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PRACTICAL-1

AIM: Introduction to Microwave Bench. APPARATUS: Microwave bench, Gunn Oscillator, CRO, Probes, power supply. BLOCK DIAGRAM:

THEORY: 1. Gun Oscillator: -Gunn diode oscillator normally consist of a resonant cavity, an arrangement for coupling diode to the cavity a circuit for biasing the diode and a mechanism to couple the RF power from cavity to external circuit load. - A co-axial cavity or a rectangular wave guide cavity is commonly used. -The circuit using co-axial cavity has the Gunn diode at one end at one end of cavity along with the central conductor of the co-axial line. - The O/P is taken using a inductively or capacitively coupled probe.

- The length of the cavity determines the frequency of oscillation. -The location of the coupling loop or probe within the resonator determines the load impedance presented to the Gunn diode. -Heat sink conducts away the heat due to power dissipation of the device. 2. PIN MODULATOR: -The PIN modulator is to be designed in waveguide technology. This can be carried out in a simple manner by installing electronically switchable shunt impedance into the transmission line. -The magnitude of this shunt impedance should be very small in the OFF interval, or that the line is nearly short-circuited (reflection of the microwave signal) and very large in the ON interval, so that the reflection and absorption is as negligible as possible. -The PIN diode can be coupled to the waveguide via a metal stub. 3. ISOLATOR: - An isolator is a two-port device that transmits microwave or radio frequency power in one direction only. - It is used to shield equipment on its input side, from the effects of conditions on its output side; for example, to prevent a microwave source being detuned by a mismatched load.

4. ATTENUATOR: -An attenuator is an electronic device that reduces the amplitude or power of a signal without appreciably distorting its waveform. -An attenuator is effectively the opposite of an amplifier, though the two work by different methods. While an amplifier provides gain, an attenuator provides loss, or gain less than 1.

5. SLOTTED SECTION: -In this section the waveguide is slotted by a gap and it is done so as to adjust the amount or clock cycles of signal so that wavelength with respect to which it can be measured using vernier scale.

6. CRO DISPLAY: -A CRO can be used as a signal indicator, but can not show the VSWR without any help of other parts.

HARDWARE DIAGRAM:

CONCLUSION: Thus, after performing the above mentioned experiment, a brief and informative idea about the MICROWAVE TEST BENCH can be obtained.

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