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Special libraries

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Library Book Aristotle Special library Digital library Internet search engines and libraries American Library Association Special Libraries Association Librarians in popular culture School library Public library Private library National library Academic library Data library Map collection List of tool-lending libraries Law library Medical library Aquatic science Christian library Library management Library 2.0 E-book Librarian Archive Copyright Internet Library of Congress Carnegie library Bodleian Library International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions 1 15 33 52 52 58 64 72 73 76 79 96 98 101 103 105 110 114 116 118 118 128 130 134 143 150 156 179 193 203 208 217


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In a traditional sense, a library is a large collection of books, and can refer to the place in which the collection is housed. Today, the term can refer to any collection, including digital sources, resources, and services. The collections can be of print, audio, and visual materials in numerous formats, including maps, prints, documents, microform (microfilm/microfiche), CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, video games, e-books, audiobooks and many other electronic resources. The places where this material is stored can range from public libraries, subscription libraries, private libraries, and can also be in digital form, stored on computers or accessible over the internet. The term has acquired a secondary meaning: "a collection of useful material for common use." This sense is used in fields such as computer science, mathematics, statistics, electronics and biology. A library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who choose not to or cannot afford to purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition to providing materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs. Libraries often provide a place of silence for studying. Libraries often provide public facilities to access to their electronic resources and the Internet. Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. They are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing tremendous amounts of information with a variety of digital tools.

Reading room of the library at the University of Graz, in Austria.

A community library in Ethiopia

Early history

Stacks of the Jos Vasconcelos Library in Mexico City

The first libraries mainly consisted of published records, housed in a particular type of library, called archives. Archaeological findings from the ancient city-states of Sumer have revealed temple rooms full of clay tablets in cuneiform script. These archives were made up almost completely of the records of commercial transactions or inventories, with only a few documents devoted to theological matters, historical records or legends. Things were much the same in the government and temple records on papyrus of Ancient Egypt.


The earliest discovered private archives were kept at Ugarit; besides correspondence and inventories, texts of myths may have been standardized practice-texts for teaching new scribes. There is also evidence of libraries at Nippur about 1900 BC and those at Nineveh about 700 BC showing a library classification system.[1] Another early organization system was in effect at Alexandria.[2] Over 30,000 clay tablets from the Library of Ashurbanipal have been discovered at Nineveh,[3] providing archaeologists with an amazing wealth of Mesopotamian literary, religious and administrative work. Among the findings were the Enuma Elish, also known as the Epic of Creation,[4] which depicts a traditional Babylonian view of creation, the Epic of Gilgamesh,[5] a large selection of "omen texts" including Enuma Anu Enlil which "contained omens dealing with the moon, its visibility, eclipses, and conjunction with planets and fixed stars, the sun, its corona, spots, and eclipses, the weather, namely lightning, thunder, and clouds, and the planets and their visibility, appearance, and stations",[6] and astronomic/astrological texts, as well as standard lists used by scribes and scholars such as word lists, bilingual vocabularies, lists of signs and synonyms, and lists of medical diagnoses.

The Biblioteca Joanina at the University of Coimbra in Portugal.

Libraries in the Hellenic world and Rome

Private or personal libraries made up of non-fiction and fiction books (as opposed to the state or institutional records kept in archives) appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. The celebrated book collectors of Hellenistic Antiquity were listed in the late 2nd century in Deipnosophistae:[7] Polycrates of Samos and Pisistratus who was tyrant of Athens, and Euclides who was himself also an Athenian[8] and Nicorrates of Samos and even the kings of Pergamos, and Euripides the poet and Aristotle the philosopher, and Nelius his librarian; from whom they say our countryman[9] Ptolemus, surnamed Philadelphus, bought them all, and transported them, with all those which he had collected at Athens and at Rhodes to his own beautiful Alexandria.[10]

All these libraries were Greek; the cultivated Hellenized diners in Deipnosophistae pass over the libraries of Rome in silence. By the time of Augustus there were public libraries near the forums of Rome: there were libraries in the Porticus Octaviae near the Theatre of Marcellus, in the temple of Apollo Palatinus, and in the Bibliotheca Ulpiana in the Forum of Trajan. The state archives were kept in a structure on the slope between the Roman Forum and the Capitoline Hill. Private libraries appeared during the late republic: Seneca inveighed against libraries fitted out for show by aliterate owners who scarcely read their titles in the course of a lifetime, but displayed the scrolls in bookcases (armaria) of citrus wood inlaid with ivory that ran right to the ceiling: "by now, like bathrooms and hot water, a library is got up as standard equipment for a fine house (domus).[11] Libraries were amenities suited to a villa, such as Cicero's at

Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. c. AD 79), which confirms that the Library of Alexandria must have existed in some form in the first century.

Library Tusculum, Maecenas's several villas, or Pliny the Younger's, all described in surviving letters. At the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum, apparently the villa of Caesar's father-in-law, the Greek library has been partly preserved in volcanic ash; archaeologists speculate that a Latin library, kept separate from the Greek one, may await discovery at the site. In the West, the first public libraries were established under the Roman Empire as each succeeding emperor strove to open one or many which outshone that of his predecessor. Unlike the Greek libraries, readers had direct access to the scrolls, which were kept on shelves built into the walls of a large room. Reading or copying was normally done in the room itself. The surviving records give only a few instances of lending features. As a rule, Roman public libraries were bilingual: they had a Latin room and a Greek room. Most of the large Roman baths were also cultural centers, built from the start with a library, a two room arrangement with one room for Greek and one for Latin texts. Libraries were filled with parchment scrolls as at Library of Pergamum and on papyrus scrolls as at Alexandria: the export of prepared writing materials was a staple of commerce. There were a few institutional or royal libraries which were open to an educated public (such as the Serapeum collection of the Library of Alexandria, once the largest library in the ancient world),[2] but on the whole collections were private. In those rare cases where it was possible for a scholar to consult library books there seems to have been no direct access to the stacks. In all recorded cases the books were kept in a relatively small room where the staff went to get them for the readers, who had to consult them in an adjoining hall or covered walkway.

Remains of the Library of Celsus at Ephesus.

In the 6th century, at the very close of the Classical period, the great libraries of the Mediterranean world remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria. Cassiodorus, minister to Theodoric, established a monastery at Vivarium in the heel of Italy with a library where he attempted to bring Greek learning to Latin readers and preserve texts both sacred and secular for future generations. As its unofficial librarian, Cassiodorus not only collected as many manuscripts as he could, he also wrote treatises aimed at instructing his monks in the proper uses of reading and methods for copying texts accurately. In the end, however, the library at Vivarium was dispersed and lost within a century. Through Origen and especially the scholarly presbyter Pamphilus of Caesarea, an avid collector of books of Scripture, the theological school of Caesarea won a reputation for having the most extensive ecclesiastical library of the time, containing more than 30,000 manuscripts: Gregory Nazianzus, Basil the Great, Jerome and others come studied there. With education firmly in Christian hands, however, many of the works of classical antiquity were no longer considered useful. Old texts were washed off and the valuable parchment and papyrus were reused, forming palimpsests. As scrolls gave way to the new book-form, the codex was universally used for Christian literature. Old manuscript scrolls were cut apart and used to stiffen leather bindings.


Ancient Chinese libraries

The imperial library is the earliest known Chinese library, with history dating back to the Qin Dynasty. Han Chinese scholar Liu Hsiang established the first library classification system during the Han Dynasty,[12] and the first book notation system. At this time the library catalog was written on scrolls of fine silk and stored in silk bags.

Islamic libraries
Upon the spread of Islam, libraries in newly Islamic lands knew a brief period of expansion in the Middle East, North Africa, Sicily and Spain. Like the Christian libraries, they mostly contained books which were A cabinet of books in the Tian Yi Chamber, the made of paper, and took a codex or modern form instead of scrolls; oldest extant library in China, dating to 1561. they could be found in mosques, private homes, and universities, from Timbuktu to Afghanistan and modern day Pakistan. In Aleppo, for example, the largest and probably the oldest mosque library, the Sufiya, located at the city's Grand Umayyad Mosque, contained a large book collection of which 10,000 volumes were reportedly bequeathed by the city's most famous ruler, Prince Sayf al-Dawla.[13] Ibn al-Nadim's bibliography Fihrist demonstrates the devotion of medieval Muslim scholars to books and reliable sources; it contains a description of thousands of books circulating in the Islamic world circa 1000, including an entire section for books about the doctrines of other religions. Modern Islamic libraries for the most part do not hold these antique books; many were lost, destroyed by Mongols, or removed to European libraries and museums during the colonial period.[14] By the 8th century first Iranians and then Arabs had imported the craft of papermaking from China, with a paper mill already at work in Baghdad in 794. By the 9th century completely public libraries started to appear in many Islamic cities. They were called "halls of Science" or dar al-'ilm. They were each endowed by Islamic sects with the purpose of representing their tenets as well as promoting the dissemination of secular knowledge. The 9th century Abbasid Caliph al-Mutawakkil of Iraq, even ordered the construction of a zawiyat qurra literally an enclosure for readers which was `lavishly furnished and equipped.' In Qur'an manuscript on display at the Bibliotheca Shiraz Adhud al-Daula (d. 983) set up a library, described by the Alexandrina medieval historian, al-Muqaddasi, as`a complex of buildings surrounded by gardens with lakes and waterways. The buildings were topped with domes, and comprised an upper and a lower story with a total, according to the chief official, of 360 rooms.... In each department, catalogues were placed on a shelf... the rooms were furnished with carpets...'.[15] The libraries often employed translators and copyists in large numbers, in order to render into Arabic the bulk of the available Persian, Greek, Roman and Sanskrit non-fiction and the classics of literature. This flowering of Islamic learning ceased centuries later when learning began declining in the Islamic world, after many of these libraries were destroyed by Mongol invasions. Others were victim of wars and religious strife in the Islamic world. However, a few examples of these medieval libraries, such as the libraries of Chinguetti in West Africa, remain intact and relatively unchanged even today. Another ancient library from this period which is still operational and expanding is the Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi in the Iranian city of Mashhad, which has been operating for more than six centuries. The contents of these Islamic libraries were copied by Christian monks in Muslim/Christian border areas, particularly Spain and Sicily. From there they eventually made their way into other parts of Christian Europe. These

Library copies joined works that had been preserved directly by Christian monks from Greek and Roman originals, as well as copies Western Christian monks made of Byzantine works. The resulting conglomerate libraries are the basis of every modern library today.

Medieval Christian libraries

With the retrenchment of literacy in the Roman west during the fourth and 5th centuries, fewer private libraries were maintained, and those in unfortified villas proved to be among their most combustible contents. In the Early Middle Ages, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire and before the rise of the large Western Christian monastery libraries beginning at Montecassino, libraries were found in scattered places in the Christian Middle East. Medieval library design reflected the fact that these manuscripts created via the labor-intensive process of hand copying were valuable possessions. Library architecture developed in response to the need for security. Librarians often chained books to lecterns, armaria (wooden chests), or shelves, in well-lit The Malatestiana Library (Italian: rooms. Despite this protectiveness, many libraries were willing to lend their Biblioteca Malatestiana), in Cesena, books if provided with security deposits (usually money or a book of equal is the first European civic [16] library. value). Monastic libraries lent and borrowed books from each other frequently and lending policy was often theologically grounded. For example, the Franciscan monasteries loaned books to each other without a security deposit since according to their vow of poverty only the entire order could own property. In 1212 the council of Paris condemned those monasteries that still forbade loaning books, reminding them that lending is "one of the chief works of mercy."[17] Lending meant more than just having another work to read to librarians; while the work was in their possession, it could be copied, thus enriching the library's own collection. The book lent as a counter effort was often copied in the same way, so both libraries ended up having an additional title. The early libraries located in monastic cloisters and associated with scriptoria were collections of lecterns with books chained to them. Shelves built above and between back-to-back lecterns were the beginning of bookpresses. The chain was attached at the fore-edge of a book rather than to its spine. Book presses came to be arranged in carrels (perpendicular to the walls and therefore to the windows) in order to maximize lighting, with low bookcases in front of the windows. This stall system (fixed bookcases perpendicular to exterior walls pierced by closely spaced windows) was characteristic of English institutional libraries. In Continental libraries, bookcases were arranged parallel to and against the walls. This wall system was first introduced on a large scale in Spain's El Escorial.

Southeast Asian libraries

Buddhist scriptures, educational materials, and histories were stored in libraries in pre-modern Southeast Asia. In Myanmar, a royal library called the Pitaka Taik was legendarily founded by King Anawrahta;[18] in the 18th century, British envoy Michael Symes, upon visiting this library, wrote that "it is not improbable that his Birman majesty may possess a more numerous library than any potentate, from the banks of the Danube to the borders of China". In Thailand libraries called ho trai were built throughout the country, usually on stilts above a pond to prevent bugs from eating at the books.


Early modern libraries

Johannes Gutenberg's movable type innovation in the 15th century revolutionized bookmaking. From the 15th century in central and northern Italy, the assiduously assembled libraries of humanists and their enlightened patrons provided a nucleus around which an "academy" of scholars congregated in each Italian city of consequence. Cosimo de Medici in Florence established his own collection, which formed the basis of the Laurentian Library.[19] In Rome, the papal collections were brought together by Pope Nicholas V, in separate Greek and Latin Library at Melk Abbey in Austria. libraries, and housed by Pope Sixtus IV, who consigned the Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana to the care of his librarian, the humanist Bartolomeo Platina in February 1475.[20] In the 16th century Sixtus V bisected Bramante's Cortile del Belvedere with a cross-wing to house the Apostolic Library in suitable magnificence. The sixteenth and 17th centuries saw other privately endowed libraries assembled in Rome: the Vallicelliana, formed from the books of Saint Filippo Neri, with other distinguished libraries such as that of Cesare Baronio, the Biblioteca Angelica founded by the Augustinian Angelo Rocca, which was the only truly public library in Counter-Reformation Rome; the Biblioteca Alessandrina with which Pope Alexander VII endowed the University of Rome; the Biblioteca Casanatense of the Cardinal Girolamo Casanate; and finally the Biblioteca Corsiniana founded by the bibliophile Clement XII Corsini and his nephew Cardinal Neri Corsini, still housed in Palazzo Corsini in via della Lungara. A lot of factors combined to create a "golden age of libraries" between 1600 and 1700: The quantity of books had gone up, as the cost had gone down, there was a renewal in the interest of classical literature and culture, nationalism was encouraging nations to build great libraries, universities were playing a more prominent role in education, and renaissance thinkers and writers were producing great works. Some of the more important libraries include the Bodleian Library at Oxford, the Library of the British Museum, the Mazarine Library and the Bibliothque Sainte-Genevive in Paris, and the National Central Library in Italy, the Prussian State Library, the M.E. Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library of St. Petersburg, and many more.[21] Literature of Libraries in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries is a collection of nine short works from the period which was published by John Cotton Dana and Henry W. Kent in 1906-07.[22]


Libraries can be divided into categories by several methods: By the entity (institution, municipality, or corporate body) that supports or perpetuates them academic libraries corporate libraries government libraries, such as national libraries historical society libraries private libraries public libraries school libraries special libraries

By the type of documents or materials they hold data libraries digital libraries map libraries or collections picture (photograph) libraries slide libraries tool libraries

The Phillips Exeter Academy Library by architect Louis Kahn, in the United States, is the largest secondary-school library in the world.

By the subject matter of documents they hold architecture libraries fine arts libraries law libraries medical libraries aquatic science libraries

theological libraries By the users they serve military communities users who are blind or visually/physically handicapped (see National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped) prisons By traditional professional divisions Academic libraries These libraries are located on the campuses of colleges and universities and serve primarily the students and faculty of that and other academic institutions. Some academic libraries, especially those at public institutions, are accessible to members of the general public in whole or in part. Public libraries or public lending libraries These libraries provide service to the general public and make at least some of their books available for borrowing, so that readers may use them at home over a period of days or weeks. Typically, libraries issue library cards to community members wishing to borrow books. Many public libraries also serve as community organizations that provide free services and events to the public, such as reading groups and toddler story time. Research libraries These libraries are intended for supporting scholarly research, and therefore maintain permanent collections and attempt to provide access to all necessary material. Research libraries are most often academic libraries or national libraries, but many large special libraries have research libraries within their special field and a very few of the largest public libraries also serve as research libraries.

Smaller libraries can sometimes be found in private homes.

Library School libraries Most public and private primary and secondary schools have libraries designed to support the school's curriculum. Special libraries All other libraries fall into this category. Many private businesses and public organizations, including hospitals, museums, research laboratories, law firms, and many government departments and agencies, maintain their own libraries for the use of their employees in doing specialized research related to their work. Special libraries may or may not be accessible to some identified part of the general public. Branches of a large academic or research libraries dealing with particular subjects are also usually called "special libraries": they are generally associated with one or more academic departments. Special libraries are distinguished from special collections, which are branches or parts of a library intended for rare books, manuscripts, and similar material. Many institutions make a distinction between circulating libraries (where materials are expected and intended to be loaned to patrons, institutions, or other libraries) and collecting libraries (where the materials are selected on a basis of their natures or subject matter). Many modern libraries are a mixture of both, as they contain a general collection for circulation, and a reference collection which is often more specialized, as well as restricted to the library premises.

Public libraries
The earliest example in England of a library to be endowed for the benefit of users who were not members of an institution such as a cathedral or college was the Francis Trigge Chained Library in Grantham, Lincolnshire, established in 1598. The library still exists and can justifiably claim to be the forerunner of later public library systems. The beginning of the modern, free, open access libraries really got its start in the U.K. in 1847. Parliament appointed a committee, led by William Ewart, on Public Libraries to consider the necessity of establishing libraries through the nation: In 1849 their report noted the poor condition of library service, it recommended the establishment of free public libraries all over the country, and it led to the Public Libraries Act in 1850, which allowed all cities with populations exceeding 10,000 to levy taxes for the support of public libraries. Another important act was the 1870 Public School Law, which increased literacy, thereby the demand for libraries, so by 1877, more than 75 cities had established free libraries, and by 1900 the number had reached 300.[23] This finally marks the start of the public library as we know it. And these acts led to similar laws in other countries, most notably the U.S.

Central Branch of the Vancouver Public Library in Vancouver, Canada

1876 is a well known year in the history of librarianship in the United States. The American Library Association was formed, as well as The American Library Journal, Melvil Dewey published his decimal based system of classification, and the United States Bureau of Education published its report, "Public libraries in the United States of America; their history, condition, and management." During the post-Civil War years, there was a rise in the establishment of public libraries, a movement led chiefly by newly formed women's clubs. They contributed their own collections of books, conducted lengthy fund


raising campaigns for buildings, and lobbied within their communities for financial support for libraries, as well as with legislatures and the Carnegie Library Endowment founded in the 20th century.[24] They led the establishment of 75-80 percent of the libraries in communities across the country.[25] In 1979 and 1991 White House Conferences on Library and Information Services were held to demonstrate the key role libraries play in American Democracy.[26] The American Library Association (ALA) continues to play a major role in libraries to this day, with its public library focused division, the Public Library Association, establishing standards and planning guidelines.[27] Dewey's classification system, although under heavy criticism of late, still remains the prevailing method of classification used in the United States.
The Public Library of Police County in Police, a town in Pomerania, Poland

As the number of books in libraries increased, so did the need for compact storage and access with adequate lighting, giving birth to the stack system, which involved keeping a library's collection of books in a space separate from the reading room. This arrangement arose in the 19th century. Book stacks quickly evolved into a fairly standard form in which the cast iron and steel frameworks supporting the bookshelves also supported the floors, which often were built of translucent blocks to permit the passage of light (but were not transparent, for reasons of modesty). The introduction of electrical lighting had a huge impact on how the library operated. The use of glass floors was largely discontinued, though floors were still often composed of metal grating to allow air to circulate in multi-story stacks. As more space was needed, a method of moving shelves on tracks (compact shelving) was introduced to cut down on otherwise wasted aisle space. Library 2.0, a term coined in 2005, is the library's response to the challenge of Google and an attempt to meet the changing needs of users by using web 2.0 technology. Some of the aspects of Library 2.0 include, commenting, tagging, bookmarking, discussions, use of online social networks by libraries, plug-ins, and widgets.[28] Inspired by web 2.0, it is an attempt to make the library a more user-driven institution. Despite the importance of public libraries, they are routinely having their budgets cut by state legislature. Funding has dwindled so badly that some smaller public libraries have been forced to cut their hours and release employees.

Libraries have materials arranged in a specified order according to a library classification system, so that items may be located quickly and collections may be browsed efficiently. Some libraries have additional galleries beyond the public ones, where reference materials are stored. These reference stacks may be open to selected members of the public. Others require patrons to submit a "stack request," which is a request for an assistant to retrieve the material from the closed stacks. A list of closed stack libraries is being aggregated on Wikipedia.
Library shelves in Hong Kong, showing numbers of the classification scheme to help readers locate works in that section.



Libraries usually contain long aisles with rows of books.

Larger libraries are often broken down into departments staffed by both paraprofessionals and professional librarians. Circulation (or Access Services) - Handles user accounts and the loaning/returning and shelving of materials. Collection Development - Orders materials and maintains materials budgets. Reference - Staffs a reference desk answering user questions (using structured reference interviews), instructing users, and developing library programming. Reference may be further broken down by user groups or materials; common collections are children's literature, young adult literature, and genealogy materials. Technical Services - Works behind the scenes cataloging and processing new materials and deaccessioning weeded materials. Stacks Maintenance - Re-shelves materials that have been returned to the library after patron use and shelves materials that have been processed by Technical Services. Stacks Maintenance also shelf reads the material in the stacks to ensure that it is in the correct library classification order.
Classic paper library card used by a patron to sign-out a book.


Basic tasks in library management include the planning of acquisitions (which materials the library should acquire, by purchase or otherwise), library classification of acquired materials, preservation of materials (especially rare and fragile archival materials such as manuscripts), the deaccessioning of materials, patron borrowing of materials, and developing and administering library computer systems. More long-term issues include the planning of the construction of new libraries or extensions to existing ones, and the development and implementation of outreach services and reading-enhancement services (such as adult literacy and children's programming).



The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published several standards regarding the management of libraries through its Technical Committee 46 (TC46),[29] which is focused on "libraries, documentation and information centers, publishing, archives, records management, museum documentation, indexing and abstracting services, and information science". The following is a partial list of some of them:[30] ISO 2789:2006 Information and documentation International library statistics ISO 11620:1998 Information and documentation Library performance indicators ISO 11799:2003 Information and documentation Document storage requirements for archive and library materials ISO 14416:2003 Information and documentation Requirements for binding of books, periodicals, serials and other paper documents for archive and library use Methods and materials ISO/TR 20983:2003 Information and documentation Performance indicators for electronic library services

Library use
Patrons may not know how to fully use the library's resources. This can be due to some individuals' unease in approaching a staff member. Ways in which a library's content is displayed or accessed may have the most impact on use. An antiquated or clumsy search system, or staff unwilling or untrained to engage their patrons, will limit a library's usefulness. In United States public libraries, beginning in the 19th century, these problems drove the emergence of the library instruction movement, which advocated library user education. One of the early leaders was John Cotton Dana. The basic form of library instruction is generally known as information literacy. Libraries inform their users of what materials are available in their Until the advent of digital catalogs, card catalogs collections and how to access that information. Before the computer were the traditional method of organizing the list age, this was accomplished by the card catalog a cabinet containing of resources and their location within a large many drawers filled with index cards that identified books and other library. materials. In a large library, the card catalog often filled a large room. The emergence of the Internet, however, has led to the adoption of electronic catalog databases (often referred to as "webcats" or as online public access catalogs, OPACs), which allow users to search the library's holdings from any location with Internet access. This style of catalog maintenance is compatible with new types of libraries, such as digital libraries and distributed libraries, as well as older libraries that have been retrofitted. Electronic catalog databases are criticized by some who believe that the old card catalog system was both easier to navigate and allowed retention of information, by writing directly on the cards, that is lost in the electronic systems. This argument is analogous to the debate over paper books and e-books. While libraries have been accused of precipitously throwing out valuable information in card catalogs, most modern ones have nonetheless made the move to electronic catalog databases. Large libraries may be scattered within multiple buildings across a town, each having multiple floors, with multiple rooms housing the resources across a series of shelves. Once a user has located a resource within the catalog, they must then use navigational guidance to retrieve the resource physically; a process that may be assisted through signage, maps, GPS systems or RFID tagging. Finland has the highest number of registered book borrowers per capita in the world. Over half of Finland's population are registered borrowers.[31] In the U.S., public library users have borrowed roughly 15 books per user per year from 1856 to 1978. From 1978 to 2004, book circulation per user declined approximately 50%. The growth of audiovisuals circulation, estimated at 25% of total circulation in 2004, accounts for about half of this decline.[32]



Shift to digital libraries

In recent years, there has been increasing use of the Internet to gather and retrieve data. The shift to digital libraries has greatly impacted the way people use of physical libraries. Between 2002 and 2004, the average American academic library saw the overall number of transactions decline approximately 2.2%.[33] Libraries are trying to keep up with the digital world and the new generation of students that are used to having information just one click away. For example, The University of California Library System saw a 54% decline in circulation between 1991 to 2001 of 8,377,000 books to 3,832,000.[34]

Interior of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, showing both stacks and computer terminals

These facts might be a consequence of the increased availability of e-resources. In 1999-2000, 105 ARL university libraries spent almost $100 million on electronic resources, which is an increase of nearly $23 million from the previous year.[35] A 2003 report by the Open E-book Forum found that close to a million e-books had been sold in 2002, generating nearly $8 million in revenue.[36] Another example of the shift to digital libraries can be seen in Cushing Academys decision to dispense with its library of printed books more than 20,000 volumes in all and switch over entirely to digital media resources.[37] One claim to why there is a decrease in the usage of libraries stems from the observation of the research habits of undergraduate students enrolled in colleges and universities. There have been claims that college undergraduates have become more used to retrieving information from the Internet than a traditional library. As each generation becomes more in tune with the Internet, their desire to retrieve information as quickly and easily as possible has increased. No doubt finding information by simply searching the Internet is much easier and faster than reading an entire book. In a survey conducted by NetLibrary, 93% of undergraduate students claimed that finding information online makes more sense to them than going to the library. Also, 75% of students surveyed claimed that they did not have enough time to go to the library and that they liked the convenience of the Internet. While the retrieving information from the Internet may be efficient and time saving than visiting a traditional library, research has shown that undergraduates are most likely searching only .03% of the entire web.[38] The information that they are finding might be easy to retrieve and more readily available, but may not be as in depth as information from other resources such as the books available at a physical library. In the mid 2000s Swedish company Distec invented a library book vending machine known as the GoLibrary, that offers library books to people where there is no branch, limited hours, or high traffic locations such as El Cerrito del Norte BART station in California.



[1] The American International Encyclopedia, J. J. Little & Ives, New York 1954, Volume IX [2] Phillips, Heather A., "The Great Library of Alexandria?". Library Philosophy and Practice, August 2010 (http:/ / unllib. unl. edu/ LPP/ phillips. htm) [3] Britishmuseum.org (http:/ / www. britishmuseum. org/ research/ research_projects/ ashurbanipal_library_phase_1. aspx) "Assurbanipal Library Phase 1", British Museum One [4] Epic of Creation in Dalley, Stephanie. Myths from Mesopotamia. Oxford, 1989: pg.233-81 [5] Epic of Gilgamesh in Dalley, Stephanie. Myths from Mesopotamia. Oxford, 1989: pg.50-135 [6] Van De Mieroop, Marc. A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000-323 BC. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing, 2007: pg. 263 [7] Epitome of Book I [8] Not the familiar Euclid. [9] The writer was Alexandrian; the sophisticates in Deipnosophistae were at a banquet in Rome. [10] See Library of Alexandria. [11] Seneca, De tranquillitate animi ix.4-7. [12] Zurndorfer, Harriet Thelma (1995). China bibliography: a research guide ... - Google Books (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=uu5zn7-ImJoC& pg=PA45& lpg=PA45& dq=imperial+ library+ library+ classification+ system& q=imperial library library classification system). ISBN9789004102781. . Retrieved 30 April 2010. [13] Sibai M. (1987). Mosque libraries: An Historical Study. Mansell Publishing Limited. p.71. ISBN0720118964. [14] John L. Esposito (ed.) (1995). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World. Oxford University Press. ISBN0-19-506613-8. [15] de Goeje(ed.) (1906). AL-Muqaddasi: Ahsan al-Taqasim. BGA, III. p.449. [16] "Stradavinisaporifc.it" (http:/ / www. stradavinisaporifc. it/ cesena. asp). Stradavinisaporifc.it. . Retrieved 2010-03-07. [17] Geo. Haven Putnam (1962). Books and Their Makers in the Middle Ages. Hillary. [18] International dictionary of library histories (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Zoq_TtEN54IC& pg=PA29), 29 [19] Survivor: The History of the Library (http:/ / www. history-magazine. com/ libraries. html), history-magazine.com [20] This section on Roman Renaissance libraries follows Kenneth M. Setton, "From Medieval to Modern Library" Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 104.4, Dedication of the APS Library Hall, Autumn General Meeting, November, 1959 (August 1960:371-390) p372ff. [21] Stockwell, Foster (2000). A History of Information and Storage Retrieval. ISBN0786408405. [22] Dana, John Cotton, and Henry W. Kent, eds. Literature of Libraries in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Chicago: A. C. McClure, 1906-07; reissued Metuchen: The Scarecrow Reprint Corporation, 1967. No. 1: The duties & qualifications of a librarian (http:/ / openlibrary. org/ books/ OL14005401M/ ): a discourse ... in the Sorbonne, 1780; by Jean-Baptiste Cotton des Houssayes.--No. 2: The reformed librarie-keeper (http:/ / openlibrary. org/ books/ OL6973164M) ... concerning the place and office of a librarie-keeper; by John Dury (1596-1680).--No. 3: The life of Sir Thomas Bodley (http:/ / www. archive. org/ stream/ literaturelibra04naudgoog#page/ n11/ mode/ 1up) written by himself together with the first draft of the statutes of the public library at Oxon.--No. 4: Two tracts on the founding and maintaining of parochial libraries in Scotland (http:/ / openlibrary. org/ books/ OL14046514M/ ); by James Kirkwood (d. 1708).--No. 5: A brief outline of the history of libraries (http:/ / openlibrary. org/ books/ OL23282909M/ ); by Justus Lipsius; transl. from 2nd ed, 1607 ...--No. 6: News from France or a description of the library of Cardinal Mazarin (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=-qm8Bwx0PfYC) preceded by The surrender of the library ... two tracts written by Gabriel Naude (1600-1653). [23] Harris, Michael H. (1984). The History of Libraries in the Western World. London: Scarecrow Press. ISBN0810816660. [24] Paula D. Watson, Founding Mothers: The Contribution of Womans Organizations to Public Library Development in the United States, Library Quarterly, Vol. 64, Issue 3, 1994, p.236 [25] Teva Scheer, The Praxis Side of the Equation: Club Women and American Public Administration, Administrative Theory & Praxis, Vol. 24, Issue 3, 2002, p.525 [26] Mathews, Virginia H. 2004. Libraries, citizens & advocacy: the lasting effects of two White House Conferences on Library and Information Services. [Washington, D.C.?]: White House Conference on Libraries and Information Services Taskforce. [27] McCook, Kathleen de la Pea (2011). Introduction to Public Librarianship, pp. 75-99. ISBN978-1-55570-697-5. [28] Cohen, L.B. (2007). "A Manifesto for our time". American Libraries 38: 479. [29] "ISO.org" (http:/ / www. iso. org/ iso/ standards_development/ technical_committees/ list_of_iso_technical_committees/ iso_technical_committee. htm?commid=48750). ISO.org. . Retrieved 2010-03-07. [30] "ISO.org" (http:/ / www. iso. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_tc_browse. htm?commid=48750). ISO.org. . Retrieved 2010-03-07. [31] The humble Number One: Finland thisisFINLAND (http:/ / finland. fi/ public/ default. aspx?contentid=160064& contentlan=2& culture=en-US) [32] Statistics on Book Circulation Per User of U.S. Public Libraries Since 1856 (http:/ / galbithink. org/ libraries/ circulation. htm) from galbithink.org [33] Applegate, Rachel. "Whose Decline? Which Academic Libraries are "Deserted" in Terms of Reference Transactions?" Reference & User Services Quarterly 2nd ser. 48 (2008): 176-89. Print. [34] University of California Library Statistics 199091, University-wide Library Planning, University of California Office of the President (July 1991): 12; University of California Library Statistics July 2001, 7, Ucop.edu (http:/ / www. slp. ucop. edu/ stats/ 00-01. pdf), accessed July 17,

2005; University of California Library Statistics July 2004, 7, Ucop.edu (http:/ / www. slp. ucop. edu/ stats/ 03-04. pdf). Retrieved July 17, 2005. [35] "ARL Libraries Spend Nearly $100 Million on Electronic Resources," ARL Bimonthly Report 219, Association of Research Libraries (December 2001), ARL.org (http:/ / www. arl. org/ newsltr/ 219/ eresources. html) . Retrieved July 17, 2005. [36] Striphas, Ted. The Late Age of Print: Everday Book Culture From Consumerism to Control. New York City: Columbia University Press, 2009. Print. [37] Striphas, Ted. "Books: "An Outdated Technology?" Weblog post. The Late Age of Print. 4 September 2009. Web. 19 Nov. 2009. Thelateageofprint.org (http:/ / www. thelateageofprint. org/ 2009/ 09/ 04/ books-outdated-technology/ ) [38] Troll, Denise A. "How and Why are Libraries Changing?" Digital Library Federation. Library Information Technology- Carnegie Melon, 9 January 2001. Web. 29 November 2009. Diglib.org (http:/ / www. diglib. org/ use/ whitepaper. htm)


Further reading
Clark, J. W., Libraries in the Medieval and Renaissance Periods (Rede lecture, 1894)

External links
Directories of libraries
LIBweb (http://www.planwel.edu/Libweb/libweb-mirror/) - Directory of library servers in 146 countries via WWW, PLANWEL is mirroring this database of world libraries maintained by WebJunction (http://www. webjunction.org/listservs/-/articles/content/438139), a division of Online Computer Library Center, Inc. (OCLC) American Library Association's list of largest US libraries (http://www.ala.org/ala/professionalresources/ libfactsheets/alalibraryfactsheet22.cfm), ala.org lib-web-cats: A directory of over 39,000 worldwide libraries spanning 139 countries maintained by Marshall Breeding (http://www.librarytechnology.org/libwebcats/), librarytechnology.org LibLinks - Directory of library resource links organized by US states (http://www.liblinks.org), liblinks.org Libraries of the World and their Catalogues compiled by a retired librarian (http://www.sylviamilne.co.uk/ libcats.htm), sylviamilne.co.uk National libraries of Europe (http://search.theeuropeanlibrary.org/portal/en/libraries.html), theeuropeanlibrary.org UNESCO Libraries Portal - Over 14000 links worldwide (http://www.unesco.org/webworld/portal_bib), unesco.org

Other resources
Libraries (http://www.dmoz.org/Reference/Libraries/) at the Open Directory Project Centre for the History of the Book (http://www.hss.ed.ac.uk/chb/), hss.ed.ac.uk Wikisource, The Free Library Libraries: Frequently Asked Questions (http://www.ibiblio.org/librariesfaq/), ibiblio.org International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (http://www.ifla.org/), ifla.org Professional Library Associations from Jenkins Law Library (http://www.jenkinslaw.org/researchlinks/index. php?rl=207), jenkinslaw.org A Library Primer (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/15327), by John Cotton Dana, 1903, setting out the basics of organizing and running a library. gutenberg.org A Compendium of Beautiful Libraries (http://curiousexpeditions.org/?p=78), curiousexpeditions.org



A book is a set or collection of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of ink, paper, parchment, or other materials, usually fastened together to hinge at one side. A single sheet within a book is called a leaf or leaflet, and each side of a leaf is called a page. A book produced in electronic format is known as an electronic book (e-book). Books may also refer to works of literature, or a main division of such a work. In library and information science, a book is called a monograph, to distinguish it from serial periodicals such as magazines, journals or newspapers. The body of all written works including books is literature. In novels and sometimes other types of books (for example, biographies), a book may be divided into several large sections, also called books (Book 1, Book 2, Book 3, and so on). A lover of books is usually referred to as a bibliophile, a bibliophile, or a philologist, or, more informally, a bookworm. A store where books are bought and sold is a bookstore or bookshop. Books can also be borrowed from libraries. In 2010, Google estimated that there were approximately 130 million distinct books in the world.[1]

The word comes from Old English "bc" which itself comes from the Germanic root "*bk-", cognate to beech.[2] Similarly, in Slavic languages (for example, Russian, Bulgarian) "" (bukva"letter") is cognate with "beech". In Serbian, another Slavic language, the word "" (bukvar) refers specifically to a primary school textbook that helps young children master the techniques of reading and writing. It is thus conjectured that the earliest Indo-European writings may have been carved on beech wood.[3] Similarly, the Latin word codex, meaning a book in the modern sense (bound and with separate leaves), originally meant "block of wood".

History of books
When writing systems were invented in ancient civilizations, nearly everything that could be written uponstone, clay, tree bark, metal sheetswas used for writing. Alphabetic writing emerged in Egypt about 5,000 years ago. The Ancient Egyptians would often write on papyrus, a plant grown along the Nile River. At first the words were not separated from each other (scriptural continua) and there was no punctuation. Texts were written from right to left, left to right, and even so that alternate lines read in opposite directions. The technical term for this type of writing is 'boustrophedon,' which means literally 'ox-turning' for the way a farmer drives an ox to plough his fields.

Sumerian language cuneiform script clay tablet, 24002200 BC

Book Scroll Papyrus, a thick paper-like material made by weaving the stems of the papyrus plant, then pounding the woven sheet with a hammer-like tool, was used for writing in Ancient Egypt, perhaps as early as the First Dynasty, although the first evidence is from the account books of King Nefertiti Kakai of the Fifth Dynasty (about 2400 BC).[4] Papyrus sheets were glued together to form a scroll. Tree bark such as lime (Latin liber, from which also comes library) and other materials were also used.[5] According to Herodotus (History 5:58), the Phoenicians brought writing and papyrus to Greece around the 10th or 9th century BC. The Greek word for papyrus as writing material (biblion) and book (biblos) come from the Phoenician port town Byblos, through which papyrus was exported to Greece.[6] From Greek we also derive the word tome (Greek: ), which originally meant a slice or piece and from there began to denote "a roll of papyrus". Tomus was used by the Latins with exactly the same meaning as volumen (see also below the explanation by Isidore of Seville).
Egyptian papyrus showing the god Osiris and the weighing of the heart.


Whether made from papyrus, parchment, or paper, scrolls were the dominant form of book in the Hellenistic, Roman, Chinese, and Hebrew cultures. The more modern codex book format form took over the Roman world by late antiquity, but the scroll format persisted much longer in Asia. Codex Papyrus scrolls were still dominant in the 1st century AD, as witnessed by the findings in Pompeii. The first written mention of the codex as a form of book is from Martial, in his Apophoreta CLXXXIV at the end of the century, where he praises its compactness. However, the codex never gained much popularity in the pagan Hellenistic world, and only within the Christian community did it gain widespread use.[7] This change happened gradually during the 3rd and 4th centuries, and the reasons for adopting the codex form of the book are several: the format is more economical, as both sides of the writing material can be used; and it is portable, searchable, and easy to conceal. The Christian authors may also have wanted to distinguish their writings from the pagan texts written on scrolls.

Woman holding a book (or wax tablets) in the form of the codex. Wall painting from Pompeii, before 79 AD.


17 Wax tablets were the normal writing material in schools, in accounting, and for taking notes. They had the advantage of being reusable: the wax could be melted, and reformed into a blank. The custom of binding several wax tablets together (Roman pugillares) is a possible precursor for modern books (i.e. codex).[8] The etymology of the word codex (block of wood) also suggests that it may have developed from wooden wax tablets.[9] In the 5th century, Isidore of Seville explained the relation between codex, book and scroll in his Etymologiae (VI.13): "A codex is composed of many books; a book is of one scroll. It is called codex by way of metaphor from the trunks (codex) of trees or vines, as if it were a wooden stock, because it contains in itself a multitude of books, as it were of branches."

A Chinese bamboo book

Middle Ages
Manuscripts The fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century A.D. saw the decline of the culture of ancient Rome. Papyrus became difficult to obtain due to lack of contact with Egypt, and parchment, which had been used for centuries, became the main writing material. Monasteries carried on the Latin writing tradition in the Western Roman Empire. Cassiodorus, in the monastery of Vivarium (established around 540), stressed the importance of copying texts.[10] St. Benedict of Nursia, in his Regula Monachorum (completed around the middle of the 6th century) later also promoted reading.[11] The Rule of St. Benedict (Ch. XLVIII), which set aside certain times for reading, greatly influenced the monastic culture of the Middle Ages and is one of the reasons why the clergy were the predominant readers of books. The tradition and style of the Roman Empire still dominated, but slowly the peculiar medieval book culture emerged.

Before the invention and adoption of the printing press, almost all books were copied by hand, which made books expensive and comparatively rare. Smaller monasteries usually had only a few dozen books, medium-sized perhaps a few hundred. By the 9th century, larger collections held around 500 volumes and even at the end of the Middle Ages, the papal library in Avignon and Paris library of Sorbonne held only around 2,000 volumes.[12]

Folio 14 recto of the 5th century Vergilius Romanus contains an author portrait of Virgil. Note the bookcase (capsa), reading stand and the text written without word spacing in rustic capitals.


18 The scriptorium of the monastery was usually located over the chapter house. Artificial light was forbidden for fear it may damage the manuscripts. There were five types of scribes: Calligraphers, who dealt in fine book production Copyists, who dealt with basic production and correspondence Correctors, who collated and compared a finished book with the manuscript from which it had been produced Illuminators, who painted illustrations Rubricators, who painted in the red letters

The bookmaking process was long and laborious. The parchment had to be prepared, then the unbound pages were planned and ruled with a blunt tool or lead, after which the text was written by the scribe, who usually left blank areas for illustration and rubrication. Finally, the book was bound by the bookbinder.[13] Different types of ink were known in antiquity, usually prepared from soot and gum, and later also from gall nuts and iron vitriol. This gave writing a brownish black color, but black or brown were not the only colors used. There are texts written in red or even gold, and different colors were used for illumination. Sometimes the whole parchment was colored purple, and the text was written on it with gold or silver (for example, Codex Argenteus).[14] Irish monks introduced spacing between words in the 7th century. This facilitated reading, as these monks tended to be less familiar with Latin. However, the use of spaces between words did not become commonplace before the 12th century. It has been argued that the use of spacing between words shows the transition from semi-vocalized reading into silent reading.[15] The first books used parchment or vellum (calf skin) for the pages. The Desk with chained books in the Library of book covers were made of wood and covered with leather. Because Cesena, Italy. dried parchment tends to assume the form it had before processing, the books were fitted with clasps or straps. During the later Middle Ages, when public libraries appeared, up to 18th century, books were often chained to a bookshelf or a desk to prevent theft. These chained books are called libri catenati. At first, books were copied mostly in monasteries, one at a time. With the rise of universities in the 13th century, the Manuscript culture of the time led to an increase in the demand for books, and a new system for copying books appeared. The books were divided into unbound leaves (pecia), which were lent out to different copyists, so the speed of book production was considerably increased. The system was maintained by secular stationers guilds, which produced both religious and non-religious material.[16] Judaism has kept the art of the scribe alive up to the present. According to Jewish tradition, the Torah scroll placed in a synagogue must be written by hand on parchment, and a printed book would not do, though the congregation may use printed prayer books, and printed copies of the Scriptures are used for study outside the synagogue. A sofer (scribe) is a highly respected member of any observant Jewish community.

Burgundian author and scribe Jean Milot, from his Miracles de Notre Dame, 15th century.

Book Paper books Also Arabs produced and bound books in the medieval Islamic world, developing advanced techniques in (Arabic calligraphy), miniatures and bookbinding. A number of cities in the medieval Islamic world had book production centers and book markets. Marrakech, Morocco, had a street named Kutubiyyin or book sellers which contained more than 100 bookshops in the 12th century; the famous Koutoubia Mosque is named so because of its location in this street. The medieval Islamic world also used a method of reproducing reliable copies of a book in large quantities, known as check reading, in contrast to the traditional method of a single scribe producing only a single copy of a single manuscript. In the check reading method, only "authors could authorize copies, and this was done in public sessions in which the copyist read the copy aloud in the presence of the author, who then certified it as accurate."[17] With this check-reading system, "an author might produce a dozen or more copies from a single reading," and with two or more readings, "more than one hundred copies of a single book could easily be produced."[18] Modern paper books are printed on papers which are designed specifically for the publication of printed books. Traditionally, book papers are off white or low white papers (easier to read), are opaque to minimise the show through of text from one side of the page to the other and are (usually) made to tighter caliper or thickness specifications, particularly for case bound books. Typically, books papers are light weight papers 60 to 90 g/m and often specified by their caliper/substance ratios (volume basis). For example, a bulky 80 g/m paper may have a caliper of 120 micrometres (0.12mm) which would be Volume 15 (12010/80) where as a low bulk 80 g/m may have a caliper of 88 micrometres, giving a volume 11. This volume basis then allows the calculation of a books PPI (printed pages per inch) which is an important factor for the design of book jackets and the binding of the finished book. Different paper qualities are used as book paper depending on type of book: Machine finished coated papers, woodfree uncoated papers, coated fine papers and special fine papers are common paper grades. Wood block printing In woodblock printing, a relief image of an entire page was carved into blocks of wood, inked, and used to print copies of that page. This method originated in China, in the Han dynasty (before 220AD), as a method of printing on textiles and later paper, and was widely used throughout East Asia. The oldest dated book printed by this method is The Diamond Sutra (868 AD). The method (called Woodcut when used in art) arrived in China in the early 14th century. Books (known as block-books), as well as playing-cards and religious pictures, began to be produced by this method. Creating an entire book was a painstaking process, requiring a hand-carved block for each page; and the wood blocks tended to crack, if stored for long. The monks or people who wrote them were paid highly.


The intricate frontispiece of the Diamond Sutra from Tang Dynasty China, 868 AD (British Museum)

Book Movable type and incunabula The Chinese inventor Bi Sheng made movable type of earthenware circa 1045, but there are no known surviving examples of his printing. Around 1450, in what is commonly regarded as an independent invention, Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould. This invention gradually made books less expensive to produce, and more widely available.


"Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Son Masters", the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, 1377. Bibliothque nationale de France.

Early printed books, single sheets and images which were created before the year 1501 in Europe are known as incunabula. A man born in 1453, the year of the fall of Constantinople, could look back from his fiftieth year on a lifetime in which about eight million books had been printed, more perhaps than all the scribes of Europe had produced since Constantine founded his city in A.D. 330.[19]

Modern world
Steam-powered printing presses became popular in the early 19th century. These machines could print 1,100 sheets per hour, but workers could only set 2,000 letters per hour. Monotype and linotype typesetting machines were introduced in the late 19th century. They could set more than 6,000 letters per hour and an entire line of type at once.
A 15th century incunabulum. Notice the blind-tooled cover, corner bosses and clasps.

The centuries after the 15th century were thus spent on improving both the printing press and the conditions for freedom of the press through the gradual relaxation of restrictive censorship laws. See also intellectual property, public domain, copyright. In mid-20th century, European book production had risen to over 200,000 titles per year.



Book manufacturing in the modern world

The methods used for the printing and binding of books continued fundamentally unchanged from the 15th century into the early years of the 20th century. While there was of course more mechanization, Gutenberg would have had no difficulty in understanding what was going on if he had visited a book printer in 1900. Gutenbergs invention was the use of movable metal types, assembled into words, lines, and pages and then printed by letterpress. In letterpress printing ink is spread onto the tops of raised metal type, and is transferred onto a sheet of paper which is pressed against the type. Sheet-fed letterpress printing is still available but tends to be used for collectors books and is now more of an art form than a commercial technique (see Letterpress).

Today, the majority of books are printed by offset lithography in which an image of the material to be printed is photographically or digitally transferred to a flexible metal plate where it is developed to exploit the antipathy between grease (the ink) and water. When the plate is mounted on the press, water is spread over it. The developed areas of the plate repel water thus allowing the ink to adhere to only those parts of the plate which are to print. The ink is then offset onto a rubbery blanket (to prevent water from soaking the paper) and then finally to the paper. When a book is printed the pages are laid out on the plate so that after the printed sheet is folded the pages will be in the correct sequence. Books tend to be manufactured nowadays in a few standard sizes. The sizes of books are usually specified as trim size: the size of the page after the sheet has been folded and trimmed. Trimming involves cutting approximately 1/8 off top, bottom and fore-edge (the edge opposite to the spine) as part of the binding process in order to remove the folds so that the pages can be opened. The standard sizes result from sheet sizes (therefore machine sizes) which became popular 200 or 300 years ago, and have come to dominate the industry. The basic standard commercial book sizes in the United States, always expressed as width height, are: 4 7 (rack size paperback), 5 7 (digest size paperback), 5 8, 5 8, 6 9, 7 10, and 8 11. These standard trim sizes will often vary slightly depending on the particular printing presses used, and on the imprecision of the trimming operation. Of course other trim sizes are available, and some publishers favor sizes not listed here which they might nominate as standard as well, such as 6 9, 8 10. In Britain the equivalent standard sizes differ slightly, as well as now being expressed in millimeters, and with height preceding width. Thus the UK equivalent of 6 9 is 234 156mm. British conventions in this regard prevail throughout the English speaking world, except for USA. The European book manufacturing industry works to a completely different set of standards. Some books, particularly those with shorter runs (i.e. of which fewer copies are to be made) will be printed on sheet-fed offset presses, but most books are now printed on web presses, which are fed by a continuous roll of paper, and can consequently print more copies in a shorter time. On a sheet-fed press a stack of sheets of paper stands at one end of the press, and each sheet passes through the press individually. The paper will be printed on both sides and delivered, flat, as a stack of paper at the other end of the press. These sheets then have to be folded on another machine which uses bars, rollers and cutters to fold the sheet up into one or more signatures. A signature is a section of a book, usually of 32 pages, but sometimes 16, 48 or even 64 pages. After the signatures are all folded they are gathered: placed in sequence in bins over a circulating belt onto which one signature from each bin is dropped. Thus as the line circulates a complete book is collected together in one stack, next to another, and another.

The spine of the book is an important aspect in book design, especially in the cover design. When the books are stacked up or stored in a shelf, the details on the spine is the only visible surface that contains the information about the book. In stores, it is the details on the spine that attract buyers' attention first.

Book A web press carries out the folding itself, delivering bundles of signatures ready to go into the gathering line. Notice that when the book is being printed it is being printed one (or two) signatures at a time, not one complete book at a time. Thus if there are to be 10,000 copies printed, the press will run 10,000 of the first form (the pages imaged onto the first plate and its back-up plate, representing one or two signatures), then 10,000 of the next form, and so on till all the signatures have been printed. Actually, because there is a known average spoilage rate in each of the steps in the books progress through the manufacturing system, if 10,000 books are to be made, the printer will print between 10,500 and 11,000 copies so that subsequent spoilage will still allow the delivery of the ordered quantity of books. Sources of spoilage tend to be mainly make-readies. A make-ready is the preparatory work carried out by the pressmen to get the printing press up to the required quality of impression. Included in make-ready is the time taken to mount the plate onto the machine, clean up any mess from the previous job, and get the press up to speed. The main part of making-ready is however getting the ink/water balance right, and ensuring that the inking is even across the whole width of the paper. This is done by running paper through the press and printing waste pages while adjusting the press to improve quality. Densitometers are used to ensure even inking and consistency from one form to another. As soon as the pressman decides that the printing is correct, all the make-ready sheets will be discarded, and the press will start making books. Similar make readies take place in the folding and binding areas, each involving spoilage of paper. After the signatures are folded and gathered, they move into the bindery. In the middle of the last century there were still many trade binders stand-alone binding companies which did no printing, specializing in binding alone. At that time, largely because of the dominance of letterpress printing, the pattern of the industry was for typesetting and printing to take place in one location, and binding in a different factory. When type was all metal, a typical books worth of type would be bulky, fragile and heavy. The less it was moved in this condition the better: so it was almost invariable that printing would be carried out in the same location as the typesetting. Printed sheets on the other hand could easily be moved. Now, because of the increasing computerization of the process of preparing a book for the printer, the typesetting part of the job has flowed upstream, where it is done either by separately contracting companies working for the publisher, by the publishers themselves, or even by the authors. Mergers in the book manufacturing industry mean that it is now unusual to find a bindery which is not also involved in book printing (and vice versa). If the book is a hardback its path through the bindery will involve more points of activity than if it is a paperback. A paperback binding line (a number of pieces of machinery linked by conveyor belts) involves few steps. The gathered signatures, book blocks, will be fed into the line where they will one by one be gripped by plates converging from each side of the book, turned spine up and advanced towards a gluing station. En route the spine of the book block will be ground off leaving a roughened edge to the tightly gripped collection of pages. The grinding leaves fibers which will grip onto the glue which is then spread onto the spine of the book. Covers then meet up with the book blocks, and one cover is dropped onto the glued spine of each book block, and is pressed against the spine by rollers. The book is then carried forward to the trimming station, where a three-knife trimmer will simultaneously cut the top and bottom and the fore-edge of the paperback to leave clear square edges. The books are then packed into cartons, or packed on skids, and shipped. Binding a hardback is more complicated. Look at a hardback book and you will see the cover overlaps the pages by about 1/8 all round. These overlaps are called squares. The blank piece of paper inside the cover is called the endpaper, or endsheet: it is of somewhat stronger paper than the rest of the book as it is the endpapers that hold the book into the case. The endpapers will be tipped to the first and last signatures before the separate signatures are placed into the bins on the gathering line. Tipping involves spreading some glue along the spine edge of the folded endpaper and pressing the endpaper against the signature. The gathered signatures are then glued along the spine, and the book block is trimmed, like the paperback, but will continue after this to the rounder and backer. The book block together with its endpapers will be gripped from the sides and passed under a roller with presses it from side to side, smashing the spine down and out around the sides so that the entire book takes on a rounded cross section:


Book convex on the spine, concave at the fore-edge, with ears projecting on either side of the spine. Then the spine is glued again, a paper liner is stuck to it and headbands and footbands are applied. Next a crash lining (an open weave cloth somewhat like a stronger cheesecloth) is usually applied, overlapping the sides of the spine by an inch or more. Finally the inside of the case, which has been constructed and foil-stamped off-line on a separate machine, is glued on either side (but not on the spine area) and placed over the book block. This entire sandwich is now gripped from the outside and pressed together to form a solid bond between the endpapers and the inside of the case. The crash lining, which is glued to the spine of the pages, but not the spine of the case, is held between the endpapers and the case sides, and in fact provides most of the strength holding the book block into the case. The book will then be jacketed (most often by hand, allowing this stage to be an inspection stage also) before being packed ready for shipment. The sequence of events can vary slightly, and usually the entire sequence does not occur in one continuous pass through a binding line. What has been described above is unsewn binding, now increasingly common. The signatures of a book can also be held together by Smyth sewing. Needles pass through the spine fold of each signature in succession, from the outside to the center of the fold, sewing the pages of the signature together and each signature to its neighbors. McCain sewing, often used in schoolbook binding, involves drilling holes through the entire book and sewing through all the pages from front to back near the spine edge. Both of these methods mean that the folds in the spine of the book will not be ground off in the binding line. This is true of another technique, notch binding, where gashes about an inch long are made at intervals through the fold in the spine of each signature, parallel to the spine direction. In the binding line glue is forced into these notches right to the center of the signature, so that every pair of pages in the signature is bonded to every other one, just as in the Smyth sewn book. The rest of the binding process is similar in all instances. Sewn and notch bound books can be bound as either hardbacks or paperbacks. Making cases happens off-line and prior to the books arrival at the binding line. In the most basic case making, two pieces of cardboard are placed onto a glued piece of cloth with a space between them into which is glued a thinner board cut to the width of the spine of the book. The overlapping edges of the cloth (about 5/8 all round) are folded over the boards, and pressed down to adhere. After case making the stack of cases will go to the foil stamping area. Metal dies, photoengraved elsewhere, are mounted in the stamping machine and rolls of foil are positioned to pass between the dies and the case to be stamped. Heat and pressure cause the foil to detach from its backing and adhere to the case. Foils come in various shades of gold and silver and in a variety pigment colors, and by careful setup quite elaborate effects can be achieved by using different rolls of foil on the one book. Cases can also be made from paper which has been printed separately and then protected with clear film lamination. A three-piece case is made similarly but has a different material on the spine and overlapping onto the sides: so it starts out as three pieces of material, one each of a cheaper material for the sides and the different, stronger material for the spine. Recent developments in book manufacturing include the development of digital printing. Book pages are printed, in much the same way as an office copier works, using toner rather than ink. Each book is printed in one pass, not as separate signatures. Digital printing has permitted the manufacture of much smaller quantities than offset, in part because of the absence of make readies and of spoilage. One might think of a web press as printing quantities over 2000, quantities from 250 to 2000 being printed on sheet-fed presses, and digital presses doing quantities below 250. These numbers are of course only approximate and will vary from supplier to supplier, and from book to book depending on its characteristics. Digital printing has opened up the possibility of print-on-demand, where no books are printed until after an order is received from a customer.




Digital format
The term e-book is a contraction of "electronic book"; it refers to a digital version of a conventional print book. An e-book is usually made available through the internet, but also on CD-ROM and other forms. E-Books may be read either via a computer or by means of a portable book display device known as an e-book reader, such as the Sony Reader, Barnes & Noble Nook or the Amazon Kindle. These devices attempt to mimic the experience of reading a print book. Throughout the 20th century, libraries have faced an ever-increasing rate of publishing, sometimes called an information explosion. The advent of electronic publishing and the Internet means that much new information is not printed in paper books, but is made available online through a digital library, on CD-ROM, or in the form of e-books. An on-line book is an e-book that is available online through the internet. Though many books are produced digitally, most digital versions are not available to the public, and there is no decline in the rate of paper publishing.[20] There is an effort, however, to convert books that are in the public domain into a digital medium for unlimited redistribution and infinite availability. This effort is spearheaded by Project Gutenberg combined with Distributed Proofreaders. There have also been new developments in the process of publishing books. Technologies such as print on demand, which make it possible to print as few as one book at a time, have made self-publishing much easier and more affordable. On-demand publishing has allowed publishers, by avoiding the high costs of warehousing, to keep low-selling books in print rather than declaring them out of print.

Book structure
The common structural parts of a book include: Front cover: hardbound or softcover (paperback); the spine is the binding that joins the front and rear covers where the pages hinge. Front endpaper Flyleaf: The blank leaf or leaves following the front free endpaper. Front matter Frontispiece Title page Copyright page: typically verso of title page: shows copyright owner/date, credits, edition/printing, cataloguing details Table of contents List of figures List of tables Dedication Acknowledgments Foreword Preface
Scheme of common book design Belly band Flap endpapersEndpaperBook coverTop edge Fore edge Tail edge Right page, recto Left page, verso Gutter




Body: the text or contents, the pages often collected or folded into signatures; the pages are usually numbered sequentially, and often divided into chapters. Back matter Appendix Glossary Index Notes Bibliography Colophon Flyleaf: The blank leaf or leaves (if any) preceding the back free endpaper. Rear endpaper Rear cover

Binding of a book from separate papers

A bookmark is a thin marker, commonly made of paper or card, used to keep one's place in a book. Bookmarks were used throughout the medieval period,[21] consisting usually of a small parchment strip attached to the edge of folio (or a piece of cord attached to headband). Bookmarks in the 18th and 19th centuries were narrow silk ribbons bound into the book and become widespread in the 1850s. They were usually made from silk, embroidered fabrics or leather. Not until the 1880s did paper and other materials become more common. Some large reference books such as dictionaries, may have a thumb index which is a round cutout in the pages with some printing, allowing the user to see approximately where the wanted entry may be, and open the book to the appropriate section, without looking at the table of contents, or index. The process of physically assembling a book from a number of folded or unfolded sheets of paper is bookbinding.

The size of a modern book is based on the printing area of a common flatbed press. The pages of type were arranged and clamped in a frame, so that when printed on a sheet of paper the full size of the press, the pages would be right side up and in order when the sheet was folded, and the folded edges trimmed. The most common book sizes are: Quarto (4to): the sheet of paper is folded twice, forming four leaves (eight pages) approximately 11-13inches (ca 30cm) tall Octavo (8vo): the most common size for current hardcover books. Real-size facsimile of Codex Gigas The sheet is folded three times into eight leaves (16 pages) up to 9 " (ca 23 cm) tall. DuoDecimo (12mo): a size between 8vo and 16mo, up to 7 " (ca 18cm) tall Sextodecimo (16mo): the sheet is folded four times, forming 16 leaves (32 pages) up to 6 " (ca 15 cm) tall Sizes smaller than 16mo are: 24mo: up to 5 " (ca 13cm) tall. 32mo: up to 5" (ca 12cm) tall. 48mo: up to 4" (ca 10cm) tall. 64mo: up to 3" (ca 8cm) tall.



Small books can be called booklets. Sizes larger than quarto are: Folio: up to 15" (ca 38cm) tall. Elephant Folio: up to 23" (ca 58cm) tall. Atlas Folio: up to 25" (ca 63cm) tall. Double Elephant Folio: up to 50" (ca 127cm) tall.

The largest extant medieval manuscript in the world is Codex Gigas 92 50 22cm. The world's largest book made of stone is in Kuthodaw Pagoda (Myanmar). The longest book title in the worlds is 670 word long.

The world's largest book

Types of books
Types of books according to their contents
A common separation by content are fiction and non-fictional books. By no means are books limited to this classification, but it is a separation that can be found in most collections, libraries, and bookstores. Fiction Many of the books published today are fictitious stories. They are in-part or completely untrue or fantasy. Historically, paper production was considered too expensive to be used for entertainment. An increase in global literacy and print technology led to the increased publication of books for the purpose of entertainment, and allegorical social commentary. Most fiction is additionally categorized by genre.
Novels in a Polish bookstore The novel is the most common form of fictional book. Novels are stories that typically feature a plot, setting, themes and characters. Stories and narrative are not restricted to any topic; a novel can be whimsical, serious or controversial. The novel has had a tremendous impact on entertainment and publishing markets.[22] A novella is a term sometimes used for fictional prose typically between 17,500 and 40,000 words, and a novelette between 7,500 and 17,500. A Short story may be any length up to 10,000 words, but these word lengths are not universally established.

Comic books or graphic novels are books in which the story is not told, but illustrated.

Book Non-fiction In a library, a reference book is a general type of non-fiction book which provides information as opposed to telling a story, essay, commentary, or otherwise supporting a point of view. An almanac is a very general reference book, usually one-volume, with lists of data and information on many topics. An encyclopedia is a book or set of books designed to have more in-depth articles on many topics. A book listing words, their etymology, meanings, and other information is called a dictionary. A book which is a collection of maps is an atlas. A more specific reference book with tables or lists of data and information about a certain topic, often intended for professional use, is often called a handbook. Books which try to list references and abstracts in a certain broad area may be called an index, such as Engineering Index, or abstracts such as chemical abstracts and biological abstracts.


A page from a dictionary

Books with technical information on how to do something or how to use some equipment are called instruction manuals. Other popular how-to books include cookbooks and home improvement books. Students typically store and carry textbooks and schoolbooks for study purposes. Elementary school pupils often use workbooks, which are published with spaces or blanks to be filled by them for study or homework. In US higher education, it is common for a student to take an exam using a blue book.
An atlas

There is a large set of books that are made only to write private ideas, notes, and accounts. These books are rarely published and are typically destroyed or remain private. Notebooks are blank papers to be written in by the user. Students and writers commonly use them for taking notes. Scientists and other researchers use lab notebooks to record their notes. They often feature spiral coil bindings at the edge so that pages may easily be torn out.

A page from a notebook used as hand written diary



Address books, phone books, and calendar/appointment books are commonly used on a daily basis for recording appointments, meetings and personal contact information. Books for recording periodic entries by the user, such as daily information about a journey, are called logbooks or simply logs. A similar book for writing the owner's daily private personal events, information, and ideas is called a diary or personal journal. Businesses use accounting books such as journals and ledgers to record financial data in a practice called bookkeeping.

A Telephone Directory, with business and residence listings.

Other types There are several other types of books which are not commonly found under this system. Albums are books for holding a group of items belonging to a particular theme, such as a set of photographs, card collections, and memorabilia. One common example is stamp albums, which are used by many hobbyists to protect and organize their collections of postage stamps. Such albums are often made using removable plastic pages held inside in a ringed binder or other similar smolder. Hymnals are books with collections of musical hymns that can typically be found in churches. Prayerbooks or missals are books that contain written prayers and are commonly carried by monks, nuns, and other devoted followers or clergy.

Types of books according to their binding or cover

Hardcover books have a stiff binding. Paperback books have cheaper, flexible covers which tend to be less durable. An alternative to paperback is the glossy cover, otherwise known as a dust cover, found on magazines, and comic books. Spiral-bound books are bound by spirals made of metal or plastic. Examples of spiral-bound books include: teachers' manuals and puzzle books (crosswords, sudoku). Publishing is a process for producing pre-printed books, magazines, and newspapers for the reader/user to buy. Publishers may produce low-cost, pre-publication copies known as galleys or 'bound proofs' for promotional purposes, such as generating reviews in advance of publication. Galleys are usually made as cheaply as possible, since they are not intended for sale.
Hardcover books

Paperback books



Collections of books
Private or personal libraries made up of non-fiction and fiction books, (as opposed to the state or institutional records kept in archives) first appeared in classical Greece. In ancient world the maintaining of a library was usually (but not exclusively) the privilege of a wealthy individual. These libraries could have been either private or public, i.e. for people who were interested in using them. The difference from a modern public library lies in the fact that they were usually not funded from public sources. It is estimated that in the city of Rome at the end of the 3rd century there were around 30 public libraries. Public Celsus Library was built in 135 AD and could libraries also existed in other cities of the ancient Mediterranean region house around 12,000 scrolls. (for example, Library of Alexandria).[23] Later, in the Middle Ages, monasteries and universities had also libraries that could be accessible to general public. Typically not the whole collection was available to public, the books could not be borrowed and often were chained to reading stands to prevent theft. The beginning of modern public library begins around 15th century when individuals started to donate books to towns.[24] The growth of a public library system in the United States started in the late 19th century and was much helped by donations from Andrew Carnegie. This reflected classes in a society: The poor or the middle class had to access most books through a public library or by other means while the rich could afford to have a private library built in their homes. In the United States the Boston Public Library 1852 Report of the Trustees established the justification for the public library as a tax-supported institution intended to extend educational opportunity and provide for general culture.[25] The advent of paperback books in the 20th century led to an explosion of popular publishing. Paperback books made owning books affordable for many people. Paperback books often included works from genres that had previously been published mostly in pulp magazines. As a result of the low cost of such books and the spread of bookstores filled with them (in addition to the creation of a smaller market of extremely cheap used paperbacks) owning a private library ceased to be a status symbol for the rich. In library and booksellers' catalogues, it is common to include an abbreviation such as "Crown 8vo" to indicate the paper size from which the book is made. When rows of books are lined on a book holder, bookends are sometimes needed to keep them from slanting.

Identification and classification

During the 20th century, librarians were concerned about keeping track of the many books being added yearly to the Gutenberg Galaxy. Through a global society called the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), they devised a series of tools including the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD). Each book is specified by an International Standard Book Number, or ISBN, which is unique to every edition of every book produced by participating publishers, world wide. It is managed by the ISBN Society. An ISBN has four parts: the first part is the country code, the second the publisher code, and the third the title code. The last part is a check digit, and can take values from 09 and X (10). The EAN Barcodes numbers for books are derived from the ISBN by prefixing 978, for Bookland, and calculating a new check digit.

ISBN number with barcode

Book Commercial publishers in industrialized countries generally assign ISBNs to their books, so buyers may presume that the ISBN is part of a total international system, with no exceptions. However, many government publishers, in industrial as well as developing countries, do not participate fully in the ISBN system, and publish books which do not have ISBNs. A large or public collection requires a catalogue. Codes called "call numbers" relate the books to the catalogue, and determine their locations on the shelves. Call numbers are based on a Library classification system. The call number is placed on the spine of the book, normally a short distance before the bottom, and inside. Institutional or national standards, such as ANSI/NISO Z39.41 - 1997, establish the correct way to place information (such as the title, or the name of the author) on book spines, and on "shelvable" book-like objects, such as containers for DVDs, video tapes and software. One of the earliest and most widely known systems of cataloguing books is the Dewey Decimal System. Another widely known system is the Library of Congress Classification system. Both systems are biased towards subjects which were well-represented in US libraries when they were developed, and hence have problems handling new subjects, such as computing, or subjects relating to other cultures. Information about books and authors can be stored in databases like online general-interest book databases. Metadata about a book may include its ISBN or other classification number (see above), the names of contributors (author, editor, illustrator) and publisher, its date and size, and the language of the text.
Books on library shelves with bookends, and call numbers visible on the spines


Classification systems
Bliss bibliographic classification (BC) Chinese Library Classification (CLC) Colon Classification Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) Harvard-Yenching Classification Library of Congress Classification (LCC) New Classification Scheme for Chinese Libraries Universal Decimal Classification (UDC)

Uses for books

Aside from the primary purpose of reading them, books are also used for other ends: A book can be an artistic artifact; this is sometimes known as an artists' book. A book may be evaluated by a reader or professional writer to create a book review. A book may be read by a group of people to use as a spark for social or academic discussion, as in a book club. A book may be studied by students as the subject of a writing and analysis exercise in the form of a book report. Books are sometimes used for their exterior appearance to decorate a room, such as a study.



Paper and conservation issues

Though papermaking in Europe had begun around the 11th century, up until the beginning of 16th century vellum and paper were produced congruent to one another, vellum being the more expensive and durable option. Printers or publishers would often issue the same publication on both materials, to cater to more than one market. Paper was first made in China, as early as 200 B.C., and reached Europe through Muslim territories. At first made of rags, the industrial revolution changed paper-making practices, allowing for paper to be made out of wood pulp.

Halfbound book with leather and marbled paper.

Paper made from wood pulp became popular in the early 20th century, because it was cheaper than linen or abaca cloth-based papers. Pulp-based paper made books less expensive to the general public. This paved the way for huge leaps in the rate of literacy in industrialised nations, and enabled the spread of information during the Second Industrial Revolution. However pulp paper contained acid, that eventually destroys the paper from within. Earlier techniques for making paper used limestone rollers, which neutralized the acid in the pulp. Books printed between 1850 and 1950 are at risk; more recent books are often printed on acid-free or alkaline paper. Libraries today have to consider mass deacidification of their older collections. Stability of the climate is critical to the long-term preservation of paper and book material.[26] Good air circulation is important to keep fluctuation in climate stable. The HVAC system should be up to date and functioning efficiently. Light is detrimental to collections. Therefore, care should be given to the collections by implementing light control. General housekeeping issues can be addressed, including pest control. In addition to these helpful solutions, a library must also make an effort to be prepared if a disaster occurs, one that they cannot control. Time and effort should be given to create a concise and effective disaster plan to counteract any damage incurred through acts of god therefore a emergency management plan should be in place.

Notes and references

[1] "Books of the world, stand up and be counted! All 129,864,880 of you." (http:/ / booksearch. blogspot. com/ 2010/ 08/ books-of-world-stand-up-and-be-counted. html). Inside Google Books. August 5, 2010. . Retrieved 2010-08-15. "After we exclude serials, we can finally count all the books in the world. There are 129,864,880 of them. At least until Sunday." [2] "Book" (http:/ / dictionary. reference. com/ browse/ book). Dictionary.com. . Retrieved 2010-11-06. [3] Northvegr - Holy Language Lexicon: B (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20081103044850/ http:/ / www. northvegr. org/ holy/ b. php) archived November 3, 2008 from the original (http:/ / www. northvegr. org/ holy/ b. php) [4] Avrin, Leila (1991). Scribes, script, and books: the book arts from antiquity to the Renaissance. New York, New York: American Library Association; The British Library. p.83. ISBN9780838905227. [5] Dard Hunter. Papermaking: History and Technique of an Ancient Craft New ed. Dover Publications 1978, p. 12. [6] Leila Avrin. Scribes, Script and Books, pp. 144145. [7] The Cambridge History of Early Christian Literature. Edd. Frances Young, Lewis Ayres, Andrew Louth, Ron White. Cambridge University Press 2004, pp. 89. [8] Leila Avrin. Scribes, Script and Books, p. 173. [9] Bischoff, Bernhard (1990). Latin palaeography antiquity and the Middle Ages. Dibh Crinin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.11. ISBN0521364736. [10] Leila Avrin. Scribes, Script and Books, pp. 207208. [11] Theodore Maynard. Saint Benedict and His Monks. Staples Press Ltd 1956, pp. 7071. [12] Martin D. Joachim. Historical Aspects of Cataloguing and Classification. Haworth Press 2003, p. 452. [13] Edith Diehl. Bookbinding: Its Background and Technique. Dover Publications 1980, pp. 1416. [14] Bernhard Bischoff. Latin Palaeography, pp. 1617. [15] Paul Saenger. Space Between Words: The Origins of Silent Reading. Stanford University Press 1997. [16] Bernhard Bischoff. Latin Palaeography, pp. 4243.

[17] Edmund Burke (June 2009). "Islam at the Center: Technological Complexes and the Roots of Modernity". Journal of World History (University of Hawaii Press) 20 (2): 165186 [43]. doi:10.1353/jwh.0.0045 [18] Edmund Burke (June 2009). "Islam at the Center: Technological Complexes and the Roots of Modernity". Journal of World History (University of Hawaii Press) 20 (2): 165186 [44]. doi:10.1353/jwh.0.0045 [19] Clapham, Michael, "Printing" in A History of Technology, Vol 2. From the Renaissance to the Industrial Revolution, edd. Charles Singer et al. (Oxford 1957), p. 377. Cited from Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change (Cambridge University, 1980). [20] Bowker Reports Traditional U.S. Book Production Flat in 2009 (http:/ / www. bowker. com/ index. php/ press-releases/ 616-bowker-reports-traditional-us-book-production-flat-in-2009) [21] For a 9th century Carolingian bookmark see: Szirmai, J. A. (1999). The archaeology of medieval bookbinding. Aldershot: Ashgate. p.123. ISBN0859679047. For a 15th century bookmark see Medeltidshandskrift 34, Lund University Library. [22] Edwin Mcdowell (October 30, 1989). "The Media Business; Publishers Worry After Fiction Sales Weaken" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=950DE0D7173BF933A05753C1A96F948260). New York Times. . Retrieved 2008-01-25. [23] Miriam A. Drake, Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science (Marcel Dekker, 2003), "Public Libraries, History". [24] Miriam A. Drake, Encyclopedia of Library, "Public Libraries, History". [25] McCook, Kathleen de la Pea (2011), Introduction to Public Librarianship, 2nd ed., p. 23 New York, Neal-Schuman. [26] Patkus, Beth (2003). Assessing Preservation Needs, A Self-Survey Guide. Andover: Northeast Document Conservation Center


External links
Centre for the History of the Book (http://www.hss.ed.ac.uk/chb/) Manuscripts, Books, and Maps: The Printing Press and a Changing World (http://communication.ucsd.edu/ bjones/Books/booktext.html) Society for the History of Authorship, Reading and Publishing (http://www.sharpweb.org/) Old Books, How to find information on publication history and value (http://www.sil.si.edu/SILPublications/ old-books.htm) (1998) Smithsonian Institution Libraries



, Aristotls

Marble bust of Aristotle. Roman copy after a Greek bronze original by Lysippus c. 330 BC. The alabaster mantle is modern Full name Born , Aristotls 384 BC Stageira, Chalcidice 322 BC (age 61 or 62) Euboea Ancient philosophy Western philosophy Peripatetic school Aristotelianism Physics, Metaphysics, Poetry, Theatre, Music, Rhetoric, Politics, Government, Ethics, Biology, Zoology Golden mean, Reason, Logic, Syllogism, Passion


Era Region School

Main interests

Notable ideas

Aristotle (Greek: , Aristotls) (384 BC 322 BC)[1] was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. Aristotle's writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics and metaphysics. Aristotle's views on the physical sciences profoundly shaped medieval scholarship, and their influence extended well into the Renaissance, although they were ultimately replaced by Newtonian physics. In the zoological sciences, some of his observations were confirmed to be accurate only in the 19th century. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, which was incorporated in the late 19th century into modern formal logic. In metaphysics, Aristotelianism had a profound influence on philosophical and theological thinking in the Islamic and Jewish traditions in the Middle Ages, and it continues to influence Christian theology, especially the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. All aspects of Aristotle's philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues (Cicero described his literary style as "a river of gold"),[2] it is thought that the majority of his writings are now lost and only about one-third of the original works have survived.[3]



Aristotle was born in Stageira, Chalcidice, in 384 BC, about 55km (34mi) east of modern-day Thessaloniki.[4] His father Nicomachus was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. Aristotle was trained and educated as a member of the aristocracy. At about the age of eighteen, he went to Athens to continue his education at Plato's Academy. Aristotle remained at the academy for nearly twenty years before quitting Athens in 348/47 BC. The traditional story about his departure reports that he was disappointed with the direction the academy took after control passed to Plato's nephew Speusippus upon his death, although it is possible that he feared anti-Macedonian sentiments and left before Plato had died.[5] He then traveled with Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor. While in Asia, Aristotle traveled with Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island. Aristotle married Hermias's adoptive daughter (or niece) Pythias. She bore him a daughter, whom they named Pythias. Soon after Hermias' death, Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander the Great in 343 BC.[6] Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During that time he gave lessons not only to Alexander, but also to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassander. In his Politics, Aristotle states that only one thing could justify monarchy, and that was if the virtue of the king and his family were greater than the virtue of the rest of the citizens put together.[7] Tactfully, he included the young prince and his father in that category. Aristotle encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest, and his attitude towards Persia was unabashedly ethnocentric. In one famous example, he counsels Alexander to be 'a leader to the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians, to look after the former as after friends and relatives, and to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants'.[8] By 335 BC he had returned to Athens, establishing his own school there known as the Lyceum. Aristotle conducted courses at the school for the next twelve Early Islamic portrayal of Aristotle years. While in Athens, his wife Pythias died and Aristotle became involved with Herpyllis of Stageira, who bore him a son whom he named after his father, Nicomachus. According to the Suda, he also had an eromenos, Palaephatus of Abydus.[9] It is during this period in Athens from 335 to 323 BC when Aristotle is believed to have composed many of his works.[6] Aristotle wrote many dialogues, only fragments of which survived. The works that have survived are in treatise form and were not, for the most part, intended for widespread publication, as they are generally thought to be lecture aids for his students. His most important treatises include Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, De Anima (On the Soul) and Poetics. Aristotle not only studied almost every subject possible at the time, but made significant contributions to most of them. In physical science, Aristotle studied anatomy, astronomy, embryology, geography, geology, meteorology, physics and zoology. In philosophy, he wrote on aesthetics, ethics, government, metaphysics, politics, economics, psychology, rhetoric and theology. He also studied education, foreign customs, literature and poetry. His combined works constitute a virtual encyclopedia of Greek knowledge. It has been suggested that Aristotle was probably the last person to know everything there was to be known in his own time.[10] Near the end of Alexander's life, Alexander began to suspect plots against himself, and threatened Aristotle in letters. Aristotle had made no secret of his contempt for Alexander's pretense of divinity, and the king had executed Aristotle's grandnephew Callisthenes as a traitor. A widespread tradition in antiquity suspected Aristotle of playing a role in Alexander's death, but there is little evidence for this.[11] Upon Alexander's death, anti-Macedonian sentiment in Athens once again flared. Eurymedon the hierophant denounced Aristotle for not holding the gods in honor. Aristotle fled the city to his mother's family estate in Chalcis, explaining, "I will not allow the Athenians to sin twice against philosophy,"[12] [13] a reference to Athens's prior trial

Aristotle and execution of Socrates. He died in Euboea of natural causes within the year (in 322 BC). Aristotle named chief executor his student Antipater and left a will in which he asked to be buried next to his wife.[14]


With the Prior Analytics, Aristotle is credited with the earliest study of formal logic, and his conception of it was the dominant form of Western logic until 19th century advances in mathematical logic. Kant stated in the Critique of Pure Reason that Aristotle's theory of logic completely accounted for the core of deductive inference.

Aristotle "says that 'on the subject of reasoning' he 'had nothing else on an earlier date to speak of'".[15] However, Plato reports that syntax was devised before him, by Prodicus of Ceos, who was concerned by the correct use of words. Logic seems to have emerged from dialectics; the earlier philosophers made frequent use of concepts like reductio ad absurdum in their discussions, but never truly Aristotle portrayed in the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle as a understood the logical implications. Even Plato had difficulties with logic; 15th-century-A.D. scholar although he had a reasonable conception of a deductive system, he could never [16] actually construct one and relied instead on his dialectic. Plato believed that deduction would simply follow from premises, hence he focused on maintaining solid premises so that the conclusion would logically follow. Consequently, Plato realized that a method for obtaining conclusions would be most beneficial. He never succeeded in devising such a method, but his best attempt was published in his book Sophist, where he introduced his division method.[17]

Analytics and the Organon

What we today call Aristotelian logic, Aristotle himself would have labeled "analytics". The term "logic" he reserved to mean dialectics. Most of Aristotle's work is probably not in its original form, since it was most likely edited by students and later lecturers. The logical works of Aristotle were compiled into six books in about the early 1st century AD: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Categories On Interpretation Prior Analytics Posterior Analytics Topics On Sophistical Refutations

The order of the books (or the teachings from which they are composed) is not certain, but this list was derived from analysis of Aristotle's writings. It goes from the basics, the analysis of simple terms in the Categories, the analysis of propositions and their elementary relations in On Interpretation, to the study of more complex forms, namely, syllogisms (in the Analytics) and dialectics (in the Topics and Sophistical Refutations). The first three treatises form the core of the logical theory stricto sensu: the grammar of the language of logic and the correct rules of reasoning. There is one volume of Aristotle's concerning logic not found in the Organon, namely the fourth book of Metaphysics.[16]



Aristotle's scientific method

Like his teacher Plato, Aristotle's philosophy aims at the universal. Aristotle, however, found the universal in particular things, which he called the essence of things, while Plato finds that the universal exists apart from particular things, and is related to them as their prototype or exemplar. For Aristotle, therefore, philosophic method implies the ascent from the study of particular phenomena to the knowledge of essences, while for Plato philosophic method means the descent from a knowledge of universal Forms (or ideas) to a contemplation of particular imitations of these. For Aristotle, "form" still refers to the unconditional basis of phenomena but is "instantiated" in a particular substance (see Universals and particulars, below). In a certain sense, Aristotle's method is both inductive and deductive, while Plato's is essentially deductive from a priori principles.[18] In Aristotle's terminology, "natural philosophy" is a branch of philosophy examining the phenomena of the natural world, and includes fields that would be regarded today as physics, biology and other natural sciences. In modern times, the scope of philosophy has become limited to more generic or abstract inquiries, such as ethics and metaphysics, in which logic plays a major role. Today's philosophy tends to exclude empirical study of the natural world by means of the scientific method. In contrast, Aristotle's philosophical endeavors encompassed virtually all facets of intellectual inquiry. In the larger sense of the word, Aristotle makes philosophy coextensive with reasoning, which he also would describe as "science". Note, however, that his use of the term science carries a different meaning than that covered by the term "scientific method". For Aristotle, "all science (dianoia) is either practical, poetical or theoretical" (Metaphysics 1025b25). By practical science, he means ethics and politics; by poetical science, he means the study of poetry and the other fine arts; by theoretical science, he means physics, mathematics and metaphysics. If logic (or "analytics") is regarded as a study preliminary to philosophy, the divisions of Aristotelian philosophy would consist of: (1) Logic; (2) Theoretical Philosophy, including Metaphysics, Physics and Mathematics; (3) Practical Philosophy and (4) Poetical Philosophy. In the period between his two stays in Athens, between his times at the "Aristotle" by Francesco Hayez (17911882) Academy and the Lyceum, Aristotle conducted most of the scientific thinking and research for which he is renowned today. In fact, most of Aristotle's life was devoted to the study of the objects of natural science. Aristotle's metaphysics contains observations on the nature of numbers but he made no original contributions to mathematics. He did, however, perform original research in the natural sciences, e.g., botany, zoology, physics, astronomy, chemistry, meteorology, and several other sciences. Aristotle's writings on science are largely qualitative, as opposed to quantitative. Beginning in the 16th century, scientists began applying mathematics to the physical sciences, and Aristotle's work in this area was deemed

Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), a detail of The School of Athens, a fresco by Raphael. Aristotle gestures to the earth, representing his belief in knowledge through empirical observation and experience, while holding a copy of his Nicomachean Ethics in his hand, whilst Plato gestures to the heavens, representing his belief in The Forms.

Aristotle hopelessly inadequate. His failings were largely due to the absence of concepts like mass, velocity, force and temperature. He had a conception of speed and temperature, but no quantitative understanding of them, which was partly due to the absence of basic experimental devices, like clocks and thermometers. His writings provide an account of many scientific observations, a mixture of precocious accuracy and curious errors. For example, in his History of Animals he claimed that human males have more teeth than females.[19] In a similar vein, John Philoponus, and later Galileo, showed by simple experiments that Aristotle's theory that a heavier object falls faster than a lighter object is incorrect.[20] On the other hand, Aristotle refuted Democritus's claim that the Milky Way was made up of "those stars which are shaded by the earth from the sun's rays," pointing out (correctly, even if such reasoning was bound to be dismissed for a long time) that, given "current astronomical demonstrations" that "the size of the sun is greater than that of the earth and the distance of the stars from the earth many times greater than that of the sun, then...the sun shines on all the stars and the earth screens none of them."[21] In places, Aristotle goes too far in deriving 'laws of the universe' from simple observation and over-stretched reason. Today's scientific method assumes that such thinking without sufficient facts is ineffective, and that discerning the validity of one's hypothesis requires far more rigorous experimentation than that which Aristotle used to support his laws. Aristotle also had some scientific blind spots. He posited a geocentric cosmology that we may discern in selections of the Metaphysics, which was widely accepted up until the 16th century. From the 3rd century to the 16th century, the dominant view held that the Earth was the center of the universe (geocentrism). Since he was perhaps the philosopher most respected by European thinkers during and after the Renaissance, these thinkers often took Aristotle's erroneous positions as given, which held back science in this epoch.[22] However, Aristotle's scientific shortcomings should not mislead one into forgetting his great advances in the many scientific fields. For instance, he founded logic as a formal science and created foundations to biology that were not superseded for two millennia. Moreover, he introduced the fundamental notion that nature is composed of things that change and that studying such changes can provide useful knowledge of underlying constants.


The five elements
Aristotle proposed a fifth element, aether, in addition to the four proposed earlier by Empedocles. Earth, which is cold and dry; this corresponds to the modern idea of a solid. Water, which is cold and wet; this corresponds to the modern idea of a liquid. Air, which is hot and wet; this corresponds to the modern idea of a gas. Fire, which is hot and dry; this corresponds to the modern idea of heat. Aether, which is the divine substance that makes up the heavenly spheres and heavenly bodies (stars and planets).

Each of the four earthly elements has its natural place. All that is earthly tends toward the center of the universe, i.e. the center of the Earth. Water tends toward a sphere surrounding the center. Air tends toward a sphere surrounding the water sphere. Fire tends toward the lunar sphere (in which the Moon orbits). When elements are out of their natural place, they move toward that place. This is "natural motion"motion requiring no extrinsic cause. So, for example, in water, earthy bodies sink while air bubbles rise up; in air, rain falls and flame rises. Outside all the other spheres, the heavenly, fifth element, manifested in the stars and planets, moves in the perfection of circles.



Aristotle defined motion as the actuality of a potentiality as such.[23] Aquinas suggested that the passage be understood literally; that motion can indeed be understood as the active fulfillment of a potential, as a transition toward a potentially possible state. Because actuality and potentiality are normally opposites in Aristotle, other commentators either suggest that the wording which has come down to us is erroneous, or that the addition of the "as such" to the definition is critical to understanding it.[24]

Causality, The Four Causes

Aristotle suggested that the reason for anything coming about can be attributed to four different types of simultaneously active causal factors: Material cause describes the material out of which something is composed. Thus the material cause of a table is wood, and the material cause of a car is rubber and steel. It is not about action. It does not mean one domino knocks over another domino. The formal cause is its form, i.e. the arrangement of that matter. It tells us what a thing is, that any thing is determined by the definition, form, pattern, essence, whole, synthesis or archetype. It embraces the account of causes in terms of fundamental principles or general laws, as the whole (i.e., macrostructure) is the cause of its parts, a relationship known as the whole-part causation. Plainly put the formal cause is the idea existing in the first place as exemplar in the mind of the sculptor, and in the second place as intrinsic, determining cause, embodied in the matter. Formal cause could only refer to the essential quality of causation. A more simple example of the formal cause is the blueprint or plan that one has before making or causing a human made object to exist. The efficient cause is "the primary source", or that from which the change or the ending of the change first starts. It identifies 'what makes of what is made and what causes change of what is changed' and so suggests all sorts of agents, nonliving or living, acting as the sources of change or movement or rest. Representing the current understanding of causality as the relation of cause and effect, this covers the modern definitions of "cause" as either the agent or agency or particular events or states of affairs. More simply again that which immediately sets the thing in motion. So take the two dominos this time of equal weighting, the first is knocked over causing the second also to fall over. This is effectively efficient cause. The final cause is its purpose, or that for the sake of which a thing exists or is done, including both purposeful and instrumental actions and activities. The final cause or telos is the purpose or end that something is supposed to serve, or it is that from which and that to which the change is. This also covers modern ideas of mental causation involving such psychological causes as volition, need, motivation or motives, rational, irrational, ethical, and all that gives purpose to behavior. Additionally, things can be causes of one another, causing each other reciprocally, as hard work causes fitness and vice versa, although not in the same way or function, the one is as the beginning of change, the other as the goal. (Thus Aristotle first suggested a reciprocal or circular causality as a relation of mutual dependence or influence of cause upon effect). Moreover, Aristotle indicated that the same thing can be the cause of contrary effects; its presence and absence may result in different outcomes. Simply it is the goal or purpose that brings about an event (not necessarily a mental goal). Taking our two dominos, it requires someone to intentionally knock the dominos over as they cannot fall themselves. Aristotle marked two modes of causation: proper (prior) causation and accidental (chance) causation. All causes, proper and incidental, can be spoken as potential or as actual, particular or generic. The same language refers to the effects of causes, so that generic effects assigned to generic causes, particular effects to particular causes, operating causes to actual effects. Essentially, causality does not suggest a temporal relation between the cause and the effect.



Aristotle held more accurate theories on some optical concepts than other philosophers of his day. The earliest known written evidence of a camera obscura can be found in Aristotle's documentation of such a device in 350 BC in Problemata. Aristotle's apparatus contained a dark chamber that had a single small hole, or aperture, to allow for sunlight to enter. Aristotle used the device to make observations of the sun and noted that no matter what shape the hole was, the sun would still be correctly displayed as a round object. In modern cameras, this is analogous to the diaphragm. Aristotle also made the observation that when the distance between the aperture and the surface with the image increased, the image was magnified.[25]

Chance and spontaneity

According to Aristotle, spontaneity and chance are causes of some things, distinguishable from other types of cause. Chance as an incidental cause lies in the realm of accidental things. It is "from what is spontaneous" (but note that what is spontaneous does not come from chance). For a better understanding of Aristotle's conception of "chance" it might be better to think of "coincidence": Something takes place by chance if a person sets out with the intent of having one thing take place, but with the result of another thing (not intended) taking place. For example: A person seeks donations. That person may find another person willing to donate a substantial sum. However, if the person seeking the donations met the person donating, not for the purpose of collecting donations, but for some other purpose, Aristotle would call the collecting of the donation by that particular donator a result of chance. It must be unusual that something happens by chance. In other words, if something happens all or most of the time, we cannot say that it is by chance. There is also more specific kind of chance, which Aristotle names "luck", that can only apply to human beings, since it is in the sphere of moral actions. According to Aristotle, luck must involve choice (and thus deliberation), and only humans are capable of deliberation and choice. "What is not capable of action cannot do anything by chance".[26]

Aristotle defines metaphysics as "the knowledge of immaterial being," or of "being in the highest degree of abstraction." He refers to metaphysics as "first philosophy", as well as "the theologic science."

Substance, potentiality and actuality

Aristotle examines the concepts of substance and essence (ousia) in his Metaphysics (Book VII), and he concludes that a particular substance is a combination of both matter and form. As he proceeds to the book VIII, he concludes that the matter of the substance is the substratum or the stuff of which it is composed; e.g., the matter of the house are the bricks, stones, timbers etc., or whatever constitutes the potential house, while the form of the substance is the actual house, namely 'covering for bodies and chattels' or any other differentia (see also predicables). The formula that gives the components is the account of the matter, and the formula that gives the differentia is the account of the form.[27] With regard to the change (kinesis) and its causes now, as he defines in his Physics and On Generation and Corruption 319b-320a, he distinguishes the coming to be from: 1. growth and diminution, which is change in quantity;
Statue of Aristotle (1915) by Cipri Adolf Bermann at the University of Freiburg im Breisgau

Aristotle 2. locomotion, which is change in space; and 3. alteration, which is change in quality. The coming to be is a change where nothing persists of which the resultant is a property. In that particular change he introduces the concept of potentiality (dynamis) and actuality (entelecheia) in association with the matter and the form. Referring to potentiality, this is what a thing is capable of doing, or being acted upon, if the conditions are right and it is not prevented by something else. For example, the seed of a plant in the soil is potentially (dynamei) plant, and if is not prevented by something, it will become a plant. Potentially beings can either 'act' (poiein) or 'be acted upon' (paschein), which can be either innate or learned. For example, the eyes possess the potentiality of sight (innate being acted upon), while the capability of playing the flute can be possessed by learning (exercise acting). Actuality is the fulfillment of the end of the potentiality. Because the end (telos) is the principle of every change, and for the sake of the end exists potentiality, therefore actuality is the end. Referring then to our previous example, we could say that an actuality is when a plant does one of the activities that plants do. "For that for the sake of which a thing is, is its principle, and the becoming is for the sake of the end; and the actuality is the end, and it is for the sake of this that the potentiality is acquired. For animals do not see in order that they may have sight, but they have sight that they may see."[28] In summary, the matter used to make a house has potentiality to be a house and both the activity of building and the form of the final house are actualities, which is also a final cause or end. Then Aristotle proceeds and concludes that the actuality is prior to potentiality in formula, in time and in substantiality. With this definition of the particular substance (i.e., matter and form), Aristotle tries to solve the problem of the unity of the beings, for example, "what is it that makes a man one"? Since, according to Plato there are two Ideas: animal and biped, how then is man a unity? However, according to Aristotle, the potential being (matter) and the actual one (form) are one and the same thing.[29]


Universals and particulars

Aristotle's predecessor, Plato, argued that all things have a universal form, which could be either a property, or a relation to other things. When we look at an apple, for example, we see an apple, and we can also analyze a form of an apple. In this distinction, there is a particular apple and a universal form of an apple. Moreover, we can place an apple next to a book, so that we can speak of both the book and apple as being next to each other. Plato argued that there are some universal forms that are not a part of particular things. For example, it is possible that there is no particular good in existence, but "good" is still a proper universal form. Bertrand Russell is a contemporary philosopher who agreed with Plato on the existence of "uninstantiated universals". Aristotle disagreed with Plato on this point, arguing that all universals are instantiated. Aristotle argued that there are no universals that are unattached to existing things. According to Aristotle, if a universal exists, either as a particular or a relation, then there must have been, must be currently, or must be in the future, something on which the universal can be predicated. Consequently, according to Aristotle, if it is not the case that some universal can be predicated to an object that exists at some period of time, then it does not exist. In addition, Aristotle disagreed with Plato about the location of universals. As Plato spoke of the world of the forms, a location where all universal forms subsist, Aristotle maintained that universals exist within each thing on which each universal is predicated. So, according to Aristotle, the form of apple exists within each apple, rather than in the world of the forms.



Biology and medicine

In Aristotelian science, most especially in biology, things he saw himself have stood the test of time better than his retelling of the reports of others, which contain error and superstition. He dissected animals but not humans; his ideas on how the human body works have been almost entirely superseded.

Empirical research program

Aristotle is the earliest natural historian whose work has survived in some detail. Aristotle certainly did research on the natural history of Lesbos, and the surrounding seas and neighbouring areas. The works that reflect this research, such as History of Animals, Generation of Animals, and Parts of Animals, contain some observations and interpretations, along with sundry myths and mistakes. The most striking passages are about the sea-life visible from observation on Lesbos and available from the catches of fishermen. His observations on catfish, electric fish (Torpedo) and angler-fish are detailed, as is his writing on cephalopods, namely, Octopus, Sepia (cuttlefish) and the paper nautilus (Argonauta argo). His description of the hectocotyl arm was about two thousand years ahead of its time, and widely disbelieved until its rediscovery in the 19th century. He separated the aquatic mammals from fish, and knew that sharks and rays were part of the group he called Selach (selachians).[30] Another good example of his methods comes from the Generation of Animals in which Aristotle describes breaking open fertilized chicken eggs at intervals to observe when visible organs were generated. He gave accurate descriptions of ruminants' four-chambered fore-stomachs, and of the ovoviviparous embryological development of the hound shark Mustelus mustelus.[31]

Octopus swimming

Torpedo fuscomaculata

Classification of living things

Aristotle's classification of living things contains some elements which still existed in the 19th century. What the modern zoologist would call vertebrates and invertebrates, Aristotle called 'animals with blood' and 'animals without blood' (he was not to know that complex invertebrates Leopard shark do make use of haemoglobin, but of a different kind from vertebrates). Animals with blood were divided into live-bearing (humans and mammals), and egg-bearing (birds and fish). Invertebrates ('animals without blood') are insects, crustacea (divided into non-shelled cephalopods and shelled) and testacea (molluscs). In some respects, this incomplete classification is better than that of Linnaeus, who crowded the invertebrata together into two groups, Insecta and Vermes (worms). For Charles Singer, "Nothing is more remarkable than [Aristotle's] efforts to [exhibit] the relationships of living things as a scala naturae"[30] Aristotle's History of Animals classified organisms in relation to a hierarchical "Ladder of Life" (scala naturae), placing them according to complexity of structure and function so that higher organisms showed greater vitality and ability to move.[32] Aristotle believed that intellectual purposes, i.e., final causes, guided all natural processes. Such a teleological view gave Aristotle cause to justify his observed data as an expression of formal design. Noting that "no animal has, at the

Aristotle same time, both tusks and horns," and "a single-hooved animal with two horns I have never seen," Aristotle suggested that Nature, giving no animal both horns and tusks, was staving off vanity, and giving creatures faculties only to such a degree as they are necessary. Noting that ruminants had multiple stomachs and weak teeth, he supposed the first was to compensate for the latter, with Nature trying to preserve a type of balance.[33] In a similar fashion, Aristotle believed that creatures were arranged in a graded scale of perfection rising from plants on up to man, the scala naturae or Great Chain of Being.[34] His system had eleven grades, arranged according "to the degree to which they are infected with potentiality", expressed in their form at birth. The highest animals laid warm and wet creatures alive, the lowest bore theirs cold, dry, and in thick eggs. Aristotle also held that the level of a creature's perfection was reflected in its form, but not preordained by that form. Ideas like this, and his ideas about souls, are not regarded as science at all in modern times. He placed emphasis on the type(s) of soul an organism possessed, asserting that plants possess a vegetative soul, responsible for reproduction and growth, animals a vegetative and a sensitive soul, responsible for mobility and sensation, and humans a vegetative, a sensitive, and a rational soul, capable of thought and reflection.[35] Aristotle, in contrast to earlier philosophers, but in accordance with the Egyptians, placed the rational soul in the heart, rather than the brain.[36] Notable is Aristotle's division of sensation and thought, which generally went against previous philosophers, with the exception of Alcmaeon.[37]


Successor: Theophrastus
Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum, Theophrastus, wrote a series of books on botanythe History of Plantswhich survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to botany, even into the Middle Ages. Many of Theophrastus' names survive into modern times, such as carpos for fruit, and pericarpion for seed vessel. Rather than focus on formal causes, as Aristotle did, Theophrastus suggested a mechanistic scheme, drawing analogies between natural and artificial processes, and relying on Aristotle's concept of the efficient cause. Theophrastus also recognized the role of sex in the reproduction of some higher plants, though this last discovery was lost in later ages.[38]

Influence on Hellenistic medicine

After Theophrastus, the Lyceum failed to produce any original work. Though interest in Aristotle's ideas survived, they were generally taken unquestioningly.[39] It is not until the age of Alexandria under the Ptolemies that advances in biology can be again found.

The first medical teacher at Alexandria, Herophilus of Chalcedon, corrected Aristotle, placing intelligence in the brain, and connected the nervous system to motion and sensation. Herophilus also distinguished between veins and arteries, noting that the latter pulse while the former do not.[40] Though a few ancient atomists such as Lucretius challenged the teleological viewpoint of Aristotelian ideas about life, teleology (and after the rise of Christianity, natural theology) would remain central to biological thought essentially until the 18th and 19th centuries. Ernst Mayr claimed that there was "nothing of any real consequence in biology after Lucretius and Galen until the Renaissance."[41] Aristotle's ideas of natural history and medicine survived, but they were generally taken unquestioningly.[42]

Frontispiece to a 1644 version of the expanded and illustrated edition of Historia Plantarum (ca. 1200), which was originally written around 200 BC



Aristotle's psychology, given in his treatise On the Soul (peri psyche, often known by its Latin title De Anima), posits three souls ("psyches") in humans: the vegetative soul, the sensitive soul, and the rational soul. Humans share the vegetative soul with all living things, and the sensitive soul with all animals, but only humans of all beings in the world have a rational soul. For Aristotle, the soul (psyche) was a simpler concept than it is for us today. By soul he simply meant the form of the living being. Since all beings are composites of form and matter, the form of living beings is that which endows them with what is specific to living beings, e.g. the ability to initiate movement (or in the case of plants, growth and chemical transformations, which Aristotle considers types of movement).[43]

Practical philosophy
Aristotle considered ethics to be a practical rather than theoretical study, i.e., one aimed at doing good rather than knowing for its own sake. He wrote several treatises on ethics, including most notably, the Nicomachean Ethics. Aristotle taught that virtue has to do with the proper function (ergon) of a thing. An eye is only a good eye in so much as it can see, because the proper function of an eye is sight. Aristotle reasoned that humans must have a function specific to humans, and that this function must be an activity of the psuch (normally translated as soul) in accordance with reason (logos). Aristotle identified such an optimum activity of the soul as the aim of all human deliberate action, eudaimonia, generally translated as "happiness" or sometimes "well being". To have the potential of ever being happy in this way necessarily requires a good character (thik aret), often translated as moral (or ethical) virtue (or excellence).[44] Aristotle taught that to achieve a virtuous and potentially happy character requires a first stage of having the fortune to be habituated not deliberately, but by teachers, and experience, leading to a later stage in which one consciously chooses to do the best things. When the best people come to live life this way their practical wisdom (phronsis) and their intellect (nous) can develop with each other towards the highest possible human virtue, the wisdom of an accomplished theoretical or speculative thinker, or in other words, a philosopher.[45]

In addition to his works on ethics, which address the individual, Aristotle addressed the city in his work titled Politics. Aristotle considered the city to be a natural community. Moreover, he considered the city to be prior in importance to the family which in turn is prior to the individual, "for the whole must of necessity be prior to the part".[46] He also famously stated that "man is by nature a political animal." Aristotle conceived of politics as being like an organism rather than like a machine, and as a collection of parts none of which can exist without the others. Aristotle's conception of the city is organic, and he is considered one of the first to conceive of the city in this manner.[47] The common modern understanding of a political community as a modern state is quite different to Aristotle's understanding. Although he was aware of the existence and potential of larger empires, the natural community according to Aristotle was the city (polis) which functions as a political "community" or "partnership" (koinnia). The aim of the city is not just to avoid injustice or for economic stability, but rather to allow at least some citizens the possibility to live a good life, and to perform beautiful acts: "The political partnership must be regarded, therefore, as being for the sake of noble actions, not for the sake of living together." This is distinguished from modern approaches, beginning with social contract theory, according to which individuals leave the state of nature because of "fear of violent death" or its "inconveniences."[48]



Rhetoric and poetics

Aristotle considered epic poetry, tragedy, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music to be imitative, each varying in imitation by medium, object, and manner.[49] For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, and poetry with language. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average; whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation through narrative or character, through change or no change, and through drama or no drama.[50] Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals.[51] While it is believed that Aristotle's Poetics comprised two books one on comedy and one on tragedy only the portion that focuses on tragedy has survived. Aristotle taught that tragedy is composed of six elements: plot-structure, character, style, spectacle, and lyric poetry.[52] The characters in a tragedy are merely a means of driving the story; and the plot, not the characters, is the chief focus of tragedy. Tragedy is the imitation of action arousing pity and fear, and is meant to effect the catharsis of those same emotions. Aristotle concludes Poetics with a discussion on which, if either, is superior: epic or tragic mimesis. He suggests that because tragedy possesses all the attributes of an epic, possibly possesses additional attributes such as spectacle and music, is more unified, and achieves the aim of its mimesis in shorter scope, it can be considered superior to epic.[53] Aristotle was a keen systematic collector of riddles, folklore, and proverbs; he and his school had a special interest in the riddles of the Delphic Oracle and studied the fables of Aesop.[54]

Views on women
Aristotle's analysis of procreation describes an active, ensouling masculine element bringing life to an inert, passive female element. On these grounds, Aristotle is considered by some feminist critics to have been a misogynist.[55] On the other hand, Aristotle gave equal weight to women's happiness as he did to men's, and commented in his Rhetoric that a society cannot be happy unless women are happy too: In places like Sparta where the lot of women is bad, there can only be half-happiness in society.[56]

Loss and preservation of his works

Modern scholarship reveals that Aristotle's "lost" works stray considerably in characterization[57] from the surviving Aristotelian corpus. Whereas the lost works appear to have been originally written with an intent for subsequent publication, the surviving works do not appear to have been so.[57] Rather the surviving works mostly resemble lecture notes unintended for publication.[57] The authenticity of a portion of the surviving works as originally Aristotelian is also today held suspect, with some books duplicating or summarizing each other, the authorship of one book questioned and another book considered to be unlikely Aristotle's at all.[57] Some of the individual works within the corpus, including the Constitution of Athens, are regarded by most scholars as products of Aristotle's "school," perhaps compiled under his direction or supervision. Others, such as On Colors, may have been produced by Aristotle's successors at the Lyceum, e.g., Theophrastus and Straton. Still others acquired Aristotle's name through similarities in doctrine or content, such as the De Plantis, possibly by Nicolaus of Damascus. Other works in the corpus include medieval palmistries and astrological and magical texts whose connections to Aristotle are purely fanciful and self-promotional.[58] According to a distinction that originates with Aristotle himself, his writings are divisible into two groups: the "exoteric" and the "esoteric".[59] Most scholars have understood this as a distinction between works Aristotle intended for the public (exoteric), and the more technical works intended for use within the school (esoteric). Modern scholars commonly assume these latter to be Aristotles own (unpolished) lecture notes (or in some cases possible notes by his students).[60] However, one classic scholar offers an alternative interpretation. The 5th century neoplatonist Ammonius Hermiae writes that Aristotle's writing style is deliberately obscurantist so that good people

Aristotle may for that reason stretch their mind even more, whereas empty minds that are lost through carelessness will be put to flight by the obscurity when they encounter sentences like these.[61] Another common assumption is that none of the exoteric works is extant that all of Aristotle's extant writings are of the esoteric kind. Current knowledge of what exactly the exoteric writings were like is scant and dubious, though many of them may have been in dialogue form. (Fragments of some of Aristotle's dialogues have survived.) Perhaps it is to these that Cicero refers when he characterized Aristotle's writing style as "a river of gold";[62] it is hard for many modern readers to accept that one could seriously so admire the style of those works currently available to us.[60] However, some modern scholars have warned that we cannot know for certain that Cicero's praise was reserved specifically for the exoteric works; a few modern scholars have actually admired the concise writing style found in Aristotle's extant works.[63] The surviving texts of Aristotle are technical treatises from within Aristotle's school, as opposed to the dialogues and other "exoteric" texts he published more widely during his lifetime. In some cases, the Aristotelian texts were likely left in different versions and contexts (as in the overlapping parts of the Eudemian Ethics and Nicomachean Ethics), or in smaller units that could be incorporated into larger books in different ways. Because of this, a posthumous compiler and publisher may sometimes have played a significant role in arranging the text into the form we know. One major question in the history of Aristotle's works, then, is how were the exoteric writings all lost, and how did the ones we now possess come to us?[64] The story of the original manuscripts of the esoteric treatises is described by Strabo in his Geography and Plutarch in his Parallel Lives.[65] The manuscripts were left from Aristotle to his successor Theophrastus, who in turn willed them to Neleus of Scepsis. Neleus supposedly took the writings from Athens to Scepsis, where his heirs let them languish in a cellar until the 1st century BC, when Apellicon of Teos discovered and purchased the manuscripts, bringing them back to Athens. According to the story, Apellicon tried to repair some of the damage that was done during the manuscripts' stay in the basement, introducing a number of errors into the text. When Lucius Cornelius Sulla occupied Athens in 86 BC, he carried off the library of Apellicon to Rome, where they were first published in 60 BC by the grammarian Tyrannion of Amisus and then by philosopher Andronicus of Rhodes.[66] [67] Carnes Lord attributes the popular belief in this story to the fact that it provides "the most plausible explanation for the rapid eclipse of the Peripatetic school after the middle of the third century, and for the absence of widespread knowledge of the specialized treatises of Aristotle throughout the Hellenistic period, as well as for the sudden reappearance of a flourishing Aristotelianism during the first century B.C."[68] Lord voices a number of reservations concerning this story, however. First, the condition of the texts is far too good for them to have suffered considerable damage followed by Apellicon's inexpert attempt at repair. Second, there is "incontrovertible evidence," Lord says, that the treatises were in circulation during the time in which Strabo and Plutarch suggest they were confined within the cellar in Scepsis. Third, the definitive edition of Aristotle's texts seems to have been made in Athens some fifty years before Andronicus supposedly compiled his. And fourth, ancient library catalogues predating Andronicus' intervention list an Aristotelian corpus quite similar to the one we currently possess. Lord sees a number of post-Aristotelian interpolations in the Politics, for example, but is generally confident that the work has come down to us relatively intact. As the influence of the falsafa grew in the West, in part due to Gerard of Cremona's translations and the spread of Averroism, the demand for Aristotle's works grew.[69] William of Moerbeke translated a number of them into Latin. When Thomas Aquinas wrote his theology, working from Moerbeke's translations, the demand for Aristotle's writings grew and the Greek manuscripts returned to the West, stimulating a revival of Aristotelianism in Europe to the point where Renaissance philosophy could be equated with Aristotelianism.[70]




More than twenty-three hundred years after his death, Aristotle remains one of the most influential people who ever lived. According to the philosopher Bryan Magee, "it is doubtful whether any human being has ever known as much as he did".[71] Aristotle was the founder of formal logic,[72] pioneered the study of zoology, and left every future scientist and philosopher in his debt through his contributions to the scientific method.[73] [74] Despite these achievements, the influence of Aristotle's errors is considered by some to have held back science considerably. Bertrand Russell notes that "almost every serious intellectual advance has had to begin with an attack on some Aristotelian doctrine". Russell also refers to Aristotle's ethics as "repulsive", and calls his logic "as definitely antiquated as Ptolemaic astronomy". Russell notes that these errors make it difficult to do historical justice to Aristotle, until one remembers how large of an advance he made upon all of his predecessors.[6]

Later Greek philosophers

Portrait of Aristotle. Pentelic marble, copy of the Imperial Period (1st or 2nd century) of a lost bronze sculpture made by Lysippos

The immediate influence of Aristotle's work was felt as the Lyceum grew into the Peripatetic school. Aristotle's notable students included Aristoxenus, Dicaearchus, Demetrius of Phalerum, Eudemos of Rhodes, Harpalus, Hephaestion, Meno, Mnason of Phocis, Nicomachus, and Theophrastus. Aristotle's influence over Alexander the Great is seen in the latter's bringing with him on his expedition a host of zoologists, botanists, and researchers. He had also learned a great deal about Persian customs and traditions from his teacher. Although his respect for Aristotle was diminished as his travels made it clear that much of Aristotle's geography was clearly wrong, when the old philosopher released his works to the public, Alexander complained "Thou hast not done well to publish thy acroamatic doctrines; for in what shall I surpass other men if those doctrines wherein I have been trained are to be all men's common property?"[75]

Influence on Christian theologians

Aristotle is referred to as "The Philosopher" by Scholastic thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas. See Summa Theologica, Part I, Question 3, etc. These thinkers blended Aristotelian philosophy with Christianity, bringing the thought of Ancient Greece into the Middle Ages. It required a repudiation of some Aristotelian principles for the sciences and the arts to free themselves for the discovery of modern scientific laws and empirical methods. The medieval English poet Chaucer describes his student as being happy by having at his beddes heed Twenty bookes, clad in blak or reed, Of aristotle and his philosophie,[76] The Italian poet Dante says of Aristotle in the first circles of hell, I saw the Master there of those who know, Amid the philosophic family, By all admired, and by all reverenced; There Plato too I saw, and Socrates, Who stood beside him closer than the rest.[77]



Influence on Islamic theologians

Aristotle was one of the most revered Western thinkers in early Islamic theology. Most of the still extant works of Aristotle,[78] as well as a great number of the original Greek commentaries, were translated into Arabic and studied by Muslim polymaths, philosophers, scientists and scholars, whose knowledge of Aristotle thus stretched far beyond that of early Medieval Christian commentators. Oriental interpreters of Aristotle's work followed the Greek interpreters without chronological gap, and the Medieval western tradition was influenced equally by Christian thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas and Muslim theologians such as Averroes, Avicenna and Alpharabius, all of whom wrote on Aristotle in great depth, and frequently compared the teachings of Aristotle with those of the prophets of Islam. Alkindus considered Aristotle as the outstanding and unique representative of philosophy[79] and Averroes spoke of Aristotle as the "exemplar" for all future philosophers.[80] Later Muslim philosophers, like their Christian counterparts, spoke of Aristotle as "the philosopher" and some described him as the "first teacher".[81] In accordance with the Greek theorists, the Muslims considered Aristotle to be a dogmatic philosopher, the author of a closed system, and believed that Aristotle shared with Plato essential tenets of thought. Some went so far as to credit Aristotle himself with neo-Platonic metaphysical ideas.[78]

Post-Enlightenment thinkers
The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche has been said to have taken nearly all of his political philosophy from Aristotle.[82] However implausible this is, it is certainly the case that Aristotle's rigid separation of action from production, and his justification of the subservience of slaves and others to the virtue or arete of a few justified the ideal of aristocracy. It is Martin Heidegger, not Nietzsche, who elaborated a new interpretation of Aristotle, intended to warrant his deconstruction of scholastic and philosophical tradition. Ayn Rand accredited Aristotle as "the greatest philosopher in history" and cited him as a major influence on her thinking. More recently, Alasdair MacIntyre has attempted to reform what he calls the Aristotelian tradition in a way that is anti-elitist and capable of disputing the claims of both liberals and Nietzscheans.[83]

List of works
The works of Aristotle that have survived from antiquity through medieval manuscript transmission are collected in the Corpus Aristotelicum. These texts, as opposed to Aristotle's lost works, are technical philosophical treatises from within Aristotle's school. Reference to them is made according to the organization of Immanuel Bekker's Royal Prussian Academy edition (Aristotelis Opera edidit Academia Regia Borussica, Berlin, 18311870), which in turn is based on ancient classifications of these works.

Notes and references

[1] That these undisputed dates (the first half of the Olympiad year 384/3, and in 322 shortly before the death of Demosthenes) are correct was shown already by August Boeckh (Kleine Schriften VI 195); for further discussion, see Felix Jacoby on FGrHist 244 F 38. Ingemar Dring, Aristotle in the Ancient Biographical Tradition, Gteborg, 1957, p. 253. [2] Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106BC-43BC). "flumen orationis aureum fundens Aristoteles" (http:/ / www2. cddc. vt. edu/ gutenberg/ 1/ 4/ 9/ 7/ 14970/ 14970-h/ 14970-h. htm#BkII_119). Academica. . Retrieved 25-Jan-2007. [3] Jonathan Barnes, "Life and Work" in The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle (1995), p. 9. [4] McLeisch, Kenneth Cole (1999). Aristotle: The Great Philosophers. Routledge. p.5. ISBN0-415-92392-1. [5] Carnes Lord, Introduction to The Politics, by Aristotle (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984). [6] Bertrand Russell, "A History of Western Philosophy", Simon & Schuster, 1972 [7] Aristotle, Politics, Book 3, Section 1288a. [8] Peter Green, Alexander of Macedon, 1991 University of California Press, Ltd. Oxford, England. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, p.5859 [9] William George Smith,Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. 3, p. 88 (http:/ / www. ancientlibrary. com/ smith-bio/ 2421. html) [10] Neill, Alex; Aaron Ridley (1995). The Philosophy of Art: Readings Ancient and Modern (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ dp/ 0070461929/ ). McGraw Hill. p.488. .

[11] Peter Green, Alexander of Macedon, 1991 University of California Press, Ltd. Oxford, England. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, p.379,459 [12] Jones, W.T. (1980). The Classical Mind: A History of Western Philosophy (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ dp/ 0155383124/ ). Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. p.216. . [13] Vita Marciana 41, cf. Aelian Varia historica 3.36, Ingemar Dring, Aristotle in the Ancient Biographical Tradition, Gteborg, 1957, T44a-e. [14] Aufstieg und Niedergang der rmischen Welt by Hildegard Temporini, Wolfgang Haase Aristotle's Will (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ifqGuiHo6eQC& pg=PA3862& dq=Antipater+ Aristotle+ will& sig=sQzQVBdRmk-spNdZnyd1MwzAPTc) [15] Bocheski, I. M. (1951). Ancient Formal Logic. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company. [16] Bocheski, 1951. [17] Rose, Lynn E. (1968). Aristotle's Syllogistic. Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher. [18] Jori, Alberto (2003). Aristotele. Milano: Bruno Mondadori Editore. [19] Aristotle, History of Animals, 2.3. [20] "Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy" (http:/ / plato. stanford. edu/ entries/ philoponus/ #2. 2). Plato.stanford.edu. . Retrieved 2009-04-26. [21] Aristotle, Meteorology 1.8, trans. E.W. Webster, rev. J. Barnes. [22] Burent, John. 1928. Platonism, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 61, 103104. [23] Physics 201a10-11, 201a27-29, 201b4-5 [24] Sachs, Joe (2005), "Aristotle: Motion and its Place in Nature" (http:/ / www. iep. utm. edu/ aris-mot/ ), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, [25] Michael Lahanas. "Optics and ancient Greeks" (http:/ / www. mlahanas. de/ Greeks/ Optics. htm). Mlahanas.de. . Retrieved 2009-04-26. [26] Aristotle, Physics 2.6 [27] Aristotle, Metaphysics VIII 1043a 1030 [28] Aristotle, Metaphysics IX 1050a 510 [29] Aristotle, Metaphysics VIII 1045a-b [30] Singer, Charles. A short history of biology. Oxford 1931. [31] Emily Kearns, "Animals, knowledge about," in Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd ed., 1996, p. 92. [32] Aristotle, of course, is not responsible for the later use made of this idea by clerics. [33] Mason, A History of the Sciences pp 4344 [34] Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, pp 201202; see also: Lovejoy, The Great Chain of Being [35] Aristotle, De Anima II 3 [36] Mason, A History of the Sciences pp 45 [37] Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy Vol. 1 pp. 348 [38] Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, pp 9091; Mason, A History of the Sciences, p 46 [39] Annas, Classical Greek Philosophy pp 252 [40] Mason, A History of the Sciences pp 56 [41] Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, pp 9094; quotation from p 91 [42] Annas, Classical Greek Philosophy, p 252 [43] Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, article "Psychology" (http:/ / plato. stanford. edu/ entries/ aristotle-psychology/ ). [44] Nicomachean Ethics Book I. See for example chapter 7 1098a (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 01. 0054:bekker page=1098a). [45] Nicomachean Ethics Book VI. [46] Politics 1253a19-24 [47] Ebenstein, Alan; William Ebenstein (2002). Introduction to Political Thinkers. Wadsworth Group. p.59. [48] For a different reading of social and economic processes in the Nicomachean Ethics and Politics see Polanyi, K. (1957) "Aristotle Discovers the Economy" in Primitive, Archaic and Modern Economies: Essays of Karl Polanyi ed. G. Dalton, Boston 1971, 78115 [49] Aristotle, Poetics I 1447a [50] Aristotle, Poetics III [51] Aristotle, Poetics IV [52] Aristotle, Poetics VI [53] Aristotle, Poetics XXVI [54] Temple, Olivia, and Temple, Robert (translators), The Complete Fables By Aesop (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ZB-rVxPvtPEC& pg=PR3& source=gbs_selected_pages& cad=0_0) Penguin Classics, 1998. ISBN 0140446494 Cf. Introduction, pp. xixii. [55] Harding, Sandra; Merrill B. Hintikka (31 December 1999). Discovering Reality,: Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ gp/ reader/ 9027714967/ ). Springer. p.372. . [56] Rhetoric 1.5.6 [57] Terence Irwin and Gail Fine, Cornell University, Aristotle: Introductory Readings. Indianapolis, Indiana: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. (1996), Introduction, pp. xixii. [58] Lynn Thorndike, "Chiromancy in Medieval Latin Manuscripts," Speculum 40 (1965), pp. 674706; Roger A. Pack, "Pseudo-Arisoteles: Chiromantia," Archives dhistoire doctrinale et littraire du Moyen ge 39 (1972), pp. 289320; Pack, "A Pseudo-Aristotelian Chiromancy," Archives dhistoire doctrinale et littraire du Moyen ge 36 (1969), pp. 189241.


[59] Jonathan Barnes, "Life and Work" in The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle (1995), p. 12; Aristotle himself: Nicomachean Ethics 1102a2627. Aristotle himself never uses the term "esoteric" or "acroamatic". For other passages where Aristotle speaks of exterikoi logoi, see W. D. Ross, Aristotle's Metaphysics (1953), vol. 2, pp. 408410. Ross defends an interpretation according to which the phrase, at least in Aristotle's own works, usually refers generally to "discussions not peculiar to the Peripatetic school", rather than to specific works of Aristotle's own. [60] Barnes, "Life and Work", p. 12. [61] Ammonius (1991). On Aristotle's Categories. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN080142688X. p. 15 [62] Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106BC-43BC). "flumen orationis aureum fundens Aristoteles" (http:/ / www2. cddc. vt. edu/ gutenberg/ 1/ 4/ 9/ 7/ 14970/ 14970-h/ 14970-h. htm#BkII_119). Academica. . Retrieved 25 January 2007. [63] Barnes, "Roman Aristotle", in Gregory Nagy, Greek Literature, Routledge 2001, vol. 8, p. 174 n. 240. [64] The definitive, English study of these questions is Barnes, "Roman Aristotle". [65] "Sulla." [66] Ancient Rome: from the early Republic to the assassination of Julius Caesar Page 513, Matthew Dillon, Lynda Garland [67] The Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 22 Page 131, Grolier Incorporated Juvenile Nonfiction [68] Lord, Carnes (1984). Introduction to the Politics, by Aristotle. Chicago: Chicago University Press. p.11. [69] Influence of Arabic and Islamic Philosophy on the Latin West (http:/ / plato. stanford. edu/ entries/ arabic-islamic-influence) entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy [70] Aristotelianism in the Renaissance (http:/ / plato. stanford. edu/ entries/ aristotelianism-renaissance) entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy [71] Magee, Bryan (2010). The Story of Philosophy. Dorling Kindersley. p.34. [72] W. K. C. Guthrie (1990). " A history of Greek philosophy: Aristotle : an encounter (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=8EG0yV0cGoEC& pg=PA156& dq& hl=en#v=onepage& q=& f=false)". Cambridge University Press. p.156. ISBN 0521387604 [73] "Aristotle (Greek philosopher) Britannica Online Encyclopedia" (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 34560/ Aristotle). Britannica.com. . Retrieved 2009-04-26. [74] Durant, Will (1926 (2006)). The Story of Philosophy. United States: Simon & Schuster, Inc.. p.92. ISBN9780671739164. [75] Plutarch, Life of Alexander [76] Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales, Prologue, lines 295295 [77] vidi l maestro di color che sanno seder tra filosofica famiglia. Tutti lo miran, tutti onor li fanno: quivi vido Socrate e Platone che nnanzi a li altri pi presso li stanno; Dante, LInferno (Hell), Canto IV. Lines 131135 [78] Encyclopedia of Islam, Aristutalis [79] Rasa'il I, 103, 17, Abu Rida [80] Comm. Magnum in Aristotle, De Anima, III, 2, 43 Crawford [81] al-mua'llim al-thani, Aristutalis [82] Durant, p. 86 [83] Kelvin Knight, Aristotelian Philosophy, Polity Press, 2007, passim.


Further reading
The secondary literature on Aristotle is vast. The following references are only a small selection. Ackrill J. L. (2010). Essays on Plato and Aristotle, Oxford University Press, USA. Ackrill, J. L. (1981). Aristotle the Philosopher. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Adler, Mortimer J. (1978). Aristotle for Everybody. New York: Macmillan. A popular exposition for the general reader. Ammonius (1991). Cohen, S. Marc; Matthews, Gareth B. eds. On Aristotle's Categories. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN080142688X. Aristotle (1908-1952). The Works of Aristotle Translated into English Under the Editorship of WD Ross, 12 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Pless. Bakalis Nikolaos. (2005). Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments, Trafford Publishing ISBN 1-4120-4843-5 Barnes J. (1995). The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle, Cambridge University Press. Bocheski, I. M. (1951). Ancient Formal Logic. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company.

Aristotle Bolotin, David (1998). An Approach to Aristotle's Physics: With Particular Attention to the Role of His Manner of Writing. Albany: SUNY Press. A contribution to our understanding of how to read Aristotle's scientific works. Burnyeat, M. F. et al. (1979). Notes on Book Zeta of Aristotle's Metaphysics. Oxford: Sub-faculty of Philosophy. Cantor, Norman F.; Klein, Peter L., eds (1969). Ancient Thought: Plato and Aristotle. Monuments of Western Thought. 1. Waltham, Mass: Blaisdell Publishing Co.. Chappell, V. (1973). Aristotle's Conception of Matter, Journal of Philosophy 70: 679696. Code, Alan. (1995). Potentiality in Aristotle's Science and Metaphysics, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 76. Ferguson, John (1972). Aristotle. New York: Twayne Publishers. Frede, Michael. (1987). Essays in Ancient Philosophy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Fuller, B.A.G. (1923). Aristotle. History of Greek Philosophy. 3. London: Cape. Gill, Mary Louise. (1989). Aristotle on Substance: The Paradox of Unity. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Guthrie, W. K. C. (1981). A History of Greek Philosophy, Vol. 6. Cambridge University Press. Halper, Edward C. (2007). One and Many in Aristotle's Metaphysics, Volume 1: Books Alpha Delta, Parmenides Publishing, ISBN 978-1-930972-21-6. Halper, Edward C. (2005). One and Many in Aristotle's Metaphysics, Volume 2: The Central Books, Parmenides Publishing, ISBN 978-1-930972-05-6. Irwin, T. H. (1988). Aristotle's First Principles (http://www.cyjack.com/cognition/Aristotle's first principles. pdf). Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 0198242905. Jaeger, Werner (1948). Robinson, Richard. ed. Aristotle: Fundamentals of the History of His Development (2nd ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. Jori, Alberto. (2003). Aristotele, Milano: Bruno Mondadori Editore (Prize 2003 of the "International Academy of the History of Science") ISBN 88-424-9737-1. Kiernan, Thomas P., ed (1962). Aristotle Dictionary. New York: Philosophical Library. Knight, Kelvin. (2007). Aristotelian Philosophy: Ethics and Politics from Aristotle to MacIntyre, Polity Press. Lewis, Frank A. (1991). Substance and Predication in Aristotle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lloyd, G. E. R. (1968). Aristotle: The Growth and Structure of his Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., ISBN 0-521-09456-9. Lord, Carnes. (1984). Introduction to The Politics, by Aristotle. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Loux, Michael J. (1991). Primary Ousia: An Essay on Aristotle's Metaphysics and . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. McKeon, Richard (1973). Introduction to Aristotle (2d ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Owen, G. E. L. (1965c). "The Platonism of Aristotle". Proceedings of the British Academy 50: 125150. [Reprinted in J. Barnes, M. Schofield, and R. R. K. Sorabji, eds.(1975). Articles on Aristotle Vol 1. Science. London: Duckworth 1434.] Pangle, Lorraine Smith (2003). Aristotle and the Philosophy of Friendship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Aristotle's conception of the deepest human relationship viewed in the light of the history of philosophic thought on friendship. Plato (1979). Allen, Harold Joseph; Wilbur, James B. eds. The Worlds of Plato and Aristotle. Buffalo: Prometheus Books. Reeve, C. D. C. (2000). Substantial Knowledge: Aristotle's Metaphysics. Indianapolis: Hackett. Rose, Lynn E. (1968). Aristotle's Syllogistic. Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher. Ross, Sir David (1995). Aristotle (6th ed.). London: Routledge. A classic overview by one of Aristotle's most prominent English translators, in print since 1923. Scaltsas, T. (1994). Substances and Universals in Aristotle's Metaphysics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Strauss, Leo (1964). "On Aristotle's Politics", in The City and Man, Chicago; Rand McNally. Swanson, Judith (1992). The Public and the Private in Aristotle's Political Philosoophy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.


Aristotle Taylor, Henry Osborn (1922). "Chapter 3: Aristotle's Biology" (http://web.archive.org/web/20060327222953/ http://www.ancientlibrary.com/medicine/0051.html). Greek Biology and Medicine (http://web.archive.org/ web/20060211201625/http://www.ancientlibrary.com/medicine/index.html). Veatch, Henry B. (1974). Aristotle: A Contemporary Appreciation. Bloomington: Indiana U. Press. For the general reader. Woods, M. J. (1991b). "Universals and Particular Forms in Aristotle's Metaphysics". Aristotle and the Later Tradition. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy. Suppl. pp.4156.


External links
Aristotle (http://www.iep.utm.edu/aristotl) entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (general article) Scholarly surveys of focused topics from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: articles on Aristotle (http:// plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle/), Aristotle in the Renaissance (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ aristotelianism-renaissance/), Biology (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-biology/), Causality (http:// plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-causality/), Commentators on Aristotle (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ aristotle-commentators/), Ethics (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-ethics/), Logic (http://plato. stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-logic/), Mathematics (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-mathematics/), Metaphysics (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-metaphysics/), Natural philosophy (http://plato. stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-natphil/), Non-contradiction (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ aristotle-noncontradiction/), Political theory (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-politics/), Psychology (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-psychology/), Rhetoric (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ aristotle-rhetoric/) The Catholic Encyclopedia (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01713a.htm) (general article) Diogenes Lartius, Life of Aristotle, translated by Robert Drew Hicks (1925). Works by Aristotle on Open Library at the Internet Archive Collections of works Massachusetts Institute of Technology (http://classics.mit.edu/Browse/index-Aristotle.html) primarily in English Project Gutenberg (http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/a#a2747) English texts Tufts University (http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/perscoll?.submit=Change&collection=Any& type=text&lang=Any&lookup=Aristotle) at the Perseus Project, in both English and Greek University of Adelaide (http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/a/aristotle/) primarily in English P. Remacle's collection (http://remacle.org/bloodwolf/philosophes/Aristote/table.htm) Greek with French translation The 11-volume 1837 Bekker edition of Aristotle's Works in Greek ( PDF (http://isnature.org/Files/Aristotle/)| DJVU (http://grid.ceth.rutgers.edu/ancient/greek/aristotle_greek/)) Bekker's Prussian Academy of Sciences edition of the complete works of Aristotle at Archive.org: volume 1 (http://www.archive.org/details/aristotelisopera01arisrich), volume 2 (http://www.archive.org/details/ aristotelisopera02arisrich), volume 3 (http://www.archive.org/details/aristotelisopera03arisrich), volume 4 (http://www.archive.org/details/aristotelisopera04arisrich), volume 5 (http://www.archive.org/details/ aristotelisopera05arisrich) Other Works by or about Aristotle (http://worldcat.org/identities/lccn-n79-4182) in libraries (WorldCat catalog) Timeline of Aristotle's life (http://www.concharto.org/search/eventsearch.htm?_tag=timeline of aristotle& _maptype=0) This article incorporates material from Aristotle on PlanetMath, which is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

Special library


Special library
A special library is a term for a library that is neither an academic nor school library, nor a public library. Special libraries include law libraries, news libraries, government libraries, corporate libraries, museum libraries, and medical libraries and are not usually open to the public for use. Special libraries are also sometimes known as information centers. They are generally staffed by librarians. Special libraries often have a more specific clientele than libraries in traditional educational or public settings, and deal with more specialized kinds of information. They are developed to support the mission of their sponsoring organization and their collections and services are more targeted and specific to the needs of their clientele. Special libraries are "special" in their collection, clientle/users and service. All of them provide pinpointed, exhaustive and expeditious service to their users. For example, in a research institute's library, the scientists may not be having time to visit the library for information gathering. In such a situation the apt information and not the document should be supplied to the users. Current Awareness Service[CAS] and Selective Decemination of Information[SDI] are very common.

Cloonan, Michele V.; Berger, Sidney E. "The Continuing Development of Special Collections Librarianship", in: Library Trends. 52, no. 1, (2003): 9 ISSN: 0024-2594 Scammell, Alison Handbook of Special Librarianship and Information Work. London: Aslib, 1997. ISBN 0-85142-398-1

Digital library
A digital library is a library in which collections are stored in digital formats (as opposed to print, microform, or other media) and accessible by computers.[1] The digital content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks. A digital library is a type of information retrieval system. In the context of the DELOS [2], a Network of Excellence on Digital Libraries, and DL.org [3], a Coordination Action on Digital Library Interoperability, Best Practices and Modelling Foundations, Digital Library researchers and practitioners produced a Digital Library Reference Model[4] [5] which defines a digital library as: A potentially virtual organisation, that comprehensively collects, manages and preserves for the long depth of time rich digital content, and offers to its targeted user communities specialised functionality on that content, of defined quality and according to comprehensive codified policies. Actually, this document contains a Digital Library Manifesto which introduces the three types of relevant systems, i.e. Digital Library, Digital Library System, and Digital Library Management System. It describes the main concepts characterising these systems, i.e., organisation, content, user, functionality, quality, policy and architecture. It introduces the main roles that actors may play within digital libraries, i.e., end-user, manager and software developer. Finally, it describes the reference frameworks needed to clarify the DL universe at different levels of abstraction, i.e., the Digital Library Reference Model and the Digital Library Reference Architecture. The first use of the term digital library in print may have been in a 1988 report to the Corporation for National Research Initiatives[6] The term digital libraries was first popularized by the NSF/DARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative in 1994.[7] These draw heavily on As We May Think by Vannevar Bush in 1945, which set out a vision not in terms of technology, but user experience.[8] The term virtual library was initially used interchangeably with digital library, but is now primarily used for libraries that are virtual in other senses (such as libraries which aggregate distributed content).

Digital library A distinction is often made between content that was created in a digital format, known as born-digital, and information that has been converted from a physical medium, e.g., paper, by digitizing. The term hybrid library is sometimes used for libraries that have both physical collections and digital collections. For example, American Memory is a digital library within the Library of Congress. Some important digital libraries also serve as long term archives, for example, the Eprint arXiv, and the Internet Archive.


Academic repositories
Many academic libraries are actively involved in building institutional repositories of the institution's books, papers, theses, and other works which can be digitized or were 'born digital'. Many of these repositories are made available to the general public with few restrictions, in accordance with the goals of open access, in contrast to the publication of research in commercial journals, where the publishers often limit access rights. Institutional, truly free, and corporate repositories are sometimes referred to as digital libraries.

Digital archives
Physical archives differ from physical libraries in several ways. Traditionally, archives were defined as: 1. Containing primary sources of information (typically letters and papers directly produced by an individual or organization) rather than the secondary sources found in a library (books, periodicals, etc); 2. Having their contents organized in groups rather than individual items. 3. Having unique contents. The technology used to create digital libraries has been even more revolutionary for archives since it breaks down the second and third of these general rules. In other words, "digital archives" or "online archives" will still generally contain primary sources, but they are likely to be described individually rather than (or in addition to) in groups or collections, and because they are digital their contents are easily reproducible and may indeed have been reproduced from elsewhere. The Oxford Text Archive is generally considered to be the oldest digital archive of academic physical primary source materials.

The future
Large scale digitization projects are underway at Google, the Million Book Project, and Internet Archive. With continued improvements in book handling and presentation technologies such as optical character recognition and ebooks, and development of alternative depositories and business models, digital libraries are rapidly growing in popularity as demonstrated by Google, Yahoo!, and MSN's efforts. Just as libraries have ventured into audio and video collections, so have digital libraries such as the Internet Archive. According to Larry Lannom, Director of Information Management Technology at the nonprofit Corporation for National Research Initiatives, "all the problems associated with digital libraries are wrapped up in archiving." He goes on to state, "If in 100 years people can still read your article, we'll have solved the problem." Daniel Akst, author of The Webster Chronicle, proposes that "the future of librariesand of informationis digital." Peter Lyman and Hal Varian, information scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, estimate that "the world's total yearly production of print, film, optical, and magnetic content would require roughly 1.5 billion gigabytes of storage." Therefore, they believe that "soon it will be technologically possible for an average person to access virtually all recorded information."[9]

Digital library


Most digital libraries provide a search interface which allows resources to be found. These resources are typically deep web (or invisible web) resources since they frequently cannot be located by search engine crawlers. Some digital libraries create special pages or sitemaps to allow search engines to find all their resources. Digital libraries frequently use the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) to expose their metadata to other digital libraries, and search engines like Google Scholar, Yahoo! and Scirus can also use OAI-PMH to find these deep web resources.[10] There are two general strategies for searching a federation of digital libraries: 1. distributed searching, and 2. searching previously harvested metadata. Distributed searching typically involves a client sending multiple search requests in parallel to a number of servers in the federation. The results are gathered, duplicates are eliminated or clustered, and the remaining items are sorted and presented back to the client. Protocols like Z39.50 are frequently used in distributed searching. A benefit to this approach is that the resource-intensive tasks of indexing and storage are left to the respective servers in the federation. A drawback to this approach is that the search mechanism is limited by the different indexing and ranking capabilities of each database, making it difficult to assemble a combined result consisting of the most relevant found items. Searching over previously harvested metadata involves searching a locally stored index of information that has previously been collected from the libraries in the federation. When a search is performed, the search mechanism does not need to make connections with the digital libraries it is searching - it already has a local representation of the information. This approach requires the creation of an indexing and harvesting mechanism which operates regularly, connecting to all the digital libraries and querying the whole collection in order to discover new and updated resources. OAI-PMH is frequently used by digital libraries for allowing metadata to be harvested. A benefit to this approach is that the search mechanism has full control over indexing and ranking algorithms, possibly allowing more consistent results. A drawback is that harvesting and indexing systems are more resource-intensive and therefore expensive.

The formal reference models include the DELOS Digital Library Reference Model (Agosti, et al., 2006)[11] and the Streams, Structures, Spaces, Scenarios, Societies (5S) formal framework.[12] The Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS) provides a framework to address digital preservation.[13]

Construction and organization

See also Digital Collections Selection Criteria.

There are a number of software packages for use in general digital libraries, for notable ones see Digital library software. Institutional repository software, which focuses primarily on ingest, preservation and access of locally produced documents, particularly locally produced academic outputs, can be found in Institutional repository software.

Digital library


In the past few years, procedures for digitizing books at high speed and comparatively low cost have improved considerably with the result that it is now possible to plan the digitization of millions of books per year for creating digital libraries.[14]

The advantages of digital libraries as a means of easily and rapidly accessing books, archives and images of various types are now widely recognized by commercial interests and public bodies alike.[15] Traditional libraries are limited by storage space; digital libraries have the potential to store much more information, simply because digital information requires very little physical space to contain it. As such, the cost of maintaining a digital library is much lower than that of a traditional library. A traditional library must spend large sums of money paying for staff, book maintenance, rent, and additional books. Digital libraries may reduce or, in some instances, do away with these fees. Both types of library require cataloguing input to allow users to locate and retrieve material. Digital libraries may be more willing to adopt innovations in technology providing users with improvements in electronic and audio book technology as well as presenting new forms of communication such as wikis and blogs; conventional libraries may consider that providing online access to their OPAC catalogue is sufficient. An important advantage to digital conversion is increased accessibility to users. They also increase availability to individuals who may not be traditional patrons of a library, due to geographic location or organizational affiliation. No physical boundary. The user of a digital library need not to go to the library physically; people from all over the world can gain access to the same information, as long as an Internet connection is available. Round the clock availability A major advantage of digital libraries is that people can gain access 24/7 to the information. Multiple access. The same resources can be used simultaneously by a number of institutions and patrons. This may not be the case for copyrighted material: a library may have a license for "lending out" only one copy at a time; this is achieved with a system of digital rights management where a resource can become inaccessible after expiration of the lending period or after the lender chooses to make it inaccessible (equivalent to returning the resource). Information retrieval. The user is able to use any search term (word, phrase, title, name, subject) to search the entire collection. Digital libraries can provide very user-friendly interfaces, giving clickable access to its resources. Preservation and conservation. Digitization is not a long-term preservation solution for physical collections, but does succeed in providing access copies for materials that would otherwise fall to degradation from repeated use. Digitized collections and born-digital objects pose many preservation and conservation concerns that analog materials do not. Please see the following "Problems" section of this page for examples. Space. Whereas traditional libraries are limited by storage space, digital libraries have the potential to store much more information, simply because digital information requires very little physical space to contain them and media storage technologies are more affordable than ever before. Added value. Certain characteristics of objects, primarily the quality of images, may be improved. Digitization can enhance legibility and remove visible flaws such as stains and discoloration.[16] Easily accessible.

Digital library


Digital preservation
Digital preservation aims to ensure that digital media and information systems are still interpretable into the indefinite future. Each necessary component of the must be migrated, preserved or emulated.[17] Typically lower levels of systems (floppy disks for example) are emulated, bit-streams (the actual files stored in the disks) are preserved and operating systems are emulated as a virtual machine. Only where the meaning and content of digital media and information systems are well understood is migration possible, as is the case for office documents.[17] [18]

Copyright and licensing

Some people have criticized that digital libraries are hampered by copyright law, because works cannot be shared over different periods of time in the manner of a traditional library. The republication of material on the Web by libraries may require permission from rights holders, and there is a conflict of interest between them and publishers who may wish to create online versions of their acquired content for commercial purposes. There is a dilution of responsibility that occurs as a result of the spread-out nature of digital resources. Complex intellectual property matters may become involved since digital material is not always owned by a library.[20] The content is, in many cases, public domain or self-generated content only. Some digital libraries, such as Project Gutenberg, work to digitize out-of-copyright works and make them freely available to the public. An estimate of the number of distinct books still existent in library catalogues from 2000 BC to 1960, has been made.[21] [22] The Fair Use Provisions (17 USC 107) under copyright law provide specific guidelines under which circumstances libraries are allowed to copy digital resources. Four factors that constitute fair use are purpose of use, nature of the work, market impact, and amount or substantiality used.[23] Some digital libraries acquire a license to "lend out" their resources. This may involve the restriction of lending out only one copy at a time for each license, and applying a system of digital rights management for this purpose (see also above).

Metadata creation
In traditional libraries, the ability to find works of interest was directly related to how well they were catalogued. While cataloguing electronic works digitized from a library's existing holding may be as simple as copying moving a record for the print to the electronic item, with complex and born-digital works requiring substantially more effort. To handle the growing volume of electronic publications, new tools and technologies have to be designed to allow effective automated semantic classification and searching. While full text search can be used for some searches, there are many common catalog searches which cannot be performed using full text, including: finding texts which are translations of other texts linking texts published under pseudonyms to the real authors (Samuel Clemens and Mark Twain, for example) differentiating non-fiction from parody (The Onion from The New York Times, for example)

Digital library


[1] Greenstein, Daniel I., Thorin, Suzanne Elizabeth. The Digital Library: A Biography (http:/ / www. clir. org/ PUBS/ reports/ pub109/ pub109. pdf). Digital Library Federation (2002) ISBN 1933645180. Accessed June 25, 2007. [2] http:/ / www. delos. info [3] http:/ / www. dlorg. eu [4] L. Candela, G. Athanasopoulos, D. Castelli, K. El Raheb, P. Innocenti, Y. Ioannidis, A. Katifori, A. Nika, G. Vullo, S. Ross: The Digital Library Reference Model. April 2011 ( PDF (http:/ / bscw. research-infrastructures. eu/ pub/ bscw. cgi/ d222816/ D3. 2b Digital Library Reference Model. pdf)) [5] L. Candela et al.: The DELOS Digital Library Reference Model - Foundations for Digital Libraries. Version 0.98, February 2008 ( PDF (http:/ / www. delos. info/ files/ pdf/ ReferenceModel/ DELOS_DLReferenceModel_0. 98. pdf)) [6] Kahn, R. E., & Cerf, V. G. (1988). The Digital Library Project Volume I: The World of Knowbots, (DRAFT): An Open Architecture For a Digital Library System and a Plan For Its Development (http:/ / hdl. handle. net/ 4263537/ 2091). Reston, VA: Corporation for National Research Initiatives. [7] Edward A. Fox. The Digital Libraries Initiative - Update and Discussion (http:/ / www. asis. org/ Bulletin/ Oct-99/ fox. html), Bulletin of the America Society of Information Science, Vol. 26, No 1, October/November 1999. [8] Candela, L.; Castelli, D. & Pagano, History, Evolution and Impact of Digital Libraries (http:/ / www. igi-global. com/ viewtitle. aspx?titleid=47467& sender=4dcefe4d-ef33-4836-8eea-f02af2cc374d). In P. Iglezakis, I.; Synodinou, T. & Kapidakis, S. (ed.) E-Publishing and Digital Libraries: Legal and Organizational Issues, IGI Global, 2011, 1- 30 [9] Akst, D. (2003). The Digital Library: Its Future Has Arrived. Carnegie Reporter, 2(3), 4-8. [10] Koehler, AEC. Some Thoughts on the Meaning of Open Access for University Library Technical Services Serials Review Vol. 32, 1, 2006, p. 17 [11] Agosti, M., Candela, L., Castelli, D., Ferro, N., Ioannidis, Y., Koutrika, G., Meghini, C., Pagano, P., Ross, S., Schek, H.-J., & Schuldt, H. (2006). A Reference Model for DLMSs Interim Report. In L. Candela, & D. Castelli (Eds.), Deliverable D1.4.2 - Reference Model for Digital Library Management Systems [Draft 1]. DELOS, A Network of Excellence on Digital Libraries -- IST-2002-, Technology-enhanced Learning and Access to Cultural Heritage. Online at: http:/ / 146. 48. 87. 122:8003/ OLP/ Repository/ 1. 0/ Disseminate/ delos/ 2006_WP1_D142/ content/ pdf?version=1 [12] Gonalves, M. A., Fox, E. A., Watson, L. T., & Kipp, N. A. (2004). Streams, Structures, Spaces, Scenarios, Societies (5S): A Formal Model for Digital Libraries. ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS),22 (2), 270-312. [13] "The DSpace team recognized the value of the OAIS framework and recast the repositorys architecture to accommodate this archival framework" Baudoin, P.; M. Branschofsky (2004), MIT's DSpace experience: a case study (http:/ / www. dspace. org/ implement/ case-study. pdf), [14] Committee on Institutional Cooperation: Partnership announced between CIC and Google (http:/ / www. cic. uiuc. edu/ programs/ CenterForLibraryInitiatives/ Archive/ PressRelease/ LibraryDigitization/ index. shtml), 6 June 2007, Retrieved 7 July 2007. [15] European Commission steps up efforts to put Europes memory (http:/ / europa. eu/ rapid/ pressReleasesAction. do?reference=IP/ 06/ 253& type=HTML& aged=0& language=EN& guiLanguage=en) on the Web via a European Digital Library Europa press release, 2 March 2006 [16] Gertz, Janet. "Selection for Preservation in the Digital Age." Library Resources & Technical Services. 44(2) (2000):97-104. [17] Cain, Mark. Managing Technology: Being a Library of Record in a Digital Age, Journal of Academic Librarianship 29:6 (2003). [18] Breeding, Marshall. Preserving Digital Information.. Information Today 19:5 (2002). [19] Teper, Thomas H. "Where Next? Long-Term Considerations for Digital Initiatives." Kentucky Libraries 65(2)(2001):12-18. [20] Pymm, Bob. "Building Collections for All Time: The Issue of Significance." Australian Academic & Research Libraries. 37(1) (2006):61-73. [21] Antique Books (http:/ / www. antiquebooks. net/ datatop. html) [22] Kelly, Kevin (2006-05-14). "Scan This Book!" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2006/ 05/ 14/ magazine/ 14publishing. html?_r=1& oref=slogin& pagewanted=all). New York Times Magazine. . Retrieved 2008-03-07. "When Google announced in December 2004 that it would digitally scan the books of five major research libraries to make their contents searchable, the promise of a universal library was resurrected. ... From the days of Sumerian clay tablets till now, humans have "published" at least 32 million books, 750 million articles and essays, 25 million songs, 500 million images, 500,000 movies, 3 million videos, TV shows and short films and 100 billion public Web pages." [23] Stanford Copyright & Fair Use - Digital Preservation and Copyright by Peter B. Hirtle (http:/ / fairuse. stanford. edu/ commentary_and_analysis/ 2003_11_hirtle. html)

Digital library


External links
CNRI-DARPA: D-Lib Magazine (http://www.dlib.org/) Electronic publication that primarily focuses on digital library research and development

TPDL (http://www.tpdl.eu/) - International Conference on Theory and Practice of Digital Libraries ECDL (http://ecdlconference.isti.cnr.it/) - European Conference on Digital Libraries ICADL (http://www.icadl.org/) - International Conference on Asian Digital Libraries JCDL (http://www.jcdl.org/) - ACM and IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries ICSD (http://www.icsd-conference.org/) - International Conference for Digital Libraries and the Semantic Web

Internet search engines and libraries

Internet Search Engines are a quick and simple way to access information on the World Wide Web. Traditional information providers, such as libraries, have been impacted by the ease with which the public can access information using online search. Search engines provide opportunities for libraries to supplement traditional services, and may also facilitate the development of new services. However, search engines may threaten certain traditional library services, such as reference enquiries,[1] as the use of the internet as an information source becomes increasingly commonplace.

Beneficial impacts
Supplementing traditional library services
The use of search engines has allowed libraries to augment their traditional core services. Many libraries have developed an effective virtual presence through their websites. This virtual library is available all over the world to anyone who has access to the internet, and presence in a list of search engine results can provide useful publicity for libraries. As part of wider efforts by libraries to embrace new technology, Library Review editor David McMenemy has stated that a library's Internet identity is vital.[2] However, many libraries face challenges in developing effective websites. In the UK administrative procedure means that library websites are contained within the domain of the local authorities that manage them. It has been argued that this compromises the identity of the library and makes it less accessible to its users.[2] Cost is also a considerable factor in the development of effective online libraries. There is also potential for libraries to make their services more accessible through search engines by making the contents of their catalogues freely searchable. This would assist libraries because results about library holdings would be positioned alongside content from relevant commercial sites, presenting users with the option of borrowing books on their topic of interest instead of purchasing. Library scholars have also acknowledged that people often prefer to access library catalogues using a familiar search engine interface.[3] Some specialised search engines such as Google Scholar offer libraries a way to facilitate searching for academic resources such as journal articles and research papers. This presents the user with a wider array of resources and establishes a pseudo-network between libraries in dispersed locations. However, the process of improving the accessibility of libraries through search engines has been hampered by proprietary issues over ownership of database records. The Guardian reported on this in 2009, suggesting the necessity for new business models to develop in the library world to harness the full potential of search engines.[4]

Internet search engines and libraries Search engines facilitate book lending by providing access to freely available digital book excerpts. This facilitates information seeking by allowing people to preview books and get clear understanding of the subject matter. If they identify an item of interest in this way, their local library may be able to provide a copy, either in a physical or digital format. Libraries would benefit more from this development if the proprietary issues discussed above are resolved.[4] This would allow existing resources such as abstracts, reviews and recommendations that are available on sites such as LibraryThing and Amazon to be linked into items in local library catalogues.[4]


Opportunities for new library services

Libraries have opportunities to develop new services and improve library provision using internet search engines. The internet has opened up and transformed the information environment, providing rapid access to high-level knowledge.[5] This has changed the way that people search for information and libraries are adapting by providing computers and internet access.[6] This development has been particularly positive for libraries in attracting younger users. There are a wide range of reasons why young people often move away from libraries including peer-pressure and social concerns, and the fact that other leisure interests compete with reading for young people's time and attention.[7] [8] [9] [10] However, by providing internet access, libraries are able to offer youth an opportunity to further research their interests such as music, television and sport.[10] Libraries also have an opportunity to emulate the tools and methods used by internet search engines to attract users. By Digitised copies could provide a useful alternative to providing user-friendly interfaces with high speed access to old or damaged books. deliver relevant and reliable content, libraries are able to keep up with technological developments and remain relevant to their users. Libraries can take on the look-and-feel [11] of internet search engines but still retain their traditional services. Library scientists have recognised these opportunities to improve their services and complement existing ways to retrieve information.[12] Projects such as Google Books potentially offer significant new opportunities for libraries. The digitisation of vast numbers of books, particularly those that are out-of-print, has enabled libraries to provide resources to their users in new ways. As well as expanding a library's user base to a potentially global scale, this facilitates multiple access to books simultaneously. Digitised copies of books can also serve as replacements for lost or damaged books and accessibility for disabled users can be improved. Due to their holdings of valuable material, libraries are important partners for search engines such as Google in realising the potential of such projects and have received reciprocal benefits in cases where they have negotiated effectively.[13] Information literacy and internet search engines Librarians have often been strong advocates of information literacy. CILIP, the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals in the UK, defines information literacy as "knowing when and why you need information, where to find it, and how to evaluate, use and communicate it in an ethical manner."[14] When utilising a search engine, this involves knowing how to utilise advanced search features as well as select appropriate terms for a search. After results are returned it involves having the ability to select, retrieve, and evaluate the information retrieved by search engines.

Internet search engines and libraries Due to the amount of information that is available for free on the internet, search engines carry great potential for making people information rich and decoupling information poverty from economic poverty. However, this is tempered by the amount of poor quality information that exists on the internet.[15] [16] Many in the library profession feel that information literacy is vital if the full potential of the internet is to be realised.[17] Library advocacy bodies such as CILIP have emphasised the role that libraries and librarians can play in teaching the requisite skills in an environment where information comes in many forms and media.[18] In a 2004 Library Journal article, several library professionals identified the need to know how to get the most out of technologies such as search engines if people are to find reliable and pertinent information effectively.[19] Information literacy and training in the use of technology fits in with wider extant efforts by public libraries to increase access to information. In accordance with this, CILIP and other library professionals promote the benefits of teaching information literacy in relation to information technology,[18] [19] especially in places such as colleges and universities where students often rely on internet search engines to retrieve information to complete course work.[17] Libraries contribute to information literacy training in colleges and universities by providing online instructions for good search strategies on library homepages or in leaflets made available in the library. Librarians also run information literacy classes to give people practical experience of using internet search engines.[20] Search engine optimisation (SEO) Opportunities for libraries and librarians have also been identified in the emerging field of search engine optimisation.[21] Search engine optimisation involves improving the volume or quality of traffic to a website without using commercial means such as purchasing keywords from search engine providers. The skill set of librarians and their knowledge of information seeking behaviour has led commentators to acknowledge the role that librarians could play as SEO scientists.[21] Librarians have, for their part, acknowledged the necessity of familiarising themselves with SEO in order to promote quality content in search results.[22]


Detrimental impacts
Replacing traditional library services
The task of the library service has always been to provide users with information, traditionally in the form of books, journals, magazines, and newspapers.[23] Internet search engines are also primarily information providers which for many people are just as effective as libraries. This has meant that traditional library services such as book lending and reference services are now under threat from a service many consider to be faster, easier and more convenient.[24] This situation could be compounded for libraries as technologies improve and search engines become more effective at retrieving relevant information.[1] If people can access information through internet search engines, they no longer feel the need to visit their local library to borrow books, which could result in a decrease in book lending. Traditional library services also have restricted opening times which may not be convenient for potential users,[25] while internet search engines are available 24/7.[26] Furthermore, internet search engines provide information that is not restricted in the amount of time it can be kept for, while traditional library services involve time restrictions on how long a resource can be borrowed, as well as fees to be paid if resources are returned late.[27] Reference services People traditionally visited their local library to use the available reference facility, and ask the reference librarian where to find suitable resources in relation to the information they were seeking. However, internet search engines excel at providing simple factual information; even their detractors acknowledged this in a 2004 symposium in Library Journal on the subject of the information role of Google and other search engines.[19] This often results in decreased use of library reference desks as users gravitate towards new ways of meeting basic information needs.

Internet search engines and libraries Undermining traditional roles Traditional library services involve providing a wide collection of books for people to refer to and borrow. However, as the prominence and reliance on internet search engines has grown, library services have often shifted the emphasis from providing a wide range of print resources to providing computers and internet access to facilitate access to information available via search engines. As well as contributing to a decline in book borrowing, some have argued that this trend may also alienate existing users as the library becomes more computer-focused and no longer a quiet place of study.[28] Libraries face a number of challenges in adapting to new ways of information seeking that often stress convenience over quality.[29] This means that libraries have to adapt if people are going to continue using their services. Information literacy agendas may also suffer as people begin to question its necessity and are willing to accept results that are 'good enough'.[30]


Future difficulties for library services

The ever-increasing reliance on internet search engines could negatively affect libraries and their services in the long-term. The potential decline in library usage, particularly reference services,[31] puts the necessity of these services in doubt. Consequently, libraries may face budget cuts and staff could face job losses. This will likely result in a poorer service which is particularly damaging for libraries at a time when their existence is already being questioned.[32] This has further implications for librarians if their expertise is deemed unnecessary when so much information is easily available online via search engines. Library scholars have acknowledged that libraries need to address the ways that they market their services if they are to compete with internet search engines and mitigate the risk of losing users.[33] This includes promoting the information literacy skills training considered vital across the library profession.[18] [] [30] However, marketing of services has to be adequately supported financially in order to be successful. This can be problematic for library services that are publicly funded and find it difficult to justify diverting tight funds to apparently peripheral areas such as branding and marketing.[34] Google Books Google Books presents a number of difficulties for libraries, particularly in terms of copyright and proprietary issues. Writing in The Guardian in 2010, Robert McCrum criticised Google over its digitisation project and highlighted the potential threat such "piracy" poses to both the revenue of the publishing industry and the future quality of information resources.[35] The monopoly that Google is likely to have if Google Books is successful is a concern for libraries due to its commercial status and has also attracted significant press coverage. In an article for the The New York Review of Books in 2009, Robert Darnton lamented the missed opportunity that libraries had to undertake a similar project which could have fairly compensated copyright holders and would have been driven purely by a concern for the public good.[13] Other commentators, notably Michael Gorman, have questioned the utility of the entire enterprise. In an 2004 article in the Los Angeles Times, Gorman argued that the mass digitisation of books, particularly scholarly books, is an exercise in futility because a book must be read in full for the real benefits to be felt, and people are unlikely to want to read that much on a screen or print out "500 unbound sheets".[36] Gorman's position provoked significant criticism,[37] particularly from bloggers describing him as a 'Luddite', but he remained unmoved by their arguments in a subsequent response.[38]

Internet search engines and libraries


Notes and references

[1] Johnson, A. (2009). An invention that could change the internet for ever. The Independent. Available: http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ life-style/ gadgets-and-tech/ news/ an-invention-that-could-change-the-internet-for-ever-1678109. html. [Accessed 16th March 2010] [2] McMenemy, D. (2007). Internet identity and public libraries: communicating service values through web presence. Library Review. 56 (8). pp. 653-657. [3] Lossau, N. (2004). Search engine technology and digital libraries: libraries need to discover the academic internet. Available: http:/ / www. dlib. org/ dlib/ june04/ lossau/ 06lossau. html. [Accessed: 16th March 2010] [4] Grossman, W. M. (2009). Why you can't find a library book in your search engine. The Guardian. Available: http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ technology/ 2009/ jan/ 22/ library-search-engines-books. [Accessed: 23rd March 2010] [5] Brophy, J. & Bawden, D. (2005). Is Google Enough? Comparison of an Internet Search Engine with Academic Library Resources. Aslib Proceedings. New Information Perspectives. Vol. 57. (6). pp. 498-512. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. pp. 498 [6] Mostafa, J.(2005). Seeking Better Web Searches. Scientific America. Vol. 292. (2). pp. 51-57 [7] Corradini, E, (2006). Teenagers Analyse their Public Library. New Library World. Vol. 107 (1230/1231). pp. 481-498. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Available from: http:/ / www. emeraldinsight. com/ Insight/ viewContentItem. do;jsessionid=97FD4226F5C09AEA7EF43E18F1497767?contentType=Article& contentId=1583828. [Accessed: 25 February 2010] [8] Department for Children, Schools and Families. (2005). Youth Matters. Available from: http:/ / publications. dcsf. gov. uk/ eOrderingDownload/ Cm6629. pdf. [Accessed: 7 March 2010] [9] Nippold, M. A., Duthie, J. K. & Larsen, J. (2005). Literacy as a Leisure Activity: Free-time preferences of Older Children and Young Adolescents. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools. Vol. 5. (2). pp. 34-38. In: Snowball, C. (2008). Enticing Teenagers into the Library. Library Review. Vol. 57. (1). pp. 25-35. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Available from: http:/ / www. emeraldinsight. com/ Insight/ viewContentItem. do;jsessionid=97FD4226F5C09AEA7EF43E18F1497767?contentType=Article& contentId=1713869. [Accessed: 25 February 2010] [10] Museums, Libraries and Archives, Department of Culture, Media and Sport & Laser Foundation. (2006). A Research Study of 14-35 year olds for the Future Development of Public Libraries. Available from: http:/ / research. mla. gov. uk/ evidence/ documents/ Research_study_of_14_35_year_olds_for_the_future_development_of_public_libraries_9841. pdf. [Accessed: 7 March 2010] [11] Brophy, J. & Bawden, D. (2005). Is Google Enough? Comparison of an Internet Search Engine with Academic Library Resources. Aslib Proceedings. New Information Perspectives. Vol. 57. (6). pp. 498-512. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. pp. 511 [12] Fast, K. V. & Campbell, D. G. (2004). I Still like Google: University Student Perception of Searching OPACs and the Web. Proceedings of the 67th ASIS&T Annual Meeting. pp. 138-146 [13] Darnton, R. (2009). Google & the Future of Books. New York Review of Books. 55 (2). Available: http:/ / www. nybooks. com/ articles/ 22281. [Accessed: 23rd March 2010] [14] CILIP. (2004). Information literacy: Definition. London: CILIP. Available online from: http:/ / www. cilip. org. uk/ get-involved/ advocacy/ learning/ information-literacy/ pages/ definition. aspx [Accessed: 23 March 2010] [15] Sturges, P. (2002). Public internet access in libraries and information services. London: Facet Publishing. pp. 14-15, 26 [16] Wengert, R. G. (2001). Some Ethical Aspects of Being an Information Professional. Library Trends. Vol. 49. (3). pp. 486-509 [17] Rowlands, I., Nicholas, D., Williams, P., Huntington, P., Fieldhouse, M., Gunter, B., Withey, R., Jamali, H. R., Dobrowolski, T., and Tenopir, C. (2008). The Google generation: the information behaviour of the researcher of the future. Aslib Proceedings: New Information Perspectives. 60 (4), 290-310. Available: http:/ / www. emeraldinsight. com/ Insight/ ViewContentServlet?contentType=Article& Filename=/ published/ emeraldfulltextarticle/ pdf/ 2760600401. pdf. [Accessed: 19th April 2010] [18] CILIP. (2010). An introduction to information literacy. London: CILIP. Available online from: http:/ / www. cilip. org. uk/ get-involved/ advocacy/ learning/ information-literacy/ pages/ introduction. aspx [Accessed: 13 April 2010] [19] Kenney, B. (2004). Googlizers vs. Resistors: Library leaders debate our relationship with search engines. Library Journal. Available: http:/ / www. libraryjournal. com/ article/ CA485756. html. [Accessed: 26th March 2010] [20] Ercegovac, Z and Yamasaki, E. (2003). Information Literacy: Search Strategies, Tools and Resources. Available: http:/ / www. libraryinstruction. com/ infosearch. html [Accessed: 23rd March 2010] [21] Martinez, M. (2009). The Scientists of Search Engine Optimization. SEO Theory SEO Theory and Analysis Blog. Available: http:/ / www. seo-theory. com/ 2009/ 01/ 13/ the-scientists-of-search-engine-optimization/ . [Accessed: 19th April 2010] [22] Hirst, T. (2008). Revisiting the Library Flip Why Librarians Need to Know About SEO. OUseful.Info, the blog Available: http:/ / blog. ouseful. info/ 2008/ 12/ 13/ revisiting-the-library-flip-why-librarians-need-to-know-about-seo/ [Accessed: 23rd March 2010] [23] Surrey County Council. (2010.) What Surrey Libraries have to Offer. Available from: http:/ / www. surreycc. gov. uk/ SCCWebsite/ sccwspages. nsf/ LookupWebPagesByTITLE_RTF/ What+ Surrey+ libraries+ have+ to+ offer?opendocument [Accessed: 26th March 2010] [24] Lossau, N.(2004.) Search Engine Technology and Digital Libraries. D- Lib Magazine. 10 (6.) June 2004 Available from: http:/ / www. dlib. org/ dlib/ june04/ lossau/ 06lossau. html [Accessed: 26th March 2010] [25] Coates, T. (2006.) Who's In Charge. Available from: http:/ / www. goodlibraryguide. com/ blog/ archives/ 2006/ 09/ whos_in_charge_1. html [Accessed: 26th March 2010] [26] Krupa, Zenona. (2006.) The Internet- A Threat or a Supplement to the Traditional Library? World Libraries. 16 (1 and 2.) 2006. Available from: http:/ / www. worlib. org/ vol16no1-2/ krupa_v16n1-2. shtml [Accessed: 16th March 2010]

Internet search engines and libraries

[27] Glasgow City Council. (2009.) Library Charges. Available from: http:/ / www. glasgow. gov. uk/ en/ Residents/ Library_Services/ Your_Local_Library/ Shop/ librarycharges. htm [Accessed: 26th March 2010] [28] Garrod, P. (2004). Public Libraries: The changing face of the public library. Ariadne. Issue 39. Available: http:/ / www. ariadne. ac. uk/ issue39/ public-libraries/ . [Accessed 26th March 2010]. [29] Abram, S. & Luther, J. (2004). Born with the Chip: The next generation will profoundly impact both library service and the culture within the profession. Library Journal. Available: http:/ / www. libraryjournal. com/ article/ CA411572. html. [Accessed: 26th March 2010] [30] Bell, S. (2005). Backtalk: don't surrender library values. Library Journal. Available: http:/ / www. libraryjournal. com/ article/ CA601026. html [Accessed: 20 April 2010]. [31] Novotny, E. (2002). Reference service statistics and assessment. SPEC kit. Pennsylvania State University. Available: http:/ / www. arl. org/ bm~doc/ spec268web. pdf [Accessed: 16th March 2010] [32] Department for Culture, Media and Sport (2010). Empower, inform, enrich - the modernisation review of public libraries: a consultation. [online]. Available: http:/ / www. culture. gov. uk/ images/ consultations/ LibrariesReview_consultation. pdf [Accessed: 19th April 2010] [33] Vrana, R., and Barbaric, A. (2007). Improving visibility of public libraries in the local community: A study of five public libraries in Zagreb, Croatia. New Library World. 108 (9/10). pp 435-444. [34] Hood, D. & Henderson, K. (2005). Branding in the United Kingdom Public Library Service. New Library World. 106 (1208/1209), pp. 16-28 [35] McCrum, R. (2010). Google should lower the Jolly Roger. The Guardian. Available: http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ books/ 2010/ mar/ 07/ robert-mcrum-on-books-google. [Accessed: 23rd March 2010] [36] Gorman, M. (2004). Google and Gods Mind. Los Angeles Times. Available: http:/ / articles. latimes. com/ 2004/ dec/ 17/ opinion/ oe-nugorman17. [Accessed: 26th March 2010] [37] Drum, K. (2004). Google and the Human Spirit. Washington Monthly. Available: http:/ / www. washingtonmonthly. com/ archives/ individual/ 2004_12/ 005344. php. [Accessed: 26th March 2010] [38] Gorman, M. (2005). BackTalk: Revenge of the Blog People! Library Journal. Available: http:/ / www. libraryjournal. com/ article/ CA502009. html. [Accessed: 26th March 2010]


External links
http://scholar.google.com http://books.google.com http://www.google.com http://www.yahoo.com http://www.cilip.org.uk http://www.ala.org

American Library Association


American Library Association

American Library Association

ALA Logo Abbreviation Formation Type ALA 1876 Non-profit NGO "To provide leadership for the development, promotion and improvement of library and information services and the profession [1] of librarianship in order to enhance learning and ensure access to information for all." Chicago, Illinois Chicago, Illinois and Washington, DC United States 62,251 Keith Michael Fiels Molly Raphael $33.5 million approx. 300 American Library Association [3] [2]


Headquarters Location Regionserved Membership CEO President Budget Staff Website

The American Library Association (ALA) is a non-profit organization based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally. It is the oldest and largest library association in the world,[4] with more than 62,000 members.[5]

Founded by Justin Winsor, Charles Ammi Cutter, Samuel S. Green, James L. Whitney, Melvil Dewey (Melvil Dui), Fred B. Perkins and Thomas W. Bicknell in 1876 in Philadelphia and chartered[6] in 1879 in Massachusetts, its head office is now in Chicago. During the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, 103 librarians, 90 men and 13 women, responded to a call for a "Convention of Librarians" to be held October 46 at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. At the end of the meeting, according to Ed Holley in his essay "ALA at 100," "the register was passed around for all to sign who wished to become charter members," making October 6, 1876 to be ALA's birthday. In attendance were 90 men and 13 women, among them Justin Winsor (Boston Public, Harvard), William Frederick Poole (Chicago Public, Newberry), Charles Ammi Cutter (Boston Athenaeum), Melvil Dewey, and Richard Rogers Bowker. Attendees came from as far west as Chicago and from England. The aim of the Association, in that resolution, was "to enable librarians to do their present work more easily and at less expense."[7] The paper, "Rocks in the Whirlpool," provides some of the historical context of the American Library Associations efforts to define, extend, protect and advocate for Equity of Access.[8] The ALA archival materials, non-current records, are currently held in the University of Illinois archives.[9] These materials can only be used at the University of Illinois.

American Library Association


American Library Association conference, New Monterey Hotel, Asbury Park, New Jersey, June 25, 1919 (Library of Congress)

ALA membership is open to any person or organization, though most of its members are libraries or librarians. Most members live and work in the United States, with international members comprising 3.5% of total membership.[10]

Governing structure
The ALA is governed by an elected council and an executive board. Since 2002, Keith Michael Fiels has been the ALA executive director (CEO).[11] Policies and programs are administered by various committees and round tables. One of the organization's most visible tasks is overseen by the Office for Accreditation, which formally reviews and authorizes American and Canadian academic institutions that offer degree programs in library and information science. The ALA's current President is Molly Raphael (2011-2012)[12] . Notable past presidents include Clara Stanton Jones, first African-American president (1976-1977). [13] , Loriene Roy (2007-8), Michael Gorman (2005-6), and Roberta Stevens.[14] .

The official purpose of the association is "to promote library service and librarianship." Members may join one or more of eleven membership divisions that deal with specialized topics such as academic, school, or public libraries, technical or reference services, and library administration. Members may also join any of seventeen round tables that are grouped around more specific interests and issues than the broader set of ALA divisions. Notable divisions ALA Editions (book publishing)[15] American Association of School Librarians (AASL) Association for Library Collections and Technical Services (ALCTS) Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC) Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Library Information Technology Association (LITA) Public Library Association (PLA) Reference and User Services Association (RUSA) Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA)

Former ALA President Jim Rettig at the 2008 I Love My Librarian! awards.

American Library Association Notable offices Office of Intellectual Freedom (OIF) Office for Accreditation (OA) Office for Literacy and Outreach Services (OLOS) Office for Information Technology Policy (OITP)


National outreach The ALA is affiliated with regional, state, and student chapters across the country. It organizes conferences, participates in library standards development, and publishes a number of books and periodicals. The ALA publishes the magazines American Libraries and Booklist. Along with other organizations, it sponsors the annual Banned Books Week the last week of September. Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA) also sponsors Teen Read Week, the third week of each October, and Teen Tech Week, the second week of each March. Awards The ALA annually confers numerous notable book and media awards, including the Caldecott Medal, Dartmouth Medal, Newbery Medal Michael L. Printz Award, Coretta Scott King Award, Geisel Award, Pura Belpr Award, John Cotton Dana Award, Stonewall Book Award.[16] YALSA administers the Michael L. Printz Award for excellence in young adult literature, the Margaret Edwards Award for significant and lasting contribution to young adult literature and the Alex Awards for the ten best adult books with teen appeal. Two newer awards administered by YALSA are the Odyssey Award, for Excellence in audiobook production, and the brand new William C. Morris YA Award, which will be awarded for the first time in 2009 honoring first-time authors of young adult literature. The ALA also awards the John Cotton Dana Award. A recently developed distinction awarded through the American Library Association is the Emerging Leaders program. Originating in 2006, the annually-selected class of Emerging Leaders (typically consisting of approximately 100 librarians and library school students) is a way for ALA to reach out to new librarians wanting to become successful within the organization. The class of Emerging Leaders are split into project groups, and are tasked with developing various solutions to problems within ALA divisions. The class meets only twice throughout the year: once at the Midwinter Meeting, and again at ALA Annual. The project teams are given the opportunity to present posters of their completed projects at ALA Annual.[17]

American Library Association Conferences The ALA and its divisions hold numerous conferences throughout the year. The two largest conferences are the annual conference and the midwinter meeting. The latter is typically held in January and focused on internal business, while the annual conference is typically held in June and focused on exhibits and presentations. The ALA annual conference is notable for being one of the largest professional conferences in existence, typically drawing over 25,000 attendees.[18]


Political positions
The ALA advocates positions on United States political issues that it believes are related to libraries and librarianship. For court cases that touch on issues about which the organization holds positions, the ALA often files amici curiae briefs, voluntarily offering information on some aspect of the case to assist the court in deciding a matter before it. The ALA has an office in Washington, D.C., that lobbies Congress on issues relating to libraries, information and communication. It also provides materials to libraries that may include information on how to apply for grants, how to comply with the law, and how to oppose a law.[19]
ALA Seal

Civil liberties
In 1970, the ALA founded the first lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender professional organization, called the "Task Force on Gay Liberation", now known as the GLBT Round Table.[20] [21]

Intellectual freedom
The primary documented expressions of the ALA's intellectual freedom principles are the Freedom to Read Statement[22] and the Library Bill of Rights; the Library Bill of Rights urges libraries to "challenge censorship in the fulfillment of their responsibility to provide information and enlightenment."[23] The ALA Code of Ethics also calls on librarians to "uphold the principles of intellectual freedom and resist all efforts to censor library resources."[24] The ALA maintains an Office for Intellectual Freedom (OIF) headed by Barbara M. Jones, former University Librarian for Wesleyan University and internationally known intellectual freedom advocate and author.[25] She is the second director of the Office for Intellectual Freedom, succeeding Judith Krug, who headed the office for four decades. OIF is charged with "implementing ALA policies concerning the concept of intellectual freedom,"[26] that the ALA defines as "the right of every individual to both seek and receive information from all points of view without restriction. It provides for free access to all expressions of ideas through which any and all sides of a question, cause or movement may be explored."[27] Its goal is "to educate librarians and the general public about the nature and importance of intellectual freedom in libraries." [26] The OIF compiles lists of challenged books as reported in the media and submitted to them by librarians across the country.[28] Its actions are not without controversy; for example, Nat Hentoff noted "An issue facing all members of the ALA is their leaders' shameful exception of the Cuban people's freedom to read."[29] Hentoff's characterization contradicts the ALA's official position on Cuba, which urges the Cuban Government "to eliminate obstacles to access to information" and expresses "deep concern" for political dissidents in Cuba.[30] In 1999, radio personality Laura Schlessinger campaigned publicly against the ALA's intellectual freedom policy, specifically in regard to the ALA's refusal to remove a link on its web site to a specific sex-education site for teens.[31] Sharon Presley said, however, that Schlessinger "distorted and misrepresented the ALA stand to make it sound like the ALA was saying porno for 'children' is O.K."[32]

American Library Association In 2002, the ALA filed suit with library users and the ACLU against the United States Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA), which required libraries receiving federal E-rate discounts for Internet access to install a "technology protection measure" to prevent children from accessing "visual depictions that are obscene, child pornography, or harmful to minors."[33] At trial, the federal district court struck down the law as unconstitutional.[34] The government appealed this decision, and on June 23, 2003, the Supreme Court of the United States upheld the law as constitutional as a condition imposed on institutions in exchange for government funding. In upholding the law, the Supreme Court, adopting the interpretation urged by the U.S. Solicitor General at oral argument, made it clear that the constitutionality of CIPA would be upheld only "if, as the Government represents, a librarian will unblock filtered material or disable the Internet software filter without significant delay on an adult user's request."[35]


In 2003, the ALA passed a resolution opposing the USA PATRIOT Act, which called sections of the law "a present danger to the constitutional rights and privacy rights of library users".[36] Since then, the ALA and its members have sought to change the law by working with members of Congress and educating their communities and the press about the law's potential to violate the privacy rights of library users. ALA has also participated as an amicus curiae in lawsuits filed by individuals challenging the constitutionality of the USA PATRIOT Act, including a lawsuit filed by four Connecticut librarians after the library consortium they managed was served with a National Security Letter seeking information about library users.[37] After several months of litigation, the lawsuit was dismissed when the FBI decided to withdraw the National Security Letter.[38] In 2007 the "Connecticut Four" were honored by the ALA with the Paul Howard Award for Courage for their challenge to the National Security Letter and gag order provision of the USA PATRIOT Act. [39] In 2006, the ALA sold humorous "radical militant librarian" buttons for librarians to wear in support of the ALA's stances on intellectual freedom, privacy, and civil liberties.[40] Inspiration for the buttons design came from documents obtained from the FBI by the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) through a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request. The request revealed a series of e-mails in which FBI agents complained about the "radical, militant librarians" while criticizing the reluctance of FBI management to use the secret warrants authorized under Section 215 of the USA PATRIOT Act.[41]

The ALA "supports efforts to amend the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and urges the courts to restore the balance in copyright law, ensure fair use and protect and extend the public domain".[42] It supports changing copyright law to eliminate damages when using orphan works without permission;[43] is wary of digital rights management; and, in ALA v. FCC, successfully sued the Federal Communications Commission to prevent regulation that would enforce next-generation digital televisions to contain rights-management hardware. It has joined the Information Access Alliance to promote open access to research.[44] The Copyright Advisory Network of the Association's Office for Information Technology Policy provides copyright resources to libraries and the communities they serve.

ALA Presidents
19th century presidents

American Library Association

Melvil Dewey, 1890-July, 1891, and 189293 Samuel Swett Green, July-Nov., 1891 William Isaac Fletcher, 189192 Josephus Nelson Larned, 189394 Henry Munson Utley, 189495 John Cotton Dana, 189596 William Howard Brett, 189697 Herbert Putnam, Jan.-Aug., 1898, and 190304 William Coolidge Lane 1898-99 Reuben Gold Thwaites, 18991900

Justin Winsor, 187685, and July-Oct., [45] [46] 1897 William Frederick Poole, 188587 Charles Ammi Cutter, 188789 Frederick Morgan Crunden, 188990

20th century presidents

Henry James Carr, 190001 John Shaw Billings, 190102 James Kendall Hosmer, 190203 Ernest Cushing Richardson, 190405 Frank Pierce Hill, 190506 Clement Walker Andrews, 190607 Arthur Elmore Bostwick, 190708 Charles Henry Gould, 190809 James Ingersoll Wyer, Jr., 191011 Theresa West Elmendorf, 191112 Henry Eduard Legler, 191213 Edwin Hatfield Anderson, 191314 Hiller Crowell Wellman, 191415 Mary Wright Plummer, 191516 Walter Lewis Brown, 191617 Thomas Lynch Montgomery, 191718 William Warner Bishop, 191819 Chalmers Hadley, 19191920 Alice S. Tyler, 192021 Azariah Smith Root, 1921 George Burwell Utley, 19221923 Judson Toll Jennings, 19231924 Herman H. B. Meyer, 19241925 Charles F. D. Belden, 19251926 George H. Locke, 19261927 Carl B. Roden, 19271928 Linda A. Eastman, 19281929 Andrew Keogh, 19291930 Adam Strohm, 19301931 Josephine Adams Rathbone, 19311932 Harry Miller Lyndenberg, 19321933 Gratia A. Countryman, 19331934 Charles H. Compton, 19341935 Louis Round Wilson, 19351936 Malcom Glenn Wyer, 19361937 Milton James Ferguson, 19381939 Ralph W. Munn, 19391940 Essae Martha Culver, 19401941 Charles Harvey Brown, 19411942 Keyes D. Metcalf, 19421943 Althea H. Warren, 19431944 Carl Vitz, 19441945 Ralph A. Ulveling, 19451946 Mary U. Rothrock, 19461947 Paul North Rice, 19471948 Errett Weir McDiarmid, 19481949 Milton E. Lord, 19491950 Clarence R. Graham, 19501951 Loleta Dawson Fyan, 19511952 Robert Bingham Downs, 19521953 Flora Belle Ludington, 19531954 L. Quincy Mumford, 19541955 John S. Richards, 19551956 Ralph R. Shaw, 19561957 Lucile M. Morsch, 19571958 Emerson Greenaway, 19581959 Benjamin E. Powell, 19591960 Frances Lander Spain, 19601961 Florrinell F. Morton, 19611962 James E. Bryan, 19621963 Frederick H. Wagman, 19631964 Edwin Castagna, 19641965 Robert G. Vosper, 19651966 Mary V. Gaver, 19661967 Foster E. Mohrhardt, 19671968 Roger McDonough, 19681969 William S. Dix, 19691970 Lillian M. Bradshaw, 19701971 Keith Doms, 19711972 Katherine Laich, 19721973 Jean E. Lowrie, 19731974 Edward G. Holley, 19741975 Allie Beth Martin, 1975-April 1976 Clara Stanton Jones, 19761977 Eric Moon, 19771978 Russell Shank, 19781979 Thomas J. Galvin, 19791980 Peggy A. Sullivan, 19801981 Elizabeth W. (Betty) Stone, 19811982 Carol A. Nemever, 19821983 Brooke E. Sheldon, 19831984 E. J. Josey, 19841985 Beverly P. Lynch, 19851986 Regina Minudri, 19861987 Margaret E. Chisholm, 19871988 F. William Summers, 19881989 Patricia Wilson Berger, 19891990 Richard M. Dougherty, 19901991 Patricia G. Schuman, 19911992 Marilyn L. Miller, 19921993 Hardy R. Franklin, 19931994 Arthur Curley, 19941995 Betty J. Turock, 19951996 Mary R. Somerville, 19961997 Barbara J. Ford, 19971998 Ann K. Symons, 19981999 Sarah Ann Long, 19992000

Harrison Warwick Craver, 19371938

Nathaniel Dana Carlile Hodges, 190910

American Library Association


21st century presidents

Nancy Kranich, 20002001 John W. Berry 20012002 Maurice J. (Mitch) Freedman, 20022003 Carla D. Hayden, 20032004 Carol A. Brey-Casiano, 20042005 Michael Gorman, 20052006 Leslie Burger, 20062007 Loriene Roy, 20072008 Jim Rettig, 20082009 Camila Alire, 20092010 Roberta Stevens, 20102011

[1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ aboutala/ missionhistory/ mission/ index. cfm http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ aboutala/ governance/ annualreport/ annualreport/ financials/ financials. cfm http:/ / www. ala. org/ "American Library Association - MSN Encarta" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5kwKCy7XB). Archived from the original (http:/ / encarta. msn. com/ encnet/ refpages/ RefArticle. aspx?refid=761563357) on 2009-10-31. . [5] "Report to Council and Executive Board," by ALA Executive Director Keith Michael Fiels, EBD#12.36 2009-2010, 18 June 2010 (misdated as 18 June 2009). "Overall ALA Membership as of May 2010 stands at 62,251." [6] ( ALA Charter (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ aboutala/ missionhistory/ history/ 1879/ index. cfm)) [7] http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ aboutala/ missionhistory/ history/ index. cfm [8] McCook, Kathleen de la Pea."Rocks in the Whirlpool." Chicago: American Library Association, 2002, http:/ / eprints. rclis. org/ handle/ 10760/ 3788 [9] "ALA Archives" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ aboutala/ offices/ library/ alaarchive/ index. cfm). ALA. . Retrieved 2010-09-01. [10] "ALA International Member Survey" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ aboutala/ missionhistory/ plan/ international. cfm). ALA. . Retrieved 2006-11-14. [11] "Keith Michael Fiels named ALA's new Executive Director" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ pressreleasesbucket/ keithmichael. htm) (Press release). ALA. 2002-04-22. . Retrieved 2006-11-14. [12] "Molly Raphael inaugurated 2011 ALA President" (http:/ / ala. org/ ala/ newspresscenter/ news/ pr. cfm?id=7642). American Library Association. June 29, 2011. . [13] McCook, Kathleen de la Pea. Women of Color in Librarianship, Chicago: American Library Association, 1998 [14] "Roberta Stevens elected ALA President for 2010-2011" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ newspresscenter/ news/ pressreleases2009/ may2009/ govala2009election. cfm). ALA. . Retrieved 2010-09-01. [15] Home page (http:/ / www. alaeditions. org/ ). ALA Editions. Retrieved on January 29, 2011. [16] "Awards and Grants" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ awardsgrants/ index. cfm). ALA. . Retrieved 2010-09-01. [17] Emerging Leaders Program Info: http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ educationcareers/ leadership/ emergingleaders/ index. cfm [18] "Conference Services" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ Template. cfm?Section=confservices). ALA. . Retrieved 2006-11-14. [19] "Washington Office" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ aboutala/ offices/ wo/ index. cfm). ALA. . Retrieved 2010-09-01. [20] "Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered Round Table (GLBTRT)" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ mgrps/ rts/ glbtrt/ index. cfm). ALA. . Retrieved 2010-09-01. [21] Gittings, Barbara (1990). Gays in Library Land: The Gay and Lesbian Task Force of the American Library Association: The First Sixteen Years. Philadelphia. [22] "Freedom to Read Statement" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ aboutala/ offices/ oif/ statementspols/ ftrstatement/ freedomreadstatement. cfm). ALA. . Retrieved 2010-09-01. [23] "Library Bill of Rights" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ issuesadvocacy/ intfreedom/ librarybill/ index. cfm). ALA. . Retrieved 2010-09-01. [24] "Article II, ALA Code of Professional Ethics" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ issuesadvocacy/ proethics/ codeofethics/ codeethics. cfm). ALA. . Retrieved 2010-09-01. [25] "Barbara Jones, Ex-Director at Wesleyan, Named Head of ALA OIF and FTRF" (http:/ / www. libraryjournal. com/ article/ CA6709656. html). Library Journal. MediaSource, Inc.. 2009-12-02. . Retrieved 2010-09-01. [26] "Office for Intellectual Freedom" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ aboutala/ offices/ oif/ index. cfm). ALA. . Retrieved 2010-09-02. [27] "Intellectual Freedom and Censorship Q & A" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ aboutala/ offices/ oif/ basics/ ifcensorshipqanda. cfm). ALA. . Retrieved 2010-09-01. [28] "Frequently Challenged Books" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ issuesadvocacy/ banned/ frequentlychallenged/ index. cfm). ALA. . Retrieved 2010-09-01. [29] Hentoff, Nat (2007-03-02). "American Library Association Shamed" (http:/ / leadercall. com/ columns/ x1593276302/ American-Library-Association-shamed). Laurel Leader-Call. . Retrieved 2010-09-06. [30] "ALA and Cuban Libraries" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ aboutala/ offices/ iro/ iroactivities/ alacubanlibraries. cfm). American Library Association. . Retrieved 2010-11-26. [31] ""Dr. Laura" Continues Criticism of ALA" (http:/ / www. libraryjournal. com/ article/ CA158676. html). Library Journal. MediaSource, Inc.. 1999-05-10. . Retrieved 2006-11-14.

American Library Association

[32] Presley, Sharon (Winter 2001). "Don't Listen to Dr. Laura" (http:/ / www. secularhumanism. org/ index. php?section=library& page=presley_21_1). Free Inquiry 41 (1). . Retrieved 2007-03-08. [33] "Text of the Children's Internet Protection Act" (http:/ / www. ifea. net/ cipa. pdf). . [34] United States v. Am. Lib. Asso., 201 F.Supp.2d 401, 490 (2002) [35] "US v ALA 539 U.S. 194, 2003" (http:/ / caselaw. lp. findlaw. com/ scripts/ getcase. pl?court=US& vol=539& invol=194). FindLaw. . Retrieved 2007-03-21. [36] "Resolution on the USA PATRIOT Act and Related Measures that Infringe on the Rights of Library Users" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ aboutala/ offices/ oif/ statementspols/ ifresolutions/ resolutionusa. cfm). ALA. 2003-01-29. . Retrieved 2010-09-01. [37] Cowan, Alison Leigh (2006-05-31). "Four Librarians Finally Break Silence in Records Case" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2006/ 05/ 31/ nyregion/ 31library. html?ex=1306728000& en=9f197630a8f4a0a9& ei=5088& partner=rssnyt& emc=rss). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2007-02-07. [38] "FBI drops demand for information from Connecticut library group" (http:/ / www. rawstory. com/ news/ 2006/ FBI_drops_demand_for_information_from_0626. html). Raw Story. 2006-06-26. . Retrieved 2007-02-07. [39] McCook, Kathleen de la Pea (2011), Introduction to Public Librarianship, pp. 63-64. 2nd ed. New York, Neal-Schuman. [40] ""Radical, Militant Librarian" Button" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ aboutala/ offices/ oif/ archive/ radicalbutton. cfm). ALA. . Retrieved 2010-09-01. [41] "ALA introduces "Radical, Militant Librarian" button" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ Template. cfm?Section=pressreleases& template=/ contentmanagement/ contentdisplay. cfm& ContentID=113573) (Press release). ALA. 2006-01-17. . Retrieved 2007-03-07. [42] Nisbet, Miriam (October 2006). "2006 Copyright Agenda" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ issuesadvocacy/ copyright/ copyagenda. pdf) (PDF). ALA. . Retrieved 2010-09-01. [43] "Re: Orphan Works Notice of Inquiry" (http:/ / www. copyright. gov/ orphan/ comments/ OW0658-LCA. pdf). Library Copyright Alliance / U.S. Copyright Office. . Retrieved 2009-07-12. [44] "Open Access" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ issuesadvocacy/ copyright/ openaccesstoresearch/ index. cfm). ALA. . Retrieved 2010-09-01. [45] Bulletin of the American Library Association. Sept. 1921 [46] http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ aboutala/ governance/ officers/ past/ index. cfm Retrieved 2010-08-03


External links
Official website (http://www.ala.org/) About Charles Ammi Cutter (http://www.forbeslibrary.org/about/cacutter.shtml)

Special Libraries Association


Special Libraries Association

Special Libraries Association
Formation 1909 Headquarters Alexandria, Virginia Membership Website 11,000 Official website [1]

Special Libraries Association (SLA) is an international professional association for library and information professionals working in business, government, law, finance, non-profit, and academic organizations and institutions. While Special libraries include law libraries, news libraries, corporate libraries, museum libraries, and medical libraries, many information professionals today do not actually work in a library setting. They actively apply their specialized skills to support the information needs of their organizations. SLA was founded in 1909 in the United States. It is now an international organization with over 11,000 members in over 80 countries. SLA is organized by Chapters (geographic) and Divisions (topical) and special interest groups. The association has a CEO (employee of the association) and an elected President (mandate of one year). Members of SLA typically possess a master's degree in library or information science. Given the rapid adoption of information technologies for selecting, analyzing, managing, storing, and delivering information and knowledge, the average SLA member might be performing a range of services and employing a diverse mix of skills related to, but not exclusive of, library science. Association activities include conferences, professional education, networking and advocacy.

SLA publishes Information Outlook (formerly Special Libraries), a magazine that is sent free of charge[2] to all members eight times a year.[3]

External links
SLA Official Website [1]

[1] http:/ / www. sla. org [2] "Publications and Products" (http:/ / www. sla. org/ content/ Shop/ index. cfm). SLA. . [3] "Information Outlook Calendar" (http:/ / www. sla. org/ content/ shop/ information/ iocalendar. cfm). SLA. .

Librarians in popular culture


Librarians in popular culture

Stereotypes of librarians in popular culture are frequently negative: librarians are portrayed as puritanical, punitive, unattractive, and introverted if female, or timid, and effeminate if male. Such inaccurate stereotypes are likely to have a negative impact on the attractiveness of librarianship as a profession to young people.[1]

Popular literature
Children's literature offers a generally positive portrayal of librarians as knowledgeable, helpful, and friendly, becoming more positive over the course of the 20th century. Adult literature, however, portrays the profession more negatively. Between these, portrayals of librarians in young adult fiction are neutral to negative. Here librarians are predominantly female, middle-aged, usually unattractive in some way, and mostly unmarried. Personality is mixed between positive traits such as intelligence, likeability, and kind-heartedness; and negative traits such as strictness, timidity, excess fastidiousness, and eccentricity. While some provide assistance to the main characters, several are the villains of the story. Duties generally include reference, but may only show clerical tasks; however the amount of technology used by librarian characters has increased over time.[1] A disproportionate number of the librarians represented in novels are in the detective fiction genre, frequently as an amateur detective and protagonist. Although the stereotype of the librarian as "passive bore" does not seem reconcilable with the intensity of a mystery, the stereotypical librarian does share many traits with the successful detective. Their mindset is focused, calm, unbiased in considering viewpoints, and focused on the world around them. By personality they are industrious perfectionists--and eccentric. The drab and innocuous look of the stereotypical librarian is perfect for avoiding suspicion, while their research skills and ability to ask the right questions allow them to procure and evaluate the information necessary to solve the case. The knowledge they have gained from wide reading successfully competes with a private investigator's personal experience. For example, Jacqueline Kirby is drawn into the mystery in Elizabeth Peters' novel The Seventh Sinner (1972) due to her awareness of her surroundings. Wearing the stereotypical bun, glasses, and practical clothes, together with an eccentrically large purse, she is self-possessed and resourceful, knowledgeable in a variety of fields and skilled at research.[2] Papers on librarians in popular culture have also analysed: Neal Stephenson's novel, Snow Crash features a commercialized melding of the Central Intelligence Agency and the Library of Congress, along with a virtual librarian who assists the main character, and raises questions of the role of the librarian in an increasingly information-rich world.[3] The eponymous character in Garth Nix's Lirael (2001) is an assistant librarian whose curiosity about the library she works in leads her into trouble and whose research skills save her. The head librarian is intimidating and the library itself a dangerous place.[4] In the Sune series, Sune's mother Karin is a librarian who does not like comic books, a reference to the comic book debates of earlier decades.[5]

Librarians in popular culture


According to Ann Seidl, director of the documentary The Hollywood Librarian [6], librarians in film are often portrayed as meek, timid, and unassertive in nature.[7] After indexing hundreds of appearances of librarians in film, she found that "the shorter the reference to a librarian in a film, the worse the stereotype."[8] By the 1950s, movies had established the stereotype of librarians as "spinsters" and "eggheads".[1] Thus, female movie librarians are usually unmarried, prim, and introverted. They are usually young and may be attractive, but dress drably and are sexually repressed. The "fate-worse-than-death view of librarians"[9] is particularly evident in movies such as It's a Wonderful Life and The Music Man. Male movie librarians - mild, intelligent, and timid - have fewer and less important roles.[9] Seidl's documentary discusses such stereotypes as: A wretched alternate fate is revealed for Mary Hatch Bailey (played by Donna Reed) in the movie It's a Wonderful Life (1946): "She's an old maid. She never married...She's just about to close up the library!" The staggeringly rude and unhelpful librarian (John Rothman) in Sophies Choice (1982), who barks at Sophie Zawistowski (Meryl Streep) Do you want me to draw you a map?! in contrast with such more well-rounded characters as: Librarian Bunny Watson (played by Katharine Hepburn) who teaches Richard Sumner (played by Spencer Tracy) a few things about modern research methods in the movie Desk Set (1957). The no-nonsense "Marian the Librarian" (Shirley Jones) in the movie The Music Man. Librarians are usually ordinary people caught up in circumstances, rather than being heroes; likewise they are rarely villainous although they may have flaws, such as racism in Goodbye, Columbus.[9] Other movie appearances of librarians noted in the literature include: Mary (played by Parker Posey) as the ultimate Party Girl (1995) who discovers, "I want to be a librarian!" in a notable exception to the prim librarian stereotype.[1] Alicia Hull (Bette Davis), a small town librarian, who befriends young Freddie Slater (Kevin Coughlin) but is herself ostracised for refusing to remove a book on Communism from the public library during the height of the Red Scare in Storm Center (1956). This movie was inspired by the real-life dismissal of Ruth Brown, a librarian in Bartlesville, Oklahoma.[10] In Only Two Can Play Peter Sellers plays the role of a poorly paid and professionally frustrated Welsh librarian and occasional drama critic, whose affections fluctuate between glamorous Liz and his long-suffering wife Jean.

The portrayal of librarians on the small screen has usually followed the same stereotypes as those found in motion pictures. For example, in most animated cartoon series (such as Baby Looney Tunes or Rugrats) the librarian is often shown silencing the main/pivotal characters - especially younger children - when they're in a library area. Some even ban the characters from the libraries for making rude or strange noises. The television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer featured the character of Rupert Giles as school librarian at Sunnydale High and mentor for the main character of Buffy. At the start of the series Giles is often portrayed stereotypically, for example he wears old-fashioned clothes and spectacles, is intelligent and well-read though has a dislike for computers, and is overly concerned with following regulations. As the series progresses the character is given the opportunity to develop beyond these stereotypes as we learn that Giles was a rebellious and angry teenager who was partly responsible for the death of a friend after dabbling in dark magic. He is also depicted at being competent with weaponry and hand to hand combat and at playing the guitar and singing. Though Giles never has a longlasting on-screen relationship and has never been married, he does have brief romances on screen and is acknowledged as an attractive man by other characters in the show; therefore at least partially refuting the usual

Librarians in popular culture stereotype. In creating the Australian miniseries The Librarians, however, co-producers and -writers Wayne Hope and Robyn Butler consulted with real librarians for research, and took their advice to avoid shooshing and cardigan-wearing librarian characters.[11]


Computer and video games

There have been several characters associated with the library field in the realm of interactive entertainment,[12] often portrayed as guides and/or purveyors of knowledge who help the user progress within the game.

Toys and hobbies

In 2003, Archie McPhee brought out a librarian action figure [13], modeled on Seattle Public Library librarian Nancy Pearl. Wearing a suit, bun and glasses, the action figure sparked controversy, particularly for the button-triggered shushing motion. Many librarians took it in a light-hearted spirit, while others felt it perpetuated negative stereotypes.[14]

[1] Peresie, Michelle; Linda B. Alexander (Fall 2005). "Librarian stereotypes in Young Adult literature". Young Adult Library Services 4 (1): 2431. [2] Reiman, Lauren (2003). Solving the mystery: what makes the fictional librarian such a good sleuth?. Washington State University. [3] Blackmore, Tim (November 2004). "Agent of Civility: the Librarian in Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash". SIMILE: Studies in Media & Information Literacy Education 4 (4): 110. doi:10.3138/sim.4.4.001. [4] Jennifer Burek, Pierce (2004). "What's Harry Potter doing in the library? Depictions of Young Adult information seeking behaviour in contemporary fantasy fiction". International Association of School Librarianship: Selected Papers from the 2004 Annual Conference. Brantford. pp.7382. [5] Sune och Svarta Mannen, Rabn & Sjgren, 1989, 5-10 - Sunes familj [6] http:/ / www. hollywoodlibrarian. com/ [7] Kniffel, Leonard (Jun/July 2005). "Hollywood Librarian vs. Real Thing". American Libraries 36 (6): 22. [8] Quoted in Worland, Gayle (October 4, 2007). "Librarians have their day in film". Knight Ridder Tribune Business News (Washington). [9] Walker, Stephen; V. Lonnie Lawson (1993). "The librarian stereotype and the movies" (http:/ / wings. buffalo. edu/ publications/ mcjrnl/ v1n1/ image. html). MC Journal 1 (1): 1728. . Retrieved 2009-08-02. [10] Robbins, Louise S. (2000). The Dismissal of Miss Ruth Brown. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN0806133147. [11] Taffel, Jacqui (29 October 2007). "Have a lend of us" (http:/ / www. smh. com. au/ news/ tv--radio/ have-a-lend-of-us/ 2007/ 10/ 28/ 1193548291359. html). Sydney Morning Herald. [12] Search Results for "librarian" on IGN (http:/ / search. ign. com/ articles?genNav=true& typeName=31& query=librarian& objtName=article) [13] http:/ / www. mcphee. com/ laf/ [14] "Outcry over librarian doll" (http:/ / www. smh. com. au/ articles/ 2003/ 09/ 06/ 1062549053713. html). Sydney Morning Herald. 6 September 2003.

External links
Reel Librarians (http://www.reel-librarians.com) - a blog about librarians in film, plus filmographies, librarian character types, and extra resources Librarians in the Movies (http://emp.byui.edu/raishm/films/introduction.html) - an annotated filmography The Hollywood Librarian (http://www.hollywoodlibrarian.com) Songs about Libraries and Librarians (http://www.blisspix.net/library/songs.html) You Don't Look Like a Librarian! (http://www.librarian-image.net/) - a collection of resources relating to the perception of librarians in the Internet age Libraries at the Movies (http://librariesatthemovies.blogspot.com/) - a blog about the representation of libraries and librarians in movies

School library


School library
A school library (or a school library media center) is a library within a school where students, staff, and often, parents of a public (state) or private (fee paying) school have access to a variety of resources. The goal of the school library media center is to ensure that all members of the school community have equitable access "to books and reading, to information, and to information technology."[1] A school library media center "uses all types of media... is automated, and utilizes the Internet [as well as books] for information gathering."[2] School libraries are distinct from public libraries because they serve as "learner-oriented laboratories which support, extend, and individualize the school's curriculum... A school library serves as the center and coordinating agency for all material used in the school."[3]

School / College library.

Researchers have demonstrated that school libraries have a positive impact on student achievement. More than 60 studies have been conducted in 19 U.S. states and one Canadian province. The major finding of these studies is that students with access to a well-supported school library media program with a qualified school library media specialist, scored higher on reading assessments regardless of their socio-economic statuses. In addition, a study conducted in Ohio[4] revealed that 99.4% of students surveyed believed that their school librarians and school library media programs helped them succeed in school. A report that reported similar conclusions was compiled by Michele Lonsdale in Australia in 2003.[5]

History of school libraries

The later part of the 19th century marked the beginning of the modern American library movement with the creation of the American Library Association (ALA) in 1876 by a group of librarians led by Melvil Dewey. At these beginning stages of development, the school libraries were primarily made up of small collections with the school librarian playing primarily a clerical role. 1920 marked the first effort by the library and education communities to evaluate school libraries with the publication of the Certain Report,[6] which provided the first yardstick for evaluating school libraries. School libraries experienced another major push following the launch of Sputnik in 1957, which forced the United States to re-evaluate its priorities for math and science education. As a result, the 1960s were one of the greatest periods of growth and development for school libraries due to an increased flow of money and support from the private sector and public funding for education. Most notable during this time was the Knapp School Libraries Project[7] which established model school library media centers across the country. Hundreds of new school libraries were expanded and renovated during this time. Most recently, school libraries have been defined by three major guidelines documents: Information Power (1988)[8] and Information Power II (1998).[9] Globally important mission statement is the Unesco School library Manifesto [10].

School library


The purpose of the school library

School library media centers in the 21st century can, and should be, hubs for increased student achievement and positive focused school reform--Kathleen D. Smith [11] The school library exists to provide a range of learning opportunities for both large and small groups as well as individuals with a focus on intellectual content, information literacy, and the learner.[12] In addition to classroom visits with collaborating teachers, the school library also serves as a place for students to do independent work, use computers, equipment and research materials; to host special events such as author visits and book clubs; and for tutoring and testing.

Inside a school library.

The school library media center program is a collaborative venture in which school library media specialists, teachers, and administrators work together to provide opportunities for the social, cultural, and educational growth of students. Activities that are part of the school library media program can take place in the school library media center, the laboratory classroom, through the school, and via the school library's online resources.[13]

The school library collection

School libraries are similar to public libraries in that they contain books, films, recorded sound, periodicals, realia, and digital media. These items are not only for the education, enjoyment, and entertainment of the all members of the school community, but also to enhance and expand the school's curriculum.

Staffing of the school library

In many schools, school libraries are staffed by librarians, teacher-librarians, or school library media specialists who hold a specific library science degree. In some jurisdictions, school librarians are required to have specific certification and/or a teaching certificate.[14] The school librarian performs four leadership main roles: teacher, instructional partner, information specialist, and program administrator. In the teacher role, the school librarian develops and implements curricula relating to information literacy and inquiry. School librarians may read to children, assist them in selecting books, and assist with schoolwork. Some school librarians see classes on a "flexible schedule". A flexible schedule means that rather than having students come to the library for instruction at a fixed time every week, the classroom teacher schedules library time when library skills or materials are needed as part of the classroom learning experience. In the instructional partner role, school librarians collaborate with classroom teachers to create independent learners by fostering students' research, information literacy, technology, and critical thinking skills. As information specialists, school librarians develop a resource base for the school by using the curriculum and student interests to identify and obtain library materials, organize and maintain the library collection in order to promote independent reading and lifelong learning. Materials in the library collection can be located using an Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) This role also encompasses many activities relating to technology including the integration of resources in a variety of formats: periodical databases; Web sites; digital video segments; podcasts; blog and wiki content; digital images; virtual classrooms, etc. School librarians are often responsible for audio-visual equipment and are sometimes in charge of school computers and computer networks. Many school librarians also perform clerical duties. They handle the circulating and cataloging of materials, facilitate interlibrary loans, shelve materials, perform inventory, etc.

School library


Notes and references

[1] The goals of the school library program should support the mission and continuous improvement plan of the school district. Standards for the 21st Century Learner (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ aasl/ aaslproftools/ learningstandards/ standards. cfm) [2] Morris, B. (2004). Administering the school library media center. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. (p.32). [3] Morris, 2004, p.32 [4] Todd, R., Kuhlthau, C., & OELMA. (2004). Student Learning through Ohio School Libraries : The Ohio Research Study. Available online at: http:/ / www. oelma. org/ studentlearning/ [5] Lonsdale, M. (2003). Impact of school libraries on student achievement: A review of the research. Camberwell, Victoria, Australia: Australian Council for Educational Research. Available online at http:/ / www. asla. org. au/ research/ research. pdf [6] Charles C. Certain Committee. (1986). Standard library organization and equipment for secondary schools of different sizes. In Melvil M. Bowie (Comp.), Historic Documents of school libraries (pp.34-51). Littleton, CO: Hi Willow Research and Publishing. (Original work published 1920, Chicago: American Library Association) [7] Boardman, Edna (SeptemberOctober 1994). "The Knapp School Libraries Project: The Best $1,130,000 Ever Spent on School Libraries.". Book Report 13 (2): 1719. ISSN0731-4388. ERIC # EJ489785. [8] American Association of School Librarians & Association for Educational Communications and Technology. (1998). Information power: Guidelines for school library media programs. Chicago: American Library Association. [9] American Association of School Librarians & Association for Educational Communications and Technology. (1998). Information power: Building partnerships for learning. Chicago: American Library Association. [10] http:/ / www. unesco. org/ webworld/ libraries/ manifestos/ school_manifesto. html [11] Smith, K. (2002). "Building Student Learning Through School Libraries." Statement delivered at the White House Conference on School Libraries, available from: http:/ / www. imls. gov/ news/ events/ whitehouse_3. shtm [12] Morris, 2004 [13] Morris, 2004 [14] Morris, 2004; Thomas, M. J. & Perritt, P.H. (2003, December 1). A Higher standard: Many states have recently revised their certification requirements for school librarians. School Library Journal. Available online at http:/ / www. schoollibraryjournal. com/ article/ CA339562. html?industryid=47056

External links
Unesco School Library Manifesto (http://www.unesco.org/webworld/libraries/manifestos/school_manifesto. html) American Association of School Librarians (http://www.ala.org/ala/aasl/aaslindex.cfm/) School Library Journal (http://www.slj.com/) School Library Media Activities Monthly (http://www.schoollibrarymedia.com/) Resources for School Libraries (http://www.sldirectory.com/) Virtual Learning Resources Center (http://www.virtuallrc.com/) The Hub: Campaign for Quality School Libraries (http://hubinfo.wordpress.com/) Australian School Library Association (http://www.asla.org.au/) Directory of portuguese online school libraries catalogs (http://www.bibliotecasescolares.net/) Suomen koulukirjastoyhdistys (http://suomenkoulukirjastoyhdistys.fi)

Public library


Public library
A public library (also called circulating library) is a library which is accessible by the public and is generally funded from public sources (such as tax money) and may be operated by civil servants. Taxing bodies for public libraries may be at any level from local to national central government level.' "The public library is an excellent model of government at its best. A locally controlled public good, it serves every individual freely, in as much or as little depth as he or she wants."[1] Public libraries exist in most places in the world and are often considered an essential part of having an educated and literate population. Public libraries are distinct from research libraries, school libraries, or other special libraries in that their mandate is to serve the public's information needs generally (rather than serve a particular school, institution, or research population), as well as offering materials for general entertainment and leisure purposes. Public Libraries provide free services such as preschool story times to encourage early literacy. Public libraries are typically lending libraries, allowing users to take books and other materials off the premises temporarily; they also have non-circulating reference collections. Public libraries primarily focus on popular materials such as popular fiction and movies, as well as educational and nonfiction materials of interest to the general public; computer and internet access are also often offered.
The Toronto Reference Library, centerpiece of the Toronto Public Library system

Services offered
In addition to print books and periodicals, most public libraries today have a wide array of other media including audiobooks, e-books, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, and video games, as well as facilities to access the Internet and inter-library loans (borrowing items from other libraries). Readers' advisory is a fundamental public library service that involves suggesting fiction and nonfiction titles (often called "readalikes").

Librarians and patrons at a library in the Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County system, a large urban public library

Public libraries may also provide other services, such as community meeting rooms, storytelling sessions for infants, toddlers, preschool Panoramic view of the research room at the New children, or after-school programs, all with an intention of developing York Public Library early literacy skills and a love of books. In person and on-line programs for reader development, language learning, homework help, free lectures and cultural performances, and other community service programs are common offerings. One of the most popular programs offered in public libraries are summer reading programs for children, families, and adults. In rural areas, the local public library may have, in addition to its main branch, a mobile library service, consisting of one

Public library


or more buses furnished as a small public library, serving the countryside according to a regular schedule. Public libraries also provide materials for children, often housed in a special section. Child oriented websites with on-line educational games and programs specifically designed for younger library users are becoming increasingly popular. Services may be provided for other groups, such as large print or Braille materials, Books on tape, young adult literature and other materials for teenagers, or materials in other than the national language (in foreign languages). California and Nevada now offer a new service called Link+. This new program links county libraries across the two states, allowing patrons access to books their library may not have in their collection.[2] Librarians at most public libraries provide reference and research help to the general public, usually at a reference desk but can often be done by telephone interview. As online discussion and social networking allow for remote access, reference is becoming available virtually through the use of the Internet and e-mail. Depending on the size of the library, there may be more than one desk; at some smaller libraries all transactions may occur at one desk, while large urban public libraries may employ subject-specialist librarians with the ability to staff multiple reference or information desks to answer queries about particular topics at any time during regular operating hours. Often the children's section in a public library has its own reference desk. Public libraries are also increasingly making use of web 2.0 services, including the use of online social networks by libraries. Public libraries in some countries pay authors when their books are borrowed from libraries. These are known as Public Lending Right program.

Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil

Reading area in a Singapore public library

Chorlton cum Hardy Public Library, Greater Manchester, England

Libraries often display exhibits inside and outside the structures, as this sculpture of a little girl reading at the public library in Trinidad, Colorado

Public library


Digital divide
As more commercial and governmental services are being provided online (e-commerce and e-government), public libraries increasingly provide Internet access for users who otherwise would not be able to connect to these services. Part of the public library mission has become attempting to help bridge the digital divide. A study conducted in 2006 found that "72.5 percent of library branches report that they are the only provider of free public computer and Internet access in their communities".[3] A 2008 study found that "100 percent of rural, high poverty outlets provide public Internet access, a significant increase from 85.7 percent last year".[4] The American Library Association (ALA), addresses this role of libraries as part of "access to information"[5] and "equity of access";[6] part of the profession's ethical commitment that "no one should be denied information because he or she cannot afford the cost of a book or periodical, have access to the internet or information in any of its various formats."[7] In addition to access, many public libraries offer training and support to computer users. Once access has been achieved, there still remains a large gap in people's online abilities and skills. For many communities, Fort Worth Central Library Computer Lab the public library is the only agency offering free computer classes and information technology learning. As of 2008, 73.4 percent of public libraries offered information technology training of some form, including information literacy skills and homework assignment help.[4] A significant service provided by public libraries is assisting people with e-government access and use of federal, state and local government information, forms and services. Internationally, public libraries offer information and communication technology (ICT) services, giving "access to information and knowledge" the "highest priority."[8] While different countries and areas of the world have their own requirements, general services offered include free connection to the Internet, training in using the Internet, and relevant content in appropriate languages. In addition to typical public library financing, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and business fund services that assist public libraries in combating the digital divide.[9]

Fort Worth Central Library Learning Commons

Origins as a social institution

The culmination of centuries of advances in the printing press, moveable type, paper, ink, publishing, and distribution, combined with an ever growing middle class, increased commercial activity and consumption, new radical ideas, massive population growth and higher literacy rates forged the public library into the form that it is today. Public libraries are not a new idea; Romans made scrolls in dry rooms available to patrons of the baths, and tried with some success to establish libraries within the empire. Naturally, only those few that could afford an education would be able to use the library, where those less than rich or without control of money; women, children and slaves of course could not. In the middle of the 19th century, the push for truly public libraries, paid for by taxes and run by the state gained force after numerous depressions, droughts, wars and revolutions in Europe, felt mostly by the working class. Matthew Battles states that: "It was in these years of class conflict and economic terror that the public library movement swept through Britain, as the nation's progressive elite recognized that the light of cultural and intellectual energy was lacking in the lives of commoners".[10]

Public library Libraries had often been started with a donation, an endowment or were bequeathed to various, parishes, churches, schools or towns, and these social and institutional libraries formed the base of many academic and public library collections of today. Andrew Carnegie had the biggest influence in financing libraries in the United States of America, from the east to west coast. From just 1900 to 1917, almost 1,700 libraries were constructed by Carnegie's foundation, insisting that local communities first guarantee tax support of each library built.[11] The establishment of circulating libraries by booksellers and publishers provided a means of gaining profit and creating social centers within the community. The circulating libraries not only provided a place to sell books, but also a place to lend books for a price. These circulating libraries provided a variety of materials including the increasingly popular novels. Although the circulating libraries filled an important role in society, members of the middle and upper classes often looked down upon these libraries that regularly sold material from their collections and provided materials that were less sophisticated. Circulating libraries also charged a subscription fee, however the fees were set to entice their patrons, providing subscriptions on a yearly, quarterly or monthly basis, without expecting the subscribers to purchase a share in the circulating library. Circulating libraries were not exclusively lending institutions and often Branch library at Bankfield Museum provided a place for other forms of commercial activity, which may or may not be related to print. This was necessary because the circulating libraries did not generate enough funds through subscription fees collected from its borrowers. As a commerce venture, it was important to consider the contributing factors such as other goods or services available to the subscribers.[12] Many claims have been made for the title of "first public library" for various libraries in various countries, with at least some of the confusion arising from differing interpretations of what should be considered a true "public library". Difficulties in establishing what policies were in effect at different times in the history of particular libraries also add to the confusion. The first libraries open to the public were the collections of Greek and Latin scrolls which were available in the dry sections of the many buildings that made up the huge Roman baths of the Roman empire. However, they were not lending libraries. The "halls of science" run by different Islamic sects in many cities of North Africa and the Middle East in the 9th century were open to the public. Some of them had written lending policies, but they were very restrictive. Most patrons were expected to consult the books on site. The later European university libraries were not open to the general public, but accessible by scholars.


Public library


United Kingdom
The earliest public library in England was established at the London Guildhall in 1425.[13] 17th century In the early years of the 17th century, many famous collegiate and town libraries were founded throughout the country. Francis Trigge Chained Library of St. Wulfram's Church, Grantham, Lincolnshire was founded in 1598 by the rector of nearby Welbourne.[14] Norwich City library was established in 1608[15] (six years after Thomas Bodley founded the Bodleian Library, which was open to the "whole republic of the learned" and 145 years before the foundation of the British Museum), and Chetham's Library in Manchester, which claims to be the oldest public library in the English-speaking world, opened in 1653.[16] Other early town libraries of the UK include those of Ipswich (1612), Bristol (founded in 1613 and opened in 1615), and Leicester (1632). Shrewsbury School also opened its library to townsfolk.[17] In Bristol, an early library that allowed access to the public was that of the Kalendars or Kalendaries, a brotherhood of clergy and laity who were attached to the Church of All-Hallowen or All Saints. Records show that in 1464, provision was made for a library to be erected in the house of the Kalendars, and reference is made to a deed of that date by which it was "appointed that all who wish to enter for the sake of instruction shall have 'free access and recess' at certain times". Early 18th century At the turn of the 18th century, libraries were becoming increasingly public and were more frequently lending libraries. The 18th century saw the switch from closed parochial libraries to lending libraries. Before this time, public libraries were parochial in nature and libraries frequently chained their books to desks.[18] Libraries also were not uniformly open to the public. In 1790, The Public Library Act would not be passed for another Seacroft Library, a small branch library in the Seacroft area of Leeds. sixty-seven years.[19] Even though the British Museum existed at this time and contained over 50,000 books, the national library was not open to the public, or even to a

(Preston) Harris Library

Manchester Central Library

Public library majority of the population. Access to the Museum depended on passes, of which there was sometimes a waiting period of three to four weeks. Moreover, the library was not open to browsing. Once a pass to the library had been issued, the reader was taken on a tour of the library. Many readers complained that the tour was much too short.[20] At the turn of the century, there were virtually no public libraries in the sense in which we now understand the term i.e. libraries provided from public funds and freely accessible to all.[21] Only one important library in Great Britain, namely Chetham's Library in Manchester, was fully and freely accessible to the public.[21] However, there had come into being a whole network of library provision on a private or institutional basis. Subscription libraries, both private and commercial, provided the middle and middle to upper class with a variety of books for moderate fees. The increase in secular literature at this time encouraged the spread of lending libraries, especially the commercial subscription libraries. Commercial subscription libraries began when booksellers began renting out extra copies of books in the mid-18th century. Steven Fischer estimates that in 1790, there were 'about six hundred rental and lending libraries, with a clientele of some fifty thousand.[22] The mid to late 18th century saw a virtual epidemic of feminine reading as novels became more and more popular.[23] Novels, while frowned upon in society, were extremely popular. In England there were many who lamented at the 'villanous profane and obscene books' and the opposition to the circulating library, on moral grounds, persisted well into the 19th century.[24] Still, many establishments must have circulated many times the number of novels as of any other genre.[25] In 1797, Thomas Wilson wrote in The Use of Circulating Libraries: "Consider, that for a successful circulating library, the collection must contain 70% fiction". However, the overall percentage of novels mainly depended on the proprietor of the circulating library. While some circulating libraries were almost completely novels, others had less than 10% of their overall collection in the form of novels.[26] The national average at the turn of the century hovered around novels comprising about 20% of the total collection.[27] Novels varied from other types of books in many ways. They were read primarily for enjoyment instead of for study. They did not provide academic knowledge or spiritual guidance; thus they were read quickly and far fewer times than other books. These were the perfect books for commercial subscription libraries to lend. Since books were read for pure enjoyment rather than for scholarly work, books needed to become both cheaper and smaller. Small duodecimo editions of books were preferred to the large folio editions. Folio editions were read at a desk, while the small duodecimo editions could be easily read like the paperbacks of today. Much like paperbacks of today, many of the novels in circulating libraries were unbound. At this period of time, many people chose to bind their books in leather. Many circulating libraries skipped this process. Circulating libraries were not in the business of preserving books; their owners wanted to lend books as many times as they possibly could. Circulating libraries had ushered in a completely new way of reading.[28] Reading was no longer simply an academic pursuit or an attempt to gain spiritual guidance. Reading became a social activity. Many circulating libraries were attached to the shops of milliners or drapers. They served as much for social gossip and the meeting of friends as coffee shops do today.[29] Another factor in the growth of subscription libraries was the increasing cost of books. In the last two decades of the century, especially, prices were practically doubled, so that a quarto work cost a guinea, an octavo 10 shillings or 12 shillings, and a duodecimo cost 4 shillings per volume. Price apart, moreover, books were difficult to procure outside London, since local booksellers could not afford to carry large stocks.[30] Commercial libraries, since they were usually associated with booksellers, and also since they had a greater number of patrons, were able to accumulate greater numbers of books. The United Public Library was said to have a collection of some 52,000 volumes-twice as many as any private subscription library in the country at that period.[31] These libraries, since they functioned as a business, also lent books to non-subscribers on a per-book system.[32]


Public library Private subscription libraries Private subscription libraries functioned in much the same manner as commercial subscription libraries, though they varied in many important ways. One of the most popular versions of the private subscription library was a gentleman's only library. The gentlemen's subscription libraries, sometimes known as proprietary libraries, were nearly all organized on a common pattern. Membership was restricted to the proprietors or shareholders, and ranged from a dozen or two to between four and five hundred. The entrance fee, i.e. the purchase price of a share, was in early days usually a guinea, but rose sharply as the century advanced, often reaching four or five guineas during the French wars; the annual subscription, during the same period, rose from about six shillings to ten shillings or more. The book-stock was, by modern standards, small (Liverpool, with over 8,000 volumes in 1801, seems to have been the largest), and was accommodated, at the outset, in makeshift premises-very often over a bookshop, with the bookseller acting as librarian and receiving an honorarium for his pains.[33] The Liverpool Subscription library was a gentlemen only library. In 1798, it was renamed the Athenaeum when it was rebuilt with a newsroom and coffeehouse. It had an entrance fee of one guinea and annual subscription of five shillings.[34] While no records survive of the commercial library lendings, we have the Bristol Library's continuous record of borrowings ( in seventy-seven folio volumes) from 1773 to 1857. An analysis of the registers for the first twelve years provides some fascinating glimpses of middle-class reading habits in a mercantile community at this period. The largest and most popular sections of the library were History, Antiquities, and Geography, with 283 titles and 6,121 borrowings, and Belles Lettres, with 238 titles and 3,313 borrowings. Far below came Theology and Ecclesiastical History, Natural History and Chemistry, Philosophy, Jurisprudence, Miscellanies, Mathematics, etc., and Medicine and Anatomy, all with fewer than 100 titles.[35] The most popular single work was John Hawkesworth's Account of Voyages ... in the Southern Hemisphere (3 vols) which was borrowed on 201 occasions. The records also show that in 1796, membership had risen by 1/3 to 198 subscribers (of whom 5 were women) and the titles increased five-fold to 4,987. This mirrors the increase in reading interests. A patron list from the Bath Municipal Library shows that from 1793 to 1799, the library held a stable 30% of their patrons as female.[36] It was also uncommon for these libraries to have buildings designated solely as the library building during the 1790s, though in the 19th century, many libraries would begin building elaborate permanent residences. Bristol, Birmingham, and Liverpool were the few libraries with their own building.[37] The accommodations varied from the shelf for a few dozen volumes in the country stationer's or draper's shop, to the expansion to a back room, to the spacious elegant areas of Hookham's or those at the resorts like Scarborough, and four in a row at Margate.[38] Private subscription libraries held a greater amount of control over both membership and the types of books in the library. There was almost a complete elimination of cheap fiction in the private societies.[39] Subscription libraries prided themselves on respectability. The highest percentage of subscribers were often landed proprietors, gentry, and old professions.[40] Towards the end of the 18th century and in the first decades of the nineteenth the need for books and general education made itself felt among social classes created by the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution.[41] The late 18th century saw a rise in subscription libraries intended for the use of tradesmen. In 1797, there was established at Kendal what was known as the Economical Library, "designed principally for the use and instruction of the working classes."[42] There was also the Artizans' library established at Birmingham in 1799. The entrance fee was 3 shillings. The subscription was 1 shilling 6 pence per quarter. This was a library of general literature. Novels, at first excluded, were afterwards admitted on condition that they did not account for more than one-tenth of the annual income.[33]


Public library Rate-supported libraries Although by the mid-19th century, England could claim 274 subscription libraries and Scotland, 266, the foundation of the modern public library system in the UK is the Public Libraries Act 1850. Prior to this, the municipalities of Warrington and Salford established libraries in their museums, under the terms of the Museums Act of 1845.Warrington Municipal Library opened in 1848. Salford Museum and Art Gallery first opened in November 1850 as "The Royal Museum & Public Library", as the first unconditionally free public library in England.[43] [44] The library in Campfield, Manchester was the first library to operate a free lending library without subscription in 1852.[45] Norwich lays claims to being the first municipality to adopt the Public Libraries Act 1850 (which allowed any municipal borough with a population of 100,000 or more to introduce a halfpenny rate to establish public librariesalthough not to buy books), but theirs was the eleventh library to open, in 1857, being the eleventh in the country after Winchester, Manchester, Liverpool, Bolton, Kidderminster, Cambridge, Birkenhead and Sheffield. The Scottish-American philanthropist and businessman, Andrew Carnegie, helped to increase the number of public libraries from the late 19th century.[46] County libraries are a later development which were made possible by the establishment of County Councils in 1888. They normally have a large central library in a major town with smaller branch libraries in other towns and a mobile library service covering rural areas.


North America
Canada The Quebec Library, founded in Quebec City in 1779 by Governor Frederick Haldimand, was the first publicly-funded library in the country. It later merged with the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, which displays the original Quebec Library collection within its library. "Subsequently legislative collections were established in 1791 in Upper and in 1792 in Lower Canada ; and in 1796 the first public library was founded in Montreal. In 1800, libraries were established in King's College, Nova Scotia, and at Niagara, where the first public library in Upper Canada operated for twenty years, in spite of losses during the War of 1812."[47] In Saint John, New Brunswick in 1883, following the efforts of Colonel James Domville in procuring a collection of materials to replace the many private collections lost in the Great Fire of Saint John, New Brunswick. The second public library in Canada opened in Toronto, Ontario, after a campaign by city alderman John Hallam. James Bain became the first chief librarian, and built a comprehensive collection of Canadian literature and history. Many of the original branches, funded by a Carnegie grant, still stand and continue to be operated by the Toronto Public Library.[48] Public libraries in Canada are not only places to read and borrow books. They are also hubs of community services, such as early reading programs, computer access, and tutoring and literacy help for children and adults.[49] [50] In Alberta, the first legislation officially passed by the legislative assembly was the Library Act passed March 15, 1907.[52] [53]

. The act was

Public library Mexico In 1646, Don Juan de Palafox y Mendoza, bishop of Puebla and Viceroy of New Spain, expelled the Jesuits from New Spain, and with the confiscated books founded the "Biblioteca Palafoxiana"the first public library in New Spain. It was in Puebla and open to all readers. The Palafoxian library exists today and is the only library in the world with the UNESCO Memory of the World certification. It has some of the oldest books in both North and South America. United States As the United States developed from the 18th century to today, growing more populous and wealthier, factors such as a push for education and desire to share knowledge led to broad public support for free libraries. In addition, money donations by private philanthropists provided the seed capital to get many libraries started. In some instances, collectors donated vast book collections. William James Sidis in The Tribes and the States claimed the public library, as such, was an American invention.[55] But exactly what constitutes a "free public library" is subject to dispute, and the term "invention" doesn't seem applicable to the many facets of an institution such as a library. Throughout history, knowledge in different forms has been shared in different ways. Writing was recorded on papyrus and stored in scrolls and kept in vast libraries such as the Library of Alexandria in Egypt. In ancient Greece, knowledge was passed by one person reading aloud to a group of scribes from a text; this resulted in sometimes different and error-prone versions of the same text. Monks in the Middle Ages copied manuscripts by hand. After the invention of the printing press by Johann Gutenberg, books became prevalent, and different institutions such as universities and governments and churches found ways to keep and share them. There are disputes about which was the first public library in the nation. Early American cities such as Boston and Philadelphia and New York had the first organized collections of books, but which library was truly "public" is subject to dispute. Sidis claims the first public library was Boston's in 1636,[55] although the official Boston Public Library was organized later in 1852.[56] In 1698, Charleston's St. Philip's Church Parsonage had a parish library. In 1731, Benjamin Franklin and his friends, sometimes called "the A public library building in Altona, Illinois, a Junto", operated the Library Company of Philadelphia partly as a small village in the Midwestern United States. means to settle arguments and partly as a means to advance themselves through sharing information. Franklin's subscription library allowed members to buy "shares" and combined funds were used to buy more books; in return, members could borrow books and use the library. Today, the Library Company continues to exist as a nonprofit, independent research library.


Bates Hall reading room in the Boston Public Library. Founded in 1848, it has 6.1 million [54] books.

Public library


A town in Massachusetts wanted to name itself Franklin in honor of the famous Pennsylvanian, and in return, Benjamin Franklin donated books for use by local residents; while Franklin had been asked to donate a church bell instead, he declined on the basis that "sense" was preferable to "sound."[57] One source considers the Franklin library in Massachusetts to be the first public library in the United States.[57] Another source claims the library in Darby, Pennsylvania which opened in 1743 is the "oldest continuously operating free public library" in the United States.[58] But other libraries claim to be the first public library, including the Scoville library in Salisbury, Connecticut, which was established in 1803.[59] The library in the New Hampshire town of Peterborough claims to be the first publicly-funded library; it opened in 1833.[60] And a library in Massachusetts in the town of Arlington claims to have had the first free children's library; it opened in 1835.[61] Finances In the trend from private to public libraries, big city libraries had the largest book collections and the most funding. The forerunner of the New York Public Library in Manhattan was a library established by the The former Williams Free Library in Beaver Earl of Ballamont around 1700.[62] A newspaper described the call for Dam, Wisconsin features an architectural style the "first public librarian" demanding that "he must not be too young, called Richardsonian Romanesque. for this would render him liable to be despised by the youth" and "he must be of an even temper" with "great diligence" and "sufficient learning" and "have a genius peculiarly adapted to the calling."[62] In 1849, the library was officially established, and consolidated in 1901. Today, it is considered to be one of the most important public libraries in the nation.[63] New York governor and book lover Samuel J. Tilden bequeathed millions to build the New York Public Library. He believed Americans should have access to books and a free education if desired. In 2005, the library offered the "NYPL Digital Gallery" which made a collection of 275,000 images viewable over the web; while most of the contents are in the public domain, some images are still subject to copyright rules.[64] In 1902, one account suggested "the village library is growing more and more an indispensable adjunct to American village life."[65] Around the turn from the 19th to the 20th century, Scottish-American businessman Andrew Carnegie donated over $60 million, which was a vast fortune in 20th century dollars, to build over 2,811 free public library buildings in the United States.[66] They were often known as Carnegie libraries.[66] Carnegie envisioned that libraries would "bring books and information to all people."[67] Libraries have been started with wills from other benefactors; for example, the Bacon Free Library in South Natick, Massachusetts was founded in 1881 after a benefactor left $15,000 in a will; it has operated as a public library since then.[68] Once the idea of the public library as an agency worthy of taxation was broadly established during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, librarians through actions of the American Library Association and its division devoted to public libraries, the Public Library Association, sought ways to identify standards and guidelines to ensure quality service.[69] In 2009, with the economic downturn, many public libraries have budget shortfalls. The library in Darby, Pennsylvania found expenses were greater than revenues from local property taxes, state funds, and investment income; it was on the risk of closing, according to a newspaper report.[58] Many public libraries face budgetary

The public library in Summit, New Jersey, a suburb of New York City.

Public library problems; the report noted that "tax dollars that support them are dwindling as property tax revenue declines along with home values and sales taxes fall as consumers spend less. As local funding drops, libraries are turning to their endowments and draining the investments."[58] Many libraries have foundations behind them to support them financially, and rely on the help of well-heeled donors as well as local corporations for funds.[70] Services Most public libraries today are supported by tax monies from local and state governments, and some have foundations to support them with additional capital. Libraries lend books and materials freely, but charge fines if materials are returned late or damaged. Libraries often keep many historical documents relevant to their particular town, and serve as a resource for historians in some instances; for example, the Queens Public Library kept letters written by unrecognized Tiffany lamp designer Clara Driscoll, and the letters remained in the library until a curator discovered them.[71] In 2009, big city libraries have multiple branches and offer numerous services. For example, the Boston Public Library has 26 neighborhood branches and offers free Internet service; it has two restaurants and an online store which features reproductions of photographs and artwork; and it promotes itself with a website.[54] It answers more than one million reference questions annually.[54] The library uses wireless technology software networks to offer more services and keep costs under control.[54] The Boston library offers digitized content, video, a wider range of formats and, as a result, "research documents now have broader accessibility within the community and around the world," and help communities by offering public access computers, mobile Wi-fi access, and free job search tools.[54] Libraries promote cultural awareness; in Newark, New Jersey, the public library celebrated black history with exhibits and programs.[72] Libraries also partner with schools and community organizations to promote literacy and learning.[67] One account suggested libraries were essential to "economic competitiveness" as well as "neighborhood vitality" and help some people find jobs.[67] Some library buildings are notable for their particular architectural styles; in the town of Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, architects designed the Williams Free Library in the style of Richardsonian Romanesque.


France The National Library of France is one of the oldest libraries in the world still in service today as it traces its origin to the royal library founded at the Louvre by King Charles V in 1368, but at the time it was conceived as the private library of the French kings and it opened to the public only in 1692, during the reign of Louis XIV. Claude Sallier, the philologist and churchman, had an idea that was advanced for its erato make culture accessible to all. From 1737 to 1750 he made books available to the town of Saulieu, forming France's first public library. The pioneer of modern public libraries in France was Eugne Morel, a writer and one of the librarians at the Bibliothque nationale. He put forward his ideas in the 1910 book La Librairie publique.[73] [74]

Public library Italy The Malatestiana Library (Italian: Biblioteca Malatestiana), also known as the Malatesta Novello Library, is a public library dating from 1452 in Cesena, Emilia-Romagna (Italy). It was the first European civic library,[75] i.e. belonging to the Commune and open to everybody. It was commissioned by the Lord of Cesena, Malatesta Novello. The works were directed by Matteo Nuti of Fano (a scholar of Leon Battista Alberti) and lasted from 1447 to 1452.
The National Central Library in Florence, the biggest public library in Italy


Entrance to the Biblioteca Malatestiana

Poland The Zauski Library (Polish: Biblioteka Zauskich, Latin: Bibliotheca Zalusciana) was built in Warsaw 17471795 by Jzef Andrzej Zauski and his brother, Andrzej Stanisaw Zauski, both Roman Catholic bishops. The library was open to the public and indeed was the first Polish public library, the biggest in Poland and one of the earliest public libraries in Europe.[76] In 1794, the library was looted on orders from Catherine II of Russia. Much of the material was returned in the period of 1842-1920, but once again the library was decimated during World War II during the period following the Warsaw Uprising. The Zauski Library was succeeded by the creation of the National Library

Biblioteka Zauskich

of Poland (Biblioteka Narodowa) in 1928.

Public library


Library services in Australia developed along very different paths in the different States, as such it is hard to define the origins of the Public Library system in Australia. In 1809 the Reverend Samuel Marsden advertised in England for donations to help found a 'Lending Library for the general benefit of the inhabitants of New South Wales'. The library would cover 'Divinity and Morals, History, Voyages and Travels, Agriculture in all its branches, Mineralogy and Practical Mechanics'. No Public Library came to fruition from this although some of the books brought to the colony after this call survive in the library of Moore Theological College. The place of Public Libraries was filled by Mechanics' Institutes, schools of arts, athenaeums and literary institutes; some of these provided free library services to visitors, however lending rights were available only to members who were required to pay a subscription. In 1856, the Victorian colonial government opened the Melbourne Public Library (now the State Library of Victoria). This was however purely a reference library. In September 1869, the New South Wales government opened as the Free Public Library, Sydney (now the State Library of New South Wales) by purchasing a bankrupt subscription library. In 1896, the Brisbane Public Library was established. The Library's collection, purchased by the Queensland Government from the private collection of Mr Justice Harding. In 1932, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, funded a survey (The Munn-Pitt Report) into Australian libraries. It found 'wretched little institutes' which were 'cemeteries of old and forgotten books'. There was also criticism of the limited public access, poor staff training, unsatisfactory collections, lack of non-fiction, absence of catalogues and poor levels of service for children. Lending libraries in Sydney (NSW) and Prahran (Victoria) were praised as examples of services which were doing well, but these were seen as exceptions. In NSW, The Free Library Movement was set up on the back of the Munn-Pitt Report. This collection of (amongst others) concerned citizens, progress associations, Returned Servicemen and trade Unions advocated a system of Public Libraries to serve the needs of all people. This movement was stalled by the declaration of war in 1939. The passing of Library Acts in the states at the end of the war marked the beginning of modern public libraries in Australia. In 1943, the Queensland Parliament passed the Libraries Act, establishing the Library Board of Queensland to manage the operations of the Public Library of Queensland, and coordinate and improve library facilities throughout the State of Queensland. In November 1943, at the official opening of the new Public Library of New South Wales building, William McKell, the New South Wales Premier, announced that the Library Act would be fully proclaimed from 1 January 1944. Even after the war, the development of free lending libraries in Australia had been agonizingly slow: it was not until the 1960s that local governments began to establish public libraries in suburban areas.

The old State Library of Queensland, 1899 - 1988

Currently Australian public libraries: http:/ / www. alia. org. au/ advocacy/ public. library. advocacy. kit. pdf number 1402 public libraries (nearly twice as many bricks and mortar sites than McDonald's restaurants) plus 78 mobile libraries. Australian's generate more than 110 million library visits per year (that is about 9 million visits per month).There are more than 9.9 million library members (or 46% of the population), more than 41.5 million items to use and borrow, plus more than 11,600 computers for public use. It costs $882.3 million to run Australian public libraries but they return at least $2.6 billion-worth of community benefits. All this costs Australians $830 million just over 10c a day each with a benchmark for best practice funding being 20c per day. The 2007 Americans for Libraries Council (ALC) report on library valuation stated, A benefit-to-cost ratio of 3:1 or better is common among the library valuation studies ALC reviewed. Because this type of economic analysis is

Public library commonly used across industries and businesses, it puts libraries into an evaluative framework that permits comparisons with other types of organizations. When this occurs, public libraries consistently outpace other sectors, such as transportation, health, and education, on the efficient use of tax dollars.


Funding problems
Most public libraries rely heavily on local government funding. Some proactive librarians have devised alliances with patron and civic groups to supplement their financial situations. Library "friends" groups, activist boards, and well organized book sales supplement government funding. With the cost of running local government increasing at a rate far above inflation, libraries are compelled to look beyond the tax base of the communities they serve. In the United States, among other countries, libraries in financially-strapped communities compete financially with other public institutions, such as police, firefighters, and schools. Many communities are closing down or reducing the capability of their library systems, at the same time balancing their budgets. Jackson County, Oregon (US), closed its entire 15-branch public library system for six months in 2007, reopening with a with a private-public 'partnership' and a reduced schedule.[77] This example of a funding problem followed the failure to pass of a bond measure and cessation of federal funding for counties with dwindling timber revenue, in a state with no sales tax.[78] [79] In December 2004, Salinas, California almost became the first city in the United States to completely close down its entire library system. A tax increase passed by the voters in November 2005 allowed the libraries to open, but hours remain limited.[80] The American Library Association says media reports it has compiled in 2004 showed some $162 million in funding cuts to libraries nationwide.[81] Survey data suggests the public values free public libraries. A Public Agenda survey in 2006 reported 84 percent of the public said maintaining free library services should be a top priority for their local library. Public libraries received higher ratings for effectiveness than other local services such as parks and police. But the survey also found the public was mostly unaware of financial difficulties facing their libraries.[82] Recently, many US cities, including Philadelphia, New York, Trenton and San Diego, have been facing the issue of making job cuts and service reductions in order to save money. Most of these cities have decided to cut library funding by closing down several branches and cutting hours and staff members in the branches that will remain open. Philadelphia, however, has decided to keep their 54 branches open. In order to save money during this financial crisis, Mayor Michael Nutter has proposed to cut funding for recreational parks and decrease the budget for police and fire services. Nutter has announced that the Philadelphia public library branches will not be affected by the budget cuts at this time. In various cost-benefit studies libraries continue to provide an exceptional return on the dollar.[83] A 2008 survey discusses comprehensively the prospects for increased funding in the United States, saying in conclusion "There is sufficient, but latent, support for increased library funding among the voting population."[84] Public libraries, long supported by various government entities, have seen a decline in monetary support for several decades, due to various influences. The American Library Association states that 41% of states saw a decline in state budgets for public library funding in 2009[85] Cases in point are the libraries in Salinas, California, Rochester, New York,[86] and Buffalo, New York, but there are many other long-standing public libraries now having to find new sources of income to keep them operating. In California, the passage of Proposition 13 in 1978 removed the property tax as a source of funding for libraries, school programs, and other public services [87] ]. This action provided tax relief for homeowners on one hand, but forced severe budget cuts to the services they enjoyed. The cost of creating, maintaining, and upgrading electronic hardware, networks, and resources has put a strain on many library budgets. The cost of printed matter such as books and magazines has risen over time, while funding has remained static or declined.

Public library


[1] John N. Berry III, A Model for the Public Sector, Library Journal 126 March 1, 2001. [2] "Link+" (http:/ / csul. iii. com/ ). Csul.iii.com. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [3] Bertot, J.C., Jaeger, P.T., Langa, L.A. and McClure, C.R. (2006). "Public access computing and Internet access in public libraries: The role of public libraries in e-government and emergency situations." First Monday. 11(9)Retrieved May 30, 2009, from http:/ / firstmonday. org/ issues/ issues11_9/ bertot/ index. html [4] Bertot, J.C., McClure, C.R., Jaeger, P.T. and Ryan, J. (2008). Public libraries and the Internet 2008: Study results and findings. Retrieved May 31, 2009 from Florida State University, Information Use Management and Policy Institute Website: http:/ / www. ii. fsu. edu/ plinternet_reports. cfm [5] American Library Association (ALA) Access to Information. Retrieved July 16, 2009, from http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ issuesadvocacy/ access/ accesstoinformation/ index. cfm [6] American Library Association (ALA). Equity of Access. Retrieved July 16, 2009, from http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ issuesadvocacy/ access/ equityofaccess/ index. cfm [7] American Library Association (ALA). Access. Retrieved July 16, 2009, from http:/ / ala. org/ ala/ issuesadvocacy/ access/ index. cfm [8] Haavisto, T. (2006). Libraries and the WSIS action lines: Guideline for international, regional and local advocacy for libraries in relation with implantation of the WSIS by action line 2005-2015. [Update. Mincio, D. (2007)] [Electronic Version]. Page 2. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions and World Summit on the Information Society: Geneva 2003 Tunis 2005. Retrieved July 15, 2009, from http:/ / www. ifla. org/ files/ wsis/ Documents/ libraries-and-the-wsis-action-lines-en. pdf. [9] Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (2009). Global Libraries: Opening a World of Information and Opportunities. Retrieved July 15, 2009, from http:/ / www. gatesfoundation. org/ libraries/ Pages/ global-libraries-projects-update. aspx. [10] Matthew. Library: An Unquiet History. New York, N.Y.: Norton, 2004, p. 135. [11] Bill, Katz. Dahl's History Of The Book, No. 2. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1995, p. 238. [12] Raven, James. "Libraries for sociability: the advance of subscription library." The Cambridge History Of Libraries In Britain And Ireland. 3 vols. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 251-253. [13] The Literary Companion by Emma Jones, Robson books, page 115 [14] (http:/ / www2. granthamtoday. co. uk/ sites/ history/ gh_wulf. html) [15] Anon. "Norwich City Library 1608 - 1737: The Minutes, Donation Book and Catalogue of Norwich City Library, Founded in 1608" (http:/ / www. norfolkrecordsociety. org. uk/ reviews/ LXXII. htm). Norfolk Record Society. Norfolk Record Society. . Retrieved 18 November 2009. [16] Anon. "Welcome to Chetham's Library" (http:/ / www. chethams. org. uk/ ). Chetham's Library Home page. . Retrieved 18 November 2009. [17] Hobson, Anthony "Open Shelves", TLS, 8 December 2006, 9. [18] Kelly, Thomas (1966) Early Public Libraries: a history of public libraries in Great Britain before 1850 London: Library Association; p. 94 [19] Predeek, Albert (1947) A History of Libraries in Great Britain and North America. Chicago: American Library Association; p. 58 [20] Battles, Matthew (2003) Library: an unquiet history; p. 121 [21] Kelly, Thomas (1966); p. 185 [22] Allan, David (2008) A Nation of Readers: the lending library in Georgian England. London: British Library; p. 121 [23] Irwin, Raymond (1964) The Heritage of the English Library. London: George Allen & Unwin; p. 275 [24] Kelly, Thomas (1966); p. 147 [25] Kaufman, Paul (1969); p. 197 [26] Allan, David (2008); p. 138 [27] Allan, David (2008); p. 135 [28] Irwin, Raymond (1964); p. 276 [29] Irwin, Raymond (1964); p. 275 [30] Kelly, Thomas (1966); p. 121 [31] Kelly, Thomas (1966); p. 188 [32] Allan, David (2008); p. 132 [33] Kelly, Thomas (1966); p. 128 [34] Kelly, Thomas (1966); p. 126 [35] Kelly, Thomas (1966); p. 133 [36] Kaufman, Paul. Libraries and Their Users. Page 29. The Library Association. 1969. Print. [37] Kelly, Thomas (1966); p. 129 [38] Kaufman, Paul (1969); p. 193 [39] Kaufman, Paul (1969); p. 209 [40] Allan, David (2008); p. 68 [41] Irwin, Raymond (1964); p. 53 [42] Kelly, Thomas (1966); p. 127 [43] manchesteronline: Eye witness in Manchester (http:/ / www. manchesteronline. co. uk/ ewm/ 001ewm/ 024_sal_mayor/ index. html) Retrieved on 2008-09-05

Public library
[44] "1st In Salford" (http:/ / www. visitsalford. info/ whattosee/ heritage/ industrialheritage/ industrialheritage1st. htm). visitsalford.info. . Retrieved 2008-01-19. [45] "Anniversary of first public library" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ england/ 2238494. stm). BBC News. September 5, 2002. . Retrieved April 14, 2010. [46] Jones, Theodore (1997). Carnegie Libraries across America. Washington: Preservation Press. ISBN0471144223. [47] "LEncyclopdie de lhistoire du Qubec / The Quebec History Encyclopedia" (http:/ / faculty. marianopolis. edu/ c. belanger/ quebechistory/ encyclopedia/ LibrariesinCanada-CanadianLibraries-Canadianhistory. htm). Libraries in Canada. Marianopolis College. . Retrieved 15 August 2011. [48] "Toronto Public Library - History of the Library - Toronto's Carnegie Libraries" (http:/ / www. torontopubliclibrary. ca/ about-the-library/ library-history/ carnegie. jsp). torontopubliclibrary.ca. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [49] "Services | Halifax Public Libraries" (http:/ / www. halifaxpubliclibraries. ca/ services. html). Halifaxpubliclibraries.ca. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [50] "Vancouver Public Library - Programs & Events" (http:/ / www. vpl. ca/ cgi-bin/ api/ calendar. cgi). Vpl.ca. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [51] http:/ / www. qp. alberta. ca/ 574. cfm?page=L11. cfm& leg_type=Acts& isbncln=9780779726363 [52] "Alberta Public Library Service Branch" (http:/ / www. municipalaffairs. alberta. ca/ mc_public_library_history. cfm). Public Library History. Government of Alberta. . [53] "YouTube" (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=75bIi2xHILo& feature=player_embedded). Alberta's Public Libraries - Celebrating 100 years. Chinook Regional Library Service. . Retrieved 15 August 2011. [54] Business Wire (September 9, 2009). "Boston Public Library Secures E-Rate Funding; Selects One Communications for 31 Location MPLS Network" (http:/ / www. reuters. com/ article/ pressRelease/ idUS140972+ 09-Sep-2009+ BW20090909). Reuters. . Retrieved 2009-11-18. ""The Internet and emerging technologies have had a substantial impact on libraries," said Mary Bender, Communications Manager at Boston Public Library. "Content has been digitized and is available in a wider range of formats including video, and resources such as rare books, photos, and research documents now have broader accessibility within the community and around the world."" [55] "The Tribes and the States, Penacook" (http:/ / www. sidis. net/ TSChap8. htm). Sidis.net. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [56] "Boston Public Library" (http:/ / www. bpl. org/ ). Bpl.org. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [57] Town of Franklin (2010-06-29). "Town of Franklin - History of the Franklin Public Library" (http:/ / franklinma. virtualtownhall. net/ Pages/ FranklinMA_Library/ libraryhistory). Franklinma.virtualtownhall.net. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [58] Marisol Bello (2009-02-02). "Country's oldest public library could close this year" (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ news/ nation/ 2009-02-01-oldestlibraries_N. htm). USA Today. . Retrieved 2009-11-18. "Now Darby's only library, believed to be the country's oldest continuously operating free public library, may close its doors and end its time as a gathering" [59] "Scoville Memorial Library" (http:/ / www. scovillelibrary. org). Scovillelibrary.org. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [60] (http:/ / www. bartleby. com/ 65/ li/ library. html) [61] "Robbins Library About the Library" (http:/ / www. robbinslibrary. org/ about/ history). Robbinslibrary.org. 1917-02-15. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [62] "New York's First Public Library Would Seem Queer Now" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ abstract. html?res=9C05E0DA1E3BE631A2575BC0A9639C946597D6CF). New York Times. May 8, 1904. . Retrieved 2009-11-18. "THERE was no doubt whatever in the mind of the man who laid the foundation for the first free public library in New York, away back in 1711, as to the sort of person he wanted for librarian. He put his ideas in writing. His original manuscript is in the library of Lambeth Palace, London." [63] (http:/ / www. nypl. org/ pr/ history. cfm) [64] Jim Regan (March 21, 2005). "The NY Public Library's Digital Gallery" (http:/ / www. csmonitor. com/ 2005/ 0321/ p25s01-stin. html). Christian Science Monitor. . Retrieved 2009-11-18. "Officially launched on March 3rd, the NYPL DIgital Gallery is presently offering 275,000 images (stored on a 57- terabyte, a thousand billion bytes of data, network of servers) for public perusal and free personal use ("...individual private study, scholarship and research...")" [65] E. Irenaeus Stevenson (August 16, 1902). "Village Libraries: Mr. E. Irenaeus Stevenson Offers Suggestions on How to Conduct Them." (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ abstract. html?res=9501E6DF1E3BE733A25755C1A96E9C946397D6CF). New York Times. . Retrieved 2009-11-18. "The village library is growing more and more an indispensable adjunct to American village life." [66] "ObituaryCarnegie Started as a Bobbin Boy" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ learning/ general/ onthisday/ bday/ 1125. html). New York Times. August 12, 1919. . Retrieved 2009-11-18. "Free Public Library buildings (2,811) $60,364,808.75" [67] "Sunday Forum: The importance of libraries" (http:/ / www. post-gazette. com/ pg/ 08013/ 848584-35. stm). Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. January 13, 2008. . Retrieved 2009-11-18. "You'll find librarians guiding customers to information that will help them to find a job, start a business or trace their family trees. You'll find teens learning to use video cameras and online media to support a worthy cause. You'll find children settling into a cozy pillow with a picture book." [68] http:/ / www. baconfreelibrary. org/ Bacon Free Library [69] McCook, Kathleen de la Pea (2011). Introduction to Public Librarianship. ISBN978-1-55570-697-5. [70] Agustin C. Torres (August 12, 2009). "Jersey City Free Public Library's party a total success" (http:/ / www. nj. com/ hudson/ voices/ index. ssf/ 2009/ 08/ librarys_party_a_total_success. html). The Jersey Journal. . Retrieved 2009-11-18. "Last, but certainly not least, on behalf of the Library Board of Trustees and Library Director Priscilla Gardner, we thank the Provident Bank Foundation for donating $15,000 to the Library Foundation, which signifies and continually solidifies the long history between the Provident Bank and the Jersey City Free Public Library."


Public library
[71] Kastner, Jeffrey (February 25, 2007). "Out of Tiffany's Shadow, a Woman of Light" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2007/ 02/ 25/ arts/ design/ 25kast. html?pagewanted=print). New York Times. . Retrieved 2009-11-16. "He was co-curator of the exhibition with the independent scholar ... and the historical society's curator of decorative arts, Margaret K. Hofer." [72] Dennis Papp (January 15, 2009). "Library celebrates Black History 2009" (http:/ / www. nj. com/ newark/ public-library/ index. ssf/ 2009/ 01/ library_celebrates_black_histo. html). Newark Star-Ledger & nj.com. . Retrieved 2009-11-18. "The Library salutes the lives and legacy of the black doctors and nurses whose pioneering work in the greater metropolitan area opened the doors of the health services industry to the city's African- American population as both consumers and providers." [73] La Librairie publique (1910) [available through ENSSIB as pdf at: http:/ / www. enssib. fr/ bibliotheque-numerique/ document-brut-48832] [74] Gatan Benot, Eugne Morel, pioneer of public libraries in France, Litwin Books, 2008 [75] "Cesena" (http:/ / www. stradavinisaporifc. it/ cesena. asp). Stradavinisaporifc.it. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [76] "The Strange Life of One of the Greatest European Libraries of the Eighteenth Century: the Zaluski Collection in Warsaw" (http:/ / www. fyifrance. com/ f102005c. htm). Fyifrance.com. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [77] "JACKSON COUNTY'S 15 LIBRARIES TO REOPEN THROUGH INNOVATIVE PUBLIC / PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP WITH LSSI" (http:/ / www. lssi. com/ articles/ LSSI Jackson County Release. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [78] "NOW WHAT? - April 8, 2007" (http:/ / www. mailtribune. com/ archive/ 2007/ 0408/ local/ stories/ nowwhatlibraries. htm). Mail Tribune. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [79] Damian Mann. "Open, for now" (http:/ / www. mailtribune. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/ 99999999/ NEWS/ 710160335). MailTribune.com. . Retrieved 2011-03-27. [80] "Referenda Roundup, 2005" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060615070152/ http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ alonline/ selectedarticles/ referenda2005. htm) American Library Association, 2005. (Accessed 10 July 2006). [81] "Library Funding" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ libraryfunding) American Library Association, 2004. (Accessed 10 July 2006) [82] "Long Overdue: A Fresh Look at Public Attitudes About Libraries in the 21st Century" (http:/ / www. publicagenda. org/ reports/ long-overdue) Public Agenda, 2006. (Accessed 25 July 2008). [83] Holt, Glen. Measuring Outcomes: Applying Cost-Benefit Analysis to Middle-Sized and Smaller Public Libraries. Library Trends; Winter2003, Vol. 51 Issue 3, p424, 17p [84] From Awareness to Funding: A study of library support in America. A Report to the OCLC Membership OCLC, 2008 ISBN 1-55653-400-0 full text (http:/ / www. oclc. org/ reports/ funding/ fullreport. pdf) [85] > State funding for many public libraries on decline (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ newspresscenter/ news/ pressreleases2009/ february2009/ orscosla. cfm) American Library Association [86] The Monroe County government cut funding to the county library system in order to fund other projects, including a sports arena, a bus station, and an arts center. This obliged the constituent libraries to implement user charges and cutbacks. [87] Proposition 13: Some Unintended Consequences (http:/ / www. ppic. org/ content/ pubs/ op/ OP_998JCOP. pdf) Jeffrey I. Chapman


Further reading
Barnett, Graham Keith (1987) Histoire des bibliothques publiques en France de la Rvolution 1939; traduit de l'anglais par Thierry Lefvre et Yves Sardat. Paris: Promodis (Translation of: The history of public libraries in France from the Revolution to 1939, London: Library Association, 1973) Bobinski, George S. (1969) Carnegie Libraries: their history and impact on American public library development. Chicago: American Library Association ISBN 0-8389-0022-4 Garrison, Dee (1979) Apostles of Culture: the public librarian and American society, 1876-1920. New York: Free Press ISBN 0-02-693850-2 Jones, Barbara M., "Libraries, Access, and Intellectual Freedom" (http://books.google.com/ books?id=rK5syOKSkBIC&printsec=frontcover), American Library Association, 1999. Kelly, Thomas (1966) Early Public Libraries: a history of public libraries in Great Britain before 1850. London: Library Association McCook, Kathleen de la Pea (2011), Introduction to Public Librarianship, 2nd ed. New York, Neal-Schuman. Minow, Mary; Lipinski, Tomas A., "The Library's Legal Answer Book" (http://books.google.com/ books?id=UAYnMveoYrsC&printsec=frontcover), American Library Association, 2003. Stockham, K. A., ed. (1969) British County Libraries: 1919-1969. London: Andr Deutsch ISBN 0-233-96111-9

Public library


External links
Format Proliferation in Public Libraries (http://www.libraryreference.com/format.html) Stimulating Growth and Renewal of Public Libraries: The Natural Life Cycle as Framework (http://www. ericdigests.org/2005-2/libraries.html) Security Issues in Ohio Public Libraries (http://www.uncoverthenet.com/articles/listing/9305.php) "How did public libraries get started?" (http://www.straightdope.com/mailbag/mpublibrary.html) from The Straight Dope Seminar in Public Libraries (http://www.cas.usf.edu/lis/mccook/publiclibraries.htm) "Go Ahead, Name Them: America's Best Public Libraries" (http://www.ala.org/ala/alonline/resources/ slctdarticles/hennen.pdf) from the American Library Association Hennen's American Public Library Ratings (http://www.haplr-index.com/) Public libraries in the United States of America; their history, condition, and management. Special report, Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education (1876) (http://www.archive.org/details/ pt1publiclibrarie00unituoft) at Internet Archive, Public library for community sharing (http://jpgmag.com/stories/16308) Public library statistics (http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/libraries/public.asp) from the National Center for Education Statistics

Private library
A private library is a library under the care of private ownership, as compared to that of a public institution, and is usually only established for the use of a small number of people, or even a single person. As with public libraries, some people use stamps, stickers, or embossing to show ownership of the items. Some people sell their private libraries to established institutions such as the Library of Congress, or, as is often the case, bequeath them thereto after death, through a will.

The earliest libraries belonged to temples or administration bodies, resembled modern archives, and were usually restricted to nobility, aristocracy, scholars, or theologians. Examples of the earliest known private libraries include one found in Ugarit (dated to around 1200 BC) and the Library of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh (near modern Mosul, Iraq), dating back to the 7th century BC.

Nearly every house of nobility had a library and virtually every one was split into two rooms: one for Latin texts and one for Greek texts. Rome may very well have been the birth place of specialized libraries, with evidence of early medical and legal libraries. In the 5th century BC, on the island of Cos outside the city of Pergamum, a medical school complex with a library was built in the sanctuary of Asclepius. This is the first medical school known to have existed, and subsequently it could be credited with the first specialized library.

Private library


Renaissance Europe
The Golden Age brought with it a renewed interest in conserving the new ideas being put forth by the great thinkers of the day. The Kings of each European country created impressive libraries some of which have become the national libraries of today. The National Library of France in Paris (Bibliothque Nationale de France) was started in 1367 as the Royal Library of King Charles V. In Florence, Italy, Cosimo de Medici had a private library which formed the basis of the Laurentian Library. The Vatican library was also started in the 15th century.

The creation and expansion of universities prompted the gifting of private libraries to university libraries. One notable donation was by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester to Oxford University in the early 15th century.

The library of the Abbey of Melk, rehoused in the 18th century

Modern era
Private libraries in the hands of individuals have become more numerous with the introduction of paperback books. Nearly every law firm or hospital has a library for use by its employees. In most of the English speaking world these may also fall into the category of special libraries, serving as medical libraries or law libraries (though public examples exist of these as well). Many large corporations also have a library that specializes in serving its specific needs. Scientific establishments are especially apt to have a library to support scientists and researchers. Manufacturing facilities are also likely to have an engineering library to help with troubleshooting and the assembly of complicated parts. In most of the English speaking world these types of libraries are generally not open to the public. They are called "Special Libraries" and their staff often seeks advancement and knowledge by joining the Special Libraries Association.

Library (domestic room)

The word library also refers to a room in a private house in which books are kept. Generally it is a relatively large room that is open to all family members and household guests, in contrast to a study, which also often contains a collection of books, but is usually a private space intended to be used by one person.

Famous private libraries

Queen Elizabeth II's library in Windsor castle Tianyi Pavilion The oldest private library in Asia; located in Zhejiang, China Library of Sir Thomas Browne Bibliotheca Lindesiana Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman Library; located in Aligarh, India

National library


National library
A national library is a library specifically established by the government of a country to serve as the preeminent repository of information for that country. Unlike public libraries, these rarely allow citizens to borrow books. Often, they include numerous rare, valuable, or significant works. There are wider definitions of a national library, putting less emphasis to the repository character.[1] [2] National libraries are usually notable for their size, compared to that of other libraries in the same country. Some states which are not independent, but who wish to preserve their particular culture, have established a national library with all the attributes of such institutions, such as legal deposit. Many national libraries cooperate within the National Libraries Section of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) to discuss their common tasks, define and promote common standards and carry out projects helping them to fulfil their duties. National libraries of Europe participate in The European Library. This is a service of The Conference of European National Librarians (CENL). The first national libraries had their origins in the royal collections of the sovereign or some other supreme body of the state. One of the first plans for a national library was that devised by the Welsh mathematician John Dee, who in 1556 presented Mary I of England with a visionary plan for the preservation of old books, manuscripts and records and the founding of a national library, but his proposal was not taken up.[3]
National Library of Spain in Madrid

National Library of Australia

Legal deposit and copyright

The principle of legal deposit applies in some countries. In the United Kingdom, the Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003 restates the Copyright Act 1911, that one copy of every book published there must be sent to the national library (the British Library); five other National Library Building in Singapore libraries (the Bodleian Library at Oxford University, the Cambridge University Library, the National Library of Scotland, the Trinity College Library, Dublin, and the National Library of Wales) are entitled to request a free copy within one year of publication. The international nature of the book publishing industry ensures that all significant English language publications from elsewhere in the world are also included.

National library


In the Republic of Ireland, the Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 specifies that one copy of every book published is to be delivered to the National Library of Ireland, the Trinity College Library, Dublin, the library of the University of Limerick, the library of Dublin City University, and the British Library. Four copies are to be delivered to the National University of Ireland for distribution to its constituent universities. Further, on demand in writing within twelve months of publication a copy is to be delivered to the Bodleian Library, Cambridge University Library, the National Library of Scotland, and the National Library of Wales. In Australia, the Copyright Act 1968 and other state Acts requires that a copy of every book published in Australia be deposited with the National Library of Australia, the relevant State Library for the state in which the book was published, and some states other libraries such as Parliamentary and university libraries. A similar system also exists in Canada with respect to its national library, known as Library and Archives Canada, and in Quebec, the Bibliothque et Archives nationales du Qubec which has been entitled to two copies (for publications retailing at less than $250), or one copy (for publications retailing at $250 or above) of books published in Quebec since 1968.

The Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem

The National Library of Venezuela in Caracas

Since 1537, all works published in France must be deposited with the Bibliothque nationale de France. Since 1997, it has also received deposits of digital works. Since 1661, the Swedish Royal Library has been entitled to a copy of all works published in Sweden. In Singapore, the National Library Board Act requires all publishers in Singapore to deposit two copies of every publication to the National Library Board at their own expense within four weeks from the publication date. Other countries, like the United States, do not follow this requirement. The United States does, however, require that any publisher submit two copies of a copyrightable work to United States Copyright Office at the Library of Congress - this is known as mandatory deposit[4] - but the Library is selective about which works it retains. The international nature of the book publishing industry ensures that all significant English language publications from elsewhere in the world are also included. It also has the Federal depository libraries, which must receive a copy of all of the publications of the Government Printing Office. In addition to having a law requiring publishers to deposit books, those countries with legal deposits usually have many other incentives for a proper and speedy deposit, such as a tie-in with laws affecting copyright of the same documents, and/or a cataloguing- in- publication service. Approximately three million new English-language books are retained by the British Library and Library of Congress each year.

National library


National bibliographic control

One of the main goals of a national library is fulfilling their nation's part of the common international goal of universal bibliographic control, by ensuring the bibliographic control of all the books or book-like documents published in that particular country or talking about that particular country, in any way. The first part of the goal is usually achieved through the means of legal deposit laws or (as is the case of the United States) by a host of different programs such as a cataloguing in publication service. By this Italian National Central Library in Florence service, the Library of Congress gives a complete catalogue entry of a book to any publisher who sends a final draft or some form of galley proof of a book currently in production. Other national libraries offer similar services or enforce mandatory practices similar to this. The second part of the goal is achieved by thorough acquisition programs and collection development policies which target book markets in other nations, and which foster international agreements with other countries with national libraries who have national bibliographic control as one of their goals. Exchange and access protocols are defined permitting these countries to read each other's catalogues, and to standardize catalogue entries, thus making it easier for each national library to become aware of every possible published document which might concern their country.

International bibliographic control

Another one of the main goals of many a national library is the "export aspect" and the collaborative sides of the universal bibliographic control of all the books in the world. This is done by the exchanges and accords mentioned in the previous section, and also by fostering the creation of standard conceptual tools such as library classification systems and cataloguing rules. The most commonly used of these tools is the International Standard Bibliographic Description or ISBD, which has served as a basis for national and international cataloguing codes, such as AACR2.

Croatian National and University Library in Zagreb

[1] Line, Maurice B.; Line, J. (1979). "Concluding notes". National libraries, Aslib, pp. 317-318 [2] Lor, P. J.; Sonnekus, E. A. S. (1997). "Guidelines for Legislation for National Library Services" (http:/ / www. ifla. org/ VII/ s1/ gnl/ index. htm), IFLA. Retrieved on 2009-01-10. [3] Fell-Smith, Charlotte (1909) John Dee: 15271608. London: Constable and Company Available online (http:/ / www. johndee. org/ charlotte/ ) [4] http:/ / www. copyright. gov/ help/ faq/ mandatory_deposit. html

External links
National Libraries Section of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) (http:// www.ifla.org/VII/s1/index.htm) Conference of Directors of National Libraries (CDNL) (http://consorcio.bn.br/cdnl/) Conference of European National Librarians(CENL) (http://www.cenl.org)

Academic library


Academic library
An academic library is a library that is attached to academic institutions above the secondary level, serving the teaching and research needs of students and staff.[1] These libraries serve two complementary purposes: to support the school's curriculum, and to support the research of the university faculty and students. The support of teaching requires material for class readings and for student papers. In the past, the material for class readings, intended to supplement lectures as prescribed by the instructor, has been called reserves. In the period before electronic resources became available, the reserves were supplied as actual books or as photocopies of appropriate journal articles. Traditionally, one copy of a book was made available for each 10 students this is practical for large classes only if paperback copies are available, and the books reused from term to term. Academic libraries must decide what focus they take in collecting materials since no single library can supply everything. When there are particular areas of specialization in academic libraries these are often referred to as niche collections. These collections are often the basis of a special collection department and may include original papers, artwork, and artifacts written or created by a single author or about a specific subject.

Southwest Collections / Special Collections Library at Texas Tech, a university in the United States

United States

University Library Leiden, the Netherlands, in 1694. La nouvelle bibliothque, from Les delices de Leide, une des clbres villes de l'Europe, Leiden: P. van der Aa, 1712

The first colleges in the United States were intended to train members of the clergy. The libraries associated with these institutions largely consisted of donated books on the subjects of theology and the classics. In 1766, Yale had approximately 4,000 volumes, second only to Harvard.[2] Access to these libraries was restricted to faculty members and a few students: the only staff was a part-time faculty member or the president of the college.[3] The priority of the library was to protect the books, not to allow patrons to use them. In 1849, Yale was open 30 The interior of Sofia University's main library. hours a week, the University of Virginia was open nine hours a week, [4] Columbia University four, and Bowdoin College only three. Students instead created literary societies and assessed entrance fees in order to build a small collection of usable volumes often in excess of what the university library held.[5] Around the turn of the century, this approach began to change. The American Library Association was formed in 1876, with members

Academic library


including Melville Dewey and Charles Ammi Cutter. Libraries re-prioritized in favor of improving access to materials, and found funding increasing as a result of increased demand for said materials.[6] Academic libraries today vary in regard to the extent to which they accommodate those who are not affiliated with their parent universities. Some offer reading and borrowing privileges to members of the public on payment of an annual fee; such fees can vary greatly. The privileges so obtained usually do not extend to such services as computer usage, other than to search the catalog, or Internet access. Alumni and students of cooperating local universities may be given discounts or other consideration when arranging for borrowing privileges. On the other hand access to the libraries of some universities is absolutely restricted to students, faculty, and staff. Even in this case, they may make it possible for others to borrow materials through inter-library loan programs. Libraries of land-grant universities generally are more accessible to the public. In some cases they are official government document repositories and so are required to be open to the public. Still, members of the public are generally charged fees for borrowing privileges, and usually are not allowed to access everything they would be able to as students.

The Main Library Building, University of Glasgow, with the Round Reading Room in the foreground

List of the largest academic libraries

The 10 largest academic libraries in North America by number of volumes, as of 2008-2009:[7] 1 Harvard University 16,557,002 2 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 12,780,067 3 Yale University 12,564,157 4 University of Toronto 11,345,102 5 University of California, Berkeley 11,026,554 6 Columbia University 10,449,223 7 University of Texas at Austin 9,853,414 8 University of Michigan 9,575,256 9 University of California, Los Angeles 9,045,818 10 University of Chicago 8,830,151

The main building of the Heidelberg University Library, built in 1905

Uris Library and McGraw Tower, Cornell University

Notes and references

[1] Hoare, Peter (1997). Academic Libraries in International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science, Ed. John Feather and Paul Sturges. New York, New York: Routledge. pp.2. [2] Budd, John M. (1998). The Academic Library: Its Context, Its Purpose, and Its Operation. Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited. pp.3031. [3] McCabe, Gerard; Ruth J. Person (1995). Academic Libraries: Their Rationale and Role in American Higher Education. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. pp.13. [4] Budd (1998), p. 34

Academic library
[5] Budd (1998), p. 34 [6] McCabe (1995), pp. 1-3. [7] (http:/ / www. arl. org/ bm~doc/ 09tables. xls)


Belgrade University Library, a Carnegie library

Further reading
Ellsworth, Ralph E. (1973) Academic library buildings: a guide to architectural issues and solutions 530 pp. Boulder: Associated University Press Taylor, Sue, ed. (1995) Building libraries for the information age: based on the proceedings of a symposium on The Future of Higher Educational Libraries at the King's Manor, York 1112 April 1994. York: Institute of Advanced Architectural Studies, University of York ISBN 0-904761-49-5

Data library
A data library refers to both the content and the services that foster use of collections of numeric, audio-visual, textual or geospatial data sets [1] for secondary use in research. (See below to view definition from the Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science.) A data library is normally part of a larger institution (academic, corporate, scientific, medical, governmental, etc.) established to serve the data users of that organisation. The data library tends to house local data collections and provides access to them through various means (CD-/DVD-ROMs or central server for download). A data library may also maintain subscriptions to licensed data resources for its users to access. Whether a data library is also considered a data archive may depend on the extent of unique holdings in the collection, whether long-term preservation services are offered, and whether it serves a broader community (as national data archives do).

Importance of data libraries and data librarianship

In August 2001, the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) [2] published SPEC Kit 263: Numeric Data Products and Services [3], presenting results from a survey of ARL member institutions involved in collecting and providing services for numeric data resources. A list of university data libraries organisational websites.

and similar organisations can be found on this page of IASSIST members'

Data library


Services offered by data libraries and data librarians

Library service providing support at the institutional level for the use of numerical and other types of datasets in research. Amongst the support activities typically available: Reference Assistance locating numeric or geospatial datasets containing measurable variables on a particular topic or group of topics, in response to a user query. User Instruction providing hands-on training to groups of users in locating data resources on particular topics, how to download data and read it into spreadsheet, statistical, database, or GIS packages, how to interpret codebooks and other documentation. Technical Assistance - including easing registration procedures, troubleshooting problems with the dataset, such as errors in the documentation, reformatting data into something a user can work with, and helping with statistical methodology. Collection Development & Management - acquire, maintain, and manage a collection of data files used for secondary analysis by the local user community; purchase institutional data subscriptions; act as a site representative to data providers and national data archives for the institution. Preservation and Data Sharing Services - act on a strategy of preservation of datasets in the collection, such as media refreshment and file format migration; download and keep records on updated versions from a central archive. Also, assist users in preparing original data for secondary use by others; either for deposit in a central archive or institutional repository, or for less formal ways of sharing data. This may also involve marking up the data into an appropriate XML standard, such as the Data Documentation Initiative [5], or adding other metadata to facilitate online discovery.

Clubb, J., Austin, E., and Geda, C., "Sharing research data in the social sciences." In Sharing Research Data, S. Fienberg, M. Martin, and M. Straf, Eds. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1985, 39-88. Geraci, D., Humphrey, C., and Jacobs, J., Data Basics. Canadian Library Association, Ottawa, ON, forthcoming. Martinez, Luis and Macdonald, Stuart, "Supporting local data users in the UK academic community" [6]. Ariadne, issue 44, July 2005. Olken, Frank and Frederic Gey, Social Science Data Library Manifesto [7], 2006-02-14 v31. See the IASSIST Bibliography of Selected Works [8] for articles tracing the history of data libraries and its relationship to the archivist profession, going back to the 1960s and '70s up to 1996. See IASSIST Quarterly [9] articles from 1993 to the present, focusing on data libraries, data archives, data support, and information technology for the social sciences.

External links
IASSIST [10] (International Association for Social Science Information and Service Technology) DISC-UK [11] (Data Information Specialists Committee United Kingdom) APDU [12] (Association of Public Data Users - USA) CAPDU [13] (Canadian Association of Public Data Users)

[1] http:/ / lu. com/ odlis/ odlis_d. cfm [2] http:/ / www. arl. org [3] http:/ / www. arl. org/ bm~doc/ spec263web. pdf [4] http:/ / www. iassistdata. org/ tools/ membersites. html

Data library
[5] http:/ / www. icpsr. umich. edu/ DDI/ [6] http:/ / www. ariadne. ac. uk/ issue44/ martinez/ [7] http:/ / hpcrd. lbl. gov/ staff/ olken/ ssdl/ ssdl_manifesto. html [8] http:/ / www. iassistdata. org/ publications/ bibliography. html [9] http:/ / www. iassistdata. org/ publications/ iq/ index. html [10] http:/ / www. iassistdata. org/ [11] http:/ / datalib. ed. ac. uk/ discuk/ [12] http:/ / www. apdu. org/ [13] http:/ / www. capdu. ca/


Map collection
A map collection is a storage facility for maps, usually in a library, archive, or museum, or at a map publisher or public authority, and the maps and other cartographic items stored within that facility. Sometimes, map collections are combined with graphic sheets, manuscripts and rare prints in a single department. In such cases, the expression "map collection" refers to the whole of the cartographic collection holdings.

Even in medieval libraries, maps formed part of the inventories. According to scholars of the renaissance, maps were collected from the 15th century, either at the court or at naval academies to prepare for voyages of discovery. Over time, new techniques, such as copper engraving, reduced production costs, and assisted in spreading maps more widely. By the 17th century, private map collections were often the basis for public map collections. As early as 1571, for example, the Court Library in Munich, Bavaria, (now the Bavarian State Library) became the owner of the Fugger collection. In 1823, the British Museum in London acquired the King's Library, which had been inherited and greatly enlarged by George III of the

Visscher, Cl.J., World Map. 1652., in Doncker, Hendrick, Sea Atlas (1659 ed.), from the map collection of the National Library of Australia.

Ferraris map of Brussels, Belgium, between 1771 and 1778, from the map collection of the Royal Library of Belgium.

Map collection


United Kingdom, and donated to the Museum by his heir, George IV of the United Kingdom. The King's Library included a collection of approximately 50,000 maps, plans and views, which are now housed at the British Library and known as the King's Topographical Collection.[1] In the development of public map collections, the geographical societies were important. They exerted great influence on the establishment and collection policy of such collections, or even stored their own collections at such institutions. So, for example, in 1680 Vincenzo Coronelli founded the Accademia Cosmographicae degli Argonauti, which existed until 1718. In Nuremberg, the Kosmographische Gesellschaft was established in 1740, while a namesake organization came into existence in Vienna in 1790. The Socit de Gographie de Paris, founded in 1821, was the first modern geographic society. Especially in the 19th century, many map collections were either newly established, or merged with existing collections of catographic materials held by libraries under the responsibility of specialist librarians.

Boston, Massachusetts in 1842, from the Perry-Castaeda Library Map Collection, at the University of Texas at Austin.

Collection types and development

In academic libraries, map collections usually have a stock of old maps and atlases. Often such libraries also acquire new copies of various official topographic map series, individual thematic maps, national atlases and thematic regional atlases. Academic library map collections usually also have cartographic literature.

Garnier, F. A., Turquie, Syrie, Liban, Caucase. 1862., from the David Rumsey Historical Map Collection.

National libraries collect all the maps that fall within their territory and are submitted by the publishing houses of that territory in compliance with applicable legal deposit laws. General and regional libraries, depending upon their orientation, collect tourist maps and city maps, sometimes linked with travel guides.

Map collection Map publishers and map producing agencies (for example, Survey Offices) archive their own map production. These collections are in some cases not open to the public. Private collections are often set up thematically or regionally, so that private map collectors not uncommonly develop into renowned experts, and authors of map bibliographies, in their specific collection area. A collection of globes can be considered as a special type of map collection.


Newly published maps, like books, are recorded in national bibliographies. Thus, the title, author(s), imprint and ISBN of any recently published map are mentioned in official records. Additionally, various data specific to a map, such as scale, map projection, geographical coordinates and map format, are included in the records of that map. Most academic map collection owners now index at least the most important parts of the collection in electronic catalogues that can be viewed online. Older collections or private collections are often described in bibliophile catalogues. In such catalogues, at least representative parts of the collection are shown. Bibliophile catalogues provide evidence of the collection's stock that can be used in the event of theft. Also, the use of a collection's rarities can thereby be noticeably limited, as in many cases the image and scientific description of the map is sufficient for the required purpose, and thus the original map is left undisturbed. Holdings in archives are often not indexed on a single sheet by sheet basis, but on a basis under which a sheet can be found in the records only with the assistance of a finding aid. Archive staff, often not trained in cartographic matters, can be cautious in describing an unwieldy, and in some ways reputedly "foreign" document type. For that reason, significant characteristics such as the projection and map scale of an individual sheet will often be omitted from an index to a map collection. These circumstances make it difficult for users of such indexes to search for a specific map in an archive, but still allow persistent researchers to make some 'discoveries'.

Major map collections

The authoritative guide World directory of map collections (2000)[2] lists 714 map collections in 121 countries. With few exceptions, the most valuable map collections are held in either Europe or North America. There are also some map collections in South America, Africa and South Asia, but those collections are comparatively rare and of much lower value. This list is incomplete.

Austria Indisputably the largest map collection in Austria is the Map Department of the Austrian National Library in Vienna. It has about 275,000 maps, 240,000 geographic-topographic views, 570 globes, 80 reliefs and models of fortresses, and about 75,000 volumes of technical literature and atlases,[3] Also a department of the Austrian National Library is the world's only public Globe Museum,[4] at the Palais Mollard, Vienna.

Map collection Belgium The Royal Library of Belgium in Brussels has a collection of over 200,000 maps, atlases, cartographic books and globes. Most of these items relate either to Belgium, or to its former colony the Democratic Republic of Congo. France The Dpartement des cartes et plans of the Bibliothque nationale de France in Paris ranks among the top three worldwide collections of cartographic materials. It holds stocks of atlases, maps, map series, globes, geography games, city maps, building plans and relief maps. Germany The largest map collections in Germany are those of the Berlin State Library, the Bavarian State Library in Munich and the Gttingen State and University Library. Not currently publicly available is the collection of the publisher Justus Perthes in Gotha, which is owned by the state of Thuringia and presently housed at the University of Erfurt. Spain The National Library of Spain in Madrid has a collection of over 500,000 maps. Switzerland In Switzerland, there are major map collections in several libraries. The map collection in ETH Zurich's library is the largest, and specialises in thematic maps. The map collection of the Zentralbibliothek Zrich covers to a large extent the various official topographic map series and national atlases. Located in Bern is the Ryhiner Collection, a former private collection of Johann Friedrich von Ryhiner with a focus on the 17th and 18th centuries. United Kingdom Major map collections are held at the British Library in London and at the Bodleian Library in the University of Oxford.


North America
Canada Library and Archives Canada in Ottawa has a collection of some two million cartographic items.[5] United States The world's largest collection of maps is held by the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. It includes around 4.8 million maps.

Australia The map collection of the National Library of Australia in Canberra includes over 600,000 maps and 2,500 atlases.[6]

Map collection


Challenges ahead
As with books in libraries, map collections now put more weight on creation of digital documents. These include maps and atlases on CD-ROM and DVD and in some cases the provision of Geodata. Such new forms of publication present map collections with major problems, as not just "mere" text and some inline images need to be kept, but very large amounts of data, up to several Gigabytes, that may eventually be required to operate specialised geographic information systems. Also, the long-term storage of cartographic data is an unresolved issue that is particularly important for archives. The digitization of analogue map stocks also offers the opportunity to link library catalogues directly with the images (or at least with so-called thumbnails). Also, digitally processed sheet indexes to individual sheets of map series allow for more targeted research from one's own workplace.

[1] "King George III Topographical and Maritime Collection" (http:/ / www. bl. uk/ reshelp/ findhelprestype/ maps/ kinggeorgeiii/ kinggeorgetopocols. html). British Library website. British Library. . Retrieved 5 October 2010. [2] *Loiseaux, Olivier, ed (2004). World directory of map collections (4th ed.). Mnchen: Saur. ISBN3-598-21818-4. [3] "Map Department" (http:/ / www. onb. ac. at/ ev/ collections/ maps. htm). Austrian National Library website. Austrian National Library. . Retrieved 1 October 2010. (English) [4] "Globe Museum" (http:/ / www. onb. ac. at/ ev/ globe_museum. htm). Austrian National Library website. Austrian National Library. . Retrieved 1 October 2010. (English) [5] "ArchiviaNet: On-line Research Tool - Maps, Plans and Charts" (http:/ / www. collectionscanada. gc. ca/ archivianet/ 020154_e. html). Library and Archives Canada website. Library and Archives Canada. . Retrieved 1 October 2010. [6] "What we collect - Maps" (http:/ / www. nla. gov. au/ map/ mapcoll. html). National Library of Australia website. National Library of Australia. . Retrieved 1 October 2010.

Further reading
Bhler, Jrg; Zgner, Lothar, eds (2004). Die digitale Kartenbibliothek: eine Momentaufnahme [The digital map library: a snapshot]. Supplement 1 Kartensammlung und Kartendokumentation [Map collection and map documentation]. Mnchen: Saur. ISBN3-598-25000-2. (German) Zeilinger, Elisabeth (1986). "Kartensammlung [Map collection]". In Kretschmer, Ingrid et al.. Lexikon zur Geschichte der Kartographie. Von den Anfngen bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg [Encyclopedia of the History of Cartography. From the beginnings to World War I]. C (Die Kartographie und ihre Randgebiete) [Cartography and its peripherals]. Wien: Deuticke. ISBN3-7005-4562-2. (German)

External links
Links with commentary (http://www.maphistory.info/collections.html), sorted thematically Wikiversity:Kartensammlung [Map collection (http://de.wikiversity.org/wiki/Wikiversity:Kartensammlung) ]

This article is based upon a translation of the German language version as at October 2010.

List of tool-lending libraries


List of tool-lending libraries

The following tool-lending libraries allow library patrons to borrow tools, equipment and "how-to" instructional materials, usually free of charge. A tool lending library was started in Columbus, OH in 1976. Originally run by the City, the Tool Library is now operated by Rebuilding Together Central Ohio, a 501 (c)(3) non-profit organization that works to preserve and revitalize homes and communities in Central Ohio. The RTCO Tool Library makes available over 4,500 tools free of charge to both individuals and non-profit organizations.[1] One of the first tool libraries was the Berkeley Tool Lending Library, which started in 1979 with a $30,000 community block grant.[2] [3] A variation of the tool lending library model exists in Atlanta, Georgia. At the Atlanta Community ToolBank, the tools are reserved for use by nonprofit and other community-based organizations who are performing volunteer and facility maintenance projects. The ToolBank tool inventory is not available to individuals. Most recently, the community of West Seattle in Washington started the West Seattle Tool Library, which will provide a wide variety of tools and resources for individuals and organizations while specifically encouraging sustainable urban living.

Melbourne, Victoria [4] Maribyrnong City Council / Braybrook Community Centre's Tool Library - Woodwork facilities can be hired for classes and activities.[5]

Ottawa [6] - Ottawa Public Library - pedometers, energy meters Calgary, Alberta [7] - Calgary Public Library - Energy meters Vancouver [8] - Vancouver Tool Library: home repair, gardening/landscaping, and bike maintenance tools

United States
Globe / Miami [9] - Globe, AZ Tool Lending Library

Boulder [10] - ReSource Tool Library

Berkeley [11] - Berkeley Public Library's Tool Lending Library [12] Oakland [13] - Oakland Public Library's Temescal Tool Lending Library San Francisco [14] - San Francisco Tool Lending Center (currently closed to the public, but check for updates) Santa Clara [15] - Silicon Valley Power Tool Lending Library (energy-related only) Sonoma County (Santa Rosa) [16] - Santa Rosa Tool Library Loma Linda [17] - Loma Linda Redevelopment Agency's Tool Lending Library

List of tool-lending libraries


Atlanta - Atlanta Community ToolBank[18]

Cedar Rapids [19] - Matthew 25 Tool Library Dubuque - Washington Tool Library 345 E 18th Street Des Moines [20] - Neighborhood Finance Corporation Tool Lending Library[21]

Wichita [22] - Community Housing Services of Wichita/Sedgwick County's Tool Lending Library

New Orleans [23] - HandsOn New Orleans Tool Lending Library, 1204 S. White St.

Takoma Park [24] - City of Takoma Park - Tool Library The Takoma Park Tool Library is no longer in business. The City of Takoma Park closed it down in 2007 due to poor utilization.

Ann Arbor [25] - Ann Arbor District Library (energy meter only) Grosse Pointe [26] - Grosse Point Public Library and the Grosse Point Rotary Club's Tool Library

Kansas City [27] - Westside Housing Organization's Tool Lending Library Springfield [28] - Urban Neighborhood Alliance - ToolBox[29]

Missoula [30] - Missoula Urban Demonstration Project (MUD) Tool Library

New Mexico
Santa Fe - Santa Fe Habitat for Humanity ReStore Tool Lending Library

New York
Buffalo [31] - Buffalo Olmsted Parks Conservancy's Tool Lending Library Buffalo [32] - PUSH Buffalo and Buffalo ReUSE's Tool Library Buffalo [33] - University Heights Tool Library Rochester [34] - Corn Hill Neighbors Association's Tool Library Manhattan [35] - SeaportTools.org Tool Lending Library

List of tool-lending libraries


Columbus [36] - Rebuilding Together Central Ohio Tool Library

North Portland [37] - North Portland Tool Library Hands on Greater Portland [38] - Hands on Greater Portland (only non-profits can borrow tools) Northeast Portland [39] - Northeast Portland Tool Library Southeast Portland Tool Library [40] - Southeast Portland Tool Library (scheduled to open May 1st, 2010)

Philadelphia [41] - West Philly Tool Library[42]

Franklin - Franklin Tool Library [43]

Orem - City of Orem Tool Lending Library[44] Orem - Habitat for Humanity of Utah County [45][46]

Burlington - Fletcher Free Library

Seattle - Phinney Neighborhood Association's Tool Lending Library[47] West Seattle [48] - The West Seattle Tool Library[49]

[1] " Tool Library welcomes borrows in Columbus (http:/ / www. dispatch. com/ live/ content/ home_garden/ stories/ 2009/ 10/ 18/ 6a_WEIK18. ART_ART_10-18-09_H1_SPFC48T. html?sid=101)." The Columbus Dispatch. October 18, 2009. [2] "Tool Lending Library" (http:/ / berkeleypubliclibrary. org/ about_the_library/ neighborhood_branches/ tool_lending_library/ index. php). Berkeley Public Library. . [3] "Library Dispenses Tools and Home-Repair Advice" (http:/ / www. berkeleydailyplanet. com/ article. cfm?archiveDate=08-19-05& storyID=22136). Berkeley Daily Planet. August 19, 2005. . [4] http:/ / www. maribyrnong. vic. gov. au/ page/ Page. asp?Page_Id=3680 [5] "Braybrook Community Centre" (http:/ / www. maribyrnong. vic. gov. au/ Page/ page. asp?page_Id=789). Maribyrnong City Council. . [6] http:/ / www. biblioottawalibrary. ca/ explore/ about/ partners_e. html#pedometers [7] http:/ / calgarypubliclibrary. com [8] http:/ / www. vancouvertoollibrary. com [9] http:/ / www. globeaz. gov/ residents/ tool-lending-library [10] http:/ / www. resourcetoollibrary. org/ [11] http:/ / www. berkeleypubliclibrary. org/ about_the_library/ neighborhood_branches/ tool_lending_library/ [12] "Interview with Peter McElligott of Berkeley Tool Library" (http:/ / jonathangray. org/ 2008/ 07/ 08/ interview-with-peter-mcelligott-of-berkeley-tool-library/ ). Jonathan Gray. . [13] http:/ / www. oaklandlibrary. org/ Branches/ tll_toolsched. html [14] http:/ / www. sfcleancity. com/ resources/ tool-lending. html [15] http:/ / www. siliconvalleypower. com/ res/ ?sub=toollibrary [16] http:/ / borrowtools. org/ [17] http:/ / www. ci. loma-linda. ca. us/ asp/ site/ ourresidents/ toollendinglibrary/ index. asp [18] "Atlanta Community ToolBank" (http:/ / www. toolbank. org). Atlanta Community ToolBank. .

List of tool-lending libraries

[19] http:/ / www. crtoollibrary. com [20] http:/ / www. neighborhoodfinance. org/ FinanceInfo. aspx?PageRef=LendingLibrary [21] "Tool-lending library a hit with residents for $25 a year" (http:/ / m. dmregister. com/ detail. jsp?key=461108& full=1). Des Moines Register. May 12, 2009. . [22] http:/ / chswichita. org/ about [23] http:/ / www. handsonneworleans. org [24] http:/ / www. takomaparkmd. gov/ publicworks/ toollib. html [25] http:/ / www. aadl. org [26] http:/ / www. gp. lib. mi. us/ information/ about/ toollist. html [27] http:/ / www. westsidehousing. org/ programs. htm [28] http:/ / www. unaonline. org/ ToolBox--ToolLendingLibrary. php [29] "Library puts tools in people's hands" (http:/ / marketplace. publicradio. org/ display/ web/ 2009/ 05/ 07/ nad_am_sc_horton_q/ ). American Public Media. May 7, 2009. . [30] http:/ / www. mudproject. org [31] http:/ / www. pps. org/ upo/ info/ programs/ program_features/ Tool_Library [32] http:/ / www. buffalotoollibrary. org [33] http:/ / www. ourheights. org/ uhtl [34] http:/ / www. cornhill. org/ livehere_info_4_residents. htm [35] http:/ / seaporttools. org/ [36] http:/ / development. columbus. gov/ NeighborhoodsandResidents/ housing/ homeowner/ mobile_tools. asp [37] http:/ / www. northportlandtoollibrary. org [38] http:/ / www. handsonportland. org/ AboutUs/ index. php/ tools. html [39] http:/ / www. neptl. org [40] http:/ / www. septl. org/ [41] http:/ / westphillytools. org/ [42] "West Philly Tool Library" (http:/ / www. westphillytools. org). Greater Philadelphia Urban Affairs Coalition. . [43] "Franklin Tool Library" (http:/ / franklintoollibrary. org/ Home. html). Franklin's Hard Bargain Mt. Hope Redevelopment Association. . [44] "Tool Lending Library" (http:/ / www. orem. org/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=303& Itemid=289). City of Orem. . [45] http:/ / www. habitatuc. org/ restore/ tool_library. html [46] "Tool Lending Library" (http:/ / www. habitatuc. org/ restore/ tool_library. html). Habitat for Humanity of Utah County. . [47] "Phinney Neighborhood Association Tool Lending Library" (http:/ / www. phinneycenter. org/ programs/ tool-lending. shtml). Phinney Neighborhood Association. . [48] http:/ / www. sustainablewestseattle. org/ tool-library/ [49] "The West Seattle Tool Library" (http:/ / www. sustainablewestseattle. org/ tool-library/ ). Sustainable West Seattle. .


Law library


Law library
A law library is a library designed to assist law students, attorneys, judges, and their law clerks and anyone else who finds it necessary to correctly determine the state of the law. Most law schools around the world will also have a law library, or in some universities, at least a section of the university library devoted to law.

American law libraries

Every accredited American law school is required by the American Bar Association to have a law library meeting certain minimum specifications with respect to quantity and quality of materials available.[1] Some law school libraries are kept in the same building as the general library, but many are either in the law school's building, or in a separate facility altogether. Most courthouses also have a law library; the United States Supreme Court building houses one of the most extensive in the world, rivaled by the Law Library of Congress. Some larger law firms maintain a private library for their own attorneys, but many firms in college towns and larger cities with universities simply dispatch their attorneys to local law schools to do legal research. In some U.S. states, like California, all counties are required by state law to maintain a public law library for the benefit of the general public.[2]
Leo T. Kissam Memorial Library, the law library of the Fordham University School of Law, also a federal depository library.

A typical law library will include in its collection a large number of works not seen in other libraries, including a full set of United States Reports, one or both of the unofficial U.S. Supreme Court reporters, the West National Reporter System, the West American Digest The stacks inside a typical law library. System, official reporters from various states, the Federal Register, volumes of American Jurisprudence, bound volumes containing issues of prominent law reviews from around the country, federal and state statutes and regulations (such as the United States Code and Code of Federal Regulations), and a variety of treatises, encyclopedias, looseleaf services, and practice guides. Large libraries may contain many additional materials covering topics like legal education, research, and writing; the history of the American legal system and profession; the history behind certain high-profile cases; techniques of oral argument; and the legislative history of important federal and state statutes. In contrast, a small law library, at a minimum, may contain only one unofficial Supreme Court reporter, selected West national reporters and digests specific to the state in which the library is located, the United States Code, a few state-specific reporters and statutory compilations (if they exist for a particular state), and several state-specific treatises and practice guides. In recent years, the advent of online legal researchcan outlets such as FindLaw, Westlaw, LexisNexis, and HeinOnline (or in Canada, CanLII) has reduced the need for some types of printed volumes like reporters and statutory compilations. A number of law libraries have therefore reduced the availability of printed works that can easily be found on the Internet, and have increased their own Internet availability. On the other hand, some university law libraries retain extensive historical collections going back to the earliest English reports.

Law library The American Association of Law Libraries is a good source of information on law librarians and law librarianship.[3] As of 2010, it has over 5,000 member libraries.


ABA requirements of law school law libraries

As of 2010, the American Bar Association has propounded rules requiring each law school's law library to include among its holdings the following "core collection":[1] 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. all reported federal court decisions and reported decisions of the highest appellate court of each state; all federal codes and session laws, and at least one current annotated code for each state; all current published treaties and international agreements of the United States; all current published regulations (codified and uncodified) of the federal government and the codified regulations of the state in which the law school is located; those federal and state administrative decisions appropriate to the programs of the law school; U.S. Congressional materials appropriate to the programs of the law school; significant secondary works necessary to support the programs of the law school, and those tools, such as citators and periodical indexes, necessary to identify primary and secondary legal information and update primary legal information.

The ABA further sets forth additional requirements, including the requirement that the law library have a full-time director, and sufficient staff to attend to the needs of the institution.[1]

Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals Library [4] University of Chicago Law Library [5] Hennepin County Law Library [6] Law Library of Congress [7]

[1] American Bar Association 2009-2010 Standards and Rules of Procedure for Approval of Law Schools (http:/ / www. abanet. org/ legaled/ standards/ 2009-2010 StandardsWebContent/ Chapter6. pdf), Chapter 6: Library and Information Resources (2010). [2] California Business and Professions Code Section 6300 et seq. (http:/ / caselaw. lp. findlaw. com/ cacodes/ bpc/ 6300-6307. html) [3] American Association of Law Libraries (http:/ / www. aallnet. org/ ) [4] http:/ / www. lb9. uscourts. gov/ [5] http:/ / www. lib. uchicago. edu/ e/ law/ index. html [6] http:/ / hclaw. co. hennepin. mn. us/ [7] http:/ / www. loc. gov/ law/

Medical library


Medical library
A health or medical library is designed to assist physicians, health professionals, students, patients, consumers and medical researchers in finding health and scientific information to improve, update, assess or evaluate health care. Medical libraries are typically found in hospitals, medical schools, private industry and in medical or health associations. A typical health or medical library has access to MEDLINE, a range of electronic resources, print and digital journal collections and print reference books. The influence of open access (OA) and free searching via Google and PubMed has a major impact on the way medical libraries operate. To become accredited, every American and Canadian college of medicine, nursing, dentistry, pharmacy, veterinary medicine or public health is required to have a health or medical library appropriate to the needs of the school, as specified by an accrediting body, such as the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME)'s standards [1]. These accreditation standards include having qualified library staff on hand to answer reference questions, and provide training in using electronic resources. Some academic medical libraries are located in the same building as the general undergraduate library but most are located near or in the medical college or faculty. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) is the largest biomedical library in the world, and collects and provides access to some of the best health information in the world (due to its linkage to the National Institutes of Health). The NLM maintains numerous medical and genomic databases, searchable via its Entrez search system, including MEDLINE (PubMed) and OMIM (a genetic traits database). In support of open access to the journal literature, the U.S. NLM established an online library of digital journal articles, PubMed Central (PMC), which will soon be supplemented by a UK version. NLM works with the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM [2]) to provide regional medical library support in the United States, while its consumer health information service MEDLINEplus offers free access to health information, images and interactive tutorials. Many countries like Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom have well-developed medical libraries, though nothing quite as evolved as the U.S. NLM.

The Medical Library Association (MLA) is a Chicago-based advocate for library professionals and health sciences libraries - primarily in the United States. MLA maintains an online list of ALA-accredited library school programs [3] for those who would like to pursue a master's degree in library and information studies in the US and Canada(MLIS). It furthermore administers the U.S credentialing organization for medical librarians, the Academy of Health Information Professionals(AHIP). The Special Libraries Association has a Medical Section of the Biomedical and Life Science Division [4], which serves as a forum for Division members who are engaged or interested in the exchange of information in the biomedical and health sciences, and the acquisition, organization, dissemination, and use of such information in all formats. In Canada and Australia, health librarians and libraries are represented by the [[Canadian Health Libraries Association [5]]] and the Health Libraries Australia Group of the Australian Library and Information Association [6]. A list of health libraries in Australia may by found on the website of the National Library of Australia [7]. In the United Kingdom medical (or health) librarians are represented by the Health Libraries Group of the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals. CILIP. Health Libraries Group. [8] The medical and health libraries of the German speaking countries Germany, Austria and Switzerland are represented by the Medical Libraries Association Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Medizinisches Bibliothekswesen (AGMB) e.V. [9]. There are similar, if smaller, national groups in many European countries and these groups and individual health librarians and libraries are represented by the European Association for Health Information and Libraries (EAHIL) [10] since 1987.

Medical library The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) has a Health and Biosciences Libraries Section [11]. The last International Congress on Medical Librarianship (ICML) [12] was in Brisbane in 2009, the next ICML will be in Baltimore, 2013.


External links
Canadian Health Libraries Association [5] Health Libraries Group, CILIP [8] Medical Library Association (US) [13] Academy of Health Information Professionals (US) [14] Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Medizinisches Bibliothekswesen (AGMB) e.V. [9] Liaison Committee of Medical Education (LCME) [15] National Library of Medicine [16] (US) National Network of Libraries of Medicine [2](NNLM)(US) PubMed Central [17] MeSH: Libraries, Medical [18] PubMed search [19]: "Libraries, Medical"[MAJR:noexp] AND English[Lang] UBC HealthLib-Wiki A Knowledge-Base for Health Librarians [20]

[1] http:/ / www. lcme. org/ functionslist. htm#information%20resources [2] http:/ / nnlm. gov/ [3] http:/ / www. mlanet. org/ education/ libschools/ index. html [4] http:/ / www. sla. org/ content/ community/ units/ divs/ division. cfm [5] http:/ / www. chla-absc. ca/ [6] http:/ / www. alia. org. au/ groups/ healthnat/ [7] http:/ / www. nla. gov. au/ apps/ libraries [8] http:/ / www. cilip. org. uk/ specialinterestgroups/ bysubject/ health/ [9] http:/ / www. agmb. de/ [10] http:/ / www. eahil. net/ [11] http:/ / www. ifla. org/ VII/ s28/ [12] http:/ / www. icml. org/ [13] http:/ / www. mlanet. org [14] http:/ / mlanet. org/ academy/ [15] http:/ / www. lcme. org/ [16] http:/ / www. nlm. nih. gov/ [17] http:/ / www. pubmedcentral. nih. gov/ [18] http:/ / www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/ entrez/ query. fcgi?cmd=Retrieve& db=mesh& list_uids=68007993& dopt=Full [19] http:/ / www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/ entrez/ query. fcgi?cmd=PureSearch& db=pubmed& details_term=%22Libraries%2C%20Medical%22%5BMAJR%3Anoexp%5D%20AND%20English%5BLang%5D [20] http:/ / hlwiki. slais. ubc. ca/

Aquatic science


Aquatic science
Aquatic Science is the multidisciplinary study of aquatic systems, encompassing both freshwater and marine systems. Scientific investigations within this field often examine the human impact on and interaction with aquatic systems and range in scale from the molecular level of contaminants to the stresses on entire ecosystems. Some of the major fields of study within aquatic sciences include: limnology (study of lakes, rivers, wetlands and groundwater); biogeochemistry; aquatic ecology; oceanography; marine biology; and hydrology.[1]

[1] News Details (http:/ / www. trentu. ca/ newsDetails. aspx?Channel=/ Channels/ Admissions+ Content& WorkflowItemID=7e224913-ec3d-438f-ae0e-7d3f9814b024)

http://www.trentu.ca/aquaticscience/ http://aqsci.com/

Christian library
Christian Theological libraries have their origins in the Jewish religion whose practice and transmission depended on the keeping and duplication of sacred texts. Like Judaism, Christianity depends fundamentally on the preservation and study of a sacred text. From this it follows that the texts and the secondary literature will be collected for the use of the literate members of the religious communities and passed on to succeeding generations.

Early Christian libraries

The integral relationship between Christianity and its texts has always ensured a central place for books, for learning, and for libraries among Christians. The passing of two millennia has witnessed changes in the manner and intensity of Christian scholarship, yet it has always been the case that theological learning is inconceivable without libraries and librarians doing the work both of collecting the theological insights of the past and anticipating future theological and religious trends. The establishment of the Christian canon has classically been a subject of central interest to the Christian religion (though in more recent years it has become a special study for theologians and textual critics). It also has a direct bearing on the origins of Christian libraries. As preliminary consensus in the formation of a canon was arrived at, early Christian communities would typically entrust to a member of the community the task of providing care and security for those documents that authentically represented the identity and cohesion of each community in this upstart (and frequently embattled) religion. The impulse to keep valued texts and documents safe but accessible shaped the patterns of early collections, and the first recorded mention of early Christian library activity comes down to us from a context of hostility. Under the Emperor Diocletian (3rd-century), a series of edicts against the Christians included orders that Christian books be seized and destroyed. From this it can reasonably be inferred that it was typical for a local Christian assembly to possess a collection of texts of one kind or another, and that the authorities considered the destruction of such materials to be an essential part of suppressing the Christian faith.

Christian library


The library at Jerusalem

Bishop Alexander of Jerusalem established a library during his tenure (first half of the 3rd century): this is known from the records of an actual reader, Eusebius of Caesarea, who mentions some of the works he found there. Possibly Alexanders library had as its model the notable Classical collection of Alexandria: it may be that while still in the Egyptian city, Origen encouraged his student Alexander to initiate a center for study in Jerusalem.

The library at Caesarea

Origen had a hand also in the establishment of the early Christian library of greatest renown, that at Caesarea, based on his own private collection. The great Jerome was later associated with this library, although a lot of the specific library work appears to have been the task of Pamphilus who, according to Jerome, searched throughout the world for examples that were true and eternal monuments of gifted writers. [1] Through these efforts, the library grew to include thousands of volumes, a staggering accomplishment when one considers the labor involved in copying by hand. The breadth and quality of this collection is attested by the range of sources cited by Eusebius, who relied on this library in research for his works. Primary collections included all the works of Origen, as well as contemporaries such as Clement of Alexandria, Apollinaris, Justin, Irenaeus, and virtually all the important ecclesiastical writers of the period. Since the library performed the critical functions of copying, revising and gathering texts into usable selections, scriptural texts were present in abundance. Preservation issues also presented themselves: we have record of there having been projects to convert the library (or at least its most heavily used segments) from papyrus to parchment. It needs to be emphasized that Caesareas was, in almost every modern sense, principally a research rather than a congregational or liturgical library. In this setting ambitious critical works were housed, and ever more ambitious and critical works were written, and it would be some time before any Christian library again rose to the standard set in Caesarea. (Regrettably, we cannot be certain what became of the collection, except that it is lost almost without a trace).

The library at Alexandria

Of a specifically Christian library in Alexandria (as distinct from the renowned Classical library of Alexandria of earlier centuries) less is known. Given the prominence of the city within the Greek world of letters, it is quite possible that authoritative teaching figures such as Pantaenus and Clement put their personal libraries at the disposal of students, and that over time a Christian library took shape.

The early library of the Bishop of Rome

It was not until the 4th and 5th centuries, when political conditions permitted, that episcopal libraries took shape in Rome, situated in the Lateran Palace. Here were housed not only theological works, but, in keeping with the administrative function, archives as well.

The library at Hippo Regius

Of all the Christian libraries in the West in the first six centuries, we know most about the library at Hippo, home of Augustine. No distinction is made in the contemporary accounts between his personal library and that of the church, so it is probable that the two were housed together [2] The librarian recorded over a thousand items under Augustines personal authorship, and the collection is certain to have included scriptural books, the works of other Latin and Greek Christian writers, and a rich selection of secular works. We know that the collection was fully catalogued (perhaps Augustine himself had a hand in this), but along with the rest of the collection this index is lost.

Christian library


Further development
When it was safe to do so, Christianity made the most of the accomplishments of Roman civilization with respect to books and libraries: if the possession of a well-stocked library was considered an enviable adornment to a Roman house, it is probable that a similar element of prestige was conferred on those Christian gathering places which possessed the premier collections of letters and texts. Jerome (4th and 5th C.), for example, was able to assume that wherever there was a congregation, books would be found. In the course of things, those churches that became regional administrative centers tended to develop the best collections.

The Near East

Of early Christian libraries in the East, far less is known. The Imperial Library of Constantinople encompassed at its peak over 100,000 items but in no sense was it primarily a theological library.

Libraries in the monastic setting

The earliest examples come from Egypt. Monasteries under the direction of Pachomius (4th C.) and Shenouda (5th C.) required that members learn to read, and it was further expected that they would borrow and study texts from the communitys collection. (Twentieth-century archeological discoveriesPhobaimmon and Nag Hammadi, for example-have indicated that there was a tremendous amount of activity in writing and copying texts, and one library catalog from the period lists eighty titles.) Collections were composed of biblical texts, lectionaries, church canons, hagiography/biography, etc. In Eastern Christendom, monastic libraries developed on a similar pattern. Catalogs were simply inventories of items held by the community. On those rare occasions when a community's benefactor would give donate a personal collection, the tendency was not to dispose of questionable or even heretical works: given the short supply of texts, almost any item would be considered a rare book. The common practice in monastic life was for the abbot (or equivalent) to be charged with the responsibility for securing and caring for the collection. It is from southern Italy that we receive the most enduring image of early Christian (and monastic) libraries and librarianship, in the person of Cassiodorus. Like no one else of his time, he leaves us a compendious work of bibliography, the Institituiones divinarum et saecularum litterarum, which surveys first Christian and then secular texts, providing notes and commentary along the way. An earlier attempt at Rome to establish a theological school had been frustrated, and so on his familys estate at Calabria he established the Vivarium, as a setting in which to incorporate systematic theological study into monastic life. (Gamble, 1990) With this in view he assembled a large library of both Christian and Classical texts and designed a curriculum of study. He undertook his monastic and bibliographic work only after a long and well-rewarded career in the service of the Goths, and hence the work we remember him for can be seen as aspiring to combat the growing chaos of the world (Southern, Benedictine, 167). We learn from the Institutiones how he had these sub-collections housed, what they included, together with how they were obtained.

The Later Middle Ages

Cassiodorus may have been aware of the inception of the library at Monte Cassino under the influence of St. Benedict (LeJay and Otten, Cassiodorus.) In any event, with the Imperial City increasingly under attack, the locus of library activity shifted increasingly to the rural monastic houses. Benedict supported and energized the place of the library in the community by delegating one or two senior brothers to walk on patrol at a set hour, to ensure that no one is engaged in idle chatter, rather than being diligent in his reading. (Thurston, Libraries, 228-32.) During the succeeding centuries, such libraries played an increasingly strategic role in defending the tradition of learning from decay, pillage, and even disappearance. By the standards of the later Middle Ages, a monastery collection numbering more than a thousand would have been considered very large. Quality and utility rather than

Christian library mass were most to be desired. Catalogs varied in complexity and in size, and chained books were common enough to indicate that security was a lively concern. We know a little about the physical design of some libraries of the period from extant documents. Typically a large, pillared hall would serve as a reading room, with built-in cupboards to store the books. Carrels for study were often set around the perimeter to exploit available light. An additional floor might house a scriptorium. The same period saw the flowering of monastic libraries in Britain. Once the Roman occupation ended in the mid-Fifth century, Columba founded the meditation and copying center at Iona off the coast of Scotland. A century later witnessed the arrival of Augustine of Canterbury, sent to England by Gregory the Great, and this set in motion the establishment of greater conformity to the will of Rome on the part of the English church. A side-effect of this harmony was a marked increase in monastic library development in England, and a key figure in this maturing was Benedict Biscop of Wearmouth on the North Sea Coast. In the tradition of Pamphilius and Cassiodorus, Biscop traveled far to get the works he required: he sought [books] where they were best to be found among the desolate remains of ancient civilization in Italy. (Southern, 168) Most importantly, what he retrieved from the Continent contained everything that was necessary for understanding the main outlines of the Christian learning of the ancient world (Southern, 168). The perfect testimony to the value of his diligent endeavors is that they supported the scholarship of [Bede], the greatest example of Benedictine scholarship and of the use to which a Benedictine library can be put. (Southern, 170) The rise of universities and their libraries was energized greatly by bequests: Bp. Robert Grosseteste to Oxford, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester to Cambridge, Robert de Sorbon to the University of Paris, etc. The emerging university libraries, small though they may have been at first, rapidly assumed a different function than the monastic libraries. Research activity, rather than copying and preservation, predominated. And it is fair to say that the advent of new technology - the printing press - in the late 14th C. helped take this distinction (the beginnings of a demand model) still further. In France, prior to 1200 all of the major theological schools had all grown up in the environs of cathedrals: St. Victor, Ste. Genevieve, Notre Dame. This association of the cathedral and academy proved to have a decisive influence in determining both where and how theological research and education were to be carried out for centuries to come. By 1500 there were between 75 and 85 universities in Western Europe. Most began without formal libraries, but over the course of time the user of private tutors collections in faculties of theology and elsewhere gave way to more methodical and sustainable collection schemes.


Early modern Europe

The Renaissance
If the later Middle Ages were characterized by the rescue and preservation of Christian texts by monastics on the fringes of the world, the Renaissance (14th-17th centuries) was an era of recovery. It is doubtful whether the history of Western Civilization has ever seen, before or since, such a hunger for ancient texts and their contents. Admittedly, this appetite was more for Greek and Latin classical texts than for Christian works, but the general effect was a positive one for libraries. The advent of the printing press had a direct and rapid effect on libraries, for it offered not only the prospect of more copies of more volumes being on the market, but made the unprecedented range of available editions a consideration: the desired classics were appearing in versions more reliable than their predecessors because of the Humanist scholarship, and far more stable once in print than anything the manuscript age could have produced.[3] This change-of-focus showed itself first in Italy: Petrarch, Boccacio, Salutati and others rediscovered, aggressively collected, and copied manuscripts from all-but-lost collections during the 14th century. Significantly, when this

Christian library appetite turned into something of a gold-rush, it was almost invariably to places such as the Benedictine library of Monte Cassino where text-hunters turned. For economic and other reasons, Florence became the center of such activity. Across Europe the focus for library expansion and activity became the royal or princely libraries: aggressive activity in collecting, gathering and protecting texts from their scattered locations was characterized by individuals rather than churches or even universities. The greatest of these book-hunters were personal agents of wealthy noblemen. Perhaps this is why the greatest legacy for theological librarianship of this essentially humanist cultural movement was the effect it had on the Vatican Library. Its earlier collection had been dispersed during the interval at Avignon, so that on his accession Pope Nicholas found only 350 volumes extant. The library of the Vatican was brought back to health essentially as a combination of personal library collections, such as that of the Duke of Urbino (1120 volumes added to the Vatican Library after his death). In the Low Countries and in England the effect of the Renaissance was somewhat different: Erasmus in Rotterdam was not only a fine and aggressive collector in his own right, but with great erudition brought together the best of the specifically Christian tradition with the emergent humanism of the Continent. The effects of such efforts on the Reformation period and beyond are impossible to calculate.


The Protestant Reformation

The turmoil generated by the English monarchys break with Rome in the 16th century had a devastating effect on theological library collections. In Yorkshire alone, for example, under the aegis of various religious orders, there may have been more than fifty abbeys, priories, etc., each of them having at least a modest library. Yet within the space of little more than a generation, this whole structure was crudely dismantled. State-authorized visitations during the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI meant the break-up of collections not only in the monasteries but also at the Universities as well.[4] Insofar as this process was guided by any principle, it was to suppress that which was medieval and to elevate that which was Classical and Humanist in character. In large measure this had the desired effects of cutting British libraries loose from the literary tradition associated with Rome, and of turning interest toward the Anglo-Saxon church. There is some evidence that the abrupt change of fashion in theological literature and learning brought in by the Henrician Reformation had the curious effect of extracting significant portions of monastic collections from purely religious surroundings. So quickly did materials intrinsic to the Catholic tradition become devalued (the monarchy was aggressive and quite ruthless in moving the Church in the direction of Protestant humanism) that it was not uncommon for displaced monks, friars and abbots to be able to take with them, gratis, items from monastic libraries. Additionally, some private collectors (John Leland, Matthew Parker, William Cecil, Robert Cotton, etc.) were able to save some of the monastic holdings from destruction.[5] It was in the spirit of such private generosity that efforts to overturn the Reformations more destructive impulses that moved Thomas Bodley to help re-establish the library at Oxford. Similar currents can be observed in the Continental Reformation, with some books taken from the monasteries moved to Lutheran churches. A more enduring effect was the shift of surviving monastic collections to the universities. Many universities which were founded in the 16th century had their libraries enriched tremendously by works taken from Dominican and Jesuit libraries, especially. Leipzigs collection, for example, received 1500 manuscripts and 4,000 printed books in this fashion. Basel received the contents of both the citys cathedral library and a nearby Dominican library. This can hardly have been what the monks and scribes had in mind amid their earlier toils, but at least the works lived on in active use. Many libraries suffered damage or disruption during the Thirty Years War in the 17th century, but in general the 17th and 18th centuries were a period of remarkable growth in theological collections of Continental Europe: again, the uniform trend was away from the cloisters and into the academy.

Christian library


The Enlightenment
Great Britain Religious dissent in England had the effect of prompting some dissenters to leave for America, where their views on Church, State and education found expression in new colleges. Many of those who remained in England found themselves denied access to the universities by the Acts of Uniformity (1549 and after). Their response was to found their own academies, 35 of which were established between 1680 and 1780. Library resources for these schools were chiefly supplied by the private collections of the academies benefactors. During the same time period were also established endowed libraries for the use of parishioners. In this case it appears that literature was made available to keep readers from lapsing into the easy moral ways thought to be characteristic of the Restoration era. The labors of Rev. Thomas Bray demonstrate how far a philanthropic vision for Christian libraries could sometimes extend. It came to Brays attention that many ministers, both Anglican and Dissenting, in Britain and in the Colonies, simply lacked the means to procure theological books, and were effectively consigned to rural parishes where they were not within reasonable distance of books to borrow. The result was the formulation of Parochial and Lending Libraries. He drafted a six-page list of titles to be included, and aimed to set up such a collection for every deanery in England [6] , and appealed for donations of books and money to the aristocracy. Eventually the SPCK (which he helped found late in the 17th century) thought well enough of the enterprise to undertake its sponsorship. The new idea of a regional, or even a lending library of theological literature was taken even further by a Non-Conformist Scot, James Kirkwood, who proposed the support of such ventures with a property tax. Kirkwood won the support of the scientist Robert Boyle for the translation and distribution of Gaelic Bible translations in the north of Scotland. In this formerly deprived region he also helped establish 77 lending libraries in the early decades of the 18th century. France By contrast, the paroxysm that rocked France at the end of the 18th century was felt first by the libraries of the Jesuits. Whether impelled by the jealousy of other orders, or whether anti-clerical sentiment was simply an explosion looking for a place to occur, the Jesuits took the brunt. A series of edicts meant to rein in their influence and holdings culminated with the actual dissolution of the order in 1773. Most French universities, having close ties with the Church, did not survive the Revolution. As was the case in the Reformation, their book and manuscript collections were dispersed mostly to university or private libraries, in Vienna, Graz, Innsbruck, etc. The French Revolution brought similar changes to ecclesiastical libraries, though there seemed to be a more overtly destructive impulse at the root of changes. The idea was to confiscate collections, and redistribute them for the benefit of the public. One contemporary estimate put the number of books seized at 12 million.[7] The urge to protect ones own literary property had its effect once again, however, and many of the items made their way into clandestine or private collections.

North American seminary libraries

Origin and development
Theological collections had almost always been a component part, often indeed the central part, of cathedral or university libraries. In North America this situation was altered forever by several factors: 1. After the Enlightenment, theology was reassessed to the status of one subject of inquiry among many, rather than retaining its place as the Queen of the Sciences. 2. Emigration to American afforded the opportunity to reconsider the entire system of theological education. 3. In North America, theological education would no longer be driven, dominated or informed by a state church. Other factors new schools of thought as well as market forces, personal

Christian library philanthropy, etc. - would play a stronger role than previously.[8] It is true that the idea of an independent seminary had occasional antecedents in Europe, but the model that emerged in America was in almost every respect unique. Harvard and Yale and other colleges were established for the training of clergy, but at the time this was not considered to be a specialized and professional education. The lines of demarcation between secular and theological learning were not clear. Of the 400 books donated by John Harvard shortly after the founding of the college, about two thirds were theological, and since the collections growth depended largely on donations from clergy, this proportion did not change rapidly. The Harvard shelf-list was compared with a recommended-list of the time, Richard Baxters Christian Directory, which indicated that the collection at Harvard was at best meager. (Baxter, as well as Samuel Willards Brief Directions to a Young Scholar, Cotton Mather's Manductio ad Ministerium, Directions for a Candidate of the Ministry, and Jonathan Edwardss The Preacher, as Discourse to which is added a Catalogue of Some Authors were some of the conspectuses for theological literature which were used at the time.) In 18th-century America, consensus on theology and theological training came under considerable strain. Traditionally, it was thought that theological training was best carried out through a rigorous program in academic subjects. But revivalist trends outside the academy and theological ferment within it led to increasing distrust. The option of personal apprenticeship in the home of a respected clergymanwhat came to be called the Schools of the Prophets-grew in popularity in the aftermath of the Second Great Awakening (1740 and after) Joseph Bellamy of Bethlehem, CT, was probably the best example: his personal library consisted of approx. 100 books and at least 350 pamphlets (an essential medium for broadcasting sermons at the time). There is some irony in the fact that, though it removed many of the best divinity students from the academy, this unorthodox approach produced more than its share of highly learned pastors, on the strength of the erudition of the "Prophets, the power of example, and perhaps sometimes of the quality of their personal libraries. This un-orthodox trend in the training of Protestant ministers helped prepare the ground for another development in theological libraries: the institution of free-standing schools of theology. Some of these (Harvard, Yale) remained affiliated with the original colleges, others (Andover, Princeton, Pittsburgh) became independent entities. But what is of signal importance in all cases is that here were assembled collections for theology and divinity and nothing else. Again, donations of private theological collections provided the foundation [9] Several seminary libraries were formed on this basis by the end of the 18th century (New Brunswick, Service Seminary in PA, St. Marys-Baltimore). The first part of the 19th century saw excellent theological collections being gathered at Andover (later merged with the Harvard Divinity Collection), Hartford (sold much later to Candler School of Theology at Emory University), Yale, Auburn/Union in New York, Colgate-Rochester (and subsequent mergers from Bexley Hall and Crozer Theological Seminary), General, Drew, Princeton, Gettysburg, St. Charles Borromeo, etc. In the midwest, the St. Mary of the Lake Seminary was founded in 1844, and on the west coast what is now the Pacific School of Religion came into existence in 1866.


Situation in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

In North America, both denominational and non-denominational schools of theology had seen remarkable proliferation by the middle of the 19th century. When, in 1924, the first comprehensive study of ministerial education was undertaken, 161 Protestant schools were listed. This number had increased to 224 by a decade later. In his important survey of theological libraries in 1930, Yales Raymond Morris indicated that theological libraries ranged in size from a few hundred volumes up to almost 200,000. This was impressive numerical growth, but he found that libraries were almost always under-supported financially, with repercussions being felt in collections, facilities and staffing.[10] Within the Catholic communion in North America, growth patterns had also been phenomenal. An overview in 1960 listed 93 diocesan seminaries (50 considered major), as well as 294 houses of study, with a total of almost 20,000 students in preparation.[11] While at that time none of the Catholic collections were on the same scale as the largest

Christian library Protestant libraries, many contained more than 100,000 items. It is clear now that by the time the surveys by Beach and Harrington were carried out (1960), a watershed had been crossed, and that demographics of theological education and of church attendance were in the process of rapid change. Among Catholic seminaries, the number of candidates for the priesthood has fallen drastically in the past thirty years (by 2/3, according to some estimates). On the Protestant side, while the overall number of students has remained strong, at the same time attendance patterns have been in sharp decline, and this has drastically reduced the number of graduates who end up serving in parishes. The second half of the 20th century contrasted sharply with the first, and the number of theological colleges and libraries had grown too quickly and too broadly to correspond with trends in the last three decades of the century. This has posed enormous, complex challenges for seminaries and their librarians: serious dislocation, and too many, unevenly-distributed, schools.


The Character of present-day collections

The magnificent wealth of resources now in evidence is the result of a complex and lengthy development process. Which is another way of saying that there have been slightly different routes taken to attain the caliber enjoyed by many collections today. Some have relied principally on rapid denominational growth (which generated demand for clergy and brought in funding required from denominations and benefactors); some have prospered from the skill and vision of exceptional library leadership; some libraries have built their reputations on exquisite collections purchased and then donated by private individuals; still others have excelled in cultivating niche collections or services. The individual collections are unique, and the product of many sets of circumstances, so summarizing adequately here would be difficult. (Though dated, earlier overviews by Allison, Walker, Gapp, and Hadidian still provide useful outlines of the distinctive strengths of most collections. A useful, centralized source for current information on seminaries and their libraries is American Theological Library Association index [12] As the 21st century begins, it is fair to say that the legacy remains strong, but the structure which supports it is showing signs of strain. For example: Decline in church membership within many denominations The smaller number of students in seminary (and the tuition revenue they contribute) The steadily increasing costs of adding to collections, which makes it difficult for all but a few libraries to maintain acquisitions budgets. The rapid incursion of Communications Technology and Electronic Resources is beginning to call into question the continued need for physical library collections The growing demand for distance-learning programs pushes the seminary to reconfigure the way it offers access to course materials No one can predict what effect these developments might have on theological libraries in the 21st Century. In cases where the parent institutions have found it impossible to remain in operation, libraries have been sold intact or dispersed. Where there are a number of reasonably compatible schools in a specific area, on some occasions libraries have been merged outright, or retained separate libraries but established a consortial arrangement. In the latter case, efficiencies result from reciprocal borrowing privileges and from avoiding duplicate acquisitions where possible. It seems a foregone conclusion that there will be further such retrenchments in the coming years, quite likely on a more widespread basis. With trends like these emerging in recent years, the role of the American Theological Library Association (founded 1947) has been of vital importance. The primary function of the association has been to offer coordination and support of theological library activity in the USA and Canada. ATLAs other notable contributions have been the development and production of the Religion Indexes (1949 ff.) in print and more recently in electronic versions, its preservation initiatives in assembling core theological collections

Christian library in microform (1973 and after) The most recent initiative from ATLA has been the ATLAS serials project, which will bring fifty key theological periodicals to market in an alternative, electronic format. ATLA has ongoing relationships with sister agencies, such as the CONSEIL (International Council of Theological Library Associations) and ANZTLA (Australian and New Zealand Theological Library Association).


The twentieth century and beyond: growth, retrenchment, redefinition

Depending upon ones perspective, trends during the last century can be seen as evidence of a bright or an uncertain future for theological libraries. In Europe, by the end of the 19th century theological education and training for the ministry had come almost universally under the auspices of the universities. Among other things this usually meant the demise of discrete theological collections within separate facilities, though this did not necessarily mean the devaluation of such collections. Indeed, it is fair to say that as the 20th century opened, not only the finest theological collections but the most erudite and distinguished centers of theological research were in Germany and in Britain (Heidelberg, Tbingen, Gttingen, Berlin, Oxford and Cambridge, to name only a few). What no one could have predicted was the devastation brought by wars, from the beginning to the end of the century. The University of Nancy in France lost its library in 1914, as did Louvain in the same year. Great libraries of theology at Monte Cassino, at Dresden, and at Caen were wrecked in 1944. As recently as 1992 the state library at Sarajevo fell victim to a rocket attack. The numerical losses here and elsewhere were high: Hamburg and Frankfurt each lost 600,000 vols., Wrzburg 350,000, and so on. Political as well as military upheavals have had an adverse effect on European theological library collections and activity. Libraries in Eastern Europe illustrate this vividly: collection priorities in places such as Jena, Rostock and Leipzig could hardly be said to have been favorable to theological research during the years 1945-1990. Moreover, since the reunification of the two German states, the massive amounts of money and personnel which it would take to bring theological collections back to acceptable standards has not been easy to come by/[13] Of all Continental theological collections, few managed to navigate the various catastrophes of the century better than the Vatican Library. Steadily enriched by a sequence of outstanding gifts over several centuries, even the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Era did little lasting harm. By the end of the 19th century the Library encompassed close to half a million books, and tens of thousands of manuscripts. Several of the Popes (Leo XIII and Pius XI) have taken a keen and active interest in the library, and great effort and expense has been taken to ensure that the collections not only continue to grow but are well cared-for. Like many of Europes great theological libraries, bibliographic searching is now enabled globally via the WWW. Increasingly, well-financed libraries such as the Vaticans are working aggressively to develop plans for mounting digital versions of some of their treasures (most often archival materials) on web-servers.

This overview has demonstrated that the role and function of theological libraries have always been characterized by continuity amid turmoil, resourcefulness amid frequently inadequate resources, and advocacy of that which is of lasting value within a setting of constant ecclesiastical, societal and political change. In the words of Cassiodorus: We aim both to preserve what is old and to build something new; we desire to raise up things that are modern without diminishing the works of our ancestors. (cited in Southern, 169) Only on very rare occasions have the legacy and contributions of theological libraries been noticed, and then usually long after the fact. (Thomas Cahills How the Irish Saved Civilization provides a pleasant exception.) But lasting acclaim is quite beside the point: from Pamphilius of Caesarea onward, theological libraries have most often been energized by the efforts of those who savor a degree of anonymity.

Christian library The Age of Information is commonly considered as posing a dire threat (or at least a plausible alternative) to the perpetuity of printed texts and paper-based library collections. But of course it also holds out the promise of unprecedented collaboration between the excellent collections and the astute librarians who work in them. Hence there is reason for hope that the best days for theological libraries lie not in the past but in the future. Stewart, David (2001). "Christian Libraries". International Dictionary of Library Histories. 1. London: Fitzroy Dearborn. pp.4854.


[1] Gamble, Books, 156 [2] Gamble, 167 [3] Jackson, Libraries, p. 112 [4] Cross, Monastic, p. 256 [5] Clement, Renaissance Libraries, p. 551 [6] Jackson, p. 208 [7] Jackson, 275 [8] Endy, "Theology and Learning in Early America, in: Henry, Schools of Thought, pp. 125-51 [9] Hadidian, Seminary, pp. 220 ff. [10] Morris, Libraries, pp. 149-91 [11] Harrington. Catholic, pp. 155-57 [12] http:/ / www. atla. com/ tsig/ catalogs/ onlineindex. html [13] Harris, History, p. 215

Stewart, David (2001) "From Then to Now: a brief historical survey of the American Theological Library Association". Journal of the British Association of Theological and Philosophical Libraries; vol. 8 (1), June 2001:9-17 David Stewart, Theological Libraries: Historical Sources (http://www.atla.com/sources/index.htm)

Further reading
Allison, W. H. 1908 Theological Libraries, in The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; Vol. 11: 336-341. New York and London: Funk and Wagnalls -. (http://worldcat.org/oclc/60169405) Beach, Robert F. 1960 Protestant Theological Seminaries and their Libraries' in Library Trends; 9 (2), October 1960: 131-148. (http://worldcat.org/oclc/2313195) Clement, Richard W. 1994 Renaissance Libraries, in Encyclopedia of Library History, W. A. Wiegand and D. M. Davis, eds. New York, Garland (http://worldcat.org/oclc/28375376) Cross, Claire. 1991 Monastic Learning and Libraries in Sixteenth-Century Yorkshire, in Humanism and Reform: the Church in Europe, England and Scotland, 1400-1643, ed. James Kirk. Oxford: Blackwell: 225-69. (http://worldcat.org/oclc/23692465) Dare, Philip N. 1994 Theological Libraries, in Encyclopedia of Library History, ed. Wayne A. Wiegand and Donald M. Davis. New York and London: Garland (http://worldcat.org/oclc/28375376) Gamble, Harry Y. 1995 Books and Readers in the Early Church: a history of early Christian texts. New Haven: Yale University Press (http://worldcat.org/oclc/31436053) Gapp, Kenneth S. 1955 Theological Libraries, in Twentieth Century Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, vol. II. Grand Rapids: Baker (http://worldcat.org/oclc/16691700) Hadidian, Dikran Y. [date?] Seminary Libraries, in The Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, ed. Allen Kent et al.; Supp. Volume 26: 215-51. (http://worldcat.org/oclc/311902) Harrington, John H. 1960 Catholic Theological Seminaries and their Libraries, in Library Trends; 9 (2), October, 1960: 149-167. (http://worldcat.org/oclc/2313195) Harris, Michael. 1995 History of Libraries in the Western World; 4th ed. Metuchen: Scarecrow (http://worldcat. org/oclc/31435460)

Christian library Henry, Patrick, ed. 1998 Schools of Thought in the Christian Tradition. Philadelphia: Fortress (http://worldcat. org/oclc/10751281) Jackson, Sidney L. 1974 Libraries and Librarianship in the West: a brief history. New York: McGraw-Hill (http:/ /worldcat.org/oclc/695744) LeJay, Joseph, and Otten, Paul. [date?] Cassiodorus, in The Catholic Encyclopedia, (Online ed.: http://www. newadvent.org/cathen/03405c.htm ) McMahon, Melody Layton, and Stewart, David R. 2006 A Broadening Conversation: classic readings in theological librarianship. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press (http://worldcat.org/oclc/65400278) Morris, Raymond. 1934 The Libraries of Theological Seminaries, in The Education of American Ministers. New York: Institute of Religious and Social Research: 149-91. (http://worldcat.org/oclc/4244582) Rockwell, William Walker. [date?] Theological Libraries in the United States. in Religion in Life 13 (4): 1-11. (http://worldcat.org/oclc/1715955) Southern, Richard. 1976 A Benedictine Library in a Disordered World, in Downside Review; 94 (July 1976): 163-177 (http://worldcat.org/oclc/1566922) Stewart, David R. 2000 Libraries, Western Christian, in Encyclopedia of Monasticism, ed. William J. Johnston. Chicago: Fitzroy-Dearborn. (http://worldcat.org/oclc/42214010) Thurston, Herbert. [ca. 1910] Libraries in The Catholic Encyclopedia: (VIII), 228-32. (Online ed.: http://www. newadvent.org/cathen/09227b.htm)


Library management
Library management refers to the issues involved in managing a library.

Basic issues
Basic tasks in library management include: planning the acquisition of materials classification of materials preservation of materials (especially rare and fragile materials such as manuscripts) borrowing materials developing and administering library computer systems book processing: selection ordering receiving Checking[Bill Wise & Order Wise] stamping classification and cataloguing labelling preparation for circulation jacketing final inspection stacks maintenance Barcoding

Fee collection Membership management

Library management


Long-term issues
Long-term issues include: planning of the deconstruction of new libraries extensions to existing ones building maintenance

Library Leadership & Management Association [1] The Library Leadership and Management Association (LLAMA), a division of the American Library Association, provides leaders with webinar, conferences, awards and grants, Library Leadership & Management Online Quarterly Magazine, and books. LLAMA membership includes a free subscription to Library Leadership & Management and discounts on conferences and publications Mountain Plains Library Association [2] During MPLAs Leadership Institute, participants learn about leadership, communication, managing differences, risk taking, power and influence, leading change, commitment, groups and teams, project management, and personal planning. The Institute runs for five days, each day building on the previous days activities.

[3] [4] [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ llama/ index. cfm http:/ / www. mpla. us/ leadership/ index. html http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ llama/ index. cfm http:/ / www. mpla. us/ leadership/ index. html

External links
Why Should Principals Support School Libraries? (http://www.libraryreference.com/school-libraries.html) Teachers and Librarians: Collaborative Relationships (http://www.libraryinstruction.com/teachers.html) Working with Campus Writing Centers: Opportunities for Cooperation (http://www.libraryinstruction.com/ writing.html) Library Funding (http://www.michaellorenzen.com/eric/funding.html)

Library 2.0


Library 2.0
Library 2.0 is a loosely defined model for a modernized form of library service that reflects a transition within the library world in the way that services are delivered to users. The focus is on user-centered change and participation in the creation of content and community.[1] The concept of Library 2.0 borrows from that of Business 2.0 and Web 2.0 and follows some of the same underlying philosophies. This includes online services like the use of OPAC systems and an increased flow of information from the user back to the library. With Library 2.0, library services are constantly updated and reevaluated to best serve library users. Library 2.0 also attempts to harness the library user in the design and implementation of library services by encouraging feedback and participation. Proponents of this concept, sometimes referred to as Radical Trust expect that the Library 2.0 model for service will ultimately replace traditional, one-directional service offerings that have characterized libraries for centuries.

The term "Library 2.0" was coined by Michael Casey on his blog LibraryCrunch as a direct spin-off of the terms Business 2.0 and Web 2.0. Casey suggested that libraries, especially public libraries, are at a crossroads where many of the elements of Web 2.0 have applicable value within the library community, both in technology-driven services and in non-technology based services. In particular, he described the need for libraries to adopt a strategy for constant change while promoting a participatory role for library users. Library 2.0 made its conference debut at Internet Librarian 2005 in October, 2005, when Michael Stephens of Saint Joseph County Public Library addressed the idea in relation to the typical library website. A September 2006 article in Library Journal titled, "Library 2.0: Service for the next-generation library," begins by expressing the benefit of Library 2.0 to library administrators and taxpayers as providing "more efficient ways of delivering services to achieve greater returns on financial investments." The article continued by asserting that the much discussed Library 2.0 is important for librarians as it may radically change our customer service and interaction.[1] With Library 2.0, library services are frequently evaluated and updated to meet the changing needs of library users. Library 2.0 also calls for libraries to encourage user participation and feedback in the development and maintenance of library services. The active and empowered library user is a significant component of Library 2.0. With information and ideas flowing in both directions from the library to the user and from the user to the library library services have the ability to evolve and improve on a constant and rapid basis. The user is participant, co-creator, builder and consultant whether the product is virtual or physical.

Key principles
Browser + Web 2.0 Applications + Connectivity = Full-featured OPAC Harness the library user in both design and implementation of services Library users should be able to craft and modify library provided services Harvest and integrate ideas and products from peripheral fields into library service models Continue to examine and improve services and be willing to replace them at any time with newer and better services. Ripping off Web 2.0 is the ultimate main key concept of this library 2.0

Library 2.0


Concerns and Considerations

Some concerns about Library 2.0 relate to access to technology, privacy[1] [2] and security. For example, Casey and Savastinuk[3] suggest allowing patrons to tag or blog anonymously. In 2006, Steve Lawson, humanities liaison librarian, wrote a blog post entitled, "A Library 2.0 skeptic's reading list" that collected links to blogs which discuss these concerns. Steve says "I'm not anti-Library 2.0 . . . I like to think of Library 2.0 as a continuing conversation about the future of libraries, and it makes sense to me to try to round up some voices that challenge Library 2.0 conventional wisdom."[4]

The Library 2.0 Online Public Access Catalog

See : Next-Generation Catalogs Library 2.0 is a new way of providing library service through new Internet technologies, with emphasis on user-centered change and interaction. Like Web 2.0, a full-featured Library 2.0 OPAC gets better the more that users are involved in the process of interacting with the catalog and sharing content. Librarians have been working to retool library catalogs in order to make them more useful for patrons to find, organize, and interact with information in a way that has infinite potential for user customization. These new types of catalogs are a shift from "isolated information silos" to "interlinked computing platforms."[5] In the past the information flow was mostly one way, from library to user. With new web tools information can be released to flow in every direction (library to user, user to library, library to library, and user to user). Jessamyn West, on her librarian.net website, authored "What We Want: An OPAC Manifesto," which broke down the needs of library staff, geeks, and users in their OPAC. These valuable suggestions inform librarians of the flexibility, customizability and plain language approach that is desired by users in their OPAC. Librarians should be aware of these issues so that planning for improvement can begin.[6]

The debate surrounding Library 2.0

Library 2.0 has been a source of debate in the blogosphere. Some librarian bloggers have argued that these key principles are not new and have been part of the service philosophies of many library reformers since the 19th century. Others are calling for more concrete examples of how libraries can get to Library 2.0. Walt Crawford, for example, argues that Library 2.0 comprises a combination of tools and attitudes which are excellent ideas and not new to librarianship, a few business- and tool-focused attitudes which will not serve all users and user communities, and incorrectly places libraries as the appropriate source for all users to gather all informationcrawford. Proponents of Library 2.0, such as Stephen Abram,abram Michael Stephens,stephens Paul Millermiller and others, have spoken to these criticisms, arguing that while individual pieces of Library 2.0 may not be entirely new, the convergence of these service goals and ideas with many new Web 2.0 technologies has led to a new generation of library service. This includes the use of online social networks by libraries.

Library 2.0


[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Library 2.0 - 9/1/2006 - Library Journal (http:/ / www. libraryjournal. com/ article/ CA6365200. html) Library Juice The Central Problem of Library 2.0: Privacy (http:/ / libraryjuicepress. com/ blog/ ?p=68) http:/ / www. libraryjournal. com/ article/ CA6365200. html Steve Lawson, A Library 2.0 skeptic's reading list, http:/ / stevelawson. name/ seealso/ archives/ 2006/ 05/ a_library_20_sk. html Wikipedia contributors, "Web 2.0," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ w/ index. php?title=Web_2. 0& oldid=206758560 (accessed April 20, 2008). [6] Jessamyn West and friends, What We Want: An OPAC Manifesto, http:/ / www. librarian. net/ opac/

Abram, S., Casey, M., Blyberg, J., & Stephens, M. (2006). A SirsiDynix Institute Conversation: The 2.0 Meme Web 2.0, Library 2.0, Librarian 2.0 (http://www.sirsidynixinstitute.com/seminar_page.php?sid=56), February 2006. Blyberg, John. (2005). ILS Customer Bill of Rights (http://www.blyberg.net/2005/11/20/ ils-customer-bill-of-rights/), Blyberg.net Blyberg, John. (2006). 11 reasons why Library 2.0 exists and matters (http://www.blyberg.net/2006/01/09/ 11-reasons-why-library-20-exists-and-matters/), Blyberg.net Boog, J. (2005). Library 2.0 Movement Sees Benefits in Collaboration with Patrons, Publish (http://www. publish.com/article2/0,1895,1881893,00.asp), November 2005. Casey, Michael. (2005). Working Towards a Definition of Library 2.0 (http://www.librarycrunch.com/2005/ 10/working_towards_a_definition_o.html), LibraryCrunch, 21 October 2005. Casey, M. & Stephens, M. (2005). Where Do We Begin? A Library 2.0 Conversation with Michael Casey (http:// www.techsource.ala.org/blog/2005/12/where-do-we-begin-a-library-20-conversation-with-michael-casey. html), ALA TechSource Blog, December 2005. Casey, M. & Stephens, M. (2006). Better Library Services for More People (http://techsource.ala.org/blog/ 2006/01/better-library-services-for-more-people.html), ALA TechSource Blog, January 2006. Casey, Michael & Savastinuk, Laura. (2007) Library 2.0: A Guide to Participatory Library Service (http://books. infotoday.com/books/Library20.shtml), Information Today Press, 2007. ISBN 978-1-57387-297-3 ISBN 1-57387-297-0 Casey, Michael & Savastinuk, Laura. (2006) Library 2.0: Service for the Next-generation Library (http:// libraryjournal.com/article/CA6365200.html), Library Journal, September 1, 2006. Courtney, Nancy. (2007) Library 2.0 and Beyond: Innovative Technologies and Tomorrow's User (http://www. amazon.com/dp/1591585376/), Libraries Unlimited, 2007. ISBN 978-1-59158-537-4 Crawford, Walt. (2006). Library 2.0 and 'Library 2.0'" Cites and Insights 6, 2. (http://citesandinsights.info/ civ6i2.pdf) January 2006. Farkas, Meredith G. (2007). Social Software in Libraries : Building Collaboration, Communication, and Community Online (http://www.sociallibraries.com). Information Today, 2007. ISBN 978-1-57387-275-1 ISBN 1-57387-275-X Harris, Christopher. (2006). Library 2.0 Week (http://schoolof.info/infomancy/?p=127School) (Updated), Infomancy, January 2006. Harris, Christopher. (2006) School Library 2.0 (http://www.schoollibraryjournal.com/article/CA6330755. html), School Library Journal, May 1, 2006. Holmberg, K., Huvila, I., Kronqvist-Berg, M. & Widn-Wulff, G. (2009). What is Library 2.0? (http://www. emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/00220410910970294). Journal of Documentation, 65(4): 668-681.

Library 2.0 Levine, Jenny. (2005). Hello, Library (1.0) World! (http://www.techsource.ala.org/blog/2005/10/ hello-library-10-world.html), ALA TechSource Blog, 10 October 2005. Miller, P., (2005). Web 2.0: Building the New Library (http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue45/miller/). Ariadne, No.45 October 2005. Miller, P., Chad, K. (2005). Do libraries matter? - The rise of Library 2.0 (http://www.talis.com/downloads/ white_papers/DoLibrariesMatter.pdf), Talis November 2005. Miller, P. (2006). Library 2.0: The Challenge of Disruptive Innovation (http://www.talis.com/resources/ documents/447_Library_2_prf1.pdf), Talis February 2006. Stephens, Michael. (2006). Web 2.0 & Libraries: Best Practices for Social Software (http://www.techsource. ala.org/ltr/web-20-and-libraries-best-practices-for-social-software.html), Library Technology Reports, 42:4. Talis Talk ( 31 January 2006). Podcast with Thomas Brevik, Michael Casey, Ken Chad, Paul Miller, T. Scott Plutchak, Michael Stephens and Richard Wallis. (http://talk.talis.com/archives/2006/02/introducing_the. html#more)


External links
library2.0 (http://delicious.com/tag/library2.0) tag at Delicious - follow the pointers Library 2.0 (http://technorati.com/tag/Library+2.0) tag at Technorati Library 2.0 article at LISWiki, a Library science wiki Ambient Librarian (http://www.ambientlibrarian.org) - a Library 2.0 wiki Yarra Plenty Library Melbourne, Australia (http://www.yarraplentyonlinelearning.blogspot.com) Public Library Charlotte Mecklenberg County, NC, USA (http://plcmclearning.blogspot.com) The 23 Things (http://plcmcl2-things.blogspot.com) BEYOND LIBRARY 2.0: Building Communities, Connections, & Strategies (http://www.infotoday.com/ cil2007/overview.shtml) - Theme of the conference Computers in Libraries 2007 Library 2.0 (http://library20.ning.com/), social network on Ning Online Librarian Community - Library 2.0 (http://www.librarystore.com/) Building a Library 2.0 OPAC (http://library2opac.wetpaint.com/) (Wiki) What We Want: An OPAC Manifesto (http://www.librarian.net/opac/) by Jessamyn West and friends Is your OPAC fun? (a manifesto of sorts) (http://www.librarything.com/thingology/2006/12/ is-your-opac-fun-manifesto-of-sorts.php) from the LibraryThing Thingology Blog Library 2.0 and the Problem of Hate Speech (article) (http://southernlibrarianship.icaap.org/content/v09n02/ brown-sica_m01.html)



An electronic book (also e-book, ebook, electronic book, digital book) is a book-length publication in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, and produced on, published through, and readable on computers or other electronic devices.[1] Sometimes the equivalent of a conventional printed book, e-books can also be born digital. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines the e-book as "an electronic version of a printed book,"[2] but e-books can and do exist without any printed equivalent. E-books are usually read on dedicated hardware devices known as e-Readers or e-book devices. Personal computers and some mobile phones can also be used to read e-books.

In 1971, Michael S. Hart was given extensive computer time by the operators of the Xerox Sigma V mainframe at the University of Illinois. Seeking a worthy use of this resource, he created the first ebook by typing the United States Declaration of Independence into a computer. Project Gutenberg was launched afterwards to create electronic copies of more books.[3]

Amazon Kindle 3, one of ebook reader

One early e-book implementation was the desktop prototype for a proposed notebook computer, the Dynabook, in the 1970s at PARC: a general-purpose portable personal computer capable of displaying books for reading.[4] Early e-books were generally written for specialty areas and a limited audience, meant to be read only by small and devoted interest groups. The scope of the subject matter of these e-books included technical manuals for hardware, manufacturing techniques and other subjects. In the 1990s, the general availability of the Internet made transferring electronic files much easier, including e-books. Numerous e-book formats, view comparison of e-book formats, emerged and proliferated, some supported by major software companies such as Adobe with its PDF format, and others supported by independent and open-source programmers. Multiple readers followed multiple formats, most of them specializing in only one format, and thereby fragmenting the e-book market even more. Due to exclusiveness and limited readerships of e-books, the fractured market of independents and specialty authors lacked consensus regarding a standard for packaging and selling e-books. In 2010 e-books continued to gain in their own underground markets. Many e-book publishers began distributing books that were in the public domain. At the same time, authors with books that were not accepted by publishers offered their works online so they could be seen by others. Unofficial (and occasionally unauthorized) catalogs of books became available over the web, and sites devoted to e-books began disseminating information about e-books to the public. [5] U.S. Libraries began providing free e-books to the public in 1998 through their web sites and associated services,[6] although the e-books were primarily scholarly, technical or professional in nature, and could not be downloaded. In 2003, libraries began offering free downloadable popular fiction and non-fiction e-books to the public, launching an e-book lending model that worked much more successfully for public libraries.[7] The number of library e-book distributors and lending models continued to increase over the next few years. In 2010, a Public Library Funding and Technology Access Study[8] found that 66% of public libraries in the U.S. were offering e-books,[9] and a large movement in the library industry began seriously examining the issues related to lending e-books, acknowledging a tipping point of broad e-book usage.[10] However, some publishers and authors have not endorsed the concept of

E-book electronic publishing, citing issues with demand, piracy and proprietary devices.[11] As of 2009, new marketing models for e-books were being developed and dedicated reading hardware was produced. E-books (as opposed to ebook readers) have yet to achieve global distribution. In the United States, as of September 2009, the Amazon Kindle model and Sony's PRS-500 were the dominant e-reading devices.[12] By March 2010, some reported that the Barnes & Noble Nook may be selling more units than the Kindle.[13] On January 27, 2010 Apple Inc. launched a multi-function device called the iPad[14] and announced agreements with five of the six largest publishers that would allow Apple to distribute e-books.[15] The iPad includes a built-in app for e-books called iBooks and the iBooks Store. In July 2010, online bookseller Amazon.com reported sales of ebooks for its proprietary Kindle outnumbered sales of hardcover books for the first time ever during the second quarter of 2010, saying it sold 140 e-books for every 100 hardcover books, including hardcovers for which there was no digital edition.[16] By January 2011, ebook sales at Amazon had surpassed its paperback sales.[17] In the overall U.S. market, paperback book sales are still much larger than either hardcover or e-book; the American Publishing Association estimated e-books represented 8.5% of sales as of mid-2010, up from 3% a year before.[18] In Canada, the option of ebook publishing took a higher profile when the novel, The Sentimentalists, won the prestigious national Giller Prize. Owing to the small scale of the novel's independent publisher, the book was initially not widely available in printed form, but the ebook edition had no such problems with it becoming the top-selling title for Kobo devices.[19]


1971 Michael S. Hart creates the first ebook by typing the US Declaration of Independence into a computer. He launches Project Gutenberg to create electronic copies of more books.[3] 19851992 Robert Stein starts Voyager Company Expanded Books and books on CD-ROM. 1992 Charles Stack's Book Stacks Unlimited begins selling new physical books online. 1992-1993 F. Crugnola and I. Rigamonti plan and they realize, for their thesis of degree to the Polytechnic in Milan, the first ebook (electronic support for the alone reading of texts) and they call it "INCIPIT" 1993 Zahur Klemath Zapata develops the first software to read digital books. Digital book version 1 and the first digital book is published On Murder Considered as one of the Fine Arts (Thomas de Quincey). Digital Book, Inc. offers the first 50 digital books in floppy disk with Digital Book Format (DBF). Hugo Award for Best Novel nominee texts published on CD-ROM by Brad Templeton. Bibliobytes, a project of free digital books online in Internet. 1995 Amazon starts to sell physical books on the Internet. Online poet Alexis Kirke discusses the need for wireless internet electronic paper readers in his article "The Emuse". 1996 Project Gutenberg reaches 1,000 titles. The target is 1,000,000. 1998

E-book Kim Blagg obtained the first ISBN issued to an ebook and began marketing multimedia-enhanced ebooks on CDs through retailers including amazon.com, bn.com and borders.com. Shortly thereafter through her company "Books OnScreen" she introduced the ebooks at the Book Expo America in Chicago, IL to an impressed, but unconvinced bookseller audience. First ebook Readers: Rocket ebook and SoftBook. Cybook / Cybook Gen1 Sold and manufactured at first by Cytale (19982003) then by Bookeen. Websites selling ebooks in English, like eReader.com and eReads.com. 1999 Baen Books opens up the Baen Free Library. Webscriptions starts selling unencrypted eBooks. 2000 Microsoft Reader with ClearType technology. Stephen King offers his book "Riding the Bullet" in digital file; it can only be read on a computer. 2001 Todoebook.com, the first website selling ebooks in Spanish. 2002 Random House and HarperCollins start to sell digital versions of their titles in English. 2004 Sony Librie with e-ink. 2005 Amazon buys Mobipocket. 2006 Sony Reader with e-ink. LibreDigital launched BookBrowse as an online reader for publisher content. BooksOnBoard, one of the largest independent ebookstores, opens and sells ebooks and audiobooks in six different formats. 2007 Amazon launches Kindle in US. Bookeen launched Cybook Gen3 in Europe. 2008 Adobe and Sony agreed to share their technologies (Reader and DRM). Sony sells the Sony Reader PRS-505 in UK and France. BooksOnBoard is first to sell ebooks for iPhones. 2009 Bookeen releases the Cybook Opus in the US and in Europe. Sony releases the Reader Pocket Edition and Reader Touch Edition. Amazon releases the Kindle 2. Amazon releases the Kindle DX in the US. Barnes & Noble releases the Nook in the US.


2010 Amazon releases the Kindle DX International Edition worldwide. Bookeen reveals the Cybook Orizon at CES.[20]

E-book TurboSquid Magazine announces first magazine publication using Apple's iTunes LP format, however, this project was cancelled before it reached the market. Apple releases the iPad with an e-book app called iBooks. Between its release in April 2010, to October, Apple had sold 7 million iPads. Kobo Inc. releases its Kobo eReader to be sold at Indigo/Chapters in Canada and Borders in the United States. Amazon.com reported that its e-book sales outnumbered sales of hardcover books for the first time ever during the second quarter of 2010.[16] Amazon releases the third generation kindle, available in 3G+Wi-Fi and Wi-Fi versions. Kobo Inc. releases an updated Kobo eReader which now includes Wi-Fi. Barnes & Noble releases the new NOOKcolor. Sony releases its second generation Daily Edition PRS-950. PocketBook expands its successful line of e-readers in the ever-growing market. Google launches Google eBooks 2011 Barnes & Noble releases the new Nook - The Simple Touch Reader [21] Amazon.com announces in May that its e-book sales now exceed all of its printed book sales.[22] Bookeen launches its own e-books store : BookeenStore.com and starts to sell digital versions of titles in French[23] .


There are a variety of e-book formats used to create and publish e-books. A writer or publisher has many options when it comes to choosing a format for production. Every format has its proponents and champions, and debates over which format is best can become intense.

Comparison to printed books

Over 2 million free books are available for download as of August 2009.[24] Mobile availability of e-books may be provided for users with a mobile data connection, so that these e-books need not be stored on the device. An e-book can be offered indefinitely, without ever going "out of print". In the space that a comparably sized print book takes up, an e-reader can potentially contain thousands of e-books, limited only by its memory capacity. If space is at a premium, such as in a backpack or at home, it can be an advantage that an e-book collection takes up little room and weight. E-book websites can include the ability to translate books into many different languages, making the works available to speakers of languages not covered by printed translations. Depending on the device, an e-book may be readable in low light or even total darkness. Many newer readers have the ability to display motion, enlarge or change fonts,[25] use Text-to-speech software to read the text aloud for visually impaired, partially sighted, elderly or dyslectic people, search for key terms, find definitions, or allow highlighting bookmarking and annotation. Devices that utilize E Ink can imitate the look and ease of readability of a printed work while consuming very little power, allowing continuous reading for weeks at time. While an e-book reader costs much more than one book, the electronic texts are at times cheaper. Moreover, a great share of e-books are available online for free, minus the minimal costs of the electronics required. For example, all fiction from before the year 1900 is in the public domain. Also, libraries lend more current e-book titles for limited times, free samples are available of many publications, and there are other lending models being piloted as well. E-books can be printed for less than the price of traditional new books using new on-demand book printers.

E-book An e-book can be purchased/borrowed, downloaded, and used immediately, whereas when one buys or borrows a book, one must go to a bookshop, a home library, or public library during limited hours, or wait for a delivery. The production of e-books does not consume paper and ink. The necessary computer or e-reader uses less materials.[26] Printed books use 3 times more raw materials and 78 times more water to produce.[27] Depending on possible digital rights management, e-books can be backed up to recover them in the case of loss or damage and it may be possible to recover a new copy without cost from the distributor. Compared to printed publishing, it is cheaper and easier for authors to self-publish e-books. Also, the dispersal of a free e-book copy can stimulate the sales of the printed version.[28]


Ebook formats and file types continue to develop and change through time through advances and developments in technology or the introduction of new proprietary formats. While printed books remain readable for many years, e-books may need to be copied or converted to a new carrier or file type over time. Because of proprietary formats or lack of file support, formatted e-books may be unusable on certain readers. PDF and epub are growing standards, but are not universal. Not all books are available as e-books. Paper books can be bought and wrapped for a present and a library of books can provide visual appeal, while the digital nature of e-books makes them non-visible and intangible. E-books cannot provide the physical feel of the cover, paper, and binding of the original printed work. An author who publishes a book often puts more into the work than simply the words on the pages. E-books may cause people "to do the grazing and quick reading that screens enable, rather than be by themselves with the author's ideas".[29] They may use the e-books simply for reference purposes rather than reading for pleasure and leisure.[30] Books with large pictures (such as children's books) or diagrams are more inconvenient for viewing and reading. A book will never turn off and would be unusable only if damaged or after many decades. The shelf life of a printed book exceeds that of an e-book reader, as over time the reader's battery will drain and require recharging. Additionally, "As in the case of microfilm, there is no guarantee that [electronic] copies will last. Bits become degraded over time. Documents may get lost in cyberspace...Hardware and software become extinct at a distressing rate." [31] E-book readers are more susceptible to damage from being dropped or hit than a print book. Due to faults in hardware or software, e-book readers may malfunction and data loss can occur. As with any piece of technology, the reader must be protected from the elements (such as extreme cold, heat, water, etc.), while print books are not susceptible to damage from electromagnetic pulses, surges, impacts, or temperatures typically found in automobiles on a hot day. The cost of an e-book reader far exceeds that of a single book, and e-books often cost the same as their print versions. Due to the high cost of the initial investment in some form of e-reader, e-books are cost prohibitive to much of the world's population. Furthermore, there is no used e-book market, so consumers will neither be able to recoup some of their costs by selling an unwanted title they have finished, nor will they be able to buy used copies at significant discounts, as they can now easily do with printed books. Because of the high-tech appeal of the e-reader, they are a greater target for theft than an individual print book. Along with the theft of the physical device, any e-books it contains also become stolen. E-books purchased from vendors like Amazon or Barnes & Noble.com are stored "in the cloud" on servers and "digital lockers" and have the benefit of being easily retrieved if an e-reading device is lost. Not all e-booksellers are cloud based; if an e-book is stolen, accidentally lost, or deleted, in the absence of a backup it may have to be repurchased. The display resolutions of reading devices are currently lower than those of printed materials and may cause discomfort due to glare on the screen or difficulty holding the device. Due to digital rights management, customers typically cannot resell or loan their e-books to other readers.[32] However, some Barnes & Noble e-books are lendable for two weeks via their 'LendMe' technology.[33] Additionally, the potential for piracy of e-books may make publishers and authors reluctant to distribute digitally.[34] E-book readers require various toxic substances to

E-book produce, are non-biodegradable, and the disposal of their batteries in particular raises environmental concerns. As technologies rapidly change and old devices become obsolete, there will be larger amounts of toxic wastes that are not easily biodegradable like paper.. Reading devices for e-books in a reflowable format such as EPUB may display page numbers, but these numbers change from device to device depending on factors such as the size of the display and the selected font size. This makes them unsuitable for citation purposes. To remedy this problem, Amazon Kindle e-books contain what are called "location numbers", that is, numbers in the margin of the electronic text that indicate where the corresponding page begins in the printed version of the book.[35] Use of an e-book reader is disallowed on commercial airliners during takeoff and landing.[36]


Digital rights management

Anti-circumvention techniques may be used to restrict what the user may do with an e-book. For instance, it may not be possible to transfer ownership of an e-book to another person, though such a transaction is common with physical books. Some devices can phone home to track readers and reading habits, restrict printing, or arbitrarily modify reading material. This includes restricting the copying and distribution of works in the public domain through the use of "click-wrap" licensing, effectively limiting the rights of the public to distribute, sell or use texts in the public domain freely. Most e-book publishers do not warn their customers about the possible implications of the digital rights management tied to their products. Generally they claim that digital rights management is meant to prevent copying of the e-book. However in many cases it is also possible that digital rights management will result in the complete denial of access by the purchaser to the e-book.[37] With some formats of DRM, the e-book is tied to a specific computer or device. In these cases the DRM will usually let the purchaser move the book a limited number of times after which they cannot use it on any additional devices. If the purchaser upgrades or replaces their devices eventually they may lose access to their purchase. Some forms of digital rights management depend on the existence of online services to authenticate the purchasers. When the company that provides the service goes out of business or decides to stop providing the service, the purchaser will no longer be able to access the e-book. As with digital rights management in other media, e-books are more like rental or leasing than purchase. The restricted book comes with a number of restrictions, and eventually access to the purchase can be removed by a number of different parties involved. These include the publisher of the book, the provider of the DRM scheme, and the publisher of the reader software. These are all things that are significantly different from the realm of experiences anyone has had with a physical copy of the book.

Some e-books are produced simultaneously with the production of a printed format, as described in electronic publishing, though in many instances they may not be put on sale until later. Often, e-books are produced from pre-existing hard-copy books, generally by document scanning, sometimes with the use of robotic book scanners, having the technology to quickly scan books without damaging the original print edition. Scanning a book produces a set of image files, which may additionally be converted into text format by an OCR program.[38] Occasionally, as in some e-text projects, a book may be produced by re-entering the text from a keyboard. As a newer development, sometimes only the electronic version of a book is produced by the publisher. It is even possible to release an e-book chapter by chapter as each chapter is written. This is useful in fields such as information technology where topics can change quickly in the months that it takes to write a typical book (See: Realtime Publishers). It is also possible to convert an electronic book to a printed book by print on demand. However these are exceptions as tradition dictates that a book be launched in the print format and later if the author wishes an electronic version is produced.

E-book As of 2010, there is no industry-wide e-book bestseller list, but various e-book vendors compile bestseller lists, such as those by Amazon Kindle Bestsellers[39] and Fictionwise.[40] Two yearly awards for excellence in e-books are the EPIC eBook Award[41] (formerly EPPIE) given by EPIC, and the Dream Realm Award[42] for science fiction, fantasy and horror e-books. Both awards have been given since 2000.


e-Readers may be specifically designed for that purpose, or intended for other purposes as well. The term is restricted to hardware devices and used to describe a category type. Specialized devices have the advantage of doing one thing well. Specifically, they tend to have the right screen size, battery lifespan, lighting and weight. A disadvantage of such devices is that they are often expensive when compared to multi-purpose devices such as laptops and PDAs. In 2010, competition sent the price for the most popular electronic reading devices below USD 200.[43] Research released in March 2011 indicated that e-books and e-book readers are actually more popular with the older generation than the younger generation in the UK. The survey carried out by Silver Poll found that around 6% of over 55s owned an e-book reader compared with just 5% of 18-24 year olds. [44] The survey also revealed that the Amazon Kindle is the most popular e-book reader in the UK (47%) followed by the Apple iPad (31%) and the Sony Reader (14%). According to an IDC study from March 2011, sales for all e-book readers worldwide gained to 12.8 millions in 2010; 48% of them were kindle models, followed by Barnes & Noble Nook devices, Pandigital, Hanvon and Sony Readers (about 800,000 units for 2010).[45] It has been reported that there is a differing level of dissatisfaction amongst owners of different ebook readers due to poor availability of sought after ebook titles. A survey of the number of contemporary and popular titles available from ebook store, revealed that Amazon.com has the largest collection, over twice as large as Barnes and Noble, Sony Reader Store, Apple iBookstore and OverDrive, the public libraries lending system. [46]

eReader applications
Some of the major book retailers have free eReader applications for the PC and Mac desktops as well as iPad, iPhone, Android, and Blackberry devices to allow reading eBooks without their respective devices - Amazon Kindle, Borders Kobo, and Barnes & Noble Nook.

Market Shares
Quantity Market Shares of e-book sales in US by Goldman Sachs at 2010

Sellers Amazon Barnes & Noble Apple Others

Percent 58.0% 27.0% 9.0% 6.0%



[1] Gardiner, Eileen and Ronald G. Musto. The Electronic Book. In Suarez, Michael Felix, and H. R. Woudhuysen. The Oxford Companion to the Book. (http:/ / www. worldcat. org/ oclc/ 370356568) Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, p. 164. [2] " e-book (http:/ / oxforddictionaries. com/ view/ entry/ m_en_us1242960)". Oxford Dictionaries. April 2010. Oxford Dictionaries. April 2010. Oxford University Press. (accessed September 02, 2010). [3] "Michael Hart, inventor of the ebook, dies aged 64" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ books/ 2011/ sep/ 08/ michael-hart-inventor-ebook-dies) Alison Flood, The Guardian. 8 September 2011 [4] Personal Dynamic Media (http:/ / www. newmediareader. com/ book_samples/ nmr-26-kay. pdf) By Alan Kay and Adele Goldberg [5] eBooks: la guerra digital global por el dominio del libro (http:/ / www. realinstitutoelcano. org/ wps/ portal/ rielcano/ contenido?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/ elcano/ elcano_es/ zonas_es/ lengua+ y+ cultura/ ari92-2010) By Chimo Soler (Historian) [6] Doris Small. "E-books in libraries: some early experiences and reactions." Searcher 8.9 (2000): 63-5. http:/ / www. highbeam. com/ doc/ 1G1-66217098. html [7] Genco, Barbara. Its been Geometric! (http:/ / www. ifla. org/ files/ hq/ papers/ ifla75/ 212-genco-en. pdf) Documenting the Growth and Acceptance of eBooks in Americas Urban Public Libraries. IFLA Conference, July 2009. [8] http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ research/ initiatives/ plftas/ 2009_2010/ index. cfm [9] 66% of Public Libraries in US offering eBooks (http:/ / www. libraries. wright. edu/ noshelfrequired/ ?p=1353) [10] "At the Tipping Point: Four voices probe the top ebook issues for librarians." Library Journal, August 2010 [11] "J.K. Rowling refuses e-books for Potter" (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ life/ books/ news/ 2005-06-14-rowling-refuses-ebooks_x. htm). USA Today. 2005-06-14. . [12] Bookeen Cybook OPUS | ZDNet UK (http:/ / community. zdnet. co. uk/ blog/ 0,1000000567,10014045o-2000667842b,00. htm) [13] Nook outnumbers Kindle in March, says Digitimes Research (http:/ / www. digitimes. com/ news/ a20100426VL204. html/ ) [14] Apple - iPad - See the web, email, and photos like never before (http:/ / www. apple. com/ ipad/ ) [15] Apple Launches iPad (http:/ / www. apple. com/ pr/ library/ 2010/ 01/ 27ipad. html) [16] "E-Books Top Hardcovers at Amazon" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 07/ 20/ technology/ 20kindle. html). New York Times. 2010-07-19. . Retrieved 2010-07-19. [17] http:/ / phx. corporate-ir. net/ phoenix. zhtml?c=176060& p=irol-newsArticle& ID=1521090& highlight& ref=tsm_1_tw_kin_prearn_20110127 [18] Lynn Neary, Don Gonyea (2010-07-27). "Conflict Widens In E-Books Publishing" (http:/ / www. npr. org/ templates/ story/ story. php?storyId=128789516). NPR. . Retrieved 2010-07-27. [19] "Scarcity of Giller-winning Sentimentalists a boon to eBook sales" (http:/ / www. thestar. com/ entertainment/ books/ article/ 889818--scarcity-of-giller-winning-sentimentalists-a-boon-to-ebook-sales?bn=1). Toronto Star, November 12, 2010. [20] Bookeen debuts Orizon touchscreen e-book reader - Engadget (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2010/ 01/ 08/ bookeen-debuts-orizon-touchscreen-e-book-reader/ ) [21] "The Simple Touch Reader" (http:/ / www. ljinteractive. com/ index. php/ barnes-and-noble-launches-a-new-nook-the-simple-touch-reader/ ). LJ Interactive 24th May 2011. . [22] http:/ / www. bloomberg. com/ news/ 2011-05-19/ amazon-com-says-kindle-electronic-book-sales-surpass-printed-format. html [23] http:/ / www. e-reader-info. com/ bookeen-launches-new-e-book-store [24] 2 million free eBooks (http:/ / www. law. stanford. edu/ library/ blog/ ?tag=2-million-free-ebooks) [25] Harris, Christopher. "The Truth About Ebooks." School Library Journal 55, no. 6 (2009): 18. Wilson Select Plus. Online Database [26] "Should we switch to reading books online?" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ environment/ 2009/ aug/ 30/ reading-books-online-eco-friendly) Lucy Siegel, The Observer Magazine, 30 August 2009. [27] How Green Is My iPad - The New York Times (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ interactive/ 2010/ 04/ 04/ opinion/ 04opchart. html) [28] "Giving It Away" (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ 2006/ 11/ 30/ cory-doctorow-copyright-tech-media_cz_cd_books06_1201doctorow. html). Forbes. . [29] Abel, David. "Welcome to the library. Say goodbye to the books. The Boston Globe, 4 Sept. 2009. [30] Noorhidawat, A and Gibb, Forbes. "How Students Use E-books-Reading or Referring?" Malaysian Journal of Library and Information Science 13, no. 2 (2009): 1-14 Wilson Select Plus. Online Database. [31] Darnton, Robert. "The Library in the New Age." 55, no. 10 (2008). [32] Amazon Kindle and Sony Reader Locked Up: Why Your Books Are No Longer Yours (http:/ / gizmodo. com/ 369235/ amazon-kindle-and-sony-reader-locked-up-why-your-books-are-no-longer-yours) [33] How to loan ebooks on the nook with LendMe service | ZDNet (http:/ / www. zdnet. com/ blog/ mobile-gadgeteer/ how-to-loan-ebooks-on-the-nook-with-lendme-service/ 2250) [34] Print Books Are Target of Pirates on the Web (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 05/ 12/ technology/ internet/ 12digital. html) [35] Pogue, David (8 February 2011). "Page Numbers for Kindle Books an Imperfect Solution" (http:/ / pogue. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2011/ 02/ 08/ page-numbers-for-kindle-books-an-imperfect-solution/ ). New York Times, "Pogue's Post" blog. . Retrieved 9 July 2011. [36] Matt Phillips (2009-05-07). "Kindle DX: Must You Turn it Off for Takeoff and Landing?" (http:/ / blogs. wsj. com/ middleseat/ 2009/ 05/ 07/ kindle-dx-must-you-turn-it-off-for-takeoff-and-landing/ ). The Wall Street Journal. . Retrieved 2011-07-28.

[37] Case where Amazon remotely deleted titles from purchasers' devices (http:/ / pogue. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 07/ 17/ some-e-books-are-more-equal-than-others/ ) [38] The Book Standard is closed (http:/ / www. thebookstandard. com/ bookstandard/ news/ publisher/ article_display. jsp?vnu_content_id=1002035592) [39] Amazon Kindle Bestsellers (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ gp/ bestsellers/ digital-text) [40] Fictionwise Bestseller eBooks (http:/ / www. fictionwise. com/ topstories. htm) [41] EPIC eBook Awards (http:/ / www. epicauthors. com/ epicawards. html) [42] Dream Realm Awards (http:/ / www. dream-realm-awards. net/ ) [43] Stone, Brad (2010-06-21). "Amazon and Barnes & Noble Cut E-Reader Prices" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 06/ 22/ technology/ 22reader. html?ref=technology). The New York Times. . [44] "E-book popularity set to increase this year" (http:/ / www. redsauce. com/ e-book-popularity-set-to-increase-this-year-5653). . Retrieved 4 March 2011. [45] Nearly 18 Million Media Tablets Shipped in 2010 with Apple Capturing 83% Share; eReader Shipments Quadrupled to More Than 12 Million. (http:/ / www. idc. com/ about/ viewpressrelease. jsp?containerId=prUS22737611& sectionId=null& elementId=null& pageType=SYNOPSIS) Press release by IDC, 10. March 2011. [46] King, Sammy. "Survey of Kindle, Nook, iPad, Sony and OverDrive eBook Store Collection Size" (http:/ / www. ebookreaderguide. com/ 2011/ 03/ 13/ kindle-nookcolor-ipad2-sony-overdrive-which-ebookstore-has-most-ebook-titles/ ). eBookReaderGuide.com. . Retrieved 13 March 2011. [47] http:/ / www. bloomberg. com/ news/ 2011-03-22/ barnes-noble-is-said-to-be-likely-to-end-search-for-buyer-without-a-sale. html


Doctorow, Cory (February 12, 2004). Ebooks: Neither E, Nor Books (http://craphound.com/ ebooksneitherenorbooks.txt), O'Reilly Emerging Technologies Conference James, Bradley (November 20, 2002). The Electronic Book: Looking Beyond the Physical Codex (http://www. scinet.cc/articles/ebook/electronicbook.html), SciNet Lynch, Clifford (May 28, 2001). The Battle to Define the Future of the Book in the Digital World (http:// firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/864/773), First Monday - Peer reviewed journal on the Internet Pastore, Michael (January 28, 2008). 30 Benefits of Ebooks (http://epublishersweekly.blogspot.com/2008/02/ 30-benefits-of-ebooks.html), Epublishers Weekly Flint, Eric (2000). "Building the Baen Free Library" (http://www.speculations.com/?t=189167). Retrieved 2007-07-19.

External links
Project Gutenberg (http://www.gutenberg.org) The Online Books Page (http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/) About the Google Book Settlement (GBS) and online books (rights) (http://www.truthdig.com/report/item/ 20090929_scanning_the_horizon_of_books_and_libraries/) E-Books Spark Battle Inside Publishing Industry (Washington Post, 27 Dec 2009) (http://www.washingtonpost. com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/12/24/AR2009122403326.html)



A librarian is an information professional trained in library and information science, which is the organization and management of information services or materials for those with information needs. Typically, librarians work in a public or college library, an elementary or secondary school media center, a library within a business or company, or another information-provision agency like a hospital or law firm. Librarians may be categorized as a public, school, correctional, special, independent or academic librarian.

Outline, requirements and positions

Traditionally, librarians have been associated with collections of books, as demonstrated by the etymology of the word "librarian" (< Latin liber, 'book'). However, modern librarians deal with information in many formats, including books, magazines, newspapers, audio recordings (both musical and spoken-word), video recordings, maps, The Librarian, a 1556 painting by Giuseppe manuscripts, photographs and other graphic material, bibliographic Arcimboldo databases, web searching, and digital resources. Librarians often provide other information services, including computer provision and training, coordination of public programs, basic literacy education, assistive equipment for people with disabilities, and help with finding and using community resources.

Librarian roles and duties

Specific duties vary depending on the size and type of library. Olivia Crosby described librarians as "Information experts in the information age".[1] Most librarians spend their time working in one of the following areas of a library: Public service librarians work with the public, frequently at the reference desk of lending libraries. Some specialize in serving adults or children. Children's librarians provide appropriate material for children at all age levels, include pre-readers, conduct specialized programs and work with the children (and often their parents) to help foster interest and competence in the young reader. (In larger libraries, some specialize in teen services, periodicals, or other special collections.) Reference or research librarians help people doing research to find the information they need, through a structured conversation called a reference interview. The help may take the form of research on a specific question, providing direction on the use of databases and other electronic information resources; obtaining specialized materials from other sources; or providing access to and care of delicate or expensive materials. These services are sometimes provided by other library staff that have been given a certain amount of special training; some have criticized this trend.[2] Technical service librarians work "behind the scenes" ordering library materials and database subscriptions, computers and other equipment, and supervise the cataloging and physical processing of new materials. Collections development librarians monitor the selection of books and electronic resources. Large libraries often use approval plans, which involve the librarian for a specific subject creating a profile that allows publishers to send relevant books to the library without any additional vetting. Librarians can then see those books when they arrive and decide if they will become part of the collection or not. All collections librarians also have a certain amount of funding to allow them to purchase books and materials that don't arrive via approval.

Librarian Archivists can be specialized librarians who deal with archival materials, such as manuscripts, documents and records, though this varies from country to country, and there are other routes to the archival profession. Systems Librarians develop, troubleshoot and maintain library systems, including the library catalog and related systems. Electronic Resources Librarians manage the databases that libraries license from third-party vendors. School Librarians work in school libraries and perform duties as teachers, information technology specialists, and advocates for literacy. A Young Adult or YA librarian serves patrons who are between 12 and 18 years old. Young adults are those patrons that look to library services to give them direction and guidance toward recreation, education, and emancipation. A young adult librarian could work in several different institutions; one might be a school library/media teacher, a member of a public library team, or a librarian in a penal institution. Licensing for library/media teacher includes a Bachelor or Master of Arts in Teaching and additional higher-level course work in library science. YA librarians who work in public libraries usually have a Master's degree in Library and/or Information Science (MLIS), relevant work experience, or a related credential.[3] "Media Specialists" teach students to find and analyze information, purchase books and other resources for the school library, supervise library assistants, and are responsible for all aspects of running the library/media center. Both LMTs Library Media Teachers and YA public librarians order books and other materials that will interest their young adult patrons. They also must help YAs find relevant and authoritative Internet resources. Helping this age group to become life-long learners and readers is a main objective of professionals in this library specialty. Outreach Librarians are charged with providing library and information services for underrepresented groups, such as people with disabilities, low income neighborhoods, home bound adults and seniors, incarcerated and ex-offenders, and homeless and rural communities. In academic libraries, outreach librarians might focus on high school students, transfer students, first-generation college students, and minorities. Instruction Librarians teach information literacy skills in face-to-face classes and/or through the creation of online learning objects. They instruct library users on how to find, evaluate and use information effectively. They are most common in academic libraries. Experienced librarians may take administrative positions such as library or information center director. Similar to the management of any other organization, they are concerned with the long-term planning of the library, and its relationship with its parent organization (the city or county for a public library, the college/university for an academic library, or the organization served by a special library). In smaller or specialized libraries, librarians typically perform a wide range of the different duties. Salaries and benefits have improved somewhat in recent years, even in an era of budget tightening and reductions in operating expenses at many libraries. They can vary considerably depending upon the geographic region, the level of funding and support (it is usually better in major academic libraries and Justin Winsor, Librarian of Congress, government facilities than it is in inner-city school or public libraries), the type of c. 1885 library (a small public or school library versus a large government or academic library), and the position (a beginning librarian versus a department head). Starting salaries at small public libraries can range from $20,000-$25,000; high profile positions like director or department head can approach or exceed $100,000 at major academic and large government libraries and some public libraries. Librarians who are paid faculty salaries at a major university (especially if they have a second academic degree), who have an education degree at a school library, who are in administration at a library, or who


Librarian are in a government library post tend to have higher incomes, especially with experience and better language and technical skills. Despite this, librarians are still wrongly perceived as low-level pink collar professionals. In reality, the technical competencies and information-seeking skills needed for the job are becoming increasingly important and are relevant to the contemporary economy, and such positions are thus becoming more prominent. Representative examples of librarian responsibilities: Researching topics of interest for their constituencies. Referring patrons to other community organizations and government offices. Suggesting appropriate books ("readers' advisory") for children of different reading levels, and recommending novels for recreational reading. Facilitating and promoting reading clubs. Developing programs for library users of all ages and backgrounds. Managing access to electronic information resources. Building collections to respond to changing community needs or demands Writing grants to gain funding for expanded program or collections Digitizing collections for online access Answering incoming reference questions via telephone, postal mail, email, fax, and chat Making and enforcing computer appointments on the public access Internet computers.[4]


Basic categories of workplace settings for librarians are routinely classified around the world as: public, academic, school, and special. Some librarians will start and operate their own business. They often call themselves information brokers, research specialists, knowledge management, competitive intelligence or independent information professionals. Below are the basic differences between the types of libraries. Public library: These institutions are created through legislation within the jurisdiction they serve. Accordingly, they are given certain benefits, such as taxpayer funding, but must adhere to service standards and meet a wide group of client needs. They are usually overseen by a board of directors or library commission from the community. Mission statements, service and collection policies are the fundamental administrative features of public libraries. Occasionally private lending libraries serve the public in the manner of public libraries. In the United States, public librarians and public libraries are represented by the Public Library Association.[5] Public library staffing is structured in response to community needs. Libraries bridge traditional divisions between technical and public services positions by adopting new technologies such as mobile library services and reconfigure organizations depending on the local situation.[6]
Southwest Collections / Special Collections Library at Texas Tech, a university in the United States

Academic library: is a library that is an integral part of a college, university, or other institution of postsecondary education, administered to meet the information and research needs of its students, faculty, and staff. In the United States, the professional association for academic libraries and librarians is the Association of College and Research Libraries.[7] Depending upon the institution, the library may serve a particular faculty or the entire institution. Many different types, sizes, and collections are found in academic libraries and some academic librarians are specialists in these collections and archives. A university librarian, or chief librarian, is responsible for the library within the college structure, and may also be called the Dean of Libraries. Some post-secondary institutions treat librarians as faculty, and they may be called professor or other academic ranks, which may or may not increase their salary and benefits. Some universities make similar demands of academic librarians for research and professional service as are

Librarian required of faculty. Academic librarians administer various levels of service and privilege to faculty, students, alumni and the public. School library media center: Libraries which exclusively serve the needs of a public or private school. The primary purpose is to support the students, teachers, and curriculum of the school or school district. In addition to library administration, certificated teacher-librarians instruct individual students, groups and classes, and faculty in effective research methods, often referred to as information literacy skills. Audio-visual equipment service and/or textbook circulation may also be included in a school librarian's responsibilities. Often, teacher-librarians are qualified teachers who take academic courses for school library certification and/or earn a Master's degree in Library Science. Special library: News, law, medical, government, nongovernmental organization, prison, corporate, museum or any other type of library owned and operated by an organization are considered as special library. They can be highly specialized, serving a discrete user group with a restricted collection area. In an increasingly global and virtual workplace, many special librarians may not even work in a library at all but instead manage and facilitate the use of electronic collections. Funding for special libraries varies widely. Librarians in some types of special libraries may be required to have additional training, such as a law degree for a librarian in an academic law library or appropriate subject degrees for subject specialties such as chemistry, engineering, etc. Many belong to the Special Libraries Association.[8] There are also more specific associations such as the American Association of Law Libraries,[9] Art Libraries Society of North America,[10] the Medical Library Association,[11] or the Visual Resources Association.[12]


The US and Canada
In the United States and Canada, a librarian might have a one or two-year (more common) master's degree in library and information science, library science or information science (called an MLS, MALIS, MSLS, MIS, MSIS, MS-LIS, MISt, MLIS, or MILS) from an accredited university.[1] These degrees are accredited by the American Library Association and can have specializations within fields such as archiving, records management, information architecture, public librarianship, medical librarianship, law librarianship, special The Radcliffe Science Library, Oxford University librarianship, academic librarianship, or school (K-12) librarianship. School librarians often are required to have a teaching credential, as well as a library science degree. Many, if not most, academic librarians also have a second, subject-based master's degree. This is especially true of four year colleges.

In the UK and some other countries, a librarian can have a three- or four-year bachelor's degree in library and information studies or information science; separate master's degrees in librarianship, archive management, and records management are also available. In the United Kingdom, these degrees are accredited by the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals and the Society of Archivists.[13] In Germany and some other countries, the first step for an academic librarian is a PhD in a subject field, followed by additional training in librarianship.



In Australia, a professional librarian must meet the requirements set out by the Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA). There are three ways in which these requirements can be met: the individual must obtain an ALIA-recognized bachelor degree in library and information studies, complete a first degree in any discipline followed by an ALIA-recognized postgraduate diploma or masters course, or gain an ALIA-recognized library technician qualifications (undertaken at a Technical and Further Education(TAFE) college/institute followed by an ALIA-recognized bachelor degree in library and information studies.[14] ALIA is responsible for accreditation of library specific qualifications for both librarians and library technicians. Professional Australian teacher-librarians require slightly different qualifications. In addition to having a degree that meets ALIA's accreditation process, teacher librarians must also hold recognized teaching qualifications.[15]

Advanced degrees
It is also possible to earn a doctorate in library and information science. Graduates with PhDs usually become teaching faculty in schools of library and information science, or sometimes occupy the directorship or deanship of university libraries. Those undertaking research at the doctoral level can pursue a very wide range of interests including information technology, government information policy, social research into information use among particular segments of society, information in organizations and corporate settings, and the history of books and printing. It is common in academic and other research libraries to require the librarians to obtain Master's degrees in some academic subject, sometimes but not necessarily related to their professional responsibilities; in major research libraries, some of the librarians will hold Ph. D degrees in subject fields. Other advanced degrees often taken in conjunction with a degree in librarianship are law, management, health administration or public administration.

Library-related positions
Library associates, library technicians, and library assistants often have college diplomas but usually do not hold library-related degrees. Occasionally they also hold undergraduate or graduate degrees in other disciplines. These workers, sometimes referred to as para-professionals, perform duties such as database management, library cataloging, ready reference, and serials and monograph processing.

Professional organizations and activities

The two largest library associations in the United States are the American Library Association (ALA) and the Special Libraries Association.[8] YALSA[16] The Young Adult Library Services Association serves Young Adult librarians, and is part of the American Library Association. Many U.S. states have their own library association as well. Librarians may also join such organizations as the Association of College and Research Libraries[17] and the Public Library Association[18] and the Art Libraries Society.[19] The Canadian Library Association serves Canada and there are provincial associations as well, such as the Ontario Library Association. In the United Kingdom, the professional body for Librarians is the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals[20] (formerly known

Presenters and recipients of the New York Times-Carnegie Corporation of New York I Love My Librarian awards, presented in association with the American Library Association

Librarian as the Library Association). The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA)[21] represents the interests of libraries and librarians internationally. (See also the List of Library Associations.) Recent issues of concern for U.S. libraries include implementation of the Patriot Act and the Children's Internet Protection Act. Many librarians around the world share American librarians' concern over ethical issues surrounding censorship and privacy. Some librarians join activist organizations like the UK-based Information for Social Change[22] and the North American-based Progressive Librarians Guild.[23] The Progressive Librarians Guild covers the actions of union library workers.[24] Within the American Library Association (ALA), some also join the Social Responsibilities Round Table (SSRT).[25] SRRT came into being amid the social ferment of the 1960s and is often critical of the American Library Association for not living up to its professed ideals. Another important activist organization is the Social Responsibilities Special Interest Section[26] of the American Association of Law Libraries (AALL).[27] These activist organizations are viewed as controversial by some librarians, while others view them as a natural extension and outgrowth of their own deeply-held library ethics. Librarians in the United States who as political actors in our times provide examples of a commitment to equality, the right to know or social justice include Peter Chase, George Christian, Janet Nocek, and Barbara Bailey. In the Doe v. Gonzales case, these librarians challenged the constitutionality of the nondisclosure provisions of the National Security Letters issued by the government under the USA Patriot Act in terrorist or other investigations. The four received the Roger Baldwin Medal of Liberty from the American Civil Liberties Union in June 2007.[28]


Technology in libraries
The increasing role of technology in libraries has a significant impact on the changing roles of librarians. New technologies are dramatically increasing the accessibility of information, and librarians are adapting to the evolving needs of users that emerge from the adoption of these new technologies. One of the most significant examples of how technology has changed the role of librarians in the last 50 years has been the move from traditional card catalogs to online public access catalogs (OPACs). Librarians had to develop software and the MARC standards for cataloguing records electronically. They had to purchase and run the computers necessary to use the software. They had to teach the public how to use the new technologies and move to more virtual working environments. The same could be said of other technology developments, from electronic databases (including the Internet), to logistical functions such as bar codes (or in the near future RFID). Many librarians provide virtual reference services (via web-based chat, instant messaging, text messaging, and e-mail), work in digitizing initiatives for works in the public domain, teach information literacy and technology classes to their users, and work on the development of information architectures for improving access and search functionality. These examples illustrate some of the ways in which librarians are using technology to fulfill and expand upon their historical roles. Librarians must continually adapt to new formats for information, such as electronic journals and e-books, which present both challenges and opportunities in providing access and promoting them to library patrons. Increasing technological advance has presented the possibility of automating some aspects of traditional libraries. In 2004 a group of researchers in Spain developed the UJI Online Robot. This robot is able to navigate the library, look for the specified book, and upon its discovery, carefully take it from the shelf and deliver it to the user. Because of the robot's extremely limited function, its introduction into libraries poses little risk of the employment of librarians, whose duties are not defined by menial tasks such as the retrieval of books.



Librarians in popular culture

Stereotypes of librarians in popular culture are frequently negative: librarians are portrayed as puritanical, punitive, unattractive, and introverted if female, or timid, unattractive, and effeminate if male. The librarian is in charge of a library just as a principal is in charge of a school or a pastor is in charge of a church. Examples of librarians in popular culture include: In the Discworld book series by Terry Pratchett there is a librarian who has been magically turned into an orangutan. In these stories, librarians frequently have supernatural powers related to books and library work, including access to a form of hyperspace known as L-Space.[29] "Weird Al" Yankovic plays Conan the Librarian, in a brief segment of the 1989 film UHF. On the May 24, 2007 episode of the Colbert Report, Colbert interviewed Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales. During the interview, he showed on the screen the statement "Librarians are hiding something" and asked Wales how he would stop or prevent vandalism to Wikipedia based on that statement. Space Marine Librarians are characters from the collectible miniatures game Warhammer 40,000; these superhuman fighters come equipped with potent psychic powers, rather than just being deskbound intellects. Wielding force staffs and psychic abilities, they are found on the battlefield battling alongside their non-psychic battle brothers delivering justice to the Emperor's enemies, while at the same time advising the Space Marine Commander.

[1] [2] [3] [4] "Become a Librarian!" (http:/ / www. becomealibrarian. org). Central Jersey Regional Library Cooperative. . Retrieved 2008-09-01. McKinzie, Steve (October 2002). "For Ethical Reference, Pare the Paraprofessionals". American Libraries 33 (9): 42. "YALSA" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ mgrps/ divs/ yalsa/ profdev/ recruitment/ recruitment. cfm). . Retrieved April 1, 2011. "The librarian's Internet survival guide: strategies for the high-tech reference desk", Irene E. McDermott, Barbara E. Quint, p. 1-2, Information Today, ISBN157387129 [5] "Public Library Association" (http:/ / www. pla. org/ ala/ pla/ pla. htm). American Library Association. . Retrieved 2008-09-01. [6] McCook, Kathleen de la Pea (2011). Introduction to Public Librarianship. ISBN978-1-55570-697-5. [7] Reitz, Joan M. (1998). Dictionary for Library and Information Science. Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited. pp.4. [8] "Special Libraries Association" (http:/ / www. sla. org/ ). . Retrieved 2008-09-01. [9] "The American Association of Law Libraries" (http:/ / www. aallnet. org). . Retrieved 2008-09-01. [10] "Art Libraries Society of North America" (http:/ / www. arlisna. org). . Retrieved 2008-09-01. [11] "Medical Library Association" (http:/ / www. mlanet. org). . Retrieved 2008-09-01. [12] "Visual Resources Association - The International Association of Image Media Professionals" (http:/ / www. vraweb. org). . Retrieved 2008-09-01. [13] "Society of Archivists" (http:/ / www. archives. org. uk/ ). . Retrieved 2008-09-01. [14] "Librarian" (http:/ / www. alia. org. au/ education/ qualifications/ librarian. html). Australian Library and Information Association. 2006-08-10. . Retrieved 2008-09-01. [15] "Teacher-Librarian" (http:/ / www. alia. org. au/ education/ qualifications/ teacher. librarian. html). Australian Library and Information Association. 2008-06-24. . Retrieved 2008-09-01. [16] ala.org (http:/ / www. ala. org/ yalsa) [17] "ACRL" (http:/ / www. acrl. org). ACRL. . Retrieved 2010-04-24. [18] (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ pla/ pla. htm) [19] "Art Libraries Society of North America" (http:/ / www. arlisna. org). Arlisna.org. . Retrieved 2010-04-24. [20] "The Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals" (http:/ / www. cilip. org. uk). CILIP. . Retrieved 2010-04-24. [21] "The official website of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions" (http:/ / www. ifla. org/ ). IFLA. . Retrieved 2010-04-24. [22] "Information for Social Change Journal (ISC)" (http:/ / www. libr. org/ isc). Libr.org. . Retrieved 2010-04-24. [23] "Progressive Librarians Guild" (http:/ / www. libr. org/ plg). Libr.org. 2010-03-01. . Retrieved 2010-04-24. [24] "There is Power in a Union" Progressive Librarian (http:/ / libr. org/ pl/ contents. html), 2006 and continuing. compiled by K. McCook. [25] "Welcome to SRRT" (http:/ / www. libr. org/ srrt). libr.org. . Retrieved 2010-04-24. [26] "AALL, Social Responsibilities SIS Home Page" (http:/ / www. aallnet. org/ sis/ srsis/ ). Aallnet.org. . Retrieved 2010-04-24. [27] "The American Association of Law Libraries" (http:/ / www. aallnet. org/ ). Aallnet.org. 2010-04-06. . Retrieved 2010-04-24. [28] Katharine J. Phenix and Kathleen de la Pea McCook, A Commitment to Human RightsQualities Required of a Librarian Dedicated to Human Rights, Information for Social Change 25 (summer 2007) [ISSN 1364-694X]. Special Issue on 'Libraries and Information Workers in

Conflict Situations.' libr.org (http:/ / libr. org/ isc/ toc. html) [29] What is Lspace? (http:/ / www. ie. lspace. org/ about/ whatis-lspace. html)


External links
ALIA Qualifications and careers (http://alia.org.au/education/) Friends of Libraries USA (http://www.folusa.org/) Occupational Outlook Handbook: Librarians (http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos068.htm) SLA's Competencies for Information Professionals (http://www.sla.org/content/learn/comp2003/index.cfm) Library and Information Science Wiki (http://liswiki.org/wiki/Main_Page) Some Old Egyptian Librarians, Ernest Gushing Richardson, Charles Sribners, 1911 (http://www.archive.org/ stream/someoldegyptianl003090mbp/someoldegyptianl003090mbp_djvu.txt)

An archive is a collection of historical records, or the physical place they are located.[1] Archives contain primary source documents that have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization's lifetime, and are kept to show the function of an organization. In general, archives consist of records that have been selected for permanent or long-term preservation on grounds of their enduring cultural, historical, or evidentiary value. Archival records are normally unpublished and almost always unique, unlike books or magazines for which many identical copies exist. This means that archives (the places) are quite distinct from libraries with regard to their functions and organization, although archival collections can often be found within library buildings.[2]

Shelved record boxes of an archive.

A person who works in archives is called an archivist. The study and practice of organizing, preserving, and providing access to information and materials in archives is called archival science. When referring to historical records or the places they are kept, the plural form archives is chiefly used.[3] Archivists tend to prefer the term "archives" (with an S) as the correct terminology to serve as both the singular and plural, since "archive," as a noun or a verb, has acquired meanings related to computer science.

First attested in English in early 17th century, the word archive ( /rkav/) is derived from the French archives (plural), in turn from Latin archum or archvum,[4] which is the romanized form of the Greek (arkheion), "public records, town-hall, residence or office of chief magistrates",[5] itself from (arkh), amongst others "magistracy, office, government"[6] (compare an-archy, mon-archy), which comes from the verb (arkh), "to begin, rule, govern".[7] The word originally developed from the Greek (arkheion) which refers to the home or dwelling of the Archon, in which important official state documents were filed and interpreted under the authority of the Archon. The adjective formed from archive is archival.



Archives were well developed by the ancient Chinese, the ancient Greeks, and ancient Romans. Modern archival thinking has many roots in the French Revolution. The French National Archives, who possess perhaps the largest archival collection in the world, with records going as far back as A.D. 625, were created in 1790 during the French Revolution from various government, religious, and private archives seized by the revolutionaries.[8]

Users and institutions

Historians, genealogists, lawyers, demographers, filmmakers, and others conduct research at archives.[9] The research process at each archive is unique, and depends upon the institution in which the archive is housed. While there are many different kinds of archives, the most recent census of archivists in the United States identified five major types: academic, business (for profit), government, non-profit, and other.[10] There are also four main areas of inquiry involved with archives: material technologies, organizing principles, geographic locations, and tangled embodiments of humans and non-humans. These areas help to further categorize what kind of archive is being created.

Archives in colleges, universities, and other educational facilities are typically housed within a library, and duties may be carried out by an archivist or a librarian. Occasionally, history professors may also run a smaller archive.[11] Academic archives exist to preserve and celebrate the history of their school and academic community.[12] An academic archive may contain items such as papers of former professors and presidents, memorabilia related to school organizations and activities, and items the academic library wishes to remain in a closed-stack setting, such as rare books or thesis copies. Access to some of these archives is by appointment only; others have posted hours. Users of academic archives can be undergraduates, graduate students, faculty and staff, scholarly researchers, and the general public. Many academic archives work closely with alumni relations departments or other campus institutions to help raise funds for their library or school.[13] Because of their library setting, a degree certified by the American Library Association is preferred for employment in an academic archive in the United States.

Charles Sturt University Regional Archives.

Business (for profit)

Archives located in for-profit institutions are usually those owned by a private business. Examples of prominent business archives in the United States include Coca-Cola (which also owns the separate museum World of Coca-Cola), Procter and Gamble, Motorola Heritage Services and Archives, and Levi Strauss & Co. These corporate archives maintain historic documents and items related to the history and administration of their companies.[14] Business archives serve the purpose of helping their corporations maintain control over their brand by retaining memories of the company's past. Especially in business archives, records management is separate from the historic aspect of archives. Workers in these types of archives may have any combination of training and degrees, from either a history or library background. These archives are typically not open to the public and only used by workers of the owner company, although some will allow approved visitors by appointment.[15] Business archives are concerned with maintaining the integrity of their company, and are therefore selective of how their materials may be used.[16]



Government archives include those maintained by local and state government as well as those maintained by the national (or federal) government. Anyone may use a government archive, and frequent users include reporters, genealogists, writers, historians, students, and people seeking information on the history of their home or region. Many government archives are open to the public and no appointment is required to visit.[17] In the United States, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) maintains central archival facilities in the District of Columbia and College Park, Maryland, with regional facilities distributed throughout the United States.[18] Some city or local governments may have repositories, but their organization and accessibility varies widely.[19] State or province archives typically require at least a bachelor's degree in history for employment, although some ask for certification by test (government or association) as well. In the UK the National Archives [20], formerly known as the Public Storage facility at the National Archives and Record Office, is the government archive for England and Wales. The [21] Records Administration National Monuments Record is the public archive of English Heritage. The National Archives of Scotland [22], located in Edinburgh, serve that country while the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland [23] in Belfast is the government archive for Northern Ireland. A network of local authority-run record offices and archives exists throughout England, Wales and Scotland and holds many important collections, including local government, landed estates, church and business records. Many archives have contributed catalogues to the national Access 2 Archives [24] programme and online searching across collections is possible. In France, the French Archives Administration (Service interministriel des Archives de France) in the Ministry of Culture manages the National Archives (Archives nationales) which possess 406km. (252 miles) of archives as of 2010 (the total length of occupied shelves put next to each other), with original records going as far back as A.D. 625, as well as the departmental archives (archives dpartementales), located in the prfectures of each of the 100 dpartements of France, which possess 2,297km. (1,427 miles) of archives (as of 2010), and also the local city archives, about 600 in total, which possess 456km. (283,4 miles) of archives (as of 2010).[25] Put together, the total volume of archives under the supervision of the French Archives Administration is the largest in the world. In India the National Archives[26] are located in New Delhi. In Taiwan the National Archives Administration [27] are located in Taipei. Most intergovernmental organisations keep their own historical archives. However, a number of European organisations, including the European Commission, choose to deposit their archives with the European University Institute in Florence.



A prominent Church Archives is the Vatican Secret Archive.[28] Archdioceses, dioceses and parishes also have archives in the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches. The records in these archives include manuscripts, papal records, local Church records, photographs, oral histories, audiovisual materials, and architectural drawings. Most Protestant denominations have archives as well, including the Presbyterian U.S.A Historical Society,[29] The Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives,[30] the United Methodist Archives and History Center of the United Methodist Church[31] and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ).[32]

Non-profit archives include those in historical societies, not-for-profit businesses such as hospitals, and the repositories within foundations. Non-profit archives are typically set up with private funds from donors to preserve the papers and history of specific persons or places. Often these institutions rely on grant funding from the government as well as the private funds.[33] Depending on the funds available, non-profit archives may be as small as the historical society in a rural town to as big as a state historical society that rivals a government archives. Users of this type of archive may vary as much as the institutions that hold them. Employees of non-profit archives may be professional archivists, para-professionals, or volunteers, as the education required for a position at a non-profit archive varies with the demands of the collection's user base.[34]

Web archiving
The process of collecting data from the World Wide Web and preserving it in an archive, such as an archive site, for the web user to see. See Website Archiving. Examples of web archives: Side bars Blogs Calendar Tag cloud News websites

Some archives defy categorization. There are tribal archives within the Native American nations in North America, and there are archives that exist within the papers of private individuals. Many museums keep archives in order to prove the provenance of their pieces. Any institution or persons wishing to keep their significant papers in an organized fashion that employs the most basic principles of archival science may have an archive. In the 2004 census of archivists taken in the United States, 2.7% of archivists were employed in institutions that defied categorization. This was a separate figure from the 1.3% that identified themselves as self-employed.[35] Another type of archive is public secrets [36]. This is an interactive testimonial in which women incarcerated in the California State Prison System reveal their stories about what happened to them. The function of the archive is to unfold the stories of the women who want to express themselves and want their stories to be heard. This collection of stories includes the women's direct speeches and also a recording of the women saying their speech. The archives of an individual may include letters, papers, photographs, computer files, scrapbooks, financial records or diaries created or collected by the individual regardless of media or format. The archives of an organization (such as a corporation or government) tend to contain other types of records, such as administrative files, business records, memos, official correspondence and meeting minutes.



The International Council on Archives (ICA) has developed a number of standards on archival description including the General International Standard Archival Description ISAD(G).[37] ISAD(G) is meant to be used in conjunction with national standards or as a basis for nations to build their own standards.[38] In the United States, ISAD(G) is implemented through Describing Archives: A Content Standard, popularly known as "DACS".[39] In Canada, ISAD(G) is implemented through Rules for Archival Description, also known as "RAD".[40] ISO is currently working on standards.[41] [42]

[1] "Glossary of Library and Internet Terms" (http:/ / www. usd. edu/ library/ instruction/ glossary. shtml). University of South Dakota Library (http:/ / www. usd. edu). . Retrieved 2007-04-30. [2] "A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology" (http:/ / www. archivists. org/ glossary/ term_details. asp?DefinitionKey=156). Society of American Archivists (http:/ / www. archivists. org). . Retrieved 2007-04-06. [3] "archive" The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989. OED Online. Oxford University Press. [4] archum (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 04. 0059:entry=archium), Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, on Perseus [5] (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 04. 0057:entry=a)rxei=on), Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus [6] (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 04. 0057:entry=a)rxh/ ), Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus [7] (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 04. 0057:entry=a)/ rxw), Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus [8] "archive: Definition, Synonyms from" (http:/ / www. answers. com/ topic/ archive). Answers.com. . Retrieved 2010-06-01. [9] "What Are Archives?" (http:/ / americanhistory. si. edu/ archives/ a-1. htm). National Museum of American History (http:/ / americanhistory. si. edu). . Retrieved 2007-04-30. [10] Walch, Victoria Irons (2006). "Archival Census and Education Needs Survey in the United States: Part 1: Introduction" (http:/ / www. archivists. org/ a-census/ reports/ Walch-ACENSUS. pdf) (PDF). The American Archivist 69 (2): 294309. . Retrieved 2007-04-30. [11] Maher, William J. (1992). The Management of College and University Archives. (http:/ / www. archivists. org/ catalog/ pubDetail. asp?objectID=185). Metuchen, New Jersey: Society of American Archivists & The Scarecrow Press, Inc.. . [12] "Welcome to University Archives and Records Management" (http:/ / www. kennesaw. edu/ archives/ ). . . Retrieved 2007-05-08. [13] "Guidelines for College and University Archives" (http:/ / www. archivists. org/ governance/ guidelines/ cu_guidelines. asp). Society of American Archivists (http:/ / www. archivists. org). . Retrieved 2007-05-08. [14] "Business Archives Council" (http:/ / www. businessarchivescouncil. org. uk/ ). Business Archives Council (http:/ / www. businessarchivescouncil. org. uk). . Retrieved 2007-05-08. [15] "Directory of Corporate Archives" (http:/ / www. hunterinformation. com/ corporat. htm). Hunter Information Management (http:/ / www. hunterinformation. com). . Retrieved 2007-05-08. [16] "Business Archives in North America - Invest in your future: Understand your past" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20061001211352/ http:/ / www. archivists. org/ saagroups/ bas/ Intro_bus_arch. asp). Society of American Archivists (http:/ / www. archivists. org). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. archivists. org/ saagroups/ bas/ Intro_bus_arch. asp) on October 1, 2006. . Retrieved 2007-05-08. [17] "Directions for Change" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070227022316/ http:/ / www. collectionscanada. ca/ about-us/ 016/ index-e. html). Libraries and Archives Canada (http:/ / www. collectionscanada. ca). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. collectionscanada. ca/ about-us/ 016/ index-e. html) on February 27, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-05-09. [18] "The National Archives" (http:/ / www. archives. gov/ ). . . Retrieved 2007-05-09. [19] "U.S. - State Level Records Repositories: State Libraries, Archives, Genealogical & Historical Societies" (http:/ / www. cyndislist. com/ lib-state. htm). Cyndi's List of Genealogy Sites on the Internet (http:/ / www. cyndislist. com). . Retrieved 2007-05-09. [20] http:/ / www. nationalarchives. gov. uk [21] http:/ / www. english-heritage. org. uk/ server/ show/ nav. 1530 [22] http:/ / www. nas. gov. uk [23] http:/ / www. proni. gov. uk/ [24] http:/ / www. a2a. org. uk/ [25] (French) Chiffres cls 2011. Statistiques de la Culture, Paris, La Documentation franaise, 2011. [26] (http:/ / nationalarchives. nic. in/ landing. html) [27] http:/ / www. archives. gov. tw/ English [28] "Vatican Secret Archives" (http:/ / asv. vatican. va/ home_en. htm). . Retrieved 2 April 2011. [29] "Presbyterian Historical Society" (http:/ / history. pcusa. org/ ). . Retrieved 31 March 2011.

[30] "Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives" (http:/ / www. sbhla. org/ ). . Retrieved 31 March 2011. [31] "United Methodist Archives Center" (http:/ / www. gcah. org). . Retrieved 31 March 2011. [32] "Disciples of Christ Historical Society" (http:/ / discipleshistory. org/ ). . Retrieved 2 August 2011. [33] Creigh, by Dorothy Weyer (1995). A Primer for Local Historical Societies: Revised and Expanded from the First Edition (http:/ / www. altamirapress. com/ Catalog/ SingleBook. shtml?command=Search& db=^DB/ CATALOG. db& eqSKUdata=0942063120& thepassedurl=[thepassedurl]). AltaMira Press. p.122. . [34] Whitehill, Walter Muir (1962). "Introduction". Independent Historical Societies: An Enquiry into Their Research and Publication Functions and Their Financial Future. Boston, Massachusetts: The Boston Athenaeum. p.311. [35] Walch, Victoria Irons (2006). "A*Census: A Closer Look" (http:/ / www. archivists. org/ a-census). The American Archivist 69 (2): 327348. . Retrieved 2007-05-08. [36] http:/ / publicsecret. net [37] ICA Standards Page (http:/ / www. ica. org/ en/ standards) [38] http:/ / www. ica. org/ en/ node/ 30000 [39] "Describing Archives: A Content Standard" (http:/ / www. archivists. org/ governance/ standards/ dacs. asp). Society of American Archivists. . Retrieved 20 August 2010. [40] Rules for Archival Description (http:/ / www. cdncouncilarchives. ca/ archdesrules. html). Bureau of Canadian Archivists. 1990. ISBN0-9690797-3-7. . [41] International Organization for Standardization. "ISO/NP TS 21547-1 Health informatics -- Secure archiving of electronic health records -Part 1: Principles and requirements" (http:/ / www. iso. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_detail. htm?csnumber=44479). . Retrieved 19 July 2008. [42] International Organization for Standardization. "ISO/DIS 11506 Document management applications Archiving of electronic data Computer output microform (COM) / Computer output laser disc (COLD)" (http:/ / www. iso. org/ iso/ iso_catalogue/ catalogue_tc/ catalogue_detail. htm?csnumber=50565). . Retrieved 19 July 2008.


External links
UNESCO Archives Portal (http://www.unesco.org/webworld/portal_archives/) over 8000 links worldwide International Council on Archives (http://www.ica.org/) Archives Hub (http://www.archiveshub.ac.uk) gateway to descriptions of archives held in UK universities and colleges, part of the National Archives Network InterPARES Project (http://www.interpares.org) international research project on the long-term preservation of authentic digital records Access to Archives (A2A) (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/a2a) the English strand of the UK archives network Online-Guide to Archives around the globe (http://www.archivesmadeeasy.org/) The Changing World of Records Storage (http://www.businessrecords.com/doc.asp?page=21&subpage=87& subsubpage=46) AIM25 (http://www.aim25.ac.uk) archives within the UK M25 area. British Cartoon Archive (http://www.cartoons.ac.uk) associated with the University of Kent The Digital Archive of Literacy Narratives (http://daln.osu.edu) Banco di San Giorgio (http://www.lacasadisangiorgio.it) Genova Italy: Archive (14071805): nearly 40,000 books catalogued with full description. www.giuseppefelloni.it Forward Anywhere (http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/~malloy/html/beginning.html) Public Secret (http://vectors.usc.edu/issues/4/publicsecrets/) R-Shief (http://r-shief.org/) Database as a Sybolic Form (http://transcriptions.english.ucsb.edu/archive/courses/warner/english197/ Schedule_files/Manovich/Database_as_symbolic_form.htm) An Essay by Lev Manovitch Slavic Archives (http://uiuc.libguides.com/aecontent.php?pid=27055)



A copyright is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to the creator of an original work or their assignee for a limited period of time upon disclosure of the work. This includes the right to copy, distribute and adapt the work. In most jurisdictions copyright arises upon fixation and does not need to be registered. Copyright owners have the exclusive statutory right to exercise control over copying and other exploitation of the works for a specific period of time, after which the work is said to enter the public domain. Uses covered under limitations and exceptions to copyright, such as fair use, do not require permission from the copyright owner. All other uses require permission. Copyright owners can license or permanently transfer or assign their exclusive rights to others. Initially copyright law applied to only the copying of books. Over time other uses such as translations and derivative works were made subject to copyright. Copyright now covers a wide range of works, including maps, sheet music, dramatic works, paintings, photographs, architectural drawings, sound recordings, motion pictures and computer programs. The British Statute of Anne 1709, full title "An Act for the Encouragement of Learning, by vesting the Copies of Printed Books in the Authors or purchasers of such Copies, during the Times therein mentioned", was the first copyright statute. Today copyright laws are partially standardized through international and regional agreements such as the Berne Convention and the WIPO Copyright Treaty. Although there are consistencies among nations' copyright laws, each jurisdiction has separate and distinct laws and regulations covering copyright. National copyright laws on licensing, transfer and assignment of copyright still vary greatly between countries and copyrighted works are licensed on a territorial basis. Some jurisdictions also recognize moral rights of creators, such as the right to be credited for the work.

The British Statute of Anne of 1709 was the first act to directly protect the rights of authors.[1] Under US copyright law, the justification appears in Article I, Section 8 Clause 8 of the Constitution, known as the Copyright Clause. It empowers the United States Congress to "promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries."[2] According to the World Intellectual Property Organization the purpose of copyright is twofold: "To encourage a dynamic culture, while returning value to creators so that they can lead a dignified economic existence, and to provide widespread, affordable access to content for the public."[3]



Early European printers' monopoly
The origin of copyright law in most European countries lies in efforts by the church and governments to regulate and control printing,[5] which was widely established in the 15th and 16th centuries.[5] Before the invention of the printing press a written work, once conceived, could only be physically multiplied by the laborious and error-prone process of manual copying by scribes.[4] Printing allowed for multiple exact copies of a work, leading to the more rapid and widespread circulation of ideas and information (see print culture).[5]

Pope Alexander VI issued a bull in 1501 against the unlicensed printing of books and in 1559 the Index Expurgatorius, or List of Prohibited Books, was issued for [4] the first time.

While governments and the church encouraged printing in many ways, which allowed the dissemination of Bibles and government information, works of dissent and criticism could also circulate rapidly. As a consequence, governments established controls over printers across Europe, requiring them to have official licenses to trade and produce books. The licenses typically gave printers the exclusive right to print particular works for a fixed period of years, and enabled the printer to prevent others from printing or importing the same work during that period.[5] The notion that the expression of dissent should be tolerated, not censured or punished by law, developed alongside the rise of printing and the press. The Areopagitica, published in 1644 under the full title Areopagitica: A speech of Mr. John Milton for the liberty of unlicensed printing to the Parliament of England, was John Milton's response to the British parliament re-introducing government licensing of printers, hence publishers. In doing John Milton's 1644 edition of so, Milton articulated the main strands of future discussions about freedom of Areopagitica, long title Areopagitica: A speech of Mr. John Milton for the liberty expression.[6] As the "menace" of printing spread, governments established of unlicensed printing to the Parliament centralized control mechanisms[7] and in 1557 the British Crown thought to of England. In it, he argues forcefully stem the flow of seditious and heretical books by chartering the Stationers' against the Licensing Order of 1643. Company. The right to print was limited to the members of that guild, and thirty years later the Star Chamber was chartered to curtail the "greate enormities and abuses" of "dyvers contentyous and disorderlye persons professinge the arte or mystere of pryntinge or selling of books." The right to print was restricted to two universities and to the 21 existing printers in the city of London, which had 53 printing presses. The

Copyright French crown also repressed printing, and printer Etienne Dolet was burned at the stake in 1546. As the British took control of type founding in 1637, printers fled to the Netherlands. Confrontation with authority made printers radical and rebellious, with 800 authors, printers and book dealers being incarcerated in the Bastille before it was stormed in 1789.[7]


Early British copyright law

English printers, known as stationers, formed a collective organization, the Stationers' Company. In the 16th century, the Stationers' Company was given the power to require all lawfully printed books to be entered into its register. Only members of the Stationers' Company could enter books into the register. This meant that the Stationers' Company achieved a dominant position over publishing in 17th century England (no equivalent arrangement formed in Scotland and Ireland). This monopoly came to an end in 1694, when the English Parliament did not renew the Stationers Company's power.[5] The newly established Parliament of Great Britain passed the first copyright statute, the Statute of Anne, titled "An Act for the Encouragement of Learning, by vesting the Copies of Printed Books in the Authors or purchasers of such Copies, during the Times therein mentioned".[5] The enactment of the statute in April 1710 marked a historic moment in the development of copyright law. As the world's first copyright statute it granted publishers of a book legal protection of 14 years with the commencement of the statute. It also granted 21 years of protection for any book already in print.[8] Unlike the monopoly granted to the Stationers' Company previously, the Statute of Anne was concerned with the reading public, the continued production of useful literature, and the advancement and spread of education. To encourage "learned men to compose and write useful books" the statute guaranteed the finite right to print and reprint those works. It established a pragmatic bargain involving authors, the booksellers and the public.[9] The Statute of Anne ended the old system whereby only literature that met the censorship standards administered by the booksellers could appear in print. The statute furthermore created a public domain for literature, as previously all literature belonged to the booksellers forever.[10] Common law copyright When the statutory copyright term provided for by the Statute of Anne began to expire in 1731 London booksellers thought to defend their dominant position by seeking injunctions from the Court of Chancery for works by authors that fell outside the statute's protection. At the same time the London booksellers lobbied parliament to extend the copyright term provided by the Statute of Anne. Eventually, in a case known as Midwinter v. Hamilton (17431748), the London booksellers turned to common law and starting a 30 year period known as the battle of the booksellers. The London booksellers argued that the Statute of Anne only supplemented and supported a pre-existing common law copyright. The dispute was argued out in a number of notable cases, including Millar v Kincaid (17491751), Tonson v Collins (17611762),[11] and Donaldson v Beckett (1774). Donaldson v Beckett eventually established that copyright was a "creature of statute", and that the rights and responsibilities in copyright were determined by legislation.[12]
The Statute of Anne came into force in 1710

Copyright The Lords clearly voted against perpetual copyright[13] and by confirming that the copyright termthat is the length of time a work is in copyrightdid expire according to statute the Lords also confirmed that a large number of works and books first published in Britain were in the public domain, either because the copyright term granted by statute had expired, or because they were first published before the Statute of Anne was enacted in 1709. This opened the market for cheap reprints of works from Shakespeare, John Milton and Geoffrey Chaucer, works now considered classics. The expansion of the public domain in books broke the dominance of the London booksellers and allowed for competition, with the number of London booksellers and publishers rising threefold from 111 to 308 between 1772 and 1802.[14]


Early French copyright law

In pre-revolutionary France all books needed to be approved by official censors and authors and publishers had to obtain a royal privilege before a book could be published. Royal privileges were exclusive and usually granted for six years, with the possibility of renewal. Over time it was established that the owner of a royal privilege has the sole right to obtain a renewal indefinitely. In 1761 the Royal Council awarded a royal privilege to the heirs of an author rather than the author's publisher, sparking a national debate on the nature of literary property similar to that taking place in Britain during the battle of the booksellers.[15] In 1777 a series of royal decrees reformed the royal privileges. The duration of privileges were set at a minimum duration of 10 years or the life of the author, which ever was longer. If the author obtained a privilege and did not transfer or sell it on, he could publish and sell copies of the book himself, and pass the privilege on to his heirs, who enjoyed an exclusive right into perpetuity. If the privilege was sold to a publisher, the exclusive right would only last the specified duration. The royal decrees prohibited the renewal of privileges and once the privilege had expired anyone could obtain a "permission simple" to print or sell copies of the work. Hence the public domain in books whose privilege had expired was expressly recognized.[15] After the French Revolution a dispute over Comdie-Franaise being granted the exclusive right to the public performance of all dramatic works erupted and in 1791 the National Assembly abolished the privilege. Anyone was allowed to establish a public theater and the National Assembly declared that the works of any author who had died more than five years ago were public property. In the same degree the National Assembly granted authors the exclusive right to authorize the public performance of their works during their lifetime, and extended that right to the authors' heirs and assignees for five years after the author's death. The National Assembly took the view that a published work was by its nature a public property, and that an author's rights are recognized as an exception to this principle, to compensate an author for his work.[15] In 1793 a new law was passed giving authors, composers, and artists the exclusive right to sell and distribute their works, and the right was extended to their heirs and assigns for 10 years after the author's death. The National Assembly placed this law firmly on a natural right footing, calling the law the "Declaration of the Rights of Genius" and so evoking the famous Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. However, author's rights were subject to the condition of depositing copies of the work with the Bibliothque Nationale and 19th Century commentators characterized the 1793 law as utilitarian and "a charitable grant from society".[15]



Early US copyright law

The Statute of Anne did not apply to the American colonies. The colonies' economy was largely agrarian, hence copyright law was not a priority, resulting in only three private copyright acts being passed in America prior to 1783. Two of the acts were limited to seven years, the other was limited to a term of five years. In 1783 several authors' petitions persuaded the Continental Congress "that nothing is more properly a man's own than the fruit of his study, and that the protection and security of literary property would greatly tends to encourage genius and to promote useful discoveries." But under the Articles of Confederation, the Continental Congress had no authority to issue copyright. Instead, it passed a resolution encouraging the States to "secure to the authors or publishers of any new book not hitherto printed... the copy right of such books for a certain time not less than fourteen years from the first publication; and to secure to the said authors, if they shall survive the term first mentioned,... the copy right of such books for another term of time no less than fourteen years.[16] Three states had already enacted copyright statutes in 1783 prior to the Continental Congress resolution, and in The Copyright Act of 1790 in the Columbian Centinel the subsequent three years all of the remaining states except Delaware passed a copyright statute. Seven of the States followed the Statute of Anne and the Continental Congress' resolution by providing two fourteen-year terms. The five remaining States granted copyright for single terms of fourteen, twenty and twenty one years, with no right of renewal.[17] At the Constitutional Convention of 1787 both James Madison of Virginia and Charles Pinckney of South Carolina submitted proposals that would allow Congress the power to grant copyright for a limited time. These proposals are the origin of the Copyright Clause in the United States Constitution, which allows the granting of copyright and patents for a limited time to serve a utilitarian function, namely "to promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts." The first federal copyright act, the Copyright Act of 1790 granted copyright for a term of "fourteen years from the time of recording the title thereof," with a right of renewal for another fourteen years if the author survived to the end of the first term. The act covered not only books, but also maps and charts. With exception of the provision on maps and charts the Copyright Act of 1790 is copied almost verbatim from the Statute of Anne.[17] At the time works only received protection under federal statutory copyright if the statutory formalities, such as a proper copyright notice, were satisfied. If this was not the case the work immediately entered into the public domain. In 1834 the Supreme Court ruled in Wheaton v. Peters, a case similar to the British Donaldson v Beckett of 1774, that although the author of an unpublished work had a common law right to control the first publication of that work, the author did not have a common law right to control reproduction following the first publication of the work.[17]



Latin America
Latin American countries established national copyright laws following independence from the Spanish and Portuguese colonial powers. Latin American countries were among the first countries outside Europe to establish copyright law; in 1804, Brazil became the fourth country in the world to establish national copyright laws, after the UK, France, and the United States. The foundation of Brazilian copyright law[18] was the French Civil Code. Mexico passed its first copyright law in 1832, following a Spanish court order in 1820. By the 1850s, copyright statutes had been established in eight Latin American countries.[19]

Africa, Asia, and the Pacific

Copyright law was introduced to African, Asian, and Pacific countries in the late 19th century by European colonial powers, especially Britain and France. After the 1884 Congress of Berlin European colonial powers imposed new laws and institutions in their colonies, including copyright laws. The British Empire introduced copyright law in its African and Asian colonies though the Copyright Act 1911, also known as the Imperial Copyright Act of 1911. Similarly, France imposed copyright law in its colonies. The French National Institute for Intellectual Property (INPI) acted as the colonial intellectual property authority.[19] The introduction of copyright laws to the colonies was a function of both the desire to "civilize" colonies and to protect the commercial interests of colonial powers. While approaches varied, copyright laws were generally not designed with local interests in mind.[20]

Cover page of the British Copyright Act 1911, also known as the Imperial Copyright Act of 1911. "Part I Imperial Copyright. Rights. 1.(1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, copyright shall subsist throughout the parts of His Majesty's dominions to which this Act extends for the term hereinafter mentioned in every original literary dramatic music and artists work, if..."

International copyright law

Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works
The Berne Convention, an international agreement governing copyright, was first accepted in 1886. It was subsequently renegotiated in 1896 (Paris), 1908 (Berlin), 1928 (Rome), 1948 (Brussels), 1967 (Stockholm), and 1971 (Paris). The convention relates to literary and artistic works, including films. The convention requires its member states to provide protection for every

Berne Convention signatory countries (in blue).

Copyright production in the literary, scientific, and artistic domain. To date 164 countries recognize the Bern Convention [21] . In addition to this, the TRIPS agreement which the 147 members of the World Trade Organisation have signed up to, stipulates basic intellectual property rights largely in accordance with the terms of the Berne Convention. The Berne Convention has a number of core features, including the principle of national treatment, which holds that each member state gives citizens of other member states the same rights of copyright that it gives to its own citizens (Article 3-5).[22] Another core feature is the establishment of minimum standards of national copyright legislation; each member state agrees to include certain basic rules in their national laws, though member states may increase the amount of protection given to copyright owners. One important minimum rule was that the term of copyright was to be a minimum of the author's lifetime plus fifty years. Another important rule stipulates that copyright arises with the creation of a work and does not depend upon any formality, such as a system of public registration (Article 5(2)). At the time, some countries did require registration of copyright, and when Britain implemented the Berne Convention in the Copyright Act 1911 it had to abolish its system of registration at Stationers' Hall.[22] The Berne Convention identifies authors as the key figure in copyright law; the stated purpose of the convention is "the protection of the rights of authors in their literary and artistic works" (Article 1), rather than the protection of publishers and other actors in the process of disseminating works to the public. The 1928 revision introduced the concept of moral rights (Article 10bis), giving authors the right to be identified as such and to object to derogatory treatment of their works. These rights, unlike economic rights such as preventing reproduction, are generally not transferable to others.[22] The Berne Convention also enshrined limitations and exceptions to copyright, enabling the reproduction of literary and artistic works without the copyright owners prior permission. The detail of these exceptions was left to national copyright legislation, but the guiding principle is stated in Article 9 of the convention. The so called three-step test holds that an exception is only permitted "in certain special cases, provided that such reproduction does not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and does not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the author." Free use of copyrighted work is expressly permitted in the case of quotations from lawfully published works, illustration for teaching purposes, and news reporting (Article 10).[22]


European copyright law

In the 1980s, the European Community began to regard copyright as an element in the creation of a single market. Since 1991, the EU has passed a number of directives on copyright, designed to harmonize copyright laws in member states in certain key areas of intellectual production, such as computer programs, databases, and the Internet. The directives aimed to reduce obstacles to the free movement of goods and services within the European Union, such as in rental rights, satellite broadcasting, copyright term, and resale rights.[23] Key directives include the 1993 Copyright Duration Directive, Directive 2000/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2000 on certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular electronic commerce, in the Internal Market ('Directive on electronic commerce' or E-Commerce Directive),the 2001 InfoSoc Directive, also known as Copyright Directive, and the 2004 Directive on the enforcement of intellectual property rights.

Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)

Important developments in international copyright law in the 1990s include the 1994 Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, known as the TRIPS Agreement. TRIPS was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and contains a number of provisions on copyright. Compliance with the TRIPS Agreement is required of states wishing to be members of the World Trade Organization (WTO).



Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement

The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) is a proposed plurilateral trade agreement which is claimed by its proponents to be in response "to the increase in global trade of counterfeit goods and pirated copyright protected works."[24] The scope of ACTA is broad, including counterfeit physical goods, as well as "internet distribution and information technology".[25] In October 2007 the United States, the European Community, Switzerland and Japan announced that they would negotiate ACTA. Furthermore the following countries have joined the negotiations: Australia, the Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Mexico, Jordan, Morocco, Singapore, the United Arab Emirates and Canada.[25] [26] [27] The ACTA negotiations have been largely conducted in secrecy, with very little information being officially disclosed. However, on 22 May 2008 a discussion paper about the proposed agreement was uploaded to Wikileaks, and newspaper reports about the secret negotiations quickly followed.[27] [28] [29] [30] China Issues of copying of software and films for unauthorized distribution in China has become an ongoing diplomatic issue between the United States and China in the 21st century.[31]

Copyright by country
Copyright laws have been standardized to some extent through international conventions such as the Berne Convention. Although there are consistencies among nations' intellectual property laws, each jurisdiction has separate and distinct laws and regulations about copyright.[1] The World Intellectual Property Organization summarizes each of its member states' intellectual property laws on its website.[32]

A copyright certificate for the proof of Fermat's last theorem, issued by the State Department of Intellectual Property of Ukraine



Obtaining copyright
Historically copyright laws required compliance with formalities prior to the copyright monopoly being granted. The UKs statute of Anne 1709 required registration of the work with the Stationers' Company. Non-compliance with these formalities mean the copyright could not be enforced in front of the courts. Early versions of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works allowed signatories to make copyright conditional on adherence to formalities, but formalities were eventually abolished in the Berlin revision of the Convention in 1908.[33] The Berne Convention is the copyright symbol now provides in Article 5(2) that "the enjoyment and the exercise of [copyright] shall not in a copyright notice be subject to any formality". Registration and notice were central to the copyright protection system in the US; the US therefore refused to sign the Berne Convention and led efforts within the United Nations for the creation of the Universal Copyright Convention. Under the Universal Copyright Convention certain formalities for obtaining protection under copyright, such as copyright notice and possibly registration, are required. The Berne Convention became the dominant multilateral agreement on copyright in the late 1980s, with the US becoming the 79th signatory in 1988. By early 2009 the Berne Convention had 164 signatories, and countries which are members of the Berne Convention do not require registration or notice to obtain copyright.[34] While copyright does not depend on procedures and arises when the work is created in tangible form, some Berne Convention members allow registration of works, for example to ease identification of protected works, and in certain countries registration may serve as prima facie evidence in copyright disputes.[35] Prior to the Berne Convention Implementation Act on March 1 1989, all published works in the US had to contain a copyright notice, the symbol (or one of the words Copyright or Copr.) followed by the publication date and copyright owner's name, to be protected by copyright. The use of a copyright notice is now optional in the US and may be used in order to ensure copyright protection of older works and in those countries which require the presence of the notice.[36] [37] Furthermore the affixing of a copyright notice on a work disallows the defence of innocent infringement in the US. While registration of a work is no longer required to obtain copyright, the US requires registration for infringement actions. Statutory damages and attorneys fees can only be claimed in infringement procedures relating to registered works.[38]

Copyright term
Copyright subsists for a variety of lengths in different jurisdictions. The length of the term can depend on several factors, including the type of work (e.g. musical composition or novel), whether the work has been published or not, and whether the work was created by an individual or a corporation. In most of the world, the default length of copyright is the life of the author plus either 50 or 70 years. In the United States, the term for most existing works is for a term ending 70 years after the death of the author. If the work was a work for hire (e.g., those created by a corporation) then copyright persists for 120 years after creation or 95 years after publication, whichever is shorter. In some countries (for example, the United States[39] and the United Kingdom),[40] copyrights expire at the end of the calendar year in question. The length and requirements for copyright duration are subject to change by legislation, and since the early 20th century there have been a number of adjustments made in various countries, which can make determining the duration of a given copyright somewhat difficult. For example, the United States used to require copyrights to be renewed after 28 years to stay in force, and formerly required a copyright notice upon first publication to gain coverage. In Italy and France, there were post-wartime extensions that could increase the term by approximately 6 years in Italy and up to about 14 in France. Many countries have extended the length of their copyright terms (sometimes retroactively). International treaties establish minimum terms for copyrights, but individual countries may enforce longer terms than those treaties.[41]



Exclusive rights granted by copyright

Copyright is literally, the right to copy, though in legal terms "the right to control copying" is more accurate. Copyright are exclusive statutory rights to exercise control over copying and other exploitation of the works for a specific period of time. The copyright owner is given two sets of rights: an exclusive, positive right to copy and exploit the copyrighted work, or license others to do so, and a negative right to prevent anyone else from doing so without consent, with the possibility of legal remedies if they do.[42] Copyright initially only granted the exclusive right to copy a book, allowing anybody to use the book to, for example, make a translation or adaptation. or publicly perform the work.[43] At the time print on paper was the only format in which most text based copyrighted works were distributed. Therefore, while the language of book contracts was typically very broad, the only exclusive rights that had any significant economic value were rights to distribute the work in print.[44] The exclusive rights granted by copyright law to copyright owners have been gradually expanded over time and now uses of the work such as dramatization, translations, and derivative works such as adaptations and transformations, fall within the scope of copyright.[43] With a few exceptions, the exclusive rights granted by copyright are strictly territorial in scope, as they are granted by copyright laws in different countries. Bilateral and multilateral treaties establish minimum exclusive rights in member states, meaning that there is some uniformity across Berne Convention member states.[45] The print on paper format means that content is affixed onto paper and the content can't be easily or conveniently manipulated by the user. Duplication of printed works is time-consuming and generally produces a copy that is of lower quality. Developments in technology have created new formats, in addition to paper, and new means of distribution. Particularly digital formats distributed over computer networks have separated the content from its means of delivery. Users of content are now able to exercise many of the exclusive rights granted to copyright owners, such as reproduction, distribution and adaptation.

Types of work subject to copyright

The types of work which are subject to copyright has been expanded over time. Initially only covering books, copyright law was revised in the 19th century to include maps, charts, engravings, prints, musical compositions, dramatic works, photographs, paintings, drawings and sculptures. In the 20th century copyright was expanded to cover motion pictures, computer programs, sound recordings, choreography and architectural works.[43]

Ideaexpression divide
Copyright law is typically designed to protect the fixed expression or manifestation of an idea rather than the fundamental idea itself. Copyright does not protect ideas, only their expression and in the Anglo-American law tradition the idea-expression divide is a legal concept which explains the appropriate function of copyright laws.[46]

Related rights and neighboring rights

Related rights is used to describe database rights, public lending rights (rental rights), droit de suite and performers' rights. Related rights may also refer to copyright in broadcasts and sound recordings.[47] Related rights award copyright protection to works which are not author works, but rather technical media works which allowed author works to be communicated to a new audience in a different form. The substance of protection is usually not as great as there is for author works. In continental European copyright law, a system of neighboring rights has thus developed and the approach was reinforced by the creation of the Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations in 1961.[48]



First-sale doctrine and exhaustion of rights

Copyright law does not restrict the owner of a copy from reselling legitimately obtained copies of copyrighted works, provided that those copies were originally produced by or with the permission of the copyright holder. It is therefore legal, for example, to resell a copyrighted book or CD. In the United States, this is known as the first-sale doctrine, and was established by the courts to clarify the legality of reselling books in second-hand bookstores. Some countries may have parallel importation restrictions that allow the copyright holder to control the resale market. This may mean for example that a copy of a book that does not infringe copyright in the country where it was printed does infringe copyright in a country into which it is imported for retailing. The first-sale doctrine is known as exhaustion of rights in other countries and is a principle that also applies, though somewhat differently, to patent and trademark rights. It is important to note that the first-sale doctrine permits the transfer of the particular legitimate copy involved. It does not permit making or distributing additional copies.

Limitations and exceptions

The expression "limitations and exceptions" refers to situations in which the exclusive rights granted to authors, or their assignees under copyright law do not apply or are limited for public interest reasons. They generally limit use of copyrighted material to certain cases that do not require permission from the rightsholders, such as for commentary, criticism, news reporting, research, teaching or scholarship, archiving, access by the visually impaired etc. They essentially create a limitation, or an exception to the monopoly exclusive rights that are granted to the creator of a copyright work by law. Copyright theory teaches that the balance between monopoly granted to the creator, and the exceptions to this monopoly are at the heart of creativity. i.e. Exclusive rights stimulate investment and the production of creative works and simultaneously, exceptions to those rights create a balance that allows for the use of creative works to support innovation, creation, competition and the public interest. Limitations and exceptions have a number of important public policy goals such as market failure, freedom of speech,[49] education and equality of access (such as by the visually impaired.) Some view "limitations and exceptions" as "user rights" seeing user rights provide an essential balance to the rights of copyright owners. There is no consensus amongst copyright experts as to whether they are "rights" or not. See for example the National Research Council's Digital Agenda Report, note 1 [50]. The concept of user rights has also been recognized by courts, including the Canadian Supreme Court in CCH Canadian Ltd v. Law Society of Upper Canada [51] (2004 SCC 13), which classed "fair dealing" as such a user right. These kinds of disagreements in philosophy are quite common in the philosophy of copyright, where debates about jurisprudential reasoning tend to act as proxies for more substantial disagreements about good policy.

Changing technology and limitations and exceptions

The scope of copyright limitations and exceptions became a subject of significant controversy within various nations in the late 1990s and early 2000s, largely due to the impact of digital technology, the changes in national copyright legislations for compliance with TRIPS, and the enactment of anti-circumvention rules in response to the WIPO Copyright Treaty. Academics and defenders of copyright exceptions fear that technology, contract law undermining copyright law and copyright law not being amended, is reducing the scope of important exceptions and therefore harming creativity. This has resulted in a number of declarations on the importance of access to knowledge being important for creativity, such as the Adelphi Charter in 2005 and at a European level in May 2010 a declaration entitled Copyright for Creativity A Declaration for Europe.[52] The declaration was supported by industry, artist, education and consumer groups. The declaration states that "While exclusive rights have been adapted and harmonized to meet the challenges of the knowledge economy, copyrights exceptions are radically out of line with the needs of the modern information society. The lack of harmonisation of exceptions hinders the circulation of knowledge based goods and services across Europe. The lack of flexibility within the current European exceptions regime also prevents us from adapting to a constantly changing technological

Copyright environment."


International legal instruments and limitations and exceptions

Limitations and exceptions are also the subject of significant regulation by global treaties. These treaties have harmonized the exclusive rights which must be provided by copyright laws, and the Berne three-step test operates to constrain the kinds of copyright exceptions and limitations which individual nations can enact. On the other hand, international copyright treaties place almost no requirements on national governments to provide exemptions from exclusive rights; a notable exception to this is Article 10(1) of the Berne Convention, which guarantees a limited right to make quotations from copyrighted works. Because of the lack of balance in international treaties in October 2004, WIPO agreed to adopt a significant proposal offered by Argentina and Brazil, the "Proposal for the Establishment of a Development Agenda for WIPO" also known simply as the "Development Agenda" from the Geneva Declaration on the Future of the World Intellectual Property Organization.[53] This proposal was well supported by developing countries. A number of civil society bodies have been working on a draft Access to Knowledge,[54] or A2K, Treaty which they would like to see introduced.

Fair use and fair dealing

Copyright does not prohibit all copying or replication. In the United States, the fair use doctrine, codified by the Copyright Act of 1976 as 17 U.S.C.107 [55], permits some copying and distribution without permission of the copyright holder or payment to same. The statute does not clearly define fair use, but instead gives four non-exclusive factors to consider in a fair use analysis. Those factors are: 1. 2. 3. 4. the purpose and character of the use; the nature of the copyrighted work; the amount and substantialness of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.[56]

In the United Kingdom and many other Commonwealth countries, a similar notion of fair dealing was established by the courts or through legislation. The concept is sometimes not well defined; however in Canada, private copying for personal use has been expressly permitted by statute since 1999. In Australia, the fair dealing exceptions under the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth) are a limited set of circumstances under which copyrighted material can be legally copied or adapted without the copyright holder's consent. Fair dealing uses are research and study; review and critique; parody and satire; news reportage and the giving of professional advice (i.e. legal advice). Under current Australian law it is still a breach of copyright to copy, reproduce or adapt copyright material for personal or private use without permission from the copyright owner. Other technical exemptions from infringement may also apply, such as the temporary reproduction of a work in machine readable form for a computer. In the United States the AHRA (Audio Home Recording Act Codified in Section 10, 1992) prohibits action against consumers making noncommercial recordings of music, in return for royalties on both media and devices plus mandatory copy-control mechanisms on recorders. Section 1008. Prohibition on certain infringement actions No action ever may be brought under this title alleging infringement of copyright based on the manufacture, importation, or distribution of a digital audio recording device, a digital audio recording medium, an analog recording device, or an analog recording medium, or based on the non-commercial use by a consumer of such a device or medium for making digital musical recordings or analog musical recordings. Later acts amended US Copyright law so that for certain purposes making 10 copies or more is construed to be commercial, but there is no general rule permitting such copying. Indeed making one complete copy of a work, or in many cases using a portion of it, for commercial purposes will not be considered fair use. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act prohibits the manufacture, importation, or distribution of devices whose intended use, or only significant commercial use, is to bypass an access or copy control put in place by a copyright owner. An appellate

Copyright court has held that fair use is not a defense to engaging in such distribution. Educational use is regarded as "fair use" in most jurisdictions, but the restrictions vary wildly from nation to nation.[57] Recent Israeli District Court decision dated 2 Sep. 2009[58] [59] accepted the defence of fair use for a site linking to P2P live feeds of soccer matches. The main reasoning was based on the public importance of certain sporting events, i.e. the public's rights as counter weight to the copyright holders rights.


Licensing, transfer, and assignment

Copyright may be bought and sold much like other properties.[60] In the individual licensing model the copyright owner authorizes the use of the work against remuneration and under the conditions specified by the license. The conditions of the license may be complex since the exclusive rights granted by copyright to the copyright owner can be split territorially or with respect to language, the sequence of uses may be fixed, the number of copies to be made and their subsequent use may also be specified. Furthermore sublicenses and representation agreements may also be made.[61] A contractual transfer of all or some of the rights in a DVD: All Rights Reserved copyrighted work is a known as a copyright license. A copyright assignment is an immediate and irrevocable transfer of the copyright owner's entire interest in all or some of the rights in the copyrighted work. Copyright licensing and assignment cover only the specified geographical region. There are significant differences in national copyright laws with regards to copyright licensing and assignment.[62] Copyright licenses, as a minimum, define the copyrighted works and rights subject to the license, the territories or geographic region in which the license applies, the term or length of the license, and the consideration (such as a one of payment or royalties) for the license. The exclusive rights granted by copyright law can all be licensed, but they vary depending on local law. Depending on how the work may be used different licenses need to be acquired. For example, the activity of distributing videocassettes of a motion picture will require the license for the right to reproduce the motion picture on a videocassette and the right to distribute the copies to the public. Because the ratio of a television screen is different from that of a wide-screen cinema, requiring the cutting of the wide-screen "ends", it may also be necessary to obtain a license for the right to modify the motion picture. If the motion picture is to be edited or modified the copyright owner may include control over or approval of the editing process, or of the final result. Existing contractual agreements between the copyright owner and the director, may also require approval from the director to any changes made to the copyrighted work.[63] Different types of exclusive licenses exist, such as licenses that excludes the licensor from use of the licensed copyrighted work in the relevant region and for the stated time period. Or exclusive licenses may prevent the licensor from licensing other parties in the geographic region and during the license term. There are also various types of non-exclusive licenses, including the right of first refusal should the licensor elect to offer future licenses to third parties. If a licensing agreement does not specify that the license is exclusive it may nonetheless be deemed exclusive depending on the language of the contract. Depending on local laws the owner of an exclusive license may be deemed the "copyright owner" of that work and bring charges for copyright infringement.[64] The term or length of the copyright license is not allowed to exceed the copyright term specified by local law. Licenses may establish various pay arrangements, such as royalties as a percentage of sales or as a stepped up or down percentage of sales, e.g. 5 percent of sales up to 50,000 units, 2.5 percent of sales in excess thereof. The trigger

Copyright for royalty payments may be sales, or other factors, such as the number of "hits" or views on a website. Minimum royalty payments are arrangements whereby a minimum up-front payment is made and then recouped against the percentage of sales. The up-front payment may be non-refundable if sales royalties do not reach the amount of the payment.[64] Minimum royalty payment arrangements may be accompanied by marketing duties for the licensee, e.g. best effort and reasonable effort to market and promote the copyrighted work.[65]


Collective rights management

Collective rights management is the licensing of copyright and related rights by organizations acting on behalf of rights owners. Collective management organizations, such as collecting societies, typically represent groups of copyright and related rights owners, such as authors, composers, publishers, writers, photographers, musicians and performers.[66] The following exclusive rights granted under copyright law are commonly collectively managed by collecting societies: the right to public performance, the right to broadcasting, the mechanical reproduction rights in recorded music, the performing rights in dramatical works, the rights of graphic reproduction of literary and musical works, and related rights, for example the rights of performers and producers in recorded music when used in broadcasts.[66] The collective management of copyright and related rights is undertaken by various types of collective management organizations, most commonly collecting societies. Collecting societies act on behalf of their members, which may be authors or performers, and issue copyright licenses to users authorizing the use of the works of their members.[66] Other forms of collective management organizations include rights clearance centers and one-stop shops. One-stop shops are a coalition of collecting societies and rights clearance centers offering a centralized source for users to obtain licenses. They have become popular in response to multi-media productions requiring users to obtain multiple licenses for relevant copyright and related rights.[66]

Extended collective licensing

The first extended collective licensing (ECL) laws were established in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in the 1960s.[67] ECL is a form of collective rights management whereby ECL laws allow for freely negotiated copyright licensing contracts for the exclusive rights granted by copyright. ECL laws are designed specifically for mass use, where negotiating alone will rarely allow a single right owner to fully financially benefit from their exclusive rights. Under ECL laws, collecting societies negotiate ECL agreements with users, such as a TV broadcaster, covering the types of copyrighted works for uses specified in the ECL license.[67] Subject to certain conditions collecting societies can under ECL law apply to represent all rights owners on a non-exclusive basis in a specific category of copyrighted works.[68] The collecting society can then negotiate an ECL agreement with a user for certain uses. This agreement applies to members of that collecting society, as well as non-members. ECL laws require that collecting societies treat rights owners who are non-members in the same way they treat their members. Non-members are also given the right to individual remuneration, i.e. royalty payment, by the collecting society, and the right to exclude their work from an ECL agreement.[69]

Compulsory licensing
In some countries copyright law provides for compulsory licenses of copyrighted works for specific uses. In many cases the remuneration or royalties received for a copyrighted work under compulsory license are specified by local law, but may also be subject to negotiation. Compulsory licensing may be established through negotiating licenses that provide terms within the parameters of the compulsory license.[70] Article 11bis(2) and Article 13(1) of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works provide the legal basis for compulsory licenses. They state that member states are free to determine the conditions under which certain exclusive rights may be exercised in their national laws. They also provide for the minimum requirements to be set when compulsory licenses are applied, namely that they must not prejudice the author to fair compensation.[71]



Future rights under pre-existing agreements

It is commonplace in copyright licensing to license not only new uses which may be developed but also works which are not yet created. However, local law may not always recognize that the wording in licensing agreements does cover new uses permitted by subsequently developed technology.[62] Whether a license covers future, as yet unknown, technological developments is subject to frequent disputes. Litigation over the use of a licensed copyrighted work in a medium unknown when the license was agreed is common.[63]

Copyrights are generally enforced by the holder in a civil law court, but there are also criminal infringement statutes in some jurisdictions. While central registries are kept in some countries, which aid in proving claims of ownership, registering does not necessarily prove ownership, nor does the fact of copying (even without permission) necessarily prove that copyright was infringed. Criminal sanctions are generally aimed at serious counterfeiting activity, but are now becoming more commonplace as copyright collectives such as the RIAA are increasingly targeting the file sharing domestic Internet user. (See: File sharing and the law)
Newspaper advert: "United States and Foreign Copyright. Patents and Trade-Marks A Copyright will protect you from Pirates. And make you a fortune."

Copyright infringement, or copyright violation, is the unauthorized use of works covered by copyright law, in a way that violates one of the copyright owner's exclusive rights, such as the right to reproduce or perform the copyrighted work, or to make derivative works.

An unskippable anti-piracy film included on movie DVDs equates copyright infringement with theft.



Copyright holders frequently refer to copyright infringement as "theft". In law copyright infringement does not refer to actual theft, but an instance where a person exercises one of the exclusive rights of the copyright holder without authorization.[72] Courts have distinguished between copyright infringement and theft, holding, for instance, in the United States Supreme Court case Dowling v. United States (1985) that bootleg phonorecords did not constitute stolen property and that "...interference with copyright does not easily equate with theft, conversion, or fraud. The Copyright Act even employs a separate term of art to define one Street hackers selling illegal copies of songs and who misappropriates a copyright... 'an infringer of the copyright.'" movies. In the case of copyright infringement the province guaranteed to the copyright holder by copyright law is invaded, i.e. exclusive rights, but no control, physical or otherwise, is taken over the copyright, nor is the copyright holder wholly deprived of using the copyrighted work or exercising the exclusive rights held.[73] For electronic and audio-visual media under copyright, unauthorized reproduction and distribution is also commonly referred to as piracy. An early reference to piracy in the context of copyright infringement was made by Daniel Defoe in 1703 when he said of his novel The True-Born Englishman "Had I wrote it for the gain of the press, I should have been concerned at its being printed again and again by PIRATES, as they call them, and PARAGRAPHMEN: but if they do justice, and print it true, according to the copy, they are welcome to sell it for a penny, if they please: the pence, indeed, is the end of their works."[74] The practice of labeling the act of infringement as "piracy" predates statutory copyright law. Prior to the Statute of Anne 1709, the Stationers' Company of London in 1557 received a Royal Charter giving the company a monopoly on publication and tasking it with enforcing the charter. Those who violated the charter were labeled pirates as early as 1603.[75]

Orphan works
An orphan work is a work under copyright protection whose copyright owner is difficult or impossible to contact. The creator may be unknown, or where the creator is known it is unknown who represents them.[76]

Public domain
Works are in the public domain if their kind is not covered by intellectual property rights or if the intellectual property rights have expired,[77] have been forfeited, or have never been claimed.[78] Examples include the English language, the formulae of Newtonian physics, as well as the works of Shakespeare and the patents over powered flight.[77]

Copyright as property right

In the Anglo-American tradition copyright is understood as corrections for the second edition property, as distinguished from the droit d'auteur understanding of copyright.[79] In Britain copyright was initially conceived of as a "chose in action", that is an intangible property, as opposed to tangible property.[80] In the case of tangible property the property rights are bundled with the ownership of the property, and property rights are transferred once the property is sold. In contrast copyright law detaches the exclusive rights granted under property law to the copyright
Newton's own copy of his Principia, with hand-written

Copyright owner from ownership of the good which is regarded as a reproduction. Hence the purchaser of a book buys ownership of the book as a good, but not the underlying copyright in the book's content. If a derivative work based on the content of the book is made, permission needs to be sought from the copyright owner, not all owners of a copy of the book.[81] The Statute of Anne specifically referred to copyright in terms of literary property that is limited in time. Many contemporaries did not believe that the statute was concerned with property "in the strict sense of the word" and the question of whether copyright is property right dates back to the Battle of the Booksellers. In 1773 Lord Gardenston commented in Hinton v. Donaldson that "the ordinary subjects of property are well known, and easily conceived... But property, when applied to ideas, or literary and intellectual compositions, is perfectly new and surprising..."[82] It was in the 19th century that the term intellectual property began to be used as an umbrella term for patents, copyright and other laws.[83] [84] The expansion of copyright and copyright term are mirrored in the rhetoric that has been employed in referring to copyright. Courts, when strengthening copyright, have characterized it as a type of property. Companies have strongly emphasized copyright as property, with leaders in the music and movie industries seeking to "protect private property from being pillaged" and making forceful assertions that copyright is absolute property right.[85] With reference to the expanding scope of copyright, one commentator noted that "We have gone from a regime where a tiny part of creative content was controlled to a regime where most of the most useful and valuable creative content is controlled for every significant use."[43] According to Graham Dutfield and Uma Suthersanen copyright is now a "class of intangible business assets", mostly owned by companies who function as "investor, employer, distributor and marketer". While copyright was conceived as personal property awarded to creators, creators now rarely own the rights in their works.[86] In fact, some copyright laws, like US's ones include a "termination right", so artist can take back the rights on their work 35 years after its first publication by a record company.[87]


Copyright and authors

Copyright law emerged in 18th Century Europe in relation to printed books and a new notion of authorship. In the European Renaissance and Neoclassical period the writer was regarded as an instrument, not as an independent creator. The writer was seen as using external sources to create a work of inspiration. In the 18th Century a changing concept of genius located the source of inspiration within the writer, whose special talents and giftedness was the basis for creating works of inspiration and uniqueness. The concept of the author as original creator and owner of their work emerged partly from the new concept of property rights and John Locke's theory that individuals were "owners of themselves". According to Locke, individuals invest their labour into natural goods, and so create property. Authors were argued to be the owners of their work because they had invested their labour in creating it.[88] According to Patterson and Livingston, there remains confusion about the nature of copyright ever since Donaldson v Beckett, a case heard in 1774 by the British House of Lords about whether copyright is the natural law right of the author or the statutory grant of a limited monopoly. One theory holds that copyright's origin occurs at the creation of a work, the other that its origin exists only through the copyright statute.[89]

Copyright and competition law

Copyright is typically thought of as a limited, legally sanctioned monopoly.[62] Because of this, copyright licensing may sometimes interfere too much in free and competitive markets.[90] These concerns are governed by legal doctrines such as competition law in the European Union, anti-trust law in the United States, and anti-monopoly law in Russia and Japan.[90] Competition issues may arise when the licensing party unfairly leverages market power, engages in price discrimination through its licensing terms, or otherwise uses a licensing agreement in a discriminatory or unfair manner.[62] [90] Attempts to extend the copyright term granted by law for example, by

Copyright collecting royalties for use of the work after its copyright term has expired and it has passed into the public domain raise such competition concerns.[62] In April 1995, the US published "Antitrust Guidelines for the licensing of Intellectual Property" which apply to patents, copyright, and trade secrets. In January 1996, the European Union published Commission Regulation No.240/96 which applies to patents, copyright, and other intellectual property rights, especially regarding licenses. The guidelines apply mutatis mutandis to the extent possible.[91]


Copyright and contract

In all but a few countries, private contracts can override the limitations and exceptions provided in copyright law.[92]

Copyright and traditional knowledge

Further information: Indigenous intellectual property Traditional knowledge and local knowledge generally refer to the long-standing traditions and practices of certain regional, indigenous, or local communities. International attention has turned to intellectual property laws to preserve, protect, and promote their traditional knowledge. Three broad approaches to protect traditional knowledge have been developed. The first emphasizes protecting traditional knowledge as a form of cultural heritage. The second looks at protection of traditional knowledge as a collective human right. The third, taken by the WTO and WIPO, investigates the use of existing or novel sui generis measures to protect traditional knowledge. Indigenous intellectual property is an umbrella legal term used in national and international forums to identify indigenous peoples' special rights to claim (from within their own laws) all that their indigenous groups know now, have known, or will know.[93] It is a concept that has developed out of a predominantly western legal tradition, and has most recently been promoted by the World Intellectual Property Organisation, as part of a more general United Nations push [94] to see the diverse wealth of this world's indigenous, intangible cultural heritage better valued and better protected against probable, ongoing misappropriation and misuse.[95]

Copyright and economic development

The view that a restrictive copyright benefits anybody has been challenged. According to the historian Eckhard Hffner the 1710 introduction of copyright law in England (and later in France) acted as a barrier to economic progress for over a century, a situation he contrasts with Germany where authors were paid by page and their work was not protected by any copyright laws.[96] Hffner argues that copyright laws allowed British publishers to print books only in limited quantities for high prices, while in Germany a proliferation of publishing took place that benefitted authors, publishers, and the public, and may have been an important factor in Germany's economic development.[97] [98]



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Further reading
Dowd, Raymond J. (2006). Copyright Litigation Handbook (1st ed.). Thomson West. ISBN0314962794. Gantz, John & Rochester, Jack B. (2005). Pirates of the Digital Millennium. Financial Times Prentice Hall. ISBNO-13-146315-2. Ghosemajumder, Shuman. Advanced Peer-Based Technology Business Models (http://shumans.com/ p2p-business-models.pdf). MIT Sloan School of Management, 2002. Lehman, Bruce: Intellectual Property and the National Information Infrastructure (Report of the Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights, 1995) Lindsey, Marc: Copyright Law on Campus. Washington State University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-87422-264-7. Mazzone, Jason. Copyfraud. SSRN (http://ssrn.com/abstract=787244) Nimmer, Melville; David Nimmer (1997). Nimmer on Copyright. Matthew Bender. ISBN0-8205-1465-9. Patterson, Lyman Ray (1968). Copyright in Historical Perspective. Vanderbilt University Press. ISBN0826513735. Pievatolo, Maria Chiara. Publicness and Private Intellectual Property in Kant's Political Thought. http://bfp.sp. unipi.it/~pievatolo/lm/kantbraz.html Rosen, Ronald (2008). Music and Copyright. Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press. ISBN0195338367. Shipley, David E. Thin But Not Anorexic: Copyright Protection for Compilations and Other Fact Works (http:// ssrn.com/abstract=1076789) UGA Legal Studies Research Paper No. 08-001; Journal of Intellectual Property Law, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2007. Silverthorne, Sean. Music Downloads: Pirates- or Customers? (http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item.jhtml?id=4206& t=innovation). Harvard Business School Working Knowledge, 2004. Sorce Keller, Marcello. "Originality, Authenticity and Copyright", Sonus, VII(2007), no. 2, pp.7785. Steinberg, S.H. & Trevitt, John (1996). Five Hundred Years of Printing (4th ed.). London and New Castle: The British Library and Oak Knoll Press. ISBN1-884718-19-1. Story, Alan; Darch, Colin & Halbert, Deborah, ed (2006). The Copy/South Dossier: Issues in the Economics, Politics and Ideology of Copyright in the Global South (http://copysouth.org/en/documents/csdossier.pdf). Copy/South Research Group. ISBN978-0-9553140-1-8.

External links
Copyright (http://www.dmoz.org/Society/Law/Legal_Information/Intellectual_Property/Copyrights/) at the Open Directory Project Collection of laws for electronic access (http://www.wipo.int/clea/en/) from WIPO intellectual property laws of many countries Copyright (http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/govpubs/us/copyrite.htm) from UCB Libraries GovPubs About Copyright (http://www.ipo.gov.uk/types/copy.htm) at the UK Intellectual Property Office A Bibliography on the Origins of Copyright and Droit d'Auteur (http://www.lawtech.jus.unitn.it/index.php/ copyright-history/bibliography) 6.912 Introduction to Copyright Law (http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/ electrical-engineering-and-computer-science/6-912-introduction-to-copyright-law-january-iap-2006/) taught by Keith Winstein, MIT OpenCourseWare January IAP 2006 UK Copyright Law fact sheet (http://www.copyrightservice.co.uk/copyright/p01_uk_copyright_law) (April 2000) a concise introduction to UK Copyright legislation IPR Toolkit An Overview, Key Issues and Toolkit Elements (http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/themes/ content/contentalliance/reports/ipr.aspx) (Sept 2009) by Professor Charles Oppenheim and Naomi Korn at the Strategic Content Alliance (http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/themes/content/contentalliance.aspx)

Copyright MIT OpenCourseWare 6.912 Introduction to Copyright Law (http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/ electrical-engineering-and-computer-science/6-912-introduction-to-copyright-law-january-iap-2006/) Free self-study course with video lectures as offered during the January, 2006, Independent Activities Period (IAP)



Tree of routing paths through a portion of the Internet as visualized by the Opte Project.

Computer network types by geographical scope

Body (BAN) Personal (PAN) Near-me (NAN) Local (LAN)

Home (HAN) Storage (SAN)

Campus (CAN) Backbone Metropolitan (MAN) Wide (WAN) Internet Interplanetary Internet

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail. Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and IPTV. Newspaper, book and other print publishing are adapting to Web site technology, or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The Internet has enabled or accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The origins of the Internet reach back to research of the 1960s, commissioned by the United States government in collaboration with private commercial interests to build robust, fault-tolerant, and distributed computer networks. The funding of a new U.S. backbone by the National Science Foundation in the 1980s, as well as private funding for

Internet other commercial backbones, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of many networks. The commercialization of what was by the 1990s an international network resulted in its popularization and incorporation into virtually every aspect of modern human life. As of 2009, an estimated one-quarter of Earth's population uses the services of the Internet. The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own standards. Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise.


Internet is a short form of the technical term internetwork,[1] the result of interconnecting computer networks with special gateways or routers. The Internet is also often referred to as the Net. The term the Internet, when referring to the entire global system of IP networks, has been treated as a proper noun and written with an initial capital letter. In the media and popular culture a trend has also developed to regard it as a generic term or common noun and thus write it as "the internet", without capitalization. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized as a noun but not capitalized as an adjective. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in everyday speech without much distinction. However, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same. The hardware and software infrastructure of the Internet establishes a global data communications system between computers. In contrast, the Web is one of the services communicated via the Internet. It is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs.[2]

The Soviet Union's launch of Sputnik spurred the United States to create the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA, later DARPA) in February 1958 to regain a technological lead.[3] [4] ARPA created the Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) program, which had networked country-wide radar systems together for the first time. The IPTO's purpose was to find ways to address the US military's concern about survivability of their communications networks, and as a first step interconnect their computers at the Pentagon, Cheyenne Mountain, and Strategic Air Command headquarters (SAC). J. C. R. Licklider, a promoter of universal networking, was selected to head the IPTO. Licklider moved from the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory at Harvard University to MIT in 1950, after becoming interested in information technology. At MIT, he served on a committee that established Lincoln Laboratory and worked on the SAGE project. In 1957 he became a Vice President at BBN, where he bought the first production PDP-1 computer and conducted the first public demonstration of time-sharing.



At the IPTO, Licklider's successor Ivan Sutherland in 1965 got Lawrence Roberts to start a project to make a network, and Roberts based the technology on the work of Paul Baran,[5] who had written an exhaustive study for the United States Air Force that recommended packet switching (opposed to circuit switching) to achieve better network robustness and disaster survivability. Roberts had worked at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory originally established to work on the design of the SAGE system. UCLA professor Leonard Kleinrock had provided the theoretical foundations for packet networks in 1962, and later, in the 1970s, for hierarchical routing, concepts which have been the underpinning of the development towards today's Internet. Sutherland's successor Robert Taylor convinced Roberts to build on his early packet switching successes and come and be the IPTO Chief Scientist. Once there, Roberts prepared a report called Resource Sharing Computer Networks which was approved by Taylor in June 1968 and laid the foundation for the launch of the working ARPANET the following year.
Professor Leonard Kleinrock with the first ARPANET Interface Message Processors at UCLA

After much work, the first two nodes of what would become the ARPANET were interconnected between Kleinrock's Network Measurement Center at the UCLA's School of Engineering and Applied Science and Douglas Engelbart's NLS system at SRI International (SRI) in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969. The third site on the ARPANET was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics center at the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the fourth was the University of Utah Graphics Department. In an early sign of future growth, there were already fifteen sites connected to the young ARPANET by the end of 1971. In an independent development, Donald Davies at the UK National Physical Laboratory developed the concept of packet switching in the early 1960s, first giving a talk on the subject in 1965, after which the teams in the new field from two sides of the Atlantic ocean first became acquainted. It was actually Davies' coinage of the wording packet and packet switching that was adopted as the standard terminology. Davies also built a packet-switched network in the UK, called the Mark I in 1970.[6] Bolt, Beranek & Newman (BBN), the private contractors for ARPANET, set out to create a separate commercial version after establishing "value added carriers" was legalized in the U.S.[7] The network they established was called Telenet and began operation in 1975, installing free public dial-up access in cities throughout the U.S. Telenet was the first packet-switching network open to the general public.[8] Following the demonstration that packet switching worked on the ARPANET, the British Post Office, Telenet, DATAPAC and TRANSPAC collaborated to create the first international packet-switched network service. In the UK, this was referred to as the International Packet Switched Service (IPSS), in 1978. The collection of X.25-based networks grew from Europe and the US to cover Canada, Hong Kong and Australia by 1981. The X.25 packet switching standard was developed in the CCITT (now called ITU-T) around 1976. X.25 was independent of the TCP/IP protocols that arose from the experimental work of DARPA on the ARPANET, Packet Radio Net, and Packet Satellite Net during the same time period. The early ARPANET ran on the Network Control Program (NCP), implementing the host-to-host connectivity and switching layers of the protocol stack, designed and first implemented in December 1970 by a team called the Network Working Group (NWG) led by Steve Crocker. To respond to the network's rapid growth as more and more locations connected, Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn developed the first description of the now widely used TCP protocols during 1973 and published a paper on the subject in May 1974. Use of the term "Internet" to describe a single global TCP/IP network originated in December 1974 with the publication of RFC 675, the first full specification of TCP that was written by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine, then at Stanford University. During the next nine years, work proceeded to refine the protocols and to implement them on a wide range of operating systems. The first TCP/IP-based wide-area network was operational by 1 January 1983 when all hosts on the ARPANET were switched over from the older NCP protocols.



In 1985, the United States' National Science Foundation (NSF) commissioned the construction of the NSFNET, a university 56 kilobit/second network backbone using computers called "fuzzballs" by their inventor, David L. Mills. The following year, NSF sponsored the conversion to a higher-speed 1.5megabit/second network that became operational in 1988. A key decision to use the DARPA TCP/IP protocols was made by Dennis Jennings, then in charge of the Supercomputer program at NSF. The NSFNET backbone was T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992 upgraded to 45Mbit/s in 1991 and decommissioned in 1995 when it was replaced by new backbone networks operated by commercial Internet Service Providers. The opening of the NSFNET to other networks began in 1988.[9] The US Federal Networking Council approved the interconnection of the NSFNET to the commercial MCI Mail system in that year and the link was made in the summer of 1989. Other commercial electronic mail services were soon connected, including OnTyme, Telemail and Compuserve. In that same year, three commercial Internet service providers (ISPs) began operations: UUNET, PSINet, and CERFNET. Important, separate networks that offered gateways into, then later merged with, the Internet include Usenet and BITNET. Various other commercial and educational networks, such as Telenet (by that time renamed to Sprintnet), Tymnet, Compuserve and JANET were interconnected with the growing Internet in the 1980s as the TCP/IP protocol became increasingly popular. The adaptability of TCP/IP to existing communication networks allowed for rapid growth. The open availability of the specifications and reference code permitted commercial vendors to build interoperable network components, such as routers, making standardized network gear available from many companies. This aided in the rapid growth of the Internet and the proliferation of local-area networking. It seeded the widespread implementation and rigorous standardization of TCP/IP on UNIX and virtually every other common operating system. Although the basic applications and guidelines that make the Internet possible had existed for almost two decades, the network did not gain a public face until the 1990s. On 6 August 1991, CERN, a pan-European organization for particle research, publicized the new World Wide Web project. The Web was invented by British scientist Tim Berners-Lee in 1989. An early popular web browser was ViolaWWW, patterned after HyperCard and built using the X Window System. It was eventually replaced in popularity by the Mosaic web browser. In 1993, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of This NeXT Computer was used by Sir Tim Illinois released version 1.0 of Mosaic, and by late 1994 there was Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's growing public interest in the previously academic, technical Internet. first Web server. By 1996 usage of the word Internet had become commonplace, and consequently, so had its use as a synecdoche in reference to the World Wide Web. Meanwhile, over the course of the decade, the Internet successfully accommodated the majority of previously existing public computer networks (although some networks, such as FidoNet, have remained separate). During the late 1990s, it was estimated that traffic on the public Internet grew by 100 percent per year, while the mean annual growth in the number of Internet users was thought to be between 20% and 50%.[10] This growth is often attributed to the lack of central administration, which allows organic growth of the network, as well as the non-proprietary open nature of the Internet protocols, which encourages vendor interoperability and prevents any one company from exerting too much control over the network.[11] As of 31 March 2011, the estimated total number of Internet users was 2.095billion (30.2% of world population).[12]



The communications infrastructure of the Internet consists of its hardware components and a system of software layers that control various aspects of the architecture. While the hardware can often be used to support other software systems, it is the design and the rigorous standardization process of the software architecture that characterizes the Internet and provides the foundation for its scalability and success. The responsibility for the architectural design of the Internet software systems has been delegated to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).[13] The IETF conducts standard-setting work groups, open to any individual, about the various aspects of Internet architecture. Resulting discussions and final standards are published in a series of publications, each called a Request for Comments (RFC), freely available on the IETF web site. The principal methods of networking that enable the Internet are contained in specially designated RFCs that constitute the Internet Standards. Other less rigorous documents are simply informative, experimental, or historical, or document the best current practices (BCP) when implementing Internet technologies. The Internet Standards describe a framework known as the Internet Protocol Suite. This is a model architecture that divides methods into a layered system of protocols (RFC 1122, RFC 1123). The layers correspond to the environment or scope in which their services operate. At the top is the Application Layer, the space for the application-specific networking methods used in software applications, e.g., a web browser program. Below this top layer, the Transport Layer connects applications on different hosts via the network (e.g., clientserver model) with appropriate data exchange methods. Underlying these layers are the core networking technologies, consisting of two layers. The Internet Layer enables computers to identify and locate each other via Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, and allows them to connect to one-another via intermediate (transit) networks. Lastly, at the bottom of the architecture, is a software layer, the Link Layer, that provides connectivity between hosts on the same local network link, such as a local area network (LAN) or a dial-up connection. The model, also known as TCP/IP, is designed to be independent of the underlying hardware which the model therefore does not concern itself with in any detail. Other models have been developed, such as the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, but they are not compatible in the details of description, nor implementation, but many similarities exist and the TCP/IP protocols are usually included in the discussion of OSI networking. The most prominent component of the Internet model is the Internet Protocol (IP) which provides addressing systems (IP addresses) for computers on the Internet. IP enables internetworking and essentially establishes the Internet itself. IP Version 4 (IPv4) is the initial version used on the first generation of the today's Internet and is still in dominant use. It was designed to address up to ~4.3billion (109) Internet hosts. However, the explosive growth of the Internet has led to IPv4 address exhaustion which has enter its final stage in 2011,[14] when the global address allocation pool was exhausted. A new protocol version, IPv6, was developed in the mid 1990s which provides vastly larger addressing capabilities and more efficient routing of Internet traffic. IPv6 is currently in growing deployment around the world, since Internet address registries (RIRs) began to urge all resource managers to plan rapid adoption and conversion.[15] IPv6 is not interoperable with IPv4. It essentially establishes a parallel version of the Internet not directly accessible with IPv4 software. This means software upgrades or translator facilities are necessary for networking devices that need to communicate on both networks. Most modern computer operating systems already support both versions of the Internet Protocol. Network infrastructures, however, are still lagging in this development. Aside from the complex array of physical connections that make up its infrastructure, the Internet is facilitated by bi- or multi-lateral commercial contracts (e.g., peering agreements), and by technical specifications or protocols that describe how to exchange data over the network. Indeed, the Internet is defined by its interconnections and routing policies.



The Internet structure and its usage characteristics have been studied extensively. It has been determined that both the Internet IP routing structure and hypertext links of the World Wide Web are examples of scale-free networks.[16] Similar to the way the commercial Internet providers connect via Internet exchange points, research networks tend to interconnect into large subnetworks such as GEANT, GLORIAD, Internet2, and the UK's national research and education network JANET. These in turn are built around smaller networks (see also the list of academic computer network organizations). Many computer scientists describe the Internet as a "prime example of a large-scale, highly engineered, yet highly complex system".[17] The Internet is heterogeneous; for instance, data transfer rates and physical characteristics of connections vary widely. The Internet exhibits "emergent phenomena" that depend on its large-scale organization. For example, data transfer rates exhibit temporal self-similarity. The principles of the routing and addressing methods for traffic in the Internet reach back to their origins the 1960s when the eventual scale and popularity of the network could not be anticipated. Thus, the possibility of developing alternative structures is investigated.[18] The Internet structure was found to be highly robust[19] to random failures and very vulnerable [20] to high degree attacks.

The Internet is a globally distributed network comprising many voluntarily interconnected autonomous networks. It operates without a central governing body. However, to maintain interoperability, all technical and policy aspects of the underlying core infrastructure and the principal name spaces are administered by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), headquartered in Marina del Rey, California. ICANN is the authority that coordinates the assignment of unique identifiers for use on the Internet, including domain names, Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, application port ICANN headquarters in Marina Del Rey, numbers in the transport protocols, and many other parameters. California, United States Globally unified name spaces, in which names and numbers are uniquely assigned, are essential for the global reach of the Internet. ICANN is governed by an international board of directors drawn from across the Internet technical, business, academic, and other non-commercial communities. The government of the United States continues to have the primary role in approving changes to the DNS root zone that lies at the heart of the domain name system. ICANN's role in coordinating the assignment of unique identifiers distinguishes it as perhaps the only central coordinating body on the global Internet. On 16 November 2005, the World Summit on the Information Society, held in Tunis, established the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) to discuss Internet-related issues.

Modern uses
The Internet is allowing greater flexibility in working hours and location, especially with the spread of unmetered high-speed connections and web applications. The Internet can now be accessed almost anywhere by numerous means, especially through mobile Internet devices. Mobile phones, datacards, handheld game consoles and cellular routers allow users to connect to the Internet from anywhere there is a network supporting that device's technology. Within the limitations imposed by small screens and other limited facilities of such pocket-sized devices, services of the Internet, including email and the web, may be available. Service providers may restrict the services offered and wireless data transmission charges may be significantly higher than other access methods.

Internet Educational material at all levels from pre-school to post-doctoral is available from websites. Examples range from CBeebies, through school and high-school revision guides, virtual universities, to access to top-end scholarly literature through the likes of Google Scholar. In distance education, help with homework and other assignments, self-guided learning, whiling away spare time, or just looking up more detail on an interesting fact, it has never been easier for people to access educational information at any level from anywhere. The Internet in general and the World Wide Web in particular are important enablers of both formal and informal education. The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas, knowledge, and skills has made collaborative work dramatically easier, with the help of collaborative software. Not only can a group cheaply communicate and share ideas, but the wide reach of the Internet allows such groups to easily form. An example of this is the free software movement, which has produced, among other programs, Linux, Mozilla Firefox, and OpenOffice.org. Internet chat, whether in the form of IRC chat rooms or channels, or via instant messaging systems, allow colleagues to stay in touch in a very convenient way when working at their computers during the day. Messages can be exchanged even more quickly and conveniently than via email. Extensions to these systems may allow files to be exchanged, "whiteboard" drawings to be shared or voice and video contact between team members. Content management systems allow collaborating teams to work on shared sets of documents simultaneously without accidentally destroying each other's work. Business and project teams can share calendars as well as documents and other information. Such collaboration occurs in a wide variety of areas including scientific research, software development, conference planning, political activism and creative writing. Social and political collaboration is also becoming more widespread as both Internet access and computer literacy grow. The Internet allows computer users to remotely access other computers and information stores easily, wherever they may be. They may do this with or without computer security, i.e. authentication and encryption technologies, depending on the requirements. This is encouraging new ways of working from home, collaboration and information sharing in many industries. An accountant sitting at home can audit the books of a company based in another country, on a server situated in a third country that is remotely maintained by IT specialists in a fourth. These accounts could have been created by home-working bookkeepers, in other remote locations, based on information emailed to them from offices all over the world. Some of these things were possible before the widespread use of the Internet, but the cost of private leased lines would have made many of them infeasible in practice. An office worker away from their desk, perhaps on the other side of the world on a business trip or a holiday, can open a remote desktop session into his normal office PC using a secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) connection via the Internet. This gives the worker complete access to all of his or her normal files and data, including email and other applications, while away from the office. This concept has been referred to among system administrators as the Virtual Private Nightmare,[21] because it extends the secure perimeter of a corporate network into its employees' homes.


Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web, or just the Web, interchangeably, but the two terms are not synonymous. The World Wide Web is a global set of documents, images and other resources, logically interrelated by hyperlinks and referenced with Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). URIs allow providers to symbolically identify services and clients to locate and address web servers, file servers, and other databases that store documents and provide resources and access them using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), the primary carrier protocol of the Web. HTTP is only one of the hundreds of communication protocols used on the Internet. Web services may also use HTTP to allow software systems to communicate in order to share and exchange business logic and data. World Wide Web browser software, such as Microsoft's Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Apple's Safari, and Google Chrome, lets users navigate from one web page to another via hyperlinks embedded in the documents.

Internet These documents may also contain any combination of computer data, including graphics, sounds, text, video, multimedia and interactive content including games, office applications and scientific demonstrations. Through keyword-driven Internet research using search engines like Yahoo! and Google, users worldwide have easy, instant access to a vast and diverse amount of online information. Compared to printed encyclopedias and traditional libraries, the World Wide Web has enabled the decentralization of information. The Web has also enabled individuals and organizations to publish ideas and information to a potentially large audience online at greatly reduced expense and time delay. Publishing a web page, a blog, or building a website involves little initial cost and many cost-free services are available. Publishing and maintaining large, professional web sites with attractive, diverse and up-to-date information is still a difficult and expensive proposition, however. Many individuals and some companies and groups use web logs or blogs, which are largely used as easily updatable online diaries. Some commercial organizations encourage staff to communicate advice in their areas of specialization in the hope that visitors will be impressed by the expert knowledge and free information, and be attracted to the corporation as a result. One example of this practice is Microsoft, whose product developers publish their personal blogs in order to pique the public's interest in their work. Collections of personal web pages published by large service providers remain popular, and have become increasingly sophisticated. Whereas operations such as Angelfire and GeoCities have existed since the early days of the Web, newer offerings from, for example, Facebook and MySpace currently have large followings. These operations often brand themselves as social network services rather than simply as web page hosts. Advertising on popular web pages can be lucrative, and e-commerce or the sale of products and services directly via the Web continues to grow. When the Web began in the 1990s, a typical web page was stored in completed form on a web server, formatted with HTML, ready to be sent to a user's browser in response to a request. Over time, the process of creating and serving web pages has become more automated and more dynamic. Websites are often created using content management or wiki software with, initially, very little content. Contributors to these systems, who may be paid staff, members of a club or other organization or members of the public, fill underlying databases with content using editing pages designed for that purpose, while casual visitors view and read this content in its final HTML form. There may or may not be editorial, approval and security systems built into the process of taking newly entered content and making it available to the target visitors.


Electronic mail, or email, is an important communications service available on the Internet. The concept of sending electronic text messages between parties in a way analogous to mailing letters or memos predates the creation of the Internet. Pictures, documents and other files are sent as email attachments. Emails can be cc-ed to multiple email addresses. Internet telephony is another common communications service made possible by the creation of the Internet. VoIP stands for Voice-over-Internet Protocol, referring to the protocol that underlies all Internet communication. The idea began in the early 1990s with walkie-talkie-like voice applications for personal computers. In recent years many VoIP systems have become as easy to use and as convenient as a normal telephone. The benefit is that, as the Internet carries the voice traffic, VoIP can be free or cost much less than a traditional telephone call, especially over long distances and especially for those with always-on Internet connections such as cable or ADSL. VoIP is maturing into a competitive alternative to traditional telephone service. Interoperability between different providers has improved and the ability to call or receive a call from a traditional telephone is available. Simple, inexpensive VoIP network adapters are available that eliminate the need for a personal computer. Voice quality can still vary from call to call but is often equal to and can even exceed that of traditional calls. Remaining problems for VoIP include emergency telephone number dialing and reliability. Currently, a few VoIP providers provide an emergency service, but it is not universally available. Traditional phones are line-powered and

Internet operate during a power failure; VoIP does not do so without a backup power source for the phone equipment and the Internet access devices. VoIP has also become increasingly popular for gaming applications, as a form of communication between players. Popular VoIP clients for gaming include Ventrilo and Teamspeak. Wii, PlayStation 3, and Xbox 360 also offer VoIP chat features.


Data transfer
File sharing is an example of transferring large amounts of data across the Internet. A computer file can be emailed to customers, colleagues and friends as an attachment. It can be uploaded to a website or FTP server for easy download by others. It can be put into a "shared location" or onto a file server for instant use by colleagues. The load of bulk downloads to many users can be eased by the use of "mirror" servers or peer-to-peer networks. In any of these cases, access to the file may be controlled by user authentication, the transit of the file over the Internet may be obscured by encryption, and money may change hands for access to the file. The price can be paid by the remote charging of funds from, for example, a credit card whose details are also passedusually fully encryptedacross the Internet. The origin and authenticity of the file received may be checked by digital signatures or by MD5 or other message digests. These simple features of the Internet, over a worldwide basis, are changing the production, sale, and distribution of anything that can be reduced to a computer file for transmission. This includes all manner of print publications, software products, news, music, film, video, photography, graphics and the other arts. This in turn has caused seismic shifts in each of the existing industries that previously controlled the production and distribution of these products. Streaming media is the real-time delivery of digital media for the immediate consumption or enjoyment by end users. Many radio and television broadcasters provide Internet feeds of their live audio and video productions. They may also allow time-shift viewing or listening such as Preview, Classic Clips and Listen Again features. These providers have been joined by a range of pure Internet "broadcasters" who never had on-air licenses. This means that an Internet-connected device, such as a computer or something more specific, can be used to access on-line media in much the same way as was previously possible only with a television or radio receiver. The range of available types of content is much wider, from specialized technical webcasts to on-demand popular multimedia services. Podcasting is a variation on this theme, whereusually audiomaterial is downloaded and played back on a computer or shifted to a portable media player to be listened to on the move. These techniques using simple equipment allow anybody, with little censorship or licensing control, to broadcast audio-visual material worldwide. Digital media streaming increases the demand for network bandwidth. For example, standard image quality needs 1 Mbit/s link speed for SD 480p, HD 720p quality requires 2.5 Mbit/s, and the top-of-the-line HDX quality needs 4.5 Mbit/s for 1080p.[22] Webcams are a low-cost extension of this phenomenon. While some webcams can give full-frame-rate video, the picture is usually either small or updates slowly. Internet users can watch animals around an African waterhole, ships in the Panama Canal, traffic at a local roundabout or monitor their own premises, live and in real time. Video chat rooms and video conferencing are also popular with many uses being found for personal webcams, with and without two-way sound. YouTube was founded on 15 February 2005 and is now the leading website for free streaming video with a vast number of users. It uses a flash-based web player to stream and show video files. Registered users may upload an unlimited amount of video and build their own personal profile. YouTube claims that its users watch hundreds of millions, and upload hundreds of thousands of videos daily.[23]



The prevalent language for communication on the Internet has been English. This may be a result of the origin of the Internet, as well as the language's role as a lingua franca. Early computer systems were limited to the characters in the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), a subset of the Latin alphabet. After English (27%), the most requested languages on the World Wide Web are Chinese (23%), Spanish (8%), Japanese (5%), Portuguese and German (4% each), Arabic, French and Russian (3% each), and Graph of Internet users per 100 inhabitants between 1997 and 2007 by Korean (2%).[24] By region, 42% of the International Telecommunication Union world's Internet users are based in Asia, 24% in Europe, 14% in North America, 10% in Latin America and the Caribbean taken together, 6% in Africa, 3% in the Middle East and 1% in Australia/Oceania.[25] The Internet's technologies have developed enough in recent years, especially in the use of Unicode, that good facilities are available for development and communication in the world's widely used languages. However, some glitches such as mojibake (incorrect display of some languages' characters) still remain. Common methods of Internet access in homes include dial-up, landline broadband (over coaxial cable, fiber optic or copper wires), Wi-Fi, satellite and 3G/4G technology cell phones. Public places to use the Internet include libraries and Internet cafes, where computers with Internet connections are available. There are also Internet access points in many public places such as airport halls and coffee shops, in some cases just for brief use while standing. Various terms are used, such as "public Internet kiosk", "public access terminal", and "Web payphone". Many hotels now also have public terminals, though these are usually fee-based. These terminals are widely accessed for various usage like ticket booking, bank deposit, online payment etc. Wi-Fi provides wireless access to computer networks, and therefore can do so to the Internet itself. Hotspots providing such access include Wi-Fi cafes, where would-be users need to bring their own wireless-enabled devices such as a laptop or PDA. These services may be free to all, free to customers only, or fee-based. A hotspot need not be limited to a confined location. A whole campus or park, or even an entire city can be enabled. Grassroots efforts have led to wireless community networks. Commercial Wi-Fi services covering large city areas are in place in London, Vienna, Toronto, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Chicago and Pittsburgh. The Internet can then be accessed from such places as a park bench.[26] Apart from Wi-Fi, there have been experiments with proprietary mobile wireless networks like Ricochet, various high-speed data services over cellular phone networks, and fixed wireless services. High-end mobile phones such as smartphones generally come with Internet access through the phone network. Web browsers such as Opera are available on these advanced handsets, which can also run a wide variety of other Internet software. More mobile phones have Internet access than PCs, though this is not as widely used. An Internet access provider and protocol matrix differentiates the methods used to get online. An Internet blackout or outage can be caused by local signaling interruptions. Disruptions of submarine communications cables may cause blackouts or slowdowns to large areas, such as in the 2008 submarine cable disruption. Internet blackouts affecting almost entire countries can be achieved by governments as a form of Internet censorship, as in the blockage of the Internet in Egypt, whereby approximately 93%[27] of networks were without access in 2011 in an attempt to stop mobilization for anti-government protests.[28]

Internet In an American study in 2005, the percentage of men using the Internet was very slightly ahead of the percentage of women, although this difference reversed in those under 30. Men logged on more often, spend more time online, and are more likely to be broadband users, whereas women tended to make more use of opportunities to communicate (such as email). Men were more likely to use the Internet to pay bills, participate in auctions, and for recreation such as downloading music and videos. Men and women were equally likely to use the Internet for shopping and banking.[29] More recent studies indicate that in 2008, women significantly outnumbered men on most social networking sites, such as Facebook and Myspace, although the ratios varied with age.[30] In addition, women watched more streaming content, whereas men downloaded more.[31] In terms of blogs, men were more likely to blog in the first place; among those who blog, men were more likely to have a professional blog, whereas women were more likely to have a personal blog.[32] Overall Internet usage has seen tremendous growth. From 2000 to 2009, the number of Internet users globally rose from 394 million to 1.858 billion.[33] By 2010, 22 percent of the world's population had access to computers with 1 billion Google searches every day, 300 million Internet users reading blogs, and 2 billion videos viewed daily on YouTube.[34]


Social impact
The Internet has enabled entirely new forms of social interaction, activities, and organizing, thanks to its basic features such as widespread usability and access. Social networking websites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have created new ways to socialize and interact. Users of these sites are able to add a wide variety of information to pages, to pursue common interests, and to connect with others. It is also possible to find existing acquaintances, to allow communication among existing groups of people. Sites like LinkedIn foster commercial and business connections. YouTube and Flickr specialize in users' videos and photographs. In the first decade of the 21st century the first generation is raised with widespread availability of Internet connectivity, bringing consequences and concerns in areas such as personal privacy and identity, and distribution of copyrighted materials. These "digital natives" face a variety of challenges that were not present for prior generations. The Internet has achieved new relevance as a political tool, leading to Internet censorship by some states. The presidential campaign of Howard Dean in 2004 in the United States was notable for its success in soliciting donation via the Internet. Many political groups use the Internet to achieve a new method of organizing in order to carry out their mission, having given rise to Internet activism, most notably practiced by rebels in the Arab Spring.[35] Some governments, such as those of Iran, North Korea, Myanmar, the People's Republic of China, and Saudi Arabia, restrict what people in their countries can access on the Internet, especially political and religious content. This is accomplished through software that filters domains and content so that they may not be easily accessed or obtained without elaborate circumvention. In Norway, Denmark, Finland[36] and Sweden, major Internet service providers have voluntarily, possibly to avoid such an arrangement being turned into law, agreed to restrict access to sites listed by authorities. While this list of forbidden URLs is only supposed to contain addresses of known child pornography sites, the content of the list is secret. Many countries, including the United States, have enacted laws against the possession or distribution of certain material, such as child pornography, via the Internet, but do not mandate filtering software. There are many free and commercially available software programs, called content-control software, with which a user can choose to block offensive websites on individual computers or networks, in order to limit a child's access to pornographic materials or depiction of violence. The Internet has been a major outlet for leisure activity since its inception, with entertaining social experiments such as MUDs and MOOs being conducted on university servers, and humor-related Usenet groups receiving much traffic. Today, many Internet forums have sections devoted to games and funny videos; short cartoons in the form of Flash movies are also popular. Over 6million people use blogs or message boards as a means of communication and for the sharing of ideas. The pornography and gambling industries have taken advantage of the World Wide Web,

Internet and often provide a significant source of advertising revenue for other websites. Although many governments have attempted to restrict both industries' use of the Internet, this has generally failed to stop their widespread popularity. One main area of leisure activity on the Internet is multiplayer gaming. This form of recreation creates communities, where people of all ages and origins enjoy the fast-paced world of multiplayer games. These range from MMORPG to first-person shooters, from role-playing video games to online gambling. This has revolutionized the way many people interact while spending their free time on the Internet. While online gaming has been around since the 1970s, modern modes of online gaming began with subscription services such as GameSpy and MPlayer. Non-subscribers were limited to certain types of game play or certain games. Many people use the Internet to access and download music, movies and other works for their enjoyment and relaxation. Free and fee-based services exist for all of these activities, using centralized servers and distributed peer-to-peer technologies. Some of these sources exercise more care with respect to the original artists' copyrights than others. Many people use the World Wide Web to access news, weather and sports reports, to plan and book vacations and to find out more about their interests. People use chat, messaging and email to make and stay in touch with friends worldwide, sometimes in the same way as some previously had pen pals. The Internet has seen a growing number of Web desktops, where users can access their files and settings via the Internet. Cyberslacking can become a drain on corporate resources; the average UK employee spent 57 minutes a day surfing the Web while at work, according to a 2003 study by Peninsula Business Services.[37] Internet addiction disorder is excessive computer use that interferes with daily life. Some psychologists believe that Internet use has other effects on individuals for instance interfering with the deep thinking that leads to true creativity. Internet usage has been correlated to users' loneliness.[38] Lonely people tend to use the Internet as an outlet for their feelings and to share their stories with others, such as in the "I am lonely will anyone speak to me" thread.


The internet has changed the entire world.[39] [40] [41] In fact, some more extreme statements include "guided physical systems routinely evolve into vastly improbable states."[42] which suggests that the internet is a phenomenon that inherently creates unexpected futures for humanity.

[1] "Internet, n." (http:/ / dictionary. oed. com/ cgi/ entry/ 00304286). Oxford English Dictionary (Draft ed.). March 2009. . Retrieved 2010-10-26. "Shortened < INTERNETWORK n., perhaps influenced by similar words in -net". [2] "Links" (http:/ / www. w3. org/ TR/ html401/ struct/ links. html#h-12. 1). HTML 4.01 Specification. World Wide Web Consortium. HTML 4.01 Specification. . Retrieved 2008-08-13. "[T]he link (or hyperlink, or Web link) [is] the basic hypertext construct. A link is a connection from one Web resource to another. Although a simple concept, the link has been one of the primary forces driving the success of the Web." [3] "ARPA/DARPA" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070407064829/ http:/ / www. darpa. mil/ body/ arpa_darpa. html). Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. darpa. mil/ body/ arpa_darpa. html) on April 7, 2007. . Retrieved 2007-05-21. [4] "DARPA: History" (http:/ / www. darpa. mil/ history. html). Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. . Retrieved 2009-12-07. [5] Baran, Paul (1964). On Distributed Communications (http:/ / www. rand. org/ pubs/ research_memoranda/ RM3767). . Retrieved 2010-07-05. [6] "Internet History" (http:/ / www. livinginternet. com/ i/ ii. htm). Living Internet site. . Retrieved 2010-03-10. [7] "Electronic post for switching data." Timothy Johnson. New Scientist. May 13, 1976 [8] Stephen Segaller, NERDS 2.0.1:115 (TV Books Publisher 1998) [9] Vinton Cerf, Bernard Aboba (1993). "How the Internet Came to Be" (http:/ / www. netvalley. com/ archives/ mirrors/ cerf-how-inet. html). . Retrieved 2010-11-23. [10] Coffman, K. G; Odlyzko, A. M. (1998-10-02) (PDF). The size and growth rate of the Internet (http:/ / www. dtc. umn. edu/ ~odlyzko/ doc/ internet. size. pdf). AT&T Labs. . Retrieved 2007-05-21. [11] Comer, Douglas (2006). The Internet book. Prentice Hall. p.64. ISBN0132335530. [12] "World Internet Users and Population Stats" (http:/ / www. internetworldstats. com/ stats. htm). Internet World Stats. Miniwatts Marketing Group. 2011-06-22. . Retrieved 2011-06-23. [13] "IETF Home Page" (http:/ / www. ietf. org/ ). Ietf.org. . Retrieved 2009-06-20. [14] Huston, Geoff. "IPv4 Address Report, daily generated" (http:/ / www. potaroo. net/ tools/ ipv4/ index. html). . Retrieved 2009-05-20.

[15] "Notice of Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) Address Depletion" (https:/ / www. arin. net/ knowledge/ about_resources/ ceo_letter. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2009-08-07. [16] A. L. Barabasi, R. Albert; Barabsi, Albert-Lszl (2002). "Statistical mechanics of complex networks" (http:/ / rmp. aps. org/ abstract/ RMP/ v74/ i1/ p47_1). Rev. Mod. Phys 74: 4794. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.74.47. . [17] Walter Willinger, Ramesh Govindan, Sugih Jamin, Vern Paxson, and Scott Shenker (2002). Scaling phenomena in the Internet (http:/ / www. pnas. org/ cgi/ content/ full/ 99/ suppl_1/ 2573), in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99, suppl. 1, 25732580 [18] Jesdanun, Anick. "Internet Makeover? Some argue it's time" (http:/ / seattletimes. nwsource. com/ html/ businesstechnology/ 2003667811_btrebuildnet16. html). Seattletimes.nwsource.com. . Retrieved 2011-08-08. [19] R. Cohen, K. Erez, D. ben-Avraham, S. Havlin (2000). "Resilience of the Internet to random breakdowns" (http:/ / havlin. biu. ac. il/ Publications. php?keyword=Resilience+ of+ the+ Internet+ to+ random+ breakdowns& year=*& match=all). Phys. Rev. Lett 85: 4625. . [20] R. Cohen, K. Erez, D. ben-Avraham, S. Havlin; Erez, K; Ben-Avraham, D; Havlin, S (2001). "Breakdown of the Internet under intentional attack" (http:/ / havlin. biu. ac. il/ Publications. php?keyword=Breakdown+ of+ the+ Internet+ under+ intentional+ attack& year=*& match=all). Phys. Rev. Lett 86 (16): 36825. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.3682. PMID11328053. . [21] "The Virtual Private Nightmare: VPN" (http:/ / librenix. com/ ?inode=5013). Librenix. 2004-08-04. . Retrieved 2010-07-21. [22] Morrison, Geoff (2010-11-18). "What to know before buying a 'connected' TV - Technology & science - Tech and gadgets - Tech Holiday Guide - msnbc.com" (http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 40241749/ ns/ technology_and_science-tech_and_gadgets). MSNBC. . Retrieved 2011-08-08. [23] "YouTube Fact Sheet" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5qyMMarNd). YouTube, LLC. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ t/ fact_sheet) on 2010-07-04. . Retrieved 2009-01-20. [24] Internet World Stats (http:/ / www. internetworldstats. com/ stats7. htm), updated for 30 June 2010. Retrieved 20 Feb 2011. [25] World Internet Usage Statistics News and Population Stats (http:/ / www. internetworldstats. com/ stats. htm) updated for 30 June 2010. Retrieved 20 Feb 2011. [26] Pasternak, Sean B. (2006-03-07). "Toronto Hydro to Install Wireless Network in Downtown Toronto" (http:/ / www. bloomberg. com/ apps/ news?pid=10000082& sid=aQ0ZfhMa4XGQ& refer=canada). Bloomberg.com. . Retrieved 2011-08-08. [27] Cowie, James. "Egypt Leaves the Internet" (http:/ / www. renesys. com/ blog/ 2011/ 01/ egypt-leaves-the-internet. shtml). Renesys. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5w51j0pga) from the original on 2011-01-28. . Retrieved 2011-01-28. [28] "Egypt severs internet connection amid growing unrest" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ technology-12306041). BBC News. 2011-01-28. . [29] How men and women use the Internet Pew Research Center December 28, 2005 [30] "Rapleaf Study on Social Network Users" (http:/ / business. rapleaf. com/ company_press_2008_07_29. html). . [31] "Women Ahead Of Men In Online Tv, Dvr, Games, And Social Media." (http:/ / www. entrepreneur. com/ tradejournals/ article/ 178175272. html). Entrepreneur.com. 2008-05-01. . Retrieved 2011-08-08. [32] "Technorati's State of the Blogosphere" (http:/ / technorati. com/ blogging/ state-of-the-blogosphere/ ). Technorati. . Retrieved 2011-08-08. [33] Internet users graphs (http:/ / www. itu. int/ ITU-D/ ict/ statistics/ ), Market Information and Statistics, International Telecommunications Union [34] http:/ / www. antaranews. com/ en/ news/ 71940/ google-earth-demonstrates-how-technology-benefits-ris-civil-society-govt [35] "The Arab Uprising's Cascading Effects" (http:/ / www. miller-mccune. com/ politics/ the-cascading-effects-of-the-arab-spring-28575/ ). Miller-mccune.com. 23 February 2011. . Retrieved 27 February 2011. [36] "Finland censors anti-censorship site" (http:/ / www. theregister. co. uk/ 2008/ 02/ 18/ finnish_policy_censor_activist/ ). The Register. 2008-02-18. . Retrieved 2008-02-19. [37] "Net abuse hits small city firms" (http:/ / news. scotsman. com/ topics. cfm?tid=914& id=1001802003). Edinburgh: News.scotsman.com. . Retrieved 2009-08-07. [38] Carole Hughes, Boston College. "The Relationship Between Internet Use and Loneliness Among College Students" (https:/ / www2. bc. edu/ ~hughesc/ abstract. html). Boston College. . Retrieved 2011-08-11. [39] (http:/ / articles. cnn. com/ 2005-06-23/ tech/ evolution. main_1_netscape-browser-world-wide-web?_s=PM:TECH), The Internet transforms modern life [40] (http:/ / www. themorningnews. org/ article/ how-the-internet-changed-the-world), How the Internet Changed the World, Lauren Frey Daisley [41] (http:/ / socyberty. delete-this-part. com/ society/ how-the-internet-has-changed-the-world/ ), How the Internet Has Changed the World [42] (http:/ / 129. 81. 170. 14. remove-this-part-to-see-the-website-since-wikipedia-blocks-ip-addresses-though-such-a-notion-is-wholly-undemocratic. com/ ~tipler/ wired. html), The Website of Frank J. Tipler




Media Freedom Internet Cookbook (http://www.osce.org/item/13570.html) by the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media Vienna, 2004 Living Internet (http://www.livinginternet.com/)Internet history and related information, including information from many creators of the Internet First Monday (http://www.firstmonday.org/) peer-reviewed journal on the Internet How Much Does The Internet Weigh? (http://discovermagazine.com/2007/jun/ how-much-does-the-internet-weigh) by Stephen Cass, Discover 2007 Castells, M. 1996. Rise of the Network Society. 3 vols. Vol. 1. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers. Castells, M. (2001), Lessons from the History of Internet, in The Internet Galaxy, Ch. 1, pp 935. Oxford University Press. Rehmeyer, Julie J. 2007. Mapping a medusa: The Internet spreads its tentacles. Science News 171(June 23):387388. RFC 1122, Requirements for Internet HostsCommunication Layers, IETF, R. Braden (Ed.), October 1989 RFC 1123, Requirements for Internet HostsApplication and Support, IETF, R. Braden (Ed.), October 1989

Further reading
"The Internet: Changing the Way We Communicate" (http://www.nsf.gov/about/history/nsf0050/internet/ internet.htm). America's Investment in the Future. Arlington: National Science Foundation. 2000.

External links
The Internet Society (http://www.isoc.org/) Berkman Center for Internet and Society (http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/) European Commission Information Society (http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/index_en.htm)

Library of Congress


Library of Congress
Library of Congress

Library of Congress reading room Established Location Branches 1800 Washington, D.C. N/A Collection Size 22,194,656 cataloged books in the Library of Congress classification system 5,600 incunabula (books printed before 1500), monographs and serials, music, bound newspapers, pamphlets, technical reports, and other printed material, and 109,029,796 [1] items in the nonclassified (special) collections 147,093,357 total Items Access and use Circulation Population served Library does not publicly circulate 541 members of the United States Congress, their staff, and members of the public Other information Budget Director Staff Website $613,496,414 [1]

James H. Billington (Librarian of Congress) 3,597 [1] [2]


The Library of Congress is the research library of the United States Congress, de facto national library of the United States, and the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States. Located in three buildings in Washington, D.C., it is the largest library in the world by shelf space and number of books. The head of the Library is the Librarian of Congress, currently James H. Billington. The Library of Congress was built by Congress in 1800, and was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century. After much of the original collection had been destroyed during the War of 1812, Thomas Jefferson sold 6,487 books, his entire personal collection, to the library in 1815.[3] [4] After a period of decline during the mid-19th century the Library of Congress began to grow rapidly in both size and importance after the American Civil War, culminating in the construction of a separate library building and the transference of all copyright deposit holdings to the Library. During the rapid expansion of the 20th century the Library of Congress assumed a preeminent public role, becoming a "library of last resort" and expanding its mission for the benefit of scholars and

Library of Congress the American people. The Library's primary mission is researching inquiries made by members of Congress through the Congressional Research Service. Although it is open to the public, only Members of Congress, Supreme Court justices and other high-ranking government officials may check out books. As the de facto national library, the Library of Congress promotes literacy and American literature through projects such as the American Folklife Center, American Memory, Center for the Book and Poet Laureate.


Origins and Jefferson's contribution (18001851)
The Library of Congress was established on April 24, 1800, when President John Adams signed an Act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress ..., and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them...." Books were ordered from London and the collection, consisting of 740 books and 3 maps, was housed in the new Capitol.[5] The collection covered a variety of topics but the bulk of the materials were legal in nature, reflecting Congress' role as a maker of laws. Thomas Jefferson played an important role in the Library's early formation, signing into law on January 26, 1802, the first law establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. The law established the presidentially appointed post of Librarian of Congress and a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee the Library, as well as giving the president and vice president the ability to borrow books.[5] The Library of Congress was destroyed in August 1814, when invading British troops set fire to the Capitol building and the small library of 3,000 volumes within.[5] Within a month, former President Jefferson offered his personal library[6] [7] as a replacement. Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books, including ones in foreign languages and volumes of philosophy, science, literature, and other topics not normally viewed as part of a legislative library, Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888, to May such as cookbooks, writing that, "I do not know that it contains any branch of 15, 1894. science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection; there is, in fact, no subject to which a Member of Congress may not have occasion to refer." In January 1815, Congress accepted Jefferson's offer, appropriating $23,950 for his 6,487 books.[5]

Weakening (18511865)
The antebellum period was difficult for the Library. During the 1850s the Smithsonian Institution's librarian Charles Coffin Jewett aggressively tried to move that organization towards becoming the United States' national library. His efforts were blocked by the Smithsonian's Secretary Joseph Henry, who advocated a focus on scientific research and publication and favored the Library of Congress' development into the national library. Henry's dismissal of Jewett in July 1854 ended the Smithsonian's attempts to become the national library, and in 1866 Henry transferred the Smithsonian's forty thousand-volume library to the Library of Congress.[5] On December 24, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about twothirds of the Library's 55,000 book collection, including twothirds of Jefferson's original transfer.[5] Congress in 1852 quickly

Library of Congress appropriated $168,700 to replace the lost books, but not for the acquisition of new materials. This marked the start of a conservative period in the Library's administration under Librarian John Silva Meehan and Joint Committee Chairman James A. Pearce, who worked to restrict the Library's activities.[5] In 1857, Congress transferred the Library's public document distribution activities to the Department of the Interior and its international book exchange program to the Department of State. Abraham Lincoln's political appointment of John G. Stephenson as Librarian of Congress in 1861 further weakened the Library; Stephenson's focus was on non-library affairs, including service as a volunteer aide-de-camp at the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg during the American Civil War. By the conclusion of the war, the Library of Congress had a staff of seven for a collection of 80,000 volumes.[5] The centralization of copyright offices into the United States Patent Office in 1859 ended the Library's thirteen year role as a depository of all copyrighted books and pamphlets.


Spofford's expansion (18651897)

The Library of Congress reasserted itself during the latter half of the 19th century under Librarian Ainsworth Rand Spofford, who directed the Library from 1865 to 1897. Aided by an overall expansion of the federal government and a favorable political climate, Spofford built broad bipartisan support for the Library as a national library and a legislative resource, began comprehensively collecting Americana and American literature, and led the construction of a new building to house the Library, and transformed the Librarian of Congress position into one of strength and independence.[5] Between 1865 and 1870, Congress appropriated funds for the construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, placed all copyright registration and deposit activities under the Library's control, and restored the Library's international book exchange. The Library also acquired the vast libraries of both the Smithsonian and historian Peter Force, strengthening its scientific and Americana collections significantly. By The Library of Congress inside the U.S. Capitol 1876, the Library of Congress had 300,000 volumes and was tied with Building c. 1890 Boston Public Library as the nation's largest library. When the Library moved from the Capitol building to its new headquarters in 1897, it had over 840,000 volumes, 40% of which had been acquired through copyright deposit.[5] A year before the Library's move to its new location, the Joint Library Committee held a session of hearings to assess the condition of the Library and plan for its future growth and possible reorganization. Spofford and six experts sent by the American Library Association, including future Librarian of Congress Herbert Putnam and Melvil Dewey of the New York State Library, testified before the committee that the Library should continue its expansion towards becoming a true national library.[5] Based on the hearings and with the assistance of Senators Justin Morrill of Vermont and Daniel Voorhees of Indiana, Some of the Library of Congress' holdings awaiting shelving inside the newly opened Congress more than doubled the Library's staff from 42 to 108 and Thomas Jefferson Building established new administrative units for all aspects of the Library's collection. Congress also strengthened the office of Librarian of Congress to govern the Library and make staff appointments, as well as requiring Senate approval for presidential appointees to the position.[5]

Library of Congress


Post-reorganization (18971939)
The Library of Congress, spurred by the 1897 reorganization, began to grow and develop more rapidly. Spofford's successor John Russell Young, though only in office for two years, overhauled the Library's bureaucracy, used his connections as a former diplomat to acquire more materials from around the world, and established the Library's first assistance programs for the blind and physically disabled.[5] Young's successor Herbert Putnam held the office for forty years from 1899 to 1939, entering Main Library of Congress building at the start of the into the position two years before the Library became the first in 20th century the United States to hold one million volumes.[5] Putnam focused his efforts on making the Library more accessible and useful for the public and for other libraries. He instituted the interlibrary loan service, transforming the Library of Congress into what he referred to as a "library of last resort".[8] Putnam also expanded Library access to "scientific investigators and duly qualified individuals" and began publishing primary sources for the benefit of scholars.[5] Putnam's tenure also saw increasing diversity in the Library's acquisitions. In 1903 he persuaded President Theodore Roosevelt to transfer by executive order the papers of the Founding Fathers from the State Department to the Library of Congress. Putnam expanded foreign acquisitions as well, including the 1904 purchase of a four-thousand volume library of Indica, the 1906 purchase of G. V. Yudin's eighty-thousand volume Russian library, the 1908 Schatz collection of early opera librettos, and the early 1930s purchase of the Russian Imperial Collection, consisting of 2,600 volumes from the library of the Romanov family on a variety of topics. Collections of Hebraica and Chinese and Japanese works were also acquired.[5] Congress even took the initiative to acquire materials for the Library in one occasion, when in 1929 Congressman Ross Collins of Mississippi successfully proposed the $1.5 million purchase of Otto Vollbehr's collection of incunabula, including one of four remaining perfect vellum copies of the Gutenberg Bible.[5] In 1914 Putnam established the Legislative Reference Service as a separative administrative unit of the Library. Based in the Progressive era's philosophy of science as a problem-solver, and modeled after successful research branches of state legislatures, the LRS would provide informed answers to Congressional research inquiries on almost any topic.[5] In 1965 Congress passed an act allowing the Library of Congress to establish a trust fund board to accept donations and endowments, giving the Library a role as a patron of the arts. The Library received the donations and A copy of the Gutenberg Bible on display at the endowments of prominent individuals such as John D. Library of Congress Rockefeller, James B. Wilbur and Archer M. Huntington. Gertrude Clarke Whittall donated five Stradivarius violins to the Library and Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge's donations paid for a concert hall within the Library of Congress building and the establishment of an honorarium for the Music Division. A number of chairs and consultantships were established from the donations, the most well-known of which is the Poet Laureate Consultant.[5] The Library's expansion eventually filled the Library's Main Building, despite shelving expansions in 1910 and 1927, forcing the Library to expand into a new structure. Congress acquired nearby land in 1928 and approved construction of the Annex Building (later the John Adams Building) in 1930. Although delayed during the Depression years, it was completed in 1938 and opened to the public in 1939.[5]

Library of Congress


Modern history (1939)

When Putnam retired in 1939, President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Archibald MacLeish as his successor. Occupying the post from 1939 to 1944 during the height of World War II, MacLeish became the most visible Librarian of Congress in the Library's history. MacLeish encouraged librarians to oppose totalitarianism on behalf of democracy; dedicated the South Reading Room of the Adams Building to Thomas Jefferson, commissioning artist Ezra Winter to paint four themed murals for the room; and established a "democracy alcove" in the Main Reading Room of the Jefferson Building for important documents such as the Declaration, Constitution and Federalist Papers.[5] Even the Library of Congress assisted during the war effort, ranging from the storage of the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution in Fort Knox for safekeeping to researching weather data on the Himalayas for Air Force pilots.[5] MacLeish resigned in 1944 to become Assistant Secretary of State, and President Harry Truman appointed Luther H. Evans as Librarian of Congress. Evans, who served until 1953, expanded the Library's acquisitions, cataloging and bibliographic services as much as the fiscal-minded Congress would allow, but his primary achievement was the creation of Library of Congress Missions around the world. Missions played a variety of roles in the postwar world: the mission in San Francisco assisted participants in the meeting that established the United Nations, the mission in Europe acquired European publications for the Library of Congress and other American libraries, and the mission in Japan aided in the creation of the National Diet Library.[5]

Erotica, mural painting by George Randolph Barse (18611938) in the Library of Congress

Evans' successor L. Quincy Mumford took over in 1953. Mumford's tenure, lasting until 1974, saw the initiation of the construction of the James Madison Memorial Building, the third Library of Congress building. Mumford directed the Library during a period of increased educational spending, the windfall of which allowed the Library to devote energies towards establishing new acquisition centers abroad, including in Cairo and New Delhi. In 1967 the Library began experimenting with book preservation techniques through a Preservation Office, which grew to become the largest library research and conservation effort in the United States.[5] Mumford's administration also saw the last major public debate about the Library of Congress' role as both a legislative Elihu Vedder's Minerva of Peace mosaic library and a national library. A 1962 memorandum by Douglas Bryant of the Harvard University Library, compiled at the request of Joint Library Committee chairman Claiborne Pell, proposed a number of institutional reforms, including expansion of national activities and services and various organizational changes, all of which would shift the Library

Library of Congress more towards its national role over its legislative role. Bryant even suggested possibly changing the name of the Library of Congress, which was rebuked by Mumford as "unspeakable violence to tradition".[5] Debate continued within the library community until the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1970 shifted the Library back towards its legislative roles, placing greater focus on research for Congress and congressional committees and renaming the Legislative Reference Service to the Congressional Research Service.[5] After Mumford retired in 1974, Gerald Ford appointed Daniel J. Boorstin as Librarian. Boorstin's first challenge was the move to the new Madison Building, which took place between 1980 and 1982. The move released pressures on staff and shelf space, allowing Boorstin to focus on other areas of Library administration such as acquisitions and collections. Taking advantage of steady budgetary growth, from $116 million in 1975 to over $250 million by 1987, Boorstin actively participated in enhancing ties with scholars, authors, publishers, cultural leaders, and the business community. His active and prolific role changed the post of Librarian of Congress so that by the time he retired in 1987, the New York Times called it "perhaps the leading intellectual public position in the nation."[5] Ronald Reagan appointed James H. Billington as the thirteenth Librarian of Congress in 1987, a post he holds as of 2011. Billington took advantage of new technological advancements and the Internet to link the Library to educational institutions around the country in 1991. The end of the Cold War also enabled the Library to develop relationships with newly open Eastern European nations, helping them to establish parliamentary libraries of their own.[5] In the mid-1990s, under Billington's leadership, the Library of Congress began to pursue the development of what it called a "National Digital Library," part of an overall strategic direction that has been somewhat controversial within the library profession.[9] In late November 2005, the Library announced intentions to launch the World Digital Library, digitally preserving books and other objects from all world cultures. In April 2010, it announced plans to archive all public communication on Twitter, including all communication since Twitter's launch in March 2006.[10]


The collections of the Library of Congress include more than 32 million cataloged books and other print materials in 470 languages; more than 61 million manuscripts; the largest rare book collection in North America, including the rough draft of the Declaration of Independence, a Gutenberg Bible (one of only four perfect vellum copies known to exist);[11] over 1 million US government publications; 1 million issues of world newspapers spanning the past three centuries; 33,000 bound newspaper volumes; 500,000 microfilm reels; over 6,000 Library of Congress, Thomas Jefferson Building comic book[12] titles; films; 5.3 million maps; 6 million works of sheet music; 3 million sound recordings; more than 14.7 million prints and photographic images including fine and popular art pieces and architectural drawings;[13] the Betts Stradivarius; and the Cassavetti Stradivarius. The Library developed a system of book classification called Library of Congress Classification (LCC), which is used by most US research and university libraries.. The Library serves as a legal repository for copyright protection and copyright registration, and as the base for the United States Copyright Office. Regardless of whether they register their copyright, all publishers are required to submit two complete copies of their

Library of Congress


published works to the Library if requestedthis requirement is known as mandatory deposit.[14] Parties wishing not to publish, need only submit one copy of their work. Nearly 22,000 new items published in the U.S. arrive every business day at the Library. Contrary to popular belief, however, the Library does not retain all of these works in its permanent collection, although it does add an average of 10,000 items per day. Rejected items are used in trades with other libraries around the world, distributed to federal agencies, or donated to schools, communities, and other organizations within the United States.[15] As is true of many similar libraries, the Library of Congress retains copies of every publication in the English language that is deemed significant.

The Great Hall interior

The Library of Congress states that its collection fills about 838 miles (1349km) of bookshelves,[16] while the British Library reports about 625 kilometres (388mi) of shelves.[17] The Library of Congress holds about 147 million items with 33 million books against approximately 150 million items with 25 million books for the British Library.[16] [17] The Library makes millions of digital objects, comprising tens of petabytes, available at its American Memory site. American Memory is a source for public domain image resources, as well as audio, video, and archived Web content. Nearly all of the lists of holdings, the catalogs of the library, can be consulted directly on its web site. Librarians all over the world consult these catalogs, through the Web or through other media better suited to their needs, when they need to catalog for their collection a book published in the United States. They use the Library of Congress Control Number to make sure of the exact identity of the book. The Library of Congress also provides an online archive of the proceedings of the U.S. Congress at THOMAS, including bill text, Congressional Record text, bill summary and status, the Congressional Record Index, and the United States Constitution. The Library also administers the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, a talking and braille library program provided to more than 766,000 Americans.

Buildings of the Library

The Library of Congress is physically housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill and a conservation center in rural Virginia. The Library's Capitol Hill buildings are all connected by underground passageways, so that a library user need pass through security only once in a single visit. The library also has off-site storage facilities for less commonly-requested materials.

Thomas Jefferson Building

Jefferson Building

The Thomas Jefferson Building is located between Independence Avenue and East Capitol Street on First Street SE. It first opened in 1897 as the main building of the Library and is the oldest of the three buildings. Known originally as the Library of Congress Building or Main Building, it took its present name on June 13, 1980.

Library of Congress


Madison Building

John Adams Building

The John Adams Building is located between Independence Avenue and East Capitol Street on 2nd Street SE, the block adjacent to the Jefferson Building. The building was originally built simply as an annex to the Jefferson Building. It opened its doors to the public on January 3, 1939.

James Madison Memorial Building

The James Madison Memorial Building is located between First and Second Streets on Independence Avenue SE. The building was constructed from 1971 to 1976, and serves as the official memorial to President James Madison. The Madison Building is also home to the Mary Pickford Theater, the "motion picture and television reading room" of the Library of Congress. The theater hosts regular free screenings of classic and contemporary movies and television shows.

Packard Campus for Audio-Visual Conservation

The Packard Campus for Audio-Visual Conservation is the Library of Congress's newest building, opened in 2007 and located in Culpeper, Virginia. It was constructed out of a former Federal Reserve storage center and Cold War bunker. Packard Campus (Culpeper, The campus is designed to act as a single site to store all of the library's movie, Virginia) television, and sound collections. It is named to honor David Woodley Packard, whose Packard Humanities Institute oversaw design and construction of the facility. The centerpiece of the complex is a reproduction Art Deco movie theater that presents free movie screenings to the public on a semi-weekly basis.[18]

Using the Library

The library is open to the general public for academic research and tourists. Only those who are issued a Reader Identification Card may enter the reading rooms and access the collection. The Reader Identification Card is available in the Madison building to persons who are at least 16 years of age upon presentation of a government issued picture identification (e.g. driver's license, state ID card or passport).[19] However, only members of Congress, Supreme Court Justices, their staff, Library of Congress staff and certain other government officials can actually remove items from the library buildings. Members of the general public with Reader Identification Cards must use items from the library collection inside the reading rooms only; they are not allowed to remove library items from the reading rooms or the library buildings. Since 1902, libraries in the United States have been able to request books and other items through interlibrary loan from the Library of Congress if these items are not readily available elsewhere. Through this, the Library of Congress has served as a "library of last resort", according to former Librarian of Congress Herbert Putnam.[8] The Library of Congress lends books to other libraries with the stipulation that they be used only inside the borrowing library. [20]

Library of Congress The Library of Congress is often used informally in information technology to represent an impressively large quantity of data, when discussing computer storage or networking technologies. One Library of Congress is around 10 terabytes of information.


Librarians of Congress
The Librarian of Congress is the head of the Library of Congress, appointed by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the Senate. He serves as the chief librarian of all the sections of the Library of Congress. One of the responsibilities of the Librarian of Congress is to appoint the U.S. Poet Laureate. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. John J. Beckley (18021807) Patrick Magruder (18071815) George Watterston (18151829) John Silva Meehan (18291861) John Gould Stephenson (18611864) Ainsworth Rand Spofford (18641897) John Russell Young (18971899) Herbert Putnam (18991939) Archibald MacLeish (19391944) Luther H. Evans (19451953) Lawrence Quincy Mumford (19541974) Daniel J. Boorstin (19751987) James H. Billington (1987present)

Annual events
Archives Fair Fellows in American Letters of the Library of Congress Davidson Fellows Reception Founder's Day Celebration Gershwin Prize for Popular Song Judith P. Austin Memorial Lecture The National Book Festival

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] 2010 At A Glance (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ about/ generalinfo. html#2010_at_a_glance) http:/ / www. loc. gov purplemotes.net (http:/ / purplemotes. net/ 2008/ 02/ 03/ thomas-jeffersons-library/ )- Jefferson got $23,940 loc.gov (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ preserv/ history/ growing. html) "Jefferson's Legacy: A Brief History of the Library of Congress" (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ loc/ legacy/ loc. html). Library of Congress. 2006-03-06. . Retrieved 2008-01-14. Thomas Jefferson's personal library at Library Thing, based on scholarship (http:/ / www. librarything. com/ catalog. php?view=ThomasJefferson) Library Thing Profile Page for Thomas Jefferson's library (http:/ / www. librarything. com/ profile/ ThomasJefferson), summarizing contents and indicating sources "Interlibrary Loan (Collections Access, Management and Loan Division, Library of Congress)" (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ rr/ loan/ ). Library of Congress website. 2007-10-25. . Retrieved 2007-12-04. Collins, Samuel (2009). Library of Walls: The Library of Congress and the Contradictions of Information Society. Litwin Books. ISBN9780980200423.

[10] CSmonitor.com (http:/ / www. csmonitor. com/ USA/ Politics/ The-Vote/ 2010/ 0416/ Twitter-hits-Library-of-Congress-Would-Founding-Fathers-tweet)

Library of Congress
[11] See Gutenberg's Bibles Where to Find Them (http:/ / www. approvedarticles. com/ Article/ Gutenberg-s-Bibles--Where-to-Find-Them/ 1088); Octavo Digital Rare Books (http:/ / www. octavo. com/ editions/ gtnbbl/ index. html); Library of Congress (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ rr/ rarebook/ guide/ europe. html). [12] "About the Serial and Government Publications Division" (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ rr/ news/ brochure. html). The Library of Congress. 2006-04-07. . Retrieved 2006-08-08. [13] Annual Report of the Librarian of Congress (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ about/ reports/ annualreports/ fy2009. pdf), Library of Congress, 2009, [14] "Mandatory Deposit" (http:/ / www. copyright. gov/ help/ faq/ mandatory_deposit. html). Copyright.gov. . Retrieved 2006-08-08. [15] "Fascinating Facts" (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ about/ facts. html). Library of Congress. . Retrieved 2006-08-08. [16] "Fascinating Facts - About the Library" (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ about/ facts. html). Library of Congress. . Retrieved 2011-06-30. [17] "Facts and figures" (http:/ / www. bl. uk/ aboutus/ quickinfo/ facts/ index. html). British Library. . Retrieved 2011-06-30. [18] Library of Comgress events listing (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ loc/ events/ #eventlist9) [19] Library of Congress (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ rr/ readerregistration. html) [20] http:/ / www. loc. gov/ rr/ loan/ loanweb1. html


External links
The Library of Congress website (http://www.loc.gov/) American Memory (http://memory.loc.gov/) History of the Library of Congress (http://www.loc.gov/loc/legacy/) Search the Library of Congress catalog (http://catalog.loc.gov/) thomas.loc.gov (http://thomas.loc.gov/), legislative information Library Of Congress Meeting Notices and Rule Changes (http://thefederalregister.com/b.p/department/ LIBRARY_OF_CONGRESS/) from The Federal Register RSS Feed (http://thefederalregister.com/rss/ department/LIBRARY_OF_CONGRESS/) Library of Congress photos on Flickr (http://www.flickr.com/photos/library_of_congress/) Outdoor sculpture (http://www.dcmemorials.com/Groups_LibraryOfCongress.htm) at the Library of Congress Standards, The Library of Congress (http://www.loc.gov/standards/) Works by the Library of Congress (http://www.gutenberg.org/author/Library+of+Congress) at Project Gutenberg Library of Congress (https://wiki.familysearch.org/en/Library_of_Congress) at FamilySearch Research Wiki for genealogists

Carnegie library


Carnegie library
For other uses, see Carnegie Library (disambiguation) A Carnegie library is a library built with money donated by Scottish-American businessman and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. 2,509 Carnegie libraries were built between 1883 and 1929, including some belonging to public and university library systems. 1,689 were built in the United States, 660 in Britain and Ireland, 125 in Canada, and others in Australia, New Zealand, Serbia, the Caribbean, and Fiji. Few towns that requested a grant and agreed to his terms were refused. When the last grant was made in 1919, there were 3,500 libraries in the United States, nearly half of them built with construction grants paid by Carnegie.

The first of Carnegie's public libraries opened in his hometown, Dunfermline, Scotland, in 1883. The locally quarried sandstone building displays a stylised sun with a carved motto - "Let there be light" at the entrance. His first library in the United States was built in 1889 in Braddock, Pennsylvania, home to one of the Carnegie Steel Company's mills. Initially Carnegie limited his support to a few towns in which he had an interest. From the 1890s on, his foundation funded a dramatic increase in number of libraries. This coincided with the rise of women's clubs in the post-Civil War period, which were most responsible for organizing efforts to establish libraries, including long-term fundraising and lobbying within their communities to support operations and collections.[1] They led the establishment of 75-80 percent of the libraries in communities across the country.[2] Carnegie believed in giving to the "industrious and ambitious; not those who need everything done for them, but those who, being most anxious and able to help themselves, deserve and will be benefited by help from others."[3] Under segregation black people were generally denied access to public libraries in the Southern United States. Rather than insisting on his libraries being racially integrated, he funded separate libraries for African Americans. For example, at Houston he funded a separate Colored Carnegie Library.[4] Most of the library buildings were unique, constructed in a number of styles, including Beaux-Arts, Italian Renaissance, Baroque, Classical Revival, and Spanish Colonial. Scottish Baronial was one of the styles used in Carnegie's native Scotland. Each style was chosen by the community, although as the years went by James Bertram, Carnegie's secretary, became less tolerant of designs which were not to his taste. Edward Lippincott Tilton, a friend often reccommended by Bertram, designed many of the buildings.[5] The architecture was typically simple and formal, welcoming patrons to enter through a prominent doorway, nearly always accessed via a staircase. The entry staircase symbolized a person's elevation by learning. Similarly, outside virtually every library was a lamppost or lantern, meant as a symbol of enlightenment. In the early 20th century, a Carnegie library was often the most imposing structure in hundreds of small American communities.

Carnegie Free Library of Braddock in Braddock, Pennsylvania, built in 1888, was the first Carnegie Library in the United States.

Carnegie Library in Houston, Texas (1904). The building was deemed too small fifteen years after it was built.

Detail of the entrance to the Carnegie Library in Avondale, Cincinnati (1902). (Spanish colonial style)

Carnegie Library opened in 1916 in Grass Valley, California. (neoclassical style).

Carnegie library


Carnegie Library in Teddington, England was built in 1906 in Edwardian Baroque style.

Carnegie Library in Hull, England now houses the Carnegie Heritage Centre. (Half-timbered architecture)

Carnegie Library in Belgrade, Serbia - Belgrade University Library, built in 1921.

Carnegie Library in Iron Mountain, Michigan. It now houses a history museum.

Books and libraries were important to Carnegie, beginning with his childhood in Scotland. There he listened to readings and discussions of books from the Tradesman's Subscription Library, which his father helped create. Later, in the United States, while working for the local telegraph company in Allegheny, Pennsylvania, Carnegie borrowed books from the personal library of Colonel James Anderson, who opened the collection to his workers every Saturday. In his autobiography, Carnegie credited Anderson with providing an opportunity for "working boys" (that some said should not be "entitled to books") to acquire the knowledge to improve themselves.[6] Carnegie's personal experience as an immigrant, who with help from others worked his way into a position of wealth, reinforced his belief in a society based on merit, where anyone who worked hard could become successful. This conviction was a major element of his philosophy of giving in general, and of his libraries as its best known expression.

"The Carnegie Formula"

Nearly all of Carnegie's libraries were built according to "The Carnegie Formula", which required matching contributions from the town that received the donation. It must: demonstrate the need for a public library; provide the building site; annually provide ten percent of the cost of the library's construction to support its operation; and, provide free service to all.

Carnegie assigned the decisions to his assistant James Bertram. He created a "Schedule of Questions." The schedule included: Name, status and population of town, Does it have a library? Where is it located and is it public or private? How many books? Is a town-owned site available? One of the requirements was the willingness of people and government to raise taxes to support the library. Money was not given all at once but disbursed gradually as the project went on. Records were kept on a "Daily Register of Donations." The 1908 Daily register of donations, for example, has 1020 entries each day. Every day that year, money was disbursed for libraries and church organs in the US and Britain. The amount of money donated to most communities was based on U.S. Census figures and averaged approximately $2 per person. Many communities were eager for the chance to build public institutions. James Bertram, Carnegie's personal secretary who ran the program, was never without requests. The impact of Carnegie's library philanthropy was maximized by his timing. His offers came at a peak of town development and library expansion in the US. By 1890, many states had begun to take an active role in organizing public libraries, and the new buildings filled a tremendous need. Interest in libraries was also heightened at a crucial time in their early development by Carnegie's high profile and his genuine belief in their importance.[7]

Carnegie library


Self-service stacks
The design of the Carnegie libraries has been given credit for encouraging communication with the librarian. It also created an opportunity for people to browse and discover books on their own. "The Carnegie libraries were important because they had open stacks which encouraged people to browse....People could choose for themselves what books they wanted to read," according to Walter E. Langsam, an architectural historian and teacher at the University of Cincinnati. Before Carnegie, patrons had to ask a clerk to retrieve books from closed stacks.[8]

Continuing legacy
Carnegie established charitable trusts which have continued his philanthropic work. However, even before his death they had reduced their involvement in the provision of libraries. There has continued to be support for library projects, for example in South Africa.[9]

In 1992, the New York Times reported that according to a survey conducted by Dr. George Bobinksi, dean of the School of Information and Library Studies at the State University at Buffalo 1,554 of the 1,681 original buildings in the United States still existed, with 911 still used as libraries. Two-hundred seventy six were unchanged, 286 had been expanded, and 175 had been remodeled. Two-hundred forty three had been demolished while others had been converted to other uses..[10] While hundreds of the library buildings have become museums, community centers, office buildings, residences, or are otherwise used more than half of those in the United States still serve their communities as libraries over a century after their construction,[11] many in middle- to low-income neighborhoods. For example, Carnegie libraries still form the nucleus of the New York Public Library system in New York City, with 31 of the original 39 buildings still in operation. Also, the main library and eighteen branches of the Pittsburgh public library system are Carnegie libraries. The public library system there is named the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh.[12] In the late 1940s, the Carnegie Corporation of New York arranged for microfilming of the correspondence files relating to Andrew Carnegie's gifts and grants to communities for the public libraries and church organs. They then discarded the original materials. The microfilms are open for research as part of the Carnegie Corporation of New York Records collection [13], residing at Columbia University Rare Book and Manuscript Library. Unfortunately archivists did not microfilm photographs and blueprints of the Carnegie The Historical Society of Washington, D.C. is located in a former Libraries. The number and nature of documents within Carnegie library and is on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places the correspondence files varies widely. Such documents may include correspondence, completed applications and questionnaires, newspaper clippings, illustrations, and building dedication programs. UK correspondence files relating to individual libraries have been preserved in Edinburgh (see the article List of Carnegie libraries in Europe). Beginning in the 1930s, some libraries were meticulously measured, documented and photographed under the Historic American Building Survey (HABS) program of the National Park Service,[14] and other documentation has

Interior of the Carnegie library in Cincinnati, Ohio, with the typical open stacks and centrally located librarian's desk.

Carnegie library been collected by local historical societies. Many of the Carnegie libraries in the United States, whatever their current uses, have been recognized by listing on the National Register of Historic Places.


Lists of Carnegie libraries

List of Carnegie libraries in Africa, the Caribbean and Oceania List of Carnegie libraries in Canada List of Carnegie libraries in Europe List of Carnegie libraries in the United States

[1] Paula D. Watson, Founding Mothers: The Contribution of Womens Organizations to Public Library Development in the United States, Library Quarterly, Vol. 64, Issue 3, 1994, p.236 [2] Teva Scheer, The Praxis Side of the Equation: Club Women and American Public Administration, Administrative Theory & Praxis, Vol. 24, Issue 3, 2002, p.525 [3] Andrew Carnegie, "The Best Fields for Philanthropy" (http:/ / cdl. library. cornell. edu/ cgi-bin/ moa/ moa-cgi?notisid=ABQ7578-0149-83), The North American Review, Volume 149, Issue 397, December, 1889 from the Cornell University Library website [4] This library has been discussed in Cheryl Knott Malone's essay, "Houston's Colored Carnegie Library, 19071922", which while still in manuscript won the Justin Winsor Prize in 1997. Accessed on-line August 2008 in a revised version (http:/ / www. gslis. utexas. edu/ ~landc/ fulltext/ LandC_34_2_Malone. pdf) [5] Mausolf, Lisa B.; Elizabeth Durfee Hengen (2007), Edward Lippincott Tilton: A Monograph on His Architectural Practice (http:/ / www. library. vanderbilt. edu/ peabody/ about/ Tiltonmonograph. pdf), , retrieved 2011-09-28, "Many of these were Carnegie Libraries, public libraries built between 1886 and 1917 with funds provided by Andrew Carnegie or the Carnegie Corporation of New York. In all, Carnegie funding was provided for 1,681 public library buildings in 1,412 U.S. communities, with additional libraries abroad. Increasingly after 1908, Carnegie library commissions tended to be in the hands of a relatively small number of firms that specialized in library design. Tilton benefited from a friendship with James Bertram, who was responsible for reviewing plans for Carnegie-financed library buildings. Although the Carnegie program left the hiring of an architect to local officials, Bertrams personal letters of introduction gave Tilton a distinct advantage. As a result, Tilton won a large number of comparatively modest Carnegie library commissions, primarily in the northeast. Typically, Tilton furnished all plans, working drawings, details and specifications and then associated with a local architect who would supervise construction and receive 5% of Tiltons commission." [6] "Andrew Carnegie: A Tribute: Colonel James Anderson" (http:/ / www. clpgh. org/ exhibit/ anderson. html), Exhibit, Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh [7] Bobinski, p. 191 [8] Al Andry, "New Life for Historic Libraries" (http:/ / www. cincypost. com/ news/ 1999/ carn101199. html), The Cincinnati Post, October 11, 1999 [9] The Carnegie Corporation and South Africa: Non-European Library Services (http:/ / sentra. ischool. utexas. edu/ ~lcr/ archive/ fulltext/ LandC_34_1_Rochester. pdf) Libraries & Culture, Volume 34, No. 1 (http:/ / sentra. ischool. utexas. edu/ ~lcr/ archive/ landc-toc-v34-no1. php) (Winter 1999), from the University of Texas at Austin [10] Strum, Charles (March 02, 1992), "BELLEVILLE JOURNAL; Restoring Heritage and Raising Hopes for Future" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1992/ 03/ 02/ nyregion/ belleville-journal-restoring-heritage-and-raising-hopes-for-future. html?src=pm), The New York Times, , retrieved 2011-09-29, "Dr. George Bobinksi, dean of the School of Information and Library Studies at the State University at Buffalo, says 1,681 libraries were built with Carnegie money, mostly between 1898 and 1917.In a survey, he found that at least 1,554 of the buildings still exist, with only 911 of these still in use as public libraries. At least 276 of the survivors are unchanged, while 243 have been demolished, 286 have been expanded and 175 have been remodeled. Others have been turned into condominiums, community centers or shops." [11] "Carnegie libraries by state" (http:/ / www. ava. org/ clubs/ holyfamilywalkers/ list_of_carnegie_libraries. pdf). American Volksporting Association. 1996. . Retrieved 2011-10-03. [12] http:/ / www. carnegielibrary. org/ [13] http:/ / www. columbia. edu/ cu/ lweb/ indiv/ rbml/ collections/ carnegie/ index. html [14] Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record (HABS/HAER) (http:/ / lcweb2. loc. gov/ ammem/ collections/ habs_haer/ ), Permanent Collection, American Memory from the Library of Congress

Carnegie library


Molly Skeen (March 5, 2004) "How America's Carnegie Libraries Adapt to Survive" (http://www.nationaltrust. org/Magazine/archives/arch_story/030504.htm), Preservation Online. December 10, 2002. "Yorkville Library Celebrates Centennial" (http://www.nypl.org/press/ yorkvillecentennial.cfm), The New York Public Library. Michael Lorenzen (1999). "Deconstructing the Carnegie Libraries: The Sociological Reasons Behind Carnegie's Millions to Public Libraries" (http://www.lib.niu.edu/ipo/1999/il990275.html), Illinois Libraries. 81, no. 2: 7578. Theodore Jones (1997). Carnegie Libraries Across America: A Public Legacy, John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-14422-3 George Bobinski (1969). Carnegie Libraries: Their History and Impact on American Public Library Development, American Library Association. ISBN 0-8389-0022-4 Brendan Grimes (1998). Irish Carnegie Libraries: A catalogue and architectural history, Irish Academic Press. ISBN 0-7165-2618-2 Nasaw, David. Andrew Carnegie. New York: Penguin Press, 2006.

External links
Carnegie Collections (http://www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/indiv/rbml/units/carnegie/) from the Columbia University Library System website "Carnegie Libraries: The Future Made Bright" (http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/50carnegie/ 50carnegie.htm), National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan Selected websites for Carnegie Libraries in specific countries or U.S. states American Volksporting Association 1996 survey of Carnegie libraries in USA/Columbia University archives (http://www.ava.org/clubs/holyfamilywalkers/list_of_carnegie_libraries.pdf) UK and Ireland (http://www.ambaile.org.uk/en/item/item_page.jsp?item_id=17414) Scotland (http://www.scotcities.com/carnegie/) Puerto Rico (http://www.puertadetierra.info/edificios/biblio/biblioteca.htm) (Spanish) California (http://www.carnegie-libraries.org/) Florida (http://www.flheritage.com/services/magazine/00summer/carnegie.cfm) Michigan (http://web.archive.org/web/20071006065616/http://www.cterwilliger.com/resource/ carnegie/) New England Carnegies (http://www.necarnegies.com) Oklahoma (http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/C/CA058.html) South Carolina (http://www.libsci.sc.edu/histories/vts/vts11.html) Wisconsin (http://heritage.wisconsinlibraries.org/carnegie-libraries.html)

Bodleian Library


Bodleian Library
Bodleian Library

Entrance to the Library, with the coats-of-arms of several Oxford colleges Country Type Established Location United Kingdom Academic library 1602 Broad Street, Oxford Collection Items collected Size Legal deposit books, journals, newspapers, magazines, sound and music recordings, maps, prints, drawings and manuscripts 11 million volumes [1]

Included in the Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003 Access and use

Access requirements Old Schools Quadrangle, Divinity School, Exhibition Room and Bodleian Library Gift Shop open to the public Members Students and fellows of University of Oxford Other information Director Website Sarah E. Thomas www.bodley.ox.ac.uk [2]

Location of the Old Library within central Oxford

Bodleian Library The Bodleian Library ( /bdlin/ or /bdlin/), the main research library of the University of Oxford, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe, and in Britain is second in size only to the British Library. Known to Oxford scholars as Bodley or simply the Bod, under the Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003 it is one of six legal deposit libraries for works published in the United Kingdom[3] [4] and under Irish Law it is entitled to request a copy of each book published in the Republic of Ireland.[5] Though University members may borrow some books from dependent libraries (such as the Radcliffe Science Library),[6] the Bodleian operates principally as a reference library and in general documents may not be removed from the reading rooms.


Sites and regulations

The Library occupies a group of five buildings near Broad Street: these range in date from the late medieval Duke Humfrey's Library to the New Bodleian of the 1930s. Since the 19th century a number of underground stores have been built below parts of these. Today, the Bodleian also includes several off-site storage areas as well as many other libraries in central Oxford: Alexander Library of Ornithology Bodleian Chinese Studies Library Bodleian Education Library Bodleian Health Care Libraries Bodleian Japanese Library Bodleian Latin American Centre Library Bodleian Law Library Bodleian Library of Commonwealth and African Studies at Rhodes House Bodleian Music Faculty Library Bodleian Oriental Institute Library Bodleian Philosophy Faculty Library Bodleian Social Science Library Bodleian Theology Faculty Library English Faculty Library History Faculty Library Radcliffe Science Library Rewley House Continuing Education Library Sackler Library Sainsbury Library at the Sad Business School Sherardian Library of Plant Taxonomy Social and Cultural Anthropology Library Taylor Institution Main Library Taylor Institution Modern Languages Faculty Library Taylor Bodleian Slavonic and Modern Greek Library Vere Harmsworth Library (Rothermere American Institute) Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine Library

Bodleian Library


Before being granted access to the library, new readers are required to agree to a formal declaration. This declaration was traditionally oral, but is now usually made by signing a letter to the same effect ceremonies in which readers recite the declaration are still performed for those who wish to take them, these occur primarily at the start of the University's Michaelmas term. The English text of the declaration is as follows: I hereby undertake not to remove from the Library, nor to mark, deface, or injure in any way, any volume, document or other object belonging to it or in its custody; not to bring into the Library, or kindle therein, any fire or flame, and not to smoke in the Library; and I promise to obey all rules of the Library. This is a translation of the traditional Latin oath (the original version of which did not forbid tobacco smoking, though libraries were then unheated because fires were so hazardous).[7]

14th and 15th centuries

Whilst the Bodleian Library, in its current incarnation, has a continuous history dating back to 1602, its roots date back even further. The first purpose-built library known to have existed in Oxford was founded in the fourteenth century by Thomas Cobham, Bishop of Worcester. This small collection of chained books was situated above the north side of the University Church of St Mary the Virgin on the High Street.[8] [9] This collection continued to grow steadily, but when, between 1435 and 1437 Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester (brother of Henry V of England), donated a great collection of manuscripts, the space was deemed insufficient and a larger building was required. A suitable room was finally built above the Divinity School, and completed in 1488. This room continues to be known as Duke Humfreys Library.[10]

Sir Thomas Bodley and the re-founding of the University Library

The late sixteenth century saw the library go through a period of decline (to the extent that the librarys furniture was sold, and only three of the original books belonging to Duke Humfrey remained in the collection).[10] It was not until 1598 that the library began to thrive once more, when Thomas Bodley (a former fellow of Merton College) wrote to the Vice Chancellor of the University offering to support the development of the library: "where there hath bin hertofore a publike library in Oxford: which you know is apparent by the rome it self remayning, and by your statute records I will take the charge and cost upon me, to reduce it again to his former use."[11] Duke Humfreys Library was refitted, and Bodley donated a number of his own books to furnish it. The library was formally re-opened on 8 November 1602 under the name Bodleian Library (officially Bodley's Library).[10] Bodleys collecting interests were varied; according to the library's historian Ian Philip, as early as June 1603 he was attempting to source manuscripts from Turkey, and it was during the same year that the first Chinese book was acquired.[12] In 1610, Bodley made an agreement with the Stationers' Company in London to put a copy of every book registered with them in the library. The Bodleian collection grew so fast that the building was expanded between 16101612, (known as the Arts End) and again in 16341637. When John Selden died in 1654, he left the Bodleian his large collection of books and manuscripts. The later addition to Duke Humfreys Library continues to be known as the "Selden End".

Bodleian Library


Schools Quadrangle and Tower of the Five Orders

By the time of Bodleys death in 1612, further expansion to the library was being planned. The Schools Quadrangle (sometimes referred to as the "Old Schools Quadrangle", or the "Old Library") was built between 1613 and 1619 by adding three wings to the Proscholium and Arts End. Its tower forms the main entrance to the library, and is known as the Tower of the Five Orders. The Tower is so named because it is ornamented, in ascending order, with the columns of each of the five orders of classical architecture: Doric, Tuscan, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite. The three wings of the quadrangle have three floors: rooms on the ground and upper floors of the quadrangle (excluding Duke Humfreys library, above the Divinity School) were originally used as lecture space and an art gallery. The lecture rooms are still indicated by the inscriptions over the doors (see illustration). As the librarys collections expanded, these rooms were gradually taken over. One of the schools is now used to host exhibitions of the librarys treasures, whilst the others are used as offices and meeting rooms for the library administrators.

Doorway to the Schola Moralis Philosophiae (School of Moral Philosophy) at the Bodleian Library (now the staff entrance to the Schools Quadrangle)

Later 17th and 18th centuries

The agreement with the Stationers' Company meant that the growth of stock was constant and there were also a number of large bequests and acquisitions for other reasons. Until the establishment of the British Museum in 1753 the Bodleian was effectively the national library of England. By then the Bodleian, Cambridge University Library and the Royal Library were the most extensive book collections in England and Wales. The astronomer Thomas Hornsby observed the transit of Venus from the tower of the five orders in 1769.[13]

Radcliffe Camera

By the late 18th century, further growth of the library demanded more expansion space. In 1860, the library was allowed to take over the adjacent building, known as the Radcliffe Camera. In 1861, the librarys medical and scientific collections were transferred to the Radcliffe Science Library, which had been built farther north next to the University Museum.

The Tower of the Five Orders, as viewed from the entrance to the Divinity School, OxfordDivinity School

Bodleian Library


Clarendon Building
The Clarendon Building was designed by Nicholas Hawksmoor and was built between 1711 and 1715, originally to house the printing presses of the Oxford University Press. It was vacated by the Press in the early nineteenth century, and used by the university for administrative purposes. In 1975 it was handed over to the Bodleian Library, and now provides office and meeting space for senior members of staff.[14]
The courtyard of the Bodleian Library from the south entrance, looking to the north entrance

Twentieth century and after

In 1911, the Copyright Act[15] (now superseded by the Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003) continued the Stationers' agreement by making the Bodleian one of the six (at that time) libraries covering legal deposit in the United Kingdom where a copy of each book copyrighted must be deposited. Between 1909 and 1912, an underground bookstack was constructed beneath the Radcliffe Camera and Radcliffe Square.[16] In 1914, the total number of books in the librarys collections breached the 1 million mark.[17] By the 1920s, the Library needed further expansion space, and in 1937 building work began on the New Bodleian building, opposite the Clarendon Building on the north-east corner of Broad Street. The New Bodleian was designed by architect Sir Giles Gilbert Scott. Construction was completed in 1940. The building was of an The Radcliffe Camera, viewed from the innovative ziggurat design, with 60% of the bookstack below ground University Church level.[18] [19] A tunnel under Broad Street connects the Old and New Bodleian buildings, and contains a pedestrian walkway, a mechanical book conveyor and a pneumatic Lamson tube system which was used for book orders until an electronic automated stack request system was introduced in 2002.[20] The Lamson tube system was used by readers requesting manuscripts to be delivered to Duke Humfreys Library until it was turned off in July 2009. In 2010, it was announced that the conveyor, which has been transporting books under Broad Street since the 1940s would be shut down and dismantled. The shutdown date is 20 August 2010.[21] [22] The New Bodleian closed on 29 July 2011.

Present and future of the libraries

The Bodleian Group now cares for some 11million items on 117miles of shelving, and has a staff of over 400.[17] It is the second largest library in the UK (behind the British Library). The continued growth of the library has resulted in a severe shortage of storage space. Over 1.5million items are currently stored in locations outside Oxford, including a disused salt mine in Cheshire.[23] In 2007 and 2008, in an effort to obtain better and more capacious storage facilities for the librarys collections, Oxford University Library Services (OULS) tried to obtain planning permission to build a new book depository on the Osney Mead site, to the south west of Oxford city centre.

Bodleian Library However, this application was unsuccessful and the new Book Storage Facility was instead constructed at a site on the outskirts of Swindon.[24] This Book Storage Facility, which cost 26 million, opened in October 2010 and has 153 miles (246 kilometres) of shelving, including 3,224 bays with 95,000 shelf levels, and 600 map cabinets to hold 1.2 million maps and other items.[25] There are also plans to remodel the New Bodleian building, to provide improved storage facilities for rare and fragile material, as well as better facilities for readers and visitors.[26] In March 2010 the group of libraries known collectively as "Oxford University Library Services" was renamed "The Bodleian Libraries", thus allowing those Oxford members outside the Bodleian to acquire the gloss of the Bodleian brand, albeit with some loss of their own identities in an Oxford in which the Bodleian has sometimes been seen as overshadowing other important libraries within the University.[27]


Copyright and preservation of material

The library operates a strict policy on copyright. Until fairly recently, personal photocopying of library material was not permitted, as there was concern that copying and excessive handling would result in damage. However individuals may now copy most material produced after 1900, and a staff-mediated service is provided for certain types of material dated between 1801 and 1900. Handheld scanners and digital cameras are also permitted for use on most post-1900 publications and digital cameras may also be used, with permission, with older material.[28] The Library will supply digital scans of most pre-1801 material. Microform copies have been made of many of the most fragile items in the library's collection, and these are substituted for the originals whenever possible. The library has a close relationship with the Oxford Digital Library, which is in the process of digitising some of the many rare and unusual items in the University's collection.

Treasures of the library

Manuscript collections The Ashmole Manuscripts (including the Ashmole Bestiary), collected by Elias Ashmole The Carte Manuscripts, collected by Thomas Carte (16861754) The Douce Manuscripts, donated to the library by Sir Francis Douce in 1834 The Laud Manuscripts, donated to the library by Archbishop William Laud between 1635 and 1640 The letters of the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley.

Individual manuscripts The Codex Bodley The Codex Ebnerianus The Codex Laudianus The Codex Laud The Codex Mendoza The Codex Tischendorfianus III The Codex Tischendorfianus IV The Huntington MS 17, the oldest manuscript with complete text of the four Gospels in Bohairic (Coptic). The Magna Carta (four copies) The Song of Roland. The Vernon Manuscript (Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Eng. poet.a.1), the longest and most important surviving manuscript written in Middle English.[29] [30]

Individual printed books A Gutenberg Bible, ca. 1455, one of only 42 surviving complete copies. Shakespeare's First folio, 1623

Bodleian Library


Bodley's Librarians
The head of the Bodleian Library is known as "Bodley's Librarian". The first librarian, Thomas James, was selected by Bodley in 1599, and the university confirmed James in his post in 1602.[31] [32] Bodley wanted his librarian to be "some one that is noted and knowen for a diligent Student, and in all his conuersation to be trustie, actiue, and discreete, a graduat also and a Linguist, not encombred with mariage, nor with a benefice of Cure",[33] although James was able to persuade Bodley to let him get married and to become Rector of St Aldate's Church, Oxford.[32] In all, 24 people have served as Bodley's Librarian; their levels of diligence have varied over the years. Thomas Lockey (16601665) was regarded as not fit for the post,[34] John Hudson (17011719) has been described as "negligent if not incapable",[35] and John Price (17681813) was accused by a contemporary scholar of "a regular and constant neglect of his duty".[36] The current Librarian, Sarah Thomas, was appointed in 2007; she is the first woman to hold the position, and the second Librarian (after her predecessor, Reginald Carr) also to be Director of Oxford University Library Services. Thomas, an American, is also the first foreign librarian to run the Bodleian.[37]

Cultural associations
Novels The Bodleian is used as background scenery in Dorothy L. Sayers Gaudy Night, features in Michael White's Equinox, and is one of the libraries consulted by Christine Greenaway (one of Bodley's librarians) in Colin Dexter's Inspector Morse novel The Wench is Dead. The denouement of Michael Innes's Operation Pax (1951) is set in an imaginary version of the underground bookstack, reached at night by sliding down the 'Mendip cleft', a chute concealed in Radcliffe Square. Since J.R.R. Tolkien had studied philology at Oxford and eventually became a professor, he was very familiar with the Red Book of Hergest which is kept at the Bodleian on behalf of Jesus College. Tolkien later created his own fictional Red Book of Westmarch telling the story of The Lord of the Rings. Many of Tolkien's manuscripts are now at the library. Historian and novelist Deborah Harkness, set much of the early part of her 2011 novel, A Discovery of Witches, in the Bodleian, particularly the Seldon End. The novel also features one of the library's Ashmolean manuscripts (Ashmole 782) as a central element of the book. Location filming The Library's fine architecture has made it a favourite location for filmmakers, representing either Oxford University or other locations. It can be seen in Brideshead Revisited (1981 TV serial), Another Country (1984), The Madness of King George III (1994), and the first two Harry Potter films, in which the Divinity School doubles as the Hogwarts hospital wing and Duke Humfrey's Library as the Hogwarts library.[38] In The New World (2005), the library edifice is portrayed as the entrance to the Royal Court of the English monarchy. The Bodleian also featured in the Inspector Morse televised spin off Lewis, in the episode "And the Moonbeams Kiss the Sea", where a murder takes place in the basement. Quotation Also, the first few words of the Latin version of the reader's promise seen above (Do fidem me nullum librum vel) can be found on the linguist's hat in the 1996 miniseries Gulliver's Travels.[39]

Bodleian Library


[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] "Meet Bodley's Librarian" (http:/ / www. ouls. ox. ac. uk/ bodley/ about/ librarian). Bodleian Library. . Retrieved 13 January 2009. http:/ / www. bodley. ox. ac. uk Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003 Agency for the Legal Deposit Libraries (http:/ / www. llgc. org. uk/ aldl/ ) S198(5) Copyright and Related Rights Act 2000 "Borrowing Science Portal" (http:/ / www. ouls. ox. ac. uk/ science/ services/ borrowing). Oxford University Library Services. . Retrieved 2009-11-09. [7] Latin oath:- Do fidem me nullum librum vel instrumentum aliamve quam rem ad bibliothecam pertinentem, vel ibi custodiae causa depositam, aut e bibliotheca sublaturum esse, aut foedaturum deformaturum aliove quo modo laesurum; item neque ignem nec flammam in bibliothecam inlaturum vel in ea accensurum, neque fumo nicotiano aliove quovis ibi usurum; item promitto me omnes leges ad bibliothecam Bodleianam attinentes semper observaturum esse. (Leges bibliothecae bodleianae alta voce praelegendae custodis iussu). One early reader bequeathed a fur coat to the library to help future readers. [8] Philip, Ian (1983) The Bodleian Library in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Oxford: Clarendon Press ISBN 0198224842; p. 5 [9] The Bodleian Library. London: Jarrold & Sons, 1976 ISBN 0900177624. [10] The Bodleian Library 1976. See also Bodleian history page at http:/ / www. ouls. ox. ac. uk/ bodley/ about/ history [11] Philip, Ian (1983); p. 1 [12] Philip, Ian (1983); p. 19 [13] University of Oxford: Museum of the History of Science, The most noble problem in nature: the transit of Venus in the eighteenth century (http:/ / www. mhs. ox. ac. uk/ venus/ html/ exhibition/ oxford-observations. htm) online catalogue of an exhibition held in 2004 [14] Jenkins, S. Clarendon Building (http:/ / www. headington. org. uk/ oxon/ broad/ buildings/ south/ clarendon. htm). Accessed 2007-02-10. [15] Text of the 1911 act (http:/ / www. statutelaw. gov. uk/ content. aspx?LegType=All+ Legislation& title=copyright& Year=1911& searchEnacted=0& extentMatchOnly=0& confersPower=0& blanketAmendment=0& sortAlpha=0& TYPE=QS& PageNumber=1& NavFrom=0& parentActiveTextDocId=1069516& ActiveTextDocId=1069516& filesize=20690) [16] Oxford University Library Services: A university library for the 21st century: an exhibition of proposals by the oxford university library services (OULS), (University of Oxford, 2005) http:/ / www. ouls. ox. ac. uk/ __data/ assets/ pdf_file/ 1878/ A1_Boards_Sept_2005_COMPLETE_1_to_9. pdf , accessed: 2006-02-09. [17] Oxford University Library Services: A university library for the 21st century: an exhibition of proposals by the oxford university library services (OULS), (University of Oxford, 2005) http:/ / www. ouls. ox. ac. uk/ __data/ assets/ pdf_file/ 1878/ A1_Boards_Sept_2005_COMPLETE_1_to_9. pdf , accessed: 2006-02-09. [18] Oxford University Gazette: A university library for the twenty-first century: a report to Congregation by the Curators of the University Libraries, (University of Oxford, 2005-22-09) http:/ / www. ox. ac. uk/ gazette/ 2005-6/ supps/ 1_4743. htm , accessed: 2006-02-09. [19] Craster, H. H. E. (1941) "The Bodleian Library Extension Scheme", in: Bulletin of the John Rylands Library; vol. 25, pp. 83-96 [20] University of Oxford Systems and Electronic Resources Service: http:/ / www. sers. ox. ac. uk/ aboutsers. html, accessed 2007-02-10 [21] Cherwell - News - Radical revamp approved by Council (http:/ / www. cherwell. org/ content/ 10582) [22] Project Information - Bodleian Libraries (http:/ / www. bodleian. ox. ac. uk/ about/ buildings/ underground-bookstore/ details) [23] "Bodleian preparing to move stock to salt mine" (http:/ / www. cherwell. org/ news/ bodleian_preparing_to_move_stock_to_salt_mine). Cherwell. . Retrieved 2007-02-26. Updated numbers can be found here (http:/ / www. ouls. ox. ac. uk/ about/ librarian) (accessed 2009-12-28). [24] Book Storage Facility (http:/ / www. ouls. ox. ac. uk/ about/ buildings/ book_storage_facility) from the University of Oxford website (accessed 2009-12-28) [25] "Vast bookstore opens as famed library runs out of space" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ education-11484494), BBC News, 6 October 2010 [26] Oxford University Library Services: Buildings Update: http:/ / www. ouls. ox. ac. uk/ buildings, accessed 2007-02-10. See also http:/ / www. ouls. ox. ac. uk/ about/ buildings/ new_bodleian, accessed 2009-12-28. [27] OULS changes name to BODLEIAN LIBRARIES - Bodleian Libraries (http:/ / www. bodleian. ox. ac. uk/ notices/ 2010_mar_02) [28] See Bodleian Library photocopying regulations: http:/ / www. bodley. ox. ac. uk/ dept/ readerserv/ copyingservices. htm#Self-service_photocopying, accessed 2007-02-09. [29] "The Vernon Manuscript Project" (http:/ / www. medievalenglish. bham. ac. uk/ vernon/ ). University of Birmingham. . Retrieved 15 December 2009. [30] "Digital facsimile edition, October 2009" (http:/ / www. evellum. com/ index. html?vernon/ index. html). EVellum. . Retrieved 15 December 2009. [31] Salter, H. E.; Lobel, Mary D., eds (1954). "The Bodleian Library" (http:/ / www. british-history. ac. uk/ report. aspx?compid=63865). A History of the County of Oxford Volume III The University of Oxford (http:/ / www. british-history. ac. uk/ source. aspx?pubid=543). Victoria County History. Institute of Historical Research, University of London. pp.4447. ISBN9780712910644. . Retrieved 5 January 2010. [32] Roberts, R. Julian (2004). "James, Thomas (1572/31629)" (http:/ / www. oxforddnb. com/ view/ article/ 14619). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. . Retrieved 2 January 2010.

Bodleian Library
[33] Madan, Falconer (1919). The Bodleian Library at Oxford (http:/ / www. archive. org/ details/ bodleianlibrarya00mada). Duckworth & Co. p.18. . [34] Bradley, E. T.; Ramsay, Nigel (2004). "Lockey, Thomas (1602?1679)" (http:/ / www. oxforddnb. com/ view/ article/ 16898). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. . Retrieved 2 January 2010. [35] Harmsen, Theodor (2004). "Hudson, John (16621719)" (http:/ / www. oxforddnb. com/ view/ article/ 14034). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. . Retrieved 2 January 2010. [36] Vaisey, David (2004). "Price, John (17351813)" (http:/ / www. oxforddnb. com/ view/ article/ 22757). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. . Retrieved 4 January 2010. [37] Garner, Richard (21 February 2007). "A double-first at the Bodleian library as US woman takes over" (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ news/ uk/ this-britain/ a-doublefirst-at-the-bodleian-library-as-us-woman-takes-over-437195. html). The Independent. . Retrieved 5 January 2010. [38] Leonard, Bill, The Oxford of Inspector Morse Location Guides, Oxford (2004) p. 203 ISBN 0-9547671-1-X. [39] Latin oath:- Do fidem me nullum librum vel instrumentum aliamve quam rem ad bibliothecam pertinentem, vel ibi custodiae causa depositam, aut e bibliotheca sublaturum esse, aut foedaturum deformaturum aliove quo modo laesurum; item neque ignem nec flammam in bibliothecam inlaturum vel in ea accensurum, neque fumo nicotiano aliove quovis ibi usurum; item promitto me omnes leges ad bibliothecam Bodleianam attinentes semper observaturum esse. ("Leges bibliothecae bodleianae alta voce praelegendae custodis iussu").


Further reading
Craster, H. H. E. (1952) History of the Bodleian Library. London: O.U.P. Price, Henry Clarke (16 November 2007). "The Bod's Secret Underbelly" (http://www.cherwell.org/content. php?id=709). Cherwell. Retrieved 2008-12-18.

External links
Bodleian Library (http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/) (official website) Oxford Digital Library (http://www.odl.ox.ac.uk) Oxford University Library Services (http://www.ouls.ox.ac.uk) The European Library (http://www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/) Works by or about the Bodleian Library (http://worldcat.org/identities/lccn-n80-20306) in libraries (WorldCat catalog)

International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions


International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions

The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) is the leading international association of library organisations. It is the global voice of the library and information profession, and its annual conference provides a venue for librarians to learn from one another. The IFLA forum promotes international cooperation, research and development in all fields related to library activities. A very important and close partner of the IFLA is UNESCO. Several of the manifestos prepared by committees of the IFLA have been recognized as UNESCO manifestos.[1]

IFLA was founded in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1927 when library associations from 14 European countries and the United States signed a resolution at the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Library Association of the United Kingdom. Isak Collijn, head of the National Library of Sweden, was elected the first president. The first constitution was approved in Rome in 1929 during the World Congress of Librarianship and Bibliography.[2] During the 1930s the first library associations from outside Europe and the US joined, these being China, India, Japan, Mexico and the Philippines. By 1958 membership had grown to 64 associations from 42 countries. A permanent secretariat was established in 1962. By 1970 there were 250 members from 52 countries. The secretariat was moved to The Hague in 1971. By 1974 IFLA membership had become virtually global with 600 members in 100 countries.[2] Membership criteria were expanded beyond library associations in 1976 to include institutions, i.e. libraries, library schools and bibliographic institutes. At this time, the word Institutions was added to the organisation's name. Since then further new categories of membership have been created, including personal affiliates.[2] IFLA has now grown to over 1,700 members in 155 countries. It is headquartered in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, the National Library of the Netherlands, in The Hague.

IFLA's objectives are: To represent librarianship in matters of international interest To promote the continuing education of library personnel To develop, maintain and promote guidelines for library services

Core values
The objectives are informed by the following core values: The endorsement of the principles of freedom of expression embodied in Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights The belief that people, communities and organizations need universal and equitable access to information, ideas and works of imagination for their social, educational, cultural, democratic and economic well-being The conviction that delivery of high quality library and information services helps guarantee that access The commitment to enable all Members of the Federation to engage in, and benefit from, its activities without regard to citizenship, disability, ethnic origin, gender, geographical location, language, political philosophy, race or religion. Committee on Free Access to Information and Freedom of Expression (FAIFE)

International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions One of the core activities of IFLA is the Committee on Free Access to Information and Freedom of Expression [3], which monitors the state of intellectual freedom within the library community worldwide, supports IFLA policy development and co-operation with other international human rights organisations, and responds to violations of free access to information and freedom of expression. IFLA/FAIFE is a member of the International Freedom of Expression Exchange, a global network of non-governmental organisations that monitors freedom of expression worldwide. It is also a member of the Tunisia Monitoring Group, a coalition of 16 free expression organisations that lobbies the Tunisian government to improve its human rights record.


[1] http:/ / www. goethe. de/ wis/ bib/ fdk/ en5765215. htm IFLA: The International Federation of Libraries [2] Henry, Carol. "International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions", World Encyclopedia of Library and Information Services ed. Wedgeworth, Robert. 3rd ed. 1993. Pages 378382. ISBN 0838906095, 9780838906095. [3] http:/ / ifla. org/ faife/ index. htm

External links
IFLA website (http://www.ifla.org) IFLA Journal (http://ifl.sagepub.com)

Article Sources and Contributors


Article Sources and Contributors

Library Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=451694304 Contributors: (aeropagitica), 05Ric59, 123pierty, 15JGraves, 1exec1, 21655, 4I7.4I7, 4pertable, 4twenty42o, 9258fahsflkh917fas, ALBERT ARBABIAN, Abce2, Abdullais4u, Absolutely Trustworthy, Acather96, Acjaeckel, Acroterion, AdRock, Adam McMaster, AdamRetchless, Ahoerstemeier, AlCreed, Alain Caraco, AlainV, Alanscottwalker, Alansohn, AleXd, AlexA95, Alexius08, AlexiusHoratius, AlimanRuna, AlotToLearn, Alperen, Alynna Kasmira, Anarchitect, Andre Engels, Andres rojas22, Andrewpmk, Andy, AndyAnn, Andycjp, Angry candy, Annohj, Antandrus, Anubhavk1980, Aquarius Rising, Arnero, Arolga, Artdhtml, Arthur3030, Ashlandgeek, Asyndeton, Atif.t2, Audrey, AxelBoldt, AzaToth, BD2412, BUY ME A WII OR I'LL CALL 911, Bahnfrend, Baranwalharshita, Bart133, Bcasterline, Bdelisle, Beetstra, Beland, Belovedfreak, Benjfrank, Benoni, Bigred16, Biker Biker, Billinghurst, Biruitorul, Blakesterz, Bluemancope, Bluemask, Bob5002, Bobo192, Bongwarrior, Boywiz, Brakel, Brakendeath, Breedimm, Brighterorange, BrokenSegue, Brufas, Burntsauce, Bushums, CDN99, CIreland, CSWarren, Calimo, Camerong, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Canaima, CanisRufus, Captain panda, Carlossuarez46, Cat12, Catfoo, CatherineMunro, Cburnett, Ceoil, ChaTo, Chickenboy55, Chipbruce, Chocolategumandredraspberry, Chongkian, Christopher Kraus, Ciacchi, Cimon Avaro, Circeus, Cispare, Clareeh, ClaudineChionh, Cleared as filed, Clpda, Cmapm, Code E, CommonsDelinker, Computor, Conversion script, Cool Blue, Courcelles, Creidieki, CryptoDerk, Cybercobra, CyrilB, Czolgolz, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, DGG, DGtal, DMacks, DVdm, Daniel C. 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Tobin, Tonker83, Tpbradbury, Treisijs, Trusilver, Tsca, Tsukaji, Tunseeker1, Turkeyphant, Twaingirl, Twsx, Ulric1313, Unauthorized Guest Librarian, UnfriendlyFire, UnlinedPage, Unscented, Uomodis08, VampWillow, Vanished User 1004, Vanita khanchandani, Vanka5, Vicki Rosenzweig, Vikingdude21, VilleS, Violetriga, Vranak, Vsmith, WODUP, Waltless, Wavelength, Wayiran, Wayne Slam, Wbalderaz, Weeliljimmy, Wesley, WestBoston, Westbender, Wetman, Whimemsz, WhisperToMe, White Shadows, WikHead, Wiki Raja, Wiki alf, WikiMan225, WikipedianMarlith, Wikiwrecker97, Will Beback, Willdcraze, Winchelsea, Wing1207, Wisdum, Wnissen, Woohookitty, Wordbuilder, Words for the wind, Wrs1864, XXxMotorBabyxXx, Xbxg32000, Y2kcrazyjoker4, Yamaguchi, Yamamoto Ichiro, Yekrats, YellowMonkey, Yidisheryid, Yinon, Yllosubmarine, Yonatan, Yst, Zhou Yu, Zidonuke, Zlite, Zollerriia, Zondor, Zqui, Zsinj, Zzuuzz, 853 anonymous edits Book Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=454555993 Contributors: 011110dog, 1jorge1, 2005, 2015magroan, 30291z, 5 albert square, 7510pooper, 95j, A hobo, ALargeElk, AP1787, Aarktica, Abc's luver, Abce2, Abdullais4u, Abeg92, Absolutely Trustworthy, Abu-Fool Danyal ibn Amir al-Makhiri, Academic Challenger, Access Denied, Acebulf, Acegilm, Acroterion, ActivExpression, Addihockey10, Aeons, Aethralis, Aetylus, After Midnight, Agamemnus, AgentPeppermint, Ahoerstemeier, AirdishStraus, Airsoft200516, Ajraddatz, Akradecki, Aladdin Sane, AlainV, AlanaMyna, Alansohn, Alborz Fallah, Alethiophile, Alex Bakharev, AlexA95, AlexiusHoratius, Alfirin, Alphachimp, Amaltsev, Amillar, Amma97, Amoah larbi, Amplitude101, Ancheta Wis, Andoceo, Andonic, Andre Engels, Andreas Kaganov, Andres, AndriuZ, Androlia999, Andyyy, AngelovdS, Angoww, Anguis, Animum, Anna Frodesiak, Anna Lincoln, Annammas, Anonymous Dissident, Antandrus, Aoaaoa, Apparition11, Aquatics, ArglebargleIV, ArielGold, Arlen22, Arnon Chaffin, Arshia94, AshLin, Ashot Gabrielyan, Aude, Aurora.catalog, Austinkelley123, Avenged Eightfold, Averross, Avicennasis, Avoided, AxelBoldt, Ayewhanthedon, BD2412, BSTemple, Backslash Forwardslash, Bacon and the Sandwich, BadBull, Badonkadonk51891, Bagels1234, BalfourCentre, Bangbangmafia, Barclays2, Barek, Bart=me, Basharh, Bball2k6, Bbrarebooks, Beaubaert, Bedbugg22, Beerbellyinc, Beims1, Bella Swan, Bento00, Beta Trom, Bevo, Bhadradorje, BiT, Big baller14, Bigtimepeace, Bility, Bill Denkler, BillC, BillWSmithJr, Biscuitfacerrr, Bkell, Black Kite, Blackwasp01, Blahblah2034, Blanche of King's Lynn, Bloodshedder, Bloodyface99, Bluerasberry, Bmcm184, Bob bob bob bob 1192, Bobo192, Bogdangiusca, Bogey97, Bohm09, Boing! 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