 and establishment of Pakistan Telephone & Telegraph Department in 1962, to this very day, PTCL is a story of commitment and vision. Pursuing a progressive policy, the Government in 1991, announced its Plans to privatize

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PTCL, and in 1994 issued six million vouchers exchangeable into 600 million shares of the would-be PTCL in two separate placements. Each had a par value of Rs.10 per share. These vouchers were converted into PTCL Shares in mid 1996.In 1995, Pakistan Telecommunication (Reorganization) Ordinance Formed the basis for PTCL monopoly over basic telephony in the country. It also paved the way for the establishment of an independent regulatory regime. The Provisions of the Ordinance were lent permanence in October 1996 through Pakistan Telecommunication (Reorganization) Act. The same year, Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited was formed and listed on all stock Exchanges in Pakistan. Since then, PTCL has been working vigorously to meet the dual Challenge of telecom development and socio-economic uplift of the country. This is characterized by a clearer appreciation of ongoing telecom scenario where in convergence of technologies continuously changes the shape of the Sector. A measure of this understanding is progressive measures such as Establishment of the companys mobile and Internet subsidiaries (U-fone & Paknet) in 1998. As telecommunication monopolies head towards and imminent end, services and infrastructure providers are set to face even bigger challenges. Pakistan also entered post monopoly era with deregulation of the sector in January 2003. On the Government level, a comprehensive liberalization policy for Telecom sector has already been announced now. Now PTA have issued License to two new telecom companies in Pakistan TELENOR international and WARID TEL this act will put some challenges for PTCL to cope with. PTCL is in process of enhancing organizational and business Proficiency through vertical integration and horizontal diversification. At the same time, cross-national ownerships, operations and partnerships are being evaluated with a view to developing and diversifying the Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL) is a provider of telecommunication services in Pakistan. The Company owns and operates telecommunication facilities, and provides domestic and international telephone services and other communication facilities throughout Pakistan. It also manufactures telecommunication related equipment. PTCL's subsidiary is Pak Telecom Mobile Page 10 of 160

Limited (PTML). PTML operates cellular telephony under the brand name of Ufone. CTI, a joint venture with Siemens AG Germany, is in the business of manufacturing and supplying telecom equipment and services. During the fiscal year ended June 30, 2005, TIP imported and supplied special telephone sets. Paknet Limited owns an Internet service provider (ISP) network spread over 2,900 cities/locations with 43 points of presence (Pops). This post examines the challenges faced by PTCL and its future prospects. As we know the Etisalat owned PTCL has been engaged in battles with new competitors and regulatory body (PTA) on one hand and faces internal organizational issues on the other. Its profits have been sliding.

Background
In the last couple of years the impact of deregulation and increase in competition in telecommunication industry in Pakistan has been increasingly felt by PTCL. This phenomenon is not unique to PTCL - incumbent providers all over the world have gone through this difficult transition from being a monopoly to a free market competitor. Lets take a look at 2008 financial results of PTCL (As of Sep 30, 2008). The following is based on the information posted on PTCL web site and as reported on Business Recorder. During the period under review, PTCL added net 108,000 new working connections to its network. Overall, PTCLs sales revenue for the first quarter was Rs.16.9 billion as compared to Rs.17.7 billion during the corresponding period of last year. The company announced net profit of Rs 8.4 billion translating into an EPS of Rs

1.64 for the first half of 2007, a decline of 23 percent over the corresponding periods net earnings and EPS of Rs 10.8 billion and Rs 2.12 respectively. The major factor for the decline in the top line was six percent downfall in the Revenues from Rs 34.9 billion in first half of 2006 to Rs 32.7 billion in IH/FY07 owing to rapidly declining market tariffs Slide in profit is a continuing trend question is Page 11 of 160

When would it be stable? Investors do not welcome this uncertainty.

Overview
Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited had exclusive rights to provide basic telecom services in Pakistan till the end of year 2002. With the announcement of Deregulation Policy by the Government of Pakistan in 2003, PTA has issued licenses for basic telephony to the private sector in Pakistan who will be competing PTCL as the incumbent. Fixed line Services in Pakistan have shown magnificent growth patterns. This has been evident from the increased tele density over the years. Currently the fixed line tele density has reached 2.9% which was just 2.2% in year 2000. With the issuance of new licenses for LL and LDI, it is expected that teledensity will increase further as soon as new operators start their operations. Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL). The Group's principal activity is to provide telecommunication services. The Group provides domestic and international services throughout Pakistan and also manufactures telecommunication related equipment.

Company Ticker 2008 Sales: Major Industry: Sub Industry: Country: Employees: Page 12 of 160

Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited PTC 82,983,000,000 Utilities Telecommunications PAKISTAN 37000

Market Capitalization Fiscal Year Ends Currency Total Shares Outstanding Closely Held Shares Share Type

289,935,000,000 June Pakistan Rupees 5,100,000,000 4,498,959,098 A Ordinary

History

The telecommunication sector in Pakistan has come a long way since the inception of the country. It has done a number of developments including significant structural changes, comprehensive reforms and elaborate revamping programmers.

1947 1962 1990-91

Posts & Telegraph Dept. established Pakistan Telegraph & Telephone Dept. Pakistan Telecom Corporation ALIS: 850,000 Waiting list: 900,000 Expansion Program of 900,000 lines initiated (500,000 lines by Private Sector Participation

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400,000 lines PTC/GOP own resources). 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2002 2003 2004 About 5 % of PTC assets transferred to PTA, FAB & NTC. PTCL came into being and listed in Stock Exchange WTO Agreement Signature Signed and divided into 5 entities PTCL gets Cellular Mobile License PTA issues 100 of lines on internet value added Services Issues Licenses in the Area of Azad Kashmir PTCL Monopoly expired/End Telecom Deregulation Policy Announced PTCL is laying down Fiber Optic cables between the local exchange and the end users WLL V Wireless Phone started to provide services. 2006 Etisalat Takes over PTCL With 26% of PTCL management shifted to Etisalat 2007 Performance better and develop NGN(Next Generation Network) Restructuring and VSS(Voluntary Separation Scheme) (Source: PTCL) PTCL, which is established in 1947, is the largest integrated operator in Pakistan and also the only full-service Telecom operator in the country PTCL provides the mobile network, fixed network and cable TV (CATV) network covering the whole country. Problems to PTCL Pakistan are one of the largest countries in South Asia, with a population of 160 million including a rural population of 100 million. 70% of this country is mountainous areas. As the largest integrated operator in Pakistan, from the humble beginnings of Posts & Telegraph Department in 1947 and establishment of Pakistan Telephone & Telegraph Department in 1962, to this very day, ours is a story of commitment and vision. Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation (PTC) set sails for its voyage of glory in December 1990, taking over operations and functions from Pakistan Telephone and Telegraph Department under Pakistan Telecommunication Corporation Page 14 of 160

Act 1991. This coincided with the Government's competitive policy, encouraging private sector participation and resulting in award of licenses for cellular, card-operated payphones, paging and, lately, data communication services. Pursuing a progressive policy, the Government in 1991, announced its plans to privatize PTC, and in 1994 issued six million vouchers exchangeable into 600 million shares of the would-be PTCL in two separate placements. Each had a par value of Rs. 10 per share. These vouchers were converted into PTCL shares in mid-1996. In 1995, Pakistan Telecommunication (Reorganization) Ordinance formed the basis for PTCL monopoly over basic telephony in the country. It also paved the way for the establishment of an independent regulatory regime. The provisions of the Ordinance were lent permanence in October 1996 through Pakistan Telecommunication (Reorganization) Act. The same year, Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited was formed and listed on all stock exchanges of Pakistan. The telecommunication sector was the exclusive monopoly of PTCL until late 1980s. The only other telecommunication entity that was operating in Pakistan was Special Communication Organisation (SCO) but its area of operation was restricted to the AJ&K and NAs. The SCO was run by the Pakistan Army and hence had a special status. In any case, its area of operation was very small. The primary focus of this section is, therefore, the PTCL and other private companies that emerged later in the areas like Cellular Services and Pay Card Services. The privatisation process in the telecommunication sector began in 1987, when certain measures were taken to deregulate the telecom sector, involve private sector interests, and divest the then T&T (now PTCL). These steps included deregulation of terminal equipment and electronic branch exchanges. The local and foreign companies were allowed to manufacture market and install EPABXs and Key Telephone Sets up to 5+25 lines. Within a year, the sector was further liberalised and more companies were allowed to manufacture and install telecommunication equipment.

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The sector was further liberalised in early 1990s and the telecommunication market was opened up for foreign investment. Foreign companies were invited to participate in the expansion of telecom services to major cities. One such project involved supply and installation of 500,000 telephone connections, and fetched US$300 million investment. It happened because the government had allowed the PTC in early 1990s to make subcontracting arrangements with foreign companies like Siemens, Alcatel and Ericsson. PTC did sign agreements with some of these companies on a build, operate and transfer (BOT) basis in order to meet increasing demand of telephone connections. This partial privatisation contributed to increase in telephone lines to 1.8 million by December 1993 and 2.2 million by December 1994. In the meanwhile, the revenues of PTC had increased from Rs. 9.95 billion in 1989-90 to Rs. 25 billion in 1992-93; while its net profit had increased from Rs. 5.7 billion to Rs. 15 billion. In 1996, another major set of reforms was introduced in the telecommunication sector. The PTC Act was repealed and, instead, the Pakistan Telecommunications Company Limited (PTCL) was established under the Pakistan Telecommunications Ordinance, 1994. Under this Ordinance, the PTCL was awarded in March 1996 a 25 years renewable licence for operating in the sector; while it was to retain monopoly on basic telephone services for initial 7 years. The PTCL was also allowed to undertake card payphone services, voice mail services, digital services, data, e-mail, Internet, LAN, Wireless in Local Loop System, and Intelligent Network Based services. The Ordinance also provided for a regulatory authority i.e. Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA). It, however, took two years until PTA could become functional in 1998. Another important aspect of this restructuring was that these included establishment of a National Telecommunication Corporation (NTC) with the aim of providing services to the defence establishment, and the Federal and provincial governments. It is because serious concerns had been earlier raised about the PTCL privatisation, while it was responsible for provision of service to armed forces and government departments. Following PTCs transformation into the PTCL, which is a publicly listed corporate entity, PTCL has aggressively implemented a restructuring program and has achieved substantial progress in term of its network, tariff re-balancing, quality of service, value Page 16 of 160

added services and profitability .The restructuring was carried out with the primary aim of improving profitability by improving quality of customer services and achieving efficiency so that PTCL could be prepared for the competitive environment after December 2002 when the PTCLs exclusivity on fixed line voice services would have expired. By June 2001, the PTCL network comprised of 1,833 digital exchanges, 250 analogue exchanges and 618 manual exchanges. PTCL also owned around 5,000 kms. of optical fiber that spanned both banks of the river Indus. The key components of its international network included three earth stations, three operating international gateways, and access to various submarine cables. By then, the penetration rate was 2.4%, which almost doubled by 2003 i.e. 4.5% .The PTCLs is now well-placed to register good growth and compete in a privatized context. The privatisation of PTCL would constitute perhaps the single largest transaction in Pakistan in the context of privatisation process. Larger transactions are often difficult to proceed with, in view of the requirements, for instance, of hiring financial advisors, need of regulatory reforms, and settlement of issues such as unbundling or restructuring. The privatisation of PTCL, however, is now at a very advanced stage. The Government of Pakistan has decided to offer up to 26% of the issued share capital of the company to the strategic investors. The PC has so far received about 11 Expressions of Interest (EOI) for PTCL. It was supposed to go for bidding by the first half of 2002 but it got delayed partly because the events that followed 11th of September. July21, 2003, PTCL has assured PTCL customers will be the ultimate beneficiaries of the deregulation of the telecom sector in the country. He said, the recently announced telecom policy envisaged a healthy competition among the various telecom operators, which would benefit the customers.

PRESENT STATUS OF ORGANIZATION


After having brief introduction from past end of PTCL now we move towards the current situation of the company .In this part focus will be on the: Page 17 of 160

Structure of organization Technical & operational Net work Services provided by PTCL Financial front of PTCL Competitors and subsidies

Structure of organization
An Organizational Structure clarify the roles of personnel of an Organization and to determine who has to do what task, which is responsible for what, objectives to be achieved, who is to report to whom and to remove the obstacles for performance caused by confusion and uncertainty of job assignment as well as to make easy decision- making and communication networks reflecting and supporting organization objectives. The head of Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited is called President. Then, the SEVPs (Senior Executive Vice Presidents), i.e. SEVP (Finance), SEVP (Operations), SEVP (Technical), and SEVP (Human Resource Management), SEVP (Marketing & Business Development). Then there is a chain of Executive Vice Presidents (EVPs) like EVP (Finance Central), EVP (Marketing), EVP (HR Central), EVP (Accounts), EVP (Operation), EVP (Information Technology, Training & Research), and EVP (Revenue). All these are appointed at Pakistan Telecommunication Company, Headquarters at G-8/4, Islamabad. Apart from these EVP, there are also EVP (Operation), EVP (HR) etc who are heading the other regions of PTCL in major cities country wide. Then there are Chief Engineers and General Managers at H/Qs who report to their relevant EVP. Then there are Senior Managers, Deputy Directors, Assistant Directors, Account Officers, Assistant Account Officers, Financial Analysts, Marketing Managers, Computer Programmers, and IT Specialists etc. There are also Regional Heads (General Managers) to head PTCL Regions then come the Senior Page 18 of 160

Managers (Operations), Senior Engineers (Operations), Engineers to look after the telecom system of Regions. There are also Senior Managers Finance, Account Officers and Accountants to Handle Regional account and billing matters. Manager HR & his staff are responsible to take care of Personnel affairs at Regional Level. In non-gazetted staff there are Engineering Supervisors Operations /Switching /Power plant /Optical Fiber system/M.W Media, Account Assistants, Stenographers, Assistants, Key Punch Operators, Telecom Technicians, Upper Division Clerks, Lower Division Clerks, Line Men, Wire Men, Drivers, Exchange Cleaners, Naib Qasids and Peons etc. All the staff is recruited by the HR Department headed by SEVP HR. The HR experts are responsible for hiring & to further streamline its recruitment process. MAIN OFFICES The Head Office of Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited is situated in Sector G-8/4, Islamabad, which is headed by the President. Besides, it has Regional Headquarters like: Islamabad Telecom Region, Rawalpindi Telecom Region, Hazara Telecom Region Abottabad, Northern Telecom Region-I Peshawar, Lahore Telecom Region (South), Lahore Telecom Region (North), Multan Telecom Region, Faisalabad Telecom Region Southern Telecom Region-I Hyderabad Southern Telecom Region-II Karachi Southern Telecom Region-V Sukkur Western Telecom Region Quetta. Switching network Central region Lahore.

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These Regions provide Telecommunications services to the customers in their respective areas. Apart from these, PTCL has an Optical Fiber Construction Region Lahore and Optic Fiber System Islamabad, each headed by a General Manager to install, operate and look after optic fiber systems/cables.

Vision
To be the leading Information and Communication Technology Service Provider in the region by achieving customer satisfaction and maximizing shareholders' value'. The future is unfolding around us. In times to come, we will be the link that allows global communication. We are striving towards mobilizing the world for the future. By becoming partners in innovation, we are ready to shape a future that offers telecom services that bring us closer.

Mission
To achieve our mission by having: An organizational environment that fosters professionalism, motivation and quality An environment that is cost effective and quality conscious Services that are based on the most optimum technology "Quality" and "Time" conscious customer service Sustained growth in earnings and profitability

Core Values
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Professional Integrity Customer Satisfaction Teamwork Company Loyalty

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Chapter 2
Company Management System

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STAFF ROLE OF THE HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT


The Human Resource department of the company operates in an auxiliary, advisory, or facilitative relationship to other departments in the organization. Any staff unit, whether it be personnel or otherwise, exists to help the line effectively. It has been created in the first place to take advantage of specialized talent and knowledge. The H.R department of the company generally performs the following roles: Policy Initiation and formulation Advice Service Control

POLICY INITIATION AND FORMULATION


The SEVP of the H.R. Department is the individual most actively involved in policy revision to cover recurring problem or to prevent anticipated problems. Ordinarily these are proposed to the president of the company, and it is up on the latters authority that the policy is actually issued. When proposing a new or revised policy the personnel director must analyze problem that have occurred in the past, survey other companies to determine how they handle similar situations, discuss the matter with colleagues and subordinates and give due consideration to the prevailing philosophy in the organization.

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ADVICE
A major portion of the activities of those engaged in staff personnel work is in the nature of counsel and advice to line manager. Countless examples can be given. A shop foreman may be confronted with a grievance over distribution of overtime. Another foreman may have the problem employee who he feels should be disciplined or even suspended. At the time of the annual review of all salaried personnel for possible pay increases, the operating manager plays a key role in advising operating manager on the administration of the program. An apparent concerted slow down may occur in the assembly department. It may have been instituted by the union in retaliation for the cutting of piece rates the week before. How should production supervision handle this situation? The H.R. Managers and their staffs are expected to be fully familiar with H.R. policy, the labor agreement, past experience and the needs and welfare of both the company and the employees in order to develop a sound solution. Successful personnel specialist must be people centered. They must be feeling sensitive, wants, and motives of other people. At the same time they must continually be cognizant of their obligation to preserve the structure and functioning of the organization. In fact, this really is the essence of H.R. management. Management must seek to so direct and coordinate the efforts of the people that the goals of the organization are achieved while at the same time providing need satisfactions for the members of that organization.

SERVICE
The service responsibilities of the H.R. department are apparent when one examines such things are as the employment, training, and benefits functions. The tasks of recruiting, interviewing and testing job applicants are performed in the H.R. Dept. Training programs are planned, Organized and often staffed through the H.R. Dept. H.R. Dept must see that adequate instructional materials and facilities are available. Once pension and insurance programs have been setup, all claims must be through the Page 24 of 160

H.R. Dept. The maintenance of adequate employee records is a service function that permeates all functional specialties within the personnel field.

Control
The H.R. Dept carries out important control functions. It monitors the performance of line department and other staff departments to ensure that they conform to established personnel policy, procedures, and practices. The control function of the personnel department is quite comparable to the activities of a quality control group that measures product variables to ensure conformance to engineering specifications or to the activities of the auditing staff that inspects accounting records to ascertain conformance with prescribed standards.

Employees/Personnel in various sections

Management of PTCL
The management of PTCL is dedicated to create exceptional value of the companys clients and to keep the company ahead of competition. With a team of talented and dedicated professionals, PTCL commits all its energies, resources and time to cater the telecom needs of the clients. Management refers to the universal process of effectively and efficiently getting activities completed with and through other people. It is a process by which planning, organizing, leading and controlling, are performed to achieve the desired objectives of the organization. Hierarchy The hierarchy at PTCL is very tall. Many tiers are involved before the top management can be reached Page 25 of 160

PRESIDENT
President is the Chief controller. He is responsible for the overall management of an organization.

SEVP (I/AUDIT)
He is chief officer of internal audit. He is responsible of rectification of errors. He submits his report to the president periodically showing any irregularities found in the procedure.

G.M (INTERNAL AUDIT)


He carries out instructions given by the SEVP.

COMPANY SECRETARY
He maintains Minutes Register and arranges meetings of Directors or Share Holders.

GM N.S.S
General Manager Network Switching System is master controller of all Exchanges nationwide. He controls them through Centralized Network System. He can remove faults through remote help system.

SEVPs
These are directors of the board. They make planning and decisions, establish operating policies and guide the organizations interaction with its environment. These are top managers. Their policies are implemented through front line managers. They are called S.Es (Senior Engineer)

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SEVP (STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT)


Senior Executive Vice President makes strategies to achieve overall organizational goals.

CE (RRR)
Chief Executive Recruitment hires and fires the employees according to organizational policy.

CE (HRM)
Chief Executive Human Resource Management deals employees matters i.e. salary, leave, and disciplinary cases.

SEVP (FINANCE)
He deals with the upper level staff of finance department.

EVP (Accounts)
He deals PTCL Billing, new connections, facility charges and shifting charges of connections etc.

EVP (Finance)
He controls transactions for payment i.e. Salaries, Advances, purchase/repair of assets etc.

EVP (Revenue)
He deals overall revenue collected from exchanges and maintains its accounts.

SEVP (Technical)
He deals in installation of new exchanges, their maintenance and operation. Page 27 of 160

EVP (Development)
He arranges for the installation of new Exchanges.

MD Ufone
Managing Director is head of PTCL subsidiary Ufone.

MD Paknet
He is head of Internet section of PTCL. It is also a subsidiary of PTCL.

MD CTI
This is training institute of PTCL personnel. They offer training and refresher courses to staff periodically.

SEVP (Admin)
He deals with the postings and transfer of staff.

SEVP (IT)
Manager information technology deals with data base management and computer related problems.

SEVP (COMMERCIAL)
He deals with the upper staff of sales.

EVP Sales and commercial


This office deals with the sales of different products i.e. Calling Cards, V Wireless Connections etc. Page 28 of 160

EVP Marketing
This officer deals with the Advertising products on all Medias (Print media, electronic media etc.).

EVP (CC)
Customer Care office deals with the removal of customer complaints and gets customer feedback. Human Resource Organogram The focus of my 6 weeks training program was the Human Resource and administration department,

Job Descriptions

HR&A TASK ASSIGNMENT (EXISTING)

GM (HR&A)
Overall responsibility of HR & A

SM (HR & A)-I


Security Vehicle Management Store Matters / Auctions Janitorial Service Buildings & Maintenance Management Furniture & Fixture repair & Logistics Police Matters Page 29 of 160

Protocol Matters Investigations / Inquiries All Admin Reports

MHR&A-I
Vehicle Management Store Matters / Auctions Procurement & Disbursement Protocol Matters Recruitment / Interviews Training Buildings / M & R Janitorial Services Attendance and Time Management System All Admin Reports

AMHR
SAP ERP Compensation & Benefits Honoraria & Rewards FSTCs Management All HR Reports Accounts Matters, Reimbursements, Payments

SM (HR&A)-II
Staff Matters, Transfers / Postings Welfare Matters Medical Matters Leave Management Retirement & Separation Matters Page 30 of 160

Honoraria & Rewards FSTCs Management Union Matters (IR & ER) Legal Affairs SAP / ERP Procurement & Disbursement Accounts Matters, Reimbursement, Payments Colonies/ Residential Services Disciplinary & Appeal Cases All HR Reports

MHRA-II
HR Data Staff Mattes, Transfers / Postings Welfare Matters Medical Matters Honoraria & Rewards Retirement & Separation Matters Disciplinary & Appeal Cases All HR Reports

MT
Presently Under Training and Exposure

Chapter 3

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Management and Administrative Styles


Management style can best be described as somewhat bureaucratic despite the fact that organization privatized six years ago. The organization is in a state of transformation and changes are taking place but there is a resistance to the process of change. The officers have an equal opportunity for development and grow, though the pattern is not the same for all employees of the organization. People are recruited into the company based on references, head hunting and sometimes on merit too and with disregard to considerations of gender, race, color or creed. Performance evaluations are conducted on the basis of the employee category, . Promotions are similarly guided by merit and the suitability of an employee to the position for which he or she is being considered. Leadership follows the principle of 'management by walking around', where managers are expected to make daily rounds of all areas of responsibility, and have first-hand information of all significant happenings. This informal style of management may seem arbitrary, but is serious without being intimidating and has stood the company in good stead over the years. Working environment is quite friendly, however, Autocratic Style is being followed i.e., Decision environment is not participative. Heads of different departments participate to some extent in decision making but the executive level employees dont participate in goals Page 32 of 160

setting and strategies formulation. They just follow, what their managers ask them to do. There is an environment of Yes Boss around the organization.

Impact of Management Styles on Motivation of Employees


No doubt, employees of management level are highly motivated to enhance the performance of the organization and to achieve the desired goals; despite highly centralized environment, employees at executive level are very motivated towards achievement of the goals of the organization and to enhance the performance of the organization. The salary package is market competitive and well placed in keeping the executive level staff motivated and satisfied.

Impact of Management Styles on Productivity of the Employees


Employees at clerical level dont exhibit high efficiency and productivity due to lack of participative environment and intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Executives exhibit satisfactory productivity; they fulfill their responsibilities and duties in time and posses and exhibit the morale to exceed the standards or to increase performance levels to drive their organization forward. Also, employees at management level exhibit high efficiency level due to their participation in goals making and satisfactory salary packages.

Job Satisfaction of Employees

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As discussed earlier, the staff at all levels at PTCL is satisfied with their packages and jobs in general. The employee turn over is not very high, though many engineers view PTCL as a very lucrative opportunity to start their career with. Also, the market reputation supports their thinking and PTCL holds a great standard for the entrants

Issues
Privatization processes invariably involve restructuring economies in terms of ownership, management as well as changes in the nature and direction of decisions about investments, service delivery and market strategies etc. The nature of such conflicts is determined by the study of a particular privatization model used and the specific socio-economic realities in a country. It is, therefore, hard to generalize about what kinds of outcomes can be expected through privatization, especially when it involves a range of variables. There are some issues or conflicts that are raised by the privatization of Telecom sector. Right downsizing Employee Moral Denationalization Service Concerns Risks for national security Lead toward inequalities across regions.

Right downsizing
Privatization has been followed by employee layoffs. If we see that some privatization generates net employment as a result of expanding production or services, employment in many privatized entities may decrease after privatization. This is all about due to State owned enterprises often have many more employees than needed for efficient operation of the company. Many of the employees perform little or no work and/or have Page 34 of 160

low productivity. This implies that either taxpayers end up subsidizing their salaries or consumers pay for it through higher prices. The extra amounts paid by taxpayers or consumers leaves less money in the hands of people who might otherwise spend it in a way that promotes productive employment. If we see the privatization program as a whole, by injecting new investment, introducing better management, improving competitiveness, and leaving more money in the hands of the public, then result will likely to increased employment opportunities. At the same time, laid-off workers are often given generous severance packages that can be used to start business or obtain training to help them prepare for a new job. It is justified on the grounds that entities in the public sector generally employ more workforce than required for efficient and profitable functioning, as people get employment in view of political considerations. In situations when such retrenchments involve significant numbers of employees, labor unions put up significant resistance and hence a conflict situation arises.. Steps that can be taken to make privatization acceptable for workers include offers of a certain number of shares to them for free or on discounted rates.

Employee Moral
After the deregulation, an issue arise which is employee moral. It is seemed that due to deregulation employees has threat about their jobs. When privatization was made there are many employee layoffs, due to which it distorts the moral of the employee, they even have no hope of their job. In this regard, PTCL takes the steps for the moral of employees, job surety and gives the incentives, accommodation, house rent allowance, school fee of the Childs hospital facilities etc.

Denationalization

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Privatization process is opposed in certain situations on the grounds that it opens up the door for the foreign companies to buy national assets and gradually establish control on the national economy. In many developing countries; privatization is referred to as denationalization, which is understood as a transfer of control of national assets to foreign investors or managers. The reason why privatization is considered difficult in developing countries is that their domestic markets are generally not strong enough to buy a significant percentage of shares or assets privatized. Opposition to privatization comes from a range of actors including national enterprises, who are often competitors of foreign companies, as well as by political groups and labor unions. Ownership of national assets by foreign companies is seen as a threat to national independence.

Service Concerns
The major grievances of the users of PTCL include the following: Low quality of service, despite the fact that the rate of digitalization of the sector is 90%. The target fixed by PTCL is of 100% digitalization by 2003. Long waiting lines for telephone connections, since there is an ever-increasing demand for telephone connections, but the demand is not being matched by the supply of services. However, PTCLs target for fixed line teledensity is 5.6% by the year 2003. Low tale-density, which is only 3.2%. In 2008. Delayed complaint redressed. Excessive billing is one of the most important consumer concerns. Just in the year 2000, the tariff of telephone service and other charges were raised a number of times despite the fact that the PTCL is earning a huge profit. Moreover, the tariff and other charges of basic telephone services are very high despite the fact that the government has fixed the price-cap for tariff of telecommunication services. Page 36 of 160

Arbitrary price fluctuations are rampant, which are often made without any prior notice to the consumers. Consumers of telephone service often complaint of dead telephones for long periods of time. The number of total installed lines is 4.00 million, whereas the actual number of working lines is 3.18 million.

Since PTCL has given more connections than its infrastructure can support, the call completion rate is poor. Many times, a number does not get dialed even if the called number is not busy.

Delay in shifting of telephones from one place to other.

Non-functioning of public telephones Unfair practices of PCO operators (licensees of telephone department). Delay in publication of telephone directory is also a concern of the telephone users, since it is an obligation of PTCL to publish its directory regularly and distribute it free of cost to the people. The directory has not been published for a number of years. Though in 1994, PTCL published a directory for telephone subscribers in Karachi, the number of copies was limited. As a result, 36% of the consumers in Karachi could not receive its copy. Given the increasing number of telephone subscribers in the country, at least 2.86 million directories were needed in 1999 alone. This number must have increased by now. Concentration of telecom facilities in urban areas and neglect of rural areas. Concerns of Internet like VSATs & Cable TV Users. The role of Internet in information dissemination cannot be over-emphasized. Therefore PTCL is relatively weak in the areas of high-speed digital Communications and satellite-based telecoms. Though the Internet connectivity is inexpensive as compared to expansion plans in other areas of telecommunication services, and relatively less physical infrastructure is involved in it, these areas are lagging far behind the other areas. It can be assessed from Page 37 of 160

the fact that in Pakistan the on line population or the Internet users in the year 2000 were merely 0.25 million. The consumers of these services also suffer from a number of problems. The prices of leased lines have been about ten times higher than the international prices. Thus, it has not allowed information technologys advancement in the telecommunication sector beyond a certain limit, since the company fears the loss of huge revenue generated by long distance international calls.

Universal Access to Basic Services

The PTCL regarded as basic services, which must be supplied or provided universally, irrespective of the fact that some regions or areas of the country are remote and isolated, or relatively less populated. Furthermore, in telecommunications, the scope of universal services must include local calls, access to telephone directory, access to pay telephones, and lifeline services. However, additional services do not constitute universal services. As far as the telecommunication services in Pakistan are concerned, there is a marked concentration of PTCL in the urban areas, where exists a greater demand, whereas the urban areas form a low priority area for the telecommunication service providers. It is a concern of the consumers, particularly those dwelling in the rural or remote areas of the country that this rural-urban divide in the provision of telecommunication services must come to an end. The PTCL must not only consider the case of the people living in isolated or less-populated places, but also the low-income households, which can not afford to pay much for the basic telephone services.

Risks for national security

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In some situations, privatization is also seen as involving risks for national security or law and order maintenance. It is particularly relevant to situations where there already exist serious conflicts and security agencies or political actors do not trust the transfer of industries to the private actors. Other political groups or state agencies, however, may support privatization for reasons related to politics, economic efficiency or mobilization of investments and resources. For instance, in 1994, the Government of Pakistan stopped mobile telephone operations in Karachi for a couple of years on the grounds that criminal and terrorist elements were using it for unlawful activities (Jang, July 14, 1994). Karachi is the biggest city of the country, which was deprived of the cellular service. This caused a large number of complaints and protests by residents of the city. It also involved strong divergence of views between various state agencies, especially between the provincial and federal authorities. Lead toward inequalities across regions Privatization processes may benefit certain regions more than others, and hence may lead to intensification of inequalities across regions. This happens especially when government fails to appropriately design the privatization model and, at the same time, is not willing or able to effect by making public sector investments, directly or in partnership with the private sector. Such inequalities across regions can potentially be very damaging for the political integrity of a diverse country. Existing evidence suggests that issues around access and equity can potentially cause socio-political conflicts at various levels. In addition to the conflicts identified in the preceding paragraphs, which are the most common ones, there also occur a range of other conflicts on issues such as division of royalties between federating units, nature and scope of regulation, and the role of state in the context of distorted or failing markets. However, as suggested above, what kinds of conflicts occur and what form and intensity they acquire in a country largely depends on the nature of the interplay of privatization design and the specific socio-economic realities

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Chapter 4 Production and Operations

Technical & Operational Net Work


Pakistan telecommunication Corporation under the Act 1996, Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) issued a license to Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited for the provision of telecom services within Pakistan to private sector and the general public as the Federal Government may determine and during the exclusivity period of the Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL) specified in above-mentioned Act. PTCL has 25 years license to provide telecom services in Pakistan with Stake in the Company with about 62% equity. PTCL has largest network and huge infrastructure for its more than 4,405,161users as on (Mar,2008).

Switching Technology
There are 7 different kinds of switching technologies currently operational in PTCL network. Page 40 of 160

Alcatel Siemens NEC Erricsson Huawi J.S telecom ZTE

With these different switching technologies PTCL is running its huge network and providing different communication facilities to its customers.

Current PTCL Network


Mar, 2008 Installed capacity Working connections Total exchanges Telephone density per 100 population Countries on ISD/(ISD STATION) Page 41 of 160 5273091 4,405,161 2962 2.9 242

Customer service centers Card pay phone NWD stations UIA stations Total length of main optical fiber link Optical fiber short haul links Optical fiber spur links

154 387,490 2092 1898 4591km 127.2km 3241km

These are few basic facts about PTCL network. So taking over from posts & Telegraph Department in 1947 to now providing sate of art technology it is really big achievement.

TECHNICAL AND OPERATIONAL MILE STONES


PTCL is continuously improving its network. During the year 2007 PTCL installed capacity was 4940154 but now in current year the installed capacity is improved. PTCL achieved 100% digitalization in this year.

Computerized Fault Management System


This feature of PTCL improved network & is being used to register & rectify Land Line Faults in a computerized way. This system was working in few cities but now it is available all over the Pakistan.

Launch Of IN Platform
To augment the capacity and introduce additional value added services a new Intelligent Page 42 of 160

Network (IN) Platform was launched in October 2003.This platform has higher capacity for prepaid calling cards and provision for introduction of new services.

Optical Fiber Junction Access Network


To further support the launch of new services the optical fiber junction access network has been in implementation phase. This system further supports the upcoming project of PTCL WLL (wire less local loop), Broad Band Services & IPTV. This was the brief introduction of PTCL network now we move further and develop our understanding about PTCL services and offerings.

PTCL Performance in production:


In a static sense, profits are not the appropriate indicator but it is the sustained capacity of the enterprise to generate maximum profits, make productive and efficient investments to grow over time and provide quality goods or customer satisfactory services that are relevant. There are many cogent reasons that question the assumption of sustained profitability of PTCL under the changed environment of telecom sector deregulation that is sweeping Pakistan since 2003. PTCL enjoys high profits because it earns monopoly rents as a single provider of fixed telephony in the country. Comparison with other telecoms in developing countries shows that it is not due to the efficiency of PTCL that it is showing good financial results and paying dividends. With the induction of new licensees, the teledensity of Pakistan is estimated to double in the next two years to eight million subscribers. Public Sector monopoly could reach only four million in 60 years. Cellular phones have already jumped almost threefold to seven million subscribers during the last one year due to competition among the four players and have contributed to increased tax collection. Government would still receive all the taxes from PTCL and 65 percent of all the dividends that hopefully will be higher under private management. State enterprises have an inherent disadvantage that their

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procedures, clearances, and lengthy approval processes do not permit the managers to make timely decisions to respond to the business opportunities. U-Fone valuable time has been facing various inquiries into its procurement while its competitors were successful in enhancing their market share at its cost. Such a scenario is most likely to recur once a government owned PTCL is pitted against several private competitors. The skill mix of the staff employed by the PTCL and its numbers are inappropriate to meet the new challenges of providing high standards of customer service, introduction of value added services and new product development. This legacy of PTCL inherited from the culture of the Post and Telegraph Department cannot be washed away and this culture will always keep it at a competitive disadvantage. It will always be difficult to get rid of the redundant labor in a public sector company due to the political repercussions while the private sector firms face no such constraint. The PTCL Board has been recently reconstituted and private sector individuals of eminence have been inducted. This has improved the quality of the oversight and monitoring. However, as they have no direct personal stakes it can not be expected that these parttime members engaged in their own professional pursuits will be able to devote as much time or energies to the Board's affairs as the private strategic investors will. Voice and data transmission are two separate domains. Both domains served their own functions, where voice was supposed to provide timely and reliable delivery, while data transmission was known for its reliability element. The intrinsic difference between the Internet and voice telephony services worldwide is that the Internet was born out of a completely unregulated network, while the telecoms are heavy with regulation. Internet expansion and evolution is exponential in its timing, while the telecoms have been cautious and slow moving. However, when in the early 90s data traffic exceeded voice traffic; the telecoms realized a new opportunity of voice and data convergence. Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL), which has shown a lack of vision, implemented ad hoc policies and have used their monopolistic advantage. The largest earnings of PTCL are through international calls, not from calls made from Pakistan but from those that are made from abroad with Pakistan as their destination. In Page 44 of 160

accordance to the International Telecommunication Union treaty that Pakistan is signatory to, there is an accounting rate system of half-circuit charging that translates into splitting the cost and revenue from a leased line or international call between the two or more Public Telecommunication Operators providing network service. Thus, PTCL generated a steady flow of foreign revenue into the country and earned more than a fair share of it, a scenario PTCL can see changing and will do utmost to resist. However, PTCL did make very solid infrastructural investments and while not all of these can be called rational, all of them are proof of PTCL's financial prosperity. The government has taken various initiatives to spread Internet connectivity across the country as effectively and efficiently as possible. Apparently PTCL is decreasing the cost of leased lines for ISPs and the charges for international leased lines have been reduced 5 times over the last couple of years. Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL), which increases bandwidth and enhances data-carrying capacity of lines, is not yet operational but PTCL is looking for private sector investment in this sector. PTCL has issued 122 licenses to Internet Service Providers and 357 licenses to cable television operators. DSL technology without upgrading the country's backbone infrastructure will not yield the desired results. Currently all of Pakistan data traffic transits through the United States so while I may just be sending my neighbor an email, it will first go and touch base at a peering point in the US and then come all the way back to his computer, which can be avoided by installing specialized routers, networking and related software. Similarly when it comes to supporting ISPs, out of the 122 licensed ISPs only 43 of them are operational because the leased line rates, bandwidth, license fee, renewal charges and royalty is still too high. Also with PTCL not allowing ISPs to use their own networks for providing internet, these ISPs do not invest enough in their telecom infrastructure to achieve high speed networks; as a result the end-user suffers from substandard and unreliable service.

Expansion of Network and services improvement


The telecom infrastructure is expanding fast in Pakistan. In order to maintain its leading position, PTCL also embarked on an ambitious plan to expand its services through out Page 45 of 160

the country. During the year 2005, an optical fiber Access (OFAN) project of 145,000 lines was completed providing high capacity 10 GB and 2.5GB metro ring in Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad. There are protected rings and are critical for providing media to newly establish high capacity transit exchange of PTCL in eight cities and also for other operators including cellular companies. Call processors at 15 exchanges were replaced With a new version and speed increased in 21 exchanges. During last year 160 new stations were brought on National Wide Dialing (NWD) thereby increasing the number of NWD stations to 2,252. Moreover additional optical fiber cable laid in rural areas and 107 new towns were brought on to the Optical Network to enhance the voice and data communication capabilities. The company would now be capitalization on its strength of the fiber backbone network which extends to over 700 cities for provision of increased bandwidth and broadband services. To modernize its local loop network and accelerate the expansion process, PTCL obtained the licensed and spectrum of the provision of WLL services in 14 operating regions of the Company. Frequency Spectrum worth over RS. 4 billion was purchased in an open auction for provision of the widespread coverage in the rural as well as urban areas. The platform will also used to providing high speed data and numerous other value added services like SMS, MMS, call forwarding, ring back tone close user groups etc. In January 2005 the Prime minister of Pakistan launched PTCLs WLL faculty brand name V from sukhar. As of end of June a total of 200 base terminal stations (BTS) have already been commissioned, providing a capacity of 350,000 lines in 150 cities throughout the country. The board of Director of the company approved new capital project worth over RS. 34 billions mainly to expand the network of the company by an additional 3 million WLL lines camp airing of 2.5 million WLL lines along with the handset mentioned above, and another 0.5 million lines through OFAN expansion. The company also initiated certain other large capital expenditure project to provide the media requirements of the fast expanding infrastructure needs of cellular companies. The management is committed to fully utilize the opportunities arising from OFAN expansion capacity and WLL roll out Page 46 of 160

thereby accelerating its customer acquisition drive to enhance its customer base and revenue. Introduction of two NEXT GENERATION NETWORKS (NGN) soft switches Islamabad and Karachi along with 20 Media gateways in other cities speaks of PTCs commitment to serve its customer with leading edge technology. As Telex and Tele Graph services became obsolete following the adoption of fax, e-mail and internet Technologies, they ceased during the year. To augment network reliability, the company has invested in preventive Maintenance programs relating to Outside Plant (OSP) of identified cabinet areas and Multi- Story building.

Conclusion
PTCL Privatization provide for a public welfare model driven by market forces. These rules change the role of Governments from public service provider to a regulator. On the basis of this study the following conclusions can be drawn: In Pakistan the PTCL Privatization has proven beneficial to the economy and positive effect on customers. PTCL performance is also improved , investment increased, quality of service also improved but customer are not satisfied about network accessibility and growth of PTCL services in rural areas. Employment also increased but working condition and skill level of employees is not satisfactory. Share Holders are satisfied from the PTCL and receiving the dividend timely. The value of PTCL share also increased and number of share holders after privatization. New and better technology is being transferred in the country. The emergence of new players in telecom sectors has facilitated the economy. It has positive impact on business transactions as well as the daily life of a common man. The increased competition among service providers has benefited

Page 47 of 160

the consumer as they have a wide array of telecom service choices available at affordable prices. For residents of the remote areas these facilities largely remain inaccessible for various reasons. There is a need to develop a mechanism for incentive and motivation to be offered to the private sector to be able to address the issues of digital divide. Liberalization of telecom has boosted the economic activity and has generated numerous employment opportunities. The result of PTCL Privatization is very encouraging for policy makers of Pakistan. It is expected that this experience will be replicated in other sectors of the economy but before that a strong institution framework has to be formulated to manage market dynamics and trade challenges for long term sustainability of economic growth resulting from liberalization, privatization and deregulation. It is also beneficial for the government. The management control is transferred to the private investor for the proper utilization of resources and earns huge revenue. The foreign telecom companies realized huge market potential in the country and thus invested not only in paying high license fee but also invested in the infrastructure. Exceptionally good response of market and ever increasing potential has kept the foreign investors still eyeing for opportunities to invest in Pakistan Particularly some of the emerging telecom markets are facing steepest declines in ARPUs.This can be attributed to the fact that operators are reducing cost of ownership and subsidizing the tariff to the extant of undercutting the cost. It seems to be altogether an up hill task for Etisalat in managing the giant PTCL therefore it is still weighing its options for decanting more investment in its inherited Ufone.

PTCL: Future Prospects & Challenges

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As the past incumbent and current Significant Market Player (SMP), PTCL, no doubt, has got the largest operational network and infrastructure within ICT (Information & Communication Technologies) segment. They dont lack numbers and potential if we mention human resources. Their financial strength has further become their strategic strength after Etisalat has joined them as investment arm. PTCL enjoys market leadership in Local loop, Wireless local loop (WLL) and fixed telephony. PTCL (Ufone) is market challenger in GSM segment. Overall they have the largest consumer clout on average in the whole Pakistan telecom industry. Even their competitors still depend on PTCL network either directly or indirectly. All this adds to their strategic strengths and after having all that in their basket they lack at area where they are supposed to have developed core competence. PTCL, so far has not been able to nurture its growth around customer services oriented strategy, this has translated into inadequate brand loyalty for them. Internal organizational and business processes issues, monopolistic culture has further added to its complexities. For many individual prospects like me, using PTCL offerings was a purchase decision made as no other option was available. PTCL can turnaround very well by reaping the benefits of Sur-petition in the shape of Sur-petitive Advantages in comparison to competitive advantages. All they have to do is to follow a holistic approach towards growth, besides focusing on Customer Support & Services, reverting back to competitive and service centered operational culture, spending upon marketing communications to revamp Brand Image, improving existing network and existing products for market penetration and developing innovative new products and services for long term growth.

SUCCESS AND FAILURE OF THE PRODUCTS IN MARKET

SUCCESS
1. It goes out its way to meet customers needs and exceed their expectations. They participate in focus groups to evaluate new services.

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2. To identify the customer satisfaction to evaluate the attitude of its employees. 3. PTCL is creating a positive perception by giving constant attention and reinforcement among its customer. They are using the following marketing tools to create this perception a. Publicity b. Advertising c. Printed materials. 4. It helps to differentiate its service form those of its competitors. 5. They measure the performance of every employee and agent quarterly and reward them with certificate and with cash. 6. PTCL is excellently managed service company because its major emphasis is on a. Top management commitment to quality management. b. High service standards. c. Having a system for monitoring service performance. d. Having system for satisfying customers complaints. e. An emphasis on employee and customer satisfaction. 7. They gather information about market and competitors by its marketing managers and sales teams. Which are relevant, timely and accurate. Then they do statistical analysis using these data information by using computer.

FAILURE
Customers satisfaction is the true standards for judging the service. PTCL sales is down due to some reasons: Page 50 of 160

1. Unawareness of employees about starting of new promotion program. 2. Material- Banners, pamphlet, etc, about new feature of product and new tariff rates reaches later one or two weeks after advertising on TV and newspapers.

3. They fail to train employees to demonstrate to customers Care About And Value Them 4. They fail to provide timely training and reward to their employees. 5. Customers are shifting rapidly to mobile phones; the main reason was high line rent, now which have been eliminated. 6. There is no proper staff of marketing still available in regional office. 7. The whole load of work is on limited staff. 8. There is no proper advertisement at local level. 9. Most of the staff is on attachments from other department they dont have formal education of related field. 10. As services business required attractive workplace environment they are lacking in. 11. Battery timing of telephone sets is very low especially while using Internet, it requires continuously plug in to electricity. 12. It does not have an effective sale force.

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13. There is too much delay in supplying of Sets to Exchanges. Before the stock ends at risk the order is placed, 14. The sale points have to wait at least 30 days normally, and then stock is received. 15. Customers demand but connections are unavailable. 16. The retailers are selling sets out of area. They know that set is not for this geographic area. The customers have no such information about the connection of within or out of area. 17. The retailers motto is only profit earning and not customer satisfaction. So the subscribers are bothered and complaint ratio is high. 18. There is lack of coordination with the Sales and Technical departments. 19. Employees have no information about new features. The management does not think to inform up to bottom line. For this lack of knowledge sales are lowered at least 25%. 20. When the card not punched and number has become temporarily closed. The restoration charges are Rs.500/, which is too high for customers. 21. Delay in price protection claim. 22. Distributors Motivation level is low due to company policies.

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Chapter 5 Company Marketing Mix


Product
PTCL offers 5 products to its customers. Those are as follows NTC- New Telephone Connection V-Phone EVO- USB Internet IPTV-Smart TV BroadBand

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V fone
Over the mountains and across the plains; in deserts and through cities, Vfone is the countrys largest WLL network. So whether its unparallel voice quality, network reliability, affordability or unsurpassed presence; the answer will always be Vfone---No one Else!! With Vfone, we make sure you never lose touch with your dear onesVfone lets you connect wirelessly to the whole world. Its easy to use and economical too! With Vfone you can enjoy wireless connectivity and freedom of movement within your premises.

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You can use your Vfone to connect to the internet and enjoy a world of information and entertainment. And thats not all; we are continuously enhancing our range of Value Ads to make your Vfone experience even more fun. Using CDMA2000 1X technology, we already have built-up capacity of 2.6M covering over 10,000 urban, suburban and rural villages. The network is already enabled for Voice, Dialup-Internet access (153.6kbps) and EVO Broadband. Vfone Connection Charges

FWT Rs. 3,600

Connection FREE

Total Package Price Rs. 3,600

Balance of Rs.1000 Absolutely FREE with every new connection

Vfone Call Packages

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Line Rent Vfone Vfone (Local/NWD) Vfone / NWD) Off-Net (Vfone Mobile & LLO) Internet to

Rs. 0

Rs. 5/Day

Rs. 20/Day Free

to Rs. 1.00 / 60 Sec Free

to Rs. 1.50 / 60 Sec Rs. 2.00 / 3 Mins Free

PTCL (Local

Rs.2.50 / 60 Sec Rs. 2.00 / 60 Sec Rs. 2.00 / 60 Sec

Rs. 2.00 / 20 Mins Rs. 2.00 / 20 Mins Rs. 2.00 / 20 Mins Rs. 0.25 / SMS Rs. 0.25 / SMS

SMS On-Net Rs.0.25 / SMS & Off-Net All rates are

(111) UAN & (0900) PRS will be charged

exclusive of taxes

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PTCL Landline
Year 2009-10 has been declared as the year of customer care and gain whereby all efforts are directed towards retaining existing customers. Features:

Incentives being offered for restoration of services New simplified procedure for Landline restoration New Products and Services available for Landline users

Incentive PTCL Management has approved a number of incentives for customers who want to come back to PTCL and get their services restored. They are:

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Rs. 500/- Restoration Charges have been waived off for all customers who want their services restored Waiver of all fixed charges for the months in which the customer has no variable charges (usage) from the total outstanding amount. Payment of outstanding amount in a number of installments and restoration of services on payment of 1st installment Convenient re-activation process

Re-Connection Procedure

Customers who wish to reconnect their PTCL landline, can now simply call 1236, select option 7 and talk to a CSR for restoration of services. The customers request will be forwarded to the concerned region and the operations team will visit the customer premises, for initiating the restoration process.

PTCL launches new packages; Basic Plus, Pakistan Plus, International Plus.

Basic Plus Pakistan Plus Press Advertisement International Plus PTCL Plus FAQs Plan Switching

International Plus Due to an ever increasing number of Pakistanis migrating overseas each year, the amount of international calls being made has amplified remarkably. Also, a number of LDI operators in the industry have caused this business to become very volatile and competitive. In order to maintain its position and enhance revenues, PTCL has Page 58 of 160

introduced International Plus that will provide PTCL subscribers with lowest international call rates and more talk time. Subscribers need not unsubscribe from their existing package to be able to benefit from International Plus. In fact subscription to International Plus will enable them to talk with their near and dear ones in UK, US, Canada, Australia and China for a fixed monthly charge. Pakistan Plus Pakistan Plus offers 1000 minutes of nationwide calls for a fixed package charge of Rs. 199. The package also includes free voicemail and call waiting. Moreover, for convenience to customers, modified package will be effective from 1st August 2009.

Line (excl. taxes)

rent Rs. 174

Package charge Rs. 199 Local NWD call Rs. 2.00/3 mins Free (upto 1000 minutes)

additional minutes would be charged at Rs. 2.00 /3 mins Mobile Basic Plus Basic Plus Basic Plus is designed to meet the needs of the low usage segment and includes basic services along with voicemail and call waiting. All customers who were not on Pakistan Package as of 31st March 2008 have been shifted to Basic Plus with effect from 1st April 2008 Rs. 2.50/min

Line rent (excl. taxes) Package charge Page 59 of 160

Rs. 174

NIL

Local NWD call Mobile

Rs. 2.00/3 mins Rs. 2.00/3 mins Rs. 2.50/min

EVO Wireless Broadband


Experience the evolution of the broadband revolution with PTCL Evo - the ultimate solution for high speed internet access on the move. Just plug and play or work at Page 60 of 160

home, in the office or anywhere in between. Theres no end to your imagination nor to what you can do with Evo.

Superior 3G experience. Broadband Internet in your pocket Unlimited downloads! EV-DO Roaming in Karachi, Lahore & Islamabad/Rawalpindi - Nationwide Roaming through automatic switch over to 1 X in non EVDO Coverage areas. Average download speeds from 300 kbps to 500 kbps! Access rich media applications like live video streaming, web casts, online games and a host of other applications. USB Interface - Compatible with Desktops & Laptops. Plug & Play - Instant Connectivity

To place your order call 0800-8-0800, visit our Sales Locations Features

Enhanced 3G network technology for faster downloads and browsing. Mobility/ Portability: Internet on the go - whenever and wherever High speed internet experience: Supports entertainment services such as music, video streaming, images/ videos/ files sharing etc. Simplicity: Faster deployment, easy to move Provides superior Value and Quality of service through Reliable, Secure, Highavailability network Supported OS: Windows 2000 / XP / Vista/Mac OS.

Benefits Never Before Speed: With PTCL Evo Wireless Broadbands 3G network technology you now have access to Page 61 of 160

internet at super fast speeds using the new USB Modem & PCMICA card. Internet on the Go: You now have the convenience of being able to access PTCL Evo Wireless Broadband from wherever you are. Plug and Play: All you now need to do is just plug the USB Modem/PCMICA into your Laptop / Desktop PC and you are ready to access a whole new world of high-speed internet connectivity. Unlimited Downloads: With Evo Wireless Broadband you get Unlimited Downloads! There is no limit to the amount of data you can download or upload. Since there is no limit to your imagination so why should there be any limit to what you can do with Evo! Hassel free/Wireless: With Evo sleek and stylish devices, you are now completely free from wires. USB Interface: With the USB port interface you can now simply plug the USB Modem device into either a Laptop or your Desktop PC and get ready to access high-speed internet connectivity. Multifunctional Device: The device also supports your Laptop / Desktop PC earphone and microphone. By inserting a Vfone RUIM you can use your Evo device to make/receive voice calls or send/receive SMS. Packages

Package 1 For subscriber having landline Page 62 of 160

Option 1 Option 2

USB Device PCMCIA Card

6000 4000

Upfront Upfront

Monthly Service Charges * Rs 2000 *Monthly service charges will be payable through PTCL Landline Bill

Package 2 For subscriber NOT having landline Option 1 Option 2 USB Device PCMCIA Card 6000 4000 Upfront Upfront

Monthly Service Charges * Rs 2000 *Monthly service charges will be payable at start of each month at PTCL One Stop Shops or Customer Service Centers

Comparison Factor Mobility

Dial-up

DSL

GSM Edge CDMA 1X

Evo

No

No 4000

Yes 384

Yes 153

Yes 3100

Max Downlink 56 Speed (kbps) Max

Uplink Uplink+Downlink Uplink+Downlink

384

153

1800

Speed (kbps) Average Downlink Speed (kbps) Average Uplink (kbps) Page 63 of 160 Speed Uplink+Downlink Uplink+Downlink 30 30 300 5 400 30 30 500

Time Download Mb file Time file Comparison Factor E-mail Internet Video Download Video conference VoIP

to 27 Min 5

1.3 Min

22 Min

22 Min

1.3 Min

to 27 Min

1.3 Min

22 Min

22 Min

1.7 Min

Upload 5 Mb

Dial-up

DSL

GSM Edge CDMA 1X

Evo

Average Average Poor

Excellent Excellent Excellent

Average Average Average

Good Good Poor

Excellent Excellent Excellent

Very poor

Excellent

Very poor

Poor

Excellent

Very poor Poor

Excellent Excellent Excellent

Very poor Average Poor

Poor Average Average

Excellent Excellent Excellent

Upload Photo Send Email Attachments

Large Very poor

Actual internet speed will depend on multiple factors like time of the day, number of simultaneous users, web page accessed, etc.

Business DSL
In todays high competitive marketplace every business organization need speed and performance. PTCLs broadband is a proven method for delivering such services to the Customers. Business DSL solution gives your business high-bandwidth Internet access at a fraction of the cost of TI-based access. That's because DSL dramatically reduces the circuit Page 64 of 160

access charges and allows for traffic aggregation across a large number of customers. For one low monthly charge, you can e-mail, research on the web, stream audio and video, connect to intranets, transfer large amounts of data, and perform many other tasks only capable through high speed Internet access. With PTCLs business DSL solution your office can get a reliable, business-class broadband connectivity, which will help you to download software and large files, research the web and communication with your business associates and business partners.

Always on , reliable connection High Speed Fast and easy installation Easy Scalable Flexible Package Cost efficient

Premier DSL Guaranteed Bandwidth PTCLs Business DSL Premium Packages are designed for customers (individuals, small, and medium sized businesses) who require multiple un-interrupted access with unlimited uploads/down loads from Internet for working from home (office), utilizing latest online multimedia applications and services, premium quality video conferencing and P2P connectivity, and access to multi-player gaming network etc. Business DSL is a fixed line service that allows customers the experience of Telephony, Broadband Internet and multi-media services on the same line.

S.No 1 2 3 4 Page 65 of 160

Packages Business - 256 Business - 384 Business - 512 Business - 768

Connectivity Speed 256 Kbps 384 Kbps 512 Kbps 768 Kbps

5 6 7

Business - 1024 Business - 1536 Business - 2048

1024 Kbps 1536 Kbps 2048 Kbps

One Time Charges:

S.No a b

Service Description Security deposit equal to one month charges (Refundable) Installation & Line Charges

CPE Customer Premises Equipment (Options) DSL Router Combo (1 Ethernet Port, 1 USB Port) DSL Router (4 Ethernet Ports) DSL Wireless Router (4 Ethernet Ports) Reach DSL Router DSL Business Class Router (4 Ethernet Ports) SHDSL Modem (V.35+G.703) SHDSL Modem (V.35+FE) Salient Features

Bandwidth: Dedicated as per chosen Package with Static IP Upload + Download: No restriction, ultimate data CPE Warranty (Limited): 12 Months by Manufacturer Time and usage Limit: No time limit within 30 days of validity period Free Static IP Free Dialup Backup Service Free Web hosting Account with 100MB Disk Space 24x7 Technical Support

Page 66 of 160

Business VPN
PTCLs Business DSL VPN Packages are designed for customers who require uninterrupted access between their offices and unlimited uploads / downloads that involve video conferences, multimedia usage. VPN based network will give secure access to their main offices data room with high speed and carrier grade performance.

S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Packages Business VPN - 256 Business VPN - 512 Business VPN - 1024 Business VPN - 1536 Business VPN - 2048

Connectivity Speed 256 Kbps 512 Kbps 1024 Kbps 1536 Kbps 2048 Kbps

One Time Charges:

S.No a. b.

Service Description Security deposit to one month charges (Refundable) Installation & Line Charges

CPE Customer Premises Equipment (Options) DSL Router Combo (1 Ethernet Port, 1 USB Port) DSL Router (4 Ethernet Ports) DSL Wireless Router (4 Ethernet Ports) Reach DSL Router DSL Business Class Router (4 Ethernet Ports) SHDSL Modem (V.35+G.703) SHDSL Modem (V.35+FE) Salient Features Page 67 of 160

Bandwidth: Dedicated as per chosen Package with Static IP Upload + Download: No restriction, unlimited data CPE Warranty (Limited): 12 Months by Manufacturer Time and Usage Limit: No time limit within 30 days of validity period Free Static IP

PTCL DIRECT
PTCL direct is a pre-paid international calling service for making calls from the UK to Pakistan. The service aims to extend PTCLs reach to UK based callers wishing to stay in touch with family & friends in Pakistan. PTCL direct is currently available through local access numbers in the UK. Customers can purchase credit online (using a credit card) and make calls to Pakistan direct through PTCL. For more information, visit the PTCL direct homepage www.ptcldirect.com

PTCL DialUP Internet


PTCLs limited time offer of free internet has ended w.e.f from May 16, 2009. PTCL has introduced refined Phone-n-Net services with new charging mechanism which is equivalent to old hourly usage charges. PTCL subscriber can still enjoy this innovative service with nominal charges. Key Highlights of new offer:

Unlimited Download No balance Expiry Best Connectivity Strong geographic presence No GST applicable on Internet calls

Page 68 of 160

Login name: ptcl Password ptcl

Tariffs: Charging of PTCL Phone n net is in-line with prevailing industry tariff in Pakistan which is Rs. 2 per 20 minutes pulse. (Equivalent to Rs 6/Hr) Voice Mail Service (VMS) PTCL is pleased to bring you Voice Mail Service that works all of the time - even when there is a power outage and your answer machine stops working. Your voice mailbox can be accessed 24 hour a day, 7 days a week. You will never miss important calls again! Now you can take messages even when you're away from your home. PTCL has extended its Voice Mail Service to 38 cities and its all free. When you do not pick/answer your phone then after pre-selected number of ringers, the call is automatically directed to your mailbox. Therefore, you are not disturbed even if you are at home but are busy in social engagements. Messages can be left for you or picked up by you anytime, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Therefore, now you have the freedom to retrieve your messages whenever you like to do so. Your mailbox is maintained on PTCLs network free of charge for you. Your callers can now leave messages even if there was a thunderstorm and your electricity and phones were out. Service Benefits Business & Relationship Growth In business and high-value relationships requiring immediate attention and follow-up, the telephone and personal touch of voice is an indispensable tool. Page 69 of 160

Hassle Free Voice mail service prevents you from tedious exercise of typing impersonal text messages using small non friendly keys on small mobile sets. With PTCLs Voice mail Service, you can simply dial the number and speak/record your message.

PTCL Smart TV
Launched for the first time in Pakistan using the flexible Internet Protocol (IP) technology, PTCLs Smart TV is service which allows customer to be more interactive Page 70 of 160

and more in control with their TV service as compared to conventional TV broadcast or cable TV. Smart TV delivers television programs to households via broadband connection and requires a subscription, a set-top box, and offers key advantages over existing cable TV. You will now be able to:

Playback / Rewind live TV channels at any time Parental Lock facility on any channel Search and select favorite programs by using Electronic Program Guide. Viewers have full control over functionality such as rewind, fast-forward, pause, and so on.

Watch DVD quality movies on demand from our library of over 500 titles. Watch 100 plus digital quality TV channels.

Features and Benefits of Smart TV

Smart TV provides advanced features and services that are not possible with traditional broadcast television systems. These advanced features include Time Shift Television (TSTV), Parental Control, Electronic Program Guide (EPG), Global Television Channels, Video on Demand (VoD), Near Video on Demand (NVoD) and many more interactive features. Time Shift Television (TSTV) Time Shift Television is an exciting feature that allows viewers to playback live TV channels at any time they want. So when the viewer misses an important part of a Page 71 of 160

movie, a play or a sporting event, he can view it by rewinding that particular channel (displaying the symbol ), watching the missed part and then coming back to live action. This function will be available to the TV viewers for the first time in Pakistan and only through the PTCL Smart TV service. Parental Control This feature enables parents to restrict certain channels which are not suitable for juvenile viewing. Restriction is enabled by assigning a password to particular channel(s) thus empowering parents to control the content their children can watch. EPG (Electronic Program Guide) Electronic Program Guide (EPG) is an extremely responsive and feature-rich application that manages viewer interaction during channel and program selection. It is an onscreen guide to schedule broadcast television programs, allowing viewers to navigate, select, and discover content by time, title, channel, genre, etc, by use of their remote control. It also provides access to billing details, changing password and managing favorites. VOD (Video On Demand) Video on Demand is a service that provides end users to interactively request and receive videos. VOD permits a customer to select a program from a catalogue using EPG (Electronic Program Guide). The play out of the selected movie starts nearly instantaneously on the customer's TV. A film that is chosen, for example, will be available for multiple viewing during 24 hours without any extra charge. NVOD (Near Video On Demand)

Page 72 of 160

NVOD is another exciting feature working like a community TV Channel. A number of channels are allocated for NVOD. Popular or recently released movies and programs are played on NVOD channels and are available to all Smart TV viewers. Difference between VOD & NVOD is that VOD is a personalized service catering only to individual needs, on payment whereas NVOD is like community cinema available to all Smart TV customers at no extra cost. In case of NVOD channels, customer feedback plays a pivotal role in content selection. Smart Line Tariff / Package Details

Smart Line Packages (Smart TV + Broadband) There is no line rent charged on PTCL Smart Line Connection. Smart Line Package with 1 MB Broadband Smart Line Package with 2 MB Broadband Smart Line Package with 4 MB Broadband

Package Option 1

Package Option 2

Set Top Box (STB) is purchased on Set Top Box (STB) is installments where customer has to purchased on upfront pay Rs 500 /month for the period of price of Rs 9,995 2 years

Rs, 1, 999 / Month

Rs, 1, 499 / Month

Rs, 2, 799 / Month

Rs, 2, 299 / Month

Rs, 5, 799 / Month

Rs, 5, 799 / Month

VOD service is being charged to all existing and new Smart TV customer with the following two options: A). Rs 25 per movie for 24 Hours; Customers can subscribe to a movie at Rs 25 and can watch/re-watch that movie multiple times within the next 24 Hours

Page 73 of 160

B). Rs 300 fixed per month for any 30 movies of their choice and available in the list within a period of one month. This is a value added bulk discounted package. Each movie will cost Rs 10 to the customer. Key Highlights A). Package option a will be activated on all existing and new Smart TV Connections. B). Package option b can be activated by calling at the PTCL contact center at 080080-800. PTCL Broadband Independence Day Offer Be A Millionaire PTCL Broadband offers you the chance of a lifetime. Order PTCL Broadband between now and the 14th of August and win Rs. 1 Million and many exciting new laptops All PTCL Broadband orders that are placed during the Run up to the independence day, will have a chance of becoming one of the many lucky winners. This independence day Broadband promotion is being launched with the following objectives: Key Highlights

One Grand Prize of Rs. 1 Million 20 Prizes of Laptops All new Broadband subscribers who place their orders from July 16th to August 14th are eligible for the draw All new Student Broadband subscribers who place their orders from July 16th to August 14th are also eligible for the draw Applicable on all 1MB, 2MB and 4MB packages An open and transparent lucky draw at the end of the period will decide the winners.

Page 74 of 160

SERVICES OF PTCL
Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited not only Provides Conventional telephone facilities, it also offers optical fiber services to the private sector. We will briefly discuss below the product lines being offered by the PTCL. Basically PTCL divide their services into two parts. 1. Services for consumers 2. Services for corporate customers

Services for Consumers


These services are basically for the common users (Individual/home users) those use telephone in their home/work place and they are basically non business users.

a) New Telephone Connections:


As mentioned earlier, PTCL is presently the only telecom company, who provided fixedline telephony in the country. So whenever, any Private business concern or any individual needs a new telephone connection for provision of telephone service.

b) Value Added Services:


CLI (Callers Line Identification) Caller Line Identification (CLI): Calling line Identification (CLI) allow customers to identify the caller before picking up the phone receiver. To subscribe to CLI services, a customer needs a telephone set with display capability or a CLI device attached to the phone. Page 75 of 160

Advantages: Check on obnoxious calls. Complete record of incoming / outgoing calls with time & date. User Friendly

PREPAID CALLING CARDS:


PTCL calling card is the most popular choice of millions of customers all over the country. It is now available with balance transfer facility and follow on call facility. Comes in easily affordable denominations of Rs. 100, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000. Easily available throughout the country Easy to use from any PTCL digital phone (Dial 1010) Fast and easy, nationwide and international access No line rent and no Phone bills 24 hours customer services through toll free number (0800-80800)

How to use it: Scratch off the security coating on the indicated strip to get your card Pin Number. Dial PTCLs toll free number 1010 from any digital phone. Dial 1 for Urdu & 2 for English Instructions; enter your card Number & Press #. For International Call Dial 00+CountryCode+CityCode+PhoneNumber+#.

E-BILL PAYMENT

Page 76 of 160

Billing system is a part of customer services so providing connivance to its valuable customers PTCL launched a new billing service which is available through PTCL Calling Card This is another service from PTCL. This service is basically providing billing solutions for the users. How to use it: The basic concept of the service is to provide billing solution to PTCL customer. The same PTCL Calling cards are used for this purpose. Through these cards customer can pay his bill on phone. No additional charges for bill payment transaction. Advantages Customer can save his time by paying his bill on phone Customer can pay his bill when ever he wants

DIGITAL FACILITIES:
PTCL offers a variety of features to digital exchange customers like: Hotline Abbreviated Dialing. Call Waiting Dont Disturb Call Transfer on (a) Busy (b) No Reply (c) Immediate Wake up call Absent Subscriber Code Barring

Page 77 of 160

Prepayment Telephony Services (PPT)


With the changing trends most telecoms are diversifying their services towards Prepaid solutions .one of such modern era telecommunication service is Prepayment Tele Phone (PPT).It provides the facility to subscriber to load a prepayment Telephony card against their telephone number thereby generating an account on I/N platform and any call made from that telephone will be charged to this account. The service will provide state of art technological facilities to the subscribers. Target market Target market for the service can be segmented as follow: Budget conscious subscriber Subscriber avoiding bill-depositing hassles People requiring casual connections (on short term bases) Subscriber not meeting documentation requirement Students living in hostels Defaulters

Features: Account number recharging Outgoing call pin setting Cancel out going call pin Balance query Follow on call Low balance prompt Balance shortage warning Call duration prompt

Page 78 of 160

Call cost

SERVICES FOR CORPORATE CUSTOMERS


PTCL is striving hard to facilitate its valued corporate customers at each level of service. PTCL offers a host of unmatched services to suite the needs of the Corporate Customers. The list of Corporate Services is given as under. For more information regarding any of the following services, PTCL Corporate Customer Centers can be contacted. IN Based Value Added Service BASED VALUE ADDED 0800-Toll Free PTCL Calling Cards Domestic And International Premium Rate Service -0900 Virtual Private Network (UIN) Local /Domestic/International Leased Bandwidth And Point To Point Leased Lines (DXX) Local Leased Circuits (2 Wire/4 Wires) (DXX) Digital Facilities Digital Subscriber Loop (DSL) Co Location Tele mail Call Centers (new) Universal Access Number(UAN) Universal Internet Number ISDN PRI TelePlus (ISDN/BRI) Value Added Services

Page 79 of 160

Universal Access Number (UAN):


UAN (Universal Access Number) service is ideal for organizations Engaged in marketing of products or services. Here is a list of business who can avail UAN Service. Banks Newspapers Airlines Hotels Shipping Lines Fast Food Outlets Consumer Products Companies Insurance Credit Card Companies Travel Courier Services Utility Services Trading Companies Stock Brokers

Voice Messaging Service: (VMS)


With PTCL Messaging Service, you can have all for (or Desired) calls recorded when you are absent, busy on phone or do not want to attend the calls for any reason. You can, later on at your convenience, retrieve all recorded messages from any telephone anywhere in the country. Security of message is ensured against eavesdropping through subscriber controlled password. PTCL VMS is designed for those who do not want to miss a call or Fax because that can be beneficial. Great for anyone owning a telephone or Fax, at home or business. Much more powerful and flexible than answering machine due to

Message options available in your voice mail system. Features Call answer Page 80 of 160

Fax Messaging Notification Capacity 10 messages Free for user paying RS. 2000/- or more bill/month.

PTCL Messaging Plus: PTCL MESSAGINH PLUS is designed for small and medium business enterprises having problems with managing telephone message. PTCL MESSAGING PLUS will definitely handle these problems for you. Advanced messaging features save time, make you truly mobile and increase productivity. Essential for time-conscious executives, frequent travelers and Professional groups. Features: Call answer

Co- Location Centers Pakistan Telecommunication Company has taken land mark decision to establish co location centers throughout the country. Service concept This service is basically for telecom data and I.T companies. These companies will install their equipment directly in PTCL premises in ready fitted environment. The primary purpose is to provide a number of resilient and centralized connection and control facilities in which co-location centers communication can be located.

Page 81 of 160

Benefits Easy access to local & international connectivity Quick deployment of services Minimum capital investment and cost saving Higher reliability and quality of service Full connectivity under one roof Just plug in and start business

Target market IT companies Telecom data companies

Universal Internet Number (UIN) 131 UIN 131 numbering scheme for internet services providers, represent exclusive code to each ISP. Service concept The concept of the service just like toll free 0800 but charges a local call for each connectivity attempt, UIN involves allocation of numbers to individual ISPs who are licensed by PTA. Functionality The service functions under single meeting billing system, with promise of rich dividends in terms of customer care. Benefits Page 82 of 160

The benefit goes to the end users who happen to be any ISP customers. Once subscribed, the service means timeless communication for your customers, allowing them to pay for a single call irrespective of its duration.

Target market ISPs

Virtual Private Network (VPN)


Communication is the secret of success in todays highly competitive market. When it comes to enabling your enterprise, your communication got to be instant, fast and hassle free. The answer to this corporate need is virtual private net work. Service concept It is an innovative and intelligent private network to integrate business/enterprises having sub-offices with in a city or nation wide. Without necessity installation of dedicated resources, VPN enables organization to create a private network.

Digital Cross Connect (DXX)


Telecommunication networks are the most important infrastructure elements of any business today. As the businesses increasingly depend on it, quality of networks is gaining strategic importance. Service concept PTCL offers flexible and reliable data services solutions through a high quality platform of digital leased line network. PTCL digital cross connect (DXX) network provides the most dependable media for WAN connectivity with more than 200 nodes country wide. Page 83 of 160

Features End to end digital connectivity on digital cross connect network Country wide as well as global coverage Flexible bandwidth to suit the requirement Better quality of services

Target market Corporate customer Software exporters Data network operators Airlines/travel agencies ISPs Financial institutes Courier services

ISDN BRI/PRI It is a near broadband experience suitable for household and small/medium sized organizations. Features Faster and clear voice Fax and data communication on a single phone PRI provides thirty 64 kbps user channel plus two 16 kbps signaling channel BRI provides two 64 kbps user channel plus one 16 kbps signaling channel Cost effective

Page 84 of 160

BRIEF INTRODUCTION OF SUBSIDIARIES

UFONE
Launched on January 29, 2001, Ufone is growing cellular operator in Pakistan .Ufone services are offered to you by Pak Telecom mobile Ltd., which is a 100% owned independent subsidiary of Pakistan Telecommunications Corporation Ltd. U-fone has been a highly successful venture both in terms of subscriber uptake and coverage. With fastest expanding coverage, unmatched product leadership, and consistent focus on customers, Ufone has emerged to be the most prominent player & has 2nd largest customer base in the market in the short span of its operations.

Current Situation of Ufone

Ufone has started Sales in all the major cities of Pakistan which include Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, Kohat, Jehlum, Quetta, Sialkot, Faisalabad, Multan, Sukkur, Gujrat, & Gujranwala including 1500 other small towns across the country. New Connections are available at all ufone centers and authorized dealers for just Rs. 50/ which includes Rs. 150/ of airtime. U-fone is in process of starting the sales of connections in a large number of other destinations across Pakistan. This expansion will also result in increase of Ufone coverage in many additional cities and highways.

Total User Base of U-fone


U-fone is currently enjoying 20.53% user of Pakistan mobile industry. It means U-fone has 17,800,424 subscribers. Page 85 of 160

Main Features Both postpaid and prepaid Ufone subscribers can enjoy any/ all Ufone services including MMS, Ufone Internet, Global SMS, and Pocket Stocks etc. In order to use any of the GPRS based services just call 333 and activate your GPRS subscription.

Multi Media & Broad Band (Phone n Net)


Formerly Paknet Limited a fully owned Subsidiary of Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL) is now merged in PTCL as Multimedia & Broad Band Region. It was formed in March 1999 and started commercial operation in January 2000. It is now the biggest Internet Service Provider of the Country. Besides Internet this region also provides data communication services like Clear Channel data links, Frame Relay and Digital Circuits on Optical fiber cross connect systems etc. PTCL was running its Internet Division through its region by the name of Public Data Network (PDN). On December 1999 the PDN region was dissolved and all the assets and Liabilities were transferred to Paknet Limited. Paknet made a fresh start with an Internet customer base of 6000 as of January 2000 and successfully achieved the target of its first year business plan of 50,000 Internet customers. Now it became Multi Media & Broad Band Region which currently has a customer base of more than 130,218 (Mar 31, 2008). The Company commenced its business in January 2000 with a balance sheet size of over US $ 7.0 million. Currently it has a revenue base of approximately US $ 5.0 million per annum and is most likely to double in the next fiscal year keeping in view the market demand of Data products and expansion plans of the PTCL. In near future PTCL is introducing a new IPTV service for its valued customers.

COMPETITOR OF PTCL

Page 86 of 160

There is no meager competitor of PTCL in landline but with the growth of telecommunication industry of Pakistan competition increasing specially in mobile phone sector. In total there are more then 800 million subscribers of mobile phone. There are 03 big players in mobile phone industry but 3 of them are the competitor of PTCL: Mobilink Telenor Warid Tel

Other players in Land Line industry: Brain Limited 7,376 Union

Operator Customers Mobilink

NTC 103,059

World Call 11,347

Naya Tel Communication 3,500 13,500

Mobilink is a largest mobile phone company of Pakistan. Mobilink is currently having more then 31,958,597 users base which is the 36% of total cellular industry of Pakistan. Mobilink is basically competing Ufone which is subsidiaries of PTCL. Telenor Telenor is another cell phone company it have 17,841,074 subscribers which is 20 % of total mobile industry. Warid Tel Waridtel is also providing cell phone facilities in Pakistan. Warid tel having more then 15,114,678 subscribers which is 17% of Pakistan mobile industry. SUBSIDIARIES AND COMPETITORS Page 87 of 160

As already mentioned, presently PTCL has to face war with major competitors in mobile phone & WLL telephony operators, however, there are also competitors of its following subsidiaries/products: -

SUBSIDIRAY / PRODUCT COMPETITOR


Multimedia & Broad Band (ISP Product) There is about 100 competitors of product throughout the country to provide Internet service to the customers. However, some of the major competitor ISPs of product are Cyber net, World online, Apollo, World Call, and Comsats WOL etc. U-fone (Cellular service provider) There are five competitors of Ufone in cellular phone industry i.e. Mobilink, Instaphone and C.M Pak, Telenor, Waridtel. PTCL Calling Cards (Product) Hello Cards, Call Point Cards, Call Mate Cards, Global Telecom Cards. Wireless Local Loop (V-Fone) Go CDMA, Wateen Telecom & World Call are the Fixed Wireless Telephone competitors of V-PTCL.

NEW COMPETITORS Other than mobile & land line PTCL is facing competition in F.W.T (Fixed Wireless Telephone) product market. Below are the major competitors. Telecard World Call 501,680 468,335

This has added competition for PTCL (1,245,639) in WLL (Wireless local Loop) field. Marketing Department Page 88 of 160

Marketing Department is called a revenue-generating department of an organization. Marketing Department undertakes market research and gives feedback to management about customers needs and wants on the basis of which, products and services are developed and positioned to give value to the customers. Thus Marketing department of an organization plays a pivotal role in its business development, growth & expansion. During my internship I worked with PTCL marketing department. Through working there I gain so much practical knowledge that will help me during my practical life. For understanding the work flow and the operation of the department we have to move in certain manner. We have to look the key operation the structure of the department and in the end the focus will be on the critical analysis. So we will move in the pattern describe below: Marketing strategy of PTCL Market segmentation of PTCL Marketing mix of PTCL Promotional strategy of PTCL

1. Marketing Strategy of PTCL


For understanding the marketing department work flow and its function we must have clear picture of the PTCLs marketing strategy. For developing clear understanding of marketing strategy of PTCL there is no one line statement or clear vision of marketing department so we have to move traditionally .Classically, Marketing has been all about the four Ps: Product, Place, Price and Promotion. The marketer identifies a target market, defines the product and Pricing to appeal to this market and a strategy to deliver the product to the market. Thus the marketer is the steward of the value proposition, ensuring that the firm is delivering maximum value to its customers. We will briefly discuss below the marketing strategy, product planning, development & management, Pricing strategy, distribution strategy and promotional strategy: Page 89 of 160

Marketing Strategy Normally, a marketing strategy identifies the target markets, the desired position in each market and the marketing mix that will persuade those target markets to part with their money. Market is targeted through market segmentation. Segmentation can be done on four types i.e. Demographic Segmentation (age, gender, race/ethnicity, household type, home ownership, education, employment, income etc.), Geographic segmentation. Positioning oneself by product can do positioning differentiation, positioning by product usage, positioning against a particular competitor, positioning against an entire product category, positioning by association and positioning by problem, Marketing Mix includes Ps i.e. Product, Price, Promotion and place. TARGET MARKE PTCLs 80% revenue comes from just 20% customers, who are corporate customers and other big and small business organizations. The main focus of PTCL marketing efforts is on retaining and satisfying that 20% chunk of key customers at any cost. For this purpose, PTCL is now established Corporate Customer Services Centers in major cities to take care of these vital customers. Apart from these important customers, PTCL targets general public and other small business companies for sale of its landline telecom services like telephone, fax, Internet, as well as other services like CLI, VMS, and Digital Facilities etc.

2. Market Segmentation
Basically PTCL segmented its market on two bases To better implement customer services features, segment the market on a customer basis: o Corporate Page 90 of 160

o Resident ional On the basis of services as: o Telephony o Data o Video PTCL has segmented its market for its services and products to effectively deal with its customers. Some of its services like Universal Access Number, Co-Location centers and virtual private network are specially targeted at corporate customers and business concerns. The other services like new telephone connections, digital services etc. are meant for mass market. The services like Internet, fax facility etc. are targeted at both the corporate and general customers.

POSITIONING STRATEGY
As PTCL is the sole provider of the landline telecom services in the country; it is the market leader in providing these services because there are no competitors to challenge its market leader status. Thus presently PTCL is facing no problems in positioning its services in the market as a market leader because it enjoys monopoly in the industry. However, with the deregulation of telecom sector PTCL is gearing up itself to maintain this market leader position, on the other hand competitors are doing to challenge it.

MARKETING MIX

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Product Planning:
In PTCL, so far products had been planned and developed by the engineering department and marketing professionals had no role in product planning as there was no marketing department in the Company. But now marketing professionals have been inducted in the Company and they will definitely have a close coordination with engineering department in planning and development of products to satisfy customers desires. It should also be kept in mind that PTCL is a technical organization enjoying state-of-the-art telecom technology. The services offered by PTCL are built in the technology and with the passage of time; PTCL rolls out these products in the market even many products, which have become obsolete in developed countries, are launched as new products by PTCL. But we cannot deny the fact that being monopolist, PTCL is depriving customers of many digital services that are available free in many other countries. However, as the Marketing department has been established now, it is expected that in future there will be close coordination and liaison between marketing professionals and engineers for planning and developing customers oriented products. PTCL is also in the process of hiring brand Managers to manage its different products in a thorough professional way.

Pricing Strategy:
Being a government organization, PTCL is not authorized to determine the prices of its products itself; the Telecom Regulator Authority viz. Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) fixes the prices of telecom services. The process is such that whenever PTCL intends to increase or reduce the rates of its services, it submits its Proposal to PTA for approval. PTA then calls consumers representatives, journalists and other interested groups for discussion on the proposal. After listening to the viewpoints of all the interested parties, PTA gives its decision. If PTA approves PTCLs proposal, the new rates are enforced. It may be mentioned here that telecom technology is only technology whose rates are on the decline with the passage of time. PTCL also rationalizes its tariff with the passage of time. Tariff rationalization process started in 1997 as part of GoP Telecom Sector policy for privatization of this sector. It was mainly Page 92 of 160

focused on rebalancing the domestic process like NWD, international, local call, line rent etc. Rebalancing is completed by the end of 2003 (as per Tariff rates) with the objective to position PTCL for competition.

4. PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY
PTCL is using following components of promotional mix for the promotion and Publicity of its product/services.

Advertising:
In promotional mix, PTCLs main stress is on advertising in print and electronic media. PTCL periodically places its advertisements in print media on services like H/Qs hotline 0800-44544, Caller line identification (CLI), Voice Messaging Service, Digital Facilities, PTCL Prepaid Calling Cards, Inquiry 17, Complaint 18, phone bill cards prepaid telephone etc. to remind the customers of these services. Sometimes, corporate ads are also released to print media to mark special occasions. PTCLs Commercials on Prepaid Calling Card, CLI, Voice Messaging, Digital Facilities etc. are also broadcast immediately on electronic media as reminders toCustomers.

Sales Promotion:
PTCL charges 1/3rd rates on national calls from 06:00 pm 07:00 am and local calls are free from 11:00 pm to 06:00 am to promote the usage of its telecom network. Moreover, PTCL offers special rate packages on special occasions like Ramadan Package and EID package, which offer customer reduced rates for specific timings. For Example, In EID Package PTCL charges half rates from 6:00am - 6:00pm and quarter from 6:00pm 6:00 am to attract customers to use its telephone service. These rates Page 93 of 160

result in increased revenue for PTCL and also facilitate the customers to talk to their near and dear ones on these special occasions on affordable rates. Personal Selling: As PTCL is enjoying monopoly in fixed-line telephony, the Company has no Professional sales force because the company has not felt any strong need to use the Services of a sales force for increasing the sale of its products. At the moment, PTCLs Customer Services Centers are playing the role of sales outlets. Customers can make telephone calls; send fax messages from these Customer Services Centers. They can also get connected their telephone bills and get duplicate bills from these outlets. However, with the establishment of Marketing Department in PTCL, The marketing professionals are now in the process of inducting professional sales force for the company.

CUSTOMER CARE & CUSTOMER SERVICES DEPARTMENT


PTCL has established its Customer Services Department at different levels the overview of the said department is as follows. Corporate Customer Care Center Customer Services Centers Toll Free Help Lines Operation Region Level Tehsil Level For Complaint & Enquiry

Now we briefly introduce the functions of these: Corporate Customer Care Center To facilitate Corporate Customers PTCL has established Corporate Customer Care Centers at all Operation Regional Head Quarter Level, in all the meager cities country wide. The Corporate Customers can get their problems resolved under one roof in a Page 94 of 160

one window environment by dialing UAN 111-20 20 2. The Customer Relation Officers register the complaints & forward these to the related office. Customer Services Centers To facilitate consumers PTCL has established Customer Services Centers at all Tehsil Level cities/offices. Here the consumers can use Fax Facility, Voice Telephony for Local/NWD/ISD dialing. On divisional Offices Level duplicate phone bills may also be obtained from C.S.Cs. Toll Free Help Lines PTCL offers state-of-the-art call center network to its all type of valued customers for convenient frequently asked Questions, Complaints regarding their services, T/No enquiry. The following three Toll Free T/Numbers are available for this purpose. a) 1236 (Service Activation) This toll free No is used to change the tariff packages of land line, WLL (V-fone),v PTCL phone n net service activation, & for Broad Band customers. The service activation is electronically ordered & activated within 24 hours through concerned department. b) 1217 (Telephone Directory) This facility is also Tol Free & is used to obtain the telephone numbers of some specific subscribers (College, Govt. offices, Private offices etc.). This is centralized & is being used as Telephone Directory. c) 1218 (Land Line Complaints)

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To register the faulty Telephone complaints PTCL has established a Toll Free No 18 where a computerized central node is used to register & rectify the consumer complaints for land line numbers.

REVENUE DEPARTMENT
The revenue generated by the marketing department through selling the company services/products is collected by the Revenue Department. The roles played by the Revenue Department are following. i. ii. iii. iv. Bill Printing & Distribution. Issuance of Duplicate Bills. Error correction of Bills. Collection of defaulter amounts.

Bill Printing & Distribution The printing is basically carried out by regional billing computer center at every regional headquarter. These printed bills are handed over to Post Office after sorting & stapling by the Assistant Revenue Officers staff at Distt level. Issuance of Duplicate Bills In case of missing or damaged bills received to customers the correction is also Revenue departments responsibility. For this purpose the revenue office deputes its staff for each Tehsil level PTCL office during the bill payment dates normally from 18th to 30th of each month. Error Correction of Bills In case of late payment or any other discrepancy due to missed collection by banks the previous amount is also included in the new bill. The revenue office is responsible for such kind of correction. Page 96 of 160

Collection of Defaulter Amounts The amounts defaulted by the customers or the bad debts are also collected through revenue department. Each Telecom Recovery Inspector (TRI) is assigned a target of bad debts collection on monthly bases. Now a days as incentive is also offered on more than 100% recovery each month. Analysis of Company Marketing / Sales procedures

Marketing Operation
The operation performed by the marketing department is to give the assistance in the promotional campaigns of the services provided by the Pakistan Telecommunication Company limited. Allocation of marketing efforts in relation to the long run profit potential of the targeted segment. They develop winning offering for each target segment They measure company and customer satisfaction on continuous basis. PTCL sells airtime as its product. Goals set by the Head office in the function of marketing department. Marketing operation is as under: o Schedule planning (Better schedule greater demand and greater revenue in return) o Target Monitoring. o Marketing Intelligence o Commutative Analysis.

FUNCTIONS OF MARKETING DEPARTMENT


1 Marketing Strategy

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In addition, to 4Ps (product, Price, place, Promotion) of marketing, 3 additional Ps involved in service marketing. PEOPLE; As most services are provided by people, the selection, training, and motivation of employees can make a huge difference in customer satisfaction. PHYSCICAL EVIDENCE: Companies try to demonstrate their service quality through physical evidence and presentation. PROCESS: service companies can choose among different processes to deliver their services. 2 Types of Marketing Used in PTCL A. EXTERNAL MARKETING It describes the normal work done by the company to prepare, price, distribute, and promote the service to customers. B. INTERNAL MARKETING It describes the work done by the company to train and motivates its employees to serve customers well. C. INTERACTIVE MARKETING It describes the employees skill in serving the client. Marketing Managers develop the marketing programs. Marketing department of PTCL first identifies and analyzes the target markets then design and implement marketing mix strategies to reach markets and achieve the organizations marketing objectives. During each step, they use marketing research to help in decision-making. They analyze their customers raveling behaviors their buying motives and patterns.

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4 Product Planning, Development, and Management A company can obtain new product in two ways. 1. One is through acquisition from some other body. 2. Second is New Product Development in the Companys own research and

development department. PTCL obtained through acquisition form Huawei Technologies. PTCL does not follow complete product development process. Idea was generated in response of weekly and quarterly feedback report from the bottom line managers and through marketing intelligence. That the land line numbers were rapidly closing and a very small number of connections were issued. This ratio was 3. The reason was high fault ratio, sub-standard cabling, line staff behavior, high line rent and competition. Subscribers were shifting to cell phones. This feedback was alarming. How to cope with this problem? Management planned to improve land line and also introduce a parallel new product for their customers. PTCL tried to convert this problem into opportunity. For this purpose a new technology (radio transmission 2000) V Wireless acquires from Huawei Telecom obtained and launched in Karachi and Islamabad. Excellent advertisement at print and electronic media was made. A good response received from the test market. V Wireless was launched step by step all over the country. For V Wireless development

Pricing Strategy
There are many ways to price a product. Premium Pricing Page 99 of 160

Use a high price where there is uniqueness about the product or service. This approach is used where a substantial competitive advantage exists.

Penetration Pricing
The price charged for products and services is set artificially low in order to gain market share. Once this is achieved, the price is increased.

Economy Pricing
This is a no frills low price. The cost of marketing and manufacture are kept at a minimum. Supermarkets often have economy brands for soups, spaghetti, etc.

Price Skimming
Charge a high price because you have a substantial competitive advantage. However, the advantage is not sustainable. The high price tends to attract new competitors into the market, and the price inevitably falls due to increased supply. Manufacturers of digital watches used a skimming approach in the 1970s. Once other manufacturers were tempted into the market and the watches were produced at a lower unit cost, other marketing strategies and pricing approaches are implemented. Premium pricing, penetration pricing, economy pricing, and price skimming are the four main pricing policies/strategies. They form the bases for the exercise. However there are other important approaches to pricing.

Value Pricing
This approach is used where external factors such as recession or increased competition force companies to provide 'value' products and services to retain sales. In Case of PTCL: Pricing strategy changed according to the market situation. It may be increased or decreased. World Call Telecom has provided country wide free call on his own network. Page 100 of 160

In countering V Wireless has offered 1200/- free balance to retain and attract new customers. This is a short term method as against world call strategy.

PSTN:

For PSTN or landline PTCL is using ECONOMY strategy which means PTCL is getting average revenue per user. As PSTN is now on maturity stage so the focus is on retaining customers. EVO: EVO is a newly lounged brand by PTCL. As it has no other competitor in market so PTCL is using Skimming strategy by which they are getting high no. of customers with high revenue. Vfone

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For the pricing of Vfone and SmartTV PTCL is using Market Penetration strategy through which the have added two new ways to penetrate its market. Smart TV For SmartTV Market Penetration strategy is being used. Purpose is to get maximum market share. Broad Band Skimming and Value added strategies are being used for broadband for maximum revenues and high market share.

Distribution Strategy

Designing a distribution strategy by PTCL involves five tasks:

Channel of Distribution

Direct (In-house)

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PTCL Exchanges and One Stop Shop ---- End users.


PTCL sells directly to end users where ever PTCL Exchanges and one stop shop works country wide. Senior Engineer is in charge and involved in selling process to those customers who walk in exchange for products. Collections are made by Managers on the spot and services are provided immediately.

Indirect (Dealers)
PTCL sells its products through Franchise as well. PTCL ---Dealers----Retailers----End Users Retailers: They buy small number of sets from dealers. They are generally small shopkeepers.

KIOSK PTCL is also doing Kiosk activity in different colleges and university. From kiosk people can get all pro0ducts of PTCL.

Blitz Sales Page 103 of 160

Team of 20 people has assigned for Blitz sales. They daily target an area and do door to door sales. By this activity revenues are getting higher. Customer Facilitation Center (CFC) Customer facilitation centers are also available for sales and for rectification of problems.

PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY
Above the line advertising is including newspaper T.V at big level and below the line advertising at low level like local cable banners, sign boards. Several types of promotions are used extensively by PTCL. All the promotional tools are used in service industry. Advertising and sales promotion has been used extensively in service fields. Public relation and publicity also play important role.

PUSH STRATEGY
To achieve the sales targets, PTCL uses push strategy. In this strategy PTCL gives extra bonuses and discounts on purchasing of prescribed quantity. By using this strategy PTCL meets its sales targets and can generate more revenue in a short period of time. In this strategy the benefits are given to the dealers and sales teams.

PULL STRATEGY
PTCL also using pull strategy, it directs its marketing activities toward final consumers to encourage them to buy the product. Promotion is directed to end-user. The intention is to motivate the dealers to prescribe the companys products to their users. It Page 104 of 160

increases the demand of products. When demand increases, all channels give more orders to distributors and in the same way distributors will further give orders to PTCL. Effective steps taken by PTCL for promotion. PTCL uses different media for promotion 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Print Media Newspapers Electronic Media Local cables TVC Radio Internet Brochures Bill Boards

SWOT ANALYSIS
What is a SWOT Analysis? A SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) is a tool used to provide a general or detailed snapshot of a company's health. SWOT analysis is a tool for auditing an organization and its environment. It is the first stage of planning and helps marketers to focus on key issues. SWOT stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. By identifying the organization's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, managers can formulate strategies in such a way so that the strengths and opportunities can be utilized and internal weaknesses and environmental threats can be minimized. To fulfill its mission, PTCL should capitalize on its key Page 105 of 160

strengths, overcome or alleviate its major weaknesses, avoid significant threats, and take advantage of the most promising opportunities. Why use a SWOT Analysis? In any business, it is imperative that the business be its own worst critic. A SWOT analysis forces an objective analysis of a company's position and the marketplace. Simultaneously, an effective SWOT analysis will help determine in which areas a company is succeeding, allowing it to allocate resources in such a way as to maintain any dominant positions it may have.

Strengths
PTCL Enjoy Monopoly Page 106 of 160 An integrated monopoly. Experienced telecomm resources. Low production cost. Skilled Human Resource. Availability of infrastructure Liberal policies for IT investments. Effective product innovation abilities The network service is distributed across the whole country. With over 2 million lines PTCL is the largest WLL provider. 1134 base stations cover 720 cities and capacity is being added. Vast infrastructure and real estate assets which can be leveraged further. No Financial Problem. Leading to corporate culture after privatization. Phone n Net service.

PTCL is sole provider of land line services in Pakistan .so there is no competition regarding their basic service. It means that there is a monopoly of PTCL. International Submarine Cables High Capacity National Fiber Optic Backbone Ring 36 Transit Exchanges with easy Facility of Expansion About 99% Digitization of Country Network Strong Platforms & Exchanges for Value added Services Access Network & Customer Base of over 04 millions State Of The Art International Gateway Exchanges & Satellite Earth Stations PTCL have largest net work with its state of art technology and new digital exchanges. These are the few important characteristics of PTCL network. International Submarine Cables High Capacity National Fiber Optic Backbone Ring 36 Transit Exchanges with easy Facility of Expansion About 99% Digitization of Country Network Strong Platforms & Exchanges for Value added Services Large Earnings As described earlier that PTCL with more then 4 million users having greet revenues this is another strength of the company Government support As you know PTCL is government organization so it has great support and it is strength for PTCL.

Weaknesses
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Over employment and low productivity. Slow decision-making including external interferences. Corporate culture akin to government department. Branding. Regional & Domestic Political Instability. Weak economy & corporate profiles. Customer Confidence. Workforce issues - quality control and delivery. The product line is too narrow. Absence of ERP system. Poor service. Network capacity and quality. Employees double standard policy.

Opportunities
Low teledensity of Pakistan. Growth potential due to improved macro economic situation of the country. Partnership with new entrants in a de-regulated environment. Scope for efficient/ cost effective operations. Key areas for growth a. Cellular. b. Domestic long distance. c. International long distance. d. Wireless Local Loop. Market Size. Privatization & liberalization of Govt. IT operations & projects. Innovation.

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Made large capital expenses on network improvement to stay competitive. IPTV rollout (TV+Phone+Internet) with say a single bill for convenience. After privatization, PTCL would become the 'Pakistan arm' of an international telecom operator. Launching of Wimax. Triple Play service. Replacement of Copper wire with OFAN and ONU Project. IT culture mainly depends on Telecom sector.

Threats
Exposure to market competition. Migration to cellular networks. Ability to attract and retain quality professionals. Reduction in international settlement rates. Ad Hoc Decisions from Authorities. Political Instability. Change in Government policies can act as a threat for PTCL. Rising sales of substitute products like Mobile operators may also act as a threat. High turnover and low retention of IT staff. Increased competition in long distance continues to exert pressure. VOIP use is increasing despite ambiguous and discriminatory policies this will eat into its profits (example: international outgoing calls). Paknet, the Internet service provider arm of PTCL continues to incur losses due to poor management and lack of network optimization. Increased Competition from new investors (Mobile firms such as Telenor, WLL operators, Wateen Telecom.). Management Style and approach. Effects of VSS.

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Concluding Remarks on SWOT Analysis


To maintain its monopoly in Land Line services PTCL has to improve its services including customer care and low fault duration. As it has experienced telecom resources to have them is not a big deal but to retain them should be its mission. there is no care of network from the last two years the reason behind that is the issue of privatization, every one is not clear about the policies and future of the company and there is no concentration on network improvement no material is available in the store for maintenance purpose. In order to compensate the line fault ratio a proper system of WLL V wireless promotion can be adopted which can nullifies the issues of line faults. There is burden of staff in offices in the context of supporting staff and those staff which has become obsolete after technological changes (replacement of manual exchanges with digital exchanges) which has reduced the need of staff at that level as in manual system. Employees Union Involvement is still high which the main cause of slow decision-making is. However it has been take over by a private company but still there attitude and behavior is like government officials. Company is not focusing on proper advertising of the products and services even some time company owns employee dont know about the new feature and services offered by the company then how customer will come to know about it. Company should try to gain its customer confidence back by offering timely response to complaints secondly company should enhance its product line. After the take over of Etisalat, management is trying to implement an ERP system which will be very helpful in coming future for decision-making and analysis. Not only the capacity but also the quality of network should be enhanced for proper market share. After the deregulation policy there are huge chances of partnership with other private companies and it also leads to true market competition. The countrys economy at macro level is expanding and future of services providing companies is very bright. Today is the era of IT and IT with out telecom is impossible. There is enough potential in cellular services, LDI, LL and WLL, company can invest in such kind of activities for Page 110 of 160

revenue growth. IPTV rollout can change the game, if done right it will tilt the odds in PTCLs favor. It will make sticky bundles possible (tv+pohne+internet) with say a single bill for convenience. After privatization it has become a global company the major benefit to the employees are that they can move to any subsidiary of that holding company in other countries. Three main projects of Triple play, Ofan and wimax are in pipe line which will be launched very soon and it will be very helpful for the company to get a competitive edge. now that time has been passed when company connections were selling with out any advertisement due to his monopoly now the time is going to change very quickly there are a lot of emerging telecom companies with a big mission to get a big market share like Mobilink and Wateen Telecom is spreading its own optical fiber cable through out the country that will reduce there dependency on PTCL .People are quickly switching to cellular companies due to their low call rates its a big threat for PTCL in addition there quality professionals are also searching place in that companies due to high salary package and benefits. Rising sale of mobile operators due to low call rates is very big shock for its revenue. Due to increased competition in long distance and local loop company is unable to sustain its current market share, companies using Voip technology can provide low call rates then PTCL. Paknet is suffering from loss from many years it should be merged with PTCL to improve its management that is the main reason of loss. The centralized structure and management style should be modified with new company culture environment to improve overall company position; double standard policy for employees should be eliminated. Currently company launched VSS for its current employees which effects will be cleared in near future at present employees are not cleared that what management will do with them in case they dont accept this VSS what will be their future in company.

Chapter 6
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Company Accounting and Finance System FINANCIAL ANALYSIS


Financial analysis of any organization is very necessary for the evaluation and assessment of a firm. The information derived from these types of analysis should be blended to determine the overall financial position. This analysis includes ratio analysis, common size analysis and the study of differences in components of financial statement. One of the primary objectives is identification of major changes in trends, amounts and relationship and investigation of the reasons underlying those changes. In the financial analysis of P.T.C.L we will analyze some important information about the company. As I did my internship in human resource management, but it has not an independent organization so I have to analyze the P.T.C.L for the analysis purpose. Current ratio Current Ratio is an indicator to determine the short term debt paying ability or the liquidity of a company. It tells us that how many current assets are available to pay for the current liabilities of the company. Current ratio of the company in 31 Mar 2008 is 1.67& is favorable for a company. The ideal condition is 1.1 but ratio is quite reasonable. Quick ratio: Quick ratio or the acid test ratio also performs the same task as is performed by current ratio but with more sophistication. Quick ratio of the company is 1.5 up to Mar 31, 2008 its quick ratio is decreasing. As P.T.C.L is a service organization there fore the quick Page 112 of 160

ratio is very good because there is not need of inventory as any manufacturing organization needs.

RATIO ANALYSIS
LIQUIDITY RATIOS

1) CURRENT RATIO
Current Ratio (2008) = Current Assets/Current Liabilities 2008 1.73 Interpretation Internal comparison The Company is almost stable in the past five years to cover its current liabilities with its current assets. External comparison The Company is more liquid than the industry due to its strong ratio. The company is sound despite a small difference in the two ratios. 2007 2.22 2006 1.66 2005 1.91 2004 2.78

2) ACID-TEST RATIO
Acid-Test Ratio (2005) = (Current Assets - Inventories)/Current Liabilities 2008 1.53 2007 2.06 2006 1.54 2005 1.74 2004 2.67

Interpretation Internal comparison Ratio got a bit weaker in 2006 due to a large amount of stock in trade. External comparison The companys ratio is higher than the industry showing that the company is in line with the industry rather stronger than the industry average. Page 113 of 160

1) DEBT-TO-EQUITY RATIO
Debt-to-Equity Ratio (2005) = Total Debt/Shareholders Equity 2008 14:86 Interpretation Internal comparison The ratio for the company got higher in 2007 indicating a low level of firms financing that is being provided by shareholders and a low creditor cushion i.e. margin of protection in the event of shrinking asset values or outright losses. External comparison The company shows high debt utilization than the industry. 2007 14:86 2006 14:86 2005 13:87 2004 13:87

PROFITABILITY RATIOS
1) GROSS PROFIT MARGIN
Gross Profit Margin (2005) = [(Net Sales - CGS)/Net Sales]*100 2008 14:86 Interpretation Internal comparison The company has improved selling the products above cost. External comparison 2007 14:86 2006 14:86 2005 13:87 2004 13:87

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The companys ratio is below industrys average showing that it is relatively less effective at selling products above cost.

2) NET PROFIT MARGIN


Net Profit Margin (2005) = [Net Profit After Taxes/Net Sales]*100 2008 (4.62) Interpretation Internal comparison It has improved return on investment in 2006. External comparison Higher profitability per rupee of sales but a slightly lower return on investment confirms that employs more assets to generate a rupee of sales than does other firms in the industry. 2007 23.96 2006 30.07 2005 35.02 2004 39.35

4) RETURN ON EQUITY (ROE)


Return on Equity (2005) = [Net Profit After Taxes/Shareholders Equity]*100 2008 (2.71) 2007 14.45 2006 20.21 2005 25.43 2004 28.20

MARKETING RATIOS
1) EARNINGS PER SHARE (EPS)
Earnings per Share (2004) = Net Income after Tax/Number of Shares Outstanding (I) Number of Shares Outstanding = Paid up Capital/Face value of Share 2008 (0.55) 2007 3.07 2006 4.07 2005 5.22 2004 5.72

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Interpretation Internal comparison It has improved EPS in 2006 so it is considered an important indicator of corporate success because it is closely watched by the investing public. External comparison It has a low amount earned during the period on behalf of each outstanding share of common stick than industry due to contingent securities.

2) DIVIDEND PER SHARE (DPS)


Dividend per Share (2005) = Dividend Paid/Number of Shares Outstanding (I) Number of Shares Outstanding = Paid up Capital/Face value of Share 2008 0.00 Interpretation Internal comparison The amount of earnings actually distributed to shareholders rose by Rs.8.5 in 2006. External comparison It has a low DPS than industry so overall it shows that the company is in a good position. 2007 2.00 2006 5.00 2005 2.00 2004 5.00

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Chapter 7 Strategic Management Matrices


IFE

I
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No:

IFE matrix shows that the company has a strong internal position. Company is capitalizing on its strengths and weaknesses effectively

EFE

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E
EFE matrix shows that companys strategies are no responding to its opportunities and threats in a satisfactory way. Company has a comparatively weak external position majorily due to the high oil prices and rising inflation.

No:
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COMPETITIVE PROFILE MATRIX (CPM)


Landline Critical Success Weig ht Ratin g 2 4 2 0.1 0.8 0.4 V phone and DSL Smart TV Score Ratin g 0.15 0.2 0.8 3 1 4 Sco re 0.15 0.2 0.8

U phone Score Ratin Score Ratin g 3 1 4 0.15 0.2 0.8 g 3 1 4

Factors Advertising 0.05 Product 0.2 Quality Price Competitiv eness Manageme nt Financial Position Customer Loyalty Global Expansion Market Share Technolog y Total 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.05 0.1 1 0.2

4 4 4 3 4 4

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.4 3.4

3 4 3 2 1 2

0.3 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.05 0.2 2.6

4 4 3 2 1 2

0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.05 0.2 2.7

4 4 3 2 1 2

0.4 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.05 0.2 2.7

CPM shows that there is no major competitor of PTCL in some landline. Although, there are some competitors in the market but they are not competing with this product at high level due to its high quality products. PTCL has the highest share in the market, has its expansion in other countries like through liaisons in the international telecom shares and has the most advanced machinery.

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Strategic Planning Matrices

SWOT MATRIX
STRENGHS S 1. Complete range of connectivity services 2. Own fiber optic network 3. 95% share in landline market 4. 5 to 7% increase mobile phone users 5. Highest brand recognition in telecom 6. Privatization tends to improve brand equity. 7. Most sophisticated, advanced, modernized machinery 8. Own power generation plant 9. Advance MIS and SAP 10. Strong creditworthiness 11. Well established name 12. Modernized R&D 13. Advertising 14 Employee satisfaction OPPORTUNITIES O 1. Best provider of telecom in Asia and can export to Middle East 2. Increase in telecom users is increasing 5-7% annually 3. DSL and cable market is increasing at 10% per annum 4. V phone market is growing at the rate of 15% THREATS T 1. Low prices of competitors 2. High advertisement by the competitors 3. Rising inflation 4. Fluctuating exchange rates 5. Higher interest rates 6. Weak financial position to pay back loans due in near future 7. Increasing oil prices SO STRATEGIES 1. Telecom market development in rural areas (S4, S4, S6 O4) 2. Supply of DSL and Cable in market (S2, S6, S11 O2) 3. Product development i-e cable service (S2, S6, S11,S12 O5) 4. Diversifying in cable and V phone (S3, S6, S11 O1) ST STRATEGIES 1. Improve quality awareness among customers (S6 T1, T8) 2. Advanced campaign (S10 T2) WEAKNESSES W 1. Change of Management 2. High product prices 3.Hurdles in over-coming govt. organization image 4. Massive work force 5. Downsizing 6. Centralized decision making 7. Comparatively High employee turnover at executive level 8. High cost of production 9. Hurdles in market expansion

WO WEAKNESSES 1. Increasing connectivity competition (W1 - O1) 2. Backward integration (W3, W8 O2, O3, O4) 3. Forward integration (W3, W8 O2, O3, O4)

WT STRATEGIES 1. Improve quality awareness among customers (W2 T1) 2. Backward integration (W4, W8 T3, T4, T6, T7) 3. Forward Integration (W4, W8 ---T3, T4, T6, T7)

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8.Political unrest

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SPACE MATRIX
FINANCIAL STRENGTH Current Ratio and Liquidity Ratio is 2.46 and 1.34 respectively Company's sales has increased by 19.5% Company's net income has been decreased by 29% Asset turnover ratio is 0.32 Return on investment is Rs. 12.94 INDUSTRY STRENGTH DSL market is at 5-7% Industry in Asia and Middle-East Telecom market is growing at 10% Cable market is growing at 15% ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY Rising inflation Fluctuating exchange rates Higher interest rates Increasing oil prices COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE 60% Govt. share in company 95% in Land line market Advertising and marketing campaigns Loyal customers Complete range of Mobile packages Most advanced machinery CONCLUSION Financial strength average = 16/5 = 3.2 Industry strength average = 20/4 = 5 Environmental stability average = -20/4 = -5 Competitive advantage average = -8/6 = -1.333 Directional Vector Coordinates: x-axis: -1.333+(+5) = 3.667 Directional Vector Coordinates: y-axis: +3.2 + (-5) = -1.8 RATINGS +5 +3 +2 +1 +5 +16 +6 +4 +5 +5 +20 -5 -4 -5 -6 -20 -1 -1 -1 -2 -1 -2 -8

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Space Matrix

C A (3.667,1. 8)

IS

ES FS

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Space matrix shows that PTCL has a competitive profile. It has major competitive advantages in a high growth industry.

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Backwa rd integrati on Key Factors Opportunities 1. Benchmark and brandname in providing telecom services 2. Increase in mobile phone users 5-7% annually 3. Telecom market is increasing at 10% per annum 4. BroadBand and DSL and Cable market is growing approximately at the rate of 15% 5. Due to easy access and connectivity & decreasing rates, mobile phone is gaining popularity Threats 1. Low prices of competitors 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Rising inflation Weig ht 0.08 0.08 0.04 0.04 AS 3 3 3 --TS

Product develop ment ( paper bags) AS TS

Market Develop ment AS TS 0.3 2 0.3 2 0.1 6 ---

0.2 2 4 0.2 2 4 0.1 2 2 -----

0.1 4 6 0.1 4 6 0.0 4 8 -----

0.08

0.2 4 4

0.3 2 2

0.1 6

0.09 0.08

2 2 3 3 4 4

Fluctuating exchange rates 0.11 Higher interest rates Difficulty in payment of loans due in near future Increasing oil prices 0.1 0.2 0.1

0.1 8 0.1 6 0.3 3 0.3 0.8

3 3 2 2 2

0.2 7 0.2 4 0.2 2 0.2 0.4

4 4 4 4 3

0.3 6 0.3 2 0.4 4 0.4 0.6 0. 3 0.1 8 0.2 0.2 4 ------0.2 4 -----

0.4 2

0.2 3

Strengths 1. Complete range of telecom 0.06 and connectivity service 2. Own fiber optic network 0.05 80% share in telecom market 4. Reliability of DSL and Cable service 5. Highest brand recognition in telecom market 6. Privatization has improved brand equity 7. Most sophisticated, advanced, modernized Page 128 of 160 machinery 8. Own power generation plant 9. Advance MIS and SAP 3. 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.08 0.03 0.02

2 3 3 ---2 ---

0.1 2 0.1 5 0.1 8 -------

1 2 2 -------

0.0 3 6 0.1 4 0.1 4 2 --- -----------

0.1 4 6 ---------

0.3 3 2 ---------

BCG MATRIX
1.RELATIVE MARKET SHARE POSITION IN THE INDUSTRY High 1.0 Medium 0.50 Low 0.0 High +2 0 LANDLINE INTRERNATIONAL INDUSTRY SALES GROWTH RATE (%AGE) Mediu m 0 CALLS

V PHONE

U PHONE DSL

SMART TV

Low

-20

BCG matrix shows that company two divisions, Landline service and international calls received in Pakistan share are stars because they have the highest market share and are competing in high growth industries. Mobile industry is also growing, but since there is a lot of competition in the market. Major portions of the sales are generated from

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landline and international call incentive. Smart TV is not catering to a large market and hence not producing a noticeable amount of revenue.

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THE GRAND STRATEGY MATRIX


RAPID MARKET GROWTH Quadrant II Quadrant I * 1. Market development 1. Market 2. Market penetration development 3. Product 2. Market development penetration 4. Horizontal 3. Product integration development 5. Divestiture 4. Forward 6. liquidation integration 5. Backward Integration 6. Horizontal integration WEAK 7. Related COMPETITIVE diversification POSITION

STRONG COMPETITIVE POSITION

Quadrant III 1. Retrenchment 2. Related diversification 3. Unrelated diversification 4. Divestiture 5. Liquidation

Quadrant IV 1. Related diversification 2. Unrelated diversification 3. Joint ventures

SLOW MARKET GROWTH * Broad Band, U-fone and Landline falls in Quadrant I

PTCL landline and international calls received lie in the first quadrant due to the rapid market growth and strong competitive position because of PTCL monopoly. Although, other PTCLs other products are doing well and fall in IInd quadrant. Page 131 of 160

Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM)

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Chapter 8 Training Program


A Word about the training program at PTCL
During my internship at PTCL I worked in fallowing department of PTCL Marketing department Customer Care & Customer Services department HR department Revenue department

Now we move department wise and give brief introduction of each department, and Since Marketing, Customer Care & Services and Revenue Departments has been covered very thoroughly earlier, we directly jump on to the HR department, the area of my specialization

HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT FUNCTIONS


H.R. Management activities are carried on both by the staff H.R. Dept and by operating management in the course of directing the activities of the work force. Variation from the pattern described may occur in particular companies because of special circumstances. This function includes recruitment, selection, and induction into the organization. The initial decision to add someone to the payroll is made by line management. It is also its responsibility to determine the content of the job to be performed and the employee qualifications necessary to perform the job satisfactorily. Very commonly, statements of Page 133 of 160

job content and employee qualification have been previously worked out jointly between line management and the H.R. Dept. These are recorded in the form of job descriptions and job specification. The H.R. Dept must develop and maintain adequate sources of labor. It must set up and operate the employee selection system, which may include interviews, selection tests, a medical examination, and reference checks. Quite commonly the role of the H.R. Dept is one of screening with the final decision to hire or reject being made by the supervisor who requested the new employee. However, in the case of large-scale hiring program of unskilled or skilled workers, the H.R. Dept is commonly granted full and final authority to make the hiring decision. The new employees supervisor bears important responsibilities for introducing his/her to the new work environment. This is often called orientation.

GM HRA Central

SM HRA II

SM HRA I

SM MS

Manager Legal

Dy. Dir Security

Manager HRA-II

Azmat Hayat

Manager HRA-I M. Jahanzeb

AM HRA

AM HRA

AM HRA

MT

AM Admin

AM Admin

AM Admin Building & Mtce

AM Security

Superviso r

Superviso r

Superviso r Security

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TRANSFER, PROMOTION, LAYOFF


For these tasks the H.R. Dept serves primarily in a coordinative capacity. When employees are moved from one department to another either because of the needs of the business or because of individual requests, the personnel records may be studied to ascertain that they posses the requisite skills. Layoffs typically are processed by the H.R. Dept to ensure that the proper order of preference is followed. This can become complicated of combinations of jobs, departmental, and plant wide seniority rights must be observed. When a vacancy occurs in a position, it may be filled by promotion from within or by direct hiring from outside the company. This decision is often made jointly between the H.R. Manager and the executive in change of the department where the vacancy has occurred. Many companies may establish policies to cover matters of this type. The actual final decision as to which candidate is chosen for the promotion is largely made by the executive in whose unit the vacancy has occurred.

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


On-the-job training and coaching are performed by the line supervisor or by a specially designated employee who acts in the role of an instructor. It is the responsibility of the personnel industrial relations group to determine training needs in cooperation with the line management. Once the needs are established, the personnel training specialists must design a program to accomplish the desired results. If the program takes the form of in service class room courses, it usually is administrated by H.R. Department. Coaching, performance appraisal, and post appraisal counseling, job rotation, understudies, and special broadening assignments are largely executed by operating managers but coordinated by a central H.R. Dept. PTCL has established its own training facilities as detailed below: Telecom staff College Hari Pur Telecom Staff college Lahore Cantt.

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The regional level staffs training schools are also involved for extending training facility to all the staff members of the organization, based at regional headquarter level such kind of Regional Telecom training schools are R.T.T.S Lahore R.T.T.S Multan R.T.T.S Faisalabad R.T.T.S Karachi R.T.T.S Islamabad etc.

The types of training being offered are: Initial training for the new staff generally 03-06 months as per designation at T.S.C Lahore/ Hari Pur. Refresher courses for existing employees. Promotion training courses. Special emergent technology trainings. Some times PTCL also sings contracts with its suppliers/vendors for foreign trainings.

COMPENSATION ADMINISTRATION
The work of designing and installing a job evaluation program is handled, for the part, by the H.R. department with some consultation with line managers. The decision to adopt a particular pay structure with pay grades and fixed minimums and maximums for the grades is a top management responsibility. The day-to-day work of analyzing jobs, evaluating their worth according to a formal job evaluation plan, and maintaining suitable records is are H.R. dept. functions Periodic wage are conducted by the H.R. dept, but any firm decision to rise or change the entire schedule is particularly always reserved for the chief executive officer of the organization. Page 136 of 160

Following three types of compensation packages are being served to PTCL staff. 1. N.B.P.S (National Basic Pay Scale) 2. N.C.P.G (New Compensation Pay Grades) 3. N.T.C (New Terms and Conditions)

HEALTH AND SAFETY


A significant part on occupational health programs is the identification and control of agents within the working environment that can cause occupational diseases. Some agents may be gases, dusts, fumes, toxic chemicals and metals, noise, heat, radiation, biological substances and stress. Industrial hygienists are employed to identify and control such hazards to health. Other important elements of an employee health programs are pre-employment medical examinations, periodic examinations for those working on jobs having exposure to occupational disease-causing agents, rendering of first aid, treatment of minor ailments such as colds and headache, and providing health education information. Small companies typically hire physicians, nurses and industrial hygienists only on the consulting and part time basis. Large firms tend to be staffed with full time personnels in these areas. The safety program is directed toward the prevention of work injuries. The main elements are engineering, education and enforcement. PTCL is offering both its own medical facility setup & the private hospitals on its panel. The miner health problems are dealt by PTCL own medical facility/staff & other in which patient is to be admitted or operated are forwarded to the panel hospitals. PTCL also offers reimbursement of expenses to the remote areas staff as they can not reach to PTCL hospital in any emergency.

DISCIPLINE AND DISCHARGE

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Discipline has two principal meanings. In the first sense it means training that molds or corrects. This means the achieving and maintaining of orderly employee behavior because the people understand and believe in the established codes of conduct. The second meaning of the term discipline refers to punishment of wrongdoers. The H.R. department commonly assumes the responsibility for formulating the list of necessary rules together with the range of penalties for each offense. Frequently this list of rules and penalties is discussed and cleared with high-level line management before it is issued and communicated throughout the organization. These rules are called terms and conditions formerly known as Employment & Discipline (E&D) rules. Most commonly, actual approval by the H.R. department has to be obtained before and employee may be discharged. The reason is that discharge is a very serve penalty and should be used only when a very clear case can be shown. In addition, it is especially vital to achieve companywide uniformity in the handling of such cases.

LABOR RELATIONS
When a union has been certified by the National Industrial Relations Commission N.I.R.C, as the result of an election, as the sole and exclusive bargaining agency (C.B.A) for the employees, then management must bargain with it in regard to wages, rate of pay, hours of work, and other conditions of employment. The principal tasks involved in handling labor relations are contract negotiation, contract interpretation and administration, and grievance handling. The H.R. department plays very significant role in labor-management relations. The director of industrial relation usually serves as a key member of the bargaining team often acting a chief management spokesman. In operating on a day-to-day basis under the terms of the labor agreement, line supervision often finds frequently occasion to consult the H.R. department regarding such matters like allocation of over time, handling of transfers and layoffs, and the application of contract work rules.

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BENEFITS AND SERVICES


Included under this category are pensions, group life insurance, hospital and medical insurance, sickness leave pay plans, supplemental unemployment compensation, loan funds, credit unions, social programs, recreational programs and college tuition refunds plans. The actual decision to establish or to expand these programs is nearly always made by top line management upon the advice and consultation of the H.R. department. The actual design of pension and insurance programs requires a great deal of technical knowledge. These programs are generally worked out in conjunction with insurance companies or insurance consultants. After these plans are installed, the dayto-day processing of claims is handled by the H.R. department

ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT
Organization development is a general approach for improving the effectiveness of an organization that utilizes a variety of applied behavioral science methodologies. Among the objective of the OD are to increase the level of trust and supportiveness among people in the organization, enhance interpersonal skills, make communication more open and direct, directly confront problems and to tap the knowledge of all who can contribute to problem solutions wherever they may be in the organization. Consultants are often involved in OD work they work jointly with management to collect data, diagnose problems and work of solutions. Typical kinds of OD activities are interventions or confrontation meetings, team buildings, survey field, back conflict resolution, laboratory training and managerial grid exercises and

HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING


Another new function that has emerged in recent years in human resource planning (also called manpower planning). Sometimes a specific person or office has this as its primary responsibility; more commonly the responsibilities are shared by several people Page 139 of 160

within the corporate personnel unit. Human resource planning is the process by which is a firm insures that it has the right number of qualified persons available at the proper times, programming jobs that are useful to the organization, and which provide satisfaction for the individuals involved. The principal elements involved in human resources planning are as follows: 1) Goals and plans of organization. 2) Current human resource situation including skills inventory. 3) Human resource forecast including comparison of projected future demand for employees with projected supply. 4) Designing programs to implement the plans. 5) Audit and adjustment.

EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY


Very commonly the Senior Executive Vice President (SEVP HR) in the company bears the major responsibility for insuring that the organization complies with the various equal employment opportunity laws and regulations. She or he often delegates the day to-day detailed administration to someone within the H.R. department who either specializes in this field of work or who performs these duties along with others department such as the employment function. Usually the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the company, whether she or he is called the chairman/chairperson of the board or the president, plays a key role in the formulation and implementation of equal employment policy.

PERSONNEL INFORMATION SYSTEM


Today, many organizations have staffs of people trained in mathematical analysis, computers, and management information systems. Some companies have applied these capabilities to personnel work. Among the applications have been human

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resources planning, skills inventories, employee benefits analysis, and productivity studies.

HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT OF THE PTCL:


The PTCL has won repute in the field of land line & WLL services for the domestic & commercial customers .It has been achieved only due to the proper and exact functionality of the Human Resource Department .The Head of the Human Resources Department is the SEVP and his team comprises of EVPs & General Managers of different zones. The Human Resource Department may advice the administration and the board of directors on special issues of the company and then it offers services in order to accomplish the task. The human resources are the ultimate deciders provided by the Human Resource Department. It not only gives advice, offers services but also control the policies of the administration.

RECRUITMENT:
The department first determines the need of employees to be hired .The post against each vacancy is advertised and then the applications are invited from the applicants .If there is a post of manager cadre; the SEVP personally is the interviewer of the interviewees along with his team.

TRAINING:
Then the qualified candidates undergo a training period under the banner of Human Resource Department .There are Telecom Staff colleges at Lahore & Hari Pur. Then the specified persons are appointed against each specified post so the best results are expected and hence the performance and good will of the PTCL is increased.

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TRANSFER:
Human Resource Department of the company also deals with the transfer of the employees because the Human Resource Department knows the demands of the job and the right person is employed over the right place by transferring him to that post. Health and safety matters are also handled by the Human Resource Department in the organization. As there are no apparent dangers to the employees and customers hence it is the responsibility of the Human Resource Department to see through the matter.

EVALUATION:
The employees are then properly evaluated by different evaluation criteria and procedures in order to motivate them and to enhance the performance .The job appraisal system comprises of different questionnaire depending upon which the whole system is forwarded. Each category of employee has its own performance appraisal system, e.g BPS employees have ACRs similarly contract based have Appraisal which is usually filled by direct superior. Mutual consultation on performance evaluation is not a common practice.

UNION:
The union plays an essential part for the labor management relation .It bargains with the management in the light of the demands of the employees .It is the responsibility of the Human Resource Department which holds the formal talks and the negotiations between the parties. Human Resources Department is also responsible for the dealing with other organizations running the same business. Discipline and discharge is the necessity of each organization and it is maintained by the Human Resource Department of the company. If an employee is creating problems for the administration for nothing, he may be warned and depending upon the severity of the matter and allegation he may be suspended and even terminated. Page 142 of 160

WORK PLACE TRAINING:


The work place training or on job training (O.J.T) is the key factor of the policies of the Human Resources Department .As the company is public dealing entity so the work place training is the integral factor for the good will and the status of the policies and services of the company.

REFRESHING COURSES:
The refreshing courses enhance the potential capabilities of the staff and the performance as well. The refreshing courses are conducted by Regional Telecom Training Schools (RTTS) and some times by Telecom Staff Colleges & are attended by the staff members on the recommendations and behalf of the H.R. Department. Refreshing courses are for the managerial and Technical staff. So they are equally and firmly evaluated and enhancement of their capabilities is achieved.

PAY PACKAGES:
The packages are also determined by the Human Resources Department. These are determined on the basis of performance, ACR, qualification and seniority. It has comparatively low pay packages yet good ones. The managerial posts are filled directly by the Human Resource Department. On the other hand the Technical Lower and mid level supervisory staff is hired by the means of: 1) Direct Hiring. 2) Promotion on seniority bases. The promotions are on the seniority cum fitness basis .So the qualified and the efficient workers are supposed to come up to the top. Human Resource Department also deals Page 143 of 160

with the retention and firing of the employees. In case of deceased employee, one of his children gets the job in the company according to his qualification. According to qualification and skills it ensures the employee benefits. More over the Human Resource Department also cares for the old age benefits of the employees .It is obvious that the Human resources Department is of key importance and is playing a complementary role in the development and promotion of the company.

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY:
The information system is the core of the operating of the each and every organization. It helps in the policy formulation and the running of the business affairs properly by providing the 1st hand and accurate information. The whole Human Resource Department functionality depends upon the information system. Better the information system, better the Human Resource Department. The company is now in a process to develop its own HRIS system so that it may have good information system and be able to serve the employees as well customers through Human Resource Department efficiently and effectively. A central problem in the HRM systems of the company is lack of contact & feedback from & to employees there is a lack of co-ordination between different departments of the organization as well as into a specific branch. Another problem is lack of trained staff & political pressure for transfers/postings etc on middle management. Like wise lake of automation and state-of-the-art latest IT technology for correspondence between the contents of the company causing the delay in work and negatively affecting the over all performance of the company.

WEAKNESSES:
The Human Resource Department is not up to the mark for the proper appraisal system of the staff. The policies of the company are determined by the board of Page 144 of 160

directors in accordance with the H.R. Department. However there are certain policies in which the Human Resource Department is dependent on the Ministry of IT & T Govt. of Pakistan Employees have developed a psychology that promotion criteria & procedures of the Human Resource Department of the company are not justified. The quality of service in areas is much poor hence creating the problems for customer. Human Resource Department is lacking employee training centers. There are only two Staff colleges. On the other hand the training opportunity is not provided to all the staff equally. If an employee wants to study during the job, he has to take approval from the Human Resource Department of the company; there are certain bottle necks for taking such approval. The management also never encourages employees for enhancing there qualifications/technical skills. The staff did not get any benefit for their higher qualifications in the shape of promotions or pay increments. Proper evaluation of the employees is not in the normal functioning of the company. Refreshing courses are on & off, not timely and frequently. The proper information system is not in progress for the Human Resource Department. The automation process by the Human Resource Department is slow hence delaying the functioning of the company. Human Resource department lacks trained & related qualified staff and it is very difficult for the SEVP Human Resource to do the right things for the organization and it takes much time for normal working of the organization.

RECOMMENDATIONS
The Human Resources should take less time in recruitment and training the staff.

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Highly qualified & trained staff may be deputed in HR department. Refreshing courses should be adequate and more frequent during the year. The promotional criteria by the Human Resource Department should be defined and be as per rules. More training centers should be established. If there is lack of resources, it is difficult, the training centers of the other organizations in the same capacity can be utilized by determining the terms and conditions.

During the training by Human Resource Department the ethical values should be more emphasized. The proper and competitive evaluation of the methods and procedures adopted by other competitors will enhance the performance of Human Resource Department.

This is the era of Information Technology. The functions and procedures of the company should be converted from manual to the automatic. It will enhance the performance & accuracy of the Human Resource Department and ultimately of the company. Human Resource Department should allocate resources for this purpose.

Human Resource Department may advice and train employees for one window operation in order to reduce the time and conserve the resources. Agents for the promotion of the company policies and to facilitate the customers by the Human Resource Department may be appointed with proper check and balance system.

Pay packages may be revised in the light of profit earned by the organization.

CONCLUSIONS:
No doubt PTCL is enjoying monopoly but the demand of the hour and the increasing competition will force company to change its policies to become favorite telecom service provider in the market & keep its current place & customer base. The actual working substances are the human beings .It goes with out saying that Human resources are the Page 146 of 160

most important in the organization and so does the Human Resource Department .It integrate all the activities and functions of the company like job analysis, recruitment, staffing, training, designing compensation package, employees appraisal system. Human Resource Department plays the key role in the hiring, retention, motivation and promotion of the employees .Actually it assign the specified duties to the specified persons in this age of specialization. Human Resource manager should not only be well versed and confident but also humane, well natured and have go face reading capabilities .All this ensures his success.

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Glossary
APC: (Access Promotion Charge)- A fund that is given to the local loop operator to help increase its telephone lines in the area. ARPU: Average revenue per user. ASP: Application Service Providers Backhaul: Transmission of content from the content source to the local loop aggregation point such as the exchange, PoP etc. BB: Broadband BOT: Build Operate and Transfer. Broadband: Electronic information access at high speed (> 128kbps) BWA: (Broadband Wireless Access)- Broadband delivery to the customer via wireless. BW: Bandwidth Content: Information in an electronic format eg Websites, TV channels, data, voice etc. CPE: (Customer Premises Equipment)- A piece of equipment that allows the user to convert the sent electronic information into a format that is acceptable by his display unit such as a PC, TV. CPP: (Calling Party Pays)- A pricing regime that charges the person that has initiated a communication link such as making a phone call. Page 148 of 160

Dial up: A method of connecting to the internet where the user has to dial a telephone number over an analogue or ISDN line and wait for the system to give him a communication link. DTH: (Direct To Home)- A link that allows the receiving of broadcast TV channels over Satellite. DSLAM: (Digital Subscriber Loop Access Multiplexer)- Piece of equipment that is located in the telephone exchange and connects, combines and digitizes multiple analogue telephone lines into one digital data link that terminates into the internet service providers PoP (point of presence) . DSL: (Digital Subscriber Loop)- A technology that is capable of transforming ordinary phone lines into high speed digital lines capable of supporting applications such as high speed internet and video on demand. EIS: Electronic Information Services Exchange: Point of Presence of the telephone operator company that connectivity and switching between telephone users locally and internationally. EPABXs: Electronic Private Auto Branch Exchanges. FAB: (Frequency Allocation Board) - A Pakistan Government organization that manages and allocates the Radio frequency spectrum in Pakistan. FTTx: (Fiber to the Home/Curb/) - A fiber optic based communication network where x is the physical point where the fiber is terminated. GDP: (Gross Domestic Product) - A measure of the economic standing of a country. Page 149 of 160 allows

HFC: (Hybrid of Fiber and Coaxial cable)- A communication network that comprises of primary fiber cable with an extension of a coaxial cable that terminates at the users premises. ICT: (Information and Communication Technologies)- An international represent services and technologies that are driven by Telecommunication networks. IEEE: (Institution of Electronic and Electrical Engineers)- A US based international body that approves / accredits technologies and standards for ICT across the world. Intranet: A closed loop and secure communications network as opposed to the public internet that can be accessed by anyone. Incumbent: The telephone company that owns majority of the telecommunications network in a country (PTCL in context of Pakistan). IP: (Internet Protocol)- Procedures that allow transmission of communication packets between various internet Pops. ISDN: (Integrated Services Digital Network) - A technology that converts the normal analogue telephone lines into higher speed (less than 128kbps) digital lines. ISP: (Internet Service Provider)- Company that owns internet based infrastructure (Routers, Servers) and provides internet access to users. ITU: (International Telecommunication Union)- A UN based world body for setting and approving technologies and standards for Telecommunications. Kbps: (Kilo Bits per Second) - A measuring unit for electronic data speed in thousands. Page 150 of 160 term to and

computer

LDI: (Long Distance International) - Term that defines communication between domestic cities and international countries. LL: (Local Loop) - Term that defines communication between the users within a city/town/village. Local Loop: The physical communication link between the telephone user and the telephone exchange. Mbps: (Mega Bits Per Second)- A measuring unit for electronic data speed in millions. Modem: A device that converts analogue signals to digital and vice versa. MOIT: Ministry of Information Technology, Pakistan Narrowband: a service or connection that only allows a limited amount of information (< 64kbps) to be conveyed such as basic telephony. OECD: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. PC: Privatization Commission. Peering: An interconnected communication network that allows two or more operators to be connected in such an efficient way so as to achieve economies of scale and minimize their intercommunication routes and costs. PEMRA: (Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority)- Regulator for electronic media services in Pakistan.

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PERN: (Pakistan Education and Research Network)- An intranet that links all the Universities and higher education institutions in Pakistan. PIE: (Pakistan Internet Exchange)- PTCLs owned IP based data network that allows the Internet and data traffic to route to locations in and out of Pakistan. POP: (Point of Presence)- A physical traffic aggregation/ distribution hub for a telecommunications service provider. PRI: (Primary Rate Interface)- An ISDN service that specifies a digital pipe with 23 traffic channels and 1 control channel. It can provide full duplex transmission between 23 source and receiving nodes multiplexed into a single path. PSTN: (Public Switched Telephone Network)- The conventional fixed line telephone network. PTA: (Pakistan Telecommunications Authority)- The telecommunications regulator in Pakistan. PTCL: (Pakistan Telecommunications Company Ltd)- The largest telecommunications infrastructure and service provider in Pakistan. QOS: Quality of Service. ROW: Right of Way. SME: Small and Medium Enterprise SW: Soft Ware

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Teledensity: The number of landline telephones in use for every 100 individuals living within an area. A teledensity greater than 100 means there are more telephones than people. Third-world countries may have a teledensity of less than 10. TICKER: An arrangement of characters (usually letters) representing a particular security listed on an exchange or otherwise traded publicly. When a company issues securities to the public marketplace, it selects an available ticker symbol for its securities which investors use to place trade orders. Every listed security has a unique ticker symbol, facilitating the vast array of trade orders that flow through the financial markets every day. Unicode: A 16-bit character set that assigns unique character codes to characters in a wide range of languages. USO: (Universal Service Obligation) - A financial obligation on the service providers for contribution to the development of infrastructure in under served areas. USF: (Universal Service Fund) A fund in lieu of USO to be administered by the GoP. VPN: (Virtual Private Network)- A secure communication network that links various locations of an organization. VSAT: (Very Small Aperture Antenna) An earthbound station used in satellite communications of data, voice and video signals, excluding broadcast television. WiFi: (Wireless Fidelity) Technology for low power, indoor wireless data communication. WIMAX: (Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access) - a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access over long distances.

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Bibliography

www.google.com www.ptcl.com PTCL Management and Staff work experience

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Appendix and Annexure


Balance Sheet

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Profit and Loss Account

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Cash Flow Statement

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Statement of Changes in Equity

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Finance Graphs

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