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...............................................................................................................8
1. ............................9
1.1. .............................................................9
1.2. .....................................................13
1.3. MPEG-1 -2.........................................................................24
1.4. MPEG-4...................................................................................28
1.4.1. ......................28
1.4.2. ............................................................29
1.4.3. ....................................30
........................................................................................30
.........................................................................................32
. .....................................................34
.........................................................................................................35
1.5. MPEG-7...................................................................................35
1.6. MPEG-21...................................................40
1.6.1.
(IPMP).................................................................................................................40
1.6.2. ........................................................................41
1.7. DVB..........................41
1.7.1. DVB..............................................................41
1.7.2.

DVB-C.
...............................................................43
1.7.3. .................46
3

1.8. ..................................................................47
1.9. ............................................................................52
2. IP-......................53
2.1. IP .................................................................53
2.2. , IP...............56
2.2.1. Triple play.........................................................................................56
/ ....................................................................56
2.3. IPTV.........................................................................57
2.3.1. IPTV-
.............................................................................................................................57
2.3.2. IPTV-..............................58
MPLS.......................................................................................................58
Metro Ethernet.........................................................................................58
2.3.3. ................................................................59
xPON.......................................................................................................60
FTTx........................................................................................................61
xDSL........................................................................................................62
HFC.........................................................................................................63
2.3.4. IPTV-.......................................64
RTP..........................................................................................................64
RTCP.......................................................................................................64
SIP...........................................................................................................64
RSVP.......................................................................................................65
RIP...........................................................................................................65
OSPF........................................................................................................66
BGP.........................................................................................................66
IGMP.......................................................................................................66
2.3.5. IPTV ............................................................................67
2.3.6. ,
IPTV ..............................72
2.3.7. ............................................................77
IPTV ICELAND TELECOM
(, ), Cisco
Systems............................................................................................................77

IPTV

SureWest
4

Communications

), Cisco Systems...80
2.4. ............................................................................83
3. .........................84
3.1. ........................................................84
3.1.1. ................................................84
3.1.2. .............................86
.......................................................86
...........................................................................87
........................................................................88
...........................................................................88
......................................................89
3.2. ................90
3.2.1. ...............................90
3.2.2. . ......91
3.2.3. -
.............................................................................................................................93
3.2.4. ....................................................94
3.2.5. - ...............................................95
3.2.6. ........................................................97
.
.........................................................................................................................97
............................................................100
....................................................101
3.3. FTTx...................................................................................104
3.3.1. FTTx..........................................................104
3.3.2. PON..........................107
E-PON......................................110
MPCP...................................................................................112
........................................................................113
................................................................114
............................................115
3.3.3.
PON...................................................................................................................115
3.3.4. PON................................................................117
...........................................................119
5

. ..........................................................120
3.3.5. PON.............................121
3.3.6. AON.................................................................122
3.3.7. AON ....124
3.4. ..........................................................................127

4.

......................................................................128
4.1.
..................................................................................................................128
4.1.1

............................................................128
4.1.2.
.....................................129
4.2. ISO/IEC
11801:2002() .
...................................................131
4.2.1 ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E)....................131
4.2.2 ......................................................133
4.2.3 ...................138
4.2.4. ISO/IEC 11801:2002()
. 140

........................................140
.......................................142
..................144
, ....................145
............................146
........................................147
,
..........................148
4.2.5
.............................................................................................................149
4.2.6

........................................................150
4.3. ISO/IEC 11801:2002()
- .....................................................................152
4.3.1. ...........................................................................152
6

4.3.2. .........................................................153
4.3.3. ....................................................154
4.3.4. ISO/IEC 11801:2002()
- .............................................................155
4.3.5. - ...........................158
4.3.6. 160
4.4. ..........................................................................162
5. . 164
5.1. ................................165
5.2. ....................................................167
5.3. ...............................................................169
5.4. ............................................173
5.5. SSAVI, Line Shuffle, Line Shear,
Line Cut&Rotate....................................................................................................177
5.6. ..........................................................................180
..........................................................................................181


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,
(, ).
2. SDT (Service Description Table ) PID = 0x11.
42

SDT ( ),
.
3. EIT (Event Information Table ).
PID = 0x12. EIT , ..
.
(EPG Electronic Program
Guide).
4. TDT (Time and Data Table ). PID=0x14. TDT
(UTC Universal Time
Coordinated),
.
,
NIT, EIT SDT .

,
,
.
DVB ,
, .

,
(EPG Electronic Program Guide), ..

,
.
. -
.
1.7.2. DVB-C.


,
,

/ ( 30 )
. , ,
.

,
.
DVB-C

(). 16-, 32- 64- .
256- .
,
43

, . 1.3.
( ) .
( )


-.
1.3

,
/

16-
32-
64-

6,89
6,92
6,84

,
/
27,56
34,60
41,04


,
/
25,2
31,9
38,9

. 13.2
,
, ,

.

.

.
,
, .. ,
.
.
DVB-C
QAM.
AM ,
.
, MPEG-2
AM QAM.
,
.

. 1.16.
.

,
. ,


44

, .

. 1.16.


.
1.
.
2.
MPEG-2
.
3. DVB.

.
8.
, .. 0x47
08. .
4.


.
,
.
5. -.
188 204.
6. .
7. . ,
64- 64- 3
4 .
8.
.
9. ,
45

I Q.
- ,
.
10.
.
11.

.
1.7.3.
.

. 1.17.
, ,
, ,
.
.
,
.
3 ... 11 .
,
.
. 16, 32- 64- , 8
, 256- 9 .
, .. 7 .
.

. 1.17.


I Q,
.
. , 64- 4
3 .
( )
, ,
.
(
46

), . (
188 ) .
.
(),
,
, ,
.
.
(PAT) ,

. ,
PID , , ,
.
( ..)
,
( . 1.17 ).
(),
,
, .

.

.
,
. -,
, .
.

MPEG-2.

601. (
. 1.17, , 3 ),
, ,
, , ,
.
,
.

1.8.

(MPEG-2)
" " (
TV on demand) ,
-.
47

1995 .
.

. .
1.18.

. 1.18.


. ,
,
, .
,

-.
ATM, SDH, Fibre Channel IEEE802.17.
.
,
. ,
-, ,
, ,
, ,
.
-
,
, .
,
( ).
, .
.
. 1.19.
()
.
.
4 .
48

: (
), (RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Discs), CD
. ,
, ,
, , ,
.
. ,

,

.

. 1.19. -


: ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line), FTTC (Fiber
To The Curb), FTTH (Fiber To The Home) HFC (Hybrid Fiber Coax).
.
.
,
,
, >
1,55 /. ADSL- . 1.20.
.
, 16 /c.
(4 ).

- MPEG-1.
2 .
FTTC ,
. ONU (Optical Network
Unit), 16 .

.
49

. 1.20. - ADSL

FTTH ,
,
51,84 155,52 /.
ADSL, FTTC FTTH "", HFC .
- (300-450 )
750 (125 6- ). 50
QAM-256, 40 /
. 500 . -
HFC

( ADSL,
FTTC FTTH). ,
,
.. , ,
.
,
MPEG-.
. ,

. . 1.21.

. 1.21.

(,
50

ROM), , MPEG-

.
, - .
- .
500 MPEG-2 1
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
- MBone (Mulicast Backbone).
.
Mbone ,

(DVMRP PIM).
,
- ( peer-topeer).
,

, .
. -,
, ,
, -
. -,
, . ,
, ,
- (
(Zipf), ).
, ,

MBONE, .
CD 4 .
, ,
.

. ""

,
(
). , ,
,
(CD, ,
RAM).
,
51

, .
,
.
MPEG-3
1920x1080x30 20-40 /.
MPEG-2. MP3 (
MPEG-3) . 3
join stereo, stereo,
dual channel ( ).

MPEG-4,
. ,
/
,
.

1.9.
1.
MIDI?
2. Musicam?
3.
?
4. IP ?
5. ?
6. DCT?
7. ?
8. ?
9. ?
10. MPEG-1?
11. MPEG-2?
12. MPEG-4?
13. MPEG-7?
14. DVB-C?
15.
?
16. ?

52

2.
IP-
2.1. IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
,
.
TCP/IP , Request
for Comment (RFC). RFC
Internet. RFC
, .
TCP/IP RFC, RFC
.

(Department of Defence, DoD) 20
ARPAnet
. ARPA
. ARPA
Internet
Protocol (IP), TCP/IP
.
TCP/IP OSI (Open System
Interconnection), 80-
.
TCP/IP
ISO/OSI, TCP/IP
OSI .

.
,
53

.
TCP/IP 2.1.
TCP/IP 4 .
( IV)
OSI. TCP/IP ,
:
Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, Fast Ethernet,
PPP .
TCP/IP
RFC,
IP .
( III) -
,
, ,
. .

.2.1 TCP/IP

(
OSI) IP,
,
, ,
. IP
,
.
IP ,
, .
TCP/IP IP-.
, TCP/IP. 32- IP .
IP-
54

:
, ,
( ),
TCP/IP. IP- ,
, .

.
, ,
TCP/IP ( , , TCP/IP) .
, .
,
,
RIP (Routing Internet Protocol)
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First),
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol).
( II) .
TCP (Transmission Control
Protocol) UDP (User Datagram Protocol).
TCP

. UDP
, IP,

.
( I) .
TCP/IP
.
,
FTP, telnet, SMTP,
Internet,
, WWW .
TCP/IP .
,
,
. , Intranet ( Internet-

)
TCP/IP. TCP/IP
.
, TCP/IP
. ,
, TCP/IP.

55

2.2. ,
IP
IP
.
IP , ,
(, ),
(,
-).
, TCP, UDP
RTP.
2.2.1. Triple play
TriplePlay , . - IPTV Voice over IP.
-
, , .
TriplePlay ,
, , ,
. IPTV, ,
, .
(Quality of Service QoS)
, .
IPTV
. IP-
,
. ,
.
IPTV VoIP
.
IGMP, RTSP SIP. IPTV/Triple Play

(VoD)
.

Triple Play
IP- , .. IPTV.
/
, ,
.
,
.

56

.
.
/, , ,
. ,
, .
ISO/MPEG MP3, .
IPTV-
MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4 / AVC (H.264).
H.264,
IP:
, .

/.
IP .
, ,
, .
, .
150
,

/ .

2.3. IPTV
IPTV (Internet Protocol Television)

IP. IPTV, ,
triple play.
IPTV -
, (Video on Demand, VoD),
(Time Shifted TV), (Network Personal Video Recorder, NPVR),
(Near Video on Demand, NVoD). IP
-,
, , , , , , , .
2.3.1. IPTV
1. DVB
2. ATSC
3. SDB
2.1
.
57

2.1.

DVB
ATSC
ISDB

MPEG-2 (Main profile ISO/IEC 13818-2)

ATSC A/52
MPEG-2 Layer II, MPEG-2 AAC-LC
(Dolby AC-3)
Dolby AC-3 (Digital),
DTS

8-VSB 16- QPSK, 16QAM DQPSK,


QPSK,

VSB
64QAM COFDM 16QAM 64QAM
BST-OFDM2
, 6
6, 7 8
6, 7 8

16-VSB3
QAM
QAM

6
6, 7 8
6, 7 8
,

QPSK, 8PSK
QPSK
PSK

2.3.2. IPTV-
MPLS
MPLS ,

.
MPLS
OSI, (2,5).
,
. MPLS
, IP-, ATM, SONET Ethernet.
IP
( )
, .
MPLS
,
.
.
,
.
, MPLS : Traffic Engineering,
QoS, VPN, EoMPLS AToM.
Metro Ethernet
Metro Ethernet

, (,
, ) .
58

:
IP ;
( 1 /c)
Ethernet;
;
LAN ;
( 1 /) IP (VoIP, IP VPN);
MPLS;
;
QoS ;
;

().
2.3.3.
2.2 IPTV
, 2.3
IPTV-.

VoCaTV

(ISDN, VoIP)

(IPoCaTV)

(xDSL, FTTx)

(UMTS)

CaTV

IPTV

(DVB-H, DMB)

. 2.2. IPTV

xDSL

ADSL2+

VDSL

ADSL

ADSL2

ADSL2+

VDSL

VDSL2

FTTR
ADSL

HFC

FTTN
ADSL2

FTTC

FTTB

FTTH

xDSL
VDSL2

Active Ethernet

CDMA-2000

FTTx

EPON

GPON

BPON

xPON
APON

AON

UMTS

HSPA

Wi-MAX

LMDS

MMDS

DMB

DVB-H

. 2.3. IPTV-
59

xPON
PON 1990-
, APON, EPON GPON.
2001 , BPON
PON:
(, , )

OLT ONU
;


PON,
.
APON
BPON.
APON DBA (Dynamic
Bandwidth Allocation) ONU
, .

APON

: SDH (STM-1), ATM (STM-1/4), Fast Ethernet,


Gigabit Ethernet, (SDI PAL), E1 (G.703),
Ethernet 10/100Base-TX, .
- PON

ONU, , APON

.
, OLT
.
EPON ,
. Gigabit
Ethernet, EPON 1250 /
8B/10B.
EPON ,
WDM 1490
1310 . 1550
( ).
EPON : 1
( 10 1:16) 2
( 20 1:16).
PON
.
GPON (Gigabit PON)
APON.
60

PON,
.
GPON
622 / 2,5 /c,
PON ,
,
( TDM).

93% 71% APON.
FTTx
2.4 FTTx.

FTTH
ONU

OLT

FTTB
OLT

ONU
10

FTTC
OLT

ONU
100 300

FTTN
ONU

OLT

300 1

FTTR
ONU
1 10

. 2.4. FTTx.

61

OLT

xDSL
xDSL:
;

;
(
) ISDN
;
DSL 32
/ 50 /,
;
xDSL

1 1;

,
;

,
, .
xDSL
.
VDSL :
;

, ,
.
VDSL
.

-
.
.
300 VDSL
,
ADSL. VDSL :
.
VDSL ADSL,
.
VDSL
52 /.
62

,
ADSL, 8 /.
,
VDSL ,
, ,
, , ADSL.
VDSL :

;
;
;
;
.
HFC
- HFC
, ( )
( ).
.
STB

STB

STB
ONU

OLT

STB

STB

STB

. 2.5. -

63

2.3.4. IPTV-
RTP
RTP
UDP
. RTP ,
, (, JPEG,
MPEG).

, .
RTP .
,
,
RTCP. , RTP
,
, , ,
STUN-.
RTP,
(,
SIP).
RTCP
RTCP
, RTP,
. ,

,
.

,
.
SIP
SIP
, ,
, , ,
- .
3GPP
IMS. H.323, SIP
, VoIP.
,
, , UDP, TCP, ATM.
64

RSVP
RSVP

.
- ,
(,
-),
RSVP.
.
-

,
.
, ,

. .
,
,
,
. ,
-

.
RIP
RIP

,
, .
RIP ( )
1969 ARPANET. 1994 .
RIP2 [RFC 2453],
RIP,
RIP .
IPv6 RIPng [RFC 2080].
RIP -,
.
, RIP 15. RIP
30 .
RIP
,
, , OSPF. 15
65

.
.
OSPF
OSPF
,
(link-state technology)
.
OSPF IETF 1988 . OSPF,
(Interior Gateway Protocol, IGP),

.
OSPF :
;
;
;
.
BGP
BGP
.
BGP, ,

, , ,
,
. BGP ,
, .
BGP
. BGP
,
TCP.
IGMP

( UDP-RTP).
.
,
IP- MAC-. IP MAC-
,
, ,
.
,
, IGMP.
IGMP ,
.
66

, .
(gateway)
.
IP-. ,
, . IGMP
IP- (IGMP-
). IGMP-
,
.
, .
, ..
. ,
, IGMP- ,
.
MAC-
,
. Cisco Systems
CGMP (Cisco Group Management Protocol),
,
,
.
2.3.5. IPTV
IPTV ,
,
.
- , ,
, BT (British Telecom), - (ISP),
Tiscali (). , ,
, .
, ,
, , , ,
triple quadruple play .
IPTV Internet Television
(end-to-end) ,
ISP. Internet Television,
,

,
. Internet Television ,
,
, ,
RSS
Aggregat, Brightcove. ,

67

.
, IPTV ,
, ,
Internet television. , IPTV
.
IPTV

,
, ,
z Internet television.
HD IPTV (
IP). HDTV (High Definition
TV) 1000
625 PAL 525 NTSC.
IPTV ,
IPTV Internet television .
IPTV set-top-box
. Internet television ,
, ,
.
-, IPTV
VoD (video-on-demand),
-
. IPTV ondemand, interactive time-shifted ,
. , IPTV
,
, .
IP, (unicast) ,
(broadcast) (multicast, multicast
).

IP-
.
Unicast ( )
IPTV . Unicast
IP- .

STB.
, unicast ,
. ,
Gigabit Ethernet, ,
1 /
,
.
68

Broadcast ( )
IP-,
IP-. Broadcast
STB .


. - IPTV
Broadcast .

VoD

B
ST


B
ST

IP

B
ST

B
ST

B
ST

B
ST

VoD

Multicast
Unicast

.2.6. IPTV

Multicast ( )
, -
, .
IPTV ,
.
multicast IP-
,
69

IP-.
,
. ,
IPTV
. broadcast
, - .
IPTV 3 broadcast, multicast unicast, ,
,
IP- .
multicast
.
, multicast, 2 4
/ 20 /
.
, Gigabit Ethernet,
multicast ,
100 MPEG-2 ,
5 /.
VoD
,
unicast, VoD
2-4 / .
, VoD
4 /c.

-. -
,
IP-.
,

.
, IPTV,
,
STB.

IPTV:
1. (Near
Video on Demand) - c
,
. ,

.
IP-multicast,
. ,
,
, , , .
70

2. (Video on Demand, VoD)



.

.
,
, .
, ,
IP-unicast.
3. (Personal Video
Recorder, PVR) -

.
, , ,
. IP-unicast.
4. (Pay per View, PPV)
(,
).
IP-multicast.
5. (Time Shifted TV)

. IP-unicast.
6. (Services on Demand, SoD)
, ,
, ..
.
, , IPTV,
.
,
, IP-
:
Instant Messaging
;
Voice over IP (,
-,
..);
E-mail (
-);
Unified Messaging ;
Caller ID
;
Video Telephony ,
;
Walled Garden Internet
, , ;
Home Surveillance
.

71

, .
(, ,
, ,
..)
,
. " ".

" ", .
2.3.6. ,
IPTV
.
IPTV
. 2.7.

Middleware

IP
Set-TopBox

VoD

CAS

. 2.7 IPTV

(Head End) .
,
IP :
1. , DVB
, , , .
2. /
, .
3. (MPTS)
SPTS, Grooming.
4. , Rate shaping ( VBR
72

CBR) VBR-VBR, CBR-CBR.


5. IP DVB IP-Multicast Unicast
.
6. DVB ,
EPG.
7. , MPEG-2 MPEG-4.
8.

.

(Video grooming) ,
.
IP ,
:
-, , CPE
( ). MPEG-2
MPEG-1, AC-3 (Dolby Digital) .

(MPTS ,VBR),

(SPTS,
CBR).
. ,

(channel surfing)
xDSL.
. SPTS
IP-multicast,
.
VBR, ,
DVB-S CBR,
DSL .
(Peak Bit Rate, PBR) VBR
DVB-S 9 / .
VBR-CBR
VDSL 4,7 M/.
(Rate shaping) ,
3,2 / ADSL.
,
,

( 12 ),
, xDSL,
( ADSL2+)
73

,
. , (
, , )
. CBR

xDSL ,
, IP/MPLS.

,
, ,
.
AC-3
,
Web ..
QPSK ,

VHF/UHF,

/ (
DVB) DRM (Digital right management)
IP .
(
).
(Video on Demand)
(nVoD)
(VoD), (nPVR)
.
(MPEG-1, MPEG-2, H.264, WM9, MP3
.) ,
VoD.
,
.
, , Bitband, Entone, nCUBE,
MidStream Technologies, SeaChange International, Canopus, Concurent Computer.
, MediaHawk Concurent
Computer 5872 4 .
MPEG-2.

on-demand.
Fastweb, IPTV,
VoD. Fastweb
, .
100 000 ,
1,3 . .
.
Fastweb NDVR (Network-based
Digital Video Recording).
74

, , . NDVR
Fastweb.
.
(Conditional Access System)
, :


;
, ;
( Middleware)
( - )
. ,

.
(Conditional Access System)
, :


;
,
;
( Middleware)
( - )
. ,

.

(Middleware) IPTV.
Middleware
IPTV (Head End, VoD, IP-, STB)
API (ApplicationProgramming Interface)
(, CAS, OSS/BSS ..).
Middleware
,
STB:
Broadcast TV ,
EPG (Electronics Program Guide) ,
PPV (Pay-Per-View), VoD, SVoD (Subscription Video-on-Demand),
nPVR ,
IP- Softswitch.
Middleware IPTV Web
.

.
75


,
Middleware :
Content Provisioning Manager, Content Manager;
GUI, Customer Manager;
, SMS/SMPT Manager, Customer
anager;
Bandwidth Manager;
VoD Manager;
Purchase Manager;
TV/Live/EPG Manager;
- PVR/Time Shifted TV manager;
- Terminal Manager;
Admin/Supervision Manager.
Middleware
Java
XML-.

CAS, STB, VoD
,
. IP-
, ,

IPTV.
IP-
,
, IP-
( , ,
.).
, ,
.
(CPE STB) -
IPTV ,
.
STB
Triple Play. STB :
xDSL Ethernet ,
Wi-Fi,
DVB-T
.
STB , VoIP,
SIP/H.323,
.
STB
76

SD HD: MPEG-2,
Europe HDTV, MPEG 4 ASP, AVC (H.264), WM9 (VC-1),
: MPEG-1 I&II (Musicam), AAC, AC-3, MP-3.

STB
: DHCP, TCP/IP, RTP/RTSP, IGMP v2 .
Linux, Java, Web JavaScript API, HTML,
SOAP/XML
( ),
IP,
Triple Play.
IP- ,
,

DVB-IP QoS,
(Forward Error Correction, FEC).
IP-
(Edge)
,
(Point of Presence, PoP), ,
IP, , HFC,
FTTx.

, IP,


(RF)
HFC.
VoD HFC

, IP,

DVB-C, HFC.

,

IPTV.
2.3.7.

IPTV.
.
IPTV ICELAND TELECOM (,
), Cisco Systems

77

.
Iceland Telecom Ltd -
,
.
:
. ,
(PSTN),
(ISDN)
.
.
( 70
).

(ATM)
(ADSL) (ISP),
.
PPP,
Frame Relay, ATM VPN 3 MPLS VPN,
MPLS Cisco 12000.
WLAN.
Cisco 7200
(SSG).

, ,
, Iceland Telecom
"triple-play", ,
.

IP/MLPS,
NGN.
NGN
Ethernet.
, :
,
"triple-play" .

"triple-play" ( ,
)
IP-.
unicast multicast
.
MPLS.
.

.
78

, .

2.8. MPLS Iceland Telecom

Iceland Telecom
Cisco 7600 Series,
:
79

Cisco 7600 Series,


DSLAM IP- VoD,
Iceland Telecom
.
Cisco 7600 Ethernet,
Ethernet DSLAM

ADSL.
7600 Series
(MPLS VPN) DSLAM
Cisco 7200 BRAS. ,
Cisco 7600
Ethernet MPLS VPN "triple-play"
.

(multicast)

.
:
1. IPTV
VoD IP.
2. ( ).
3. 20
.
IPTV SureWest Communications ( ),
Cisco Systems
2002 SureWest
IP-,
,
triple-play.
:
(QoS)
IPTV, HDTV IP-
.
,
, .
.
80

SureWest IP NGN,
IP-
(FTTH).
Cisco Catalyst 4500
6500. Catalyst 4510 (
1550/1310 )
100 / Ethernet 1000 .

(RT) Catalyst 4510,
Catalyst 6509 40 000
.
Ethernet- Catalyst 4510 Catalyst
6509 10 . SureWest
Ethernet 10 .

,
Catalyst 6509. ,

Cisco 6500.
Cisco IOS,
.
.
, Cisco Catalyst
Catalyst 4510.
,
.
2004 SureWest IP/TV
. 2006
HDTV IP-.
IP, 260 -
, 17 , VoD,
500
.

81

.2.9 IPTV SureWest Communications

82

2.4.
1. TCP/IP?
2. TCP/IP IP?
3. , TriplePlay.
4. IPTV .
5. IPTV .
6. RTP?
7. RSVP?
8. IP-?
9. IPTV.
10. ,
IPTV .
?

83

3.

3.1.


.
( , , ),

.
, ,
,
, ,
, .
,
,
.

.
3.1.1.

,

.

() () .

, (
, , ),
() ( ,
84

, ),
.
,
, , ,
, , . ,
,
, .
(),
10%, .
, ,
, , ,
, .


:
,
(),
().
,
, ,
.
, , .

.
(,
, ), , ,
,
.
(
).

.
,
- .
(-1) , ,
.
.
, ,


.
, MATV,
,
.
.
85

() 5 862 .
.

.
,
MATV .
(5 862 )
(950 2150 ), ,
.
5
2150 , .
SMATV

.
CATV (Community Antenna
Television System)

, .

QPSK AM .
3.1.2.

,
:
;
;
;
() 900 2150 ;
;
.

, ,
, .
.
, , ,
, ,
.

, ,
() ()
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L
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X
Ku
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,
1,45 1,55 1,61 1,71
1,93 2,70
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87

13 () 18 ().
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89

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3.3. FTTx.
3.3.1. FTTx
, ,

,
(). ,
xDSL. PON (
), 90- . PON
FTTx.
AON (active optical network).
FTTx .
, ,
. 3.10
FTTx.

104

.3.10. FTTx.

FTTH Fiber To The Home. 1990


.
. - - :
, - ,
. , Home FTTH .
Home FTTH ,
. .. FTTH,
, FTTH - . FTTH
.
FTTB Fiber To The Building , .
: -, .
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.
FTTB - - , , FTTB
.
FTTC Fiber To The Curb - :
,
. FTTC 2 : )
- , ADSL, ;
) FTTC - - ,
-. - , .
FTTN

Fiber
To
The
Neighborhood/Node,

/ ; ,
, .
PON
.
PON , ,
, .
, , SDH
WDM.
PON 1995 ,
(British Telecom, France Telecom,
Deutsche Telecom, NTT, KPN, Telefonia Telecom Italia)
105

,
. , ITU-T,
FSAN (full service access network). FSAN
PON ,

PON. FSAN 40

, ITU-T, ETSI ATM .
90- ,
ATM QoS
. FSAN,
PON, ATM.
1998 ITU-T G.983.1,
ATM PON
APON (ATM PON).
G.983.x (x = 17),
622 /c. 2001
G.983.3, PON: 1)
- ,

OLT ONT (. .
3.12.) ; 2)

PON, ,
(triple play).
APON BPON (broadband PON).
APON
ONT
, . APON
: SDH (STM-1), ATM
(STM-1/4), Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, (SDI PAL),
E1 (G.703), Ethernet 10/100Base-TX, (FXS).
- PON

ONT, , APON

.
, PON OLT
.
2000 LMSC (LAN/MAN standards committee) IEEE
EFM (Ethernet in the first mile
Ethernet ) 802.3ah,
PON,
Ethernet.
Ethernet
106

. Ethernet .
, 95%
320 . Ethernet.
Ethernet ,
.
Gigabit Ethernet,
10 Gigabit Ethernet. ,
Ethernet,
, , .
Ethernet ,

Ethernet PON
Ethernet .
GPON (Gigabit PON)
APON.
PON, .
GPON ITU-T Rec. G.984.3 2003 . GPON

622 / 2,5 /c
PON, . GPON
ITU-T G.704.1 GFP (generic framing protocol,
),
, TDM. SDH
, GFP (generic framing protocol),
SDH, .
3.3.2. PON.
PON
( .3.11): 1) (.3.11); 2)
(.3.11); 3) (.3.11).

.3.11

PON
OLT
ONT
. . 3.12. OLT
107

(optical line terminal) , .



SNI (service node interfaces)
( ) PON.
.
ONT (optical network terminal) , ,
, ,
PON 1310 ,
1550 . ONT OLT,
UNI (user network interfaces).

.3.12 PON

ONT,

OLT, ,

. OLT ONT
() , , 1550 .
, ,
() ,
1310 . OLT ONT WDM,
.

. ONT, ,

(. 3.13). .
ONT
,
TDMA (time division
multiple access).
ONT.
ONT,
c
, ONT
OLT. TDMA MAC.
108

.3.13. PON.

PON
(, SDH, Ethernet) (OLT)
: E (Ethernet), FE (Fast Ethernet), GE
(Gigabit Ethernet), E1 .
,

.
M N . PON
1xN .
2xN
.
1N
3,3log2N .
(N=32
APON) 17 . .3.14
2N,
.

.3.14. 2N

:
N
.
.
,
. 1, 2 3
.
(operating wavelength range)
,
109


Rk (splitting ratio)
k
: Rk = Pk/Pout, Pout = P1 ++PN.

EL (excess loss)
: EL = 10lg (Pin/Pout)
ILk (insertion loss)
k- : ILk = 10lg
(Pin/Pk).
, : ILk = EL +
10lg (1/Rk)
ORL (optical return loss)
, : ORL
= 10lg (Pin/PR)
D (directivity)
, : D =
10lg (Pin/PD)
(uniformity) U
: U = ILmax ILmin.

. G.671 U
.
PDL
,
.
.. PON :
/, OLT

( ) SNI;
(OSP); , ONT

( ) /
UNI.
E-PON

110

.3.15. E-PON.

() OLT
Ethernet 802.3, 1xN
ONT, . 3.15 .
1550 1490 . , ,
1490 , 1550
.
Ethernet
,
MAC .

.3.15. E-PON.

()
ONT 1310 , . 3.15..
,
111

ONT, OLT. ,
EPON -.
- EPON
, ,
ONT. EPON,
PON, OLT
ONT ,
ONT, .
EPON ( ONT)
CSMA/CD
. . -,
Gigabit Ethernet
, EPON 20
. CSMA/CD, , ,
. -, ,
CSMA/CD,
TDM- (, ),
, QoS .
, , ..
, .
MPCP. ,
, OLT ONT
EPON. ONT

OLT.
(-). , OLT,
Ethernet, . 3.15. ,
-, ONT ,
.
MPCP

MPCP
(multi-point control protocol).
(): GATE REPORT. GATE OLT
ONT. ,
, .. ONT OLT
REPORT, .
REPORT OLT
. MPCP :

()

.
.
, OLT
ONT. LLID
112

ONT, RTT
(round trip time) ONT .
.

1. OLT (
OLT T1 + RTTmin) T,
. OLT
,
ONT, .. OLT
. T
RTTmax RTTmin + TREPORT,
RTT OLT-ONTOLT, . 3.16, TREPORT REPORT.
2. OLT T0 GATE,
. GATE
T1 REPORT.
MAC, OLT MPCP
TS T0,
OLT.
3. ONT GATE.
ONT GATE,
( TS) T0 .
4. ONT T1, ONT
REPORT. REPORT MAC ONT T1.
5. T2 OLT REPORT
ONT, MAC- T1
, . 5.
RTT = (T2 T0) (T1 T0) = T2 T1
ONT
REPORT
GATE, . ONT,
REPORT , . ONT
, ? ONT
, - ,
, , ,
GATE-.
,
.
,
IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD.
6. , OLT GATE-
MAC- ONT
LLID. ( LLID
113

, EPON
2 .)
7. GATE, ONT .

.3.16.


, MPCP
ONT. MPCP
,
ONT OLT .
DBA (dynamic bandwidth
allocation).
1. OLT DBA MPCP GATE ONT : ,
ONT , .
2. MPCP OLT
ONT GATE.
3. ONT, GATE (unicast), ,
, .
, OLT ONT
RTT . ONT
OLT,
GATE-
. , ONT
, ,
.
4. , ONT,
,
. Ethernet.
.
,
,
.
114


OLT ONT
GATE
REPORT. ONT
OLT .
OLT, GATE
ONT ,
ONT REPORT .
OLT ONT
. 13
, 3.2.
, (20
32 ) . OLT

. ,
, .
RTT
ONT (20 ) 0,2 .
OLT
0,02% (0,2/1c).
3.2. E-PON.

3.3.3.
PON.
PON .3.17.
ONT, ONT
xPON OLT. OLT
ONT
.
WDM , SIP, VoIP
OLT Softswich, OLT
OLT tripple-play .
.

115

.3.17 PON

ONT GPON G25A


(.3.18), :
4 10/100 BaseT;
2 (SIP);
1 . RF CATV (1550 , 2-8 , +18 , 47860
)
GPON APC/PC, GPON 28 (+);
2448/1224 /;
12 ;
270 190 45 , 0+40
WiFi

.3.18. GPON

OLT SURPASS
hiX5750 (. .3.19)

116

.3.19 SURPASS hiX5750

GPON 56 (14 4);


PON 64;
56 64 = 3584;
1310/1490 , 1550
;
2448/1224 / c DBA;
PON 28 ( +);
- SURPASS hiX 5701, hiX 5703, hiX
5705, hiX 5709 ( , outdoor), G25A (
, desktop);
150 /;
GEM/GTC, ITU-T G.984;
, 10 / - 2 (.), 1 /
8 (.),
;
VoIP (H.248 SIP, RTP), RSTP, IGMP, 802.1Q;
ACI-E (
Siemens);
48/60 , 200950 ;
482 mm x 536 mm x 268 mm, 19;
(1+1)
, PON , .

3.3.4. PON.

(PFP) - (FDH).
- ,
, 32- . - .
117


- .
- (. .3.20)

.3.20. .

- ,
,
1310, 1490, 1550 .
,
(1310 , 1490 , 1550 )
. ,
,
.
, FTTx
(Up Down),
. 1550
B-PON G-PON,
+20 / +25 ,
1310 1490 .
.

.
PON -,
,
. ( 3.21).
,
,

. ,
,
.
(
),
.
118

.3.21. PON .

ONT
PON-
,
.
,
-.
,
1625 .
OTDR
. ,

1600 .


(OLTS).
. OLTS
.
. .3.22.
PON
OLTS.

.
3 12 3
, . 132
15 .
, .
( WDM, ,



ONT.
119

.3.22.

.
ORL (optical return loss)
,
.
. ORL,
, ..
. ORL
ORL,
. ORL
, ,
, CATV, FTTx.

.
(
),
/ /
. ORL
:
;
;
/ ,
;
(BER) .
, , ORL
.
ORL OLTS,
, . 3.3
ORL
. ORL, ITU-T
G.983 G.984, 32 .
120

3.3.

3.3.5. PON
, PON
,
, .
. ,
,
. .
PON
()
. , : ,
PON- (32 64); -,

.
OLT (.3.23),
(.3.24).
,
OLT,
. ,
, .
.3.24 PON, Node1

.

.3.23. PON
OLT

.3.24 PON

.
121

.
, ONT- ( ),
OLT, , ONT
,
, ,
( ). ,
OLT .
,

, ,
.

. .3.25 ,
, ,
, .

,
.
. 3.25 ,


.

.3.25. PON

3.3.6. AON.
PON FTT
(AON P2P) .
, "-".
" Ethernet" (AON).
AON ,
.
1 / (GE).
AON 70 - 80
. AON
,
(.3.26.).
, ONT .
122

ONT

OLT

OLT

OLT

OLT

ONT

ONT

ONT

.3.26. AON.


() ( 2,3),
, (.3.27)

. 3.27 AON

AON, Ethernet

-,
PON ,
.
(.3.26).
SFP (Small Factor Pluggable module),
.
,
.3.23, , AON
, PON.
, .3.25, PON
,
,
PON (. 3.28).
123

.3.28 AON


, , ,
. ,
.
,
, .


(
) SFP- ,
.
PON (APON/BPON GPON, EPON),
TDM
,
(IPTV) (. 3.24 3.25). , ,
,

. , AON (
Ethernet) ,
.
3.3.7. AON .
. 3.29 AON.


, , ip-, sip-
(
), , .

,
.
.

124

.3.29. AON .

.3.30. AON,
-.

,
.
WDM
1550

.
(ONT)
OnAccess H1002S (.3.31),
Ethernet .

125

.3.30. - AON .

.3.31. ONT.

.3.32.

126

3.4.
1.
?
2.
?
3.
?
4. ?
5. ?
6. .
7. ?
8. ?
9. ?
10. ?
11. ?
12. ?
13. ?
14. ?
?
15. ?
16. ?
17. .
18. ?
19.

?
20. ONT. , .
21.
PON .
22. PON?
23. PON
24.
OLT
25. PON .
26. (downlink) (uplink) ?
27. AON PON?
28. - c
AON?
29. FTTx
?

127

4. -

4.1.

4.1.1 ,

,
, .
, .
, ,
:
, .

.
,
, ,
.
()
, :
;
(, ,
, );

, (,
, );

128

()
.
,
, ,
,
.
,
, ().
, ,
.

"generic cabling" "structured cabling", "proprietary cabling"
( ).
(.
centralized cabling). ()
,
.
,

,
, , . (. cost
of owning) (
, ) $ 355 . ( $ 3500
. ). , , ,

- , , ,

. ,
,
.
.
4.1.2.

,
, , :
;

();
;
.
,
: ,
129

,
. ,
, . . . ,
, , . ,

.
,

.
.
. ,

: ,
, , , .
. ,
:
(
,
); ;
.
.
, ,

, ,
(
, ,
).
.
, , .
,
9294 .
850 , 1700 599
400 (.
building management system BMS). (50%)
(25%)
(14%) (11%),

. ,
14%, 49% 34%.

.

130

4.2.
ISO/IEC 11801:2002()
.

4.2.1 ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E)
ISO/IEC 11801 "Information technology Generic
cabling for customer premises" (
)
2002 . ,

: ISO/IEC 11801:2002().
13 , 9 (3 , ,
6 D, E, F, G, , I)
74 . 136 .
( ) ,
ISO/IEC,
(, . , ., . 4, .:
(095) 290-5094). , IEC
(, - www.iec.ch).
, ,
,
,

. ,
.
ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E),
, 1995 , 1 2 1999
, Ed. 1.2 2000
1 2 2002 .

,

. ,
, .
F ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E)
, ,
. ,
CSMA/CD 1000Base-T; ATM LAN 155,52 Mbit/s; ATM LAN
1,2 Gbit/s; l000Base-SX; l000Base-LX; 100Base-FX; 10Gbase-LX4.
ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E)
. :
131

, -,
,
, -, ,
;
(, , ) ,

,
.
, ;

) ,
, ,
.
ISO/IEC 11801:2002()
-, , ,
.
IEC,
;
;
.
,
,
. ,
,
250 600 ( F).
,

,
10 .
,
, ,
2000 . ,
.
, ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E)
, :
, ;
;

;
;
,
,
;
132


.
ISO/IEC
11801: 2002() .
4.2.2


. :
( );
(
() );
(, );
.
. ,

, , ,
,
,
. . ,
, , ,
.

(-),
. :
?

:

. , ,

. ,

, ,
. ,


. . 4.1.
:
(. Campus
Distributor, CD);
133

3 (. Building Distributor,
BD);
(. Floor Distributor, FD);
(. Consolidation Point, CP);
(. Telecommunication Outlet, TO).
:
();
();
().

. 4.1.

, ( )
, , .
, ,
:
,
.
.

,
(, , ) .
( .)
(, ),

.
, (), ,
, ,
134

.
, . .
, , ,
,
.

. ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E)
.
.
.
() . 4.2.

. 4.2.

.3.2 :
1 ,
2 ,
3
,
4 ( ,
), , .
, ,
. , ,
.
( )
.
,
,
,
.
.
() . 4.3.

135

. 4.3

. 4.3 :
1 ,
2 ,
3 ( ),
, . ,
:
, ,
,

.
.
() . 4.4.

. 4.4.

. 4.4 :
1 ( ()
()),
2 ,
3 ( ,
),
4 ,
5 (),
6 .
136

, ,
.
(
), . .
(,
, ) . ,
,

.

137

4.2.3
.
. 4.5.

. 4.5. (
, )

ISO/IEC
11801:2002()

, , .
, . .
, ,
.
,
,
:
.
, :
. ,
, .
,
, .
, (, 22 ),
138

. ,
,
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, , 2 , 20
. , , 2 ,
.

ISO/IEC 11801:2002() ,
.
. , ,
, , :
? :
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:
, . .,

.
(, . .)

. ? :
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, ,
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,
, 4-3-4:
4 : 1)
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, 4) ;
3 : 1)
, 2) , 3)
;
4 : 1) ,
2) , 3)
(), 4) .

.

139

4.2.4. ISO/IEC 11801:2002()



.



.

.
,
ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E).

:
- (. inter-connect)
- (. cross-connect).
(-) . 4.6,
(-) . 4.7.

. 4.6. (. inter-connect):
) ;)

:
,
, (,
).
: -

, , -
,
.
, ,
(, ),
140

. 4.7. (. cross-connect):
) ; )

ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E) (),


()
(),
.
. 4.8-,
. 4.8-.

. 4.8. ()
()

: ,
, ,
141

, ,
(, ), (
).

:

, .
, ,
, , ,

.

,
,
ISO/IEC 11801:2002()
(. channel) (. permanent link).

, . . ,
, , .
, (
)
.
()
,
.

.

. 4.9.
(. link),
11801 1999 ,
. ,
1999 .

. . () (. consolidation
point link),
.
. 4.10.

142

. 4.9. :
() ; ()

. 4.10. ,

:
,

;

,
, ,

.
143

,
.
, , permanent link
: ,
. (,
, ,

).


,
.
,
. ,
,
. ,
. ,
,

.
ISO/IEC TR 14763-2.
,
, ,
.
.
,
:
100 ;
, (++)
2000 .
, 2000 , ,
,
.
,
, , .
, 1000 .
. (,
), ,
. , ,
, ,
. ,
, . 1 ,
144

, 22 ,
4 .

(. redundancy),
, ,
: ,
, . (
, ,
).
,
,
,
ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E).
.

, IEC 61935-2 (. 1.1).
,
, .
.
,
- .
(, ) ISO/IEC
11801:2002(). ,
, , . ,
,
, , .

(. balun).


, .
(. bridge taps) .
:
() (. work area cords);
() (. equipment cords);
() (. patch cords).
, , ,
. ,
-, Ethernet ,
.
,
145

,
, (. jumpers).

.
,
.

-. ISO/IEC 11801:2002()
, ,
.

() (. telecommunication outlet)
,
, .
, ,
.
ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E)

.
.

ISO/IEC
11801:2002(E)

:

.
ISO/IEC TR 14763-2 9 . ;
4-
IDC (. insulation displacement connection),
- , 4-
IDC;
(. label),
;
(, . .)
(. .
, , ).
ISO/IEC 11801:2002() ,
-
4- . ,

. ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E) ,

ISO/IEC 14763-1.
,
146

.
, 1995 (
11801)
4- ,
, ,
.
, ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E)
, .
:
.
ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E)
(. Single User TO
Assembly, SUTOA)
(. Multi-User TO Assembly, MUTOA).

. . ..
.
ISO/IEC 11801:2002():
, ,
MUTOA;
MUTOA 12
;
MUTOA
.

, .

() ,

.
ISO/IEC 11801:2002():
;
;
-;
12 ;
,
, , ;

15
;
147


, ;

.
,
:
, ,

;

;
, ,
.
, .
, .
11801
() (. transition point). ,

.
100 ,
.
,

ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E) ,
, :
(. Telecommunications Room).
,
.

:
, , , . . (

);
(. equipment room). ,

,
( , . .).

, ,
148

. (
).
,
,
.
.
(. building entrance facilities)
,
, ,
. .
.
,
, .
,
,
.
ISO/IEC
11801:2002() ,
() .

, ,
.
, ,
.
ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E)
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
.
4.2.5


, ,
.
:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5. (, , . .)
6. (, . .)
149

7. (, . .)
8. (, , . .)
9. (
)
10. (
)
11.- .

. 1-4 . .
() , 5-8
, 9-11
.
,
, , ,
. :
,
, , , .
, ,

. , ISO/IEC
11801:2002(E) ,
.
,
, 1-4, 10
(. 1.1),
-
. , ,
,
.
,
, , ,
, .
,
, . ,
, ,

.

ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E).
4.2.6 -

-
150

.
:
- ( );
( );
( : , , );
.
,
, , ,
.

.
.
, 0,125 , 3-5
.
, 0,9 ,
.
, ,
: 6-8 ,
,
140 /. , ,

,
, .
, ,
,
.

(. tight buffer),
(. loose tube).
,
.
.
, ,
, :
.

,
,
. -
, . ,
, ,
,
151

4.3. ISO/IEC
11801:2002() -
4.3.1.
-
, ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E)
, .
,
.
, ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E)
, ,
-
,
.
, ,
. ,
.

, .

, .
,

.
ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E)
() ,
100 ,
,
, 2000 .
,
,

.
, ,
, .
-
,
,
. ,
(
) .
, 1995
152

() ,
.
:
-,
.
4.3.2.
ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E)
: OF-300; OF-500; OF-2000.
,
,
,
.

. 4.1,
ISO/IEC 11801:2002(),
, .
4.1. , -

- : )
, ) , )
.
, , ,
153

, ,
.
-

. -
, ,
.
4.3.3.
, -
,
. ,
. ,
-
, , ,

(),
()
(, , ,
). , ,
, ,

.
( )
. 3.11,
. 3.12.

. 3.11. -


( )
.
154

, . 3.12,
(. patched channel), (.
spliced channel) (. direct channel), .
,
(
), ,
.

. 3.12. -
( ): ) , ) , )

,

,
.
4.3.4. ISO/IEC 11801:2002()
-
155

-
ISO/ IEC 11801:2002() :

, ,
1,5 . ,
;

ISO/ IEC TR 14763-3;


,
(

).
. 4.2,
ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E)
.
4.2. , ,
ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E).

OF-300
OF-500
OF-2000

850
1300
2,55
1,95
3,25
2,25
8,50
4,50

1310
1550
1,80
1,80
2,00
2,00
3,50
3,50

. 4.2 ,
ISO/ IEC 11801:2002(), (0,85 )
(2000 ), 8,50 .
, ,
11 15 . ,
.
, .4.2, :
,
. , , , , , -,
. ,
. ,
, , . ,
,
.
, .

. 156

( ) .
,
,
. ,
,
-
.

157

4.3.5. -
- , ,
IEC 60794
,
ISO/IEC 11801:2002(), .

: 1, 2,
OS1. , ,
, . 4.3.
4.3. , /,
11801:2002()


1,2, (/)
OS1 (/)
,
850
1300
1310
1550
, /
3,50
1,50
1,00
1,00
,
, 5,00 /,
, 0,667
. , ,

.
, ,
:
;
;
.

:

;
;
503/1252 ( Ala) 62,53/1252 ( Alb);
, A1a
A1b IEC 60793-2-10 ( Ala - 0,200,02 0,230,02,
Alb -0,2750,015).

:
. 4.3,
. 4.4,
158


IEC 60793-1-40 IEC 60793-1-41,
.

I60794-2 I60794-3,
.
4.4. ISO/IEC 11801:2002()
, X , .

1
2

,
50
62,5
50
62,5
50

850
1300
850

200
500

500
500

1500
500
2000


,
, ,
.

. .
(. . 4.4) ,

-
. : (.
overfilled launch) (. laser launch).
850
2000 . ,
. 7 100 , 600 ,

, 20 000
.
ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E)
.
-,
IEC 60793-50 1 ITU-T G.652.
-, :
. 4.3,
159

,

1260 (. .
, 1260 ).
-, ,
,
IEC 60794-2 IEC 60794-3, .
4.3.6.

- (,
)
-10 +60.

,
, .
,
,
,
. SC
( ):

;
, (PC);
(APC).
,
SFF.
ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E)
. 4.5.

()
SC-D, . .

.
.

, ,

.

:
,
.
160

161

4.5.
ISO/IEC 11801:2002().

(
IEC 60874-19-3 IEC
)

60874-19-2

125
IEC 60793-2, Clause 5
,
(A1, 1b) 32.2 (1)
_
IEC 60794-2, 6.1
,
,
IEC 60794-2, 6.1
, , 500
IEC 61300-2-2


(insertion loss), , 0,3
IEC 61073-1

- 0,75
IEC 61300-3-34
(return loss), , 20

35

IEC 61300-3-6

4.4.
1. ?
2.
?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ISO/IEC
11801:2002()?
7. ISO/IEC 11801:2002()?
8. ?
9. ?
10. ?
11. ?
12. ?
13. ?
14.
?
15. ?
16. ?
17. ?
162

18.
?
19. ?
20. - ?
21. ISO/IEC
11801:2002(E)?
22. ?
23. -
?
24. ISO/IEC 11801:2002(E) -
, ?
25.
?
26. ISO/ IEC 11801:2002()
- ?
27.
?
28. ISO/ IEC
11801:2002()?
29. ?
30. ?
31. ?

163

5.

,
.

,
.
,
.
,
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( ),
, , .
,
.

.
.

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, .
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.

.
164

5.1.

, ,
,
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.
.
,
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RG-6,
RG-6 RG-59.
,
,
,
.

.
,
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.

.
,
,
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.
,
, .
. 5.1 5.2
, ,
, .
2, .
2, 3, 4
, 2
3 (

3,5 ).

.

.

165

,
, , ..
,
(. 5.1).

, , . 5.2,

.
,
.

. 5.1.

. 5.2.

,
.
,
, .. 30 1000 .
.
580 (
-IV). , 30
580 KTB-I (110-170 ), -II Hyperband
(230 470 ), .
,
166

12- .
, ,
.
,
,
.
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,
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.
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,
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.
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30 1000 .
20, 35, 52
.

5.2.
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167

. (),
. 3 4
.

.

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.

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(trap), ,
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168


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.

5.3.

(ACS, Address Control System). ACS
, , .
, , ..
.
(
) ( ) .

,
.
,
(addressable decoder).
,
.
169

,
.
,
-.
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ACS
.
, .
,
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, , ;
.

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. ,
,
.
. ,
.
ACS
.
ACS ()
IBM PC,
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ACS
(system controller). , ,
( ), , ,
, ,
,
.
(billing computer).
, , ACS

, .

. ,
.
,
,
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. ACS,
170


, .
:
1. ACS ( )
(, )
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.
2.
,

.
3. ,
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.

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ACS
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,
171

, ,
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,
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172

. ,
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.

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.

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, "",
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)
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, .
,
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173


. SSAVI, Line
Shear, Line Cut&Rotate.
, .
,

.
,
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, ,
.

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.

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.
, ACS,
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.

. -,

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174


(PAL, SE, NTSC),
SECAM D/K(OIRT).

,
, , .
,
, SS (Sync Supression).
,
, .

.

,
(
).
4% , ,
.
SS
.
SS
.
SS ,
, ,

.
().
12,5% ,

. SS
,
.
.
,
. ,
.
SS Universal-500, CryptOn, Chameleon.
CryptOn ,
SS ,
.
,

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, , .
175

, , .


, .
.

,
.
, .
,
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(
) , , ,
.


, .
Chameleon, NCA Microelectronics (
Megavision Megacrypt-2001),
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SS ,
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32 ,
128 4
.
( ), , - ,
. 128
,
.
(60 NTSC 50 PAL SECAM)
.
,
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.
176


(16 ), , ,

.

5.5. SSAVI, Line Shuffle,


Line Shear, Line Cut&Rotate
SS SSAVI (Sync
Suppression&Active Video Inversion),
.

,
, .
,
,
. ,
. , ,
,
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,
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SS.
, (
), ,
22 335
.

.
,
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SS, ,
,
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SS.
SSAVI , SS.
, , SS
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SS . ,
.

,
177

, .
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, .. ,
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()
178

, ( 256
).
, ,
.
,
,
, ,
.
Nagravision ( Nagra),
PAL SECAM. Syster
-.

Line Shear. , ,
,

,
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.

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Line Shear PhaseKrypt,
Macrovision, Dalvi,
Technetix.
, ,
Line Cut&Rotate. Line Shuffle ,
, ,
,
() ,
, .
, , ,

, .


.

. ,
,
179

( 128 256
).
,

.

5.6.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

?
.
?
?
?
?
?
7. ?
8. ?
9. Sync Supression?
10. Line Cut&Rotate?

180


1. .. /
.. .: ; , 2005. 216 + 12.:
.
2. ..
. .: ; .: ,
2005. 416 .: .
3. .. - . .: -, 2001.
266 .
4. . - , 2-
. .: , 2004. 496 .
5. .. - . .:
-, 2001. 237 : . ( )
6. ..
. .: , 2000. 486 .: .
7. .., .. PON.
1. , Lightwave Russian Edition 1,
2004, .22 -28.
8. .., .. PON.
2. Ethernet , Lightwave Russian Edition 2, 2004,
.25 -32.
9. .., .. PON.
3. , Lightwave Russian
Edition 3, 2004, .21 -28.
181

10. .. ,
Lightwave Russian Edition 1, 2007, .24 -32.
11. .
FTTx, Lightwave Russian Edition 1, 2006, .3035.
12. , . FTTx,
Lightwave Russian Edition 4, 2004, .35-41.
13. .. FTTx,
www.vilcom.ru
14. .. NG Triple Play: ,
3, 2005 .42 44.
15.http://www.ponforum.org/
16.www.fb-tel.com
17.www.lightreading.com
18.www.intuit.ru

182