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3

3.5

H2 .


{|0i , |1i} {|ii} i = 1, 2 i j = ij , ij 1, 2.
H2
:


|i = a |0i + b |1i ,
= |a|2 + |b|2 = 1,
(3.1)
a b . (3.1)
(quantum bitqubit).
{|ii}, i = 1, 2,


0 = a;
1 = b,
(3.2)
|a|2 |i |0i, |b|2
|i |1i. ,
, .. |i exp(i) |i .
|i ei |i ,

Re.

(3.3)

|i
|0i (|i |0i) |1i (|i |1i).
,
, (0 1)
.

,
() ,
()
|0i |1i.

""
. a b
(3.1) 4 .
.
(3.3)
.
, (3.1) :
|i = cos
.2.1

|0i + ei sin |1i ,


2
2

(3.4)


, .2.1. ,
19


|i .
"" .
. = 0 = 0 |i
x3 . = x3 .
"" .
,
? -
"",
! |0i |1i,
.
. , ,
.
,
.

3.6 1/2
( ),
. ( )
,
.
-. ,
~s ( ) ,
( z) sz = ~/2.
,
, , .. , ,
0, ~, 1/2~, 3/2~.
, .
( ) .
, ( ~)
() (). "" ,
( ~).
1/2, 1, 3/2, 2 . . . .
, , , ,
1/2.
1/2
s.
, ,
( ):
[ si , sj ] = i~ijk sk ,
ijk -.

20

i, j, k = 1, 2, 3

(3.5)

, e
m ~` ~ :
Z
1
e ~
e
~
[~r ~j] dv =
`=
[~r p~].
(3.6)
2c
2mc
2mc
c , p~ p~ = m~v , ~v , ~j , ~j =
%~v , % . % = e(~r ~r` ), ~r`
.
~s
~s .
- :
e
~s =
~s.
(3.7)
mc
(3.7) (3.6) 2,
. ,
, .
.
1/2 ( )
sz ,
.
,
, , sz - (
, z) sz :




~ 1 0
~/2
0
sz =
=
.
(3.8)
0 ~/2
2 0 1
sx sy sz -
2 2:




a11 a12
b11 b12
sx =
; sy =
,
(3.9)
a21 a22
b21 b22
aij bij .
(3.5) ~s,
sx sy sz -:




~ 0 1
~ 0 i
sx =
; sy =
.
(3.10)
2 1 0
2 i 0
~ ,
(~s = ~/2 ~ ):






0 1
0 i
1 0
x =
, y =
, z =
.
(3.11)
1 0
i 0
0 1

x 1 , y 2 , z 3 .
21

3.7
(3.11) :

i = i1 = ,

i = 1, 2, 3.

(3.12)

:
Sp i = 0,

i = 1, 2, 3.

(3.13)

: 1
detki k = 1,

i 1, 2, 3.

(3.14)

:
i k k i = 2i` ,

i, k, ` 1, 2, 3.

(3.15)


i k = k i ,

i 6= k

(3.16)

i = 1, 2, 3

(3.17)

:
i2 = 1,

I i , i = 1, 2, 3
2 2. A
:
A = 0 I +

3
X

k k ,

(3.18)

k=1

k (k = 0, 1, 2, 3);
2 2:
x y z = i I,

(3.19)

i .
,
.

22

I
x
y
z

1
I
x
y
z

x
x
I
iz
iy

y
y
iz
I
ix

z
z
iy
ix
I

i , i = 1, 2, 3
,
:




0 2
0 0
= x iy ; +
;
.
(3.20)
0 0
2 0
,
.
:
2

= (x iy )2 = x2 y2 i(x y + y x ) = 0

, ,
.

1
(1 i )
2

(3.21)

( ,
N = N 2 ).
:




1
1
1 0
0 0
P+ = (1 + z ) =
P = (1 z ) =
(3.22)
0 0
0 1
2
2
.
:

i |si i = i |si i ,

i = 1, 2, 3.

(3.23)

(3.17) i = 1.
,
.

z |sz i. sz
"",

~/2.
sz - sz ~s .
, sz - (, sz )
(3.23) sz :
z (sz ) = (sz )
23

(3.24)

:




 

sz = +1/2
sz = +1/2
1 0
=

0 1
sz = 1/2
sz = 1/2

(3.25) :
 
 

 
 
a
a
a
a
1 0
z
=

=
.
0 1
b
b
b
b
= 1 (3.26)
 
 
 
 
a
1
a
0
=

=
.
b =+1
0
b =1
1

(3.25)

(3.26)

(3.27)


:
 
X

si si = 1 =
si si = (a , b )
= |a|2 + |b|2 = 1.
(3.28)
b
=1

z :
    

  
 


1/2 1/2
1/2 1/2
a
1
a
0
=

=

.
(3.29)


b =+1
0
b =1
1
1/2 1/2
1/2 1/2
""
z ( ) ,
:
 
 
1
0
|0i |i
;
|1i |i
.
(3.30)
0
1
, ""
(3.30) ,
sz .
"" :
 
 
1
0
|0i
;
|1i
,
(3.31)
0
1
"" "", "".
k (3.31) (3.27),
(3.29) :
x |i = |i ;
x |i = |i ;

y |i = i |i ; z |i = |i
y |i = i |i ; z |i = |i .
24

(3.32)

(3.25), (3.24) ""


x y sz - ( (3.11)).
:
x (sz ) = (sz );

= 1

sz -:
 
 
1 1
1
1
|x i = =+1 =
; |x i = =1 =
,
2 1
2 1

(3.33)

(3.34)

|x i |x i x , .
y sz :
y (sz ) = (sz );

= 1,

(3.35)

:
|y i = =+1

 
1 1
=
;
2 i

|y i = =1

 
1
1
=
.
2 i

(3.36)


+ |i = 0; |i = 2 |i ; + |i = 2 |i ; |i = 0
+ |i = 4 |i ; + |i = 0; + |i = 0; + |i = 4 |i

(3.37)
(3.38)

(2.89) ~n
h
i

(3.39)
R~n () = exp i (S ~n) = cos i (~ ~n) sin ,
~
2
2
, (~ ~n)2 = 1.
, , ~n z :


 i/2


1 0
e
0

Rz () = cos i
sin =
.
(3.40)
0 1
0
ei/2
2
2
(3.40) "" z, :
 i/2 
 
 
e
1
i/2 1

Rz |0i =
e

|0i ,
(3.41)
0
0
0
, "" .
= /2 y
 

 
 

1
1
1 1 1
1
1 1
1

Ry |0i = iy
=
=
= =+1
(3.42)
0
0
2
2
2 1 1
2 1
x , x (3.34).
25

(3.34),(3.30) , x
- - z, :
1
|x i = (|z i + |z i).
2

(3.43)

x :
1
|x i = (|z i |z i).
2

(3.44)

(3.43), (3.44) z
1/2 .
, , :
1
|ai = (|x i + |x i),
(3.45)
2
z
"" "". :
1
(|i+ |i + |i |i) = |i .
2
1/2 ,
.
,
.
,
.
|ai =

3.8

.3.1.

,
~0
B
( z). t = 0
~ 0 ,
B
x y,
"-"(.
3.1.)



~ =B
~0 + B
~ 0,
~s B

= (~ B)
~ = e~ (~ B)
~
H
2mc


1 0
0
0
it
it

H = 0 (z B0 + x Bx + y By ) =0 z B0 + B (+ e
+ e ) ,
2
26

e~
.
2mc

(3.46)

:



1 0
it
it
i~
= 0 B0 z + B (+ e
+ e ) .
t
2

(3.47)

(3.47)
|0i |1i
(t) = u(t) |0i + v(t) |1i .

(3.48)

(3.48) (3.47) (3.37) (3.32),


(
iu = 0 u + 0 eit v
(3.49)
iv = 0 v + 0 eit u
0 0 B0 /~; 0 B 0 /~.
(3.49), (0) = |0i :


 
 
0
0 /2
sin(t) exp i t |0i
sin(t) exp i t |1i , (3.50)
(t) = cos(t)

2
p
= (0 /2)2 + 0 2 .
, "-"
|1i
 0 2

sin2 (t).
(3.51)
P (t) =

1 02
02
P (t) =
=
.
2 2
(0 12 )2 + 0 2

(3.52)

, B0 , 0 = /2
, hP imax = 1/2, . B0
, -.
, (3.50),
u v, (
).

3.9

(. 3.2.).
t = 0
H0 ,

0 |ki = Ek |ki ,
H
.3.2.
27

k = 0, 1;

(3.53)

t = 0
- |0i. t = 0
(, ).
W
:
i~

0 + W
) |i .
|i = (H
t

(3.54)

(3.54)
|(t)i = c1 (t) ei 1 t |0i + c2 (t) ei 2 t |1i ,

(3.55)

( i = Ei /~) c1 (0) = 1; c2 (0) = 0.


(3.55) (3.54) |0i,
|1i, c1 c2 ,
h
i

c1 (t) =eit cos(t) + i


sin(t)
2
(3.56)
W12 i (0 )t
c2 (t) = i
e
sin(t),
~
p


~ = 2 /4 + |W12 |2 , ~ = W22 W11 + ~0 , 0 = 2 1 ; Wij i W j .
t |1i :
4 |W12 |2
|c2 (t)| =
sin2 (t).
2
2
(~) + 4 |W12 |
2

(3.57)

|1i :
2 |W12 |2
.
h|c2 (t)| i =
(~)2 + 4 |W12 |2
2

(3.58)

,
.

3.10 .
""
( ). 1/2 ,
1. .
, z
( x y), |xi |yi.
z
|xi cos |xi + sin |yi
|yi sin |xi + cos |yi .



cos sin
sin cos
28

(3.59)


 
 
1 1
1 i
|Ri =
;
|Li =
2 i
2 1
exp(i),
.

. ,
. x y
1/2 , 45 .
45 1/2 ,
x y. x-
y- .
, 45 x y-,
1/2 .
, y-.
,
(**) ,
. ,
-
|xi ei/2 |xi
|yi ei/2 |yi
,
2 2 ,
.

29