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32.973.26018.2.

75
98
681.3.07


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info@williamspublishing.com, http://www.williamspublishing.com
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M98 , 14- . : . . . :
, 2003. 1184 . : . . . .
ISBN 5845904471 (.)
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32.973.26018.2.75
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, Que Corporation.
Authorized translation from the English language edition published by Macmillan Computer Publishing Copyright
c 2003.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without either the prior written
permission o the Publisher.
Russian language edition published by Williams Publishing House according to the Agreement with R&I Enter-
c 2003
prises International, Copyright

ISBN 5845904471 (.) c , 2003



ISBN 0789727455 (.) c Que Corporation, 2003

1. 39
2. PC, 57
3. 73
4. 201
5. - 325
6. 377
7. IDE 443
8. SCSI 485
9. 525
10. 545
11. 597
12. 599
13. 601
14. 705
15. 731
16. 809
17. ,
- 853
18. 887
19. Internet 933
20. 997
21. 1053
22. 1107
23. 1151
24. 1153
1155

24
25
26
28
30
30
32
33
33
- 36
Web- 36
37

1. 39
40
40
45
45
46
47
47
49
49
52
IBM 54
20 55

2. PC, 57
PC 58
PC 58
PC 61
PC 65
66
69
3. 73
74
PC 74
77
78
79
84
86
89
-
93
101
- 104
- 105
- 106
- 107
- 110
111
SMM 111
114
MMX 114
SSE SSE2 116
3DNow Enhanced 3DNow 117
118
119
119
125
PGA 126
SEC SEP 128
130
Socket 370 (PGA-370) 130
Socket 423 132
Socket 478 132
Socket A (Socket 462) 134
Socket 603 134
135
Slot 1 (SC242) 135
Slot 2 (SC330) 137
137
140
140
140
143
145
146
Intel 147
Intel- 150

7
AMD 151
Cyrix 151
: P6 (686) 151
152
152
152
Pentium II 153
Celeron 166
Pentium III 168
Pentium II/III Xeon 176
177
AMD-K6 178
AMD Athlon Athlon XP 181
AMD Athlon XP 183
AMD Duron 186
P7 (Intel Pentium 4) 187
Pentium 4 Hyper-Threading 190
, 190
190
(Itanium Itanium 2) 194
197
197
198

4. 201
202
ATX 204
Micro-ATX 209
Flex-ATX 210
ATX Riser 213
NLX 215
WTX 218
221
222
223
225
Intel 226
AMD Athlon/Duron 228
North/South Bridge 228
Hub- 230
Pentium Pro Pentium II/III 231
Intel 450KX/GX (Orion Workstation/Server) 234
Intel 440FX (Natoma) 239
Intel 440LX 239
Intel 440EX 240
Intel 440BX 240
Intel 440ZX 440ZX-66 241

8
Intel 440GX 241
Intel 440NX 243
Intel 810 810E 244
Intel 815, 815E 815EP 247
Intel 820 820E 250
Intel 840 253
Intel 850 255
Intel 860 257

(P6) 258
Athlon/Duron 265
AMD Athlon/Duron 265
VIA Technologies 268
Silicon Integrated Systems (SiS)
AMD Athlon/Duron 272
Acer Labs AMD Athlon/Duron 274
Super I/O 274
CMOS- 276
276
280
286
292
293
- 293
PCI 294
PCI Express 296
(AGP) 300
302
303
306
- 307
, 311
313
: 313
Plug and Play 317
319
322

5. - 325
BIOS 326
BIOS 327
BIOS 329
EEPROM, Flash ROM 330
ROM BIOS 331
BIOS 332
BIOS 333
BIOS 333

9
335
CMOS- 340
ROM BIOS 342
CMOS 343
Setup BIOS 343
Setup BIOS 344
Maintenance 344
Main 345
Advanced 347
Security 359
Power Management 362
Boot 365
Exit 368
Setup BIOS 368
Plug and Play BIOS 370
, Plug and
Play 371
ACPI 371
Plug and Play 372
BIOS 372
BIOS 373

6. 377
: 378
ROM 380
DRAM 381
- SRAM 382
387
SDRAM 389
DDR SDRAM 392
RDRAM 393
396
DIMM RIMM 397
DIMM 400
DDR DIMM 403
RIMM 406
411
411
412
(ECC) 414
418
419
, DIMM RIMM 419
422
424
427
429

10
431
431
(extended) 438
ROM BIOS 439
440

7. IDE 443
IDE 444
IDE 444
IDE 445
IDE 447
IDE 447
ATA IDE 448
ATA 449
ATA-4 450
ATA-5 451
ATA-6 452
ATA-7 453
ATA 454
ATA 462
ATA 462
462
472
DMA 473
ATAPI (ATA Packet Interface) 475
Serial ATA 476
ATA RAID 480

8. SCSI 485
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) 486
ANSI SCSI 487
SCSI-1 489
SCSI-2 491
SCSI-3 492
SPI (SCSI Parallel Interface) Ultra SCSI 494
SPI-2 Ultra2 SCSI 494
SPI-3 Ultra3 SCSI (Ultra160) 496
SPI-4 Ultra4 SCSI (Ultra320) 498
SPI-5 Ultra5 SCSI (Ultra640) 498
Fiber Channel SCSI 498
SCSI 498
SCSI 500
SCSI 501
SCSI 505
506
SCSI 508
( ) 511

11
512
513
513
Plug and Play SCSI 513
SCSI 514
SCSI IDE 516
SCSI 516
521
SCSI IDE: 522
SCSI 523

9. 525
526
526
527
/ 531
531
533
535
(FM) 536
(MFM) 536
(RLL) 537
539
PRML 540
541
542

10. 545
546
546
548
550
551
554
559
560
561
/ 563
564
574
575
576
578
578
579
579
580

12
580
585
593
595

11. 597

12. 599

13. 601
CD-ROM 602
603
- 603
- 623
Red Book CD-DA 624
Yellow Book CD-ROM 624
Green Book CD-i 625
CD-ROM XA 626
Orange Book 629
632
White Book Video CD 633
Blue Book CD EXTRA 634
CD-ROM 635
High Sierra 636
ISO 9660 636
Joliet 638
639
Macintosh HFS 639
Rock Ridge 639
DVD 640
DVD 641
DVD 642
DVD 654
DVD 657
DVD 657
CD/DVD 661
661
664
- 667
DVD 669
CD-ROM 670
CD-R 671
CD-RW 674
Blu-ray Disc 677
: MultiRead 679
CD-R 681
CD-R/RW 683

13
684
686
687
CD-R/RW For Music Use Only 688
DVD 691
DVD-RAM 693
DVD-R 694
DVD-RW 695
DVD+RW 696
CD-ROM/DVD 697
698
CD-ROM Windows 9 Windows NT 4.0 699
CD-ROM 699
700
- 700
, CD-ROM 701
- 703
CD-R, CD-RW CD-ROM
DVD-ROM 703
CD-ROM IDE/ATAPI 703
703

14. 705
706
706
707
708
711
711
712
713
718
FDISK Format 719
719
MS DOS 719
Windows 9/Me 720
720
CD-ROM 723
723
723
SCSI 725
725
727
SCSI 728
729

14
15. 731
732
- 732
- 735
736
738
741
745
746
746
748
( ) 750
( ) 752
752
752
755
759
760
761
762
763
SVGA 764
765
769
772
772
774
775
779
(3D Accelerator) 781
784
786
786
API 790
791
795
TV- 795
796
796
797
798
799
Desktop Video (DTV) 799
805
807
807

15
16. 809
810
DirectX 811
811
812
813
813
815
818
MIDI-c 819
821
821
822
822
823
DVD 826
827
828
829
: 830
830
830
831
: 832
833
834
836
837
837
838
, DirectX 839
839
839

840
840
842
842
845
848
850
852

16
17. ,
- 853
- 854
USB 1394 (i.Link) FireWire - 854
854
USB 855
USB 1.1 856
USB 858
USB 861
USB 2.0 862
USB On-The-Go 863
legacy-free 865
IEEE-1394 (FireWire i.Link) 865
1394 865
IEEE-1394a USB 1.1/2.0 867
868
869
869
UART 871
874
875
875
876
877
878
IEEE 1284 879
EPP ECP 883
883
, 884
SCSI 884
885

18. 887
888
104- Windows- 888
Windows 890
USB 893
894
Num Lock 895
896
896
902
904
- 905
906
907
908

17
909
911
912
914
918
IntelliMouse Microsoft 920
921
TrackPoint II/III/IV 922
924
(trackball) 925
Renaissance Mouse 3M 926
926
927
USB 928
928
928
929
929
930
931

19. Internet 933


Internet 934
Internet 935
Internet 936
CATV 936
Internet 937
937
CATV 939
CATV 941
CATV 942
DSL 942
DSL 943
DSL 944
DSL 945
DSL 948
DSL 948
950
950
952
954
DirecWAY StarBand Internet 954
DirecWAY ( DirecPC) 954
StarBand 958
ISDN 958
ISDN 959
ISDN 961

18
ISDN 962
Internet 962
964
T-1 T-3 965
Internet 966
() 966
969
970
970
972
972
973
56 / 974
56 974
56 / 976
- 979
979
Internet 985
, - 986
Internet Microsoft 986
990
992
Internet 992
993
993
/ /
994
995
996

20. 997
998
998
, 998
999
999
1000
/ 1000
/ 1001
1002
/ 1003
Ethernet Token Ring 1004
Ethernet 1006
1007
1007
1011
1013

19
/ Ethernet 1016
1021
1022
1023
Ethernet 1029
Ethernet Wi-Fi/IEEE 802.11b 1029
IEEE 802.11b 1034
1036
1038
TCP/IP 1038
IPX 1040
NetBEUI 1040
1040
HomePNA 1040
1043
Ethernet 1043
1044
1044
1045
1046
1046
// 1046
1047
1047
1049
1049
1049
1050
Internet 1050
1050
1050
1051
TCP/IP 1052

21. 1053
1054
1054
1054
1055
Power_Good 1056
1058
ATX 1060
NLX 1062
SFX ( micro-ATX) 1062
1063
ATX 1063
ATX 1065

20
ATX12V 1068
ATX 1070
1070
1073
1073
1076
1076
1076
1078
1080
1082
1084
? 1087
1089
, Energy Star 1089
1089
1091
, 1091
1092
1093
1094
1096
1097
1098
1098
1098
1100
1100
- 1101
1101
RTC/NVRAM 1104

22. 1107
1108
1109
1111
1112
1113
BIOS 1114
1114
- 1115
1117
1117
CD/DVD-ROM 1118
1119
1120
1121

21
1121
1121
1122
1123
1124
1124
1124
1127
1128
1128
1131
1132
1137
-
1139
1141
1143
1144
1145
1145
Setup BIOS 1147
1148
1148
1149
1149
CD-ROM 1149
1150

23. 1151

24. 1153

1155

22
:
,

(Scott Mueller) Mueller Techni-
cal Research (MTR),
. 1982 MTR
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Fortune 500,
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.
:
Mueller Technical Research
21 Spring Lane
Barrington Hills, IL 60010-9009
.: (847) 854-6794
: (847) 854-6795
: scottmueller@compuserve.com
Web-: http://www.m-tr.com
http://www.upgradingandrepairingpcs.com
, ,
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; .
, ,
, (scottmueller@
compuserve.com) Web- Ask Scott.
,
. 2001 03 Harley
FLHRCI Road King Classic 5,9L Grand Cherokee.

24

(Mark Edward Soper) Select Systems & Associates,
Inc., , , IBM- -
1980- . , QUE,
,
13- , , 2- , Special Edition Using
Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition, Upgrading and Repairing PCs, Technicians Portable
Reference; Upgrading and Repairing PCs Field Guide Upgrading and repairing PCs: A+
Study Certification Guide.
1990 .
125 , SmartComputing, PCNovice,
PCNovice Guides PCNovice Learning Series. ,
WordPerfect Magazine, The WordPerfectionist PCToday.
Web- : http://www.smartcomputing.com.
Select Systems (http://www.selectsystems.
com). mesoper@selectsystems.com.
(Mark Reddin) Microsoft (MCSE) -
+.
Commodore Atari ( -
).

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Internet, CompuServe.

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NVIDIA!
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Intel (Pentium II, Pentium III,
Pentium 4, Itanium Celeron), AMD Athlon XP Duron,
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PC-
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Pentium 4, .
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Socket 423. ,

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Athlon XP, AMD. -
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Athlon XP AMD,
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1,8 , Pentium 4, 2,2 ?
Northwood Pentium 4 -
Socket 423. Pentium 4,
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55 , Pentium 4.
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Pentium 4.
Pentium 4 -
RDRAM RIMM. !
Rambus ,
Intel DDR SDRAM. 6,
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Dell? ,

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Dell,
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Internet- Jedi Knight II?
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GeForce4, NVIDIA Audigy -
Creative Labs.
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31
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rence) . -
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Athlon XP.
13, -
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DVD -
DVD, , , ,
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7, IDE, -
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IBM . 2,
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33
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3, , -
Intel, Pentium 4 (Northwood Willamette),
Pentium III, Pentium II, Celeron Xeon,
(CPU) . -
AMD, , Athlon XP, Athlon, Duron,
K6.
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Socket 478, Pentium 4, Socket A, -
AMD Athlon XP, , ,
Socket 7, Socket 370, Slot 1 Slot A. , ,
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( Baby-AT ATX), .
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AGP 8x,
ATX.
5, -, BIOS. -
BIOS, -
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6, , . -
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DIMM RIMM; SDRAM, DDR SDRAM RDRAM; EDO -
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PC2100 DDR SDRAM DIMM ()
EDO SIMM, (Fast Page Mode),
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7, IDE, ATA/IDE, -
Ultra ATA 133 /.
Serial ATA, ATA-, -
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34
8, SCSI, SCSI,
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SCSI-3.
9, ,
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10, , .
11, , .
12, ,
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SuperDisk (LS-120), Iomega Zip, Jaz Clik!.
13, ,
CD DVD.
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14, , -
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15, , -
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17, , -,
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18, , ,
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19, Internet,
Internet.
20, , .
21, ,
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Windows, .
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ATX. ,
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35
22, , ,
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23, , -
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24, ,
. , Windows XP,
NTFS, , , ,
FAT16 FAT32, , .

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PDF, -
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Internet.
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Web-
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(Frequently Asked Questions FAQ),
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Web- !

36
-
, :
Upgrading and Repairing Laptops1 ;
Upgrading and Repairing PCs, Video Training Course;
Upgrading and Repairing PCs, Field Guide;
Upgrading and Repairing PCs, A+ Certification Study Guide, Second Edition;
Upgrading and Repairing PCs, Technicians Portable Reference, Third Edition;
Upgrading and Repairing PCs, Academic Edition.


Corvette General Motors -
(Dave McLellan) - : Corvette -
?, : , .
.
. . .
, , -
, , , .
,
. , ,
1985 ;
, 1988 -
Que. 18 !
,
.
.

1 IV 2003 .

37
1





() -
. ,
.
.
.


,
.
1617 . (John Napier)
.
1642 . (Blaise Pascal) .
1822 . (Charles Babbage) ,
, -
.
1906 . (Lee DeForest) , -
.
1937 . . (John V. Atanasoff)
(ABC),
- .
1943 . (Alan Turing) Colossus, -
, -
.
1945 . (John Von Neumann) First Draft of a
Report on the EDVAC, -
.
1946 . (John Mauchly) . (J. Presper
Eckert) - ENIAC.
1947 . 23 (John Bardeen), (Walter
Brattain) (William Shockley)
, .
1949 . (Maurice Wilkes)
EDSAC.
1950 . -
ERA 1101.
1952 . U.S. Census Bureau UNIVAC I.
1953 . IBM 701.
1954 .
2,5 , (Gordon Teal) Texas Instru-
ments, Inc.

40 1.
1954 . IBM 650;
450 .
1955 . Bell Laboratories -
TRADIC.
1956 . -
TX-0.
1956 . IBM 305 RAMAC -
.
1958 . (Jack Kilby) Texas Instruments -
, -
.
1959 . IBM 7000 -
.
1959 . (Robert Noyce) Fairchild Camera Instrument
Corp. , -
.
1960 . Bell Labs Dataphone,
-
.
1960 . DEC - PDP-1,
120 . .
1961 . Datamation, IBM 81,2% -
; IBM 1400.
1964 . CDC 6600, (Seymour Cray),
3 , ,
IBM Stretch.
1964 . IBM System/360 ( -
40 ).
1964 . -
IBM SABRE.
1965 . Digital Equipment Corporation -
- PDP-8.
1966 . Hewlett-Packard HP-2115,
.
1969 . -
ARPAnet, Internet.
( -,
-) SRI International .
1971 . IBM - 8- .
1971 . Electronic News
Intel 4004.

41
1971 . Scientific American -
Kenback-1 750 .
1972 . Hewlett-Packard HP-35 .
1972 . Intel 8008.
1972 . (Steve Wozniak)
, .
1973 . (Robert Metcalfe) Eth-
ernet Xerox.
1973 . Micral -
Intel 8008.
1973 . (Don Lancaster) -
- TV Typewriter.
1974 . Xerox
, .
1974 . Scelbi -8,
, Intel 8008.
1975 . Telnet
ARPAnet.
1975 . Popular Electronics Al-
tair 8800, Intel 8080.
1975 . (VDM),
(Lee Felsenstein), -
.
1976 . (Steve Wozniak) Apple I.
1976 . Shugart Associates 5,25-
.
1976 . Cray I.
1977 . Tandy Radio Snack TSR-80.
1977 . Apple II.
1977 . Commodore PET (Personal Electronic
Transactor).
1978 . Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 11/780,
4,3 .
1979 . Motorola 68000.
1980 . (John Shoch) -
Xerox ,
.
1980 . Seagate Technologies -
.

42 1.
1980 . , 60
5,25- .
1981 . Xerox Star,
(GUI).
1981 . (Adam Osborne)
Osborne I 1 795 .
1981 . IBM PC.
1981 . Sony 3,5- .
1981 . Philips Sony CD-DA (-
). -,
Sony, .
1983 . Apple Lisa -
.
1983 . Compaq Computer Corp.
IBM PC.
1984 . Apple -
, 1,5
.
1984 . IBM PC-AT (PC Advanced Technology), -
.
Intel 286 16- ISA.
.
1985 . Philips - -
CD-ROM.
1986 . Compaq Deskpro 386,
Intel 386.
1987 . IBM PS/2,
3,5- VGA-.
1988 . Apple (Steve Jobs)
NeXT.
1988 . Compaq PC-
, .
1988 . (Robert Morris) ARPA-
net; 6 60 . .
1989 . Intel 486, 1 .
1990 . - (Tim Berners-Lee),
(CERN),
(HTML), World Wide Web WWW.
1993 . Intel Pentium P5. -
, Intel .

43
1995 . Intel Pentium Pro
P6.
1995 . Microsoft 32-
Windows 95.
1997 . Intel Pentium II, Pentium Pro
MMX.
1997 . AMD K6, Intel P5 (Pen-
tium).
1998 . Microsoft Win-
dows 98.
1998 . Intel Celeron, -
Pentium II. -,
Intel ,
- .
1999 . AMD Athlon.
1999 . Intel Pentium III, Pentium II
SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions).
2000 . Microsoft Windows Me (Millennium Edition) Windows 2000.
2000 . Intel AMD -
1 .
2000 . AMD Duron, Athlon
- .
2000 . Intel Pentium 4, 32- -
(IA-32) Intel.
2000 . Intel Itanium, 64- (IA-64) -
.
2001 . 20-
IBM PC.
2001 . Intel 2 ,
Pentium 4. 28,5 ,
108 1 , 18 ,
1 2 .
2001 . Microsoft Windows XP Home Professional,
(9x/Me) (NT/2000)
Windows NT.
2002 . Intel 3 , Pentium 4 c
HyperThreading.
, . -
,
.

44 1.

,
2000 . , -
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, -
. ( , ,
.)
( )
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. ,
. , 1671 , -
, 1694 .
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. , ,
.

45
, -
.
.
, ,
, 1890 .
,
(Herman Hollerith), .
. -
-
. Tabulating Machine
Company, IBM.
IBM -
- ,
. -
, ,
, -
. - 50
250 , 80- .
,
. 50 - -

.


. (Clifford Berry) 1937
1942 -
- . (
ABC Atanasoff-Berry Computer) ,
, -
.
. (Earl R. Larson) 19 1973 -
, (Eckert) (Mauchly),
.

. 1943
, -
. ,
,
.
, -
. 1946
. (John P. Eckert) . (John W. Mauchly) -

- .
ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator). -
300 ,

46 1.
,
. 1 000 ,
.
ENIAC 18 . ; -
, 1 800 ( 167 )
180 . .
, / -
.
, , -
,
. ,
.
-
. , , -
, ().
, 1945 , (John von Neumann) -
,
,
. , -
, .
.
- -
, , 1947 . -
EDVAC UNIVAC,
(),
. ,
, 1950- -
. UNIVAC
(Universal Automatic Computer), - --
. ,
.


UNIVAC . -
, -
.


, -
( -
), . -
,
.
-
, (Lee De Forest) 1906 .

47
, : , -
. -
, . , ,
. -
, ; -
.
, , -
/.
, -
.
.
, - : -
.
( ) -
. 1947 Bell Laboratory
(John Bardeen) (Walter Brattain) , -
1948 .
(William Shockley), Bell,
. 1956
. , , , -
, .
, -

.
, -
.
, . . N-, , P-.
, -
. ,
.
.
P- N-
, . . .
P-,
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, . , -
P-, . N-
.
NPN : -
, ,
. , ,
, .
, -
, , -
. 2001 Intel
, -

48 1.
20 (1 1
). ,
2007 , , -
20 ! : 2001 , AMD Athlon XP
37,5 , Pentium 4 42 .

, . -
, ,
, , -
.


1959 Texas Instruments
, -
.
. , Pentium Pro 5,5 -
, -, ,
32 .
.


1998 Intel .
18 1968 (Robert Noyce), (Gordon Moore)
(Andrew Grove).
: .
, ,
100
. -
,
. : -
.
.
1970 Intel 1 , -
. (1 1024 ,
8 , . . 128 ,
). , -
1103 (DRAM),
.
Intel , 100 .
Busicom Intel -
.
-
. , , -
,
.

49
Busicom
12 . Intel (Ted
Hoff) -
, .
, -
.
, . . .

. , -
.
,
.
: -
Busicom. ,
,
. ,
Intel . Intel -
,
,
Intel . Intel, -
, .
Intel: , -
,
.
Intel Busicom 60 . -
. , -
, . -
, Intel, .
, Intel. 1971
4- 4004 (
). -
2 300 , 200
- ENIAC. ,
ENIAC, 1946 , 18 . ; -
3 000 (85 ). 4004
60 . , .
1972 4004 8- 8008.
1981 Intel 16- 8086
8- 8088.
2 500 -
. IBM,
.
1982 Intel 286, 134 . -
. 16-
. 286 -
, .

50 1.
PC-AT -
IBM.
1985 32- Intel 386. 275 . -
5 (Million Instruction Per Second
MIPS). DESKPRO 386 Compaq ,
.
Intel 486, 1989 .
1,2 .
50 4004,
.
1993 Intel Pentium, -
Intel 486. Pentium 3,1
90 , 1 500
4004.

Intel (386/486) -
(Pentium/Pentium Pro) ,

, -
.

P6, Pentium Pro, 1995 .


5,5 , - -
,
. Pentium Pro, 300
, -
.
Intel P6 (Pentium Pro) 1997 -
Pentium II. 7,5 , ,
, , - L2 -
. 1998 Pentium II
Celeron, , -
Pentium II Xeon, . 1999
Intel Pentium III, , , Pentium II,
SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions).
Pentium
, AMD NexGen,
Nx686. AMD 6.
, Pentium,
. . Socket 7 . AMD
K6
.
1998 Intel -
( ),
. -
Celeron ( Pentium II),

51
Pentium IIPE ( ), -
. -
, -
, Pentium III
( Coppermine), 1999 . -
-
,
.
1999 AMD Athlon,
Intel . -
, Intel
.
, 2000-
. , , AMD Athlon Thunderbird
Duron. Duron, , Athlon
- ; Thunderbird, ,
-, -
. Duron Athlon,
,
Celeron, Intel.
Intel 2000 Pentium 4,
IA-32. Itanium ( Merced),
64- Intel (IA-64).

, , , 32-
.
2000 ,
: Intel AMD 1 ,
.
2001 Intel Pentium 4
2 , , .
, AMD Athlon XP, -
Palomino, Athlon , -
. 2001 AMD Intel

Pentium III/Celeron, Pentium 4 Athlon/Duron. ,
2002 Pentium 4 c 3 Athlon XP 2800+
333 .


1973 -
8008. , -
. 1973 Intel 8080,
10 , 8008,
64 . .

52 1.
1975 Altair MITS
Popular Electronic. ,
, 8080, ,
256 ( !).
395 , .
(),
.
,
CP/M (Control Program for Microprocessors)
BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) -
Microsoft.
1975 IBM ,
. 5100 16 ,
16 64 , BASIC
DC-300. (9 000 ) -
, , (
) 500 . ,
IBM
.
IBM PC ( 5150)
5110 5120. IBM PC,
. IBM PC 1980
System/23 DataMaster.
1976 Apple Computer Ap-
ple I 666 . ,
.
, 20 . -
. 1977 Apple II
, IBM PC.
1980 -
. Apple II, -
, , -
Altair. ,
(CP/M) S-100 ( 100
).
.
. ,
IBM, Mac.
, ,
: , ,
, -
. , , IBM,
. -
, , Apple, Apple
, IBM. IBM PC -
Macintosh
.

53
IBM
1980 IBM -
. -
(. ) Entry Systems Division. 12
(Don Estridge),
(Lewis Eggebrecht). IBM PC. (-
5100, 1975 , IBM
, , , , -
.) System/23
DataMaster, IBM PC.
IBM PC DataMaster. , ,
DataMaster; ,
IBM PC , DataMaster,
( ).
, (-
-), 62- -
, . IBM PC
, DataMaster. , -
DataMaster, IBM PC.
DataMaster 8085 Intel, -
64 8-
. - IBM PC 8088,
1 , 16- ,
8-. 8- -
,
DataMaster.
, , . ,
, ,
IBM PC
. ,
IBM ,
.
IBM ,
. Entry Systems Divi-
sion , :

, IBM. ,
IBM PC Microsoft.

, IBM Digital Research,


CP/M, . Microsoft,
.
IBM .

IBM PC 12 1981
. PC-

54 1.
,
. ,
.

20
IBM PC 20 , , ,
. , IBM- ,
8088 4,77 , Pentium II
500 ,
4 000 (!) ( ,
). IBM PC
160 DOS 1.0,
20 .
-
, , 23 (
Intel ).
: IBM -
PC- . , IBM
, ,
. -
. Intel -
, Microsoft . - ,
,
Wintel.
PCI (Peripheral Component In-
terconnect), AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port), ATX NLX,
Socket 18, Slot 1, Slot 2, Socket 370 . Windows
PC- . Intel
Microsoft Internet, Web-, -
Web-, --
, . Web-
,
, .
PC- , , -
.
, PC- .
PC- ,
, , -
IBM, , Microsoft.
BIOS (Basic Input Output System), -
(, Phoenix, AMI .).
BIOS , .
, CP/M UNIX, DOS
. Windows ,

20 55
PC-
.
Macintosh Apple , PC-
. , Apple
-
. , PC-
. ,
, ,
.
PC- . -
.
, -
, 1520 PC--
.


1965 -
: -
,
1824 . , ,
.
. ,
, -
. 26
18 . : 2,3 . 4004 140 Pentium III Xeon.

? :
, . ,

, 2 . ,
:
.

56 1.
2

PC,


PC . ,
PC.

PC
, :
PC?. , PC Personal Computer
( ), .
, -
. , . ,
PC ,
PC. , Macintosh Apple, , -
, , PC (
Mac!). PC, -
.
- PC, -
, . , -
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. . PC. , IBM
. ( -
1975 , MITS Altair.) - PC
IBM- .
PC IBM- ,
( , IBM PC).
, IBM 1981
PC -
PC ,
. IBM PC 1987 ,
PS/2. , PC,
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IBM , .
IBM-,
PC.
: PC IBM- ,
? :
PC? ,
, -, PC , -
, PC.


PC
, : Mi-
crosoft!. , . ,
Microsoft , -

58 2. PC,
PC; PC MS DOS Windows 3.1,
Windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP.
Microsoft ,
PC
(, ). , (, ,
, , ), -
, Windows. Microsoft
Web-, -
, .
- -
Microsoft
. Microsoft -
PC,
.
PC, IBM PC;
Microsoft -
PC. , BIOS (Basic Input
Output System -) Microsoft
DOS (Disk Operating System ) -
IBM.
DOS, Microsoft MS DOS, IBM,
.
Microsoft ,
- IBM PC,
.
IBM ,
, -
,
(
17 ). , , -
, IBM PC
, .
PC Intel,
8088, 8284, 8253/54, -
8259, 8237, 8255
8288. PC.
PC , -
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IBM,
. , IBM

. IBM,
, -
PC .
( -
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. Phoenix Software

PC 59
: , ( -
!) , , ,
- (BIOS). -
, ,
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-, ,
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Phoenix clean room,
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, .
- IBM , -
BIOS, , ,
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Award, AMI Microid Research, BIOS
PC.
- IBM PC
DOS, ,
IBM. DOS ,
DOS BIOS .
, , BIOS. -
, DOS IBM-
, . Microsoft.
, IBM Microsoft
, DOS . -
MS DOS
IBM- ,
IBM.
, Macintosh Ap-
ple. , Mac ; Mac
, .
, Apple MAC OS
Apple- . , BIOS OS
Mac; - ,
, , . clean
room -,
.
19961997 . Apple - -
, Sony, Power Computing, Radius
Motorola Apple- .
Apple- -

60 2. PC,
Apple, .
Macintosh Apple
, .
IBM ( Microsoft)
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, IBM- , IBM
( ) .
, -
,
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. PC Microsoft,
PC.
Apple
, , , -
Macintosh!

PC
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PC, ,
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PC 1987 . IBM
PC, (8/16- ISA),
, VGA XGA, -
, , , ,

, . IBM
1987 , .
,
PC, . ,
, : Microsoft (
, ),
Compaq -
Intel.
, : ,
Intel PC. ,
Intel inside ( ,
Intel), ,
Intel . ,
, Intel PC!
, , Intel, ,
PC.
Intel, Intel
. . ,
,
.

PC 61

. Computer Reseller News -
Compaq, HP IBM
.
, . -
.
, ,
.
-
, . . ,
. -
(
), .

.
, -
, .
, -
, .
, ,
, , . . , , ,
, .,
. Dell, Gateway Micron
, , , .
PC. , ,
,
, , , .
,
22, .
,
, Dell
Compaq, .
Gateway .
Gateway, Dell, Micron
, ? Intel. -
Intel,
.
, Intel, Athlon Duron AMD.

Pentium 4 Computer Shopper, ,
, ,
Intel. , Intel,
. . , ,
, , , .
AMD, , -
(), .
,

62 2. PC,
,
AMD.
, AMD, ,
AMD. , -
AMD,
, Intel,
Intel.
? , Intel
PC, IBM Intel 8088
IBM PC 1981 . , , -
, ,
. , , Intel
. 1989 ,
82350 EISA (Extended Industry Standard Architecture), 1993
( )
. , ,
, ,
? -
1994 , Intel
. : 1997 Intel
,
( 30 , 3,6 -
!). PC ,
, , Intel,
, .
, Intel PC,
PC. -
,
,
. , , -
Intel, ,
Intel .
Intel PC, :
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) ;
3GIO ,
, PCI SIG (PCI Special Interest Group)
PCI;
AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port )
;
ATX , ( ) -
IBM Baby-AT, 80- ;
NLX, -
LPX,
.
;

PC 63
DMI (Desktop Management Interface ), -
;
DPMA (Dynamic Power Management Architecture -
) APM (Advanced Power Management
) PC.
Intel ,
. ,
Cahners In-Stat Group (inSearch Research), Intel

5,5 AMD (. 2.1).

2.1. 2001

2001 ,
.
1 Intel 23,54
2 STMicroelectronics 6,36
3 Toshiba 6,07
4 Texas Instruments 6,05
5 Samsung 5,24
6 Motorola 4,83
7 NEC 4,80
8 Infineon (Siemens) 4,56
9 Philips Semiconductors 4,41
10 AMD 3,89
11 Mitsubishi 3,87
12 Hitachi 3,75
13 Fujitsu 3,73
14 IBM Microelectronics 3,56
15 Agere (Lucent) 3,14
16 Matsushita 3,01
17 Sony 2,47
18 Micron 2,45
19 Hynix 2,37
20 Rohm 2,21
21 Sanyo 2,03
22 Sharp 2,02
23 Analog Devices 1,93
24 Agilent (HP) 1,65
25 LSI Logic 1,56

64 2. PC,
, , Web-
, The Register (http://www.
theregister.co.uk),
Chipzilla.
,
PC,
, , ,
. , , Microsoft Intel
PC, ,
PC Wintel.

PC
Intel PC, Microsoft
PC, -
, PC x Design Guides, , -
,
( ) Windows.
Designed for Windows ( Win-
dows). ,
Designed for Windows,
() PC x.
.
Hardware Design Guide for Microsoft Windows 95 ( -
Microsoft Windows 95).
Hardware Design Guide Supplement for PC 95 ( -
PC 95).
PC 97 Hardware Design Guide (
PC 97).
PC 98 System Design Guide ( PC 98).
PC 99 System Design Guide ( PC 99).
PC 2000 System Design Guide ( PC 2000).
PC 2001 System Design Guide ( PC 2001).
Web- Microsoft
Web- PC Design Guides (http://www.pcdesguide.org).
, -
, ,
Windows 95/98 Windows NT/
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, Designed for Windows
, Microsoft.
,
( ), PC .
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PC, (USB)

PC 65
IEEE 1394, ,
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.

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.


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, , ,
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.
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(IA-64), 32- , -
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.

66 2. PC,
2.2. Intel


8088 8
8086 16
286 16
386SX 16
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67
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,
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. AT 386 ,
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71
3




,
CPU (Central Processing Unit). -
( ,
, ) , ,
. PC- -
, Intel,
Intel, AMD, Cyrix, IDT Rise Technologies.
Intel ,
. Intel
. , , 1970-
, , Intel ( , ,
Intel).
Z-80 Zilog 6502 MOS Technolo-
gies. Z-80
8080.
Intel Pentium, AMD, Cyrix ( VIA), IDT Rise Technolo-
gies. , ,
. AMD
. , , ,
Intel .
- , .
Apple, 6502
1 (-, 1 ), Microsoft Softcard ( Z-80),
. Softcard , ,
Z-80 2 .
.
Z-80 70- 80- ,
CP/M. 6502, ,
Apple (. . Mac).
Intel Microsoft 1981 , IBM
IBM PC Intel 8088 (4,77 ) -
Microsoft Disk Operating System (DOS) 1.0. -
Intel -
Microsoft. ,
, ,
, .


PC
, 10 -
IBM PC. Intel, Intel 4004,
15 1971 .
108 (0,108 !). 2 300

74 3.
10- . 4 -
640 . 4004 ,
- NASA
Pioneer 10!
15 2001 30 .
18 500 ( 0,108
2 ).
1972 Intel 8008,
200 . 3 500 10-
. 8- 16 .

.
, 8080, 1974 .
6 000 64 .
( PC) Altair 8800.
CP/M, Microsoft -
BASIC. ,
.
8080 , .
1975 Intel, -
8080, Zilog. 1976
Z-80, 8080. -
8080 ,
, (RAM),
. Z-80 -
8080,
. -
, , Z-80,
8080. Z-80
2,5 ( 10 ), 8,5 .
64 .
Radio Shack Z-80
TRS-80 Model 1. , Z-80 ,
, -
Osborne Kaypro. , Z-80
, CP/M
.
Intel 1976 8085,
6 500 , 5
3- .
MOS Technologies 6502,
Intel.
Motorola. 6800,
68000. -
8080 300 , 8- 6502
25 . (Steve
Wozniak), Apple I Apple II. -

PC 75
6502 , Commodore
. -
, Nintendo Entertainment System
(NES). Motorola 68000,
Apple Macintosh.
PowerPC, 68000.
1978 Intel 8086,
86.
Pentium III. 8086 16-
. 29 000 -
5 . 20- 1 .
8086, 8080 .
-
.
, CP/M (8080).
8086,
, ,
16- .
, 1979 Intel 8086, -
8088. 8088 16-
, 8086, 1 , ,
, 8- . -
8- 8085 ,
, .
IBM 8088.
.
8088 - 8086, -
16- . 8085 8080
, , -
, 8088. ,
,
IBM, .
, Intel 8088/8086
, .
,
. -
16-
286 32- 386- -
, IA-32 (32- Intel). -
,
32- , 10 . , 1985 -
386DX 32- ,
1995 Windows 95, -
, IA-32.
, -
IA-32 16- .

76 3.
Intel Itanium, -
64- Intel (IA-64).
(. . ) -
, , 10 , , -
IA-64, .
IA-32, , 16-
. IA-64, , 32-
(IA-32), 16- (IA-16) .
AMD ,
64- , x86-64; -
Hammer. , -
AMD x86-64 IA-32, 64- -
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32- , , IA-64. ,
x86-64 , -
IA-64, .
Itanium (IA-64) 2001
. Hammer
(AMD x86-64) 2003 . , -

, 64- AMD.
IBM PC Intel, ,
. IBM PC
, , -
PC . 8088,
PC, 30 . 5 .
Pentium III Xeon - 2
140 -
. Intel ,
3 , , AMD
. ,

1,52 .


. -
,
, .
:
. . -
(); 1 . -
, ( ).
. ,
:
;

77
;
.
,
, . -
.
, , -
, .
. 3.1 Intel, -
IBM PC . . 3.2 Intel-
, AMD, Cyrix, NexGen, IDT Rise.

. 3.1, Pentium Pro - -


256 , 512 1 , -
. Pentium II/III -
512 ,
. Celeron, Pentium II PE Pentium IIIE
- , . Celeron III
-, Pentium IIIE, - ,
128 .
, -
256 512 1 2 ,
Pentium Pro, Pentium II/III, Xeon Athlon AMD, -
2 4 Itanium. - -
15,5 (256 ), 31 (512 ), 62 (1 )
124 (2 ) . -
2 4 , Itanium, 300
!
, Athlon (. . 3.2)
- 512 ,
, , ,
- 256 , .


, , -
( ) .
,
.
; ,
,
.
.

( 5 ),
( 0 ). ,
. Pentium

78 3.
64- . , Pentium,
Pentium 4, Athlon Itanium, (
) 64 .
, -
. ,

. , , ,
, -
. , 8-
,
( ). , 32-
, 64-
.
.
, 32- , 486,
32 . Pentium,
Pentium III, Celeron, Pentium 4, Athlon Duron,
64 . 72-
SIMM , 32, 486 -
, Pentium
. DIMM 64,
Pentium , -
, .
DIMM , Pentium.
RIMM (Rambus Inline Memory Modules) ,
. -
16 32 .
, .


;
, . ,
, .
(), ,
.
, .
. ,
,
.
. , -
(),
( 00 99), . . 102 .
103 ( 000 999) . .
,
( 00, 01, 10 11), . . 2 2 ,
( 000 111), . . 23 .

79
3.1. Intel



,
,



8088 1x 5 16 8 1
8086 1x 5 16 16 1
286 1x 5 16 16 16
386SX 1x 5 32 16 16
386SL 1x 3,3 32 16 16 01 .
386DX 1x 5 32 32 4
486SX 1x 5 32 32 4 8 .
486SX2 2x 5 32 32 4 8 .
487SX 1x 5 32 32 4 8 .
486DX 1x 5 32 32 4 8 .
486SL2 1x 3,3 32 32 4 8 .
486DX2 2x 5 32 32 4 8 .
486DX3 23x 3,3 32 32 4 16 .
486Pentium OD 2,5x 5 32 32 4 216 ./.
Pentium 60/66 1x 5 32 64 4 28 ./.
Pentium 75-200 1,53x 3,33,5 32 64 4 2 8 ./.
Pentium MMX 1,54,5x 1,82,8 32 64 4 216 ./.
Pentium Pro 23x 3,3 32 64 64 28 ./.

Pentium II 3,54,5x 1,82,8 32 64 64 216 ./.


Pentium II PE 3,56 1,6 32 64 64 216 ./.
Celeron 3,54,5x 1,82,8 32 64 64 216 ./.
Celeron A 3,58x 1,52 32 64 64 216 ./.
Celeron III 4,59x 1,31,6 32 64 64 216 ./.
Celeron IIIB 914 1,5 32 64 64 216 ./
Pentium III 46 1,82 32 64 64 216 ./.
Pentium IIIE 49 1,31,7 32 64 64 216 ./.
Pentium IIIB 8,510,5 1,45 32 64 64 216 ./
Pentium II Xeon 44,5x 1,82,8 32 64 64 216 ./.

Pentium III 56 1,82,8 32 64 64 216 ./.


Xeon

Pentium IIIE 4,56,5 1,65 32 64 64 216 ./.


Xeon

80 3.



8088 29 . 1979 .
8086 29 . 1978 .
286 134 . 1982 .
386SX 275 . 1988 .
386SL 855 . 1990 .
386DX 275 . 1985 .
486SX 1,185 1991 .
486SX2 1,185 1994 .
487SX 1,2 1991 .
486DX 1,2 1989 .
486SL2 . 1,4 1992 .
486DX2 1,2 1992 .
486DX3 1,6 1994 .
486Pentium OD 3,1 1995 .
Pentium 60/66 3,1 1993 .
Pentium 75-200 3,3 1994 .
Pentium MMX MMX 4,1 1997 .
Pentium Pro 256 , 5,5 1995 .
512 ,
1
Pentium II 512 . MMX 7,5 1997 .
Pentium II PE 256 4 MMX 27,4 1999 .
Celeron MMX 7,5 1998 .
Celeron A 128 4 MMX 19 1998 .
Celeron III 128 4 SSE 28,1 2000 .
Celeron IIIB 256 SSE 44 5 2001
Pentium III 512 . SSE 9,5 1999 .
Pentium IIIE 256 4 SSE 28,1 1999 .
Pentium IIIB 512 SSE 44 2001
Pentium II Xeon 512 , MMX 7,5 1998 .
1 ,
2
Pentium III 512 , SSE 9,5 1999 .
Xeon 1 ,
2
Pentium IIIE 256 , 4 SSE 28,1 , 1999 .,
Xeon 1 , 84 , 2000 .
2 140

81



,
,



Celeron 4 4,25 1,6 32 64 64 216 ./
Pentium 4 35x 1,7 32 64 64 12+8 ./.
Pentium 4A 46 1,3 32 64 64 216 ./
Pentium 4 Xeon 35x 1,7 32 64 64 12+8 ./.
Itanium 35x 1,6 64 64 16 216 ./.
Itanium 2 35 1,6 64 128 16 216 ./

3.2. Intel-



,
,

AMD K5 1,51,75x 3,5 32 64 4 16+8 ./.


AMD K6 2,54,5x 2,23,2 32 64 4 232 ./.
AMD K6-2 2,56x 1,92,4 32 64 4 232 ./.
AMD K6-3 3,54,5x 1,82,4 32 64 4 232 ./.
AMD Athlon 510 1,61,8 32 64 8 264 ./.

AMD Duron 510 1,51,8 32 64 8 264 ./.

AMD Athlon TB 510 1,5-1,8 32 64 8 264 ./

AMD 56,5 1,5-1,8 32 64 8 264 ./


Athlon XP/MP
Cyrix 6x86 2x 2,53,5 32 64 4 16 ./.
Cyrix 23,5x 2,22,9 32 64 4 64 ./.
6x86MX/MII
Cyrix III 2,57 2,2 32 64 4 64 ./.
NexgenNx586 2x 4 32 64 4 216 ./.
IDT Winchip 34x 3,33,5 32 64 4 232 ./.
IDT 2,334x 3,33,5 32 64 4 232 ./.
Winchip2/2A
Rise mP6 23,5x 2,8 32 64 4 28 ./.

82 3.
. 3.1


Celeron 4 128 SSE2 42 6 2002
Pentium 4 256 4 SSE2 42 2000 .
Pentium 4A 512 SSE2 55 2002
Pentium 4 Xeon 256 4 SSE2 42 2001 .
Itanium 96 7 4 MMX 25 2001 .
Itanium 2 96 7 MMX 221 2002

AMD K5 4,3 1996 .


AMD K6 MMX 8,8 1997 .
AMD K6-2 3Dnow 9,3 1998 .
AMD K6-3 256 3Dnow 21,3 1999 .
AMD Athlon 512 1/21/3 Enh. 22 1999 .
3Dnow
AMD Duron 64 Enh. 25 2000 .
3Dnow
AMD Athlon TB 256 3 Enh. 37 2000
3Dnow!
AMD 256 3 3Dnow! 37,5 2001
Athlon XP/MP Pro
Cyrix 6x86 3 1996 .
Cyrix MMX 6,5 1997 .
6x86MX/MII
Cyrix III 256 3Dnow 22 2000 .
NexgenNx586 3,5 1994 .
IDT Winchip MMX 5,4 1997 .
IDT 3Dnow 5,9 1998 .
Winchip2/2A
Rise mP6 MMX 3,6 1998 .

83
FPU ( ).
. - .
./. - .
M .
- .
- .
MMX , 57
.
3DNow MMX 21 .
Enh. 3DNow 3DNow 24 .
SSE SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data), MMX 70 -
.
SSE2 SIMD2, SSE 144
.
1
386SL -,
.
2
Intel SL Enhanced, -
5 3 , SX, DX DX2.
3
- ,
.
4
- , 128 ( 256 ,
128 ); , Pentium IIIE.
5
- , 256 ( 512 ,
256 ); , Pentium IIIB.
6
- , 128 ( 256 ,
128 ); , Pentium 4.
7
Itanium -
2 (150 ) 4 (300 ),
.

, 8086 8088 20- , -


220 (1 048 576) , 1 , . ,
Intel, . 3.3.
, -
, , ,
. :

, , .


, , -
. , ,
; , ,

84 3.
3.3. , Intel





8088/8086 20 1 048 576 1 024 1
286/386SX 24 16 777 216 16 384 16
386DX/486/ 32 4 294 967 296 4 194 304 4 096 4
P5
P6/ 36 68 719 476 736 67 108 864 65 536 64
P7
Itanium 44 17 592 186 044 416 17 179 869 184 16 777 216 16 384 16

. Pentium AMD K6 586 ( ).


Pentium Pro/II/III/Celeron AMD Athlon/Duron 686 ( ), Pentium 4
786 ( ).

, . -
,
, . ,
32- 32-
, 32- , 16--
.
32-. Itanium 64-
, -
.
(
!) , . , -
, 8088 386SX
. (
) . , -
386S 32-, -
16- .
16- ,
32- 386.
,
. , -
386D 386S 32-, 386S
, 386D
. .
Pentium 64-, 32-.
, ,
32- . Pentium
32- , ,

85
64- .
.
, Pentium Pro Pentium II/III,
.
(. . -
),
. Itanium 10- -
, 20 .


32- Intel, 386-, -
. -
; ,
-. -
.
: ,
( ).

IBM PC 8088,
16- , 16- , -
1 , 20 . PC
; -
16- 1 . , DOS,
DOS, Windows 1.x 3.x Windows
1.x 3.x 16- . 16-

8088.
, 286, 16--
, 8088, . ,
286 8088
16- , 8088, , , .
, 8088 286,
. , ,
16- , 20- -
, 1 .
, . .
. -

; , -
,
( ).

32- , PC, 386-.
32- . -

86 3.
32- , 32-
32- . -
,
. ,

. , , ,
.
, , -
32- , , Intel -
386 . -
386 16- .
, .
; 32-
, 16-
. , -
32- -
.
, Pentium III, -
, Turbo 8088. Turbo ,
16- ;
16-
1 , 8088. ,
Pentium III 128 ,
Windows 3.x DOS ,
127 !
,
32- -
.
32- .
. , ,
!
- 32- , ,
Unix (, Linux), OS/2 Windows NT\2000, -
.
, Windows 2000 - -
, Windows 95 -
Windows 98/Me. 16-
Windows 3.x. DOS.
Itanium, , 64-
. 32-
. , -
, 64-
. Microsoft 64- Win-
dows XP, 64-
.

87

32- Windows 9x
. , -
, 16- ( ),
32- (. . , ).
DOS Windows 95/98, -
. -
, ,
-
. ,
32- .
, , -
, 1 ,
.
, DOS , -
640 . ,
1 16- , 384
.
8088, , ,
, PC . -
1
( -
-),
.
DOS,
16- , DOS Windows 3.x,
Windows 95/98. DOS Windows 9
DOS, .
, Intel ( Intel- AMD Cyrix)
. 32-
32-
.
DOS Windows 3.x ,
. . , .
:
( )
Windows 95/98 NT. Pentium II
, -
DOS. Windows 95/98,
<F8>, Starting Windows. . . . ,
, 16-
DOS. Safe mode com-
mand prompt, (
),
.

88 3.
Windows Me , , Windows 98.
16- , Microsoft -
(Startup). Windows NT/2000 -
. -
DOS ,
. , -
,
.
DOS DOS,
, DOS -
XMS ( 1 ). DOS -
DOS Windows 3.x,
. , , DOS , -
DPMI (DOS protected mode interface DOS).
Windows 3.x XMS -
Windows 3.x. 16-
, 1 . DOS -
DOS;
, (1 ), -
, . DOS
,
Windows DPMI, Windows,
XMS .
64
. IBM AT,
21- (A20, A0 ).
A20,
64 64
, .
(high memory area HMA).


,
-. -
Intel .
, -
(). , -
, .
-
, .
.
. ( .)
, . . . . 3.1
.

89
 

          

. 3.1.

. 1885 -
, -

.

()
, .
. , Pen-
tium II . (
, ; ,
.)
, .
8086 8088.
12 .
286 386.
4,5 .
486 Intel- -
, , AMD 5x86, 2 .
Pentium, K6. Pentium Intel-
, AMD Cyrix,
,
.
Pentium Pro, Pentium II/III/4Celeron Athlon/Duron. P6, -
, AMD Cyrix,
, , .
, , -
, (. .
).
? .
486 386-,
, 386-.

90 3.
Pentium , 486-. ,
486 133 ( AMD 5x86-133) ,
Pentium 75 ! ,
Pentium , 486. Pentium II III
50% Pentium, ,

.
, , -
Pentium III, 1 000 , -
Pentium,
1 500 , , ,
486, 3 000 , , ,
386 286,
6 000 , 8088-, 12 000 . ,
PC 8088 ,
4,77 , 1,5 . -
. ,
; ,
.
.
-:
, -
.
, , Intel -
, Intel, -
. -
, 32-
; ( ) iCOMP 2.0 (intel Comparative
Microprocessor Performance Intel). -
iCOMP 3.0.
Web- -
Intel : http://developer.intel.com/procs/perf/index.htm.
. 3.4 , iCOMP 2.0,
.
iCOMP 2.0
.
iCOMP , -
.
Intel iCOMP 2.0
iCOMP 3.0.
, , -
, Internet,
, .
ICOMP 3.0, , : WinTune 98
Advanced CPU Integer, CPUMark 99, 3D WinBench 99-3D, MultimediaMark 99, Jmark 2.0
WinBench 99-FPU WinMark. SSE
( SIMD), -

91
3.4. iCOMP 2.0


Pentium 75 67 Pentium Pro 200 220
Pentium 100 90 Celeron 300 226
Pentium 120 100 Pentium II 233 267
Pentium 133 111 Celeron 300A 296
Pentium 150 114 Pentium II 266 303
Pentium 166 127 Celeron 333 318
Pentium 200 142 Pentium II 300 332
Pentium-MMX 166 160 Pentium II Overdrive 300 351
Pentium Pro 150 168 Pentium II 333 366
Pentium-MMX 200 182 Pentium II 350 386
Pentium Pro 180 197 Pentium II Overdrive 333 387
Pentium-MMX 233 203 Pentium II 400 440
Celeron 266 213 Pentium II 450 483

, Pentium III. ,
Pentium III , ,
Pentium II, .
. 3.5 iCOMP 3.0 Intel Pen-
tium III.

3.5. iCOMP 3.0


Pentium II 350 1000 Pentium III 650 2270
Pentium II 450 1240 Pentium III 700 2420
Pentium III 450 1500 Pentium III 750 2540
Pentium III 500 1650 Pentium III 800 2690
Pentium III 550 1780 Pentium III 866 2890
Pentium III 600 1930 Pentium III 1000 3280
Pentium III 600E 2110

Intel Pentium 4
BAPCo SYSmark 2002. -
. 3.6.
SYSmark 2002,
, -
, Internet-

92 3.
3.6. SYSmark 2002 Intel Pentium 4

, SYSmark 2002
1,50 159
1,60 166
1,70 174
1,80 179
1,90 186
2,00 193
2,00 1
212
2,201 227
2,26 2
239
2,402 245
2,53 2
254
1
0,13- , - 512 ,
400 .
2
0,13- , - 512 ,
533 .

Microsoft Office. SYSmark 2002 , -


:
Internet- Adobe Photoshop 6.01, Premiere 6.0, Windows Media
Encoder 7.1, Macromedia Dreamweaver 4 Flash 5;
Microsoft Word 2002, Excel 2002,
PowerPoint 2002, Outlook 2002, Access 2002, Netscape Communicator 6.0, Dragon
NaturallySpeaking ( 5), WinZip 8.0 McAfee VirusScan 5.13.
SYSmark , -
,
. -
, iCOMP.

. SYSmark 2002 Web-
BAPC : www.bapco.com.



, 486DX2, -
,
. , Celeron 600 ,
(66 ), Pentium III 1000 -
,
(133 ). 66 ;

93
Intel 1998 ,
,
, 100 .
Cyrix , 75 ,
, Pentium, .

(, -
BIOS).
1999 -
133 , Pentium III.
AMD Athlon -
100 , .
Athlon
North Bridge 200 .
2000 2001 AMD Athlon Intel Itanium
266 , Pentium 4 400 533 . ,
, -
Intel AMD.
,
SDRAM, DDR SDRAM RDRAM.
,
; -
. Pentium
.
, ,
. , -
Pentium . . 3.7
Pentium .
( ,
)
. :
, ,
. , -
, ,
, . -
,
.
-
, . -
,
, . -
, .


Cyrix -
-.

94 3.
3.7. Pentium

,
,

Pentium 60 1x 60
Pentium 66 1x 66
Pentium 75 1,5x 50
Pentium 90 1,5x 60
Pentium 100 1,5x 66
Pentium 120 2x 60
Pentium 133 2x 66
Pentium 150 2,5x 60
Pentium/Pentium Pro/MMX 166 2,5x 66
Pentium/Pentium Pro 180 3x 60
Pentium/Pentium Pro/MMX 200 3x 66
Pentium MMX/Pentium II 233 3,5x 66
Pentium MMX 266 4x 66
()/
Pentium II/Celeron
Pentium II/Celeron 300 4,5x 66
Pentium II/Celeron 333 5x 66
Pentium II/Celeron 366 5,5x 66
Celeron 400 6x 66
Celeron 433 6,5 66
Celeron 466 7 66
Celeron 500 7,5 66
Celeron 533 8x 66
Celeron 566 8,5x 66
Celeron 600 9x 66
Celeron 633 9,5x 66
Celeron 667 10x 66
Celeron 700 10,5x 66
Celeron 733 11x 66
Celeron 766 11,5x 66
Pentium II 350 3,5 100
Pentium II 400 4 100
Pentium II/III 450 4,5 100
Pentium III 500 5 100
Pentium III 550 5,5x 100

95
. 3.7

,
,

Pentium III 600 6x 100
Pentium III 650 6,5x 100
Pentium III 700 7x 100
Pentium III 750 7,5x 100
Pentium III/Celeron 800 8x 100
Pentium III/Celeron 850 8,5x 100
Pentium III/Celeron 900 9x 100
Pentium III/Celeron 950 9,5x 100
Pentium III/Celeron 1000 10x 100
Pentium III/Celeron 1100 11x 100
Pentium III/Celeron 1200 12x 100
Pentium III/Celeron 1300 13x 100
Pentium III/Celeron 1400 14x 100
Pentium III 533 4 133
Pentium III 600 4,5 133
Pentium III 667 5x 133
Pentium III 733 5,5x 133
Pentium III 800 6x 133
Pentium III 866 6,5x 133
Pentium III 933 7x 133
Pentium III 1000 7,5x 133
Pentium III 1066 8x 133
Pentium III 1133 8,5x 133
Pentium III 1200 9x 133
Pentium III 1266 9,5x 133
Pentium III 1333 10x 133
Pentium III 1400 10,5x 133
Pentium 4 1300 3,25 400
Pentium 4 1400 3,5 400
Pentium 4 1500 3,75 400
Pentium 4 1600 4 400
Pentium 4/Celeron 1700 4,25 400
Pentium 4 1800 4,5 400
Pentium 4 1900 4,75 400
Pentium 4 2000 5 400

96 3.
. 3.7

,
,

Pentium 4 2200 5,5x 400
Pentium 4 2400 6x 400
Pentium 4 2266 4,25x 533
Pentium 4 2400 4,5x 533
Pentium 4 2533 4,75x 533
Pentium 4 2600 5x 533
Pentium 4 2800 5,25x 533
Pentium 4 3006 5,5x 533
Itanium 733 2,75 266
Itanium 800 3 266
Itanium 2 1000 2,5x 400

AMD
Athlon XP, AMD, -
, , -
, . -
, ,
, -
Intel Pentium 4
, . ,
!
. 3.8 5, 6
Athlon XP, AMD.
, AMD, ,
Athlon, 1,8 ,
, Pentium 4 2,2 .
Athlon XP 2200+, 2200+
Pentium 4, -
. , -
, , ,
. -
,
.
, AMD, -
, -
. , ,
,
, . , -
AMD Athlon XP, ,

97
3.8. AMD

-

AMD (P-Rating) , ,
K5 75 75 1,5x 50
K5 90 90 1,5x 60
K5 100 100 1,5x 66
K5 120 90 1,5x 60
K5 133 100 1,5x 66
K5 166 116,7 1,75x 66
K6 166 166 2,5x 66
K6 200 200 3x 66
K6 233 233 3,5x 66
K6 266 266 4x 66
K6 300 300 4,5x 66
K6-2 233 233 3,5x 66
K6-2 266 266 4x 66
K6-2 300 300 4,5x 66
K6-2 300 300 3x 100
K6-2 333 333 5x 66
K6-2 333 333 3,5x 95
K6-2 350 350 3,5x 100
K6-2 366 366 5,5x 66
K6-2 380 380 4x 95
K6-2 400 400 6x 66
K6-2 400 400 4x 100
K6-2 450 450 4,5x 100
K6-2 475 475 5x 95
K6-2 500 500 5x 100
K6-2 533 533 5,5x 97
K6-2 550 550 5,5x 100
K6-3 400 400 4x 100
K6-3 450 450 4,5x 100
Athlon 500 500 2,5x 200
Athlon 550 550 2,75 200
Athlon/Duron 600 600 3 200
Athlon/Duron 650 650 3,25 200
Athlon/Duron 700 700 3,5 200
Athlon/Duron 750 750 3,75 200

98 3.
. 3.8

-

AMD (P-Rating) , ,
Athlon/Duron 800 800 4 200
Athlon/Duron 850 850 4,25 200
Athlon/Duron 900 900 4,5 200
Athlon/Duron 950 950 4,75 200
Athlon/Duron 1000 1000 5 200
Athlon/Duron 1100 1100 5,5x 200
Athlon/Duron 1200 1200 6x 200
Athlon/Duron 1300 1300 6,5x 200
Athlon/Duron 1400 1400 7x 200
Athlon 1000 1000 3,75 266
Athlon 1133 1133 4,25 266
Athlon 1200 1200 6 266
Athlon 1333 1333 5 266
Athlon 1400 1400 5,25x 266
Athlon XP 1500+ 1333 5x 266
Athlon XP 1600+ 1400 5,25x 266
Athlon XP 1700+ 1466 5,5x 266
Athlon XP 1800+ 1533 5,75x 266
Athlon XP 1900+ 1600 6x 266
Athlon XP 2000+ 1666 6,25x 266
Athlon XP 2100+ 1733 6,5x 266
Athlon XP 2200+ 1800 6,75x 266
Athlon XP 2400+ 2000 7x 266
Athlon XP 2600+ 2133 7,25x 266
Athlon XP 2700+ 2167 7,5x 333
, Athlon/Duron 200
266 100 133 , -
,
. -
, 100 133 ,
.


Pentium 4. (, AMD ,
Pentium 4.)
AMD : , -
, -

99
? ,
AMD Athlon XP, 1,8 , ,
Pentium 4 1,8 , , -
Pentium 4 2,2 .
P4
. Pentium 4 -
20- , 11-
Athlon 10- Pentium III/Celeron.
-
,
. ,
Athlon ( Pentium III) .
, -
( -
)
. , Athlon, Pen-
tium III Pentium 4, , ,
Athlon Pentium III
, -
, Pentium 4.
Pentium 4, -
. Intel
:
30%- -
, 50% -
Athlon Pentium III, .
20- P4 -
. ,
Athlon XP Pentium 4
0,18- ( ,
). 20- P4
0,18- 2,0 ,
Athlon 11- -
1,73 , Pentium III/Celeron 10-
1,13 . 0,13- -
Pentium 4 2,53 ,
Athlon XP 1,8 . Pentium 4 -
,
.
, Pentium 4 Athlon XP , -

.
,
. , Intel
2 0,13- () ,
- ( 256 512 ),
400 533 . ,

100 3.
(
) 0,18- Pentium 4,
0,13- Pentium 4, ,
533 .
AMD, .
:
.
20- Pentium 4
-
, , -
. , -
Pentium 4, -
, ,
Pentium 4 . -
AMD,
.
, Athlon XP, -
AMD, :
, .
, Pentium 4
.

. Windows XP
General ()
System Properties (: ). AMD
. AMD -
, Athlon XP,
, .
,
,
, SiSoft Sandra Intel Frequency ID Utility.
:
, () (), -
,
.


;
(overclocking). -
.
. -
, 800 900 . ,
. -
,
.

101

Intel AMD
, AMD ,
, , -
, .
, -
. ?
.
. Intel
: 66, 100 133 . ,

, - .
66 100 133 ,
. , Pentium III 800E 8
100 . 133
8133=1 066 . -
. , Celeron 600E
966 , 100 ,
900 , .
.
, Asus P3V4X : 66,
75, 83, 90, 95, 100, 103, 105, 110, 112, 115, 120, 124, 133, 140 150 .
Pentium III 800E, .

() , ,
8 100 800
8 103 824
8 105 840
8 110 880
8 112 896
8 115 920
8 120 960
8 124 992
8 133 1 066

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123
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1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009
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Northwood, 300- 540 .
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300- ,
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() , . -
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125
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126 3.
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()

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PGA 127
SEC SEP
1997 2000 Intel AMD , -
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132,870,25
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. 3.7. Slot 1 Pentium II

128 3.

. 3.8. SEC Pentium II

. 3.9. Celeron SEP

SEC SEP 129


c

. 3.10. SECC2 Pentium II/III

SEC SEP . -
- ,
PGA.


Socket 370 (PGA-370)
1999 Intel
P6. Socket 370 (PGA-370), 370
() Celeron
Pentium III PGA. Socket 370 -
Super 7 ( ),
AMD Cyrix. -
, , . .,
.
Celeron Pentium III SECC
SEPP. ,
- , , ,
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Pentium Pro, , , .
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.
Intel, Celeron 300 ( 1998 -
) - -
; . -
-
. , Intel -
, , , Celeron.
Socket 370 (PGA-370) . 3.11.

130 3.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

AN VSS A12# A16# A6# Rsvd Rsvd Rsvd BPRI# DEFER# Rsvd Rsvd TRDY# DRDY# BR0# ADS# TRST# TDI TDO AN
AM VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VID1 AM
AL
VSS VSS A15# A13# A9# Rsvd Rsvd A7# REQ4# REQ3# Rsvd HITM# HIT# DBSY# THRMDN THRMDP TCK VID0 VID2 AL
AK
VCC VSS A28# A3# A11# VREF6 A14# Rsvd REQ0# LOCK# VREF7 Rsvd PWRGD RS2# Rsvd TMS VCC VSS AK
AJ
A21# VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS BSEL# SMI# VID3 AJ
AH AH
VSS Rsvd A10# A5# A8# A4# BNR# REQ1# REQ2# Rsvd RS1# VCC RS0# THERMTRIP# SLP# VCC VSS VCC
AG AG
EDGCTRL A19# VSS INIT# STPCLK# IGNNE#
AF AF
VCC Rsvd A25# VSS VCC VSS
AE
A17# A22# VCC A20M# IERR# FLUSH#
AE
AD
AD
VSS A31# VREF5 VCC VSS V1.5
AC
Rsvd A20# VSS VSS FERR# Rsvd
AC
AB
VCC A24# A23# VSS VCC VCMOS
AB
AA
AA
A27# A30# VCC Rsvd Rsvd VCC
Z Z
VSS A29# A18# VCC VSS V2.5
Y Y
Rsvd A26# VSS VSS VCC VSS
X X
Rsvd RESET# Rsvd VSS VCC VSS
W W
D0# Rsvd VCC PLL1 Rsvd BCLK
V V
VSS Rsvd VREF4 VCC VSS VCC
U U
D4# D15# VSS PLL2 Rsvd Rsvd T
T
S
VCC D1# D6# VSS VCC VSS S
R D8# D5# VCC Rsvd Rsvd Rsvd R
Q Rsvd D17# VREF3 VCC VSS VCC Q

P D12# D10# VSS Rsvd Rsvd Rsvd P


N VCC D18# D9# VSS VCC VSS N
M D2# D14# VCC Rsvd Rsvd Rsvd M
L VSS D11# D3# VCC VSS LINT0 L
K D13# D20# VSS Rsvd PICD1 LINT1 K
J VCC VREF2 D24# VCC VCC VSS J
H D7# D30# VCC PICCLK PICD0 PREQ# H
G
VSS D16# D19# VCC VSS VCC G
F
D21# D23# VSS BP2# Rsvd Rsvd F
E VCC VCC D32# D22# Rsvd D27# VCC D63# VREF1 VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS
E
D
D26# D25# VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCOREPET Rsvd D62# Rsvd Rsvd Rsvd VREF0 BPM1# BP3# D
C
VSS VSS VCC D38# D39# D42# D41# D52# VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC C
B
D33# VCC D31# D34# D36# D45# D49# D40# D59# D55# D54# D58# D50# D56# Rsvd Rsvd Rsvd BPM0# CPUPRES# B
A
D35# VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC VSS VCC Rsvd A
D29# D28# D43# D37# D44# D51# D47# D48# D57# D46# D53# D60# D61# Rsvd Rsvd Rsvd PRDY# VSS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

. 3.11. Socket 370 (PGA-370)

Celeron 333 -
Slot 1, 366433 Slot 1, Socket 370,
466 Socket 370. Socket 370 (PGA-370)
Slot 1.
PGASlot 1.
1999 Intel Pentium III
-, Socket 370. -
FC-PGA (Flip Chip Pin Grid Array). ,
Intel.
, Socket 370 -
Pentium III Celeron FC-PGA. ,
RESET
VRM 8.4. ,
Celeron, , , -
RESET VRM 8.4, -
. ,
, . -
, Intel CA810,
VRM 8.4 .
Vtt, Pentium III FC-PGA RESET#.
FC-PGA -
. , : Pen-
tium III, 0,18- ,
1,601,65 , 2,00 .
, .
, BIOS

131
. BIOS,
.
Slot 1
Celeron, Pentium II Pentium III,
Celeron Pentium III. Slot-
socket, slot-ket. , ,
Slot 1, Socket 370,
PGA Slot 1. slot-ket
, Celeron.

Socket 423
ZIF- Socket 423 (. 3.12) 2000 -
Pentium 4 ( Willamette).
Socket 423 400 , -
(Memory Controller Hub MCH),
. Pentium 4
2 Socket 423;
Socket 478.
Socket 423 , -
,
, .
, ,
Pentium 4.
Socket 423 ,
. , Socket 478,
Pentium 4,
.
(VID),
VRM, ,
.
. Pentium 4
1,7 , .
1,
.

Socket 478
ZIF- Socket 478 2001 Pen-
tium 4. -
Pentium 4 2 .
-, Socket 423,
.
Socket 478 . 3.13.
Socket 478 400 533 , -
(Memory Controller Hub MCH),
.

132 3.
1

. 3.12. 1 Socket 423 (Pentium 4)

Socket 478 ,
, -
(, , Socket 423).
,
,
Socket 423.
, .
Socket 478
(VID), VRM, , -
.
1,
.

133
. 3.13. 1 Soc-
ket 478 (Pentium 4)

Socket A (Socket 462)


2000 AMD Socket A (
Socket 462), Athlon Duron PGA.
Slot A,
Athlon. Athlon Duron -
, ,
Athlon, .
Socket A (Socket 462) 462 , Socket 370.
Socket 370 Socket A .
32 1,1001,850 0,025
( VID0VID4).
. Socket A (Socket 462) . 3.14.
11 ,
.
. Socket A
. 3.15.

!
,
. Athlon XP
, BIOS .
, ,
.

AMD , Athlon Duron


Socket A.

Socket 603
Socket 603 Intel Xeon
(Dual Processor DP) (Multiple Processor MP) .
,
.

134 3.
55,9
52,40

13,72
(2X)
2,54

65,5
1,27

2,54 1,27

. 3.14. Socket A (Socket 462)


-
Slot 1, Pentium II,
Pentium III Celeron. Xeon (Pentium II Pentium III)
Slot 2. .

Slot 1 (SC242)
SEC (Single Edge Cartridge
), Pentium II.
- . -
Pentium Pro, , .
Intel SRAM
Pentium II - . , -
Celeron- Pentium II, -

135
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

A SAO# SAO#5 SAO#3 SD#55 SD#61 SD#53 SD#63 SD#62 SCK#7 SD#S7 SD#39 SD#35 SD#34 SD#44 SCK#5 SDOC# SD#40 SD#30 A
12 7
B VSS101 VCC VSS100 VCC99 VSS99 VCC98 VSS98 VCC97 VSS97 VCC96 VSS96 VCC95 VSS95 VCC94 VSS94 VCC92 VSS92 VCC91 B
106
C SAO#7 SAO#9 SAO#8 SAO#7 SD#54 SDOC# SCK#6 SD#51 SD#60 SD#59 SD#56 SD#37 SD#47 SD#38 SD#45 SD#43 SD#47 SD#41 SDOC# C
3 1
D VCC90 VCC89 VSS91 VCC88 VSS90 VCC87 VSS89 VCC86 VSS88 VCC85 VSS87 VCC84 VSS86 VCC82 VSS85 VCC81 VSS84 VSS83 D

E SAO#11 SAO SAO#4 SAO#6 SD#52 SD#50 SD#49 SDK#3 SD#48 SD#58 SD#36 SD#46 SCK#4 SDK#2 SD#33 SD#32 SCK#3 SD#31 SD#22 E
CKL#
F VSS81 VSS80 VSS79 NC59 VSS78 VCC80 VSS77 VCC79 VSS76 VCC78 VSS75 VCC77 VSS74 VCC76 NC58 VCC75 VCC74 VCC73 F

G SAO# SAO# SAO# KEY8 NC19 NC20 KEY6 NC NC KEY4 NC21 NC22 NC23 SD#20 SD#23 SD#21 G
10 14 13
H VCC71 VCC70 NC64 NC65 NC60 VCC1 VSS1 VCC2 VSS2 VCC3 VSS3 VCC4 VSS4 NC61 NC62 NC63 VSS73 VSS72 H

J SAO#0 SAO#1 NC25 VID(4) NC24 SD#19 SDIC#1 SD#29 J



K VSS70 VSS69 VSS68 NC67 NC66 VCC69 VCC68 VCC67 K

L VID(0) VID(1) VID(2) VID(3) NC27 SD#26 SCK#2 SD#28 L

M VCC66 VCC64 VCC65 VCC5 VSS5 VSS67 VSS66 VSS65 M

N PICCLX PICD#0 PICD#1 KEY10 NC28 SD#25 SD#27 SD#18 N

P VSS64 VSS63 VSS62 VSS6 VCC6 VCC63 VCC62 VCC61 P

Q TCK TMS SCNSN NC29 SD#24 SD#17 SD#16 Q

R VCC59 VCC58 VCC57 VCC7 VSS7 VSS61 VSS59 VSS58 R

S SCNSK1 SCNINY SCNCK2 NC31 NC30 SD#7 SD#15 SD#6 S

U
T

TDI
VSS57

TRST#
VSS56

TDO
VSS55

NC33
VSS8

SOCKET A (SOCKET 462) VCC8

NC32
VCC56

SD#5
VCC55

SD#4
VCC54

SCK#0 U
T

V VC53 VCC52 VCC51 VCC9 VSS9 VSS54 VSS53 VSS52 V

W FID(0) FID(1) VREF_5 NV35 NC34 SDIC#0 SD#2 SD#1 W

X VSS51 VSS50 VSS48 VSS10 VCC10 VCC50 VCC48 VCC47 X

Y FID(2) FID(3) NC37 KEY12 NC36 SCK#1 SD#3 SD#12 Y

Z VCC46 VCC45 VCC44 VCC11 VSS11 VSS47 VSS46 VSS45 Z

AA DBRDY DBRFQ SVRFM NC1 SD#8 SD#0 SD#13 AA


#
AB VSS44 VSS43 VSS42 VSS12 VC12 VCC43 VCC42 VCC41 AB

AC STPC# PLTS# ZN VCC_Z NC2 SD#10 SD#14 SD#11 AC

AD VCC40 VCC39 VCC37 NC42 NC41 VSS41 VSS40 VSS39 AD

AE A20M# PWROK ZP VSS_Z NC3 SAI#5 SDOC# SD#9 AE


0
AF VS38 VSS37 NC47 NC48 NC43 VSS13 VCC13 VSS14 VCC14 VSS15 VCC15 VSS16 VCC16 NC44 NC45 NC46 VCC36 VCC35 AF

AG FERR# RESET# IIC9 KEY14 COREF8 COREF8# KEY16 NC NC NC6 NC7 KEY18 NCB SAI#2 SAI#11 SAI#7 AG

AH VCC34 VCC33 NC50 VCC32 VSS35 VCC31 VSS34 VCC30 VSS33 VCC29 VSS32 VCC27 VSS31 NC49 VSS30 VSS29 VSS27 AH

AJ IGNNE# INIT# VCC101 NC51 NC57 NC10 ANLOG NC11 NC12 NC13 CLKFR VCCA NC15 PLBYP# NC SFIILV# SAIC# SAI#6 SAI#3 AJ

AK VSS26 VSS25 VSS103 NC53 VCC25 VSS23 VCC24 VSS22 VCC23 VSS21 VCC22 VSS20 VCC21 VSS19 VCC20 VSS18 VCC19 VCC18 AK

AL INTR FLUSH# VCC26 NC54 NV55 NC16 PLMN2 PLBYC# CLKIN# RCLK# K7CD CNNCT NC NC SAI#1 SDOV# SAI#8 SAI#4 SAI#10 AL

AM VCC93 VSS102 VSS104 NC56 VCC83 VSS93 VCC72 VSS82 VCC60 VSS71 VCC49 VSS60 VCC38 VSS49 VCC28 VSS28 VCC17 VSS17 AM

AN NMI SMI# NC57 NC18 NC17 PLMN1 PLBYC CLKIN RCLK K7CD# PRCROY NC NC SAI#12 SAI#14 SDINV# SAI#13 SAI#9 AN

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

. 3.15. Socket A (Socket 462)

, , - 512 (
Pentium II). . 3.16 Slot 1
.

B74
B1 B141
B73
132,870,25
5,2310,010
72,00 47,00
R 0,25 2,832 1,850
0,010 2,50 2,50 1,880,10
2,540,127 73 0,098 0,098 48 0,0740,004
0,1000,005

9,500,25
0,3740,010

1,27 4,75 1,780,03


2,000,127
0,050 0,187 0,0700,001 0,94
0,0790,005
0,037
76,13 (.) 51,13 (.)
2,997 (.) 2,013 (.)
A1 A74
A141
A73

. 3.16. Slot 1

136 3.
Slot 2 (SC330)
Slot 2 ( SC330)
Pentium II Xeon Pentium III Xeon.
Slot 2 . 3.17.

B1
B2 B165

A2 A166
A1

. 3.17. Slot 2 (SC330)

Pentium II/III Xeon (. 3.18),


Pentium II/III.
Slot 2 -
, , -
Pentium II/III Xeon.



.
. , , -
; -
, -
. ,
, ,
.
, , -
, , . -
, . .
; , . -
,
, .
.
Pentium Pentium MMX -
,
-. , -
, 5 , 3,5 3,3 (
). -

137

. 3.18. Pentium II Xeon Pentium III Xeon

, -, ,
, , .
Pentium Intel
,
-
, , -
, 3,3 .
, ,
, - -
3,3 . (Voltage
Reduction Technology VRT); Pen-
tium 1996 .
; , Pentium MMX 2,8 ,
- 3,3 . -
,
. Mobile Pentium II
1,6 , -
-, 3,3 .
Pentium Pro (Socket 8) Pentium II (Slot 1 Slot 2)
Voltage ID (VID),
.
, , -
.
, Socket 7 , -
, .

138 3.
3.11. ,

-
, ,
VRE (3,5 ) Intel Pentium 3,5 3,5
STD (3,3 ) Intel Pentium 3,3 3,3
MMX (2,8 ) Intel MMX Pentium 2,8 3,3
VRE (3,5 ) AMD K5 3,5 3,5
3,2 AMD K6 3,2 3,3
2,9 AMD K6 2,9 3,3
2,4 AMD K6-2/K6-3 2,4 3,3
2,2 AMD K6/K6-2 2,2 3,3
VRE (3,5 ) Cyrix 6x86 3,5 3,5
2,9 Cyrix 6x86MX/MII 2,9 3,3
MMX (2,8 ) Cyrix 6x86L 2,8 3,3
2,45 Cyrix 6x86LV 2,45 3,3

,
.
Pentium (Socket 4, Socket 5 Socket 7) ,
MMX 2,8 ,
Pentium , 1,8 .
, , . 3.11.
5% .
Socket 7, -
Pentium
(, 2,5; 2,7; 2,8 2,9 ). -
, ,
, . -

.
Pentium Pro, Celeron Pentium II/III/4 -
,
Voltage ID (VID).
, STD VRE, ,
- ;
. - , -
STD VRE,
, - ,
- , 3,3 .
Socket 5 STD VRE.
, , Socket 5,

139
Socket 7. Socket 4
5 , . ,
.
, , Socket 7 Socket 5,
.
-
. -
,
. , , , -
,
.



, .
.
,
.

(-
).
( ).
.
, , -
.
-
.
.
, . . 3.19
.
-
. ,
.


. -
(. 3.20). -
, -
, .
- -
, . -
,
( ).

140 3.
. 3.19.

,
. ,
, -
.
, 10 -
, ( ). ,
,
. ,
, -
,
1525 .
. 3.21 Pentium II/III.
, -
, (. 3.22).
,
. ,
.
, .
, -
, -
. ,
. -
, ,

141

Pentium 4

478- mPGA478B

. 3.20. , -
Pentium 4

. 3.21. Pen-
tium II/III

Dell Gateway,
. ,
, -
,

142 3.
S.E.C.



Slot 1

. 3.22. Pentium II/III


. -
,
.
Intel AMD , -
, -
, .
,
, ,
,
.


-
. -
. -
-
, .
. 3.23.
-
, ATX.

143

. 3.23. ,

: , -
ATX , .
(. .
).
FC-PGA, , -
,
(flip-chip ).

,
.
, -
, .
Intel ,
, 20 ( 8 ).
, AMD , -
, 30 ( 12 ).
. -
AMD
, AMD
, Intel.
, -
; .

.
, ,
,
.
AMD Intel, AMD, -
.
, -
.

144 3.


. 3.24. Pentium 4 Socket 478,


, -

AMD Intel
. , AMD
,
, -
. , -

.
Intel ,
,
(Integrated Heat Spreader IHS).
-
. Intel,
IHS, 100 ( 40 ), -
.
Pentium 4 Pen-
tium III/Celeron Tualatin, 0,13- (. 3.24).
AMD Intel, -
,

.

-.


- -
. ( -
.) , -
.
, .
, Diagsoft, Symantec, Micro 2000, Trinitech Data Depot, -
,
.
, -
,
.

145
, -
, -
Pentium.
, -
. , ,
( ), -
. , . -
, .
- ,
, . -
.

,
-.


, .
, -
.
Intel (Specification Update manuals),
Web-. Web-, -
, , , , -
.
-
. Intel P6/P7, Pentium Pro Pentium II,
, ,
. ; -
, . -
ROM BIOS
BIOS .
, ,
.
Intel ,

- - (BIOS). ,
BIOS
. ,
BIOS -
, .
Web-
BIOS .

146 3.
Intel
, Intel, AMD Cyrix -
(. 3.12). , ,
. , -
,
, .

3.12.

AMD
AMD
X5 5x86-133 [Socket 3]
SSA5 K5 (PR75-100) [Socket 5, 7]
5k86 K5 (PR120-200) [Socket 7]
K6 K6; AMD
NexGen
NX686 NexGen, K6 [Socket 7]
Little Foot 0,25- K6 [Socket 7]
Chompers K6-2 ( K6-3D) [Socket 7, Super 7]
Sharptooth K6-3 ( K6 Plus-3D) [Super 7]
Argon K7
K7 Athlon [Slot A]
K75 0,18- Athlon [Slot A]
76 0,18- Athlon (Slot A)
Spitfire Duron [Socket A]
Thunderbird Athlon [Slot A, Socket A]
Mustang Athlon [Slot A, Socket A]
Corvette Athlon [Socket A]
Palomino 0,18- Athlon XP/MP, Athlon 4 (Socket A)
Thoroughbred 0,13- Athlon XP/MP (Socket A)
Barton 0,13- Athlon XP/MP, -
512 (Socket A)
Spitfire Duron (Socket A)
Camaro Morgan
Morgan Duron (Socket A)
Appaloosa 0,13- Morgan (Socket A)
ClawHammer Opteron (64- ) (Socket 754)
ClawHammer DP Opteron DP (Socket 940)
SledgeHammer K8 (64- )

Intel 147
. 3.12

Cyrix
Cyrix
M6 486DX [Socket 1, 2, 3]
M7 486DX2/DX4 [Socket 3]
M9 5x86 [Socket 3]
M1sc 5x86 [Socket 3]
Chili 5x86
M1 6x86 ( 3,3 3,52 ) [Socket 7]
M1L 6x86L ( 2,8/3,3 ) [Socket 7]
M1R 3M SGS 5M IBM 6x86
M2 6x86MX/M-II [Socket 7, Super 7]
Cayenne Mxi Gobi
Jedi Joshua ( Gobi)
Gobi Joshua
Joshua VIA/Cyrix-III [Socket 370]
Jalapeno Mojave
Mojave Cyrix/VIA M3 [Socket 370]
Serrano Cyrix/VIA M4
C5 Samuel (Winchip-4 - )
C5B 0,15- Samuel 2
C5C 1,13- Ezra
C5M Ezra-T
C5N Ezra-T ( )
Samuel Cyrix/VIA Winchip-4 [Socket 370]
Samuel 2 0,15- C3 (Socket 370)
Ezra 0,13- C3 (Socket 370)
Ezra-T Ezra, 1,25 (Socket 370)
C5X Nehemiah
C5XL Nehemiah ( , -
)
C5YL Esther
Nehemiah C4 (Socket 370)
Esther C4 (Socket 370)
CZA 0,10- Socket 478
Matthew

148 3.
. 3.12

Intel
Intel
P23 486SX [Socket 1, 2, 3]
P23S 486SX SL-enhanced [Socket 1, 2, 3]
P23N 487SX () [Socket 1]
P4 486DX [Socket 1, 2, 3]
P4S 486DX SL-enhanced [Socket 1, 2, 3]
P24 486DX2 [Socket 1, 2, 3]
P24S 486DX2 SL-enhanced [Socket 1, 2, 3]
P24D 486DX2 ( - write-back) [Socket 3]
P24C 486DX4 [Socket 3]
P23T 486DXODP (486 overdrive) [Socket 1, 2, 3]
P4T 486DXODPR (486 overdrive) [Socket 1, 2, 3]
P24T PODP5V (Pentium OverDrive 486) [Socket 2, 3]
P24CT Pentium OverDrive 486DX4 ( 3,3 ) [Socket 2, 3]
P5 Pentium ( 60/66 ) [Socket 4]
P5T Pentium OverDrive (120, 133) [Socket 4]
P54C Pentium ( 75120 ) [Socket 5, 7]
P54CQS Pentium ( 120133 ) [Socket 5, 7]
P54CS Pentium ( 120200 ) [Socket 7]
P54CTA Pentium OverDrive (125, 150, 166) [Socket 5, 7]
P55C Pentium MMX [Socket 7]
P54CTB Pentium MMX OverDrive [Socket 5, 7]
Tillamook Pentium MMX
P6 Pentium Pro [Socket 8]
P6T Pentium II OverDrive [Socket 8]
Klamath Pentium II [Slot 1]
Deschutes 0,25- Pentium II [Slot 1 & 2]
Drake Pentium II Xeon [Slot 2]
Tonga Pentium II
Covington Celeron (Deschutes ) [Slot 1]
Mendocino Celeron ( - 128 )
[Slot 1, Socket 370]
Dixon Pentium II (256KB on-die L2)
Katmai Pentium III [Slot 1]
Tanner Pentium III Xeon [Slot 2]
Coppermine 0,18- Pentium III -
256 [Slot 1, Socket 370]

Intel 149
. 3.12

Intel
Intel
Tualatin 0,13- Pentium III (Socket 370)
Coppermine-T 0,18- Pentium III Tualatin (Socket 370)
Cascades Coppermine Xeon ( -
256 ) [Slot 2]
Coppermine-128 Celeron III ( -
128 ) [Socket 370]
Timna Celeron III
P68 Willamette
Willamette Pentium IV [Socket 423]
Northwood Pentium 4
Prescott 0,09- Pentium 4
Hyper-Threading (Socket 478)
Foster Pentium IV server [Socket 603]
Foster MP Xeon MP (Socket 603)
Prestonia 0,13- Xeon DP (Socket 603)
Gallatin 0,13- Foster [Socket 603]
Nocona 0,09- Xeon (Socket 603)
Banias Pentium 4 DRAM
P7 Merced
Merced Itanium (IA64) [Slot M]
McKinley Itanium [Slot M]
Madison 0,13- McKinley [Slot M]
Deerfield Madison [Slot M]
Montecito 0,09- Madison
Shavano Itanium

, , , -
, .
, . -
, Intel, ,
. -
.

Intel-
AMD Cyrix ,
Intel, . . .
, -
, Intel;

150 3.
, . -
, Intel,
, Intel . , -
Intel- , ,
.

AMD
Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), Intel--
, ,
Pentium. AMD Intel , -
AMD 486 Intel.
, AMD Intel -
. 1996 AMD NexGen Intel.
AMD, Athlon/Duron,
Socket A ( Socket 462).
AMD . 3.2, -
.

Cyrix
Cyrix , -
National Semiconductor 1997 VIA Technologies 1999 .
,
. Cyrix Texas Instruments, IBM.
Cyrix National Semicon-
ductor.
Cyrix , IBM (-
6x86 ), National
Semiconductor, VIA Technologies.


(P1/086), (P2/286), (P3/386),
(P4/486) (P5/586) -.

: P6 (686)
P6 (686) ,
. P6 : Pentium Pro Pentium II.
P5 Pentium. . 3.13
P6 .
Pentium -
; .
MMX.
Intel ?
: , -
(Dual Independent Bus DIB), .

: P6 (686) 151
3.13. P6
Pentium Pro P6 -
256 , 512 1 ,
Pentium II P6 - 512 ,

Pentium II Xeon P6 - 512 , 1 2 ,

Celeron P6 -
Celeron-A P6 - 128 ,

Pentium III P6 SSE (MMX2), -
512
Pentium IIPE P6 - 256 ,

Pentium III Xeon P6 SSE (MMX2), -
512 , 1 2



. -
:
; -
;
, , -
,
;
,
, , , .


P6 .
: ( ), -
. -.


, P6 -
P5: ,
. , CISC
RISC. RISC ,

.

152 3.
, P5 ,
P6 () .
(
).
, P6
, , -
32- .
Pentium Pro, Pentium II/III
Pentium , -
. RISC-,
Intel CISC.
CISC- RISC
, Intel .
Pentium, , P6
32- . P6
, -
32- (, Win-
dows NT/2000). 16-
Windows 9 ( 16- -
) , P6
. , -
. Windows NT/2000 -
Pentium Pro,
Celeron Pentium II/III. Win-
dows 9, Windows NT/2000/XP P6.
, -
. ,

. ,
32- Intel.
,
.

Pentium Pro -.
, -
Pentium Pro.

Pentium II
Intel 1997 .
Klamath,
. Pentium II, , -
, Pentium Pro, , .
Pentium II . 3.25.
. Pentium II
(Single Edge Contact SEC)

: P6 (686) 153
. 3.25. Pentium II. -
Intel

. 3.26. Pentium II ( SEC). -


Intel

. ,
SIMM - (. 3.26);
Slot 1 ,
.

154 3.
. 3.27. SECC

, SECC (Single Edge Contact


Cartridge) SECC2. . 3.27 3.28 .
, SECC2 . 1999
Intel Pentium II/III.
, Pentium Pro.
Intel Pentium II
.
/
,
Pentium II 233 3,5 66
Pentium II 266 4 66
Pentium II 300 4,5 66
Pentium II 333 5 66
Pentium II 350 3,5 100
Pentium II 400 4 100
Pentium II 450 4,5 100

Pentium II 7,5 ; -
P6 Intel. Pen-
tium II 0,35- . Pentium II
333 0,25- . ,
.
333 Pentium II 75150% , Pentium MMX
233 , 50%
. .

: P6 (686) 155
-

. 3.28. SECC2

iCOMP 2.0 Pentium II 266 ,


Pentium 200 .
, Pentium II -
Pentium Pro MMX.
, Pentium Pro, MMX -
57 . , Pentium II
- , Pentium Pro ( 16,
32 ).
Pentium II
.

( ,
, , ),
450 27,1 0,25 2,0
400 24,3 0,25 2,0
350 21,5 0,25 2,0
333 23,7 0,25 2,0
300 43,0 0,35 2,8
266 38,2 0,35 2,8
233 34,8 0,35 2,8

Pentium II 450 , -
233 .
0,25 2,0 .
Pentium Pro, Pentium II
. -
: , ,
; , -
;
, ,
, , . -
Pentium II .

156 3.
3.14. Pentium II
66, 100
3,5, 4, 4,5, 5
233, 266, 300, 333, 350, 400, 450
- : 32 (16
16 ); : 512
( )
32
64
36
64
64
242- (Single
Edge Contact Cartridge SECC)
12,826,281,64

SMM (System Management Mode)

Pentium Pro, Pentium II


(Dual Independent Bus DIB).
Pentium II -
,
. Pentium II ,
Pentium II ,
, . -
-
Pentium II 333 2,5 .
Pentium II - .
,
, . -

Pentium.
Pentium II . 3.14. -
Pentium II . 3.15.
, Pentium II 64 .
. , -
: -
. ,
. -
, -
. - Pentium II
,

: P6 (686) 157
3.15. Pentium II

Pentium II MMX (350, 400 450 )


15 1998
350 (1003,5), 400 (1004) 450 (1004,5)
386, 440 483 (350, 400 450 )
iCOMP 2.0
7,5 (0,25- ) 31 -
512
4
2,0
Slot 2
10,2
Pentium II (266, 300, 333 366 )
25 1999
266, 300, 333 366
27,4 (0,25- )
3135
1,6
366 9,5 , 333 8,6 , 300 7,7 ,
266 7,0
Pentium II MMX (333 )
7 1997
333 (66 5)
366
iCOMP 2.0
7,5 (0,35- ) 31 -
512
512
2,0
Slot 1
10,2
Pentium II MMX (300 )
7 1997
300 (66 4,5)
332
iCOMP 2.0
7,5 (0,35- ) 31 -
512
512
Slot 1
14,2

158 3.
. 3.15

Pentium II MMX (266 )


7 1997
266 (66 4)
303
iCOMP 2.0
7,5 (0,35- ) 31 -
512
512
Slot 1
14,2
Pentium II MMX (233 )
7 1997
233 (66 3,5)
267
iCOMP 2.0
7,5 (0,35- ) 31 -
512
512
Slot 1
14,2

. , Pentium II 333 -
333 , -
167 . - -
, Pentium Pro,
- , 66 (
Socket 7 Pentium). Intel,
, .
, - -
, , Intel -
- .
Pentium Pro 200 , -
- . -
, Pentium II
400 , -
200 .
- Pentium II, Intel - ( Pentium Pro
256 , Pentium II 512 ).
, , - ,
512 Pen-
tium II 233 333 . 350, 400
, 4
. , -

: P6 (686) 159
512 . 350 ,
.
Pentium II ,
. -
,
, -
.
Pentium II
, -.
Pentium II (Error Correction Code
ECC) (L2).
, ,
. Pentium II
, ,
.
Pentium II .
Slot 1 , -
. -
. (, , Intel Boxed AL440FX DK440LX,
.)
Pentium II , .
(),
(). , -
Intel, Pentium II -
.
.
.
-
( -
). :
.
, -
. . 3.29 SEC , , -
, , .
-
Pentium II.
Pentium II, -
SEC.
. . 3.30.
( - )
(. 3.16). , SL2KA -
Pentium II 333 ( 66 )
- (L2), .
,
2,0 . , , , In-
tel Pentium II Specification Update Manual, ,
.

160 3.
_@` a bc defhg i ` j%k`cdlm ` c%n d%kl%n%oib
poij%q r7ro scor n%oi oc c dfhg oc n bg n%ofht uv w1v xv y
z`c%n%d k l n oi {
k b r%n%dc b)g i `j%k`cdlm%`c%n%d k l n oib

pb | ` k}

~be `fhj d n b c dlm%`c n d k l%n%oi b

pi ` j%k`c d`n%` j%koo n m%o sb

~be `fu 

pi `j%k` c dl

n m%`i r n dl,sk lg i `j%k` c dl,n%` j%koo n m%o s1b

. 3.29. Pentium II

. 3.30. Pentium II:


: P6 (686) 161
3.16. Pentium II

-
S-


CPUID


SL264 C0 0633h 233/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 5
SL265 C0 0633h 266/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 5
SL268 C0 0633h 233/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 5
SL269 C0 0633h 266/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 5
SL28K C0 0633h 233/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 1, 3, 5
SL28L C0 0633h 266/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 1, 3, 5
SL28R C0 0633h 300/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 5
SL2MZ C0 0633h 300/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 1, 5
SL2HA C1 0634h 300/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 5
SL2HC C1 0634h 266/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 5
SL2HD C1 0634h 233/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 5
SL2HE C1 0634h 266/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 5
SL2HF C1 0634h 233/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 5
SL2QA C1 0634h 233/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 1, 3, 5
SL2QB C1 0634h 266/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 1, 3, 5
SL2QC C1 0634h 300/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 1, 5
SL2KA dA0 0650h 333/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 5
SL2QF dA0 0650h 333/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 1
SL2K9 dA0 0650h 266/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00
SL35V dA1 0651h 300/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 1, 2
SL2QH dA1 0651h 333/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 1, 2
SL2S5 dA1 0651h 333/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 2, 5
SL2ZP dA1 0651h 333/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 2, 5
SL2ZQ dA1 0651h 350/100 512 ECC SECC 3.00 2, 5
SL2S6 dA1 0651h 350/100 512 ECC SECC 3.00 2, 5
SL2S7 dA1 0651h 400/100 512 ECC SECC 3.00 2, 5
SL2SF dA1 0651h 350/100 512 ECC SECC 3.00 1, 2
SL2SH dA1 0651h 400/100 512 ECC SECC 3.00 1, 2
SL2VY dA1 0651h 300/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 1, 2
SL33D dB0 0652h 266/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 1, 2, 5
SL2YK dB0 0652h 300/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 1, 2, 5
SL2WZ dB0 0652h 350/100 512 ECC SECC 3.00 1, 2, 5
SL2YM dB0 0652h 400/100 512 ECC SECC 3.00 1, 2, 5

162 3.
. 3.16

-
S-


CPUID


SL37G dB0 0652h 400/100 512 ECC SECC2 OLGA 1, 2, 4
SL2WB dB0 0652h 450/100 512 ECC SECC 3.00 1, 2, 5
SL37H dB0 0652h 450/100 512 ECC SECC2 OLGA 1, 2
SL2KE TdB0 1632h 333/66 512 ECC PGA 2, 4
SL2W7 dB0 0652h 266/66 512 ECC SECC 2.00 2, 5
SL2W8 dB0 0652h 300/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 2, 5
SL2TV dB0 0652h 333/66 512 ECC SECC 3.00 2, 5
SL2U3 dB0 0652h 350/100 512 ECC SECC 3.00 2, 5
SL2U4 dB0 0652h 350/100 512 ECC SECC 3.00 2, 5
SL2U5 dB0 0652h 400/100 512 ECC SECC 3.00 2, 5
SL2U6 dB0 0652h 400/100 512 ECC SECC 3.00 2, 5
SL2U7 dB0 0652h 450/100 512 ECC SECC 3.00 2, 5
SL356 dB0 0652h 350/100 512 ECC SECC2 PLGA 2, 5
SL357 dB0 0652h 400/100 512 ECC SECC2 OLGA 2, 5
SL358 dB0 0652h 450/100 512 ECC SECC2 OLGA 2, 5
SL37F dB0 0652h 350/100 512 ECC SECC2 PLGA 1, 2, 5
SL3FN dB0 0652h 350/100 512 ECC SECC2 OLGA 2, 5
SL3EE dB0 0652h 400/100 512 ECC SECC2 PLGA 2, 5
SL3F9 dB0 0652h 400/100 512 ECC SECC2 PLGA 1, 2
SL38M dB1 0653h 350/100 512 ECC SECC 3.00 1, 2, 5
SL38N dB1 0653h 400/100 512 ECC SECC 3.00 1, 2, 5
SL36U dB1 0653h 350/100 512 ECC SECC 3.00 2, 5
SL38Z dB1 0653h 400/100 512 ECC SECC 3.00 2, 5
SL3D5 dB1 0653h 400/100 512 ECC SECC2 OLGA 1, 2

SECC Single Edge Contact Cartridge.


SECC2 Single Edge Contact Cartridge, 2.
PLGA Plastic Land Grid Array.
OLGA Organic Land Grid Array.
ECC Error Correcting Code.
1
Pentium II ().
2
- , -
4 . Pentium II
512 .

: P6 (686) 163
3
-
.
4
Pentium II OverDrive -
Pentium Pro (Socket 8).
5
, -
. .

SECC2. -
PLGA SECC.
OLGA. ,
-
. . 3.31 SECC2
( PLGA OLGA), .
Pentium II ,
. Pentium II
, ,
.
Pentium Pro, Pentium,
:

(VID). . 3.17
.

. 3.31. SECC2, PLGA


OLGA

164 3.
3.17. Pentium II
VID4 VID3 VID2 VID1 VID0 ,
0 1 1 1 1 1,30
0 1 1 1 0 1,35
0 1 1 0 1 1,40
0 1 1 0 0 1,45
0 1 0 1 1 1,50
0 1 0 1 0 1,55
0 1 0 0 1 1,60
0 1 0 0 0 1,65
0 0 1 1 1 1,70
0 0 1 1 0 1,75
0 0 1 0 1 1,80
0 0 1 0 0 1,85
0 0 0 1 1 1,90
0 0 0 1 0 1,95
0 0 0 0 1 2,00
0 0 0 0 0 2,05
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 0 2,1
1 1 1 0 1 2,2
1 1 1 0 0 2,3
1 1 0 1 1 2,4
1 1 0 1 0 2,5
1 1 0 0 1 2,6
1 1 0 0 0 2,7
1 0 1 1 1 2,8
1 0 1 1 0 2,9
1 0 1 0 1 3,0
1 0 1 0 0 3,1
1 0 0 1 1 3,2
1 0 0 1 0 3,3
1 0 0 0 1 3,4
1 0 0 0 0 3,5
0 Vss.
1 .

Pentium II 2,8 ; -
2,0 . Pentium II Mobile Module Pentium II -

: P6 (686) 165
,
440BX, 100 .
440BX Pentium II
350 400 . Pentium IIPE -
256 , .

Celeron
Celeron P6 Pentium II,
Pentium III.
Celeron . . . . ,
Celeron Pentium II.
- .
Celeron SEPP (Single
Edge Processor Package). SECC Slot 1.
SEPP .
AMD Socket 7 Intel
Celeron
PPGA (Plastic Pin Grid Array). PGA-370
Socket 370 (370 ). PPGA -
.
. 3.32.
Celeron 433 SEPP.
300 PPGA. , Celeron 300
433 . Celeron 466
PPGA.
Celeron PPGA
Slot 1? Slot 1Socket 370
(. 3.33).
Celeron.
Celeron 300A, -
128 .
4 .
P6 Pentium II ( 266533 ) Pentium III
( 533 ).
.
66 100 ( ).
.
MMX, Celeron 533A -
SSE.
SEPP, PPGA FCPGA.
- 32 (16 -
16 ).
,
.

166 3.
PPGA

FCPGA

SEPP

. 3.32. FCPGA, PPGA SEPP


Celeron

Socket 370

Slot

. 3.33. Slot 1Socket 370

Celeron 300A, - -
128 . Celeron
(266 300 ) - . Pentium II
(Celeron 300A 533 ) 19 ,
Pentium III ( 533 ) 28,1 . -
, Celeron -
256 , 128 , . . --
128 . Intel ,
. ,
Celeron Pentium III MMX, SSE.

: P6 (686) 167
Celeron 0,25- .
Pentium II .

Pentium III
Intel Pentium III (. 3.34)
Intel ,
P6, : ,
Intel MMX -
.
1999 . -
SIMD-: 70 ,
, , ,
. Pentium III -
.
Pentium III 0,25- 9,5
. 4501 400 .
Pentium III 32 - 512 --
, .
- 4 . Pen-
tium III 64 .
SECC2 FCPGA.
Pentium III.
SIMD. ,
, -
, Internet, , -
,
.
Intel. -
PC, Intel, -
, .
/ .

. 3.34. Pentium III ( FCPGA SECC2)

168 3.

/ -/ /

FPO -
-

S-

. 3.35. Pentium III

,
.
, . -
Internet; .
. ;
.
Intel MMX.
.
, . -
.
Pentium III SECC2
FCPGA,
.
FCPGA Socket 370 Slot 1
slot-ket.
Pentium III 512 256 - ,
. Xeon,
, - 512 , 1
2 , . Xeon
, .
Pentium III . 3.35.
. 3.18 Pentium III.

: P6 (686) 169
3.18. Pentium III

,

,

S-


S-

OEM

CPUID
-
,


-
,

,

,


,
,

,

450 100 4,5x SL3CC SL364 kB0 0672 512 225 90 2,00 25,3 0,25 9,5 SECC2
450 100 4,5x SL37C SL35D kC0 0673 512 225 90 2,00 25,3 0,25 9,5 SECC2
500 100 5x SL3CD SL365 kB0 0672 512 250 90 2,00 28,0 0,25 9,5 SECC2
500 100 5x SL365 SL365 kB0 0672 512 250 90 2,00 28,0 0,25 9,5 SECC2
500 100 5x SL37D SL35E kC0 0673 512 250 90 2,00 28,0 0,25 9,5 SECC2
500E 100 5x SL3R2 SL3Q9 cA2 0681 256 500 85 1,60 13,2 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
500E 100 5x SL45R SL444 cB0 0683 256 500 85 1,60 13,2 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
533B 133 4x SL3E9 SL3BN kC0 0673 512 267 90 2,05 29,7 0,25 9,5 SECC2
533EB 133 4x SL3SX SL3N6 cA2 0681 256 533 85 1,65 14,0 0,18 28,1 SECC2
533EB 133 4x SL3VA SL3VF cA2 0681 256 533 85 1,65 14,0 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
533EB 133 4x SL44W SL3XG cB0 0683 256 533 85 1,65 14,0 0,18 28,1 SECC2
533EB 133 4x SL45S SL3XS cB0 0683 256 533 85 1,65 14,0 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
550 100 5,5x SL3FJ SL3F7 kC0 0673 512 275 80 2,00 30,8 0,25 9,5 SECC2
550E 100 5,5x SL3R3 SL3QA cA2 0681 256 550 85 1,60 14,5 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
550E 100 5,5x SL3V5 SL3N7 cA2 0681 256 550 85 1,60 14,5 0,18 28,1 SECC2
550E 100 5,5x SL44X SL3XH cB0 0683 256 550 85 1,60 14,5 0,18 28,1 SECC2
550E 100 5,5x SL45T N/A cB0 0683 256 550 85 1,60 14,5 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
600 100 6x SL3JT SL3JM kC0 0673 512 300 85 2,00 34,5 0,25 9,5 SECC2
. 3.18

,

,

S-


S-

OEM

CPUID
-
,


-
,

,

,


,
,

,

600E 100 6x SL3NA SL3H6 cA2 0681 256 600 82 1,65 15,8 0,18 28,1 SECC2
600E 100 6x SL3NL SL3VH cA2 0681 256 600 82 1,65 15,8 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
600E 100 6x SL44Y SL43E cB0 0683 256 600 82 1,65 15,8 0,18 28,1 SECC2
600E 100 6x SL45U SL3XU cB0 0683 256 600 82 1,65 15,8 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
600B 133 4,5x SL3JU SL3JP kC0 0673 512 300 85 2,05 34,5 0,25 9,5 SECC2
600EB 133 4,5x SL3NB SL3H7 cA2 0681 256 600 82 1,65 15,8 0,18 28,1 SECC2
600EB 133 4,5x SL3VB SL3VG cA2 0681 256 600 82 1,65 15,8 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
600EB 133 4,5x SL44Z SL3XJ cB0 0683 256 600 82 1,65 15,8 0,18 28,1 SECC2
600EB 133 4,5x SL45V SL3XT cB0 0683 256 600 82 1,65 15,8 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
650 100 6,5x SL3NR SL3KV cA2 0681 256 650 82 1,65 17,0 0,18 28,1 SECC2
650 100 6,5x SL3NM SL3VJ cA20 681 256 650 82 1,65 17,0 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
650 100 6,5x SL452 SL3XK cB0 0683 256 650 82 1,65 17,0 0,18 28,1 SECC2
650 100 6,5x SL45W SL3XV cB0 0683 256 650 82 1,65 17,0 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
667 133 5x SL3ND SL3KW cA2 0681 256 667 82 1,65 17,5 0,18 28,1 SECC2
667 133 5x SL3T2 SL3VK cA2 0681 256 667 82 1,65 17,5 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
667 133 5x SL453 SL3XL cB0 0683 256 667 82 1,65 17,5 0,18 28,1 SECC2
667 133 5x SL45X SL3XW cB0 0683 256 667 82 1,65 17,5 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
667 133 5x SL4CJ cC0 0686 256 667 82 1,7 17,5 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
667 133 5x SL4C4 cC0 0686 256 667 82 1,7 17,5 0,18 28,1 SECC2
. 3.18

,

,

S-


S-

OEM

CPUID
-
,


-
,

,

,


,
,

,

700 100 7x SL3SY SL3S9 cA2 0681 256 700 80 1,65 18,3 0,18 28,1 SECC2
700 100 7x SL3T3 SL3VL cA2 0681 256 700 80 1,65 18,3 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
700 100 7x SL454 SL453 cB0 0683 256 700 80 1,65 18,3 0,18 28,1 SECC2
700 100 7x SL45Y SL3XX cB0 0683 256 700 80 1,65 18,3 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
700 100 7x SL4M7 SL4CH cC0 0686 256 700 80 1,7 18,3 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
700 100 7x SL4C3 cC0 0686 256 700 80 1,7 18,3 0,18 28,1 SECC2
733 133 5,5x SL3SZ SL3SB cA2 0681 256 733 80 1,65 19,1 0,18 28,1 SECC2
733 133 5,5x SL3T4 SL3VM cA2 0681 256 733 80 1,65 19,1 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
733 133 5,5x SL455 SL3XN cB0 0683 256 733 80 1,65 19,1 0,18 28,1 SECC2
733 133 5,5x SL45Z SL3XY cB0 0683 256 733 80 1,65 19,1 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
733 133 5,5x SL4M8 SL4CG cC0 0686 256 733 80 1,7 19,1 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
733 133 5,5x SL4KD SL4C2 cC0 0686 256 733 80 1,7 19,1 0,18 28,1 SECC2
733 133 5,5x SL4FQ SL4CX cC0 0686 256 733 80 1,7 19,1 0,18 28,1 SECC2
750 100 7,5x SL3V6 SL3WC cA2 0681 256 750 80 1,65 19,5 0,18 28,1 SECC2
750 100 7,5x SL3VC SL3VN cA2 0681 256 750 80 1,65 19,5 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
750 100 7,5x SL456 SL3XP cB0 0683 256 750 80 1,65 19,5 0,18 28,1 SECC2
750 100 7,5x SL462 SL3XZ cB0 0683 256 750 80 1,65 19,5 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
750 100 7,5x SL4M9 SL4CF cC0 0686 256 750 80 1,7 19,5 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
750 100 7,5x SL4KE SL4BZ cC0 0686 256 750 80 1,7 19,5 0,18 28,1 SECC2
. 3.18

,

,

S-


S-

OEM

CPUID
-
,


-
,

,

,


,
,

,

800 100 8x SL457 SL3XR cB0 0683 256 800 80 1,65 20,8 0,18 28,1 SECC2
800 100 8x SL463 SL3Y3 cB0 0683 256 800 80 1,65 20,8 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
800 100 8x SL4MA SL4CE cC0 0686 256 800 80 1,7 20,8 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
800 100 8x SL4KF SL4BY cC0 0686 256 800 80 1,7 20,8 0,18 28,1 SECC2
800EB 133 6x SL458 SL3XQ cB0 0683 256 800 80 1,65 20,8 0,18 28,1 SECC2
800EB 133 6x SL464 SL3Y2 cB0 0683 256 800 80 1,65 20,8 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
800EB 133 6x SL4MB SL4CD cC0 0686 256 800 80 1,7 20,8 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
800EB 133 6x SL4G7 SL4XQ cC0 0686 256 800 80 1,7 20,8 0,18 28,1 SECC2
800EB 133 6x SL4KG SL4BX cC0 0686 256 800 80 1,7 20,8 0,18 28,1 SECC2
850 100 8,5x SL47M SL43F cB0 0683 256 850 80 1,65 22,5 0,18 28,1 SECC2
850 100 8,5x SL49G SL43H cB0 0683 256 850 80 1,65 22,5 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
850 100 8,5x SL4MC SL4CC cC0 0686 256 850 80 1,7 22,5 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
850 100 8,5x SL4KH SL4BW cC0 0686 256 850 80 1,7 22,5 0,18 28,1 SECC2
866 133 6,5x SL47N SL43G cB0 0683 256 866 80 1,65 22,9 0,18 28,1 SECC2
866 133 6,5x SL49H SL43J cB0 0683 256 866 80 1,65 22,5 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
866 133 6,5x SL4MD SL4CB cB0 0686 256 866 80 1,7 22,5 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
866 133 6,5x SL4KJ SL4BV cB0 0686 256 866 80 1,7 22,5 0,18 28,1 SECC2
866 133 6,5x SL5B5 SL5QE cD0 068A 256 866 80 1,75 26,1 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
900 100 9x SL4SD cC0 0686 256 900 75 1,7 23,2 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
. 3.18

,

,

S-


S-

OEM

CPUID
-
,


-
,

,

,


,
,

,

933 133 7x SL47Q SL448 cB0 0683 256 933 75 1,65 25,5 0,18 28,1 SECC2
933 133 7x SL49J SL44J cB0 0683 256 933 75 1,65 24,5 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
933 133 7x SL4ME SL4C9 cC0 0686 256 933 75 1,7 24,5 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
933 133 7x SL4KK SL4BT cC0 0686 256 933 75 1,7 25,5 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
933 133 7x SL5QF cD0 068A 256 933 77 1,75 27,3 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
1000B 133 7,5x SL4FP SL48S cB0 0683 256 1000 70 1,7 26,1 0,18 28,1 SECC2
1000B 133 7,5x SL4C8 SL4C8 cC0 0686 256 1000 70 1,7 26,1 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
1000B 133 7,5 SL4MF cB0 0683 256 1000 70 1,7 26,1 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
1000 100 10 SL4BR SL4BR cC0 0686 256 1000 70 1,7 26,1 0,18 28,1 SECC2
1000 100 10 SL4KL cC0 0686 256 1000 70 1,7 26,1 SECC2
1000B 133 7,5 SL4BS SL4BS cC0 0686 256 1000 70 1,7 26,1 0,18 28,1 SECC2
1000B 133 7,5 SL5QK cD0 068A 256 1000 64 1,75 29,0 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
1000B 133 7,5 SL5DV cD0 068A 256 1000 64 1,75 29,0 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
1000B 133 7,5 SL5B3 SL5B3 cD0 068A 256 1000 75 1,75 29,0 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
1000B 133 7,5 SL52R SL52R cD0 068A 256 1000 75 1,75 29,0 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
1000B 133 7,5 SL5FQ cD0 068A 256 1000 75 1,7 29,0 0,18 28,1 FCPGA
1100 100 11x SL5QW cD0 068A 256
1133 133 8,5 SL5LT tA1 06B1 256 1133 69 1,475 29,1 0,13 44 FCPGA2
1133 133 8,5 SL5GQ SL5GQ tA1 06B1 256 1133 69 1,475 29,1 0,13 44 FCPGA2
. 3.18

,

,

S-


S-

OEM

CPUID
-
,


-
,

,

,


,
,

,

1133-S 133 8,5 SL5LV tA1 06B1 256 1133 69 1,45 27,9 0,13 44 FCPGA2
1133-S 133 8,5 SL5PU SL5PU tA1 06B1 256 1133 69 1,45 27,9 0,13 44 FCPGA2
1200 133 9 SL5GN SL5GN tA1 06B1 256 1200 69 1,475 29,9 0,13 44 FCPGA2
1200 133 9 SL5PM tA1 06B1 256 1200 69 1,475 29,9 0,13 44 FCPGA2
1266-S 133 9,5 SL5LW SL5QL tA1 06B1 256 1266 69 1,45 29,5 0,13 44 FCPGA2
1333 133 10 SL5VX tA1 06B1 256 1133 69 1,475 29,9 0,13 44 FCPGA2
1400-S 133 10,5 SL657 SL5XL tA1 06B1 256 1133 69 1,45 29,9 0,13 44 FCPGA2
1200 133 9 SL5PM tA1 06B1 256 1200 69 1,45 29,9 0,13 44 FCPGA2
SECC Single Edge Contact Cartridge.
SECC2 Single Edge Contact Cartridge (revision 2).
CPUID ID, CPUID.
ECC Error Correcting Code.
Pentium III . ,
, -
. ,
,
.
. -
,
.

Pentium II/III Xeon


Xeon -
Pentium II III. Xeon, Pen-
tium II, 1998 . Pentium III
1999 . Xeon
Pentium II III: , - .
Pentium II/III Xeon SEC.
- .
SEC . 3.36, . 3.37.
Pentium II/III Xeon -
512 , 1 2 .
.
- , .
Xeon - ,
-. -
, . -
Pentium II Xeon 7,5
, Pentium III Xeon 9,5 .
Pentium III -,

. 3.36. SEC Pentium II/III Xeon

176 3.

. 3.37. SEC Pentium II/III Xeon

28,1 - 256 , 84 1 -
140 - 2 ,
. -
- , Xeon
64 ECC
(Error checking and correction).
Xeon Socket 370, -
, Pentium 4,
Socket 603.


, P6, -
. Pentium,
Socket P5 ( Pentium),
-
Pentium.
Intel
AMD Athlon Duron.

Nexgen Nx586 -.

177
AMD-K6
, -
P5 (Pentium). -
Pentium Pentium II.
Socket 7,
, ,
Socket 7 .
AMD-K6 Pentium,
, Pentium.
AMD-K6
(MMX), AMD
K6-2 3DNow. AMD K6
Socket 7. ,
.
AMD-K6:
, ;
RISC-, x86 RISC;
();
;
;
;
64 ( 32 -
32 );

(FPU);
MMX;
SMM;
Socket 7 Ceramic Pin Grid Array (CPGA);
0,35- 0,25-
.
K6-2 :
;
100 ( Super 7);
21- , 3DNow.
6-3 - 256 ,
.
6-3 - , -
, . 6
Celeron Pentium
Intel. 3DNow, 6-2/3
,
.

178 3.
AMD-K6 ,
x86, . . Intel, MMX.
- , -
Socket 7, AMD
- 64 (. . , Pentium II).
, K6 -
Pentium,
Pentium II.
AMD-K5 K6 Socket 7. -
,
BIOS. AMD-K6 ,
.
AMD-K6-166 (200 ) 2,9 , --
3,3 , AMD-K6 233 3,2 ,
- 3,3 . -
2,8 3,3 -; 2,8
AMD-K6, -
. ,
Socket 7 ,
: 2,9 3,2 (233 ) (Vcc2);
3,3 - (Vcc3).
7,5 A (9,5 A 233 ) .
200
145 (2,9 145 ). -
233 ,
100 (3,2 100 ).
,
, , . -
,
. , K6 . ,
.
BIOS AMD-K6. BIOS Award
1 1997 . AMI
K6 BIOS
CPU Module 3.31 . BIOS 4.0 ( 6.0 5.1
4/7/97 ) Phoenix AMD-K6.
, , -
Web- AMD ,
AMD-K6. , ,
AMD-K6, ,
,
.
, K6
. 3.19. AMD-K6 . 3.38.
, 3,5
1,5x. -
3,5x AMD-K6 Intel. -

179
3.19. AMD-K6

-,
,

,
K6-3 450 4,5x 100 2,4 3,3
K6-3 400 4x 100 2,4 3,3
K6-2 475 5x 95 2,4 3,3
K6-2 450 4,5x 100 2,4 3,3
K6-2 400 4x 100 2,2 3,3
K6-2 380 4x 95 2,2 3,3
K6-2 366 5,5x 66 2,2 3,3
K6-2 350 3,5x 100 2,2 3,3
K6-2 333 3,5x 95 2,2 3,3
K6-2 333 5,0x 66 2,2 3,3
K6-2 300 3x 100 2,2 3,3
K6-2 300 4,5x 66 2,2 3,3
K6-2 266 4x 66 2,2 3,3
K6 300 4,5x 66 2,2 3,45
K6 266 4x 66 2,2 3,3
K6 233 3,5x 66 3,2 3,3
K6 200 3x 66 2,9 3,3
K6 166 2,5x 66 2,9 3,3

4x , , BF,
BF2. BF.
. 3.20.

OPN
AMD-K6-233APR

:
R=0C-70C

Copyright :
P=3,2-3,4 () /3,3135-3,6 (-)
Microsoft :
A=321- CPGA
:
233
:
AMD-K6

. 3.38. AMD-K6

180 3.
3.20. AMD-K6

BF0 BF1 BF2


2,5x . . .
3x . . .
3,5x . . .
4x . . .
4,5x . . .
5x . . .
5,5x . . .

, -
. -

.
Cyrix Intel, AMD -
. K6 8,8 -
0,35- . 12,7 ,
162 2 . K6 0,25-
. AMD 50 Windows-
.
Socket 7, -
K6
, -
Pentium Pentium MMX. AMD-K6 Socket 7,
Intel
. BIOS.

AMD Athlon Athlon XP


Athlon AMD.
Pentium III. AMD
Slot A, Pen-
tium II/III (. 3.39). Athlon 512 - -
, ,
. 2000 AMD -
Athlon ( Thunderbird), -
256
. -
Intel. ,
PGA Socket A (. 3.40), Slot A.
Athlon, Athlon XP, -
, 3DNow!! Professional,
Intel SSE.
Slot A Slot 1, Socket A Socket 370,
.

181
. 3.39. AMD Athlon Slot A

. 3.40. AMD Athlon Socket A

Socket A Socket 370, AMD


.
AMD Athlon 550
1 000 , EV6 200/266 -
North Bridge .
Digital Equipment, Alpha 21264. -
1,6/2,1 /. , AMD
.
AMD Athlon - -
128 , - 512 ,

182 3.
, .
- 256 ,
. AMD Athlon MMX Enhanced 3DNow,
45 ,
. 3DNow SSE
Intel, -
. , ,
, 3DNow, SSE.
Athlon 0,25- ,
0,18- . -

. ,
,
.
. 3.21 Athlon
Slot, . 3.22 AMD Athlon PGA (Socket A).

3.21. Athlon Slot A


-

,
,

,
,

650 100x2 6,5x 256 650 1,7 23,8 36,1 0,18 37


700 100x2 7x 256 700 1,7 25,2 38,3 0,18 37
750 100x2 7,5x 256 750 1,7 26,6 40,4 0,18 37
800 100x2 8x 256 800 1,7 28,0 42,6 0,18 37
850 100x2 8,5x 256 850 1,7 29,4 44,8 0,18 37
900 100x2 9x 256 900 1,75 31,7 49,7 0,18 37
950 100x2 9,5x 256 950 1,75 33,2 52,0 0,18 37
1000 100x2 10x 256 1000 1,75 34,6 54,3 0,18 37

AMD Athlon XP
, Athlon
Athlon XP (. 3.23).
Athlon ,
Intel SSE, ,
Pentium 4.
Athlon XP AMD
QuantiSpeed, , , , .
.

183
3.22. Athlon Socket A

,
,

,
,



650 200 3,25x 256 650 1,75 22 38,5 0,18 37
700 200 3,5x 256 700 1,75 23 40,3 0,18 37
750 200 3,25x 256 750 1,75 25 43,8 0,18 37
800 200 4x 256 800 1,75 26 45,5 0,18 37
850 200 4,25x 256 850 1,75 27 47,3 0,18 37
900 200 4,5x 256 900 1,75 29 50,8 0,18 37
950 200 4,75x 256 950 1,75 30 52,5 0,18 37
1000 200 5x 256 1000 1,75 31 54,3 0,18 37
1000 266 3,75x 256 1000 1,75 31 54,3 0,18 37
1100 200 5,5 256 1100 1,75 34 59,5 0,18 37
1133 266 4,25 256 1133 1,75 36 63,0 0,18 37
1200 200 6 256 1200 1,75 38 66,5 0,18 37
1200 266 4,5 256 1200 1,75 38 66,5 0,18 37
1300 200 6,5 256 1300 1,75 39 68,3 0,18 37
1333 266 5 256 1333 1,75 40 70,0 0,18 37
1400 266 5,5 256 1400 1,75 41 72,0 0,18 37

, -
. -
-
,
.
,
. -
AMD -
Intel.
.

, - .
(TLB).
,
- .
, -
, Athlon XP

184 3.
3.23. AMD Athlon XP

,
,

,
,

,
(P-Rating)



1500+ 1333 266 5 256 1333 1,75 34 60,0 0,18 37,5
1600+ 1400 266 5,25 256 1400 1,75 36 62,8 0,18 37,5
1700+ 1467 266 5,5 256 1467 1,75 37 64,0 0,18 37,5
1800+ 1533 266 5,75 256 1533 1,75 38 66,0 0,18 37,5
1900+ 1600 266 6 256 1600 1,75 39 68,0 0,18 37,5
2000+ 1667 266 6,25 256 1667 1,75 40 70,0 0,18 37,5
2100+ 1733 266 6,5 256 1733 1,75 41 72,0 0,18 37,5
1700+ 1467 266 5,5 256 1476 1,5 33 49,4 0,13 37,2
1800+ 1533 266 5,75 256 1533 1,5 34 51,0 0,13 37,2
1900+ 1600 266 6 256 1600 1,5 35 52,5 0,13 37,2
2000+ 1667 266 6,25 256 1667 1,6 38 60,3 0,13 37,2
2100+ 1733 266 6,5 256 1733 1,6 39 62,1 0,13 37,2
2200+ 1800 266 6,75 256 1800 1,65 41 67,9 0,13 37,2
2400+ 2000 266 7 256 2000 1,65 41,4 68,3 0,13 40
2600+ 2133 266 7,25 256 2133 1,65 41,4 68,3 0,13 40
2700+ 2167 333 7,5 256 2167 1,56 41,4 68,3 0,13 40

Pentium 4
.
Palomino, Athlon XP,
Athlon 4 ( ). -
, Athlon.
3DNow! Professional (
70 SSE Pentium III 144
SSE2 Pentium 4).
FSB 266/333 .
- 128 -
256 , -
.
( ),
.
Athlon XP
, ,

185
Intel. -
. Athlon XP
0,13- ,
, ,
, -
. 0,13- Athlon XP
2 .

AMD Duron
AMD Duron ( Spitfire), 2000 ,
AMD Athlon
, Celeron Pentium II III (. 3.41). -
, Duron Athlon -
; . AMD Duron
- 64
Socket A Slot A. AMD Duron -
Celeron .
Duron Athlon,
Athlon 200 3DNow.
AMD Duron Socket A (PGA) -
. 3.24.


Cyrix/IBM 6x86 (MI) 6x86MX (MII)
-.

. 3.41. AMD Duron

186 3.
3.24. Duron

,
,

,
,



550 200 2,75x 64 550 1,6 15,8 25,3 0,18 25
600 200 3x 64 600 1,6 17,1 27,4 0,18 25
650 200 3,25x 64 650 1,6 18,4 29,4 0,18 25
700 200 3,5x 64 700 1,6 19,6 31,4 0,18 25
750 200 3,75 64 750 1,6 20,9 33,4 0,18 25
800 200 4 64 800 1,6 22,1 35,4 0,18 25
850 200 4,25 64 850 1,6 23,4 37,4 0,18 25
900 200 4,5 64 900 1,6 24,7 39,5 0,18 25
950 200 4,75x 64 950 1,6 25,9 41,5 0,18 25
1000 200 5x 64 1000 1,75 26,3 46,1 0,18 27
1100 200 5,25x 64 1100 1,75 28,7 50,3 0,18 27
1200 200 5,5x 64 1200 1,75 31,3 54,7 0,18 27
1300 200 5,75 64 1300 1,75 34,3 60 0,18 27

P7 (Intel
Pentium 4)
Pentium 4 (. 3.42), 2000 ,
.
, 786,
, 686.
Pentium 4 . 3.43.
Pentium 4.
1,31,7 .
42 , 0,18- , -
217 2 (Willamette).
55 , 0,13- , -
131 2 (Northwood).
32- Intel.
400 533 .
- ()
.

P7 (Intel Pentium 4) 187


. 3.42. Pentium 4

(20 ).
.
.
- 20 (
12 , 8 ).
128- - -
256 , .
- 4
(ECC).
144 SSE2.
.
.
Intel -
, . Pentium 4
NetBurst, , -
, 400/533 -
.
Pentium III ,
. -
.
- ()
, -
. 400 ,
, 100 ,
. - -
, -

188 3.
. 3.43. Pentium 4 Northwood (0,13- -
, 55 , 131 2 ). -
Intel

12 .
, .
, -
.
100/133 ,
(4x) 400/533 .
64 (. . 64 8 ), ,
3 200 4 266 /. RDRAM
1 600 2 133 / , . . 3 200 4 266 / . -
RDRAM
RIMM. PC1600 DDR
, .
20- -
, , , RISC.
, ,
, , , -
. , -

P7 (Intel Pentium 4) 189


, , Pentium III
AMD Athlon , -
Pentium 4. ,
Pentium 4, .
Pentium 4 Socket 423,
423 , 3939 SPGA. -
Socket 478, ,
. -
,
.

Pentium 4 Hyper-Threading
2002 Intel Pentium 4 (0,13 )
3,06 , -
512 K Hyper-Threading.
Intel , -
. Hyper-Threading
, -
( ). , Hyper-Thread-
ing ,
,
.

,
, Pentium 4,
RDRAM DDR SDRAM, ,
Pentium III. ,
Pentium 4 RDRAM, -
(. . RIMM).
Pentium 4
RDRAM.
, SDRAM DDR SDRAM
(266/333/400 ).


Pentium 4 ,

, 12 3,3 5 ,
. 3,3 5 , -
,
. , -
. PC
, ATX
, 12 (

190 3.
6 ).
12- , .
, ATX12V.
20- ATX
6- (3,3/5 ). , -
,
. , PC Power and
Cooling , -
Molex ATX12V. , 300- ( )

, ATX12V.
300- , , -
.
Pentium 4
. 3.25.
, Pentium 4, -
. 0,5 ,
-
. ,
ATX -
, Socket 423 .
.
,
, -
, .
, .
Intel
Pentium 4 . -
ATX
Pentium 4.

. , -
Asus P4T ,
ATX.
Pentium 4 Socket 423 478 -
.
,
. , Intel, -

.
-
- ,
.

P7 (Intel Pentium 4) 191


3.25. Pentium 4

,

S-

S-

,
,

,
,


CPUID

1,30 SL4QD SL4SF B2 0F07h 256 69 48,9 423 400 0,18 42


1,30 SL4SF SL4SF B2 0F07h 256 69 48,9 423 400 0,18 42
1,30 SL5GC SL5FW C1 0F0Ah 256 70 51,6 423 400 0,18 42
1,40 SL4CS SL4SG B2 0F07h 256 70 51,8 423 400 0,18 42
1,40 SL4SG SL4SG B2 0F07h 256 70 51,8 423 400 0,18 42
1,40 SL45X2 SL4WS C1 0F0Ah 256 72 54,7 423 400 0,18 42
1,40 SL5N7 SL59U C1 0F0Ah 256 72 55,3 478 400 0,18 42
1,40 SL59U SL59U C1 0F0Ah 256 72 55,3 478 400 0,18 42
1,40 SL5TG SL5TG D0 0F12h 256 72 55,3 478 400 0,18 42
1,40 SL5TG SL5TG D0 0F12h 256 72 55,3 478 400 0,18 42
1,50 SL4TY SL4SH B2 0F07h 256 72 54,7 423 400 0,18 42
1,50 SL4SH SL4SH B2 0F07h 256 72 54,7 423 400 0,18 42
1,50 SL4X3 SL4WT C1 0F0Ah 256 73 57,8 423 400 0,18 42
1,50 SL4WT SL4WT C1 0F0Ah 256 73 57,8 423 400 0,18 42
1,50 SL5TN SL5SX D0 0F12h 256 73 57,8 423 400 0,18 42
1,50 SL5N8 SL59V C1 0F0Ah 256 73 57,9 478 400 0,18 42
1,50 SL5UF SL5TJ D0 0F12h 256 73 57,9 478 400 0,18 42
1,50 SL5TJ SL5TJ D0 0F12h 256 73 57,9 478 400 0,18 42
1,50 SL62Y SL63Y D0 0F12h 256 71 62,9 478 400 0,18 42
1,60 SL4X4 SL4WU C1 0F0Ah 256 75 61 423 400 0,18 42
1,60 SL5UL SL5VL D0 0F12h 256 75 61 423 400 0,18 42
1,60 SL5VL SL5VL D0 0F12h 256 75 61 423 400 0,18 42
1,60 SL5UW SL5US C1 0F0Ah 256 75 60,8 478 400 0,18 42
1,60 SL5UJ SL5VH D0 0F12h 256 75 60,8 478 400 0,18 42
1,60 SL5VH SL5VH D0 0F12h 256 75 60,8 478 400 0,18 42
1,60A SL668 SL668 B0 0F24h 512 66 46,8 478 400 0,18 42
1,70 SL57V SL57W C1 0F0Ah 256 76 64,0 423 400 0,18 42
1,70 SL57W SL57W C1 0F0Ah 256 76 64,0 423 400 0,18 42
1,70 SL5TP SL5SY D0 0F12h 256 76 64,0 423 400 0,18 42
1,70 SL5N9 SL59X C1 0F0Ah 256 76 63,5 478 400 0,18 42
1,70 SL5UG SL5TK D0 0F12h 256 76 63,5 478 400 0,18 42

192 3.
. 3.25

,

S-

S-

,
,

,
,


CPUID

1,70 SL5TK SL5TK D0 0F12h 256 76 63,5 478 400 0,18 42


1,70 SL62Z SL62Z D0 0F12h 256 73 67,7 478 400 0,18 42
1,80 SL4X5 SL4WV C1 0F0Ah 256 78 66,7 423 400 0,18 42
1,80 SL5UM SL5VM D0 0F12h 256 78 66,7 423 400 0,18 42
1,80 SL5VM SL5VM D0 0F12h 256 78 66,7 423 400 0,18 42
1,80 SL5UV SL5UT C1 0F0Ah 256 77 66,1 478 400 0,18 42
1,80 SL5UK SL5VJ D0 0F12h 256 77 66,1 478 400 0,18 42
1,80 SL5VJ SL5VJ D0 0F12h 256 77 66,1 478 400 0,18 42
1,80A SL63X SL62P B0 0F24h 512 67 49,6 478 400 0,13 55
1,80A SL62P SL62P B0 0F24h 512 67 49,6 478 400 0,13 55
1,90 SL5WH SL5VN D0 0F12h 256 73 69,2 478 400 0,18 42
1,90 SL5VN SL5VN D0 0F12h 256 73 69,2 423 400 0,18 42
1,90 SL5WG SL5VK D0 0F12h 256 75 72,8 423 400 0,18 42
1,90 SL5VK SL5VK D0 0F12h 256 75 72,8 478 400 0,18 42
2,00 SL5TQ SL5SZ D0 0F12h 256 74 71,8 478 400 0,18 42
2,00 SL5UH SL5TL D0 0F12h 256 76 75,3 478 400 0,18 42
2,00 SL5TL SL5TL D0 0F12h 256 76 75,3 478 400 0,18 42
2,00A SL5ZT SL5JR B0 0F24h 512 68 52,4 478 400 0,13 55
2,00A SL5YS SL5YS B0 0F24h 512 68 52,4 478 400 0,13 55
2,20 SL5YS SL5YS B0 0F24h 512 69 55,1 478 400 0,13 55
2,20 SL5YS SL5YS B0 0F24h 512 69 55,1 478 400 0,13 55
2,26 SL683 SL67Y B0 0F24h 512 70 56,0 478 533 0,13 55
2,26 SL67Y SL67Y B0 0F24h 512 70 56,0 478 533 0,13 55
2,40 SL67R SL65R B0 0F24h 512 70 57,8 478 400 0,13 55
2,40 SL65R SL65R B0 0F24h 512 70 57,8 478 400 0,13 55
2,40B SL684 SL67Z B0 0F24h 512 70 57,8 478 533 0,13 55
2,40B SL67Z SL67Z B0 0F24h 512 70 57,8 478 533 0,13 55
2,53 SL685 SL682 B0 0F24h 512 71 59,3 478 533 0,13 55
2,53 SL682 SL682 B0 0F24h 512 71 59,3 478 533 0,13 55

P7 (Intel Pentium 4) 193


(Itanium
Itanium 2)
Itanium 2001
Intel, -
. Intel
, Itanium 886, -
Intel.
386.
Itanium IA-64 (64-
Intel), , ,
.
IA-64, ,
Intel, .
,
,
, Itanium
IA-64.
Itanium .
733/800 1 .
-:
- 2
4 , ,
128- ;
- 96 ,
;
- 32 (16
- /16 - ).
64- ( 8 )
266 2,1 / (
Itanium).
128- ( 8 )
400 6,4 / (
Itanium 2).
25 , 300 -
.
221 , -
( Itanium 2).
16 T () (44- ).
32- .
EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing),
20 .

194 3.
,
.
FMAC (Floating-point Multiply Accumulate) 82- -
.
FMAC
.
MMX,
FP .
FP
(Floating-point).
128 , 128 ,
8 , 64 .
35 ( 75125 ) -
4 2 .
.
Intel Hewlett-Packard P7 1994 .
1997 , -
,
.
Itanium , 64- -
IA-64. ,
VLIW (Very Long Instruction Words ), -
, , -
, .
RISC, CISC.
, Intel EPIC (Explicitly Pa-
rallel Instruction Computing ); -
. Itanium 128-
, -
, 32- .
-
.
-
. ,
, Itanium
.
64- , Intel
Hewlett-Packard Itanium
32- Intel x86 PA-RISC
Hewlett-Packard. Itanium ,
, Itanium , -
IA-64, Windows (
IA-32) HP-RISC UNIX. , Itanium 64-
32- .

(Itanium Itanium 2) 195


, 32-
,
, Pentium 4 .
IA-64, -
. 1985 , Intel
80386 32- .
32- . 386- -
32- ,
16- . 32- , -
386-, .
, -
. 10
386, Microsoft Windows 95 32-
.
Itanium ,
, Microsoft Windows (64- XP Edi-
tion 64- Windows Advanced Server Limited Edition 2002), Linux (
-: Red Hat, SuSE, Caldera Turbo Linux) Unix (HP-
UX 11i v 1.5 Hewlett-Packard AIX-5L IBM).
, , , ,
64-
64- . 32-
, 32- Itanium -
32- , -
, .
Itanium Itanium 2 0,18- ;
0,13- ,
-.
Itanium Pin Array Cartridge (PAC).
- PAC418 (418
), .
75125 , 170 . -
, (. 3.44). Itanium
, .
Itanium -. - -
- . -
2 4 -
.
Itanium 2, McKinley, -
2002 .
(6,4 /),
- ( -
Itanium).
. McKinley -
Madison, Itanium 2, 0,13-
.

196 3.

. 3.44. Itanium


486 Intel, , -
, -
Socket, . ,
Socket 3,
486, Socket 7 Pentium.
, -
.
.
, Socket 370,
Pentium III 1,4 .
.
, Pentium 4
Athlon XP. -
ATX, ,
, .
Intel OverDrive.
, , -
, OverDrive .


, .
,
( ).
, ,
,
.

. -

197
. ,
, ,
, , . ,
,
.
: , -
, , , ,
CD-ROM, , -
,
.
. -
, .
, . -
, .

-
Intel iCOMP index 3.0
Intel iCOMP index 3.0
Business Applications Performance Corporation SYSmark/NT
(BAPCo)
Business Applications Performance Corporation for SYSmark/NT, SYSmark95
Windows (BAPCo)
Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC) SPECint95
Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC) SPECint95, SPECfp95
Ziff-Davis Benchmark CPUmark32
Ziff-Davis Benchmark Winstone 98
Ziff-Davis Benchmark WinBench 98
Ziff-Davis Benchmark CPUmark32, Winstone 98,
WinBench 98, 3D
WinBench 98
Symantec Corporation Norton SI32
Symantec Corporation Norton SI32, Norton
Multimedia Benchmark


, , , -
. , ,
, , .
, -
. , ,
; , - .

198 3.

. 3.25.

3.25.


,
, .






,

,
,
.
,

,
,
.
POST

, ,



/
POST ;










BIOS BIOS

POST

199
. 3.25







;















,
.

, POST ( -
) ,
BIOS.
-
. , BIOS
.
, , , -
. ,
, .
-
. ,
-
BIOS.
.

200 3.
4



(system board), -
(motherboard), (main board).
.
,
. (form factor)
, .
(. . )
. , ,
, .
.
:
Baby-AT;
AT;
LPX.
:
ATX;
Micro-ATX;
Flex-ATX;
NLX;
WTX ( ).
:
( Compaq, Packard Bell, Hewlett-
Packard, / . .).

Baby-AT, IBM PC XT,
ATX NLX, -
. ATX,
Micro-ATX (
ATX, ) Flex-ATX (
,
). NLX ; WTX,
,
, .
. 4.1.
Baby-AT, AT LPX,
.
, -
. , ATX -
, NLX
NLX . .
,

202 4.
4.1.


ATX mini-tower full-tower;
,
, ,
. ATX

Mini-ATX ATX, , ATX.
ATX
Mini-ATX. Mini-ATX

Micro-ATX mini-tower

Flex-ATX
mini-tower,
NLX mini-tower,

WTX , (
)

. ,
.
, - -
, .
-
. ,
, -
. -
PC, ,
.

PC -.
, 60% . -
( Flex-ATX Micro-ATX
, LPX),
SFX micro-tower, -
PC. ,
,
. , ,
, .
mini-tower , , ,
, LPX.
,
, , Dell ( -
1998 ). -
ATX,

203
. , -
, Dell- . ,
, .
, , -
Micro-ATX ATX mid-tower ( ), -
.
Baby-AT, AT LPX
-.

ATX
ATX . -
Baby-AT LPX -
. , ATX Baby-AT
. , ,
ATX Baby-AT, LPX. ,
ATX .
ATX Intel
1995 .
ATX 1996
Baby-AT. 1997 2.01 -
ATX, .
2000 ( ) ATX (-
Engineering Change Revision PI), 2.03.
Intel ATX,
.
ATX, Web- Desktop Form
Factors : www.formfactors.org. ATX
, -
. ATX ,
Baby-AT.
ATX Baby-AT LPX.
-.
- 6,25
1,75 . -
,
, Baby-AT.
.
Baby-AT. ATX -
,
. -
3,3 , , ATX
, .
ATX , -
(3,3 5 ),

204 4.
ATX12V, , -
, .
.
: , ,
.
-
, ,
. -
. ,
, 70 (2,8 ).
-.

, .
,
.
. -
, -
. -
(, ,
).
. -
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.
, .
ATX -
, ,
. -
.
,
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, , , .
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, . -
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, -
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, , . ,
.

205




, 3,5" 5,25"

USB, ,
,




ATX

. 4.1. ATX, , -
, ( -
, , )

,
ATX, Intel -
.
, . Intel
, -
, -
().
, Intel ,
. -
, (),
.

ATX, , Baby-AT, -
. -
, -. ATX,
Intel mini-ATX, .
ATX 305244 (129,6 ), mini-
ATX 284208 (11,28,2 ).

206 4.
131,98
(5,196") 20,625 (0,812") -
20,32 (0,800")

10,16 12,7 ISA PCI 158,75 (6,250")
(0,400") (0,500")
0,0

15,24
(0,600") 22,86
31,12 (0,900")
(1,225")

4 ISA

152,4
(6,00")
227,33 4 PCI
(8,950") 19,18
243,84 (7,550")
(9,600") (mini-ATX)

M
5X 3,962
(0,156") mini-ATX

M M (M) M


10X 3,96 mini-ATX
(0,156") 284,48208,28
(11,2" x 8,2")

78,74
(3,100")
124,46
(4,900")
261,62 mini-ATX
(10,300")
16,51 281,94
(0,650") (11,100")
304,8
(12,000")

. 4.2. ATX 2.03, ATX micro-ATX

, ATX,
Micro-ATX Flex-ATX ( -
).
, Baby-AT,
ATX Baby-AT . -
, ATX
Slimline. ATX mini-ATX
. 4.2.
Baby-AT,
.
ATX.
, ,
ATX. . ATX
. -,
; , LPX NLX.

207
A F H
C

B D E G I J K

. 4.3. ATX
( ):
A PS/2,
B PS/2,
C USB 1, D USB 0,
E A,
F ,
G B,
H MIDI (),
I (),
J (),
K ()

. -, ATX

(. 4.3).

. 4.3 ATX. -
, . ,
15- VGA, , -
, MIDI/ .
,
. ,
PS/2, USB.

, ATX,
mini-ATX, micro-ATX, flex-ATX NLX, Web- Form Factors
( Platform Developer), : http://www.formfactors.
org. Web- Form Factors
, ,
.

208 4.
Micro-ATX
micro-ATX Intel
1997 ATX, -
. ATX
,
. , micro-ATX
ATX, micro-ATX -
ATX. ATX micro-ATX,
, . 1999
. mini-tower -
PC,
.
micro-ATX ATX -
:
(244 (9,6 ) 305 (12 ) 284
(11,2 );
;
( SFX).
micro-ATX 9,6 9,6
(244244 ), ATX (12 9,6
305244 ) mini-ATX (11,28,2 284208 ).
,
.
,
, , ,
, . -
.
USB, 10/100 Ethernet, SCSI 1394 (FireWire)
. micro-ATX
. 4.4.
micro-ATX
ATX. , ,
, SFX. -
, , -
.
SFX
. -
,
micro-ATX ATX.
micro-ATX ATX :
20- ;
-;
.
micro-
ATX ATX, ,
micro-ATX, SFX.

209
38,48 53,24
(1,200") (2,000")
20,62
158,73
(0,812") - (0,250")
20,32
(0,80")
-
10,13
(0,408")
ISA PCI

31,12 22,08
(0,908")
(1,223") 15,24 20,32 (0,80")
54,7 (0,408")
(2,232")
12,19 (0,48") -
2 ISA
PCI AGP

154,14
(4,100")
221,33
(8,930")
249,84 AGP
(9,500")
2 PCI


10X 3,96
(0,156")

20,32 43,32
(0,301") (1,608")
34,28 203,2
(1,300") (8,980")
243,84
(8,600")

. 4.4. micro-ATX 1.0

micro-ATX . ,
, : 304,8
355,6 (12 14 ), 177,8 (7 ), 304,8 (12 ),
micro-tower desktop.
micro-ATX . 4.5.
micro-ATX Intel
. -
, micro-ATX, Web- www.
formfactors.org.

Flex-ATX
1999 Intel micro-ATX, -
flex-ATX. ,
ATX, .

210 4.


AGP

PCI

. 4.5. micro-ATX

flex-ATX ,
ATX. 229191 (9,07,5 ). -
flex-ATX micro-ATX ,
. , flex-ATX
Socket 7 Socket A AMD, Socket 370
PPGA (Plastic Pin Grid Array) FCPGA (Flip Chip PGA) Intel Celeron
Pentium III, Socket 423 Pentium 4. flex-ATX -
Slot 1, Slot 2 Slot A, -
Pentium II/III Athlon. ,
Intel AMD ,
.
flex-ATX , ,
. flex-ATX
ATX, -
, -
(. 4.6).
flex-ATX
SFX, micro-ATX. ,
, ATX.

211
304,80
(12,000")
243,84
(9,600")
228,60 158,75 (6,250") -
(9,000")
-

A B C

190,50
(7,500")
flex-ATX

243,84
(9,600")

G R S H J
micro-ATX
ATX


flex-ATX
ATX micro-ATX

. 4.6. -
ATX, micro-ATX flex-ATX

, , -
, ATX.
, -
ATX. ,
ATX , -
.
, .
Xeon, , ATX,
ATX, ATX.

flex-ATX ATX -
, . 4.2.
, . -
,
,
. -
, . . mini-, micro- flex-ATX
, -
ATX. , mini-ATX ATX

212 4.
4.2. ATX

, ,
() ()
ATX 305 (12,0) 244 (9,6)
mini-ATX 284 (11,2) 208 (8,2)
micro-ATX 244 (9,6) 244 (9,6)
flex-ATX 229 (9,0) 191 (7,5)

, -
micro- flex-ATX.

ATX Riser
1999 Intel
ATX. 22-
(211) , PCI , -
, , , .
PCI. ,
AGP.
ATX -
, -
. ATX
PCI 4,2 ,
67 . Slimline
NLX,
. , -
ATX Slimline.

PCI. 14 2000 Peripheral Component Interconnect Spe-
cial Interest Group (PCI SIG) PCI Low-Profile,
( 2,5 ) PCI.
PCI , -
Intel ATX Riser,
PCI Slimline.
22- PCI -
,
ATX Riser, . -
PCI . ,
ATX Riser, . ATX Riser , -
PCI ; ,
ATX Riser.
ATX Riser PCI ( AGP
ISA). . 4.7 ATX ATX Riser.
22-
PCI ( ). , ,

213

PCI
ATX Riser

PCI

22-



. 4.7. ATX Riser micro-ATX

, , .
ATX Riser . 4.8.
PCI ATX Riser PCI -
.
, ATX Riser, -
. PCI AGP, ,
. ATX Riser
, ,
. , -
. , ATX Riser
.

B1 A1 PCI_GNT1#
PCI_ CLK1 B2 A2
B3 A3 PCI_GNT2#
PCI_REQ1# A4 B4
A5 B5 PCI_CLK3
PCI_CLK2 A6 B6 RISER_ID1
A7 B7
PCI_REQ2# A8 B8 RISER_ID2
A9 B9 NOGO
PC/PCI_DREQ# A10 B10 +12
PC/PCI_DGNT# A11 B11 SER_IRQ

. 4.8.
ATX Riser

214 4.
ATX Riser ,
Slimline.
ATX Riser, -

Slimline ATX.

NLX
NLX, Intel 1996 , -
Slimline. NLX -
,
LPX. , NLX
LPX, -
. NLX , ,
LPX.
LPX
, (-
, AGP). NLX (. 4.9).
NLX
Pentium III, Slot 1.
LPX,
. NLX , , LPX, -
.

. , NLX -
- . ,
( , , -
, . .)
(. 4.10). ,
,

. 4.9. NLX

215

PCI IDE



PCI/ISA




ISA



IDE




PCI



PCI/ISA


ISA

. 4.10. NLX

,
. ;
NLX 30 !
NLX Riser, . 4.10, -
.
,
.
,
, .
.
.
,
.
.
-
NLX, ,

216 4.
. -
, NLX
, AST, Digital, Gateway, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Micron, NEC .
. -
, AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port), USB (Universal Serial Bus),
RIMM DIMM.
/. -
, NLX
, -
.
-,
, -
, .
- -
, .
NLX . 4.11.
, , ATX, -
. ,
- ( LPX
) , NLX Riser
.
.
AGP,
. 4.11. , , ,
PCI ISA, . , -
AGP , NLX.
NLX AGP, -
. AGP, ,
, . , AGP,
NLX, ,
NLX (. 4.12).
NLX: 13,6 , 11,2
10 (. 4.13). ,
, .
NLX, ,
- .
, .
. 4.14 -
NLX.
,
.
, NLX
. -
- ,
( , ,
Baby-AT).

217


AGP

. 4.11. NLX

NLX -
Web- Desktop Form Factor : http://www.formfactors.org.
ATX, mini-ATX, micro-ATX, flex-ATX NLX -
.
, ,
(, Baby-AT). LPX
, -
. , LPX -
, -
. , ATX
, , , -
.

WTX
WTX
. WTX ATX

218 4.
. 4.12. AGP-, -
ATX/Baby-AT NLX.
-
AGP
NLX

345, 44
(13,600")
340, 33
(13,400")
5, 08 158,12
(0,200") (6,225")
4X 4,01 (0,300") 4X 3,00 (0,156")

30,48
(1,200")

31,36 223,50
(3,400") (5,100")
.

213,20
(4,000")
198,12 .
(7,800")

111,76
(4,400")

. 4.13. NLX. NLX 345,44 (13,6 ). -


NLX 284,48 (11,2 ) 254 (10 -
)

219

USB- 1 A PS/2

USB- 0
RJ-45
B PS/2

. 4.14. NLX

/ , , -
.
WTX 1.0 1998 ,
1999 (1.1). WTX -
Web- http://www.wtx.org. -
, , .
, - .
WTX
. . 4.15 WTX .
,
.
WTX, 14 (356 ),
16,75 (425 ), ATX.
,
.
WTX
, . -
;
WTX , -
. WTX -
.

220 4.

. 4.15. WTX


, (-
AT, Baby-AT, ATX, mini-ATX, micro-ATX NLX),
.
,
, , -
. .
, -
.
.
, ,
. ,
, , -
, .
,
, .
-
, (overdrive)
(turbo). ,
. ,
,
.

221
LPX
.
. Compaq (,
, -
), Hewlett-Packard ( Vectra) Packard Bell (
). ,
.
, , AT ( PC
, ATX, -
Baby-AT), -
. -
,
.
, , . ,
, , .
, , Dell, Gateway Micron,
ATX, micro-ATX NLX,
.
, ,
.



-.


, -
, .
:
;
( North/South Bridge Hub);
Super I/O;
- (ROM BIOS);
SIMM/DIMM/RIMM;
ISA/PCI/AGP;
AMR (Audio Modem Riser);
CNR (Communications and Networking Riser);
;
.
- -
, SCSI-, AMR (Audio Modem Riser) CNR

222 4.
(Communications and Networking Riser), ,
.
.


Socket Slot.
, Intel ( 486-), -
. Socket,
.
Socket Slot .
Socket Slot; , -
.
3, .
486- ;
. . 4.3 ,
Socket Slot.
( -
). Pentium II
Athlon, Intel AMD , -
, - ,
Static RAM (SRAM)
. ,
, , , ,
.
, -,
, , ,
. , -
,
.
Celeron, Intel -
- ,
- . -
Pentium III ( Coppermine), K6-3, Duron ( Spitfire)
Athlon ( Thunderbird) AMD (-
Thunderbird Athlon Slot A)
- . -
,
. -
, , ,
. -
. , -

.
Itanium , -
, .

223
4.3.

,

Socket 1 169 1717 PGA 5 486 SX/SX2,
DX/DX2*, DX4
OverDrive
Socket 2 238 1919 PGA 5 486 SX/SX2,
DX/DX2*, DX4
OverDrive, 486
Pentium OverDrive
Socket 3 237 1919 PGA 5/3,3 486 SX/SX2,
DX/DX2, DX4, 486
Pentium OverDrive,
5x86
Socket 4 273 2121 PGA 5 Pentium 60/66,
OverDrive
Socket 5 320 3737 SPGA 3,3/3,5 Pentium 75-133,
OverDrive
Socket 6** 235 1919 PGA 3.3 486 DX4, 486
Pentium OverDrive
Socket 7 321 3737 SPGA VRM Pentium 75-266+,
MMX, OverDrive,
6x86, K6
Socket 8 387 dual pattern SPGA Auto VRM Pentium Pro
Socket 370 370 3737 SPGA Auto VRM Celeron, Pentium III
(PGA370) PPGA/FCPGA
Socket PAC418 418 3822 split SPGA Auto VRM Itanium PAC
Socket 423 423 3939 SPGA Auto VRM Pentium 4
(PGA423)
Socket 478 478 2626 PGA Auto VRM Pentium 4 FC-PGA2,
Celeron FC-PGA2
Socket A 462 3737 SPGA Auto VRM Duron, Athlon PGA
(Socket 462)
Socket 603 603 3125 SPGA Auto VRM Xeon (P4)
Slot 1 (SC242) 242 Slot Auto VRM Pentium II, Celeron
SEP, Pentium III
Slot A 242 Slot Auto VRM Athlon SEC
Slot 2 (SC330) 330 Slot Auto VRM Pentium II Xeon,
Pentium III Xeon

* DX4 ( OverDrive) -
3,3 .
** Socket 6 .

224 4.
OD OverDrive ( , -
).
PGA Pin Grid Array.
SPGA Staggered Pin Grid Array.
PPGA Plastic Pin Grid Array.
FCPGA Flip-Chip Pin Grid Array.
PAC Pin Array Cartridge.
VRM Voltage Regulator Module ( ).
Auto-VRM Voltage Regulator Module ( ,
VID ).
SECC Single Edge Contact Cartridge.
SC242 Slot, 242 .
SC330 Slot, 330 .



. . ,
. -
(
Front-Side Bus FSB), , , --
. . .
, -
, , . ,

. , , -
, , , , .
, -
. , ,
.
,
. -
,
.
-
. -
, , , .
, -
, , , , .
, , -
, .
,
.
, -
, , -,
.

225

IBM PC -
-.

Intel
Intel -
. ,
Compaq, Intel -
.
, 1989 Compaq EISA, ,
, . -

(. . , EISA
).
Intel -
EISA. EISA, ,
, .
Intel, ,
. 286 386 , -
, , -
-
, . , 286
, , ,
386 -
. Intel Intel-
. Intel
,
. ,
.
.
1989 486 Intel
420. -
, 486 .
, ;
Intel .
1989 Intel -
, 90% .
, -
Pentium,
? 1993 Intel -
Pentium 430LX,
.
, , . , Intel
,
( ), -

226 4.
. 1994 Intel
, , , -
.
, , Intel -
, . .
. -
,
,
. ,
. 1993 , . . -
Pentium,
.
, Intel.
. Intel -
, Intel
. , Intel,
Intel, -
. - ,
Dell, Gateway Micron Intel?
, , -
, .
,
Athlon Duron AMD, In-
tel. , , ,
AMD, Intel.
, -
micro-ATX, , -
. -
Intel- ,
, Intel
OEM .

Intel.



420xx P4 (486)
430xx P5 (Pentium)
440xx P6 (Pentium Pro/Pentium II/Pentium III)
8 P6 (Pentium II/Pentium III) Hub
450xx P6 Server (Pentium Pro/Pentium II/III Xeon)


. , Pentium II/III
440BX,

227
: 82443BX North Bridge 82371EX South Bridge. 850
Pentium 4 : 82850 Memory
Controller Hub (MCH) 82801BA I/O Controller Hub (ICH2). -
(Intel - ),
, , -
.
Intel :
North/South Bridge hub-,
800.


AMD Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron, AMD
: , ,
Intel Pentium II/III
Celeron. Intel AMD -

Athlon/Duron.
AMD 750 ( Irongate) -
Socket/Slot A. 751 System Controller
( North Bridge) 756 Peripheral Bus Controller ( South Bridge).
AMD AMD-760 Athlon/Duron, -
,
DDR SDRAM. : AMD-761 System Bus Controller
( North Bridge) AMD-766 Peripheral Bus Controller ( South Bridge).
, VIA Technologies SiS,
, AMD Socket/Slot A.
-
, Athlon/Duron, -
, , Intel.

North/South Bridge
Intel ( -
) -
North Bridge South Bridge, Super I/O.
North Bridge.
(400/266/200/133/100/66 ) AGP
(533/266/133/66 ) PCI (33 ).
South Bridge. PCI (66/33 ) -
ISA (8 ).
Super I/O. , ISA, -

, National Semiconductor Standard Microsystems Corp.
(SMSC). Super I/O -
, .

228 4.
AC '97 Audio
Codec (
) AGP Pro MIDI/ USB


Modem In


PS/2
Video/Audio In

Audio/Modem Socket A
Riser (AMR) (Socket 462)

AMD Athlon/Duron


PCI VIA Apollo KT-133

20-

ATX
DIMM


USB (


USB)

Flash BIOS IDE



Flash BIOS

. 4.16. Socket A (AMD Athlon/Duron)

, ,
, .
AMD So-
cket A, North/South Bridge, . 4.16.
North Bridge PAC (PCI/AGP Controller). ,
,
, , ( -
). North
Bridge; ,
North Bridge.
South Bridge -
; .
South Bridge .
( North Bridge, , ,
South Bridge.)

. South Bridge
PCI (33 ) ISA (8 ). , -
, IDE

229
USB (Universal Serial Bus ), , -
CMOS . South Bridge ,
ISA,
.
Super I/O, , -
ISA (8 ) ,
. , Super I/O -
, , ,
/. -
CMOS RAM/Clock, IDE, . ,
IEEE-1394 SCSI, -
.

Hub-
800 hub-, -
North Bridge Memory Controller Hub (MCH), South
Bridge I/O Controller Hub (ICH). -
PCI North/South Bridge. hub- -
hub-, -
PCI. Hub- -
North/South Bridge.
. Hub- 8--
4X () 66 (466
1 = 266 /), PCI
(33 32 = 133 /).
PCI. Hub- PCI -
PCI -
Super I/O.
, PCI, .
. PCI -
, hub- , 8 ,
15 . PCI, ,
64 ,
, ,
.
hub-
PCI, South Bridge, -
Super I/O PCI. -
, hub- , -
I/O Controller Hub ( South Bridge),
ATA-100 USB 2.0.
hub-, 8 , .
,
. 8 15 , -
32- PCI,

230 4.
North/South Bridge, 64 . -
, -
. ,
.
8 ,
hub- ,
66 .
266 / (466 1 ). PCI, -
32 , 33
133 /. -
hub-
.
MCH
(400/133/100/66 ) hub- (66 ) AGP (533/266/133/66 );
ICH, , hub- (66 ) ATA (IDE)
(66/l00 ) PCI (33 ).
, ICH Low-Pin-Count (LPC),
4- PCI,
ROM BIOS Super I/O.
, -
, 13 .
, ROM BIOS -
Super I/O. : North/South
Bridge ISA,
96. LPC 6,67 /,
ISA
, ROM BIOS Super I/O.
. 4.17 Intel DB850GB, -
Intel Pentium 4.
Intel, hub-, -
Intel 850 .

Pentium II/III/Celeron Athlon/Duron.

386/486 Pentium (P5)
-.
Intel 430LX/NX/FX/MX/HX/VX/TX, AMD 640, Apollo VP1/VP2/VPX/VP3/MVP3/
MVP4 VIA, Alladin IV/V/7 Acer Laboratories, Inc (Ali) -
SiS SiS540/530, 5595/598/5581, 5582, 5571/5591 5592.


Pentium Pro Pentium II/III
Intel Pentium,
Pentium Pro Pentium II/III -

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III 231


A B C D

U
F

G
T
H
S I

Q P O N M L K J

. 4.17.
Intel DB850GB ( Intel):
A - AD1881/AD1885 (),
B AGP ( AGP Pro 1.5V),
C Intel 82850 Memory Controller Hub (MCH),
D ,
E 12 (ATX 12V),
F Pentium 4,
G ,
H RAMBUS Bank 0 (RIMM1 RIMM2),
I RAMBUS Bank 1 (RIMM3 RIMM4),
J ,
K ,
L ,
M IDE,
N Intel 82801BA I/O Controller Hub (ICH2),
O - SMSC LPC47M102,
P ,
Q
,
R ,
S SST 49LF004A Firmware Hub (FWH) 4 ,
T ,
U PCI,
V Communication and Networking Riser (CNR)
()

. , 1993 Intel
( )
. - ,
. ,

232 4.
, Intel Slot 1 Socket 370,
Celeron Pentium II/III,
, , Socket 7.
Intel Slot 1,
, , VIA Technologies, Acer Laboratories, Inc. (ALi) Si-
licon integrated Systems (SiS),
Slot 1 Socket 7.
Pentium Pro, Celeron Pentium II/III , , ,
-, ,
Socket 8
(Pentium Pro), Socket 370 (Celeron), Slot 1 (Celeron Pentium II/III).
P6
(, Intel 440FX).
Slot 1/Socket 370
Socket 8. Pentium Pro
-.
P6
, Pentium Pro, Celeron Pen-
tium II/III Intel,
.
(
P6 Pentium Pro, Celeron Pentium II/III) North Bridge South
Bridge, Pentium.
. 4.4 , Pentium Pro.

4.4. Pentium Pro

450KX 450GX 440FX



Orion Workstation Orion Server Natoma
1995 . 1995 . 1996 .
, 66 66 66
SMP (4 )
FPM FPM FPM/EDO/BEDO
/ECC
, 8 1 1

-

1 1 1
,
PCI 2.0 2.0 2.1
AGP
AGP
South Bridge PIIX3

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III 233


. 4.5 4,
North/South Bridge Celeron Pentium
II/III. . 4.6 8
P6/P7 (Pentium III/Celeron, Pentium 4 Xeon), , ,
hub-.

- Pentium Pro, Celeron Pentium II/III -


. , -
, .

Intel ,
( ) North Bridge South Bridge.
South Bridge
North Bridge. . 4.7 South
Bridge .

P6 (Pentium II Pentium Pro).

Intel 450KX/GX (Orion Workstation/Server)


, Pentium Pro,
450KX GX; Orion. 450KX
( ) , 450GX --
. GX ,
Pentium Pro -
, 8
PCI. Orion 450KX

( ) (1 ), GX.
North Bridge 450GX 450KX
82454KX/GX PCI Bridge, 82452KX/GX Data Path (DP), 82453KX/GX
(DC) 82451KX/GX Memory Interface Controller (MIC).
450 , -
Pentium Pro .
,
PCI. , -
, -
, .
450 -
-. 440FX
Orion - .

234 4.
4.5. P6 North/South Bridge

440FX 440LX 440EX 440BX 440GX 440NX 440ZX



Natoma
1996 . 1998 . 1998 .
1997 . 1998 . 1998 . 1998 .
82441FX, 82443LX 82443EX 82443BX 82443GX 82451NX, 82443ZX
82442FX 82452NX,
42453NX,
82454NX
, 66 66 66 66/100 100 100 66/1001
Pentium II Pentium II Celeron Celeron, Pentium II/III Pentium II/III Celeron,
Pentium II/III Xeon Xeon Pentium II/III
SMP , 4

FPM/EDO/ FPM/EDO/ FPM/EDO/ FPM/EDO/ SDRAM FPM/EDO SDRAM
BEDO SDRAM SDRAM SDRAM
/ECC
1 1 256 1 2 8 256
EDO/
512
SDRAM
4 4 2 4 4 4 2
PCI 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1
AGP AGP 1x AGP 1x AGP 2x AGP 2x AGP 2x
South Bridge 82371SB 82371AB 82371EB 82371EB 82371EB 82371EB 82371EB
(PIIX3) (PIIX4) (PIIX4E) (PIIX4E) (PIIX4E) (PIIX4E) (PIIX4E)
4.6. P6/P7 (Pentium III/Celeron, Pentium 4, Xeon) hub-

810 810E 8154 815E4 815EP



Whitney Whitney Solano Solano Solano
1999 . 1998 . 2000 . 2000 . 2000 .
82810 82810E 82815 82815 82815
, 66/100 66/100/133 66/100/133 66/100/133 66/100/133
Celeron, Celeron, Celeron, Celeron, Celeron,
Pentium II/III Pentium II/III Pentium II/II Pentium II/II Pentium II/II
SMP (
)
SDRAM SDRAM SDRAM (PC133) SDRAM (PC133) SDRAM (PC133)
/ECC
256 256 512 512 512
,
2 2 3 3 3
PCI 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2
PCI, 33/32 33/32 33/32 33/32 33/32
/
AGP Direct AGP Direct AGP AGP 4 AGP 4 AGP 4
AGP 2x2 AGP 2x2 AGP 2x3 AGP 2x3
South Bridge 82801AA/AB 82801AA (ICH) 82801AA (ICH) 82801BA (ICH2) 82801BA (ICH2)
(ICH/ICH0)
. 4.6

820 820E 840 850 860



Camino Camino Carmel Tehama Calusa
1998 . 2000 . 1999 . 2000 . 2001 .
82820 82820 82840 82850 82860
, 66/100/133 66/100/133 66/100/133 400 400
Pentium II/III, Pentium II/III, Pentium II/III Xeon Pentium 4 Xeon
Celeron Celeron DP (Socket 603)
SMP (
)
RDRAM RDRAM RDRAM
RDRAM (PC800) RDRAM (PC800)
/ECC
1 1 4 2 4
,
2 2 2 2 4
PCI 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2
PCI, 33/32 33/32 66/64 33/32 33/32, 33-66/64
/
AGP AGP 4x AGP 4 AGP 4x AGP 4 (1,5 ) AGP 4 (1,5 )

South Bridge 82801AA (ICH) 82801BA (ICH2) 82801AA (ICH) 82801BA (ICH2) 82801BA (ICH2)

1
, 440ZX-66 ( 440ZX) 66 .
2
810, AGP 2x, AGP.
3
815/815E, AGP 2x, APG 4x.
4
815E - (South Bridge),
815.
SMP (Symmetric Multi-processing) ( ).
4.7. South Bridge Intel

SIO PIIX PIIX3 PIIX4 PIIX4E ICH0 ICH ICH2

82378IB/ZB 82371FB 82371SB 82371AB 82371EB 82801AB 82801AA 82801BA


IDE BMIDE BMIDE UDMA-33 UDMA-33 UDMA-33 UDMA-66 UDMA-100
USB 1C/2P 1C/2P 1C/2P 1C/2P 1C/2P 2C/4P
CMOS
SMM SMM SMM SMM SMM/ SMM/ SMM/ SMM/ACPI
ACPI ACPI ACPI

SIO System I/O.


PIIX PCI ISA IDE Xcelerator.
ICH I/O Controller Hub.
USB Universal Serial Bus.
IDE Integrated Drive Electronics (AT Attachment).
BMIDE Bus Master IDE.
UDMA Ultra-DMA IDE.
SMM System Management Mode.
ACPI Advanced Configuration and Power Interface.
1C/2P 1 (controller)/2 (ports).
2C/4P 2 (controller)/4 (ports).
Intel 440FX (Natoma)
P6 (Pentium Pro Pentium II) 440FX
Natoma. Intel 450KX
. ,
EDO.
440FX ,
. (
PCI 2.1), (USB), ,
.
PCI : -
, PCI ISA .
PCI , -
- , , .
.
:
EDO 1 ;
1 (- -
);
USB;
Bus Master IDE;
.
North Bridge 440FX . -
82441FX PCI Bridge, PCI
82442FX. PCI ISA -
82371SB ( South Bridge PIIX3), -
IDE USB.
: P6,
EDO; , -
SDRAM. , PIIX3,
, Ultra DMA IDE.
440FX Pentium II,
, Pentium Pro. Pen-
tium II 440LX,
. , Pentium II,
440FX,
. (Intel 440LX ,
Pentium II. -
440FX Pentium II,
440LX .)

Intel 440LX
1998
440LX . ,
Pentium II. 440FX,
440LX :

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III 239


AGP;
SDRAM 66 ;
Ultra DMA IDE;
(USB).

Intel 440EX
440EX 440LX.
1998 Intel Pen-
tium II Celeron. 440LX, -
, .
, 66 , -
Intel Celeron. 440EX
Pentium II, -
440LX 440BX .
440EX:
;
Intel Celeron;
AGP;
;
.

Celeron 266 300 ,


440EX, ,
- . Celeron , Celeron 300A
300 , - 128 ,
SIP; , - Celeron
Socket 370. , 440EX,
Celeron, - .

440EX 82443EX PCI AGP ( PAC), -


North Bridge, 82371EB (PIIX4E), -
South Bridge. ,
, 440BX,
.

Intel 440BX
Intel 440BX 1998 -
. , (
) 100 .
Pentium II/III, 350, 400, 450
500 . 440BX -

Pentium II/III.

240 4.
440BX LX , -
, 66 100 .
66 100 ,
Pentium II/III, 233
500 .
Intel 440BX:
SDRAM 100 (PC100);
100 66 ;
1 ( DIMM);
;
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface);
Intel Pentium II .
Intel 440BX North Bridge, 82443BX Host
Bridge/Controller, 82371EB PCI-ISA/IDE Xcelera-
tor (PIIX4E), South Bridge. -
ACPI 1.0. . 4.18 -
440BX.
440BX 19981999 .

Intel 440ZX 440ZX-66


Intel 440ZX
440BX. 66 100
Celeron Pentium II/III.
440ZX 440BX ,
.

440ZX, 66 100 , 440ZX-66,
66 .
440ZX :
micro-ATX;
Celeron Pentium II/III, 100 .
440ZX 440BX :
;
( DIMM);
256 .
440ZX 440BX.
.

Intel 440GX

. , 440BX,

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III 241



Pentium II Pentium II


- DVD - VMI
- - Video capture
- VCR

82443BX
2x AGP 66/100
Host Bridge

EDO
SDRAM, 3,3

PCI


TV
PCI
Video BIOS (PCI bus #0)


MGMT (SM)

2 IDE 82371EB
(Ultra DMA/33) (PIIX4E) IO
APIC
PCI-to-ISA
2 USB
USB ISA
USB

ISA

BIOS

. 4.18. - 440BX

Slot 2, Pentium II/III Xeon.


, Slot 1. Intel 440GX
2 , , Intel 440BX.
.
, ,
, .
Intel 440GX :
Slot 1 Slot 2;
, 100 ;
SDRAM 2 .

242 4.
Intel 440NX
-
Pentium II/III Xeon. Intel 440NX
: PCI (PCI Expander Bridge PXB) 82454NX,
- (Memory and I/O Bridge Controller MIOC)
82451NX, RAS/CAS (RAS/CAS Generator RCG) 82452NX
(Data Path Multiplexor MUX) 82453NX.
440NX Pentium II/III Xeon
100 . PCI -
.
32- PCI, 33 ,
64- , 33 .
. 4.19 -
Intel 440NX.

- - - -
L1 L2 L1 L2 L1 L2 L1 L2


Pentium II Pentium II Pentium II Pentium II
XeonTM XeonTM XeonTM XeonTM


AGTL+ 100

MD(71:0)
MUXs

MA(13:0) ,
RCGs

-, 1 2
MIOC


X1 X0

BMIDE
PCI, PCI,
PXB #1 PXB #0
USB
PIIX4E
1B 1A 0B 0A South Bridge
IDE CD-ROM


I/O ISA
PCI
APIC XCVR

KBC SND
BIOS
32- PCI 8042
Flash
(33 , 3,3 5 ). EPROM

64-

. 4.19. - -
Intel 440NX

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III 243


Intel 440NX .
RCG MUX.
DIMM 8 .
Intel 440NX :
Slot 2 100 ;
;
PCI;
32- 64- PCI.
Intel 440NX AGP, -

.

Intel 810 810E


1999 Intel 810 (
Whitney) ,
North Bridge South Bridge . -

.
Intel 810 :
440BX;
66, 100 133 ;
Intel 3D Direct
AGP - ;
-
;
4 ( );
Digital Video Out, DVI
;
MPEG-2 DVD Hardware Motion Compensa-
tion;
Accelerated Hub
-;
UDMA-66;
Audio-Codec 97 (AC97);
;

;
USB;
ISA.
Intel 810 (. 4.20):

244 4.
. 4.20. 82810 (GMCH), 82801 (ICH) 82802 (FWH) -
Intel 810. Intel

82810e Graphics Memory Controller Hub (GMCH) 421- BGA;


82801 Integrated Controller Hub (ICH) 241- BGA;
82802 Firmware Hub (FWH) 32- PLCC (Plastic Leaded Chip
Carrier) 40- TSOP (Thin Small Outline Package).
-
( North Bridge South Bridge) Intel 810
. North Bridge
, PCI South
Bridge. Graphics Memory Controller Hub (GMCH) -
Integrated Controller Hub (ICH) Accelerated Hub,
66 .
UDMA-66, , -
IDE-.
. 4.21 - Intel 810.
- AGP
( 82810). DVD,
. 82810 (GMCH) Sys-
tem Manageability Bus, Intel 810 .
ACPI.
, GMCH : 82810
82810-DC100. DC-100 (Display Cache 100 ) -
4 SDRAM,

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III 245


:
Intel Pentium III,
Intel Pentium II,
Intel CeleronTM
(66/100/133 )


Intel 810E

64 /
Intel 82810E (GMCH) 100
TV


3D
2D

PCI

(4 SDRAM, PCI
100/133 )
ISA
2 IDE ICH (.)
Ultra-ATA/66 (I/0 Controller Hub) Super
I/O LAN
2 (.)
USB USB AC97
USB

FWH
(Firmware Hub)

. 4.21. - Intel 810

100 . GMCH
-.
GMCH 82801 ICH Accelerated Hub Architec-
ture (AHA), (266 /)
North Bridge South Bridge PCI -
. AHA -
.
ICH IDE,
33 / (UDMA-33 Ultra-ATA/33) 66 /
(UDMA-66 Ultra-ATA/66). ,
: 82801AA (ICH), 66 /
PCI, 82801AB (ICH0),
33 / PCI.
ICH Audio-Codec 97, USB
PCI. Audio-Codec 97 -
.
.
.
82802 (FWH) -BIOS. -
flash . , 82802

246 4.
. -
. , ,
: 82802AB 82802AC. AB 512 (4 )
flash-BIOS, AC 1 (8 ).
Intel 810,
AGP. -
, -
,
. AGP 100 ,
66 .
, -
Intel 810, .
Intel
Intel 8xx
RNG (Random Number Generator). RNG 82802 FWH,
ROM BIOS, 8. -

.
, -
, , -
, .
, .
, -
,
. - ,
Intel RNG , FWH
(. . ROM BIOS 8xx). , ,
8xx, .

Intel 815, 815E 815EP


815 815, 2000 ,
, -
AGP 4x. 815EP,
, , , -
. 815 Celeron Pentium III (Slot 1
Socket 370) , Intel
PC133 SDRAM. 815,
Intel 8, hub-, -

266 /. , North/South Bridge,
PCI.
(815, 815 815)
I/O Controller Hub (ICH ICH2) -
. , 815

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III 247


. 4.22. Intel 815E,
82815 (GMCH) 82801BA (ICH2). Intel

82815 GMCH 82801AA ICH. 815 82815


GMCH 82801BA ICH2 (. 4.22).
815 82815EP Memory Controller
Hub (MCH ) ICH2. I/O
Controller Hub 2 (ICH2) USB, -
Ultra ATA/100, LAN/Modem/Sound -
Communications and Networking Riser (CNR).
815:
66/100/133 ;
hub- Intel (266 /);
ATA-100 (815E/EP) ATA-66 (815);
SDRAM PC100 PC133CL-2;
512 RAM;
Audio-Codec 97 (AC97);
;
(RNG)
;
(815) (815E/EP) USB -
;
LPC, Super I/O Firmware Hub (ROM BIOS);
ISA.
815 815E :

248 4.
Intel AGP 2x;

;
4 ( );
Digital Video Out, DVI -
;
MPEG-2 DVD -
.
ICH2, 815E/EP, -
ATA-100, 100 /.
, ,
.
USB .
USB , , -
.
Ethernet-
815 -
Ethernet.
(LAN)
:
Ethernet 10/100 /,
Alert on LAN;
Ethernet 10/100 /;
1 /.
-
PC ( ) ,
CNR. CNR PC -
.
AGP
815/815E
AGP 2x, -
. Graphics
Performance Accelerator (GPA), . 4.23, AGP 4x.
GPA ( AGP Inline Memory Module AIMM), ,
, -
AGP 4x
30%. -
AGP 4, AGP 4
.
-
. GPA AGP 4, ,
100% .

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III 249


AGP 4x

. 4.23. GPA/AIMM (4 ),
AGP , 815 815E

PC133
815 PC133,
100. PC133, Intel -
PC133. -
, .
Intel PC133, -
2-2-2, CAS-2 (Column Address Strobe )
CL-2.
.
Precharge-Active.
.
Active-Read. .
Read-Data Out.
.
PC133
, PC133 3-3-3, CAS-3
CL-3. , CL-3
PC133 CL-2, .
PC133 CL-2
30 ( PC133 CL-3
45 ). 34%.
815 -
PC
RDRAM. , 815
440BX.

Intel 820 820E


800
hub- (. 4.24). Intel 820 Pentium III
Celeron (Slot 1 Socket 370), RDRAM,
133 AGP 4.

250 4.
. 4.24. 82820 (MCH), 82801 (ICH) 82802 (FWH)
Intel 820.
Intel

82820 Memory Controller Hub (MCH) -


, AGP. :
(82820) (82820DP). 82801 I/O Controller Hub (ICH) -
800. 82802 Firmware Hub (FWH)
BIOS (Intel Random Number Generator RNG).
MCH ICH In-
tel Hub Architecture, PCI,
North/South Bridge. -
266 /.
820 RDRAM (Rambus DRAM), , -
, PC-100 SDRAM. 820
RDRAM: PC600, PC700 PC800 (
1,6 /). RIMM 1
.
AGP 820
AGP 4x ( 1 /),
AGP 2x. . 4.25 - Intel 820.
Intel 820 :
100/133 ;
hub- Intel (266 /);
RIMM PC800 RDRAM;
AGP 4x;
ATA-100 (820E) ATA-66;

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III 251



Intel Pentium III

PSB 1 /
82820

82820 MCH
AGP 4x Memory PC800
AGP 4x Controller Hub Direct RamBus
1 / 324 1, 6 /
SMBus

HI8 266 /
AC97
AC97
+

USB 12 /
USB x 2 GPIO
82810 ICH
ATA-66 I/O Controller Hub LPC IF 4 / GPIO
66x2 / 241 LPC SIO
IDE x 4
FWH IF


133 /

AOL
SMBus
PCI

82802 FWH
Firmware Hub



82559 Ethernet- PCI--ISA

ISA

PCI ISA

256-1 000 / 1-10 / 128-132 / 1 /

. 4.25. - Intel 820

(Intel Random Number Generator RNG);


Low Pin Count (LPC);
AC97;
(820E) USB.
Intel 820 324-
82820 ( ) 82820DP ( ) Memory Controller Hub
Ball Grid Array (BGA). 82801 I/O Controller Hub
241- Ball Grid Array (BGA), 82802 Firmware Hub
Flash ROM BIOS.
ISA 82380AB PCI-ISA Bridge.
820E 82801BA I/O Controller
Hub (ICH2), ATA-100 USB,
. . USB.

252 4.
820
820 RDRAM (Rambus DRAM).
SDRAM. Intel
RDRAMSDRAM, Memory Translator Hub (MTH).
, , Intel 2000 -
MTH.
Pentium 1994 .
2000 Intel , -
MTH .
. ,
SDRAM Intel 820.
RDRAM .
, -
, Intel MTH I.D. : www.intel.com/support/mth.

Intel 840
-
. 840 ,
800. . 4.26 Intel 840.
800, Intel 840
.
82840 Memory Controller Hub (MCH). AGP 2X/4X,
RDRAM PCI -
-.
82801 I/O Controller Hub (ICH). South Bridge
; MCH Intel Hub
Architecture. ICH 32- PCI,
IDE USB.
82802 Firmware Hub (FWH). Flash ROM,
-BIOS, (Intel Random Num-
ber Generator RNG).
, .
, Intel 840
.
82806 64- PCI Controller Hub (P64H). 64- -
PCI, 33 66 .
MCH Intel Hub Architecture.
64- PCI 66 .
82803 RDRAM-based memory repeater hub (MRH-R). -
,
.
82804 SDRAM-based memory repeater hub (MRH-S). RDRAM
, SDRAM.
SDRAM.

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III 253


. 4.26. 82840 (MCH), 82801 (ICH), 82802 (FWH), 82803
(MRH-R), 82804 (MRH-S) 82806 (P64H)
Intel 840. Intel

. 4.27 - Intel 840.


840 :
100/133 ;
RDRAM,
3,2 /;
16- Intel Hub Architecture (HI16)
PCI;
AGP 4x;
(Intel Random Number Generator RNG);
USB.

254 4.

Intel Pentium III
Intel Pentium III XeonTM
PCI-64

PSB 1 /
PCI 64 533 /
82840 AGP 4x 1 /
AGP 4x

Direct RamBus
1,6 /
82840 MCH
Memory PC800 RDRAM
82806 Direct RamBus (
Controller Hub 1,6 /
PCI-64 Hub HI16 544 )
533 /
SMBus

HI8 266 / AC97


AC97
+

USB 12 /
USB x 2 GPIO
82801 ICH
ATA-66 I/O Controller Hub LPC 4 / GPIO
662 / 241 LPC SIO
IDE x 4
FWH IF


AOL
SMBus
/
PCI 133

82802 FWH
Firmware Hub



82559 Ethernet-



-
-
RM960

PCI

256-1 000 / 1-10 / 128-132 / 1 /

. 4.27. - Intel 840

840 RAID-.
.

Intel 850
, In-
tel Pentium 4 NetBurst. 850,
-
, hub- , -
Intel 8xx. Intel 850
. 4.28.
Intel 850 ,
800.

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III 255


. 4.28. Intel 850. -
Intel

82850 Memory Controller Hub.


RDRAM 400 3,2 /,
100 . 82850 MCH
1.5V AGP 4x , 1 /.
82801BA I/O Controller Hub 2. ICH2 ( 82801, -
800) 32- PCI,
UDMA 33/66/100 IDE, USB, -
LAN, - AC-97 /,
FWH, SMBus, Alert on LAN Alert on LAN 2.
10BASE-T Fast Ethernet 850
Intel 82562ET/82562EM Platform LAN,
LAN- 82801BA ICH2.
850 ,
CNR. . 4.29 -
Intel 850.

256 4.
Pentium 4

3,2 /

RDRAM
> 1 / RDRAM

AGP 4x MCH 3,2 /
RDRAM
RDRAM

Hub- Intel


ATA 100 /
2 IDE
ICH2 133 / PCI

LAN 4 USB

Flash BIOS

. 4.29. - Intel 850

Intel 860
,
Socket 602 Xeon, DP. -
860 82801BA ICH 2 ( , Intel 850) 82860
MCH (Memory Controller Hub), Socket 602
Xeon ( Foster). 82860 MCH
RDRAM 400 3,2 /,
100 .
1.5V AGP 4x 1 /.
Intel 860
82860AA (P64H) PCI Controller Hub (6 ) 82803AA MRHR.
82860AA 64- PCI 33 66 ,
82803AA RDRAM,
.

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III 257




(P6)
Acer Laboratories, Inc. (ALi)
Aladdin Pro II
Aladdin Pro II M1621
Pentium Pro Pentium II BGA: 456-
M1621 ( North Bridge) 328- M1533 M1543 ( South
Bridge). ,
Slot 1 .
M1621 ( North Bridge) AGP,
- .
Pentium II 60, 66 100 . Intel
440BX.
FPM, EDO SDRAM
1 (SDRAM) 2 (EDO), . -
AGP 1.0 PCI 2.1.
South Bridge ( M1533) :
PCI-to-ISA;
/;
ACPI;
USB;
Ultra-DMA/33 IDE.
M1543 M1533, ,
Super I/O, ,
.
Aladdin Pro 4
Acer Labs Aladdin Pro 4
Pentium II/III/Celeron (Slot 1 Socket 370) ,
508- BGA: M1641 M1641B North Bridge M1535D M1535D
+ South Bridge.
M1641 North Bridge 66/100/
133 . M1641B,
, DDR SDRAM 266 .
M1641/M1641B
EDO, SDRAM VC-SDRAM 1,5 . ,
,
- -
. SDRAM
x-1-1-1-1-1-1-1.
M1641/M1641B AGP 4x, PCI 2.2,
PCI, PCI.

258 4.
, Dark Green,
Power On Suspend, Suspend to RAM, PCI Bus CLKRUN Dynamic Clock Stop.
M1535D South Bridge :
/;
;
USB ;
Ultra-DMA/66 IDE;
Super I/O,
, , -
IrDA;
Wavetable, Sound Blaster 16;
- AC97;
352- BGA.
Aladdin TnT2
Acer Labs Aladdin TnT2, Pen-
tium II/III/Celeron (Slot 1 Socket 370), ,
556- BGA: M1631 North Bridge M1543 M1535D South Bridge.
M1631 North Bridge -
nVidia TnT2 Aladdin Pro 4.
66/100/133 .
EDO, SDRAM VC-SDRAM
1,5 . ,
, -
.
SDRAM x-1-1-1-1-1-1-1.
M1631 PCI 2.2, -
PCI, PCI-ISA. ,
Dark Green, Power
On Suspend, Suspend to RAM, PCI Bus CLKRUN Dynamic Clock Stop.
nVidia TnT2 -
128- , DirectX- ,
32- True-Color, -
, . , ,
UMA SDRAM
SGRAM 4, 8 16 .
M1641 , TV- -
.
M1543C South Bridge :
PCI-ISA;
/;
;
USB ;

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III 259


- Ultra-DMA/66 IDE;
Super I/O,
, , -
IrDA;
330- BGA.
Aladdin Pro 5 Pro 5T
Acer Labs Aladdin Pro 5 -
Pentium II/III/Celeron (Slot 1 Socket 370) , -
528- BGA: M1651 North Bridge M1535D M1535D+
South Bridge. Aladdin Pro 5, 1535 1535+
South Bridge, .
M1651 North Bridge SDRAM -
66/100/133 , DDR SDRAM 200 266 .
RAM 3 , -
(). SDRAM
x-1-1-1-1-1-1-1. M1651 -
, DDR SDRAM,
.
M1651 AGP 4x, PCI 2.2,
PCI, PCI, ACPI,
. ,
PCI Mobile CLKRUN# AGP Mobile BUSY#/STOP#.
Aladdin Pro 5T M1651T North Bridge,
, 0,13- -
Pentium III Tualatin, 2001 .
M1651 North Bridge.
M1535D+ South Bridge :
/;
, ACPI
PCI G0-G3;
USB ;
- Ultra-DMA/66 IDE;
Super I/O,
, , -
IrDA;
PCI, DirectSound 3D, MIDI Sound
Blaster 16, SPDIF ;
- ;
352- BGA.
VIA Technologies
Apollo Pro 266
VIA Apollo Pro266
North/South Bridge, Socket 370 (Pentium III, Celeron,

260 4.
C3 VIA). Apollo Pro266 -
Apollo Pro133A DDR200/266
RAM, PC100/133 SDRAM VC-SDRAM.
Apollo Pro266 :
AGP 2x/4x;
133/100/66 ;
PC-100/133 SDRAM PC200/266 DDR SDRAM;
ATA-100 IDE;
USB;
AC97;
MC97;
10/100 BASE-T Ethernet 1/10 Home PNA;
;
ACPI/On Now!.
Apollo Pro266 , BGA: 552--
VT8633 North Bridge Controller 352- VT82C686B South Bridge Con-
troller.
Apollo Pro 133A

Pentium III, Celeron VIA Ciryx III ( Slot 1 Socket 370).
Apollo Pro 133 :
AGP 4;
66/100/133 ;
PC133 SDRAM;
ATA-66;
USB;
AC97;
;
.
VIA Apollo Pro133A : VT82C694X (North Bridge)
VT82C596B VT82C686A (South Bridge).
ProSavage PM133
VIA ProSavage PM133 -
S3 Savage 4 S3 Savage 2000 Apollo Pro133A. -
Apollo Pro 133A :
2 32 , -
Savage 4 3D Savage 2000 2D;
Z-, 32- ,
, .;

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III 261


DVD, DVI, TV--
;
PCI 2.2.
AGP 4x
AGP 4x . ProSavage PM133
VT8605 North Bridge VT8231 South Bridge.
VT8231 South Bridge Super I/O
LPC.
Apollo Pro 133
PC133 SDRAM.
Pentium III, Celeron
VIA Ciryx III ( Slot 1 Socket 370). Apollo Pro 133 :
AGP 2;
66/100/133 ;
PC133 SDRAM;
ATA-66;
USB;
AC97;
;
.
VIA Apollo Pro 133 : VT82C693A (North Bridge)
VT82C596B VT82C686A (South Bridge).
Apollo KLE133
Apollo KLE133 ( PM601) -
,
Internet. -
Trident Blade3D 10/100 Ethernet.
Pentium III, Celeron VIA C3 (Slot 1 Socket 370).
Apollo KLE133 :
AGP 2x;
Trident Blade3D;
66/100/133 ;
PC133 SDRAM;
10/100 Ethernet;
AC97, MC97, Super I/O, ;
USB;
ATA-66;
.
Apollo KLE 133 : VT8601 North Bridge Controller
VT82C686 South Bridge Controller.

262 4.
Apollo Pro
Apollo Pro Slot 1,
. -
, PC100 SDRAM AGP 2x. Apollo Pro
Intel 440BX.
VT82C691 (North
Bridge) VT82C596 (South Bridge).
VT82C691 VT82C586B.
Apollo Pro , Slot 1 (Intel
Pentium II) Socket 8 (Intel Pentium Pro), 66 100 , AGP
1.0 PCI 2.1, FPM, EDO SDRAM, 1 ,
ACPI APM, USB UltraDMA-66 EIDE.
Apollo Pro Plus
Slot 1/
Socket 307 . Apollo Pro Plus :
AGP 1;
66/100 ;
PC100 SDRAM ( 1 );
UltraDMA-33;
USB;
ACPI APM.
Apollo Pro : VT82C693 (North Bridge) VT82C596A
(South Bridge), , VT82C686A (South Bridge)
.
Silicon integrated Systems (SiS)
SiS633/635
SiS633/635 -
, Pentium III Celeron (Socket 370).
- Pentium III Tualatin, 0,13--
, 2001 .
S1S633 S1S633T PC133 SDRAM, -
SiS635 SiS635T, , PC133 SDRAM, DDR266 DDR
SDRAM PC133 DDR266 SDRAM. -
:
AGP 4x;
PCI;
UDMA/100 IDE;
1,5 RAM;
USB;
AC97 AMR.
S1S635/635T ACR CNR
10/100 BASE-T Ethernet 1/10 Home PNA.
677- BGA.

Pentium Pro Pentium II/III 263


SiS630
(-
) Pentium III,
Celeron Cyrix III (Slot 1 Socket 370). 128-
- , -
. SiS301
Video Bridge NTSC/PAL TV. SiS630
10/100 Fast Ethernet AC97.
Low Pin Count (LPC), USB
USB.
SiS630 :
Intel/AMD/Cyrix/IDT Pentium CPU 66/83/
90/95/100 ;
- 2 ;
PC133 SDRAM;
PC99;
PCI 2.2;
Ultra DMA-33/66;
AGP 2;
;
;
Low Pin Count;
ACPI 1.0;
USB;
10/100 Ethernet-.
SiS620/5595

Slot 1 Socket 370.
SiS620/5595 :
66/100 ;
PC100 SDRAM;
PCI 2.2;
Ultra DMA-33/66;
;
;

264 4.
SiS600/5595 5600/5595
SiS600/SiS5595 North/South Bridge,
.
:
66/100 ;
PC100 SDRAM ();
AGP 2x;
Ultra DMA/33;
USB;
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) 1.0.


Athlon/Duron
Athlon Duron, AMD,
Slot A Socket A. Pentium III Celeron, AMD -
.
Athlon AMD, VIA Technology, Acer
Labs SiS , -
. .

AMD
Athlon/Duron
AMD
Athlon Duron: AMD-750 AMD-760. . 4.8,
.

4.8. AMD Athlon/Duron


North/South Bridge

AMD-750 AMD-760
Irongate
1999 2000
AMD-751 AMD-761
, 200 200/266
Athlon/Duron Athlon/Duron
SMP (
)
SDRAM DDR SDRAM
PC100 PC1600/PC2100
/

Athlon/Duron 265
. 4.8

AMD-750 AMD-760
768 2
4
PCI 2.2 2.2
AGP AGP 2x AGP 4x
South Bridge AMD-756 AMD-766
ATA/IDE ATA-66 ATA-100
USB 1C/4P 1C/4P
CMOS/
ISA
LPC
SMM/ACPI SMM/ACPI
SMP Symmetric Multiprocessing ( ).
SDRAM Synchronous Dynamic RAM.
DDR SDRAM Double Data Rate SDRAM.
ECC Error Correcting Code.
PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect.
AGP Accelerated Graphics Port.
ATA AT Attachment (IDE).
USB Universal Serial Bus.
ISA Industry Standard Architecture.
LPC Low Pin Count.

AMD-750
Athlon/Duron AMD -
Slot A Socket A AMD-750. -
North/South Bridge,
Athlon Duron. AMD-750 AMD-751 (North
Bridge) AMD-756 (South Bridge).
AMD-751 ,
, AGP PCI. AMD-756 PCI-to-ISA,
USB ATA33/66.
AMD-750 :
AMD Athlon 200 ;
PCI 2.2;
AGP 2x;
PC100 SDRAM ;
768 ;
ACPI;

266 4.
ATA-33/66;
USB;
256- CMOS RAM ;
.
AMD-760
AMD-760, 2000 ,
, DDR SDRAM. -
, PBGA (Pin Plastic Ball-Grid Array):
569- AMD-761 (North Bridge) 272- -
AMD-766 (South Bridge). -
AMD-760 . 4.30.
AMD-761 North Bridge AMD Athlon,
DDR SDRAM PC1600 PC2100, AGP 4x,
PCI. 761
200 266 , Athlon,
266 .
AMD-766 South Bridge USB, -
UDMA/100 ATA/IDE, LPC,
Super I/O, ROM BIOS.


AMD Athlon

64- +

8- ECC
13- SADDIN + 32-
13- SADDOUT AGP 4x
AGP 4x


DDR SDRAM
AMD-761 64-
+
8- ECC
SERR#
SBREQ# 32- PCI
SBGNT#
SMBus

WSC#
DCSTOP#


AMD-766 LAN SCSI

,
, ,
SM

ISA

USB
BIOS
EIDE

LPC
SIO

. 4.30. - AMD-760

Athlon/Duron 267
AMD-760 :
AMD Athlon 200/266 ;
;
PCI 2.2, ;
AGP 2.0, 4x;
PC1600 PC2100 DDR SDRAM ECC;
2 4
DDR SDRAM;
ACPI;
ATA-100;
USB;
LPC, Super I/O.

VIA Technologies
VIA Technologies, Inc. -
Intel AMD. 1987 -
(Taipei) ,
. VIA Technologies -
, . . ,
. 1999 -
VIA National Semiconductor
Cyrix, IDT Centaur,
, . -
VIA Technologies
SonicBLUE ( S3). S3 Graphics, Inc.
VIA Technologies In-
tel, AMD Cyrix (VIA). . 4.9
Athlon/Duron, VIA Technologies. -
.
VIA Apollo KX133
VIA Apollo KX133 :
200 ;
AGP 4x;
PC133 SDRAM;
2 ;
ATA-66;
USB;
AC97;
;
.
VIA Apollo KX133 : VT8371 (North Bridge)
VT82C686A (South Bridge).

268 4.
4.9. VIA Athlon/Duron ( North/South Bridge)

Apollo KX133 Apollo KT133 Apollo KT133A Apollo KT266 Apollo KLE133
1999 2000 2000 2001 2001
North Bridge VT8371 VT8363 VT8363A VT8363 VT8361
Athlon Athlon/Duron Athlon/Duron Athlon/Duron Duron
Slot A Socket A (462) Socket A (462) Socket A (462) Socket A (462)
200 200 200/266 200/266 200/266
,
AGP 4x 4x 4x 4x
AGP 2x
PCI 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2
SDRAM SDRAM SDRAM SDRAM, DDR SDRAM
SDRAM
PC 133 PC 133 PC 100/133 PC 100/133, PC 100/133
DDR200/266
2 2 2 4 2
,
South Bridge VT82C686A VT82C686A VT82C686B VT8233 VT82C686B
ATA/IDE ATA-66 ATA-66 ATA-100 ATA-100 ATA-100
USB 1C4P 1C4P 1C4P 2C6P 1C4P
SMM/ACPI SMM/ACPI SMM/ACPI SMM/ACPI SMM/ACPI
Super I/O
CMOS/
Apollo KT133 KT133A
VIA Apollo KT133 KT133A -
AMD Athlon Duron Socket A (462).
KX133 (Slot A) -
Socket A (462).
VIA Apollo KT133 KT133A : VT8363
North Bridge VT82C686A South Bridge (KT133) VT8363A North Bridge VT82C686B
South Bridge (KT133A).
KT133 KT133A:
Athlon/Duron Socket A (462);
200 ;
AGP 4x;
2 RAM;
PC100/PC133 SDRAM;
PCI 2.2;
ATA-66;
USB;
AC97;
Super I/O;
;
ACPI.
KT133A (VT8363A North Bridge VT82C686B South Bridge) -
:
266 ;
ATA-100.
ProSavage PM133
VIA ProSavage PM133 -
S3 Savage 4 S3 Savage 2000 S3 Graphics Apollo Pro
133A. Apollo Pro 133A -
:
2 32 , -
Savage 4 3D Savage 2000 2D;
Z-, 32- ,
, .;
DVD, - DVI, TV-;
PCI 2.2.
AGP 4x -
AGP 4x . ProSavage PM133
VT8365 North Bridge VT8231 South Bridge.
VT8231 South Bridge Super I/O
LPC.

270 4.
Apollo KT266A KT333
VIA Apol-
lo KT266, VIA Apollo KT266A -
AMD Athlon/Duron. VIA Apollo KT266A
VIA, Performance
Driven Design, .
:
AMD Duron/Athlon;
200/266 ;
AGP 2x/4x;
4 DDR200/266 SDRAM, PC100/133 SDRAM;
ACR (Advanced Communications Riser);
AC-97;
MC-97;
10/100 BaseT Ethernet HomePNA 1.0/2.0;
ATA 33/66/100
USB;
, ACPI/OnNow
PowerNow AMD.
Apollo KT333
DDR333, 25% .
Apollo KT400
VIA Apollo KT400 AMD Athlon XP -
DDR333, AGP 8x, ATA-133, USB 2.0
North Bridge South Bridge V-Link 8x.
:
AMD Duron/Athlon;
200/266/333 ;
AGP 2x/4x/8;
4 DDR200/266/333;
ACR (Advanced Communications Riser);
AC-97;
MC-97;
10/100 BaseT Ethernet HomePNA 1.0/2.0;
ATA 33/66/100/133
USB 2.0;
, ACPI/OnNow
PowerNow AMD.

Athlon/Duron 271
Silicon Integrated Systems (SiS)
AMD Athlon/Duron
SiS Athlon
Duron, .

SiS733 SiS735
, AMD
Athlon Duron Socket A. SiS733 SiS735, -
SiS, North Bridge, South Bridge Super I/O
.
SiS733, 682- BGA, -
PC133 SDRAM. SiS735 PC133 DDR266 SDRAM,
10/100 Fast Ethernet HomePNA
1/10 / Home Network. SiS735 682- -
BGA.
SiS733 SiS735:
AGP 4x;
PCI;
UDMA/100 IDE;
1,5 RAM;
AC97 AMR;
RTC (Real-Time Clock);
Low Pin Count, MIDI, -
BIOS;
PC2001;
. 4.31 - SiS733.
SiS730S
-
2D/3D, AMD Athlon Duron (Socket A).
, 128- -
AGP 4x, -
- , .
S1S301 Video Bridge TV- NTSC/PAL.
S1S730S, , AGP 4x,
AGP.
SiS730S 10/100 Fast Ethernet,
AC97, -
, , ,
DMA. SiS730S , ,
LPC, Super I/O, --
USB USB.
LPC/ISA SiS730S -
ISA.

272 4.
AMD
Athlon/Duron 200/266

AGP2.0 4x
AGP
3 DIMM
SDR 1,5

ATA33/66/100 IDE
AC 97 AC 97
Codec
USB V.90
6 USB
AMR

PCI
/ 6 PCI

BIOS
SiS900
LPC
BIOS
S/IO
MIDI
BIOS

. 4.31. SiS733

SiS730S:
AMD Athlon/Duron 200 ;
PC133 SDRAM;
PC99;
PCI 2.2;
PCI;
Ultra DMA 100;
AGP 2x 2D/3D ;
;
DVD;
CRT CRT, LCD
TV- ;
LPC;
PCI H/W ( Sound Blaster 16
DirectSound 3D), ;
ACPI 1.0 APM 1.2;
PCI 1.0;
;
USB USB;
10/100 / Ethernet.

Athlon/Duron 273
Acer Labs AMD
Athlon/Duron
Acer Labs
Athlon/Duron . Athlon/Duron
.
ALiMagik 1
Acer Labs ALiMagik 1 : M1647
Super North Bridge 528- BGA M1535D+ South Bridge (
Pentium III/Celeron).
M1647 North Bridge SDRAM -
66/100/133 , DDR SDRAM 200 266 .
RAM 3 , -
(). SDRAM
x-1-1-1-1-1-1-1. M1647
, DDR SDRAM, -
.
M1647 AGP 4x, PCI 2.2,
PCI, PCI, ACPI,
. , -
PCI Mobile CLKRUN# AGP Mobile BUSY#/STOP#.
MobileMagik 1, 1535+ South Bridge, -
, Athlon Duron.

Super I/O
Super I/O.
,
.
Super I/O ( ) :
;
;
.
Super I/O
, .
.
,
. Super I/O -
. ,
, UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter -
-).
UART.
UART NS16550A, National Semiconductor. Su-
per I/O , , , ,
.

274 4.
Super I/O -
. :
(), EPP (Enhanced Parallel Port -
) ECP (Enhanced Capabilities Port ).
ECP , ,
8- ISA (
3 ). -
(, ), ECP -
. ,
, ECP, -
Hewlett-Packard.
Super I/O . , -
Intel VC820 ( ATX)
Super I/O LPC47V102 SMC (Standard Microsystems Corp.).
:
;
;
(ECP/EPP) ;
8042 .
; -
Super I/O.
Super I/O . ,
Intel Super I/O IDE South
Bridge , -
PCI, ISA. Super I/O -
ISA,
, 8 .
IDE PCI, IDE, ,
PCI (33 ),
.
Super I/O -
LPC, Intel (
6,67 /) , 13 .
ISA LPC , ,
Super I/O.
Intel ,
, USB, , -
,
. , , Super I/O
. , -
Super I/O South Bridge ,
-
.

Super I/O 275


CMOS-
Motorola 146818 -
RTC RAM Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS).
, 10 RAM -
54 RAM, -
. IBM -
.
Motorola -
(South
Bridge) Super I/O. ,
NVRAM, Dallas Benchmarq.
CMOS-
5, -.


.
. 4.32 Intel DB850GB.
, , ,
, . . 4.104.14
.

4.10.


1 +5 4
2 5 IrTX
3 IrRx 6 CONIR (Consumer IR)

4.11.


1 3
2 4 +6

!
!
.

, -
.
. 4.154.20.

276 4.
A B C D E F

1
1 1

21
V
1
3 4

G
H 1
5 6 1

I X

J 1
1 1 1 U Y
1

1
1 2 2
1 2
7
1
2
S
10 1
1 15 16 2 20 11
K 1 10 1

L O N P Q R T
M

. 4.32.
Intel DB850GB:
A Communications and Network Riser (CNR),
B ATAPI (),
C CD-ROM (),
D CD-ROM 2-
(),
E AGP Pro (),
F ATX 12V,
G 32- PCI,
H AGP,
I PC/PCI,
J SCSI LED,
K (Fan 1),
L (LAN),
M ,
N LED,
USB,
P ,
Q IDE,
R ,
S ,
T ,
V RIMM (Fan 2),
V (Fan 4),
W Socket 423 ( Pentium 4),
X (Fan 3),
Y RIMM

Super I/O 277


4.12. (LED) -
(Keylock)


1 LED (+5 ) 4
2 5
3

4.13.


1 3

2 4

4.14.


1
2 +12
3

4.15.


1
2 CHS_SEC

4.16.


1 +5
2
3 WOL

4.17. CD-ROM


1 CD-IN ( ) 3
2 4 CD-IN ( )

278 4.
4.18.


1 3
2 4

4.19.


1 ( ) 3
2 4 ( )

4.20.


1
2 RINGA

Intel, -
, . 4.33.

. 4.33.

. 4.21 .

4.21.


Speaker 27 SPKR_HDR
26 PIEZO_IN
25
24
Reset 23 SW_RST
22
21 /
Sleep/Power LED 20 PWR_LED
19

Super I/O 279


. 4.21


18
17 /
Hard Drive LED 16 HD_PWR
15 HDActive#
14
13 HD_PWR +5
12
IrDA 11 CONIR (Consumer IR)
10 IrTX
9
8 IrRX
7
6 +5
5
Sleep/Resume 4 SLEEP_PU (pullup)
3 SLEEP
Power On 2
1 SW_ON#


, -
. (bus) , -
.
PC, ,
.
, .
- , (
) .
.
.
- North Bridge
. Pentium II
66, 100, 133, 200, 266, 400 533 64 (8 ).
AGP. 32- 66 (AGP 1), 133 (AGP 2),
266 (AGP 4) 533 (AGP 8x) -
. North Bridge Memory Controller Hub
(MCH) .

280 4.
PCI. 32- 33 ; -
486.
66 . PCI
North Bridge Memory Controller Hub (MCH) .
, ,
, SCSI- , -
, . PCI South
Bridge , IDE USB.
ISA. 16- , 8 ;
AT 1984 ( 8-
5 ). , PC99 .
South Bridge. -
Super I/O.
, -
Audio Modem Riser (AMR) Communications and Networking Riser (CNR).
, -
. ,
, -
AMR CNR . ,
- . -
, ,
-
. ,
, PCI, AMR/CNR
.
,
. ,
, hub- LPC.
Hub- (4x) 8-
66 , MCH
ICH (hub-). hub-
266 /,
.
LPC, 4--
6,67 /
ISA . LPC
Super I/O ROM BIOS
. LPC ,
.
ISA .
, -
, .
. 4.22 ,
PC.

281
4.22. (/)

,
, / , /

8- ISA (PC/XT) 8 4,7 1/3 2,39
8- ISA (AT) 8 8,33 1/2 4,17
LPC 4 33 1/3 6,67
16- ISA (AT- 16 8,33 1/2 8,33
Bus)
DD 1 0,25 1 0,03125
HD 1 0,5 1 0,0625
ED 1 1 1 0,125
EISA Bus 32 8,33 1 33
VL-Bus 32 33 1 133
MCA-16 16 5 1 10
MCA-32 32 5 1 20
MCA-16 Streaming 16 10 1 20
MCA-32 Streaming 32 10 1 40
MCA-64 Streaming 64 10 1 80
MCA-64 Streaming 64 20 1 160
PC-Card (PCMCIA) 16 10 1 20
CardBus 32 33 1 133
Hub Interface ( 8 66 4 266
)
PCI 32 33 1 133
PCI 66 32 66 1 266
64- PCI 64 33 1 266
64- PCI 66 64 66 1 533
PCI-X 64 133 1 1066
AGP 32 66 1 266
AGP 2x 32 66 2 533
AGP 4x 32 66 4 1066
AGP 8x 32 66 8 2133
RS-232 Serial 1 0,1152 1/10 0,01152
RS-232 Serial HS 1 0,2304 1/10 0,02304
IEEE-1284 Parallel 8 8,33 1/6 1,38
IEEE-1284 EPP/ECP 8 8,33 1/3 2,77
USB 1.1 1 12 1 1,5
USB 2.0 1 480 1 60

282 4.
. 4.22

,
, / , /

IEEE-1394a S100 1 100 1 12,5
IEEE-1394a S200 1 200 1 25
IEEE-1394a S400 1 400 1 50
IEEE-1394b S800 1 800 1 100
IEEE-1394b S1600 1 1600 1 200
ATA PIO-4 16 8,33 1 16,67
ATA-UDMA/33 16 8,33 2 33
ATA-UDMA/66 16 16,67 2 66
ATA-UDMA/100 16 25 2 100
ATA-UDMA/133 16 33 1 133
SATA-150 1 1500 1 150
SATA-300 1 3000 1 300
SATA-600 1 6000 1 600
SCSI 8 5 1 5
SCSI Wide 16 5 1 10
SCSI Fast 8 10 1 10
SCSI Fast/Wide 16 10 1 20
SCSI Ultra 8 20 1 20
SCSI Ultra/Wide 16 20 1 40
SCSI Ultra2 8 40 1 40
SCSI Ultra/Wide2 16 40 1 80
SCSI Ultra3 (Ultra160) 16 40 2 160
SCSI Ultra4 (Ultra320) 16 80 2 320
FPM DRAM 64 22 1 177
EDO DRAM 64 33 1 266
PC66 SDRAM 64 66 1 533
PC100 SDRAM 64 100 1 800
PC133 SDRAM 64 133 1 1066
PC1600 DDR SDRAM 64 100 2 1600
PC2100 DDR SDRAM 64 133 2 2133
PC2400 DDR-SDRAM 64 150 2 2 400
PC2700 DDR-SDRAM 64 167 2 2 666
PC3000 DDR-SDRAM 64 183 2 2 933
PC3200 DDR-SDRAM 64 200 2 3 200
PC4300 DDR-SDRAM 64 267 2 4 266

283
. 4.22

,
, / , /

RIMM1200 RDRAM 16 300 2 1 200
RIMM1400 RDRAM 16 350 2 1 400
RIMM1600RDRAM 16 400 2 1 600
RIMM2100RDRAM 16 533 2 2 133
RIMM2400 RDRAM 16 600 2 2 400
RIMM3200 RDRAM 32 400 2 3 200
RIMM4200 RDRAM 32 533 2 4 266
RIMM4800 RDRAM 32 600 2 4 800
RIMM6400 RDBAM 64 400 2 6 400
RIMM8500 RDRAM 64 533 2 8 533
RIMM9600 RDRAM 64 600 2 9 600
486 CPU FSB 33 32 33 1 133
FSB 64 66 1 53
Pentium I/II/III, 66
FSB 64 100 1 800
Pentium I/II/III, 100
FSB 64 133 1 1 066
Pentium I/II/III, 133
FSB 64 100 2 1 600
Athlon, 200
FSB 64 133 2 2 133
Athlon, 266
FSB 64 167 2 2 666
Athlon, 333
FSB 64 200 2 3 200
Athlon, 400
FSB 64 267 2 4 266
Athlon, 533
FSB 64 100 4 3 200
Pentium 4, 400
FSB 64 133 4 4 266
Pentium 4, 533
FSB 64 150 4 4 800
Pentium 4, 600
FSB 64 133 2 2 133
Itanium, 266
FSB 128 100 4 6 400
Itanium 2, 400

284 4.
ISA, EISA, VL-Bus MCA -
.
/ .
ISA Industry Standard Architecture, 8- PC/XT 16--
AT-Bus.
LPC Low Pin Count.
DD Floppy Double-Density (360/720 ) Floppy (
).
HD Floppy High-Density (1,2/1,44 ) Floppy (
).
ED Floppy Extra-high Density (2,88 ) Floppy ( -
).
EISA Extended Industry Standard Architecture (32- ISA).
VL-Bus VESA (Video Electronics Standards Association) Local Bus ( ISA).
MCA MicroChannel Architecture ( IBM PS/2).
PC-Card 16- PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International
Association).
CardBus 32- PC-Card.
Hub Interface Intel 8xx.
PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect.
AGP Accelerated Graphics Port.
RS-232 , 115,2 /.
RS-232 HS , 230,4 /.
IEEE-1284 Parallel .
IEEE-1284 EPP/ECP Enhanced Parallel Port/Extended Capabilities Port.
USB Universal Serial Bus.
IEEE-1394 FireWire, i.Link.
ATA PIO AT Attachment ( IDE) Programmed I/O.
ATA-UDMA AT Attachment Ultra DMA.
SCSI Small Computer System Interface.
FPM Fast Page Mode ( ).
EDO Extended Data Out ( -).
SDRAM Synchronous Dynamic RAM.
RDRAM Rambus Dynamic RAM.
RDRAM Dual RDRAM ( ).
DDR-SDRAM Double-Data Rate SDRAM.
CPU FSB ( Front-Side Bus).

, ,
( ). ,
, . -

.
-,
, .

285

North Bridge
Memory Controller Hub. 66200 . -

- . -
Pentium (Socket 7)
. 4.34.
, Socket 7, -
, -
( 66 100 ). ,
Socket 7 , -
. ,

Socket 7

CPU Pentium MMX,
233
- L1
L1 233

Socket 7
533 /
533 / 66

L2 - L2
66 , 15
EDO
North SDMMS
Bridge 60
16


PCI PCI PCI
133 /c 33 ()

USB

South ATA1
Bridge 16 /
ATA2


ISA ISA ISA
8 / 8 ()

Super
Flash
I/O
ROM Com1
BIOS
Com2
CMOS RAM LPT1

. 4.34. Pentium
(Socket 7)

286 4.
Intel Socket 7 233 , -
3,5 66 . , -
66 . , ,
Socket 7, AMD K6-2 550, 550 ,
5,5 100 . ,
- 100 .
-
P6, , Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Celeron, Pentium III, AMD Athlon Duron.
Socket 8, Slot 1, Slot 2, Slot A, Socket A
Socket 370. , -
.
- -
. -
, . . . ,
- , -
, , 1/2, 2/5 1/3 .
- ,
, Socket 7.
. 4.35 Slot 1 ( Slot ) -
- , .
66 100 , , -
800 /. ,
AGP. AGP
66 (. . PCI),
AGP 2x, AGP, -
533 /. ,
PC100 SDRAM DIMM,
800 /.
Pentium III Celeron, Slot 1 Socket 370.
, , ,
- ( ),
, , .
133 ,
1066 /.
AGP 4x 1066 /. . 4.36
Socket 370.
hub- Intel, -
North/South Bridge. -
hub- -
266 / ( , PCI),
PCI , South Bridge,
PCI. , Flash ROM BIOS, Firmware Hub,
LPC. , North/South
Bridge Super I/O. -
Super I/O ISA LPC.
hub- Super I/O. , -
Super I/O, (legacy) ,

287
Slot 1 ,


CPU Pentium II
- L2
L2 450
225 450 L1

Slot 1
800 /
800 / 100

SDRAM
AGP AGP 2x North DIMMS
Video 533 / Bridge 800 / PC-100


PCI PCI PCI
133 / 33 ()

USB

South
Bridge ATA1
33 /
ATA2

CMOS RAM

ISA ISA ISA
8 / 8 ()

Flash
Super
ROM Com1
I/O
BIOS
Com2
LPT1

. 4.35. Pentium II (Slot 1)

Super I/O (legacy-free) . -


, ,
USB. -
(
USB).
, AMD, Socket A,
, Socket 370,
, North/South Bridge.
Socket A (Athlon/Duron) . 4.37. -
, 266 ( -
2 133 /), DDR SDRAM DIMM,
(. . 2 133 /).

288 4.

Socket 370 Pentium III
CPU 1,13
- L1 L1 L2 - L2
1,13 1,13

Socket 370

1066 /
1066 / 133

AGP AGP 4x SDRAM


Memory
Video 1066 / DIMMS
Controller
1066 / PC-133
Hub


Hub- 133 / PCI PCI
266 / 33 ()

USB1

I/C USB2
Controller
Hub ATA1
100 /
ATA2
CMOS RAM

Flash
ROM
Firmware Hub Low Pin Count
(LPC)
(BIOS)
6 /

Super
I/O Com1
Com2

LPT1

. 4.36. Pen-
tium III/Celeron (Socket 370)

, South Bridge ,
Super I/O. Super South
Bridge.
Pentium 4 (Socket 423 Socket 478), hub--
, . 4.38.
400 533 -
3 200 4 266 /. .
PC-800 RDRAM RIMM, -
(3 200 /) ,
. -
, 4 266 /,
RIM-4200 1 066 ,

289
Socket A Athlon
1,33
CPU
- L1 L1 L2 - L2
1,33 1,33

Socket A

2133 /
2133 / 266

AGP 4x DDR SDRAM


AGP
Video 1066 / North DDR-DIMMS
Bridge 2133 / PC-2100


PCI PCI PCI
133 / 33 ()

USB1

Super USB2
Flash South
ROM Bridge ATA1
100 /
BIOS ATA2
CMOS RAM



COM1

COM1
LPT1

. 4.37.
Athlon/Duron (Socket A)

4 266 /.

.
-
,
. ( ), ,
, -
. , Pentium
64 , 32 .
Pentium Pro Pentium II 36 .
, , -
. , -
, ,
. , , Celeron 766 -
766 , 66 .

290 4.

Socket 478 Pentium 4
CPU 2,53

- L1 L1 L2 - L2
1,7 2,53

Socket 478

3200 /
4266 / 533

AGP AGP 4x
Memory
Video 1066 / RDRAM
Controller
4266 / RIMM 4200
Hub


Hub- 133 / PCI PCI
266 / 33 ()

USB1

I/C USB2
Controller
Hub ATA1
100 /
ATA2
CMOS RAM

Flash
ROM
Firmware Hub Low Pin Count
(LPC)
(BIOS)
6 /

Super
I/O Com1
Com2

LPT1

. 4.38. Pentium 4
(Socket 423)

Pentium III 1 1 , -
133 .
: 1,5, 2, 2,5, 3
. .
, , -
.
, 64 .
-
(64 Celeron/Pentium III/4 Athlon/Duron) -
( () ).
, Pentium III 1,13 ,
, 133 , -

291
l066 /.
, :
133,33 8 (64 ) = l066 /.
Athlon (Socket A) :
266,66 8 (64 ) = 2133 /.
Pentium 4 (Socket 423/478):
400 8 (64 ) = 3200 /;
533,33 8 (64 ) = 4 266 /.
, (band-
width) , . -
, ,
. 4.22.


-
.
North Bridge Memory Controller Hub. ,
(, , ),
. , -
. ,
PC133 SDRAM, 1066 /,
, 133 .
: Athlon Pentium III -
266 PC2100 DDR SDRAM,
2133 / , . Pentium 4
400 , RDRAM -
1 600 3 200 /
, -
Pentium 4. Pentium 4,
533 , RIMM4200,
, 4 266 /.
, , ,
- . -
. -
, Itanium Itanium 2,
- 24 ,
. -
.

, .
. -
6, .

292 4.

- -
.
, . -

. ,
;
, ,
, SCSI .

-
. , -
SCSI, , , -
. South Bridge Super I/O,
- . -
.

-
, PC, , -
-. :
-
. :
;
;
-.
, -
, PC, , -
, .
PC , -
. ,
, -
. ,
.
- . -
.
-
() ().


ISA, EISA MCA , -
-.

- 293
PCI
1992 Intel ,
, VESA, ,
ISA EISA.
1992 PCI 1.0,
. PCI . 4.23.

4.23. PCI


PCI
PCI 1.0 1992 . 32/64-
PCI 2.0 1993 .
PCI 2.1 1995 . 66 , ,

PCI 2.2 1999 . ,

PCI-X 133 , 2.2
1999 .
Mini-PCI 1999 . ,
2.2
PCI 2.3 2002 . 3,3 ,

PCI ,
-. -
,
( ),
(. 4.39).
PCI . -
- , -
, . -
PCI 1993 ,
.
PCI 33 ,
. 32-
132 /:
33 32 = 1 056 /;
1056 / : 8 = 132 /.
PCI , . 4.24.
64- 66 133 -
.
PCI , -
. -

294 4.


/ DRAM

PCI


SCSI

ISA/EISA

. 4.39. PCI

4.24. PCI

PCI ,
, / , /

PCI 32 33 1 133
PCI 66 32 66 1 266
64- PCI 64 33 1 266
64- PCI 66 64 66 1 533
PCI-X 64 133 1 1066

PCI -
.
PCI (. 4.40).
PCI , -.
PCI -
. 5
, 3,3 . -
,
.
32- 64- PCI (5 ) 64-
PCI . 4.41. . 4.42
64- PCI 64-
PCI.
, PCI ,
. -

- 295
PCI

AGP


ISA EISA

. 4.40. PCI -
ISA/EISA AGP

, , ,
+ I/O. ,
.
PCI , -
Plug and Play Intel. , PCI -
.
Plug and Play , ,
Plug and Play, PCI,
Setup BIOS. 1995 -
BIOS, Plug and
Play, .

PCI Express
2001 , Arapa-
hoe Work Group ( Intel), -
, 3GIO
(Third-Generation I/O - ). 2001 -
PCI-SIG (PCI Special Interest Group) ,
3GIO PCI -

296 4.

B1 B1 B1

B11

B49 B49 B49

B62 B62 B62

B94 B94

32- 64- 64-


PCI, 33 PCI, 33
( ( PCI, 66/33
) ) ( )

. 4.41. 32- PCI


64- PCI 64- -
PCI

. 3GIO 1.0 2002 ,


PCI-SIG, PCI Express.
(3GIO),
ISA/AT-
Bus ( ) PCI ( ), -
.
10- 15- . PCI Express,
PCI-SIG, , ,

- 297
. 4.42. 64- PCI () -
64- PCI ()

, -
1015 .
PCI Express :
PCI -
;
, , -
-
;
, -
, , ,
, ;
, (-
) , ;
( ),
() ;
, , -
( ) , , ,
;
(. . -
);
.
PCI Express -
. -
, -
.
, -
. ( )
,
. PCI AGP -
32 ,
, -
.
, ,
1 , -
, , .

298 4.

.
, -
.
PCI Express , -

PCI. PCI Express -
(. .
) , .
250 /, -
1 2, 4, 8, 16 32 . ,
8- , ,
8 , -
2 000 /
40 (32 8
). -
8 000 / 40 .
PCI,
100 , 133 /
( ).
PCI Express ,

PCI.
PCI Express IBM
810, . -
, 2,5 ,
10 , . -
32
PCI Express 32 /.
PCI Express , -
.
,
Intel Hub AMD Hypertransport, -
. ,
PCI Express ,
(, AGP), (
) , , Serial ATA, USB 2.0,
1394b (FireWire iLink), Gigabit Ethernet . .
PCI Express, ,
, . -
, ,
, , , -
, -,
.

.

- 299
, PCI PCI Ex-
press . -
PCI, AGP .
, PCI ISA/AT-Bus, ,
. -
PCI
PCI Express. PCI Express -
-. ,
PCI Express ISA/AT-Bus
PCI, 1990- .
, , PCI Express,
.
, , PCI Express -

. PCI-SIG, -
, PCI Express, 2004 .
2004 PCI Express ,
. -
2005 .
, , ,
.
PCI Express
Web- PCI-SIG (http://www.pcisig.org).

(AGP)
Intel
(Accelerated Graphics Port AGP). AGP
PCI, . , , -
PCI. , AGP PCI,
. PCI,
, AGP
, ,
AGP. AGP 1.0 -
Intel 1996 .
66 1 2 3,3 .
AGP 2.0 1998 , 4,
1,5 .
AGP Pro -
AGP,
25 ( 110 ). AGP Pro
.
AGP Pro , . . AGP.
AGP Pro AGP 1/2,
AGP 1/2, . ,
AGP Pro, , -
. AGP Pro .

300 4.
AGP 1x/2x

AGP
4x-only
AGP 4x/AGP Pro
AGP 4x


AGP 4x
AGP Pro-only
AGP Pro

AGP Pro
AGP
4x-only
AGP 4x/AGP Pro

. 4.43. AGP 1x/2x, AGP 4x AGP Pro .


AGP 4x AGP Pro AGP 1x, 2x 4x

!
AGP 4x-
AGP 4x 1,5 . AGP
. , AGP 4x--
, . 4.63.
AGP 1x/2x ,
AGP 4x.

AGP 1x/2x, AGP 4x AGP Pro . 4.43.


AGP
AGP 8x, AGP 3.0. AGP 8x
2 133 /, -
AGP 4x. AGP 8x 2000 ;
, 2003 -
, , . AGP 8x
2003 .
AGP , 66
( 66,66 ), , PCI. AGP,
1, .
AGP 32 (4 ), 66
266 ! -
AGP 2,
, 533 /.
.
AGP 2.0 4- , . . -
.
1 066 /. AGP -
, , 4. . 4.25
AGP.

- 301
4.25. AGP

AGP ,
, / , /
AGP 32 66 1 266
AGP 2x 32 66 2 533
AGP 4x 32 66 4 1066
AGP 8x 32 66 8 2133

AGP PCI, AGP -


PCI -,
IDE/ATA, SCSI USB, .
, AGP
.
AGP ,
. ,
.


, ,
.
:
;
(IRQ);
(DMA);
-.
-
- . -
,
. -
6, . -
. , ,
IRQ, DMA, .
IRQ. DMA ,
. -
, 64 , ,
, .
, ( )
, -
.
. -

302 4.
. . , -
IRQ
-, DMA. -
16 , IRQ
-.
-
, .
, IRQ -.
-
, -, IRQ
. . Windows9x, -
Plug and Play, -
. ,
, .

(IRQ), , -
()
.
-
. IRQ -
, -
.
, ,
() .
, , .
, -
- , . ,
, -
; BIOS,
.
,
, -
( ) ,
.
-
. , ,
, IRQ.
: -
, . -
.
.
-
. DOS,
, Stacks ( ) Config.sys.

303
Windows 9x Windows NT
.
ISA ,
, -
. . -
, ,
,
. , ,
() () .
-
. PCI-.
BIOS .
,
. . () ,
.
ISA ,
.
IRQ,
.

ISA, EISA MCA -.

PCI
PCI ,
, . INTA#, INTB#, INTC#
INTD#. INTx# ,
PCI. PCI
, INTA#
PCI. INTB#,
INTC# INTD#.
PCI -
ISA.
ISA ,
PCI, INTA# PCI,
, ISA.
, PCI PCI, -
INTA#.
ISA, IRQ9, IRQ10, IRQ11
IRQ5.
ISA PCI -
. ISA .
,
?
PCI. BIOS,

304 4.
Plug and Play, , Windows 95b (OSR 2), -
. -
. , Windows 95,
Windows 95a .
BIOS PCI. -
,
. , ,
, BIOS. -
,
PCI. -
,
.
, , -
.
1. (Start) -
(SettingsControl Panel).
2. (System).
3. (Device Manager).
4. + (System Devices).
5. PCI (PCI Bus). -
IRQ (IRQ Steering). .
.
Windows IRQ:
ACPI BIOS;
MS;
PCIBIOS 2.1 ;
PCIBIOS 2.1 .
-
IRQ.
IRQ ACPI BIOS,
IRQ PCIBIOS 2.1 . ,
Windows 98; Windows 95 .
PCI bus master ()
slave (). bus master
slave. PC 97 PCI
, .
PCI .
PCI , PCI -
.
. Bus Master
. :
,
.

305

, (IRQ) -
COM2,
, ( PC-,
, WinModem). ,
,
. -
2. 2,
(IRQ) -.
: BIOS Setup -
COM2. ,
COM1, . -
(IRQ)
.
IRQ .
, IRQ 3 2, IRQ 4 1.

, , . -
IRQ .
IRQ 3 , IRQ 4
. 2 4
IRQ 3, 1 3 IRQ 4. , -
1 COM3 ; 2 4.
, , IRQ ,
. DOS -
, ,
Windows OS/2 .

COM, , , 3 4,
.
- -
, (IRQ 12)
2 (IRQ 5), .
,
IRQ 5 .
, -
Windows 9 Windows NT/2000/XP.
: ,
. Microsoft -
HWDIAG Windows 95B ;
.


(DMA) , -
. ,
, DMA, SCSI.

306 4.
DMA , . -
, DMA 1 ,
, .
DMA.

DMA ISA, EISA MCA -.

-
- -
. , -
LPT, . ,
,
, . , -
LPT SCSI,
-
.

. 1 2, -
LPT1.
(14) (LPT1LPT3) .
-
. ,
.
IRQ ,
-. 65 535 , -
0000h FFFFh, , , Intel.
,
. ,
.
, Plug and Play,
- ,
.
- ,
, , . ,
, 1000h, SIMM
DIMM. 1000h -,
, , .
,
.
-
, . , -
, . ,
, , .
-
- 0h FFh, 100h FFFFh.

307
. 4.26 -,
.

4.26. ,


()
000-000F 16 8237 DMA 1
0020-0021 2
8259 (1)
002E-002F 2 Super I/O
0040-0043 4 / 1
0048-004B 4 / 2
0060 1 Reset IRQ
0061 1 NMI,
0064 1 CMD/STAT
0070, 7 1 Enable NMI
0070, 6:0 7 MC146818 ,
0071 1 MC146818 ,
0078 1
0079 1
0080-008F 16
00A0-00A1 2
8259 (2)
00B2 1 APM
00B3 1 APM
00C0-00DE 31 8237 DMA 2
00F0 1

, , -

Windows.
, , , 100h. . 4.27
, .

4.27.


()
0130-0133 4 Adaptec SCSI ()
0134-0137 4 Adaptec SCSI ()
0168-016F 8 IDE

308 4.
. 4.27


()
0170-0177 8 IDE
01E8-01EF 8 IDE
01F0-01F7 8 IDE/AT (16 )
0200-0207 8
0210-0217 8 IBM XT Expansion Chassis
0220-0233 20 Creative Labs Sound Blaster 16 Audio ( )
0230-0233 4 Adaptec SCSI ()
0234-0237 4 Adaptec SCSI ()
0238-023B 4 MS ()
023C-023F 4 MS ( )
0240-024F 16 SMC Ethernet ( )
0240-0253 20 Creative Labs Sound Blaster 16
()
0258-025F 8 Intel Above Board
0260-026F 16 SMC Ethernet ()
0260-0273 20 Creative Labs Sound Blaster 16
()
0270-0273 4 - ( ) Plug and Play
0278-027F 8 2 (LPT2)
0280-028F 16 SMC Ethernet ()
0280-0293 19 Creative Labs Sound Blaster 16
()
02A0-02AF 16 SMC Ethernet ()
02C0-02CF 16 SMC Ethernet ()
02E0-02EF 16 SMC Ethernet ()
02E8-02EF 8 4 (COM4)
02EC-02EF 4 , 8514 ATI
02F8-02FF 8 2 (COM2)
0300-0301 2 MPU-401 MIDI ()
0300-030F 16 SMC Ethernet ()
0320-0323 4 XT (8 )
0320-032F 16 SMC Ethernet ()
0330-0331 2 MPU-401 MIDI ( )
0330-0333 4 Adaptec SCSI ( )
0334-0337 4 Adaptec SCSI ()
0340-034F 16 SMC Ethernet ()
0360-036F 16 SMC Ethernet ()

309
. 4.27


()
0366 1 IDE ()
0367, 6:0 7 IDE ()
0370-0375 6
0376 1 IDE ()
0377, 7 1 ()
0377, 6:0 7 IDE ()
0378-037F 8 1 (LPT1)
0380-038F 16 SMC Ethernet ()
0388-038B 4 FM-
03B0-03BB 12 , Mono/EGA/VGA
03BC-03BF 4 1 (LPT1)
03BC-03BF 4 3 (LPT3)
03C0-03CF 16 , EGA/VGA
03D0-03DF 16 , CGA/EGA/VGA
03E6 1 IDE ()
03E7, 6:0 7 IDE ()
03E8-03EF 8 3 (COM3)
03F0-03F5 6
03F6 1 IDE ()
03F7, 7 1 ()
03F7, 6:0 7 IDE
03F8-03FF 8 1 (COM1)
04D0-04D1 2 PCI
0530-0537 8 Windows ( )
0604-060B 8 Windows ()
0678-067F 8 LPT2 ECP
0778-077F 8 LPT1 ECP
0A20-0A23 4 IBM Token Ring ( )
0A24-0A27 4 IBM Token Ring ()
0CF8-0CFB 4 PCI
0CF9 1 Turbo (Reset Control
Register)
0CFC-0CFF 4 PCI
FF00-FF07 8 Bus Master IDE
FF80-FF9F 32 Universal Serial Bus (USB)
FFA0-FFA7 8 Bus Master IDE
FFA8-FFAF 8 Bus Master IDE

310 4.
, , -
-
Windows.

-. , , ,
- .

,

, . -
,
.
Plug and Play, .
, ?
- .
, :
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Windows 9 .
Windows 9
. .
-
.

!
, . ,
() , . -
, . ,
- -
, - , ,
.

-
. ,
. -, ISA
. , -
(IRQ), . ISA

, 311
PCI AGP, -
.
-, . -
, -
, . -
, Plug and Play (PnP)
IRQ,
.

BIOS Setup. ,
, Plug and Play (, , Win-
dows 9x/Me/2000/XP), , BIOS.
(, Windows NT) -
PnP.
-
, , ,
, , CD-ROM DVD.
.
-
, . -
- , -
.

,
. : ,
, , -
. -
, , .

-
( (Start) (Settings) (Control Panel) (System)
(Device Manger)). ,
.

.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. , MPEG, 3D- . .
5. SCSI.
6. .
-
.

312 4.

, -
.
,
.
- , -
, .
. ,
.
. ,
( ).
? -
, , -, ; -
, , - , -
.
, ?
, , , , -
.
-
? Internet ,
.
,
. , , .
.
.
, , -
, -
.


,
, -.

:
IRQ -
DMA, -
. ,
. ,
.
.
IRQ DMA.
, ROM RAM .
,
.

, 313
,
, , SCSI .

:
IRQ, DMA -. ,
, .
Sound Blaster 16, Creative
Labs.
. 4.28 Creative
Labs SB512.

4.28. Creative Labs SB512

16- 8-
- DMA DMA
16- 8-
- DMA DMA
Sound 5 0220-022F 5 1
Blaster 16 0330-03311
0388-038B2
D400-D407
Creative
0200-0207
Creative
Creative SB512 93 C860-C87F
1
MIDI-.
2
FM-.
3
PCI.

, . -
,
IRQ DMA.
,
.

-
. ,
. -
- ,
, . - ,
, ,
.
.

314 4.
Sound Blaster 16 -
Adaptec SCSI. DMA 5
- 330331. -
SCSI ,
.
(Sound Blaster 16 AHA-1542CF) -
, ,
.

PCI -
(, DOS), , ISA,
DMA. -
32- . PCI
,
DMA- , -
.
, PC/PCI,
PC/PCI-
. DAM ISA-
.

SCSI

, , ,
. :

- . , SCSI IRQ,
DMA, - 16
ROM , , RAM ( ).
, SCSI ,
.
SCSI, -
, IRQ, DMA, -
. , -
, . -

.

.
, ,
. - .
16
, .
, ,
.

, 315

-
.
-. -
, -
. -
.
3 4 1 2
.
, Windows OS/2.
- , ,
-, .

, -
IRQ,
,
IRQ. , 3
4, IRQ 10 3 IRQ 12 4 (
).
-
, ,
- -.
SVGA , S3, Inc. ATI,
- ( ,
4).
, ATI 2EC2EF --
, , 4
2E82EF, .
4,
.
, , -, ,
- , , --
, ,
4.
, -
, . ,
, , .
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
USB ,
Windows 98 . , USB
, !
(, COM LPT).
IRQ,
.
USB , ,
( 127),

316 4.
(IRQ).
USB,
.
USB, -
CMOS , IRQ,
. , USB -
, , , ., IRQ . ,
ISA.

-
, (,
), ,
. . ,
, .

, .
MPEG, -
.
, DVD-.

Plug and Play


-
. 1995 ,
.

, -
.
Plug and Play ,
, MCA EISA, -
.
-, DMA IRQ. Plug and
Play ISA, PCI, SCSI, IDE PCMCIA.
Plug and Play, :
Plug and Play;
Plug and Play BIOS;
Plug and Play .
Plug and Play, . . -
.

, -
. , Plug and Play -
ISA. , , , ,
, .

, 317
Plug and Play BIOS -
. , BIOS -
-
.
.
BIOS
BIOS -
BIOS, Plug and Play. BIOS 13
,
Plug and Play. BIOS, Plug and Play,
, Compaq, Intel Phoenix Technologies.
Plug and Play BIOS
POST . BIOS
, Plug and Play.
.
1. .
2. ISA Plug and Play.
3. : , IRQ,
DMA .
4. -.
5. ROM ISA.
6. ,
.
7. .
8. .
9. .

Windows 9/Me/2000/XP.
Windows NT 4.0, Plug and Play, ,
. - Windows NT
4.0 \DRVLIB\PNPISA.
PNPISA.INF. Windows 2000
Plug and Play.

, Plug and Play . , Windows 95


BIOS 1.0 ISA Plug and Play.
BIOS, .

, -
BIOS. ,
( ) -
.

318 4.
( ) .
, , .



, , - . -
, -
. ,
,
.
, .
( ) .
? ?

PC- . ,
, .
, .
( , !).
. -
,
DIMM SDRAM RIMM RDRAM ( ,
). , AGP 4 -
ATA-100/133. , ,
. , ,
,
.
. -
- .
,
. -
; - .
, - ( -
-). -
Celeron/Pentium III,
Duron/Athlon Pentium 4. -
Intel AMD, -
, 3-
.
. -
, -
. -
Socket 370 Celeron/Pentium III, Socket A
(Socket 462) Duron/Athlon, Socket 423/478 Pentium 4.
, , .

319
.
, , ,
66 266 Celeron/Pentium III,
200/266 Duron/Athlon 400/533
Pentium 4. ,
, .
-. -
-, ,
-. ,
- . ,
- ,
, -
.
- .
SIMM/DIMM/RIMM. SIMM -
, ,
. DDR DIMM
RIMM, SDRAM, DDR SDRAM RDRAM.
,
,
, . DDR SDRAM
RDRAM , RDRAM
.
, ,
(), ,
. ,
, Intel 810/815, ,
, . -
.
,
- DIMM - RIMM.
, .
. ISA.
PCI ( ).
, PCI PCI 2.1.
, , -

.
AGP. , AMR (Audio
Modem Riser) CNR (Communications Networking Riser),
, -
.
BIOS. BIOS
AMI, Award Phoenix. BIOS
Flash-ROM EEPROM -
Plug and Play, Enhanced IDE Fast ATA, LS-120

320 4.
CD-ROM. BIOS -
APM (Advanced Power Management) ACPI (Advanced Configuration and
Power Interface).
. ATX,
Baby-AT LPX. ,
NLX,
Intel.
.
( -
, , ).
, Super I/O , , -
USB.
, -
, , .
, -
Super I/O.
Ethernet 10/100,
DSL- Internet.
. -
, . -
.
Sound Blaster,
, .
IDE. ,
, IDE,
IDE . , , -
UDMA/33 (ATA-33), -
IDE. UDMA/66 UDMA/100
, , -
, , . -

IDE RAID. -
-, -
, , ,
, IDE.
,
RAID,
AMI, HighPoint Promise.
. -
SL Enhanced APM (Advanced Power Management) SMM
(System Management Mode), -
.
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and
Power Interface). , Energy-Star,
30 .

321

, , -
. -
Motherboard Homeworlds Mobot,
, , ,
, , , . . -
, : http://iceberg.pchomeworld.com/cgi-win/
mobotGen/mobot.asp.

.
,
, , -
, SIMM, DIMM, RIMM ,
. -
BIOS, ,
. ,
-.
, -
( ,
!). , ,
,
,
. , Intel,
Acer, ABIT, AsusTek, Elitegroup, FIC (First International Computer) . .
, :
, , ,
. ,
.

-
.
. , , -
- . -
, 900 ,
, 600 . -
, ? ,
, , ,
. . ,
.
, -
, Intel .
Pentium 800 -
1 066 . ,

322 4.
, . , , -
1 , ,
1000, .
, Intel
. .
( .)
, AMD Cyrix .
AMD -
, . AMD K6
, ,
.

, !
, ,
, . Intel Processor Frequency ID Util-
ity, , .
, Intel, ,
, Pentium III,
Celeron ( Coppermine), -
. Intel Processor Frequency ID Utility
: http://developer.intel.com/support/processors/tools/frequencyid/
download.htm.
. -
, !
.
Norton Utilities Symantec,
. -
, 3,
.

323
5

-
BIOS

. .
-
BIOS.
BIOS -. -
, BIOS -
. BIOS
. , BIOS ,
.
, - BIOS,
. BIOS,
, firmware. ( -
BIOS ).
PC- ,
(. 5.1).
, -
BIOS
. , -
(, , .),
.

API (Application Programming Interface). ,
, , -
. ,
,
.
, , BIOS
. .
, -


"" ""



"" ROM BIOS "" ROM BIOS







(API)

. 5.1. PC-

326 5. -
.
, , , .
, -
, DOS, Windows 9x/NT/2000/XP, OS/2, Linux .
, -
. , Windows Me
Windows 98/95, Windows Win-
dows 2000/NT.
BIOS , -
, -
. , Windows XP -
, , . ., Windows XP
,
.
. 5.1,
, BIOS ,
,
.
-, BIOS.

BIOS
, BIOS -
. BIOS -
, ,
.
BIOS :
;
(, );
, ( ).
BIOS (, -
, , . .),
. (,
CD-ROM, SCSI . .) -
BIOS.
,
. , ,
, PC Card (PCMCIA) . .
, -
. , ,
, , -
? ,
(read-only memory ROM)
.
. ,
,

BIOS 327
BIOS. ,
, BIOS.
BIOS
. BIOS BIOS
.
BIOS
BIOS ,
. BIOS, , -
:
BIOS;
SCSI- , BIOS SCSI-
, . . -
CD-ROM, , Zip SCSI; -
SCSI- SCSI CD-ROM,

CD-ROM;
, -
; IPL (Initial
program load ), -

;
IDE
;
Y2K -
.

BIOS CMOS RAM


BIOS CMOS RAM . ,
Setup BIOS
CMOS RAM. , , , .
BIOS . ,
RTC/NVRAM, -
. ,
. -
CMOS-, -
(complementary metal-oxide semiconductor CMOS).
Motorola MC146818, RTC/NVRAM,
64 , 10 .
, /
, , . , -
Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS),
, . -
CMOS RAM, , ,
RTC/NVRAM. ,
RTC/NVRAM, ( ),
. -
,

328 5. -
. Dallas Semicon-
ductor RTC/NVRAM (, DS12885 DS12887), .
BIOS Setup / -
,
RTC/NVRAM (, , CMOS RAM).
, -
CMOS RAM.
- (BIOS) CMOS RAM, .

BIOS
, -
, BIOS ROM BIOS. -
,
. POST (
) . -
CMOS-, , .
CMOS- NVRAM (Non-Volatile RAM).
, BIOS ,
.
. BIOS PC- -
.
POST , ,
, , , , -
.
BIOS (Setup BIOS) -
.
( ) POST. -
286 386
.
, -
.
, (
55AAh), .
, ,
, .
BIOS , -
. DOS
Windows
BIOS.


ROM,
ROM, PROM EPROM -
.

BIOS 329
EEPROM, Flash ROM
ROM - -
. Flash ROM, -
, , ,
. Flash ROM, ROM -
,
! -
- .
Flash ROM 28xxxx 29xxxx -
. Flash ROM ROM,
.
, Web- ,
.
Web- ,
- -
. -
, -
. , -,
LS-120 ( 120 ).

, , -
. , ROM
. ,
, , ROM
, -
. GM,
-, -
Vehicle Calibration General Motors, :
http://calid.gm.com/vci/.
(Vehicle Identification Number VIN) -
Web- Flash ROM,
. , VIN -
Impala 1994 , ,
Flash ROM, . .
. , .
, -
, ,
, check engine . .
Flash ROM ,
. , Flash ROM Im-
pala Comoro. -
, , . -
Flash ROM ,
Fastchip (http://www.fastchip.com) Superchips (http://www.superchips.com).
( Vendor List --
.) Flash
ROM Web- http://www.diy-efi.org.

330 5. -
, ,
Flash ROM. , , ! -
, Flash ROM ISDN
Motorola Kodak. -
, ROM.
, ,
Web- . Flash ROM -

(v.90).

ROM BIOS
BIOS -
. -
BIOS.
PC- ROM BIOS -
, American Megatrends, Inc. (AMI), Award Software Phoenix Software. -
ROM BIOS,
, .
ROM -
BIOS, ,
. ROM BIOS -
. ROM BIOS . AMI, Award, Microid Research
Phoenix BIOS, -
.
, -
-. , 1995 Phoenix Intel -
Intel - 1999 (
AMI). AMI , Intel
80% ( ) .
1998 Phoenix Award,
Phoenix. ,
Phoenix AMI. -
- AMI,
BIOS Phoenix. -
- ,
.
BIOS OEM-
OEM- (Original Equipment Manufacturers)
ROM. , Compaq AT&T BIOS,
BIOS AMI, Phoenix Award, -
BIOS,
.
ROM BIOS, , , -
( , ,
).

BIOS 331
OEM- BIOS,
. , Hewlett-Packard -
, -. Hewlett-Packard
; Phoenix -
-. , Vectra PC -
Hewlett-Packard BIOS Phoenix. :
- Phoenix,
Hewlett-Packard.


BIOS AMI, Award, Phoenix Microid research (MR) -
-.

BIOS
ROM BIOS .
BIOS ,
ROM.
ROM BIOS ,
. - -
.
- -
PC- , -
. - -
, .
BIOS, -
- , American Megatrends, Inc. (AMI), Award Software (
Phoenix), Microid Research Phoenix Technologies Ltd. -
, BIOS,
, -, -
. BIOS
ROM -
. , -
.
-
-, . ,
IDE LS-120 (
120 ) , -
BIOS. ,
-,
8 .
ROM BIOS :
LS-120 (SuperDisk);
8 ;

332 5. -
Ultra-DMA/33, Ultra-DMA/66
UDMA/100 IDE;
CD-ROM ( El Torito);
Plug and Play;
, 2000
;

;
;
(Ad-
vanced System Configuration and Power Interface ACPI).
, -
Plug and Play (Windows 9x/Me/2000/XP), -
BIOS. ,
.
- -
BIOS, -
Zip/LS-120, ACPI, PCI IRQ . .,
BIOS Wizard, Web- eSupport.com ( Unicore)
: http://www.esupport.com/techsupport/award/.

BIOS
-
. BIOS .
, BIOS Web- -
.
Phoenix Award Unicore.
BIOS ,
.
Web- BIOS.

BIOS
BIOS :
;
BIOS;
(, Pentium MMX, AMD K6, Cyrix/IBM 6x86MX, MII, Pen-
tium II, Pentium III, AMD Athlon . .).
- , -
. ,
- .
CMOS.

BIOS 333


POST. -
( splash screen).
BIOS Setup - -
( BIOS).
Setup BIOS. , , ,
- -
POST (quiet boot ).
BIOS, , -
. , , -
, Intel, Web-
http://developer.intel.com/design/motherbd/gen_indx.htm.

- -
. (POST) -
<Pause>. , .
POST .

, BIOS -
BIOS Setup. ,
Super I/O, -
, BIOS Agent, :
www.esupport.com/unicore.
Web-,
-.
, BIOS
. -
,
. , -
.
, <Pause>, -
. .
PC 2001, Intel Mi-
crosoft, Fast POST. -
, , -
, 12 ( ,
SCSI ). -
, ATA. ,
ROM, 4 . ,
Intel Rapid Bios Boot (RBB), -
, 2001 .
6 .

334 5. -

( 286) , -
, (ROM) ,
. -
Super I/O South Bridge
. 40-
Intel 8042, , , -
. , -
-.
, Super I/O South Bridge,
, , 8042 .
A20, -
. A20
.
.
-
,
DOS Windows 95/98/NT/2000.
, , -
1990- ,
. , BIOS
.
Flash BIOS
1996 BIOS Flash
ROM. -
. -
PROM
, Flash ROM
.
Flash ROM BIOS In-
ternet , , Flash ROM
. Web-
; -
BIOS. ,
, -
.
, .
Flash ROM ; , -
, .
, ROM. -
ROM , .
- ROM
BIOS . BIOS
Flash ROM , -
. Intel .

BIOS 335
, , -
BIOS . Web-
. .
BIOS -
-. Web-
- Vendor
List, -.
- -
, ,
.
-
Flash ROM, ,
. Intel.
- Intel -
, BIOS,
BIOS Setup BIOS.
--
CMOS,
. DOS (. . -
) BIOS .
-
.
iFlash, ,
-,
, , Windows 95,
MS DOS , , Linux. Express BIOS Intel
( Windows 98, Windows NT 4, ) -
BIOS GUI ( -
) InstallShield,
Windows.
- Intel iFlash BIOS.
1. , CMOS-. -
(<F1> BIOS
AMI, <F2> BIOS Phoenix) CMOS.
,
-.
. . -
: ,
.
2. -
.
DOS.
3. :. -
- , :
C:\>FORMAT A:

336 5. -
, (Windows
Explorer).
4. , Web- Intel, -
, .
. ,
. ( <Enter>.)
. , -
CB-P06.EXE ( Intel D810E2CB),

C:\TEMP>CB-P06
<Enter>.
5. , -
BIOS. Intel Flash BIOS
: Desc.txt, License.txt, Readme.txt, Run.bat (-
) SW.EXE (
-).
6. Run.bat.
SW.EXE
, A:.
7. , -
.
iFLASH, , BIOS
.
8. -
<Enter> -
.
9. Setup BIOS, <F1> <F2>
.
BIOS , .
10. Setup BIOS, BIOS ,
. AMI BIOS <F5>. -
Phoenix BIOS Exit, Load Setup Defaults
<Enter>.
11. , , -
.
<F10>, Setup BIOS .
BIOS.

!
BIOS ,
.

BIOS 337

Intel BIOS
. , -
BIOS.EXE, , -
12- , -.

Flash BIOS
Flash BIOS -
:
The BIOS is currently being updated.
DO NOT REBOOT OR POWER DOWN until the update is completed
(typically within three minutes)...
( BIOS. -
( ) .)
-
BIOS - , -.
, BIOS
. Flash
ROM. ;
, Flash BIOS, -
.
Andromeda Research (
Vendor List -).
Flash BIOS -
,
. , -
. ,
Flash BIOS, Recovery BIOS.
, - -
BIOS. -
- ,
. , ,
, , -
:.
1. Flash Recovery Recovery.
Intel . -
Recovery/Normal. . 5.2
Intel SE440BX.
2. BIOS (
5 ) . -
BIOS ,
. , .
BIOS -
. , ,
.

338 5. -

3
1"
8A
1

"J

1 3

"J8A1"

. 5.2. Flash Recovery Intel

3. , -
.
4. Flash Recovery Normal.
.

BIOS .
BIOS
.

IML
IBM Compaq Flash BIOS -
IML (Initial Microcode Load ). -
BIOS -
. , BIOS
. BIOS .
, -,
, (Setup, Diagnostics

BIOS 339
Reference Disk), -
. -
.
, --
; -
. ,
,
Reference Disk.

!
.
, ILM BIOS,
.

CMOS-
AT Motorola 146818
(10 ) (54 ),
. 54 IBM AT
.
Motorola 146818 .
( South Bridge)
Super I/O,
NVRAM (Non-Volatile RAM).
. 5.1 64 CMOS-.
, . -
Setup BIOS.

5.1. CMOS- AT

,
HEX DEC
00 0 1 - (
BCD)
01 1 1 BCD
02 2 1 BCD
03 3 1 BCD
04 4 1 BCD
05 5 1 BCD
06 6 1 BCD
07 7 1 ( BCD)
08 8 1 BCD
09 9 1 BCD
0A 10 1
0B 11 1
0C 12 1

340 5. -
. 5.1

,
HEX DEC
0D 13 1 D
0E 14 1
0F 15 1
10 16 1
11 17 1
12 18 1
13 19 1
14 20 1
15 21 1
16 22 1
17 23 1 (extended)

18 24 1 (extended)

19 25 1 0
(0255)
1A 26 1 1
(0255)
1B 27 9
2E 46 1 CMOS-
2F 47 1 CMOS-
30 48 1
(extended)
31 49 1
(extended)
32 50 1 BCD
33 51 1 POST
34 52 2
36 54 1 BIOS Setup,

37 55 7 (
)
3E 62 1
(extended) CMOS-
3F 63 1
(extended) CMOS-
BCD Binary-coded decimal (- ).
LSB Least significant byte ( () ).
MSB Most significant byte ( () ).
POST Power on self test ( ).

BIOS 341
, -
CMOS- 2 4 .
Plug and Play. . 5.1 -
, CMOS-
, , BIOS.
. 5.2 , -
BIOS CMOS-.
, , -

.

5.2.


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
HEX
1 80
1 40
CMOS
1 20 POST

1 10
POST
1 08

1 04 ,
1 02

1 01

00 ()

ROM BIOS
Flash ROM 1995 .
EPROM. BIOS -
EPROM ,
BIOS. BIOS ,
Flash ROM, . ,
BIOS , 1995 .
50 BIOS
, Pentium Pentium II,
Flash BIOS, 75 ?
BIOS . -
ROM BIOS, .

342 5. -
1. CMOS-.
2. .
3. .
4. , -
ROM BIOS. !
,
.
5. , -
ROM BIOS .
6. ROM BIOS .
7. .
8. , .
9. BIOS.
10. .

CMOS
, ROM BIOS.

Setup BIOS
-
.
BIOS ,
POST.
AMI BIOS <Delete>.
Phoenix BIOS <F2>.
Award BIOS <Delete> <Ctrl+Alt+Esc>.
Microid Research BIOS <Esc>.
Setup BIOS, -
.
Setup BIOS -
.
IBM Aptiva/Valuepoint <F1> ( POST).
Toshiba <Esc> ; <F1>.
Phoenix BIOS <Ctrl+Alt+Esc> <Ctrl+Alt+S> ( -
).
Compaq <F10> ( POST).
.
Setup BIOS Intel
SE440BX-2. , -
.

CMOS 343
Setup BIOS
Setup BIOS -
, . 5.3.

5.3. Setup BIOS


Maintenance .
() Configure,

Main (
)
Advanced (
( )
)
Security
()
Power ()
Boot ()
Exit ()

BIOS ,
Setup, Intel.
- , . .
BIOS .
Setup BIOS Intel DB815EEA. Intel.

Maintenance

. -
.
Setup BIOS.
Intel SE440BX-2
, ( Configure).
. . 5.4
Maintenance. -

.
,
, ,
( ).
, -
Configure, Setup BIOS

344 5. -
5.4. Maintenance*


Processor Speed (
) .
,
,
Clear All Passwords
( )
Clear BiS ( BiS (Boot Integrity
BiS) Service)
Extended Configuration , Extended Configuration
(
)
CPU Information
( )
CPU Microcode Update
Revision (


)
CPU Stepping Signature
(
)
* BIOS Intel DB815EEA.

Clear All Passwords Maintenance.


, ,
, -
.
Extended Configuration
Extended Configuration Intel
, -
Advanced.

Main
Setup BIOS . -
, ,
. Setup BIOS
, BIOS, -
, (Error
Correcting Code ECC).
. 5.5 Main.
(Error Correction Code) , -

CMOS 345
5.5. Main


BIOS Version ( BIOS
BIOS)
Processor Type (
)
Processor Speed (
)
System Bus Frequency
(
)
Cache RAM (- -
) (L2),

()
Total Memory (
)

Memory Bank 0
Memory Bank 1 DIMM,
Memory Bank 2
( 0, 1 2)
Language () English (default) ,
( ( Setup BIOS
))
Deutch ()
Espanol ()
Processor Serial Number Disabled (default) /
( ( ( (
) )), Enabled
() Pentium III)
ECC Configuration Non-ECC (default) ( ECC
( ECC) ECC (
))
ECC ( ECC)
L2 cache ECC Support Disabled (default) ECC -
( ECC ( ( .
- )) ,
) Enabled () -

System Time Hour, minute, second
( ) (, , )
System Date Month, day, year
( ) (, , )
. BIOS Intel D815EEA. -
Intel.

346 5. -
.
DIMM. , -
, DIMM
.
, -
.
64256 . -
,
.
,
. ,
. -

, ,
. , -
, .
-
. ,
(conventional), 640 .
, 1024 , .
Setup BIOS -
, . ,
.

Advanced
, -
. . . 5.6
Advanced Intel DB815EEA
815.

5.6. Advanced


Extended Configuration User-defined
( Extended Configuration ( Maintenance)
) Used
PCI Configuration (IRQ)
( PCI) PCI.
PCI Configuration
Boot Settings Numlock Plug and Play,
Configuration .
( Boot Settings
) Configuration
Peripheral Configuration
(

)

CMOS 347
. 5.6


IDE Configuration IDE-
( IDE)
Diskette Configuration
( Diskette Configuration
)
Event Log .
( ) Event Log
Configuration
Video Configuration .
( ) Video
Configuration

Plug and Play O/S


, Plug and Play,
Windows NT. (No), BIOS
.
, Plug
and Play, Windows 9 Windows 2000, -
(No),
BIOS. -
, Plug and
Play, Yes.
BIOS.
Reset Configuration Data -
(,
).
Yes Reset Configuration Data -
. CMOS-
. -
.
PCI Configuration
PCI Configuration (IRQ)
, PCI. Auto (the default),
- -
IRQ , PCI, -
. PCI Configuration
. 5.7.
Boot Configuration
. 5.8 PnP (Plug and Play) , -
.

348 5. -
5.7. PCI Configuration


PCI Slot 1 IRQ Priority Auto (the default) ( IRQ
( ( )), 9, 10, 11
PCI #1)
PCI Slot 2 IRQ Priority Auto (the default), 9, 10, 11 IRQ
PCI Slot 3 IRQ Priority Auto (the default), 9, 10, 11 IRQ.
PCI
#3 #5 ;
,
PCI #3, PCI
#5
PCI Slot 4 IRQ Priority Auto (the default), 9, 10, 11 IRQ
PCI Slot 5 IRQ Priority Auto
(
PCI #3)

5.8. Boot Configuration


Plug and Play O/S No (default) ( ( Yes
)) Plug and Play.
Yes () No BIOS

Reset Config Data No (default) ( ( Yes
)) PnP/PCI BIOS,
Yes () -,

Numlock On (default) Num Lock
( (
))
Off ()

Advanced

. , -
, Auto.
, -
, , , ,
.
. 5.9 Advanced.

CMOS 349
5.9. Advanced


Auto Configuration
( . Disabled
) ,
CMOS-.
Enabled
EDO DRAM Speed Selection
( EDO DRAM.
EDO DRAM) ,

SDRAM RAS-to-CAS Delay Row
( SDRAM RAS-to- Activate
CAS)
SDRAM RAS Precharge
Time ( . ,
,
SDRAM RAS)
SDRAM CAS Latency Time
( SDRAM SDRAM
CAS)
SDRAM Precharge Control Enabled
( All Banks Precharge
SDRAM
SDRAM)
DRAM Data Integrity Mode
( DRAM
DRAM)
System BIOS Cacheable BIOS
( F0000hFFFFFh, .
BIOS)
,
Video BIOS Cacheable BIOS C0000hC7FFFh,
( BIOS) .

,
Video RAM Cacheable Enabled
( ) A0000hAFFFFh,
.
,

8/16 Bit I/O Recovery Time -
( 8- ISA PCI
16- -
)

350 5. -
. 5.9


Memory Hole at 15M16M 1 15 16
(
, ,
1516 ) 16 .

Passive Release Enabled
( ) PCI
Delayed Transaction 32-
( ) . Enabled
PCI 2.1
AGP Aperture Size (MB) AGP.
( ,
AGP, )
CPU Warning Temperature
( ( ).
)

Current CPU Temperature
( ( )
)
Shutdown Temperature
( ( ).
)
CPUFAN Turn On IN Win98 Windows 98
( ACPI,
Windows 98) Enabled
.
,
( )
Current System Temperature
( ( )
)
Current CPUFAN 1/2/3 Speed
( (
)
)
IN0-IN6(V)
(
)
Spread Spectrum Enabled
( )
.
,
, ,
SCSI-

CMOS 351
Peripheral Configuration
(. 5.10) , -
, ,
USB.

5.10. Peripheral Configuration


Serial port A Disabled ()
( Enabled () A. Auto
) Auto (default) ( COM-,
( )) COM 1, 3F8h
IRQ4. * ,

Base I/O address 3F8 (default) ( -
( ) A
-) 2F8
3E8
2E8
Interrupt IRQ 3
() IRQ 4 (default) ( A
)
Serial port B Disabled ()
( Enabled () . Auto
) Auto (default) ( COM-,
( )) COM 2, 2F8h
IRQ3. * ,

Mode Normal ()
() IrDA (default) (IrDA B: (COM 2)
( ))
Base I/O address 3F8 -
( 2F8 (default) ( B
-) )
3E8
2E8
Interrupt IRQ 3
() IRQ 4 (default) ( B
)
Parallel port Disabled () .
( Enabled () LPT1
) Auto (default) ( 378h IRQ7. *
( )) ,

352 5. -
. 5.10


Mode Output Only (
() ) . Output Only
Bidirectional (default) AT- ; Bidirectional
( PS/2- ;
( )) EPP
EPP Extended Parallel Port; ECP
ECP
Enhanced Capabilities Port
Base I/O address 378 (default) ( -
( )
-) 278
228
Interrupt IRQ 5
() IRQ 7 (default) (
)
DMA Channel DMA 1 DMA
( DMA) DMA 3 (default) ( (
) ECP)
Audio Disabled ()
() Enabled (default)
( (
))
LAN ( Disabled (),
) Enabled (default) LAN ( )
( (
))
Legacy USB Support Disabled (default) USB.
( USB) ( ( USB
)) USB,
Enabled ()

,
, .
USB ,
USB- (, DOS), -
BIOS Enabled Legacy USB Sup-
port. Win-
dows 98/Me/2000/XP,
.
USB BIOS , -
Setup BIOS.
, .
1. USB BIOS .

CMOS 353
2. POST.
3. USB , -
Setup BIOS.
4. POST , USB BIOS
.
5. . USB- -
USB . USB-
.
USB-
BIOS. . -
. ,
DOS . , -
USB PS/2 ( ). ,
BIOS USB. USB-
.
IDE Configuration
(. 5.11) IDE-,
, CD-ROM LS-120 (SuperDisk), -
. .

5.11. IDE Configuration


IDE Controller Disabled ()
( IDE) Primary () IDE. Primary
Secondary
() IDE; Secondary
Both (default) ( IDE; Both IDE
( ))
Hard Disk Pre-Delay Disabled (default)
( ( (
) ))
3 Seconds (3 )
6 Seconds (6 )
9 Seconds (9 )
12 Seconds (12 )
15 Seconds (15 )
21 Seconds (21 )
30 Seconds (30 )
Primary IDE Master IDE-
( IDE) .
Primary IDE Master
Primary IDE Slave IDE-
( IDE) .
Primary IDE Slave

354 5. -
. 5.11


Secondary IDE Master IDE-
( IDE) .
Secondary IDE Master
Secondary IDE Slave IDE-
( IDE) .
Secondary IDE Slave

-
, .
.
IDE Configuration
IDE--
.
Setup BIOS .
IDE,
. BIOS -
.
. -
BIOS Identify Drive.
. -
. Auto ,
.
IDE-.
Auto, BIOS -
47 .
, , .
.
BIOS User User Defined.
(
).
,
Standard LBA. Standard -
, 528 .
, BIOS ( 1998 )
136,9 .
. 5.12 IDE-, BIOS
.
Auto -
. ,

. BIOS -
.

CMOS 355
5.12. IDE-


Type None () IDE-.
() ATAPI Removable Auto
(
ATAPI)
Other ATAPI (
ATAPI)
CD-ROM (
CD-ROM)
User (
)
IDE Removable (
IDE)
Auto (default) ( (
))
Maximum Capacity
(
)
LBA Mode Control Disabled () LBA
( Enabled ()
LBA)
Multi-Sector Transfers Disabled ()
( 2 Sectors (2 ) , .
) 4 Sectors (4 )
8 Sectors (8 )
16 Sectors (16 )
PIO Mode ( Auto (default) ( (
)) - (PIO)
-) 0
1
2
3
4
Ultra DMA Disabled () Ultra DMA
( Ultra DMA) Mode 0
Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3
Mode 4
Mode 5
Cable Detected ,
( IDE: 40-
) 80- ( Ultra
ATA-66/100)

356 5. -
-
, User .
: -
, , , ,
.
Floppy Configuration
(. 5.13).

5.13. Floppy Configuration


Floppy Disk Controller Disabled ()
( Enabled (default) (
) ( ))
Auto ()
Floppy Write Protect Disabled (default)
( ) ( ( A:
))
Enabled ()
Diskette A: Disabled ()
( A:) 360KB, 5 1/4-inch A:
(360 ; 5,25 )
1.2MB, 5 1/4-inch
(1,2 ; 5,25 )
720KB, 3 1/2-inch
(720 ; 3,5 )
1.44MB, 3 1/2-inch (default)
(1,44 ; 3,5
( ))
2.88MB, 3 1/2-inch
(2,88 ; 3,5 )

,
,
.
Event Logging

System Management (SMBIOS), DMI-
. DMI (Desktop Management Interface)
,
. SMBIOS,
.
Intel LANDesk Client Manager,
DMI:
BIOS, BIOS ;

CMOS 357
, ;
, , -
;
, -
.
. 5.14 DMI Events Logging.

5.14. DMI Events Logging


Event Log (
)
Event log validity
(
)
View event log (
<Enter>
)
Clear all event logs No (default) ( (
( ))
) Yes ()
Event Logging Disabled ()
( Enabled (default)
) ( (
))
Mark event as read
( <Enter>
)

, (),
. , -
( ) , View Log.
Video Configuration
(. 5.15).

5.15. Video Configuration


Palette Snooping Disabled (default)
( ) ( ( PCI-
)) , ISA
Enabled ()

358 5. -
. 5.15


AGP Aperture Size 64MB (default) AGP
( (64 (
AGP) ))
256MB (256 )
AGP Hardware Detected , AGP
( 1, 2, 3 4.
AGP)

Windows 98 Win-
dows 2000/XP.
, . . .
Resource Configuration
( . 5.16)
ISA-, Plug and
Play.
, ISA--
, Plug and Play. ISA- PCI-,
Plug and Play, -
, .


. , -
Plug and Play, .
, Plug and Play,
.

Plug and Play PCI. . 5.17.

Security
BIOS Supervisor User.
Supervisor Setup BIOS, User
.
Supervisor, Setup BIOS -
. -
BIOS. ,
BIOS .
User, -
.
. , -
.
.

CMOS 359
5.16. Resource Configuration


Memory Reservation C800 CBFF Available (default) |
( Reserved (C800 CBFF ( ISA-
) ) | )
CC00 CFFF Available (default) |
Reserved (CC00 CFFF (
) | )
D000 D3FF Available (default) |
Reserved (D000 D3FF (
) | )
D400 D7FF Available (default) |
Reserved (D400 D7FF (
) | )
D800 DBFF Available (default) |
Reserved (D800 DBFF (
) | )
DC00 DFFF Available (default) |
Reserved (DC00 DFFF (
) | )
IRQ Reservation IRQ3 Available (default) | Reserved
( (IRQ3 ( ) |
IRQ) ) ISA-. *
IRQ4 Available IRQ (default) | ,
Reserved (IRQ4 (
) | )
IRQ5 Available (default) | Reserved
(IRQ5 ( ) |
)
IRQ7 Available (default) | Reserved
(IRQ7 ( ) |
)
IRQ10 Available (default) | Reserved
(IRQ10 ( ) |
)
IRQ11 Available (default) | Reserved
(IRQ11 ( ) |
)

, , ,
BIOS.
, .
Maintenance,
Setup BIOS.
, , , BIOS Setup,
Clear All Passwords. ,
, Set Password <Enter>
.

360 5. -
5.17. Plug and Play PCI


DMA n Assigned to DMA
( DMA n :
...) ISA-, PC AT (
DMA);
PCI- ISA-, Plug and
Play ( )
PCI IRQ Activated by ,
(
...)
PCI IDE IRQ Map to , IDE
( PCI, ( )
IDE ISA-.
PCI ...) ISA : IRQ14 IRQ15

Primary/Secondary PCI-
IDE INT# : INT# A, INT# B, INT# C INT# D.
( INT# INT# A. PCI IDE
/- ,
IDE) . ,
PCI- INT# A
Used Mem base addr ,
( ) ,
Used Mem Length , .
() ,
Assign IRQ for USB Enabled, USB-
( . Disabled,
USB) , ,

. 5.18 Security.
, -
1520 .
, , CMOS- .

5.18. Security


User Password Is User
( User)
Supervisor Password Is
( Supervisor
Supervisor)
Set User Password User
( -
User)

CMOS 361
. 5.18


Set Supervisor Password Supervisor
( -
Supervisor)
Clear User Password User
(
User)
User Setup Access None ()
( View Only ( ) Setup BIOS
) Limited Access
( )
Full Access (default) (
( ))
Unattended Start Disabled (default) ( Enabled
( ( )) ,
) Enabled () .


Power Management

. -
: APM (Advanced Power Management),
, 386 486; ACPI
(Advanced Configuration and Power Interface),
1998 . : APM
, ACPI
BIOS, , , .
. 5.19 BIOS
.
BIOS -
( ) (
VESA DPMS Display Power Management Signaling). -
, . . ,
, - .
.
-
, BIOS.
, ,
, ACPI.
ACPI BIOS (. 5.20).

362 5. -
5.19. , BIOS


Power Management Disabled ()
( Enabled (default)
) ( (
))
Inactivity Timer Off (default) ( ,
( ( ))
) 1 Minute (1 )
5 Minutes (5 )
10 Minutes (10 )
20 Minutes (20 )
30 Minutes (30 )
60 Minutes (60 )
120 Minutes (120 )
Hard Drive Disabled ()
( Enabled (default)
) ( (
))
ACPI Suspend State S1 (default) ( ACPI.
( ) S1,
ACPI) S3 USB,
ACPI
Video Repost Enable Disable (default) BIOS
( ( S3.
)) S3

5.20. ACPI


ACPI Function ACPI,
( ACPI) Enabled. Windows 98 Windows 2000
ACPI
Power Management .
( :
) Max Saving ;
1 ;
User Define ;
Min Saving
PM Control by APM APM,
( Yes
APM)
Video Off Method
(
)

CMOS 363
. 5.20


V/H SYNC+Blank

DPMS Support ,
( DPMS) VESA DPMS
Blank Screen
( )
Video Off After
(
...)
MODEM Use IRQ
( )
Doze Mode
( (
, 1025% ).
)
Standby Mode
( ) ,
- .

Suspend Mode
( ) ,

HDD Power Down IDE-,
( ATA-2 ,
) ,

Throttle Duty Cycle
( . ( )
,
)
VGA Active Monitor Enabled
(
VGA)
Soft-Off by PWR- .
BTTN ;
( 4

)
CPUFAN Off in Enabled
Suspend
(
)
Resume by Ring Enabled
(
)

364 5. -
. 5.20


Resume by Alarm Enabled
(
)
Date (of Month) Alarm
()
Time (hh:mm:ss)
()
Wake Up On LAN Enabled
(

)
IRQ8 Break [Event ,
From] Suspend IRQ8
( IRQ8)
Reload Global Timer Enabled
Events : IRQ3-7, 9-15, NMI (
( IRQ3-7, 9-15, ); Primary IDE 0
) ( IDE 0); Primary IDE 1 ( IDE 1); Secondary
IDE 0 ( IDE 0); Secondary IDE 1 ( IDE 1);
Floppy Disk (); Serial Port ( ); Parallel
Port ( )

Boot
(. 5.21).
Boot , -
. ,
Hard Drive Removable Devices, -

. , -
,
, . , -
, , .
USB,
Zip- LS-120 SuperDisk.
IDE Drive Configuration
-
IDE . BIOS
, BIOS,
. -
. . 5.22
IDE Drive Configuration.

CMOS 365
5.21. Boot


Quiet Boot ( Disabled ()
) Enabled (default) POST;
( (
))
Intel Rapid BIOS Disabled ()
Boot ( Enabled (default) POST
( (
BIOS) ))
Scan User Flash Disabled (default) BIOS Flash-
Area ( (
( )) ,
Enabled ()
)
After Power Power On (
Failure ) .
( Stay Off () Power On ; Stay
) Last State (default) Off
( ; Last State
( )) ,


On Modem Ring Stay Off (
( )
) Power On (default)
(
( ))
On LAN Stay Off (
( )
Power On (default)
) (
( ))
On PME Stay Off ( APM.
) Power On
(default) ( PCI
(
))
On ACPI S5 Stay Off ( ACPI.
( ) Power On (LAN)
(default) (
) (
))

366 5. -
. 5.21


First Boot Device Floppy
Second Boot ARMD-FDD .
Device ARMD-HDD .
Third Boot Device IDE-HDD
Fourth Boot ATAPI CD-ROM .
Device ( Intel UNDi, PXE 2.0
) Disabled () <Enter>.


.
.

:
;
IDE-HDD;
ATAPI CD-ROM;
Intel UNDi, PXE 2.0;
Disabled ().
ARMD-HDD ATAPI.
ARMD-FDD
ATAPI (, LS-120 SuperDisk
Zip-).
Intel UNDi PXE 2.0

(LAN)
IDE Drive IDE.
Configuration
( IDE Drive Configuration
IDE)

5.22. IDE Drive Configuration


st
Primary Master 1 IDE (default) 1-4
IDE (1- IDE ( IDE
))
Primary Slave IDE 2nd IDE (default) 1-4
(2- IDE ( IDE
))
Secondary Master 3rd IDE (default) 1-4
IDE (3- IDE ( IDE
))
Secondary Slave 4th IDE (default) 1-4
IDE (4- IDE ( IDE
))

CMOS 367
Exit
( . 5.23)
.
,
. , .
.
BIOS CMOS-, ,
.

5.23. Exit


Exit Saving Changes
( ) CMOS-
Exit Discarding Changes
( )
Load Setup Defaults ,
( )
Load Custom Defaults
(
)
Save Custom Defaults
(
)
Discard Changes
( ) Setup BIOS

Setup BIOS
Setup BIOS -
, . 5.24.

5.24. Setup BIOS


Virus Warning - -
( )
Enabled,
.

CPU Internal Cache/External - .
Cache ,
(/ -
)
Quick Power On Self Test Enabled
( ) POST.
Disabled POST

368 5. -
. 5.24


Swap Floppy Drive .
( ) Enabled B:
A, A: B
Boot Up Floppy Seek Enabled BIOS
( (40 80 ).
) 40 ,
Disabled
Boot Up System Speed High
( , Low
) 8 .
.

Gate A20 Option A20
( A20) . Fast
(
), Normal

Typematic Rate Setting Disabled
( ) (Typematic Rate Typematic Delay) .
Enabled

Typematic Rate (Chars/Sec)
( , : 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 20, 24 30
)
Typematic Delay (Msec)
( , ) : 250, 500, 750 1 000
Security Option ( ,
)
Setup
PS/2 Mouse Function Control PS/2,
( , ,
PS/2) Disabled
PCI/VGA Palette Snoop
.
Disabled
HDD S.M.A.R.T. capability S.M.A.R.T. .
( ,
S.M.A.R.T. )
Report No FDD For WIN 95 Yes,
( , IRQ6.
Windows 95 Disabled Onboard FDC Controller,
)
ROM Shadowing ROM
( ROM)

CMOS 369
. 5.24


Operating Frequency ( -
)

DIP .
CPU
Clock Multiplier CPU Frequency
CPU Frequency (
) (66, 100 133 ),

CPU Clock Multiplier
(
) , .
Intel
,
AMD Athlon Duron
CPU Vcore Setting
(
) ,

Plug and Play BIOS


PC-
. , -
DMA, . . , -
. -
. ,
: ,
.
Plug and Play -
.
, .
Plug and Play :
Plug and Play BIOS;
Extended System Configuration Data (ESCD);
Plug and Play.
Plug and Play BIOS
, Plug and Play. -
, BIOS ESCD, -
.
, BIOS ESCD . , -
.

370 5. -
, BIOS , -
.
ESCD.

,
Plug and Play
, Plug and Play, -
,
. -
. -
: ,
, XYZ1234. , -
, -
. Microsoft PNP.

, Plug and Play,


-.

ACPI
ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) -
, -
.
APM (Advanced Power Management)
, . ACPI -
, Plug and Play. ACPI -
Plug and Play
, BIOS.
ACPI
( CD-ROM, , ). ,
,
, , .
ACPI Windows 98/ME, Windows 2000/XP.
-
ACPI. -
ACPI, APM.
ACPI
( BIOS) (
) . ACPI . 5.25.

ACPI BIOS .
ACPI,
BIOS.

Plug and Play BIOS 371


5.25. ACPI

1xxx- ACPI;
ACPI
2xxx- ACPI
3xxx- ACPI
4xxx-
5xxx-

Plug and Play


POST Plug and Play BIOS ,
Plug and Play,
Card Select Number (CSN). BIOS
. BIOS
, .
Plug and Play BIOS ( POST)
.
1. .
2. Plug and Play.
3. .
4. .
5. ROM- ISA-.
6. .
7. ISA- Plug and Play.
8. .
Plug and Play, -
. -
, .

BIOS
POST.
, .
, . ,
- 80h.
,
(. 5.3).
POST , -
-
.
. , ,

372 5. -
. 5.3.

, -
.
-
, EGA VGA. ,
, , ,
. -
,
(, 0) -
.
POST.
, POST,
-. BIOS POST,
. POST -
ISA PCI JDR Microdevices .
BIOS ,
, ,
. POST
, ,
.
,
, BIOS, -
.

-, , ,
- Phoenix,
AMI, Award, Microid Research IBM.

BIOS
-
IBM, Cassette BASIC ( -
ROM BASIC). ,
IBM . -

BIOS 373
. -
,
.
, IBM
.
16 -
. ,
.

BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) -
. IBM BASIC,
ROM BIOS, -
, .
, IBM ROM BASIC -
1990- ! . ROM BASIC
IBM , -
,
.
- ROM BASIC,
IBM .
IBM
( 1981 ) ROM BASIC, :
The IBM Personal Computer Basic
Version C1.10 Copyright IBM Corp 1981
62940 Bytes free
Ok
, ,
. ,
IBM, Cassette BASIC ,
,
IBM . , BIOS
AMI, , , :
NO ROM BASIC - SYSTEM HALTED
-
BIOS AMI , IBM -
Cassette BASIC, BIOS AMI ( - -
BIOS). BIOS
. , Compaq BIOS
:
Non-System disk or disk error
replace and strike any key when ready
, (
) DOS ,
.

374 5. -
, Cassette BA-
SIC, , Award BIOS, :
DISK BOOT FAILURE, INSERT SYSTEM DISK AND PRESS ENTER
, Phoenix BIOS,
:
No boot device available -
strike F1 to retry boot, F2 for setup utility

No boot sector on fixed disk -


strike F1 to retry boot, F2 for setup utility
-
BIOS, .
, ,
,
.
, -
.
- (
), 55AAh.
55AAh, 18h. -
,
IBM Cassette (ROM) BASIC.
( ) -
FDISK DOS. -

, 55AAh. ,
ROM ,
, .
, -
. , -
, , ,
. -
446 (1BEh), 462 (1CEh), 478 (1DEh) 494 (1EEh) .
, -
() . 80h
, ,
00h. , 80h (
)
80h 00h, :
Invalid partition table
00h, -
() ,
,
BIOS. FDISK

BIOS 375
(
() ) .
,
. FDISK, , ,
. , ,
DISKEDIT, Norton Utilities Symantec.
, , LBA
BIOS. LBA -
, DOS Windows
. LBA ,
BIOS ,
, . ,
,
504 ( 528 ), -
LBA. AMI BIOS Hi-Flex WinBIOS ( )
LBA, Advanced Built-in Peripherals,
BIOS Setup.

376 5. -
6


:
, .
, .
, ,
. ,
.
.
.
,
(reset).
, ,
, -
( ).
.

. , , -
, .
, , -
, ,
.
, , .
RAM (Random Access Memory) -
, , -
(Dynamic RAM DRAM)
.
DRAM (, , )
, , -, -
, -, (. .,
, ) 15 ().
(Static RAM SRAM), -
. ,
.
, -
, , -
. -
. -
( ) .
,
- -
.
.
, -
, .
, . -
,
, .

378 6.
, . ,
, .
, .
, .
-

. -

.
, -
: ,
. :
,
.
,
.
. -
(RAM) :
, , , -
.
, .
,
.
- , , .
,
. (Save)
.

, , .
, -
, , .
, -
,
. , ,
, .
1996
40 . ( )
600 . 1996
: .
1996 4 -
. ,
25 , 60 256 (-
). ,
,
.
,
, 50 . , 2001

: 379
, -
. -

.
, -
, .
, , -
, .
.

, ( ).

.
ROM (Read Only Memory). , -
.
DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory).
.
SRAM (Static RAM). .

ROM
ROM (Read Only Memory), (
), , .
. ROM -
, , ,
. ROM -
, . . , .
, ROM .
ROM . ,
ROM.
,
.
BIOS ROM , -
.
- ,
, ,
, . ,
, ROM,
.
Flash--
, - (Electri-
cally Erasable Programmable Read-only Memory EEPROM). Flash- -
, -
ROM, -
(, , SCSI, . .).
ROM 5, -
.

380 6.
DRAM
(Dynamic RAM DRAM) -
.
, ,
. . , ,
.
DRAM , -
. ( ) .
, , , , . .
,
. -
,
.
( ), -
, 15 .
128
. , 1,92 (12815 )
.
, , : -
.
10% ( )
, , , ,
1% ( ) .

CMOS,
, , . -

.
1%, -
.

, Setup BIOS. -
,
.
(serial
presence detect SPD) -
.
DRAM -
, ,
. -
512 . ,
256 ! Pentium 4 42 .
? ,
, , -
, , ,
, .

: 381
DRAM
. , 1;
0. ,
.
-
DRAM, , .
, ,
.
; -
, , ,
.
, ,
. -
DRAM, .

- SRAM
, ,
(Static RAM SRAM). , ,
(DRAM), -
. . SRAM
, ,
, .
SRAM 2 ; ,
500 .
SRAM .
- , -
. ( , .)
, SRAM , . SRAM
? .


DRAM
SRAM

SRAM
, , .
, SRAM , -
.
SRAM,

DRAM. , DRAM 64 ,
SRAM
2 , . , SRAM -
30 ,
. SRAM
.

382 6.
, - SRAM -
PC. -
SRAM, -
-. - ,
, -
.
-
, . . DRAM. -
60 (
16 ).
:
1/ 1000 = .
, :
1/ 1000 = .
16 -
, DRAM ,
. 16 ,
DRAM ,
SRAM . 198687 -
, PC 386, 16 20 .

-, . . , SRAM,
.
, -

-.
, , -
.
- , -
. -
. , ,

; , -
. ,
, .
-,
,
. ,
- ,
, . --
2 000 (2 ),
- 0,5 , -
, . . 3 6
(Double Data Rate DDR). -
, 333 . , ,
2 ,

: 383
, 333 . -
(wait state). ,
() ; ,
, ,
. - -
.
-
, -
-: - (L1) -
(L2). -
; -
. 486 - -
. -
; .
. ( -
386, 486 Pentium.) -
, . -
.

Pentium Pro, Pentium II/III Athlon - -
. , ,
() . -
Pentium Pro Pentium II .
Pentium III Athlon - -
( - )
( , ).
Itanium -.
- -
Intel 430TX Pentium MMX
. 6.1.
Pentium III 4,
.
. 6.1 - -
.
- , . . -
. -
430FX 1995
-. ,
. pipeline burst
mode ( ).
. -
.
20%.
- North
Bridge PC Pentium
, Pentium Pro, Pentium II/III -
. - -

384 6.
266
Pentium


L1

66

66 16/66 EDO SIMM (16 )


L2
(15 ) SDRAM DIMM (66 )
North
Bridge
(430TX)

PCI 33
PCI

USB1 USB2

South IDE 1 PCI


Bridge Video
CMOS (PIIX4)
& IDE 2
RTC

ISA 8
ISA

Super COM 1
I/O

(87307)
COM 2

LPT 1

ROM

Flash BIOS

. 6.1. Pen-
tium MMX Intel 430TX

-. ,
- .
, 430TX -
Pentium.
64 . -
, ,
64
, -
. ,

: 385
6.1. - () ()



,

-
,
()
-
,


-


/
-


-
,
()
-
,


,


SIMM/DIMM,
()

Pentium 233 4,3 (233) 16 15 (66) 1 66 60 (16)


Pentium Pro 200 5,0 (200) 32 1/1 5 (200) 2562 66 60 (16)
Pentium II 450 2,2 (450) 32 1/2 4,4 (225) 512 100 10 (100)
1
AMD K6-2 550 1,8 (550) 64 10 (100) 100 10 (100)
AMD K6-3 450 2,2 (450) 64 1/1 2,2 (450) 256 100 10 (100)
Duron 1 300 0,77 (1 300) 128 1/1 0,77 (1 300) 64 200 5 (200)
Athlon 1 400 0,71 (1 400) 128 1/1 0,71 (1 400) 256 266 3,8 (266)
Athlon XP 1 730 0,58 (1 730) 128 1/1 0,58 (1 730) 256 266 3,8 (266)
Pentium III 1 400 0,71 (1 400) 32 1/1 0,71 (1 400) 512 133 7,5 (133)
Celeron/370 1 400 0,71 (1 400) 32 1/1 0,71 (1 400) 256 100 10 (100)
Celeron/478 1 700 0,59 (1 700) 20 1/1 0,59 (1 700) 128 400 2,5 (400)
Pentium 4 2 530 0,39 (2 530) 20 1/1 0,39 (2 530) 512 533 1,9 (533)
1
- .
2
Pentium Pro 512 1 024 - .
. , 32-
Windows , -
96 , ,
32 , . -
. ,
64 . ,
, .
Pentium II
- , -
. Pentium II -
.
, 512
4 , Pentium III
4 .
, -
. ,
-.
, ,
( Pentium, -
-, )
(
Pentium II, -, -
).


(), -
().
, . .
. , 299 792 /.
, 29,98 , . .
!
(), . . -
, .
3000 (3 , 3 ),
, , 4 .
, , , , -
. . 6.2
, () ().
,
, , 60 DRAM,
, ,
400 . , DRAM,
, 60 , -
16,7 ! -
, 300 ,

387
6.2.

,
,


4,77 210 366 2,7 1300 0,77
6 167 400 2,5 1400 0,71
8 125 433 2,3 1500 0,67
10 100 450 2,2 1600 0,63
12 83 466 2,1 1700 0,59
16 63 500 2,0 1800 0,56
20 50 533 1,88 1900 0,53
25 40 550 1,82 2000 0,5
33 30 566 1,77 2 100 0,48
40 25 600 1,67 2 200 0,45
50 20 633 1,58 2 300 0,43
60 17 650 1,54 2 400 0,42
66 15 667 1,5 2 500 0,40
75 13 700 1,43 2 600 0,38
80 13 733 1,36 2 700 0,37
100 10 750 1,33 2 800 0,36
120 8,3 766 1,31 2 900 0,34
133 7,5 800 1,25 3 000 0,33
150 6,7 833 1,20 3 100 0,32
166 6,0 850 1,18 3 200 0,31
180 5,6 866 1,15 3 300 0,30
200 5,0 900 1,11 3 400 0,29
225 4,4 933 1,07 3 500 0,29
233 4,3 950 1,05 3 600 0,28
250 4,0 966 1,04 3 700 0,27
266 3,8 1000 1,0 3 800 0,26
300 3,3 1100 0,91 3 900 0,26
333 3,0 1133 0,88 4 000 0,25
350 2,9 1200 0,83

388 6.
. 2000
PC100 PC133, 100
133 . 2001 , DDR (200 266 )
RDRAM (800 ) . 2002 -
DDR 333 400 , RDRAM
1 066 .

, ,
. , , , -
. ,
. -
.
7,5 (133 ),
1 (1 ),
6 17- , . . . , -
,
133 .
.

-. . 6.3 -

,
.
, , -
.
(. 6.4), , -
. ,
, -
, .
-
, -
. , ,
SDRAM, DDR SDRAM RDRAM, -
.
, .


(FPM)
EDO -.

SDRAM
DRAM,
. SDRAM , -
. SDRAM
,

389
6.3. DRAM / (, -
)


,
,


FPM SIMM 60ns 22 1 22 8 177
EDO SIMM 60ns 33 1 33 8 266
PC66 SDR DIMM 10ns 67 1 66 8 533
PC100 SDR DIMM 8ns 100 1 100 8 800
PC133 SDR DIMM 7,5ns 133 1 133 8 1 066
PC1600 DDR DIMM DDR200 100 2 200 8 1 600
PC2100 DDR DIMM DDR266 133 2 266 8 2 133
PC2400 DDR DIMM DDR300 150 2 300 8 2 400
PC2700 DDR DIMM DDR333 167 2 333 8 2 666
PC3000 DDR DIMM DDR366 183 2 366 8 2 933
PC3200 DDR DIMM DDR400 200 2 400 8 3 200
PC3600 DDR DIMM DDR444 222 2 444 8 3 555
PC4000 DDR DIMM DDR500 250 2 500 8 4 000
PC4300 DDR DIMM DDR533 267 2 533 8 4 266
RIMM1200 RIMM-16 PC600 300 2 600 2 1 200
RIMM1400 RIMM-16 PC700 350 2 700 2 1 400
RIMM1600 RIMM-16 PC800 400 2 800 2 1 600
RIMM2100 RIMM-16 PC1066 533 2 1066 2 2 133
RIMM2400 RIMM-16 PC1200 600 2 1200 2 2 400
RIMM3200 RIMM-32 PC800 400 2 800 2 3 200
RIMM4200 RIMM-32 PC1066 533 2 1066 2 4 266
RIMM4800 RIMM-32 PC1200 600 2 1200 2 4 800
RIMM6400 RIMM-64 PC800 400 2 800 2 6 400
RIMM8500 RIMM-64 PC1066 533 2 1066 2 8 533
RIMM9600 RIMM-64 PC1200 600 2 1200 2 9 600
ns () .
EDO Extended Data Out ( ).
DIMM Dual Inline Memory Module ( ).
DDR Double Data Rate ( ).
/ .
FPM Fast Page Mode ( ).
SIMM Single Inline Memory Module ( ).
RIMM Rambus Inline Memory Module ( Rambus).

390 6.
6.4. FSB

,
,

/

468-, 33 32 33 1 133
Pentium I/II/III, 66 64 66 1 533
Pentium I/II/III, 100 64 100 1 800
Pentium I/II/III, 133 64 133 1 1 066
Athlon, 200 64 100 2 1 600
Athlon, 266 64 133 2 2 133
Athlon, 333 64 167 2 2 666
Athlon, 400 64 200 2 3 200
Pentium 4, 400 64 100 4 3 200
Pentium 4, 533 64 133 4 4 266
Pentium 4, 600 64 150 4 4 800
FSB Front Side Bus.

DRAM, , ,
.
EDO,
. 430VX 430TX, -
1997 , Intel
SDRAM. ,
2000 2001 .
SDRAM
FPM EDO. SDRAM ,
, FPM EDO,
. SDRAM : 5-1-1-1,
. .
( 11 EDO 14 FPM).
, SDRAM 133 (7,5 ) ,
1998 .
, 1998 2000 ,
SDRAM.
SDRAM DIMM , , -
, (. 6.5).

391
6.5. SDRAM

, ,
15 66 PC66
10 100 PC66
8 125 PC100
7,5 133 PC133

DDR SDRAM
DDR (Double Data Rate )
SDRAM,
. ,
: , .
(
).
DDR , AMD
Cyrix, , VIA Tech-
nologies, ALi (Acer Labs, Inc.) SiS (Silicon integrated Systems). -
DDR DDR, Fujitsu,
Ltd., Hitachi, Ltd., Hyundai Electronics Industries Co., Mitsubishi Electric Corp., NEC Corp.,
Samsung Electronics Co., Texas Instruments, Inc. Toshiba Corp. DDR
SDRAM , AMD Cyrix.
DDR SDRAM 184- DIMM (. 6.2).
DIMM DDR SDRAM -
, 2,5 . -
, , SDRAM DIMM,
, ,
SDRAM, , . .
. , SDRAM -
(Single Data Rate SDR).
SDRAM DDR SDRAM . 6.6.

4,00 (0,157")
.
133,50 (5,256")
133,20 (5,244")
2,00 (0,079") R
(4x)
31,88 (1,255")
+ + 31,62 (1,245")
2,50 (0,098") D
(2x) 17,78
(0,700")
2,30 (0,091") + + +
0,90 (0,35") R 1,37 (0,054")
1 92
2,30 (0,091") 1,27 1,02 6,35 1,17 (0,046")
(0,050") (0,040") (0,250")
120,65 (4,75")

. 6.2. DIMM DDR SDRAM (184-)

392 6.
6.6. SDRAM DDR SDRAM

/
(DIMM)




PC66 SDRAMM 64 66 1 533
PC100 SDRAMM 64 100 1 800
PC133 SDRAMM 64 133 1 1 066
PC1600 DDR-SDRAMM 64 100 2 1 600
PC2100 DDR-SDRAMM 64 133 2 2 133
PC2400 DDR-SDRAMM 64 150 2 2 400
PC2700 DDR-SDRAMM 64 167 2 2 666
PC3000 DDR-SDRAMM 64 183 2 2 933
PC3200 DDR-SDRAMM 64 200 2 3 200
PC4300 DDR-SDRAMM 64 267 2 4 266

RDRAM
RDRAM, Rambus DRAM, -
1999 . -
.
Nintendo 64.
(FPM/RDO SDRAM) -
. ( -
Pentium 64 ). SDRAM
DIMM 1008 ( ),
800 /.
, RDRAM
. , , 16 (2 ),
, -
.
, , -
.
16- RIMM
800 , 8002,
1,6 /, , PC1600
DDR-SDRAM. Pentium 4 -
, 3,2 /,
Pentium 4.
RDRAM -
. ,
.

393

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

. 6.3. -
RDRAM

RIMM 800 ,
1066 1200 16-,
32- 64- ,
9,6 /.
Rambus 32 RDRAM
( RDRAM), RIMM (Rambus Inline Memory
Modules).
( ) . 10 (100 ) RDRAM
16 . RDRAM SDRAM .
-
: .
,
:
2 . 400 ; -
, . . .
, . -
.
2,5 .
. 6.3 -
. .
RDRAM -
, . , -
.
, RDRAM . -
RIMM, RDRAM, 2,5 .
1,0 1,8 , . . 0,8 .
, RDRAM
,
.
, RDRAM RIMM
(. 6.4), DIMM, . -
RIMM, 1 .
,
. RIMM

394 6.

4,16 (0,164")
133,50 (5,256") .
133,20 (5,244")
120,65 (4,750")
+ +
2,00 (0,079") R
(2x) 31,88 (1,255")
+ + 31,62 (1,245")
17,78
(0,700")
1 + +
( 93 45,00
) 1,37 (0,054")
0,80 1,00 (1,772") 92
5,675 (0,2234") (0,031") (0,039") ( 184 1,17 (0,046")
11,50 1,00 (0,039") R )
(0,453") (2x)
55,26 (2,175") 78,17 (3,078")
55,10 (2,169")

. 6.4. RIMM (184-)

,
RDRAM, 16- RIMM.
RDRAM Rambus
RIMM. -
,
.
RIMM
, -
. 16- ,
,
. RIMM
. 32- 64-
, , -
. RDRAM
. 6.7.
Intel Rambus, , -
, . ,
, - -
RDRAM,
RIMM DIMM .
RIMM RDRAM DDR
SDRAM, RIMM, ,
.

, Rambus
DDR SDRAM. , ,
SDRAM, DDR RDRAM, -
Rambus . ,
, , . ,
, , , -
Rambus DDR SDRAM.

395
6.7. RDRAM

/
(DIMM)




RIMM1200 RDRAM* 16 300 2 1 200
RIMM1400 RDRAM* 16 350 2 1 400
RIMM1600 RDRAM 16 400 2 1 600
RIMM2100 RDRAM 16 533 2 2 133
RIMM2400 RDRAM 16 600 2 2 400
RIMM3200 RDRAM 32 400 2 3 200
RIMM4200 RDRAM 32 533 2 4 266
RIMM4800 RDRAM 32 600 2 4 800
RIMM6400 RDRAM 64 400 2 6 400
RIMM8500 RDRAM 64 533 2 8 533
RIMM9600 RDRAM 64 600 2 9 600
* .

, , , -
.
RIMM RDRAM -
, Intel Pentium 4.


( )
, .
-
.
. -
. ,
,
.

. 8086 8088 20
1 (1 024 ). 286 386SX 24
16 . 386DX, 486, Pentium, Pen-
tium MMX Pentium Pro 32
4 . Pentium II/III/4, AMD Athlon Duron
36 64 . Itanium, -
, 44- , 16
() !

396 6.
8088 286 -
. 8088
8086 PC XT. ,
Pentium, 1 , 384 -
. 286
.
P5 4 , P6/P7
64 . 64 (65 536 )
, 70 . ! ,
DIMM, , 1 .
64 , 64
DIMM. ,
DIMM.
DIMM, -
0,751,5 . -
,
. ,
, 64 ,
1 .
. P5
1993 , 1997 ( ) -
, SDRAM DIMM.
, P5, Intel 430TX, -
256 , 64 , -
. P5
64 , -
.
, ,
256, 512 1 RAM.

DIMM RIMM
-
,
(Dual Inline Package DIP).
IBM XT 36 , -
. ,
, , . ,
.
DIMM. DIMM -
SDRAM DDR SDRAM
. DIMM 168 , -
. DDR DIMM,
, 184 , -
. DIMM 64 (
) 72 (
). DIMM .

397

8,89 (0,350")
133,80 (5,260")
.
133,00 (5,240")

2,00 (0,079") R
(2x)
32,00 (1,260")
3,00 (0,118") R
17,78 31,50
(1,240")
(2x) (0,700")
3,00 (0,118")
6,35 (0,250") 1,37 (0,054")
3,00 (0,118") 1,27 1,27 3,25 (0,128")
42,18 (2x) 1,17 (0,046")
(1,661") 1,00 (0,39") (0,050") 3,00 (0,118")
1 ( 85 (0,039 ") 84 ( 168
) R (2x) )
66,68 (2,625 ")
115,57 (4,550")

. 6.5. 168- (72-) DIMM

.
(25 ) SIMM,
.
, RIMM, -
. RIMM: 16/18- 184
, 32/36- , 232 , 64/72- , -
326 . , ,
, RIMM , -
.
. -
16/18- ; 32-
2002 , 64- 2004 .
16/18- RIMM 184 , -
. 16-
,
(), 18- ,
.
. 6.5 168- SDRAM DIMM.
. DIMM, -
, . ,
.
, . -
, -
. . 6.8 168- DIMM 184-
RIMM.
(DRAM),
(DIMM RIMM), .
, .
, ( -
) (FSB).

398 6.
6.8. DIMM RIMM




168- DIMM
8 1 72 1 64
16 2 72 2 64
32 4 72 4 64
64 8 72 8 64
128 16 72 16 64
256 32 72 32 64
512 64 72 64 64
1024 128 72 128 64
184- RIMM
64 32 18 32 16
128 64 18 64 16
256 128 18 128 16
512 256 18 256 16
1 024 512 18 512 16

, -
, .
, -
. , -
, ,
. .
DIMM RIMM (ROM), -
,
-
DIMM/RIMM. DIMM
SDRAM, . . , -
. DDR DIMM -
SDRAM, , . .
.

(bank) ,
, . -
,
. 64- , -
64 ().
,
.

399
, -
.
, .
SIMM .

SIMM -.
, SIMM .

DIMM
. 6.9 168- DIMM.

6.9. 168- DIMM


1 85
2 0 86 32
3 1 87 33
4 2 88 34
5 3 89 35
6 +3,3 90 +3,3
7 4 91 36
8 5 92 37
9 6 93 38
10 7 94 39
11 8 95 40
12 96
13 9 97 41
14 10 98 42
15 11 99 43
16 12 100 44
17 13 101 45
18 +3,3 102 +3,3
19 14 103 46
20 15 104 47
21 1 105
22 2 106
23 107
24 108
25 109
26 +3,3 110 +3,3

400 6.
. 6.9


27 Write Enable 111 Column Address Strobe
28 I/O Mask 0 112 Byte Mask 4
29 I/O Mask 1 113 Byte Mask 5
30 S0 114 S1
31 115 Row Address Strobe
32 116
33 0 117 1
34 2 118 3
35 4 119 5
36 6 120 7
37 8 121 9
38 10 122 Bank Address 0
39 Bank Address 1 123 11
40 +3,3 124 +3,3
41 +3,3 125 Clock 1
42 Clock 0 126 12
43 127
44 128 Clock Enable 0
45 S2 129 S3
46 Byte Mask 2 130 Byte Mask 6
47 Byte Mask 3 131 Byte Mask 7
48 132 13
49 +3,3 133 +3,3
50 134
51 135
52 136
53 137
54 138
55 16 139 48
56 1 7 140 49
57 18 141 50
58 19 142 51
59 +3,3 143 +3,3
60 20 144 52
61 145
62 Voltage Reference 146 Voltage Reference
63 Clock Enable 1 147

401
. 6.9


64 148
65 21 149 53
66 22 150 54
67 23 151 55
68 152
69 24 153 56
70 25 154 57
71 26 155 58
72 27 156 59
73 +3,3 157 +3,3
74 28 158 60
75 29 159 61
76 30 160 62
77 31 161 63
78 162
79 Clock 2 163 Clock 3
80 164
81 165 Serial PD Address 0
82 Serial Data I/O 166 Serial PD Address 1
83 Serial Clock Input 167 Serial PD Address 2
84 +3,3 168 +3,3

DIMM Serial Presence Detect (


). -
DIMM EEPROM -
, DIMM . -

,
DIMM.
DIMM, -
, 3,3 5 . DIMM
, -
. ,
DIMM . -
,
DIMM . DIMM,
, 3,3 . 5- 3,3
. ,
.

402 6.
DRAM

5,0
3,3

. 6.6. 184- DIMM DRAM

5
Apple, , x86. -
, DIMM ,
. 6.6, -.
.

DDR DIMM
. 6.10 184- DDR
SDRAM DIMM. , ,
, .
DIMM DDR SDRAM ,
(. 6.7).
, -
. (,
52 53 )
,
.

)   ) %  

) )
 )
471

%% % ,

. 6.7. 184- DIMM DDR


SDRAM

403
6.10. 184- DDR DIMM


1 Reference +1,25 93
2 0 94 4
3 95 5
4 1 96 - +2,5
5 0 97 9
6 2 98 6
7 +2,5 99 7
8 3 100
9 101
10 102
11 103 13
12 8 104 - +2,5
13 9 105 12
14 1 106 13
15 - +2,5 107 10
16 Clock 1 108 +2,5
17 Clock 1# 109 14
18 110 15
19 10 111 Clock Enable 1
20 11 112 - +2,5
21 Clock Enable 0 113 2
22 - +2,5 114 20
23 16 115 12
24 17 116
25 2 117 21
26 118 11
27 9 119 11
28 18 120 +2,5
29 7 121 22
30 - +2,5 122 8
31 19 123 23
32 5 124
33 24 125 6
34 126 28
35 25 127 29
36 3 128 - +2,5

404 6.
. 6.10


37 4 129 12
38 +2,5 130 3
39 19 131 30
40 27 132
41 2 133 31
42 134 4
43 1 135 5
44 0 136 - +2,5
45 1 137 Clock 0
46 +2,5 138 Clock 0#
47 8 139
48 0 140 17
49 2 141 10
50 142 6
51 3 143 - +2,5
52 1 144 7
53 32 145
54 - +2,5 146 36
55 33 147 37
56 4 148 +2,5
57 34 149 13
58 150 38
59 0 151 39
60 35 152
61 40 153 44
62 - +2,5 154 RAS#
63 WE# 155 45
64 41 156 - +2,5
65 CAS# 157 S0#
66 158 S1#
67 5 159 14
68 42 160
69 43 161 46
70 +2,5 162 47
71 S2# 163 S3#
72 48 164 - +2,5
73 49 165 52

405
. 6.10


74 166 53
75 Clock 2# 167 FETEN
76 Clock 2 168 +2,5
77 - +2,5 169 15
78 6 170 54
79 50 171 55
80 51 172 - +2,5
81 173
82 +2,5 VID 174 60
83 56 175 61
84 57 176
85 +2,5 177 16
86 7 178 62
87 58 179 63
88 59 180 - +2,5
89 181 SPD Address 0
90 SPD Write Protect 182 SPD Address 1
91 SPD Data 183 SPD Address 2
92 SPD Clock 184 SPD +2,5 B
SPD Serial Presence Detect (
).

RIMM
RIMM 184 ,
92 . RIMM
. 6.11.
RIMM , , , -
, .
RIMM 2,5 ,
.
(. 6.8).
( DATUM A), -
, (
1 2 ) DATUM A.
(2,5 ). . 6.12.
RIMM Serial Presence Detect (SPD),
.

406 6.
6.11. 184- RIMM


1 1
2 LData Bit A8 2 LData Bit A7
3 3
4 LData Bit A6 4 LData Bit A5
5 5
6 LData Bit A4 6 LData Bit A3
7 7
8 LData Bit A2 8 LData Bit A1
9 9
10 LData Bit 0 10 Interface Clock+
11 11
12 LCTMN 12 Interface Clock-
13 13
14 LCTM 14
15 15
16 16 LROW2
17 17
18 LROW1 18 LROW0
19 19
20 LCOL4 20 LCOL3
21 21
22 LCOL2 22 LCOL1
23 23
24 LCOL0 24 LData Bit B0
25 25
26 LData Bit B1 26 LData Bit B2
27 27
28 LData Bit B3 28 LData Bit B4
29 29
30 LData Bit B5 30 LData Bit B6
31 31
32 LData Bit B7 32 Ldata Bit B8
33 33
34 LSCK 34 LCMD
35 VCMOS 35 VCMOS
36 SOUT 36 SIN

407
. 6.11


37 VCMOS 37 VCMOS
38 38
39 39
40 40
41 +2,5 41 +2,5
42 +2,5 42 +2,5
43 43
44 44
45 45
46 46
47 47
48 48
49 49
50 50
51 VREF 51 VREF
52 52
53 SPD Clock 53 SPD Address 0
54 +2,5 54 +2,5
55 SDA 55 SPD Address 1
56 SVDD 56 SVDD
57 SPD Write Protect 57 SPD Address 2
58 +2,5 58 +2,5
59 RSCK 59 RCMD
60 60
61 Rdata Bit B7 61 Rdata Bit B8
62 62
63 Rdata Bit B5 63 Rdata Bit B6
64 64
65 Rdata Bit B3 65 Rdata Bit B4
66 66
67 Rdata Bit B1 67 Rdata Bit B2
68 68
69 RCOL0 69 Rdata Bit B0
70 70
71 RCOL2 71 RCOL1
72 72

408 6.
. 6.11


73 RCOL4 73 RCOL3
74 74
75 RROW1 75 RROW0
76 76
77 77 RROW2
78 78
79 RCTM 79
80 80
81 RCTMN 81 RCFMN
82 82
83 Rdata Bit A0 83 RCFM
84 84
85 Rdata Bit A2 85 Rdata Bit A1
86 86
87 Rdata Bit A4 87 Rdata Bit A3
88 88
89 Rdata Bit A6 89 Rdata Bit A5
90 90
91 Rdata Bit A8 91 Rdata Bit A7
92 92

A DATUM A
( )

11,50

B DATUM A

12,50

C DATUM A

13,50

. 6.8. RIMM

409
6.12. RIMM

DATUM A,
A 11,5 2,5
B 12,5
C 13,5


RIMM, .
.
. 6.9 RIMM. RDRAM

North Bridge. , RIMM -
. 4, 8 16 RDRAM,
SPD. RIMM -
.
. -
RIMM
6 (152 ). -
, ( 5 ).
, Rambus RDRAM, RIMM;
. Rambus ,
, . Rambus
.


RDRAM

RIMM RDRAM
SPD ROM
RDRAM



RIMM
Rambus

. 6.9. RIMM

410 6.

.
, .
, , ,
, .
. -
DIMM 16512 .
Micron Technologies . 6.10.
.
: -
, ; ,
, . . (-
2000 ); .
,
, .
DIMM , . -
, ,
. -
(. 6.11):
Web- .
HY57V651620-TC10
. 6.11. Web-
Hyundai. , DIMM; -
, Hyundai,
HY-3U1606,
.
, .


(DIP, SIMM, SIPP
DIMM) .
, , ,
.
,
, .
. -
. 6.13.
168- DIMM.
64 , 72 .
Pentium ,
.

411
Micron Technology
ES - Engineering Sample
MS - Mechanical Sample
4 - DRAM
46 - DDR SDRAM
48 - SDRAM Commerical ( 0o C + 70o C) -
6 - Rambus Industrial ( -40o C + 85o C) - IT


C - 5 Vcc CMOS L - Low Power
LC - 3,3 VDD CMOS S - Self Refresh
V - 2,5 VDD CMOS



- /
K - DRAM SDRAM DDR SDRAM (x4, x8, x16)
M - ( ) x32 DDR SDRAM (
G - -4 - 40 ( @ CL = 2,5)
-5 - 50 @ CL = 3) -8 - 125
-6 - 60 -75 - 133
- -7 - 70 -15 - 66 -7 - 143
-12 - 83
-10 - 100 Rambus
DRAM -8x - 125 ( )

-0 - -75 - 133 -4D - 400 , 40
DJ - SOJ
-7x - 143 -4C - 400 , 45
DW - SOJ (Wide)
-65 - 150 -4B - 400 , 50
F - FBGA (54-, 4 )
-6 - 167 -3C - 356 , 45
FB - FBGA (60-, 8x16)
-55 - 183 -3B - 356 , 50
FC - FBGA (60-, 11x13)
-5 - 200 -3M - 300 , 53
FP - Flip Chip in Package
FQ - Flip Chip in Sealed Package
F1 - FBGA (54-, 2 )
F2 - FBGA (64-, 2 )
LG - TQFP
R - FBGA (54-, 4 , )
R1 - FBGA (54-, 2 , )
R2 - FBGA (64-, 2 , )
TG - TSOP(Type II)
U - mBGA

. 6.10.



,
. ,
.
, -
( ) , -
. -

412 6.
. 6.11. (, , -
.)

6.13.

168-
(
)

DIMM
30-

72-
SIMM

SIMM

8088 8 8 9 1
8086 16 16 18 2
286 16 16 18 2
ctlpar386SX, SL, SLC 16 16 18 2
486SLC, SLC2 16 16 18 2
386DX 32 32 36 4 1
486SX, DX, DX2, DX4, 32 32 36 4 1
586
Pentium, K6 64 64 72 8 2 1
Pentium Pro, PII, Celeron, 64 64 72 8 2 1
PIII, 4, Athlon, Duron

, , . ()
, (. . -
), , , .
-
, , ,
. , -
.
, Intel
, 100
133 . , PC100 PC133,

413
.
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.

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(ECC)
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, ,
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414 6.

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.
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, ,
, .
-
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415
, ( -
). , ( ),
; (
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:
IBM PC: PARITY
~ IBM XT: PARITY ~yyyyy (z)
~ IBM PC ~ XT: PARITY ~yyyyy
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( ). yyyyy
00000 FFFFF, , . -
z S ( ) e (
-).

IBM - PC XT,
.


(Non-maskable Interrupt NMI),
, BIOS.
.
. IBM
,

. , ,
. (
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-
,
.
, IBM, , , -
. , BIOS Phoenix
Memory parity interrupt at :xxxx
(S)hut off NMI, Type (R)eboot, other keys to continue

I/O card parity interrupt at :xxxx


(S)hut off NMI, Type (R)eboot, other keys to continue
(Parity Check 1), -
(Parity Check 2). ,
xxxx:xxxx []:[], -
, IBM.
.
<S>.
,

416 6.
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, .
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BIOS AMI :
ON BOARD PARITY CHECK ADDR () = ()

OFF BOARD PARITY CHECK ADDR () = ()


, POST
.
, . AMI BIOS
:
Memory parity error at

I/O card parity error at


(
POST); ,
.

( ),
. ,
, -
.
, -
ROM BIOS, . -
, Windows,
-
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Memory parity error detected. System halted.
-
. ,

417
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418 6.
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419

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Strobe CAS).
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421
CL3 CL2,
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SIMM, DIMM -,
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423
DIMM

. 6.12. DIMM
DIMM

5 DIMM
3,3 , , , , DIMM
.
PC DIMM ,
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, RFU, DIMM DIMM,
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, ,
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.


, -
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424 6.
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.
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-
- ,
BIOS. BIOS Technical Reference ( -
) PDF.
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, ,
. -
, -
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SIMM DDR DIMM
RIMM. , -
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:
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general protection fault,
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fatal exception, -
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425
POST
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, - -
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BIOS

. 6.13.

, -
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.
, . 6.13.
.
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Test). POST , ,
.
.
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POST ( ) -
<F2>. BIOS Setup,

426 6.
. , -
, .
3. BIOS Setup . -
, -
. -
, : PC-Technician Windsor
Technologies, Norton Utilities Symantec . .
4. , ,
(XMS) . -
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Setup, -.
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SIMM/DIMM .
( , ),
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, ,
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Advanced Chipset Setup ,
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, , , -
BIOS. , ,
, .
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427
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3. , ,
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428 6.
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PC 1 , 384
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Windows 9, Windows NT/2000, Windows XP, Linux, OS/2 UNIX -
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:
(Conventional Memory);
(Upper Memory Area UMA);
( High Memory Area HMA);
(eXtended Memory Specification XMS);
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;
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ROM RAM ;
;
ROM BIOS; .
,
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.
. 6.15
PC- .

429
441,44@
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430 6.
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64 ,
2 .

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PC/XT 1 -
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512 . 512
, , , -
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PC IBM ,
384 , -
640 .
640 , DOS
( 640 ). 640
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, 640 16- , -
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XP, .


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AT.
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431
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,
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432 6.
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DOS. DOS -
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VGA- , SVGA, EGA.
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4 A 4444C3 
4 B 4444C3 ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

. 6.16. VGA SVGA

433
, B000 (
B0000B7FFF) . . 6.16 ROM BIOS.
.
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, .
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000 128 ,
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.
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386 -

.
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Windows 9 Windows 2000
.
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(PCI AGP) BIOS
32 , C0000C7FFF.
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,
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. . 6.14
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434 6.
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BIOS, BIOS
XT- 8 C8000C9FFF

AT 0 BIOS
0 BIOS
IDE
EIDE 16 C8000CBFFF
SCSI 16 C8000CBFFF
DC000DFFFF

SCSI -
,
800, IBM PC.
SCSI BIOS, , -
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D000. . 6.14
. - , ,
BIOS
.
SCSI AHA-2940 Adaptec
. 6.17.

D'EGFHIJIKLMNIJOMF PQRM SNPT


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d EIJOMFPQRM SNPTVWHTKXIRM SNPQYeHXPLIZIPX^F PIHIZI[X _"T S"MMKMRPX[M$` Ua
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n a nnnnCm UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU
n i nnnnCm bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb dddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd
m5n)o EE"p o EEq o EEr o EEs o EEt o EEu o EEv o EEw o EEx o EE a o EE i o EE d o EE yE o E zE o E { o EE
n d nnnnCm ````````````````````````````````|DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
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m5n)o EE"p o EEq o EEr o EEs o EEt o EEu o EEv o EEw o EEx o EE a o EE i o EE d o EE y o EE z o EE { o EE
n z nnnnCm DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
n { nnnnCm ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff

. 6.17. SCSI-
AHA-2940 Adaptec


-
000 D000.
. .

435
:
IPL ROM, ;
.
ROM IPL ( 8 )
, -
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,
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.
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ROM IPL
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. 6.18. Token Ring

436 6.
VGA,
. 6.18 BIOS VGA.
. ROM IPL
,
. ROM,

.
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dows 2000/XP ,
. , 32- -
.
BIOS
128 BIOS,
ROM. BIOS
, .
,
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E000 F000 -
BIOS,
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AT F000 BIOS, E000 ,
. , 16-
,
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Emm386.exe.
. 6.19 BIOS 16-
.
, BIOS F000
(64 ). E000 ,
.

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C 

. 6.19. ROM BIOS


437
(extended)
, 286 -
1 . 286 386SX
16 , 386DX, 486, Pentium Pentium
MMX 4 (4 096 ). Pentium II
64 (65 536 ).

( ). -
286 ,
. 386 -
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1 (
)
. DOS- -
640 ,
BIOS .
(
) , .
Windows 9,
Windows NT OS/2.
286 ,
PC/XT 8088.
AT -
DOS, PC/XT. AT
( 386, 486, Pentium P6)
. 286 8086 8088, -
. 386
.
Windows 9/NT/2000 OS/2,
.

-
, .

XMS
XMS (eXtended Memory Specification)
1987 Microsoft, Intel, AST Corp. Lotus Development.
, -
. 286
, (,
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, DOS.
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.
, ,

438 6.
.
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, XMS-, DOS -
,
. XMS -
, . Windows 3.
,
, -
Windows XMS-. Windows 95
,
. Windows NT, Windows 2000 OS/2 ,
.
XMS , -
Config.sys. -
Himem.sys, Windows DOS (
DOS 6). , QEMM,
Config.sys -
XMS. Windows 9
Windows NT/2000 MS DOS
XMS.

DOS ,
-.


ROM BIOS
, C000 D000 ROM RAM .
ROM RAM - , ,
. , -
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,
-.
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.
,
, .
.
,
, -.
,
, -
. -

439
,
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Play ,
. -
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.


( , 384
) -.


Plug and Play (. .
).
,
. ,
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BIOS
RAM. -
, ,
. , ,
.

.

.
,
.
.
( ).
Microsoft Diagnostic (MSD), Windows 3.x DOS 6 ( -
).
Windows 9/ME/2000/XP. -
,
IRQ.
MSD
. , , -
.

440 6.


, .

,
. , Plug and Play,
Win-
dows 9x/ME/2000 .
.
1. , .
2. , - ,
.
3. , ,
.
4. , -
- .
, , 8000CBFFF,
CA000CCFFF, , - -
.

441
7

IDE
IDE
,
PC, IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics).
, .

.
IDE,
, . -
, ,
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IDE.

IDE

.
. -
, ,
.
: -
, ,
.
, , -
. -
,
, .

ST-506/412 ESDI -
-.

, ,
. ,
,
.
. ,
, .
-
. . 7.1 .
-
. SCSI IDE ,
( )
. , SCSI IDE ,
, ESDI. SCSI -

, IDE .

444 7. IDE
7.1.


ST-506/412 19781989 .
ESDI 19861991 .
SCSI 1986 .
IDE 1988 .
Serial ATA 2001 .

IDE
, IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) -
, -
. IDE (AT
Attachment), ANSI. , -
, ,
, 16- ISA.
ATA 16- , . .
16 . 2001
, Serial ATA. Serial ATA (SATA)
,
. SATA -
,
ATA. ,
, ,
SATA Serial ATA.
IDE , -
. -
,
, . . ,
,
, ,
,
.
( /)
,
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. , -
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; ,
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/,
.

IDE 445
-
,
.

.
IDE
. ATA IDE
40 98, 16-
ISA. IDE , -
XT
AT. , AT IRQ 14,
IDE AT IRQ.
XT IRQ 5,
. , , ATA
South Bridge PCI,
.

, , IDE -
, . :
. ,
.

IDE, ATA IDE, -


.
IDE . , PS/2 -
, MCA
( ).
IDE, 8- ISA, -
. IBM- ISA EISA -
16- ATA IDE. ATA IDE
. Serial ATA.
ATA .
, ,
, ,
.
ATA . , , -
,
. , -
.
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, -
(,
).

446 7. IDE
IDE
. , Plus
Development ( Quantum), : -
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.
. , -
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, , ,
, .
-
, .
. -
, ,
. ,
.
. Compaq
98-
AT (ISA), , 40-
, . -
, , -
40 .
1987 IBM IDE MCA, -
, .
, -
.
8- IDE 8-
ISA, , , PS/2 30. IDE, -
XT, 40- .
, 16- ,
.

IDE
IDE,
:
Serial AT Attachment (SATA);
AT Attachment (ATA) IDE (16- ISA);
XT IDE (8- ISA);
MCA IDE (16- MCA).
ATA.
ATA Serial ATA; -
, ATA ATA-2 .
EIDE (Enhanced IDE), Fast-ATA, Ultra-ATA Ultra-DMA.
ATA-6, Serial ATA
.

IDE 447

16- 32- 16- 32- -
. PCI- 32- ( 64--
) .
IDE ( EIDE) 16- -
. ,
, 16- .

XT ATA
40- , , -
. MCA IDE,
MCA, , 72- .
IDE ,
. , XT IDE -
XT 8- ISA,
ATA IDE AT 16-
ISA EISA, MCA IDE MCA
(, PS/2 50 ). , -
. , Silicon Valley XT,
ATA IDE. , Arco
Electronics Sigma Data, MCA, -
ATA IDE.
XT PS/2, IDE XT MCA
, ATA IDE .
ATA -
. , ATA IDE -
.
, (98- 40-
IDE) . ,
. ,
, ROM BIOS -.

ATA IDE
ATA IDE, 40- IDE-, -
CDC, Western Digital Compaq.
ATA IDE 5,25 40 -
, CDC. Western
Digital, Compaq 386 (1986 ).
40- -
ANSI. -
-
, , 1989
, CAM ATA.
, Conner Peripherals, CDC -
. ATA
, .

448 7. IDE
ATA , -
.
, IDE
. -

, . ,
.

, ATA IDE.
XT IDE MCA IDE -
.
.

ATA
, ATA 1989
ANSI. Serial ATA ,
Serial ATA Workgroup, -
ANSI. ,
, ATA-6 (ATA/100),
Serial ATA ( ).
ATA:
ATA-1 (19881994 .);
ATA-2 (1996 ., Fast-ATA, Fast-ATA-2 EIDE);
ATA-3 (1997 .);
ATA-4 (1998 ., Ultra-ATA/33);
ATA-5 (1999 ., Ultra-ATA/66);
ATA-6 (2000 ., Ultra-ATA/100);
ATA-7 (2001 ., Ultra-ATA/133).
ATA , . . ATA-1 ATA-2 -
ATA-4 ATA-5.
ATA . , ATA-5, ,
ATA-6. . 7.2 -
ATA,
.


ATA-1, ATA-2 ATA-3 -
-.

ATA 449
7.2. ATA


/
UDMA
DMA

PIO

ATA-1 19861994 . 02 0 8,33


ATA-2 19951996 . 04 02 16,67 CHS/LBA

8,4
ATA-3 1997 . 04 02 16,67
S.M.A.R.T.
ATA-4 1998 . 04 02 02 33,33 Ultra-DMA,

137,4 BIOS
ATA-5 19992000 . 04 02 04 66,67 Faster UDMA,
80-

-6 2001 . 04 02 05 100,00 UDMA
100 /;

144 BIOS
-7 2001 . 04 02 06 133,00 UDMA
133 /
SMART Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology.
; 1 1 .
CHS Cylinder Head Sector.
LBA Logical Block Address.
UDMA Ultra DMA (Direct Memory Access).

ATA-4
ATA-4 1998 . PIIX4 -
South Bridge Intel
ATA-4,
UDMA (Ultra-DMA).
ATA-4 ATAPI -
, ATA, .
ATA
. , ATA-4 Ultra-DMA (
Ultra-ATA) . -
, DMA/33, 33 /,

450 7. IDE
, - -
.
ATA-4:
Ultra-DMA, 33 /;
ATAPI;
;
80- ;
Compact Flash Adapter (CFA);
BIOS ( 9,4 ).
ATA-4 ANSI NCITS 317-1998 ATA with Packet Interface
Extension.
ATA-4 ,
SCSI-2.
,
IDE.

ATA-5
ATA 2000
ATA-4. :
Ultra-DMA (UDMA), 66 /
( UDMA/66 Ultra-ATA/66);
80- , UDMA/66;
40- 80-;
UDMA33 ( 80--
).
ATA ATA-5 ;
, ATA-5 ATA-1 ATA-1
ATA-5. ,
.
T13 IEEE-1394 (iLink FireWire), -
ATA.
iLink/FireWire ATA, ATA-
.
ATA-5 Ultra-ATA/66,
Ultra-ATA -
.
40- , ATA Ultra-ATA. -
80- 40- .
ATA-4, ATA-5 -
Ultra-ATA/66. 40
40 ,

ATA 451
. , -
Ultra-ATA, , 40
, .
40- 80-
. ()
ATA ( ). ( )
-; . ()
.
UDMA/33 UDMA/66, ATA, ,
BIOS , .
, . -
Windows 95 OSR2, Windows 98 Windows 2000
, Windows 95 Windows NT ( -
Service Pack 3)
. Ultra-ATA/66
Ultra-ATA/66 80- . ,
Ultra-ATA/33.
Ultra-DMA -
CRC. ,
. CRC
Ultra-DMA.
CRC , .
, .

ATA-6
ATA-6, 2000 , -
2002 . :
Ultra-DMA (UDMA), -
100 / ( UDMA/100, Ultra-ATA/100
ATA/100);
, , 8-
(256 , 131 ) 16- (65 536 , 33,5 )
, ;
LBA 228 248 (281 474 976 710 656) , -
144,12 (1 1
);
CHS ; 28-
48- LBA.
ATA-6 Ultra-ATA/100 ( Ultra-DMA
UDMA/100), Ultra-ATA
.
, ATA-5, 80- .
ATA/100
.

452 7. IDE
100 /, ATA-6
. ATA-5 -
136,9 , -
. 2001
3,5- , 137 . -
SCSI- ,
. ATA-6 LBA 2 28 248
. , 28- , -
, ATA-6 -
, 48- . , 512 ,
144,12 ,
144,12 ! , 48- -
,
137 . , 137 ,
28-, 48- .

ATA-7
ATA-7 2001 ,
. -7, ,
, (ATA-6), -
.
ATA-7 ,
UDMA Mode 6,
133 /. , UDMA Mode 5 (100 /)
UDMA Mode 4 (66 /), 80- .
80- ,
,
40- .
, UDMA -
, , ,
, . , , ATA, -
, UDMA Mode 6 (133 /),
, -
60 /. , -
ATA, -
133 /, ,
, . -
, , , UDMA
Mode 6 (133 /), , UDMA Mode 5
(100 /),
. , - ATA, -
100 /, 133 /,
, -
.
,

ATA 453
, ,
.
, ATA-7 -
ATA. ATA Se-
rial ATA, .
ATA-6 ATA-7 , -
ATA-7
Serial ATA, , ATA-7.

ATA
ATA -
IDE ISA/PCI. ATA
40- , , . .
, .
- ATA
40/44- ATA (. 7.1),
( ) .
20, . -
(. 7.2),
IDE -
, ( ,
- ).
ATA IDE . 7.3.

,




IDE


(+5 )
()
4
3 ()
2
1
(+12 )

. 7.1. ATA (IDE)

454 7. IDE

1 39

2 20 40

. 7.2. 40- ATA

7.3. ATA IDE


RESET 1 2
, 7 3 4 , 8
, 6 5 6 , 9
, 5 7 8 , 10
, 4 9 10 , 11
, 3 11 12 , 12
, 2 13 14 , 13
, 1 15 16 , 14
, 0 17 18 , 15
19 20 ( )
DRQ 3 21 22
IOW 23 24
IOR 25 26
IO CH RDY 27 28 SPSYNC:CSEL
DACK 3 29 30
IRQ 14 31 32 IOCS16
, 1 33 34 PDIAG
, 0 35 36 , 2
CS1FX 37 38 CS3FX
DA/SP 39 40
+5 ( ) 41 42 +5 ( )
43 44 TYPE (0=ATA)
. , , (-
, RESET), .

ATA 455
43 1 . C

. A
. B

2 . D
44 20
. E

F

. 7.3. 50- ,
2,5- -
44-

2,5- -
50- , -
2 (0,079 ) . 40--
, ATA ( -
), -
.
44- ,
ATA.
: (Master), (Slave) (Select Cable).
50- , 2,5-
ATA, . 7.3.
AD E F. -
, ,
B D. 41 42
5 ( ) -
; 43 (. . ); 44
. ,
2,5- , ,
5 .
50- ATA, -
2,5- ( -
), . 7.4.

7.4. 50- ATA


A B
C D
( ) E F ( )
RESET 1 2
7 3 4 8
6 5 6 9
5 7 8 10
4 9 10 11

456 7. IDE
. 7.4


3 11 12 12
2 13 14 13
1 15 16 14
0 17 18 15
19 20 ( )
DRQ 3 21 22
IOW 23 24
IOR 25 26
I/O CH RDY 27 28 CSEL
DACK 3 29 30
IRQ 14 31 32
1 33 34 PDIAG
0 35 36 2
CS1FX 37 38 CS3FX
DA/SP 39 40
+5 ( ) 41 42 +5 ()
43 44

- ATA
()
40- (. 7.4). -
, ,
46 (18 ).
, IDE
, , . -
,
. , ,
UDMA Mode 4 (66 /), Mode 5 (100 /) Mode 6
(133 /) 80- .
, UDMA Mode 2 (33 /). -
80- IDE
, ,
- .
40- 80-. -
40- , 80- .
-
UltraATA/66 UltraDMA/66. 80-
40-, ,
.

ATA 457
25,4 (10"),
45,72 (18")

12,7 (5"), 12,7 (5"),


30,48 (12") 15,24 (6")

40 80
39 40

1 2 1 0


IDE IDE
() () ()

. 7.4. ATA (IDE)

ATA
, -
. ,
, Cable Select ( ).
20 -
.
ATA. ,
. , 20 -
.
39 DA/SP (Drive Active/Slave Present), -
. 39
, . -
,
.
28 : SPSYNC (Spindle Synchronization
) CSEL (Cable Select ). -
, .
SPSYNC -
,
CSEL. (-
0), ( 1),
. CSEL,
, ( ), ;
( ),
.
CSEL (
) , Y- -.
, IDE, ,

458 7. IDE
. CSEL
( ), .
( )
IDE -
, -
, . ,
.
ATA -
. ( -
) -
( Master Slave ),
CSEL (Cable SELect ).

, . ( ,
), .
,
. () Master/Slave -
CSEL.
IDE :
( );
( );
( );
.

.
(/), -
(slave present). . 7.5
ATA (IDE).

7.5. ATA (IDE)

, ,

Master (M/S) . . .
Slave Present (SP) . . .

. 7.5 -
.
, . .
.
-
.

ATA 459

39 1

4 3 2 1

40 2

(#20) DS (Drive Select) PK ( Park
CS (Cable Select) )




( ) ( ) " "

CS CS CS
PK DS PK DS PK DS


( )

;


. 7.5. ATA (IDE)

ATA
ATA IDE .
IBM AT
WD1003, ATA IDE
. , ,
IDE- . PC--
WD1003, ,
ATA IDE BIOS.
WD1003, ATA -
,
. ATA,
-
.

460 7. IDE
-,
.
512 . (
BIOS) , -
-, , .
BIOS ,
CMOS-. -
.
, ,
(
, ).
, , -
, :
, LBA;
, , P-CHS;
, -
L-CHS;
( ) ;
- ;
;
;
, -
.
-
. IDEINFO
(http://www.dc.ee./Files/Utils/IDEINFO.ARJ) IDEDIAG ( -
Internet).
, BIOS, -
. -
.
Read Multiple Write Multiple. -
(. . -
, ).
- (Programmed I/O PIO)
( -
).
, ,
,
. , -
,
. -
,
IDE-.

ATA 461
ATA
ATA-1 , BIOS,
, -
. ,
.
ATA-2ATA-7 :
;
;
;
ATAPI (ATA Program Interface).

ATA
- , -
, . -
ATA-2 ,
. ,
.
-
, , ,
PCI. BIOS -
, -
, . , -
, BIOS
( ).
Promise Technologies, MicroFirmware, GSI
ATA, ,
.


ATA/IDE 136,9 .
, BIOS,
, 8,4 512 .
ATA BIOS,
.
. 7.6 , -
ATA BIOS.

, MiB (mebibyte), GiB (gibibyte)
, ,
. , -
,
. SI (

462 7. IDE
7.6. ATA/IDE


, ( (
) )
CHS: BIOS w/o TL 10241663 1 032 192 528 482 304 528,48 504,00 MiB
CHS: BIOS w/bit-shift TL 102424063 15 482 880 7 927 234 560 7,93 7,38 GiB
CHS: BIOS w/LBA-assist TL 102425563 16 450 560 8 422 686 720 8,42 7,84 GiB
CHS: BIOS INT13h 102425663 16 515 072 8 455 716 864 8,46 7,88 GiB
CHS: ATA-1/ATA-5 6553616255 267 386 880 136 902 082 560 136,90 127,50 GiB
LBA: ATA-1/ATA-5 228 268 435 456 137 438 953 472 137,44 128,00 GiB
48
LBA: ATA-6+ 2 281 474 976 710 655 144 115 188 075 855 360 144,12 128,00 PiB
64
LBA: EDO BIOS 2 18 446 744 073 709 551 600 9 444 732 965 739 290 430 000 9,44 8,00 iB

CHS Cylinder Head Sector (, , ). EDD Enhanced Disk Drive (Phoenix/ATA).


LBA Logical Block (sector) Address ( ). MiB mebibyte.
w/ (with). GiB gibibyte.
w/o (without). PiB pebibyte.
TL Translation. ( ).
INT13h 13h. ZiB zebibyte.
, ) -
. ,
, ,
(. . 2). ,
: , 1 () -
1 000 (103 ) , 1 024 (210 ) . 1998
()
,
. . 7.7.
1 ()
1 000 000 , 1 MiB (mebibyte) 1 048 576 .

,
, Web- -
(NIST): physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/prefixes.html.

CHS LBA
, ( ) -
ATA. CHS (Cylinder Head Sector).
,
. , LBA
(Logical Block Address), -
. CHS (
). LBA, ,
,
.
CHS -
0, 0 1 (
), .
, .
, -
.
. CHS
( ): , -
;
, .
LBA -
0, 1, 2 . . ,
CHS 0,0,1. LBA
0.
, ,
( ), -
() . ,
( ), (
), .

464 7. IDE
7.7.









103 (k) (kilo) 1 000 210 Ki Kibi Kilobinary 1 024
6 20
10 (M) (Mega) 1 000 000 2 Mi Mibi Megabinary 1 048 576
9 30
10 (G) (Giga) 1 000 000 000 2 Gi Gibi Gigabinary 1 073 741 824
1012 (T) (Tera) 1 000 000 000 000 240 Ti Tibi Terabinary 1 099 511 627 776
1015 (P) (Peta) 1 000 000 000 000 000 250 Pi Pibi Petabinary 1 125 899 906 842 624
18
10 E (Exa) 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 250 Ei Exbi Exabinary 1 152 921 504 606 846 980
1021 Z (Zetta) 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 250 Zi Zebi Zettabinary 1 180 591 620 717 411 300 000
. , /kilo (k) SI
, .
7.8. CHS LBA , -
, (
)


CHS: 0,0,1 0,0,2 0,1,1 0,1,2 1,0,1 1,0,2 1,1,1 1,1,2
LBA: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

(222) . , -
0, ,
, 1. CHS
0, 0, 1 (0,0,1);
0,0,2; 0,1,1; ? 0,1,2 . .,
, 1,1,2.
, ,
, , 0 7.
, ,
0,1,2 CHS 3 LBA.

CHS LBA . 7.8.
, LBA -
. ,
BIOS
CHS.
CHS/LBA LBA/CHS
CHS, LBA.
CHS
LBA, , , CHS LBA -
. ATA-1 ,
CHS LBA:
LBA = (((C HPC) + H) SPT) + S 1.
, . .
LBA CHS:
C = int(LBA/SPT/HPC),
H = int((LBA/SPT) mod HPC),
S = (LBA mod SPT) + 1.
:
LBA logical block address;
C (cylinder);
H (head);
S (sector);

466 7. IDE
7.9. CHS LBA ,
16 383 , 16 63 (
16 514 064)

LBA
0 0 1 0
0 0 63 62
1 1 1 63
999 15 63 1 007 999
1 000 0 1 1 008 000
9 999 15 63 10 079 999
10 000 0 1 10 080 000
16 382 15 63 16 514 063

HPC ( );
SPT ;
int X X;
X mod Y () X/Y.
LBA
CHS . 16 383 , 16 63
. CHS LBA . 7.9.
BIOS ATA
(CHS LBA),
, . -
-
( BIOS); --
( ATA).
, CHS, LBA. . 7.6
.
-
, -
INT13h, BIOS,
. INT13h
, LBA CHS. -
- BIOS
ATA, - -
. ATA CHS LBA,
. -
- CHS LBA,
, BIOS,
BIOS Setup .

ATA 467

BIOS INT13h (L-GHS LBA)

13h
BIOS () ( )

ATA - (P-CHS LBA)

. 7.6. ATA (IDE).


( L-CHS CHS, -
P-CHS CHS)


CHS ( 528 ),
2,1/4,2 LBA-Assist
-.

8,4
CHS-
528 , ,
8,4 . , -
8,4 , CHS- -
LBA -. ATA
LBA ATA-1. , -
LBA ATA ,
, BIOS LBA .
, BIOS
LBA-Assist, LBA -
CHS -.
Phoenix Technologies
BIOS CHS LBA 1994
BIOS Enhanced Disk Drive Specification (EDD),
INT13h BIOS,
CHS, LBA.

BIOS Phoenix 1996 -
13 (National
Committee on Information Technology Standards NCITS)
, BIOS Enhanced Disk Drive
Specification (EDD). 1998 BIOS
EDD -, -
LBA BIOS ATA,

468 7. IDE
8,4 . , 8,4
.
EDD INT13h BIOS, -
LBA 2 64 ,
9,44 (, ).
, 9,44 ; 9,441021 , ,
9 444 732 965 739 290 430 000 ! ,
, 1998 - -
264 , ATA 28-
(228 ) ATA. ATA
268 435 456 , ,
137 438 953 472 , 137,44 . ,
8,4-
137 , 28- LBA -
ATA. .

---------------------------------
268 435 456
---------------------------------
137 438 953 472
137 439
Mebibyte (MiB) 131 072
137,44
Gibibyte (GiB) 128,00
64- LBA
BIOS, 28- LBA
ATA , LBA -
. LBA BIOS
CHS. ,
8,4 ,
BIOS, EDD (. . BIOS,
1998 ), BIOS
LBA.
, -
. ,
LBA- (, DOS Win95), -
, 8,4 ,
16 383 , 16 63 ,
8,4 . BIOS -
120- 8,4 .
, , 120- ,
8,4 , .
8,4 , 1998 ,
BIOS BIOS
EDD ( MicroFirmware ).

ATA 469
137-
2001 , 137--
, -
3,5-
137 . ATA-6,
2001 . , LBA, -
28- 48- ,
.
ATA-6 LBA, 48--
. ,
248 ( 281 474 976 710 656).
512 ,
, .

---------------------------------------
281 474 976 710 656
---------------------------------------
144 115 188 075 855 888
144 115 188 076
Mebibyte (MiB) 137 438 953 472
144 115 188
Gibibyte (GiB) 137 217 728
144 115
Tebibyte (TiB) 131 072
144,12
Pebibyte (PiB) 128,00
, 48- LBA, ATA-6,
, 144 (
).
EDD BIOS, 64- ,
.

---------------------------------------------
18 446 744 073 709 551 600
---------------------------------------------
9 444 732 965 739 290 430 000
9 444 732 965 739 291
Mebibyte (MiB) 9 007 199 254 740 993
9 444 732 965 739
Gibibyte (GiB) 8 796 093 022 208
9 444 732 966
Tebibyte (TiB) 8 589 934 592
9 444 733
Pebibyte (PiB) 8 388 608
9 445
Exbibyte (EiB) 8 192
9,44
Zebibytes (ZiB) 8,00

470 7. IDE
BIOS, 64-
LBA, , 2 64 ,
144 , ATA-6,
.
1,52 . , -
, 160
2001 , , 144
2031 2041 (,
). , EDD
BIOS 9,44 2055 2073 ! -
Phoenix , EDD
2020 , , , .

, , -
, ,
CHS, 8,4 .
-
. 7.10.

7.10.



DOS/Windows 3x DOS 6.22
8,4 . DOS 7.0 ( Windows 95 )
8,4
Windows 9x/Me Windows 95a ( ) INT13h,
,
8,4 , FAT16
2 . Windows 95B
OSR2 ( Windows 98)
INT13h,
8,4 ,
FAT32,
Windows NT Windows NT 3.5x 8,4 .
Windows NT 4.0 8,4 ; ,

, Windows NT (
Service Pack 4)
Windows 2000/XP Windows 2000 8,4
OS/2 Warp OS/2 -
3,1 4,3 . IBM Device
Driver Pack,
8,4 . HPFS
64
Novell NetWare 5.0
8,4

ATA 471
, -
8,4 ,
, - .
()
, . -
,
, . -
(),
Windows . 7.11.

7.11. ()

, FAT16 FAT32 NTFS



() 2,092 33,554
(9x/Me)
() 2,092 33,554 1,000
(NT/2000/XP)
() (9x) 2,147 136,902
() (Me) 2,147 8,796
() 4,294 8,796 281,475
(NT/2000/XP)
() 4,294 4,294 16,384


ATA-2/EIDE ATA-3 -
.
,
.
PIO 3 PIO 4,
. .
PIO .
( 0) -
600 . 16 ,
0 3,3 /. -
PIO 4,
16,6 /.
PIO . 7.12.
3 4 , IDE
. , IDE
VL-Bus PCI. -
ATA-2/EIDE IDE, , ,
. 486
Pentium PCI, -

472 7. IDE
7.12. PIO

PIO
, , /
0 600 3,3 ATA
1 383 5,2 ATA
2 240 8,3 ATA
3 180 11,11 ATA-2, EIDE, Fast-ATA
4 120 16,67 ATA-2, EIDE, Fast-ATA

ISA
0, 1 2.

PIO DMA, -
. BIOS
, . -
, ,
.
, ATA-2,
(Block Mode PIO) Read/Write Multiple.
, -
, .
.

DMA
BIOS ,
ATA-2 .
(DMA) , , PIO,
() , .
: (8-)
(16-). DMA
-3, -
. DMA, -,
(busmastering), Bus Master ATA.
,
DMA .
, . , ,
.
Intel PIIX (PCI IDE ISA eXcelerator)
South Bridge Bus Master IDE. -
Bus Master PCI .
Bus Master IDE . 7.13 7.14.
, Bus Master IDE 2 -
16,67 /, PIO 4. , DMA -
ISA .

ATA 473
7.13. (8-) DMA

8- ,
DMA , , , /
0 16 960 1,04 1 2,08 -1
1 16 480 2,08 1 4,17 -1
2 16 240 4,17 1 8,33 -1

7.14. (16-) DMA

16- ,
DMA , , , /
0 16 480 2,08 1 4,17 -1
1 16 150 6,67 1 13,33 -2
2 16 120 8,33 1 16,67 -2
. ATA-2 EIDE (Enhanced IDE) Fast-ATA.
.
PIO 4, -
. Bus Master IDE
Ultra-DMA, ATA-4.
. 7.15 Ultra-DMA,
ATA-4 ATA-5.

7.15. Ultra-DMA

Ultra-DMA ,
, /
0 240 16,67 ATA-4, Ultra-ATA/33
1 160 25,00 ATA-4, Ultra-ATA/33
2 120 33,33 ATA-4, Ultra-ATA/33
3 90 44,44 ATA-5, Ultra-ATA/66
4 60 66,67 ATA-5, Ultra-ATA/66
5 40 100 ATA-6, Ultra-ATA/100
6 30 133 -7, Ultra- 133

ATAPI (ATA Packet Interface)


, ,
CD-ROM IDE-. -
, ATAPI,
.
CD-ROM, , -
, ;
.
, ATAPI, -
.
CD-ROM ,
, . ,
SCSI.

!
BIOS ATAPI.
ATAPI - - AT-
API, . Windows 95/NT
ATAPI, BIOS ATAPI-
CD-ROM. , Windows 98
Windows 2000/XP.

, IDE
. ,
, , -
.

ATA 475
-
IDE, , ,
, . -
,
, IDE, SCSI,
() . ,
, .

Serial ATA
ATA-7 , ATA,
10 , . ,
100 /, , -
.
(Serial ATA), -
. Serial ATA
, . . -
- . ,
-, ,
ATA, . Serial ATA -
ATA ATAPI,
CD-ROM, CD-RW DVD, , SuperDisk,
, .
, , : , , -
ATA - ATA
. Serial ATA 7- ,

. Serial ATA -
.
, ATA.
, Serial ATA (SATA),
, .
ATA SATA ,
-
. , ,
10- , ,
SATA.
2000 Intel,
,
Serial ATA. APT Technologies,
Dell, IBM, Intel, Maxtor, Quantum Seagate.
60 , . 2000
Serial ATA 1.0, -
Web- Serial ATA Working Group http://www.serialata.org. -
, 2002 ATA
.

476 7. IDE
SATA . -
SATA,
. .
,
. SATA . 7.16.

7.16. SATA


Serial ATA , , , /
SATA-150 1 1500 1 150
SATA-300 1 3000 1 300
SATA-600 1 6000 1 600

, ATA
. 7- -
14 (0,55 ) . -
,
ATA. ,
. , , -
( ).
/ ,
. , . . -
.
SATA (39,37 ), -
18- ATA.
, ,
, 150 / ( -
ATA/100). 300 600 /.
, , Serial ATA -
, 8B/10B. -
8B/10B ( ) IBM 1980-
.
, Gigabit
Ethernet, Fibre Channel, FireWire . 8B/10B
, ( ) -
. RLL 0,4
(Run Length Limited RLL), 0 , 4
.
10-
().
.
, , -
, .
, . -
8- 10- ,

Serial ATA 477


10- .
, ,
- .
SATA -
(Non-Return to Zero NRZ).
,
, 0,25 ( ). -
: +0,25 , -
0,25 . ,
0,5 ( ). ,
, . -

.
SATA 5 12
4- , 15-
, 3,3 .
15- 24 (0,945 -
). , 3,3, 5 12 ,
4,5 , -
. SATA
4- ,
15- .
SATA . 7.7.
. 7.17 7.18 SATA -
.

. 7.7. SATA (Serial ATA)

478 7. IDE
7.17. Serial ATA (SATA)


S1
S2 A+ Host Transmit+
S3 A Host Transmit
S4
S5 B Host Receive
S6 B+ Host Receive+
S7
. 1,27
(0,05 ) .
, ,
.
.

7.18. Serial ATA (SATA)


1 +3,3 +3,3 ()
2 +3,3 +3,3 ()
3 +3,3 +3,3 ()
4
5
6
7 +5 +5 ()
8 +5 +5 ()
9 +5 +5 ()
10
11
12
13 +12 +12 ()
14 +12 +12 ()
15 +12 +12 ()
. 1,27
(0,05 ) .
, ,
.
.
4,5 -
.

Serial ATA 479


Master/Slave (/) Cable Select ( ),
, SATA
.
.
, , -
-
. , SATA
, SCSI, USB 2.0 IEEE-1394 (FireWire). SATA -
, , .

ATA RAID
( ) (Redundant
Array of Independent/Inexpensive Disks RAID) -
. -
RAID 1987 .
, -
-
, .
RAID
. , , -
. ,
, , ,
, .
RAID. -
(),
.
1992 RAID Advisory Board (RAB),
, RAID. -
Web- http://www.raid.advisory.com. RAB
RAID,
, RAID.
RAB RAID,
RAID 0 RAID 6. (RAID) -
RAID. , RAID
(,
, ). RAID.
RAID 0 .
, .
/,
. , ,
.
RAID 1 . , ,
, (
).

480 7. IDE
. , ,
.
RAID 2 . -
()
. , -
( SCSI ATA -
).
. .
,
RAID 2 , .
RAID 3 . RAID 0
,
.
RAID 0,
.
,
, . -
, , (
).
RAID 4 c .
RAID 3 , -
, -
.
, , (
).
RAID 5 .
RAID 4, ,
-
. , ,
( ).
RAID 6
. RAID 5 ,
, -
.
. , ,
( ).
RAID, -
.
RAID Advisory Board. , -
; RAID
.
RAID
SCSI. , SCSI RAID -
, RAID

ATA RAID 481


SCSI , . -
ATA RAID, -
RAID. , ATA RAID
,
.
ATA RAID , SCSI RAID,
. ATA RAID -
,
. -
ATA RAID
RAID 0, . , -
, , -
, . , RAID 0,
. , -

. .
- , ,
( ,
). ,
- .
ATA RAID -
RAID 1, .
, . -
- , .
, ; ,
. ,
, , , (
).
-
, RAID 3 RAID 5. ,
RAID, ,
RAID 5. -
. , RAID 5 ,
, . ATA RAID
RAID, 0 1, -
.
, RAID 0. -
, RAID 1.
,
.
IDE RAID Arco Computer
Products, Iwill, Promise Technology . ATA RAID
Promise FastTrak 100/TX4. -
, , , RAID 0,
1 0+1. -
() ATA ,
. Promise Technology -

482 7. IDE
ATA RAID, FastTrak 100/TX2. -
,
. ,
,
.
ATA RAID
:
RAID ( 0, 1 0+1);
;
ATA/100;
PCI 33 66 .

RAID. -
( ). , -
Windows NT/2000 XP Server RAID
, ,
. RAID, -
Disk
Administrator. , -
, ATA SCSI RAID,
RAID 3 5.

ATA RAID 483


8

SCSI
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
, SCSI, , .
, , 8
16 . .
, (host) , -
SCSI .
SCSI (, ),
.
, SCSI 8 16
, SCSI
ID. , ;
.
, , CD-ROM,
( ).
, SCSI
15 , 60!
, , .
SCSI , -
, - , -
.
Ultra4 (Ultra320) SCSI
320 /. Ultra5
(Ultra640), 640 /.
133 / (ATA-6) 150 / Serial ATA.
SCSI, :
, SCSI. ,
SCSI IDE- SCSI.
,
. ,
.
SCSI , ,
SCSI.
Apple SCSI -
, .
Apple ,
Macintosh . , -
SCSI .
PC ,
SCSI . -
, ,
, .
SCSI PC--
-
SCSI. ,
, . -

486 8. SCSI
, SCSI,
.
- ,
SCSI , -
. -
BIOS
ST-506/412, ESDI ATA (IDE). SCSI -
, ,
,
BIOS. ROM BIOS ,
SCSI.

ST-506/412 ESDI -
, -.

Apple -
SCSI,
. PC- -
. Windows 95,
SCSI- .
Windows 98/Me Windows 2000/XP
SCSI- , .
SCSI
PC- . SCSI -
, . -
IDE, SCSI
- . -
, SCSI (
), IDE , .
SCSI - -
, ,
.

ANSI SCSI
SCSI -
-,
.
, , CD-ROM. -
SCSI-1 (ANSI X3.131-1986) 1986 , SCSI-2
1994 , 1995 SCSI-3. -
, SCSI-3 ,
.
SCSI ANSI,
T10. -
(National Committee on Information Technology Stan-

ANSI SCSI 487


dards NCITS), ANSI
. NCITS
X3, SCSI T9.
SCSI-1 X3T9 1986
ANSI X3.131-1986. , -
SCSI, Web- 10 :
http://www.t10.org.
SCSI-1 ,
,
.
18 SCSI, (Common Command Set
CCS).
SCSI-2.
CCS, SCSI-2 -
:
CD-ROM ( , ), -
, , ,
. , -
(Fast SCSI-2) 16- (WIDE
SCSI-2). SCSI .
,
, .
,
SCSI .
X3T9 SCSI-2 X3.131-1990 1990 ,
-
. SCSI-2 1994 ,
.
SCSI-2 ANSI X3.131-1994.
,
X3.131-1986 (SCSI-1) X3.131-1994 (SCSI-2). ,
SCSI-2 SCSI-1, -
, SCSI-1, SCSI-2.
SCSI-2,
, ()
, .
, ()
, (
5 10 /) . (Fast) 16-
Wide SCSI, 20 /. -
SCSI-2 ( ) -
(32-), 32-
- . SCSI -
8- - (Fast/Wide) .
, ,
SCSI-2.

488 8. SCSI
SCSI-3 . SPI (SCSI Parallel Inter-
face) SCSI.
: SPI, SPI-2, SPI-3 SPI-4. -
, .
, SPI,
. 8.1.

8.1. SPI (SCSI Parallel Interface)

SCSI-3 ,
/
SPI Ultra SCSI Fast-20 20/40
SPI-2 Ultra2 SCSI Fast-40 40/80
SPI-3 Ultra3 SCSI Fast-80DT 160
SPI-4 Ultra4 SCSI Fast-160DT 320
SPI-5 Ultra5 SCSI Fast-320DT 640

SPI-3 (Ultra3 SCSI) Ultral60


Ultral60+, SPI-4 (Ultra4 SCSI) Ultra320 Ultra320+. Ultra160/320
, -
Ultra3/4 SCSI. Ultra320
Ultra160+, .
. 8.2 , , -
SCSI.

A 50- SCSI, P
16- SCSI.
.

SCSI-1 -
SCSI-2 . ,
, SCSI-1, -
SCSI-2 ( SCSI-3). , -
, SCSI-1 -
, SCSI-2. ,
SCSI-1 SCSI-2 .

SCSI-1
SCSI. -
SCSI-1 ANSI X3.131-1986. SCSI-1 :
8- ;
5 ;
4 / ( ) 5 / (-
);

SCSI-1 489
8.2. SCSI

SCSI

SCSI


,
,


,
/

*



(SE),


(HVD),


(LVD),

SCSI-1 Async 5 8 4 7 A (50-) 6 25


SCSI-1 Fast-5 5 8 5 7 A (50-) 6 25
SCSI-2 Fast-5/Wide Wide 5 16 10 15 (68-) 6 25
SCSI-2 Fast-10 Fast 10 8 10 7 A (50-) 3 25
SCSI-2 Fast-10/Wide Fast/Wide 10 16 20 15 (68-) 3 25
SPI (SCSI-3) Fast-20 Ultra 20 8 20 7 A (50-) 3/1,51 25
SPI (SCSI-3) Fast-20/Wide Ultra/Wide 20 16 40 7 (68-) 3/1,51 25
SPI-2 (SCSI-3) Fast-40 Ultra2 40 8 40 7 A (50-) 122
SPI-2 (SCSI-3) Fast-40/Wide Ultra2/Wide 40 16 80 15 (68-) 122
3
SPI-3 (SCSI-3) Fast-80DT Ultra3 (Ultra160) 40 16 160 15 (68-) 122
SPI-4 (SCSI-3) Fast-160DT Ultra4 (Ultra320) 803 16 320 15 P (68-) 122
SPI-5 (SCSI-3) Fast-320DT Ultra5 (Ultra640) 1603 16 640 15 (68-) 122

1
* . 1,5 , -
SE (Single-ended) . ( ).
.
HVD (High Voltage Differential) -
2
, .
.
LVD (Low Voltage Differential) -
3
. .
SPI SCSI Parallel Interface, SCSI-3.
50- ;
;
;
.
SCSI-1
SCSI-2 SCSI-3.

SCSI-2
SCSI-2 ANSI X3.131-1994. -
SCSI-1.
-
. , SCSI-1 SCSI-2,
, SCSI-2 SCSI-1
.
SCSI-2 .
, SCSI-1 , SCSI-2 -
. , -
, ,
,
.
SCSI-2 () -
:
(Fast) 10 ;
SCSI (Wide) 16-;
;
;
.
SCSI , 16-;
. , -
. 50-
(8-) A. SCSI-2 -
68- B, A
, -
68- P,
SCSI-3. , -
P 16- , , ,
A B.
Fast SCSI
. 8- 10 /.
16 (Fast/Wide SCSI),
20 /.

.

SCSI-2 491
SCSI-1 , , ,
. SCSI-2
256 : ,
SCSI .
, -
.
, OS/2 Windows NT.
SCSI-2
CCS. , -
. SCSI-2
( CD-ROM, -
, , ,
. .).
SCSI , -
. ,
SCSI-1 132 -
.
,
, , -
. SCSI-2 (
) ,
110 .
, -
. , Fast SCSI
, ,
.

SCSI-3
SCSI-2 (-
),
SCSI-3. SCSI-1 SCSI-2, SCSI-3
SPI (SCSI Parallel Interface), , -
, .
,
, RAID .
SCSI (SCSI Architectural Model SAM).
SCSI-3 :
Ultra2 (Fast-40) SCSI;
Ultra3 (Fast-80DT) SCSI;
Ultra4 (Fast-160DT) SCSI;
Ultra5 (Fast-320DT) SCSI;
(Low Voltage Differential LVD);
(High Voltage Differen-
tial HVD).

492 8. SCSI
- -
(, - (,
) (, (, (, DVD) (, RAID) (SES)
(SBC, SBC-2) ) ) (MMC, MMC-2, (SCC, SCC-2)
(RBC) (SSC, SSC-2) ) MMC-3)
(SMC, SMC-2)

--
(MSC)

(OSD)

( )
(SPC, SPC-2, SPC-3)

(SAM, SAM-2)

SCSI iSCSI
SCSI Fibre Channel SSA SCSI-3 Over ST SCSI RDMA
(SPI-2, SPI-3, (FCP, FCP-2) (SSA-S3P) (SST) (SRP)
SPI-4, SPI-5) (SBP-2, SBP-3)


SSA-TL2

(SDV, Fibre
PIP, SSM, Channel SSA-PH1 Infini Band Internet
SSM-2, EPI) IEEE 1394 (FC) SSA-PH2 (ST)

. 8.1. SCSI

SCSI-3
SCSI-3. -
SCSI-3,
.
. 8.1 SCSI.