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Lab 3: Separation of Ammonia and H2O

ABSTRACT

This laboratory is about to construct ammonia and water separation which need material and energy balance in completing the process with 10000 lb/h as feed flow rate. This process used SRK as the Equation of State for fluid package which is different from the other laboratories before and the unit used is in FIELD unit. Compositions of water and ammonia are an important element so that we have to ensure that they are correct in order to get the desired results.

Lab 3: Separation of Ammonia and H2O

1.0 INTRODUCTION
The separation process can be defined as stripping or distillation process which consists of separating fluid components of different boiling point or vapor pressure. The components that need to separate in this laboratory are ammonia and water. Distillation is probably the most widely used in separation process in the chemical and allied industries; its applications ranging from the rectification of alcohol, which has been practiced since antiquity to the fractional of crude oil. The separation of liquid mixtures by distillation depends on differences in volatility between the components. The greater the relative volatilities, the easier the separation. Vapor flows up the column and liquid counter-currently down the column. The vapor and liquid are brought into contact on plates or packing.

2.0 OBJECTIVES
1. To understand the separation process 2. To understand the purpose of the unit operations in the process of separation of ammonia and water.

Lab 3: Separation of Ammonia and H2O

3.0 THEORY
Given process: A mixture of ammonia and water in the vapor phase, saturated at 250 psia and containing 80 wt% ammonia, is passed through a condenser at a flow rate of 10000 lb/h, where heat is removed at the rate of 5.8 x 106 Btu/hr. Its effluent is expanded to a pressure of 150 psia and fed into a flash vessel. Neglecting the heat loss from the equipment to surroundings and the pressure drop in the condenser, it is desired to determine the composition of the liquid stream leaving the separator. Hints: 1. Use SRK Equation of State fluid package 2. Use FIELD unit 3. Add a valve in order to expand the effluent to a pressure of 150 psia For this laboratory, every unit of the equipments used in this separation of ammonia and water process has its own definition and purposes. The condenser used is defined as a cooler in HYSYS. The Cooler unit operation is one-sided heat exchangers. The inlet stream is cooled to the required outlet conditions, and the energy stream absorbs the enthalpy difference between the two streams. The purpose of the cooler is to determine the energy required to cool a process stream. The flash vessel is defined as separator in HYSYS whereby the purpose of the equipment is to allow multiple feeds and produces one vapor and one liquid product stream. In Steady State mode, the separator divides the vessel contents into its constituent vapor and liquid phases. In Dynamics mode, the Separator uses the holdup model. Vessel operations in HYSYS have the ability to store significant amount of holdup.

Lab 3: Separation of Ammonia and H2O

The valve is a basic building block in HYSYS dynamic cases. The HYSYS valve operation models control valves very realistically. The direction of flow through a valve is dependent on the pressures of the surrounding unit operations. The total valve pressure drop refers to the total pressure difference between the inlet stream pressure and the exit stream pressure. In this process, the case is where we need to lower the pressure from 250 psia to 150 psia in order to expand the effluent. So thats the reason why we require a valve. Besides that, this process requires us to calculate the partial pressure of mixture individual component. The equation below is known as Antoine equation. This equation is used to calculate the partial pressure of mixture individual component. Usually the partial pressure obtained is in mm Hg.
log 10 PX = A
*

B (T + C )

(1)

Where:
* Px = Partial pressure of a particular component

A, B, C =Specific coefficient value for a particular component

T = Stream temperature in 0C
This equation below is the Raoults law equation. This equation is used to calculate the total pressure or the composition of the mixture. There is two equations of Raoults law which is used based on the data given or variable calculate.
PT = X NH 3 PNH 3 (T ) + X H 2O PH 2O (T )
* *

(2)

y NH 3 y H 2O 1 = + * * PT PNH 3 PH 2O
Where:

(3)

Lab 3: Separation of Ammonia and H2O

4.0 PROCEDURES
1. New case started by selecting the New Case icon. After that
components for this laboratory which are ammonia and water are added in the Component List View.

2. Then, SRK Equation of State was selected in the Fluid Package tab.
After that, FILED unit was selected as the unit for this laboratory.

3. Enter Simulation Environment tab was clicked to begin building the

simulation.

4.
5.

Equipments that used in this laboratory were selected by clicked to the Add Operation in the Flow sheet button. Equipments that used in this laboratory are cooler as condenser, valve and separator as flash vessel.

6. Information that needed to be inserted in the process such as feed flow

rate, pressure for certain equipments; mole fraction and duty of the equipment were entered in that equipment as in the question that provided in the lab manual.

5.0 APPARATUS
List of equipments used in this Separation of Ammonia and H2O are: Condenser Flash Vessel (Phase Separator) Valve

6.0 RESULTS
Below is the table of calculated results obtained by the HYSYS software: Name Vapour Fraction Temperature [C] Pressure [kPa] Molar Flow [kgmole/h] Mass Flow [kg/h] Liquid Volume Flow [m3/h] Heat Flow [kJ/h] Feed 1.0000 143.61 1724 263.4 4536 6.799 2.093E+0 7 Effluent 0.2747 58.13 1724 263.4 4536 6.799 2.705E+0 7 To Sep 0.3314 40.66 1034 263.4 4536 6.799 2.705E+0 7 Sep Liq 0.0000 40.66 1034 176.1 3049 4.387 2.304E+0 7 Sep Vap 1.0000 40.66 1034 87.31 1487 2.413 4.010E+0 6

7.0 SAMPLE OF CALCULATIONS

Basically, all the calculations involve are calculated automatically in this HYSYS system. There is no manual calculation in this laboratory. However to answer question 5 in Question section, this is the calculation by using Antoine equation: F3 y wt / wt NH3 1y wt / wt H2O Fo= 10000 lb/h rator 0.8 wt / wt NH3 0.2 wt / wt H2O

Condenser

F1

Valve

F2 Sepa

F4 x wt / wt NH3 1 x wt / wt H2O

Calculation for composition of both liquid outlet and vapor outlet

Equation (1) is applied to calculate the partial pressure for each component. Coefficient value for a particular component:

For H2O A = 8.10765 B= 1750.286 C = 235

log 10 PX = A

B , Antoine Equation (T + C )

(1)

Given: Toutlet = 40.66 0C, Poutlet = 7757.552 mmHg (Total pressure)

1002.711 * PNH 3 = anti log 10 7.55466 (40 .66 + 247.885 = 12011.594 mmHg )

1750.286 * PH 2O = anti log 10 8.10765 = 57.308 mmHg ( 40 .66 + 235 )

Applying Raoults Law for both phase of vapor and liquid [Equation (2) and (3)] to compute: Composition at the outlet liquid stream
PT = X NH 3 PNH 3 (T ) + X H 2O PH 2O (T )
* *

(2) Notice that X H 2O = 1 X NH 3 , thus: 7757.552 = (x)(12011.594) + (1-x)(57.308) 7757.552 = 12011.594x + 57.308 57.308x XNH3 = x = 0.6441 And XH2O = 1-x = 0.3558 Composition at the outlet vapor stream

y NH 3 y H 2O 1 = + PT PNH 3 * PH 2O *
Notice that y H 2O = 1 y NH 3 , thus: 1 7757.552 = y 1 y + 12011.594 57.308

(3)

yNH3 = y = 0.9974 And yH2O = 1-y = 0.0026

Calculation of Material Balance Total Overall Balance F0 = F3 + F4 10000 = F3 + F4 Component Balance NH3 0.8(10000) = 0.9974F3 + 0.6441F4 8000 = 0.9974(10000 F4) + 0.6441F4 8000 = 9974 0.9974F4 + 0.6441F4 -1974 = - 0.3533F4 F4 = 5587.32 lb/h Therefore; F3 = 4412.68 lb/h

8.0 DISCUSSIONS
Given questions: 1. What is the temperature of the outlet stream from the condenser? 2. What is the outlet pressure from the valve? 3. What are the mole fractions for ammonia and water in the vapor and liquid outlet of the separator? 4. Determine the mass flow rate for each outlet stream of the separator. 5. Use a manual calculation on the mass and energy balance to determine the composition of the liquid stream leaving the separator. Answers of those questions:

1. The temperature of the outlet stream from the condenser is 58.130C or

136.60F. 2. Outlet pressure from the valve is 150 psia. 3. The mole fraction at the vapor outlet for ammonia is 0.999 and the mole fraction for water is 0.001 while the mole fraction at the liquid outlet for ammonia is 0.7146 and the mole fraction for water is 0.2854.

4. The mass flow rate for the vapor outlet is 1487 kg/hr and the mass flow
rate for the liquid outlet is 3049 kg/hr.

5. As shown in the calculation section on page 6 9.

By referring to the results of this laboratory, the reason why we required a valve to expand the pressure of effluent of the condenser is because the feed is in mixture of liquid and gases. Thus, it is suitable to used valve to substitute the function of expander. Outlet pressure of the valve should be 150 psia because it is the required pressure needs to be expanding before the mixture of ammonia and water enters the flash vessel. By referring to the results and manual calculations, the value for mass flow rate and the composition of the mixture are slightly difference. This might be occurred because of in manual calculation for calculating the composition of the liquid stream, the coefficients used are only a, b and c but the rest of the coefficient d, e and f are neglected in order to apply the Antoine equation. This may affect the values of the composition that need to be compared between the values calculated by HYSYS and by manual calculations.

9.0 CONCLUSIONS
After comparing between the actual results from HYSYS calculation and the results from manual calculation, it can be concluded that for this laboratory, the calculation and results perform by HYSYS is more accurate. Besides, it is also can b concluded that in selecting the equipment for a specific purpose in a process, the phase of the component whether in liquid or vapor phase have to be considered in order to get an accurate result by using the suitable Fluid Package and suitable or ideal equipment. Moreover, in separation of mixture whereby the mixture is non-

homogeneous, the pressure of the feed in the separator is an important variable that needs to be considered with a specific value for the separation process.

10.0 RECOMMENDATIONS
It is recommended that the user make a good and correct selection of the model of the equipment because it will affect the simulation process especially in calculating the properties for the equipment. It is also recommended that the user choose the suitable Fluid Package to avoid calculation error because different Fluid Package suit only for certain conditions.

REFERENCES

2. R. K. Sinnott, Coulson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering Volume 6;

Chemical Engineering Design, 3rd edition, Elsevier ButterworthHeinmann, 1999, pg 492, 493.

3. Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Chemical Engineering Laboratory V,

CHE 611,Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam Selangor

4. http://chemeng.mcmaster 5. http://www.che.utexas.edu/cache/casestudy.html

APPENDIX A