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Industrial Training Report Research Development and Standards Organisation, Indian Railways, Lucknow.

Name Univ. Roll No. Academic Session

: GAURAV PATHAK : 0809140032 : 2011-2012







04 13 21 45

49 55 55


1.1 About Indian Railway Railways were introduced in India in April 1853. The train was first time run between Mumbai to Thane. This distance was approximately 34km. Indian railways is biggest setup of Asia and 4th position of world industry. Sixteen lakhs population associated with Indian Railway. The railway board was established in 1905. Indian Railway is divided into 16 zonal railways. Each zonal railway is headed by General Manager. These zonal railways are governed by Railway Board. CRB is head person of Railway Board and he is responsible to Ministry of Railway. CRB meets time to time with Minister of Railway and discuss the Railway matters and takes the decisions about Railway matters. The following organizations and offices are attached with Railway boardi. ii. iii. iv. v. *RDSO Training center & Recruitments Board Zonal Railways Production units Other units

*The status of RDSO has been changed from an Attached Office to Zonal Railway since 01.01.2003. The origination chart of Indian railways in concise and brief given as under

1.1.1 Organization Chart OF Indian Railways

Ministry of Rly.

Chairman of Rly. Board

Member of Rly. Board

Member Electrical

Member Staff

Member Engineering

Member Traffic

Member Mechanical

Finance Commissioner

Director General R.P.F.

Director General Rly. Health

Estt. Matters Secretary

Administrative matters Secretary

General Manager
Zonal Rly. Production Units

Others Units

16 Zonal Railway discuss in


i. C.L.W.
ii. D.L.W. iii. I.C.F. iv. R.C.F. v. D.C.W. vi. Wheel & axle plant

i. ii. iii. iv.

Metro Railway Circular Rly. COFMOW *RDSO


*The status of RDSO has been changed from an Attached Office to Zonal railway since 01.01.2003.

1.1.2 Zonal Railways and Its Head Quarters

The details of zonal railway with head quarters as underS. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Zonal Railways Northern Railway Northern East Railway Northern frontier Railway Western Railway Southern Railway South Central Railway South Eastern Railway Eastern Railway Central Railway South Western Railway Northern Western Railway Western Central Railway Northern Central Railway South Eastern Central Railway East Coast Railway Eastern Central Railway Head Quarters New Delhi Gorakhpur Guwahati Mumbai (Church Gate) Chennai Sikandrabad Kolkata Kolkata Mumbai (CST) Hooghly Jaipur Jabalpur Allahabad Bilashpur Bhubaneshwar Hazipur

1.1.3 Classification of Railway Gauge and Railway Assets

The Railway Gauge has been classified in to three categories their details with miles as underS. No. Gauge Gauging Distance Covered distance 1. 2. 3. B.G. M.G. N.G. 1.676 Meter 1.0 Meter 762 mm & 610mm 85429 Km 19158 Km 3826Km

Indian Railways are having following approximately assetsS. No 1. 2. 3. Assets Locomotive ( Diesel + Electric) Carriage Freight stocks Quantity 7,429 35,650 21,8778

1.2 Back Ground of RDSO

Their development progressed through to the twentieth century; several company managed systems grew up. To enforce standardization and co-ordination amongst various Railway systems, the Indian Railway Conference Association (IRCA) was set up in 1903, followed by the Central Standards Office (CSO) in 1930, for preparation of designs, standards and specifications. However, till independence, most of the designs and manufacture of railway equipments was entrusted to foreign consultants. With Independence and the resultant phenomenal increase in countrys industrial and economic activity, which increased the demand of rail transportation - a new organization called Railway Testing and Research Centre (RTRC) was setup in 1952 at Lucknow, for testing and conducting applied research for development of railway rolling stock, permanent way etc. Central Standards Office (CSO) and the Railway Testing and Research Centre (RTRC) were integrated into a single unit named Research Designs and Standards Organization (RDSO) in 1957, under Ministry of Railways at Lucknow. The status of RDSO has been changed from an Attached Office to Zonal Railway since 01.01.2003. For increasing the throughput Indian Railway is adopting two-pronged strategy: Construction of new dedicated freight corridor on eastern and western part of the country and increasing the throughput of the existing trains. For increasing the throughput of the trains, new wagons of 23/25 t axle load have been designed for the existing routes. In these wagons pay to tare ratio has increased above 3.0. In future, wagons of 32.5 axle load shall also be designed for dedicated freight corridor. Pay to tare ratio of the future wagons is proposed to be increased further to at least 4, which will help in increasing the throughput. Other technological advances for increasing the maintenance periodicity and reliability of the wagons are also being planned to be implemented e.g. Extensive use of Stainless Steel in Body and Under frame, Bogie Mounted Brake System, Electro pneumatic Brakes, Up gradation of Bogie, Use of higher capacity Slack Adjuster, Coupler with bottom shelf, High Capacity Draft Gear to AAR M-901 G specification, Use of End of Train Telemetry Device, etc.

At present wagon designed by RDSO, Lucknow is in use on IR. But, recently Indian Railway has also issued policy of private wagon design approval for use on IR system. This will also help in up gradation of Technology in future through private participation.

1.3 Definition of Important Terms

Billing of stock means examination of stock for the purpose of billing for damages, deficiencies and penalties. Owning railway means the railway to which a vehicle or wagon belongs. Working railway means a railway working a junction. Using railway means a railway using a junction worked by another railway. Rolling stock includes both coaching and goods stock. Freight stocks intended for coaching traffic should be marked as prescribed and used for coaching traffic only. They will be treated as coaching stock for interchange purposes, but damages and deficiencies Freight sock means and includes all goods wagons i.e. all rolling stock other than coaching stock irrespective of contents and whether attached to passenger or goods trains. The term Vehicle applies only to coaching stock. The term Wagon applies only to Freight stocks. Unit of goods stock is one four-wheeled wagon. Equivalent units of other types of wagons are as shown in above table. Bogie truck (trolley). This term is used for the assembly comprising the structure including the side frame, bolster, suspension components, wheels and axles etc., which support the wagon body at each end. The following main types of bogie trucks are in service :i) IRS four-wheeler cast steel bogie truck- The two side frames of cast steel are joined together by a spring plank, which is riveted to the two side frames in the middle. The floating bolster rests on nests of the wagon is transferred through centre pivot on the floating bolster and then to the two side frames through the bearing springs. These bogies have thus only a secondary suspension. ii) IRS four wheeler diamond frame bogie- This is an alternative version of the cast steel bogie in which the bolster and the side frames are fabricated. The side frames comprise the top and bottom arch bar connected together by the tie bar. iii) Four-wheeled fabricated UIC type (BOX type) bogie truck.-This bogie truck has a completely fabricated structure with laminated bearing spring suspension and long shackles at the primary stage (i.e., directly over the axle boxes). The bolster structure, which has a spherical centre pivot, is fabricated integrally with the two bo9gies sole plates on either side. iv) Six-wheeled cast steel bogies truck-This steel truck comprises four cast steel side frames (two on either side) on which load is transferred by means of floating crossed bolsters resting on nests of helical springs. Over the crossed 8

bolsters rests the longitudinal bolster, which has the centre pivot. The corresponding side frames are joined together by means of spring planks in the same manner as the same manner as the four-wheeler cast steel bogies. Quick application and release valve- The valve is fitted to the train pipe to actuate by a slight drop in pressure of air in the train pipe and admit air direct from atmosphere to the cylinder in proportion to the. It also releases the brakes quickly for slight increase in vacuum by connecting the lower and upper chambers. Direct admission valve- It is installed between the train pipe and the brake cylinder to help in quick application of brake and acts as a relay valve to admit air directly from the atmosphere to the cylinder in proportion to the destruction of vacuum in the train pipe. Empty load box- It is a device which has been provided in the brake rigging by means of which lower leverage ratio for the tare condition and higher leverage ratio for the loaded condition of the wagon can be obtained by a simple manual operation of the handle provided on each side of the wagon. Brake regulator (Stack adjustor) -This has been provided in the main pull rod. It is a device for automatic adjustment of predetermined slack between brake blocks and wheels and restricts travel of the piston. A Day is twenty-four hours from midnight to midnight. A Week is seven days from midnight of Saturday to midnight of the next Saturday. One metric tones is 1000Kg. or 0.98420 tons. Hot Box- Every journal which runs warm necessitating a vehicle, wagon or brakevan being detached from a train from the commencement of its journey to its booked destination inclusive should be considered a hot box.

1.4 Population of main type of freight stocks

As per PRM -8 report presently in Indian Railways are running 218778 wagons ( unit wise 464234.5). Their bifurcations given as under Vacuum stocks(Including 4 wheelers) Brake vans Air brake stocks. The population of freight stocks may be divided in to two groups. The detail of these stocks are given as under Population of Vacuum brake stocks Population of Air brake stocks

1.4.1 Existing population of vacuum brake stocks

A table of existing population of vacuum brake stocks has given below


In vehicle unit Vacuum brake stocks

In 4- wheeler unit


3471 16063 1108 20642 7 28838 28845 17729 15986 5086 4075 3929 167 3021 2684 102164

3471 16063 1108 20642 7 28838 28845 44322.5 39965 12715 11111 9350 334 7159 2684 177135


1.4.2 Existing Population of Air brake Stocks

Stocks In vehicle unit AIR BRAKE STOCK BCN BCNA BOXN BRN BOBRN BTPN BTPGLN BOY BVZC TOTAL AIR BRAKE STOCK GRAND TOTAL 15814 23586 61686 2733 2729 5715 849 621 2881 116614 218778 39535 58965 154215 6832.5 6822.5 14287 1698 1863 2881 287099.5 464234.5 In 4- wheeler unit

A table of existing population of air brake stocks has given below

1.5 Abbreviation used in this project

Two type of abbreviation used in this project Terminology used for freight stocks Coding used for freight stocks

1.5.1 Meaning of Terminology used

S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 3. 4. Term logy AAR BG MG NG CASNUB ROH Meaning of Terminology Association of American Railroad Broad Gauge (1676mm) Meter gauge ( 1000mm) Narrow gauge ( 762mm& 610 mm ) Cast Steel Friction Snubber Bogies Rou tine overhauling ( Done in ROH depot)


5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13 14 15 16


periodic overhauling (Done in Work shop) Indian Railways standard Indian standard Indian Railways International Standard Organisation Kamla Nehru Institute Of Technology, Sultanpur Net tone's kilometer Gross tone's kilometer center buffer coupler New and Untried Car Analysis Regime simulation International Union of Railways Research Design & standard Organisation, Ministery of Railways, India

17 18 19 20


Ultrasonic Testing Indian Railway conference association Population of Rolling stock manual Mean time between failure

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28


Mean time to repair Periodicity of repacking & oiling Chair man of Railway board Chitaranjan Locomotive Works, West Bengal. Diesel Locomotive Works ,Varanasi. Rail Coach Factory , Kapoorthala. Integral coach Factory , Paramour. Diesel components Works, Patiala.

1.5.2 Meaning of coding used

S.No. 1 2 Coding BOXR BOXT Meaning Open box wagons with Screw coupling Open box wagon with Transition couplers



Open box wagon with CBC at both ends and also with CBC at one end and transition coupler at other end.


Open box wagon with swing cum flap doors and sliding roof.


Bogie open ore wagon with St. CBC (Open Wagon Gondola)


Bogie open ore wagon with St. CBC (CASNUB Bogie)

7 8 9 10 11


Bogie open Box wagon with pneumatic brake Bogie open wagon, hopper Bogie open wagon, hopper with centre discharge. Bogie open wagon, hopper with side discharge Bogie open wagon, hopper with center and side discharge



Bogie open bottom rapid discharge hopper wagon

2. LITERATURE SURVEY 2.1 History of freight Stocks

The term freight stock means and includes all rolling stock other than coaching stock and locomotives irrespective of contents and whether attached to a passenger or goods train. The term wagon applies only to freight stock. Indian railways have different types of wagons to transport different commodities like coal, cement, fertilizers, ores, food grains, petroleum products, iron and steel and other finished products. To cater for the transportation requirements various types of wagons having different features are available. During pre-independence period, British firms M/s Rendol, Palmer and Triton were involved in providing design and development of freight stocks for Indian Railways. During their 75 years of association with the Indian Railways they provided design of 25 types of wagons (4-wheeler and bogie wagons) for carrying different types of commodities. These wagons were having low axle load (16.3t) and low pay load to tare weight ratio (ranging from 1.09 to 2.64) and were, thus, able to carry very low volume for commodities, for example 4-wheeler wagon maximum 22 13

tonnes, bogie wagon maximum 45 tonnes. These wagons were fitted with plain bearings, vacuum brake system and screw coupling. The reliability was low along with high ineffective and extensive maintenance requirements. Design of 9 wagons for different applications was developed for Indian Railways by various designers all over the world. Some of the important wagons are BOBS, development by M/s ISW and M/s TALBOT, Germany, BWS by M/s Swiss Car Elevator and M/s Hitachi, Japan, BWT by M/s Deutscher, East Germany, TBT by M/s CRDA, Italy in the year 1960s. In 1957, Research Designs and Standards Organization of Indian Railways was rimed by merging Central Standard Office and Railway Testing and Research Center. The responsibility of design and development of freight stock for Indian Railways was entrusted to Research Designs and Standards Organization (RDSO). In the initial days, four-wheeler wagons called IRS wagons were used. The under frame and the suspension of IRS wagon was similar to IRS coach design and the body was built on the under- frame with steel sections. The four-wheeler wagons (IRS type) had a limited carrying capacity of 22.2 tons. With the demand for higher freight traffic and higher speeds. A newly designed eightwheeler bogie wagon was introduced in the early 1960s. This design known as BOX for open and BCX for covered was adopted in a big way for bulk transport. These wagons are capable of higher speeds and heavier load trains and needed less frequent attention. In 1960, BOX wagon was designed with the provision of UIC bogie, roller bearing and center buffer coupler but the wagon was provided with vacuum brake system and bogies were fabricated out of steel plates. During 1980, a new wagon named BOXN was introduced with air brake system, sealed type cartridge taper roller bearing and cast steel CASNUB bogie. The wagon was also provided with high capacity draft gear and high tensile center buffer coupler. BOXN wagon became the workhorse of Indian Railways for transporting the main commodities viz. coal, iron ore and many other consignments which can be loaded in open wagon. During 1980, a new wagon named BOXN was introduced with air brake system, sealed type cartridge taper roller bearing and cast steel CASNUB bogie. The wagon was also provided with high capacity draft gear and high tensile center buffer coupler. BOXN wagon became the workhorse of Indian Railways for transporting the main commodities viz. coal, iron ore and many other consignments which can be loaded in open wagon. In line with BOXN wagon, covered wagon BCNA for fertilizer, food grains and cement (bagged commodities), perishables etc., tank wagon BTPN/BTPGLN for carrying petroleum, LPG, flat wagon BRNA for carrying rails, finished steel plates, coils etc., coal hopper wagon BOBRN were also introduced. Afterwards, BOXNCR wagon (stainless steel body for preventing corrosion), BOXNHS wagon (higher speed 14

wagon), BOST wagon (for steel products and coal), BFNS wagon (for HR/CR coils) and BLCA/BLCB (container flat wagon) were also designed. .Because of introduction of new technology in wagon design, Indian Railway has been able to increase through put of goods train, attract new traffic, improve speed and also utilization. However, axle load has remained confined to 20t due to track infrastructure/bridge needing up gradation. Design development of freight stock has taken place in following phases S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Phase wise Development of freight stocks 1st phase 2nd phase 3rd phase 4th phase under development Type of Stocks 4- wheeler stocks (vacuum brake stocks) UIC Bogie stocks (vacuum brake stocks) CASNUB bogie stock. (Air brake stocks) Swing motion bogie to be introduced up to April 2010 ( Air brake stocks)

Along with these, a large number of the types of wagons were also developed using above bogie to cater for specific requirements of various commodities.

2.2 Background of Bogies The first bogie wagons were introduced in 1956-57 when BOBS wagons were imported from M/S Talbot West Germany. These were cast steel, planked bogies with un-damped secondary suspension system.

Fig.: Cast steel planked bogie (IRS type)


In 1960 BOX wagons with UIC design bogies were put in service, These are capable of higher speed, need less frequent attention and heavier trains could be formed. Covered wagons like BCX with UIC bogies were also introduced.

Fig.: UIC bogie In 1961-62, RDSO'S investigation revealed that there was a need for damping in the bogies. Accordingly three types of bogies with friction damping and plank-less cast steel construction were imported. These three bogies were the Amsted Ride Control, National C-1 and Sumitomo SM-3bogies.

In addition to the above, RDSO has developed a new design of planked Cast steel bogie with friction damping. The new design was introduced in 1980 -84 and called CASNUB Bogie, which was also subsequently upgraded into seven versions. The 16

length of this wagon is less than the BOX wagons for the same load carried and hence still heavier trains (with a certain fixed length due to operational considerations) could be formed. BOXN wagons were introduced with CASNUB bogies to cope with the increasing demands for heavier trainload and better average speeds. Covered wagons with CASNUB bogies like BCN and BCNA were developed which run at high speeds and form heavy trains. Well, hopper, flat and tank wagons with bogie are also available. Different wagons are designated by different codes based upon design features and use. Swing motion bogie is under development phase likely to be introduced up to April 2010. Its figure has given below:-

Fig.: Swing Motion bogie

2.3 Criteria of classification of freight stocks

Freight stock includes all goods wagons i.e. all rolling stock other than coaching stock, irrespective of what they carry and whether they are attached to passenger or goods trains. Indian Railways freight stocks are broadly classified either according to its under-gear or according to utility.

2.3.1 According to its under-gear.

a) Four Wheeled Wagon. i. Conventional Wagon. ii. Cast steel bogie iii. Tank Wagon. b) Bogie stock wagon: i. Cast steel bogie. ii. Diamond frame bogie. iii. UIC fabricated bogie. iv. CASNUB bogie.


According to its utility

i. Open wagon. 17

ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix.

Covered bogie. Flat Wagon. Hopper Wagon. Well Wagon. Container Wagon. Tank wagon. Explosive Wagon. Brake Van.


Criteria of classification of coding of freight stocks

Wagons are designated by codes. There are two types of codes for wagons i.e. Transportation code and Mechanical code. Transportation codes are allotted to wagons on the basis of their general classification whereas Mechanical code. Transportation codes are allotted to wagons on the basis of their general classification whereas Mechanical codes are allotted on the basis of design features. Transportation codes and Mechanical codes used for various Wagons are as under:S.No. Description Transp. code Mechanical 1. 2. 3. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Open Covered Low sided High sided Explosives Horse/Cattle Military Tank Brake Van Bogie Stock Hopper Well Flat Container Container Types of coupling Types of discharge i) Centre ii) Side C S X 18 C S X K C L C X A M T V B (Prefixed) B W F FK R,C,T(suffix) O C M H E MR M T BVG B(Prefixed) B W R FK R,C,T(suffix)

iii) Centre & Side

iv) Rapid (Bottom) 17 18 19 20 brake system(Air) sliding Roof Meter Gauge Narrow Gauge

R N(suffix) S(suffix) M(First suffix) N(Fist suffix)

R N(suffix) S(suffix) M(First suffix) N(Fist suffix)

2.5 Meaning of ineffective of freight stocks

The freight stocks which are unfit for traffic use are called Ineffective. Ineffective % age is fixed by Railway Board for each Railway taking into consideration stock holding & POH work load of that particular Railway. The ineffective % age of Northern Railway is fixed as 4.85% while Railway board is fixed as 4 %.


Minimize the ineffective of freight stocks

The following points are taking in consideration to minimize the ineffectiveProper utilizations of Man, Machine & Material. Control over the damages of wagons. Multiple shift & placements of wagons. Unit exchange system or sufficient quantity spare of parts. By proper training of staff. By introducing use the integrating maintenance. Transferring the surpluses wagons to old depot for repairs. Utilizing the whiting jacks in addition to EOT crane.

2.7 Maintenance policy of freight stocks

Diverse policies have been in use on Indian Railways. Beginning with breakdown maintenance, Indian Railways have largely introduced preventive maintenance for assets. All wagons are allotted to 16 zonal railways for accountable and POH purpose. Most of general purpose wagons are pooled in national pool of Indian Railways but some non standard wagons and brake vans are non pooled and generally remain within the railway system of owing Railway. Wagons are maintained on time basis, the most important schedules being repacking schedule (for wagons with sliding bearings conventional) and the POH schedule. All the wagons in train are to be examined before the train starts its journey at the originating station. Similarly at the destination all wagons in a train are examined for defects developed during journey. 19

The train examination, oiling, repacking and all other minor or major repair works are to be carried out whenever the wagon is required. In other words the using railway has to take care of all repairs including ROH& POH. The system regulates the work load of the POH shop and the labour, facilities are evenly utilized. The repacking dates are stenciled on wagon under frame whereas the POH date is prominently displayed on the wagon body. The periodicity of ROH& POH for Air brake Stocks & Vacuum brake stocks are given in chapter-6. A challenge has been put forward to the Indian Railways to set a target of 408 billion NTKM per annum by the turn of the century to meet the countrys transport needs at least cost to the society while maintaining the viability of the system. This is possible only it the Indian Railways handle goods traffic: Efficiently smoothly safely All this is possible if Indian Railways have a well maintained fleet of wagons this freight stock is given timely preventive maintenance to avoid occurrence of predictable defects. The defects which do arise during service are attended to in time and effectively so that the wagons remain fit for traffic for long a period as possible between repair intervals and detention for examination and repairs of the freight stock is kept to the minimum. Workshop & Depots all over the Indian Railways are nominated for maintenance of different type of wagon various schedules for maintenance of different wagons have been evolved and procedures of maintenance for various types of wagons have almost been standardized through the agency of the Railway board , the RDSO & the IRCA. A unified maintenance manual for wagons has been published by the Railway board and circulated to all concerned in March 2002. This manual is supplemented by detailed maintenance instructions issued by RDSO from time to time. Four wheeled wagons and bogie wagons need different types of maintenance. Usually the superstructure is not supposed to require maintenance except when it is exposed to require maintenance except when it is exposed to accident or improperly handled considerable damage to the running gear. Draft and buffing gear , wagon under frame , doors, center pivots, and bearing can be avoided if care is taken to control impact speeds on humps, avoid malpractices like impacting wagons with CBC knuckle closed overloading, neglecting to release of brakes, neglecting cleaning the interiors of wagons after unloading of corrosive, hygroscopic or other harm full consignments, omitting placement of hosepipe on dummy carriers and coupling on suspension hooks, leaving doors open after unloading or welding them partially open, improper packing and lashing of heavy consignments to prevents load shifting etc. Prescribed periods at which POH is to be carried out on various types of stocks have been given in chapter-6 . However , BOX wagons and other wagons fitted with fabricated frame UIC bogies is given a routine overhaul(ROH) at C&W


depots nominated for this purpose at interval of 18 months. For BCN & BOXN wagons where cast steel bogies are fitted the ROH is given once in 18 months.


Meaning of units

Freight stocks are counted in terms of four-wheeler units. The method of calculating the units is given below:i) One four-wheeled wagon equals one unit. ii) One six-wheeled wagon equals one unit. iii) One eight-wheeled wagon equals two units, except for certain type of wagons given below:S.No. Type of wagons Units 1. BOXC, BOXR, BOXT, BOI, BCN BOXN, BCXT, BCXC, BCNA 2. 3. 4. 5. BOB, BOBR, BOBRN BOBX, BOXS, BOY One twelve-wheeled wagon One twenty four wheeled wagon 2.5 units 3 units 3 units 6 units 2.5 units


3.1 Structural details of freight stocks

The structural details of Freight stocks discus as under-

3.1.1 Wagon Body

The super structure attached to the under frame of freight stocks called Wagon Body. It consists of body side and ends with their supporting structures such as stanchions and copings, roof structures, carlines and roof sheets in the case of covered wagons, hoppers and their supporting members in the case porting saddles in the case of tank wagons. Doors, Door fittings, louvers for ventilation and various fittings such as cleats, handles, hooks, footsteps and ladders also form the part of the body.




Sides are made up of side panels and side stanchions which are attached to the under frame by crib angles and body brackets. They include top copings; intermediate copings if any, doors, door-fittings had holds tarpaulin cleats and label-holders. Additional fittings on covered wagons are rain protection angles above swing doors. door striking plates and anti bleeding device below the flap doors Cattle wagons are also fitted with side louvers, beat-bar fittings and wainscot boards.

3.1.3 Ends
Ends are similar in construction to sides in that they consists of end panel, end stanchions, top copings and in some cases, intermediate copings. Attachment to the under frame is by means of end floor angles and through the stanchions. Covered wagons are provided with ventilation at the upper end of body ends. Corner stanchions connect the ends with sides. Open wagons have reinforcing angles at each end together with reinforcing gussets and corner pressings at the corner. Ends of cattle wagon include wainscot boards.

3.1.4 Roof
Roofs of covered wagons consist of roof sheets and carlines. Roof sheets are invariably much thinner than the sheets used for the body sides and end panels.

3.2 Under frame

The main members of typical conventional B.G. freight stocks under frame as underi. Sole bar ii. Head stock. iii. Longitudinal bar iv. Cross bars v. Diagonals vi. Floor vii. Crib angle viii. End angle ix. Gusset plates & kneeThe type and size of a particular under frame are very intimately related to the type and design of a wagon, as it constitutes the main load bearing sub assembly for the vehicle structure, therefore take into account the quantum and pattern of loading on the vehicle. The overall dimensions and design of this structure, therefore take into account the quantum and pattern of loading on the vehicle as well as the consideration of the track, which determine the permissible wheel base and whether a 4-wheeler or a bogie wagon would be required for the purpose of carrying the required load. Accordingly while designing an under frame 22

the loading per meter run is also taken into account as this is to be permitted by the type of track available. The strength of under frame is also governed by the buffing and impact loads and the shunting speeds permitted for the marshalling of the goods stock. In the case of bogie wagons the load transfer is carried out to the bogie frame by means of a pivot arrangement and thus the bogie frame also assumes an equally

important function. Fig.: Under frame BOXN Wagon

The other major sub assemblies fitted to the under frame are as underi. Buffer sub assembly ii. Draw gear / CBC sub-assembly iii. Axle guards and tie rod arrangement iv. Container locking/anchoring arrangement (on container flats only) v. Side stanchion & lashing chains vi. Door operating mechanism on hopper wagons vii. Top center pivot. The under frame is build up of suitable rolled and pressed steel sections strengthened by gusset plates, knees etc. Under frame of bogie wagons has strong 23

cross members known as bolsters for fitting upper centre pivot casting which rests on the bogie pivot. It is a general practice to provide a positive camber in the under frame to obviate any chances of sagging after loading in service. This is necessary since the under frame of a bogie wagon is considerably longer than that of a four-wheeled wagon. Trusses are provided as additional strengthening member to avoid sagging of under frame.

3.2 Suspension
The suspension of a wagon includes the wheels bearings, axle boxes, spring, spring links and spring brackets/scroll irons. In the case of a four wheeled wagons, the suspension is mounted directly under the wagon under frame, whereas in the case of bogie stock, the under frame is carried on the bogies which in turn are supported by the springs, bearings and wheels. The suspension system is required to cushion the riding of a vehicle on the rails, take care of irregularities in the track and dynamic phenomena arising out of various parasitic movements of the vehicle.

3.3.1 Four wheeler suspension

In four-wheeler wagons, the loads transmitted in the conventional arrangement via the sole bar, scroll iron and shackles and shackle plates to the springs and thence to the axle box, axle box key plates, bearings, journal and wheel and to the rails.

Fig.: Four wheeler suspension 24

3.3.2 Eight wheeler suspension

In the suspension system of the 8-wheeled wagons, the load is transmitted to the rails through bogie truck. Each truck consists of side frames, bolster suspension components, wheels axles, axle boxes and other fitting such as brake gear, trimmer etc. At present time following four types of bogies are in service :i. Cast steel bogie ii. Diamond frame bogie iii. Box bogie ( UIC Type) iv. CASNUB Bogie v. Swing motion bogie- Presently it is developmental phase. IRS four wheeled cast steel bogie

The two side frames of cast steel are joined together by a spring plank which is riveted to the side frames. The floating bolster rests on nets of springs at either end of the spring plank. The load of the wagon is transferred through centre pivot to the floating bolster and then to the two side frames through the bearing springs. These bogies have thus only secondary suspension. The parts of bogie as under:i. Cast steel side frame ii. Spring plank iii. Cast steel floating bogie bolster iv. Bogie side bearer (top & bottom ) v. Spring nest assembly vi. Spring plate vii. Axle box with side frame. (A) Salient features of cast steel Bogie

Following feature of this bogie Only secondary suspension H frame bogie Fabricated bogie, bolster used.


Fig.: Cast steel bogie (IRS type) APPLICATION OF CAST STEEL BOGIE

This bogie used in BOBS wagons. This was first wagon for Indian Railways. IRS four-wheeled diamond frame bogie

It is alternative version of cast steel bogie. These bogies are made of three steel frames riveted to each other. This is similar in construction to the cast steel bogie but the bolster and the side frames are fabricated instead of being cast. The side frames are comprised of the top and bottom arch bars connected together by a tie bar. The bogie consists of the following main assembly:i. Fabricated side frame including vertical column. ii. Spring plank iii. Cast steel / fabricated floating bogie bolster including center pivot and side bearer assembly iv. Spring nest assembly v. Axle box assembly vi. Wheel set assembly vii. Bogie brake gear assembly. (A) Salient features of Diamond frame bogie

H frame bogie consisting of two side frames joined by spring plank. Floating bolster carrying centre pivot and side bearer Only secondary suspension consisting of coil nest of four outer and four inner springs. Undamped suspension. Axle box guidance through nuts and bolts. Positive clearance type curved side bearer. Centre pivot pin passing through hole in centre pivot bottom. Speed potential - 75 Km ph. Plain bearing Unit type brakes.

A fig of diamond frame bogie is given below:

26 Four-wheeled fabricated UIC (BOX type) bogie

This bogie has a completely fabricated rigid structure with laminated bearing spring suspension and long shackles at the primary stage. The bolster structure which has a hemi spherical centre pivot is fabricated integrally with the two bogies. (A) Salient features of UIC (BOX type) bogie

Fabricated out of steel Head stock, sole plate, bolster, diagonals and trimmer subassemblies joined together Hemispherical centre pivot Primary suspension with long links and laminated springs Inter leaf frictional damping CLASP type brakes Cylindrical roller bearing Speed potential - 75 Km ph Wheel base - 2000 mm Axle load- 20.32t Entire load transmission through centre pivot A fig of UIC BOX type bogie is given below.-


Fig.: UIC (BOX type) bogie Application of UIC bogie

These bogies are used on following freight stocksi. BOX ii. BCX iii. BCXT iv. BRH v. BRS etc Four-wheeled cast steel bogie with travel springs and snubbing device CASNUB Bogie
There is different version of CASNUB Bogie as under:i. CASNUB-22W ii. CASNUB-22W ( Retrofitted) iii. CASNUB-22W(M) iv. CASNUB-22NL v. CASNUB-22NLB vi. CASNUB-22NLM vii CASNUB-22HS Salient features of CASNUB bogie

Cast steel H frame bogies Floating bolster Secondary suspension with helical coil spring Wedge type load proportional friction snubbing Unit type fabricated brake beam 28

Anti rotation lugs provided between bogie bolster and side frames. Tapered cartridge type roller bearing axle box. Designed for 22.9t axle load by used for 20.3t Constant up gradation of CASNUB bogie resulted in seven versions. They are stated above. The first three are having wide jaw whereas rests have narrow jaw. CASNUB 22W and CASNUB 22 W (M) have IRS type centre pivot in which centre pin is provided on bogie itself. In order versions hemispherical centre pivot is provided in which centre pin is provided on wagon under frame. Roller type side bearer is in CASNUB 22 W version and spring loaded side bearers is in CASNUB 22 HS version. Other versions have metal inserted rubber pad type side bearer CASNUB. 22 W (M) has suspended type brake beam and other version have guided or sliding type brake beam. A fig of CASNUB bogie is given below-

Fig.: CASNUB bogie (B) Application of CASNUB bogie

These bogies are fitted on following freight stocks:i. BOXN ii. BCN iii. BRN 29

iv. BTPN v. BOBRN etc. Swing motion bogie

Swing motion bogie is under development phase likely to be introduced up to April 2010. Its figure has given below:-

Fig.: Swing motion bogie


Braking System

Braking system used in wagons are of two types i. Automatic vacuum brake system ii. single pipe graduated release Air brake system

3.4.1 Automatic vacuum brake system

Automatic vacuum brake system has following components Vacuum cylinder suspended by tunion from under frame Piston and piston rod. Brake shaft. Brake rigging consisting mainly of pull rods and levers. Hand brake (lever or screw type).


A number of improvements such as empty load device. automatic slack adjuster and quick application-quick release valves have been introduced to improve effectiveness of vacuum brake system. The vacuum brake system derives its braking force from the atmospheric pressure acting on lower side of the piston while a vacuum is maintained over the piston. The vacuum is created in the system by ejector or exhauster provided in the locomotive. The vacuum cylinder is divided by piston and rolling ring into two air tight chambers called upper chamber and lower chamber. The volume of upper chamber is kept as possible by providing a dome. The release valve is connected to train pipe by flexible siphon pipe, the lower end of piston rod is connected to brake shaft arm. When vacuum is created release valve allows withdrawal of air from both chambers and piston by its own weight comes to rest on the bottom of the cylinder and are brakes are released. When vacuum in the train pipe is destroyed air enters into the lower chamber, raising the piston. At this time upper chamber is disconnected by rolling ring. So vacuum is still there in upper chamber. The brake shaft arm is lifted with the movement of the piston and the brake shoes are jammed against the tread of wheel with the help of brake rigging. The release valve when operated allows air admission to upper chamber so that pressure is equalized on both sides of piston and brakes are released. A fig of automatic vacuum brake is given below:-

Fig.: Automatic vacuum brake system

3.4.2 Air brake system

Single pipe graduated release air brake system is used in air braked wagons. The main components of this system are : Brake Cylinder Auxiliary reservoir control reservoir Distributor valve Train pipe (brake pipe) and branch pipe Brake rigging Brake pipe which runs throughout the length of the train has air pressure at 5 kg/sq.cm. The compressed air is supplied by compressor /expresser in the 31

locomotive and the brake pipes of adjacent wagons are joined by using flexible coupling. For application of brakes, the air pressure is reduced. The drop in pressure being proportional to the braking effort required. The drop in pressure is sensed by the distributor valve (DV) which allows compressed air from the auxiliary reservoir into the brake cylinder and results in brake application. when the discharge of air from the brake pipe is stopped, the pressure of 5 kg/sq.cm. is restored and DV cuts off supply of air to the brake cylinder, thereby releasing the brakes. The brake cylinder develops a maximum air pressure of 3.8kg/sq.cm. The reservoir is charged from brake pipe. During application of brakes the auxiliary reservoir gets disconnected from the brake pipe. The auxiliary reservoir has capacity of 100 liters capacity whereas control reservoir is of 6 liters capacity. A fig of Single pipe graduated release air brake system is given below-

Fig.: Single pipe graduated release air brake system


Draw and Buffing Gear

There are two main arrangements of draft and buffing gear in use on broad gauge. The older arrangement consists of a screw coupling with side buffers, the draft load being transmitted through the screw coupling. draw hook and draw hook springs while the buffing forces are taken by the side buffers. The other arrangement is that of a centre buffer coupler which transmits both draft and buffing loads. In addition to these transition CBC is also there in some wagons. These wagons can be coupled to both St. CBC and screw coupling wagons. The wagons having transition CBC are also provided with side buffers.

3.6 Special type of wagons

Tank wagon DMT ( Departmental material truck) Well wagon 32

Defense wagon Turbine loading wagon Here discuss only salient feature of tank wagons. There details as under:-

3.6.1 Structure of Tank Wagons

Tank wagons from a special class of Non-pulled rolling stock. They are classified according to the product carried by the tank and its design. Tank wagons fall in the following categories:i Tank as pressure vessels ii Tank for corrosive liquids. iii Tank for petrol and other highly inflammable products iv Tank for middle distillates of petroleum.

3.7 Salient features of tank wagons 3.7.1 Under frame and barrel - The design of the under frame and the under
gear of the tank wagon is generally similar to that of other IRS wagons except that a pair of saddles is provided on the under frame at each end for mounting the barrel. The barrel is placed longitudinally on the under frame and secured by means of rivets to the saddles. The barrel is a cylindrical vessel generally fabricated out of low carbon steel.

3.7.2 Barrel mountings/fittings - Various types of barrel mountings are

necessary for filling, measuring and decanting the various types of products. Safety fittings in case of pressure tanks are generally fitted inside the dome on a diaphragm plate so as to protect them from accidental injury.

3.7.3 Safety fittings - Safety valves, relief valve, safety vent, vapour extractor
cock, master valve assembly, bottom discharge stop valve etc. are provided as safety fittings.

3.8 Wagon design parameters

It is divided in to two groups. They are as under i. Design optimization factors. ii . Constraints

3.8 .1 Design optimization factors

Higher pay load to tare ratio Low starting and rolling resistance


High reliability High speed potential

3.8.2 Constraints
Moving gauge (Maximum moving dimension ) Axle load Track loading density Centre of gravity Customer requirement Operational needs Maintenance convenience Manufacture convenience

3.9 Important Technical parameters

A number of trials have been conducted to optimize various design parameters to obtain safe and economical design .The important design parameters for freight stocks as under Ride index for higher speed freight stocks should be below 4.5 Natural frequency should not be in resonance with disturbing frequency caused due to track defects & vehicle movements Undesirable natural frequency- 4 to 5 Hz (Should be avoided). Desirable damping ratio 20 to 25% The weights of the wheels, axles & side frames (in case of cast steel CASNUB bogie) are not loaded on any spring and are called unsprung masses. Other parts of the bogie or body are having primary or secondary suspension. Unsprung masses are always desirable to be minimum. Primary and secondary suspensions are in series and add to total deflection. The un sprung masses are to be kept as low as possible, to keep the dynamic augment of vertical loads low and within permissible limits. Possible, to keep the dynamic augment of vertical loads low and within permissible limits. The dynamic augment is proportional to speed, amplitude of track defects and square root of the un sprung mass and track stiffness. Adequate flexibility to separate /isolate the body from the nosing oscillation/track disturbances. The bogie should have adequate resistance to turning: otherwise it is liable to oscillate/ hunt. A resistance to rotation of 6 to 8%of the body weight at one-meter torque arm is considered desirable. UIC has recommended 10% max values. In Indian Railways this varies from 4 to 8% (Condition of pivot and side bearer


becomes important ). Damping in transverse mode (friction or viscose), should aim at a ratio of 0.4 (damping factor)

3.10 Classification of mode of vibrations

A figure has been given below vibrational mood of freight stocks. The axis wise vibrations analysis as under X- axis i) Rolling ii) Shuttling Y -axis i) Lurching ii) Pitching Z-axis i) Nosing ii) Bouncing

Fig.: Oscillation modes of freight stocks

3.11 Design consideration parameters of freight stocks

Wagons are designed considering user's requirement as well as operational requirement. Some of the important design parameters, which are kept in view for designing any freight stock, are given below :-


i) Axle load - Indian Railways use broadly 16.2t, 20.32t and 22.9t axle loads. The choice depends upon pay load and type of truck. Higher axle load and track loading density result in higher pay load to tare ratio. ii) Wheel Base - On Indian Railway the schedule of moving dimensions limit the wheel base as 1830 mm at its minimum value. Wheel base is taken as twice the wheel diameter. iii) Journal centre - Standard wheel sets on IR have 2240 and 2260 journal centers. This depends on axle design gauge of track etc. iv) Suspension characteristic - Soft suspension is required for high speed and it gives better ride index. However space limitation is the main factor. v) Snubbing - Coil spring suspension must be provided with snubbing arrangement where speed is more than 75 kmph. Snubbing can be achieved by means of hydraulic or friction. Freight stock is provided with friction snubbing. Snubbing is generally 8 to 10 percent of tare to 4 - 6 percent of gross loads. Laminated springs have inherent snubbing properties due to inner leaf friction hence such springs do not require any separate damping. vi) Type of Centre pivot - In Indian railways spherical and hemispherical centre pivots are used. Top and bottom pivots are attached to under frame and bogie by means of permanent fastenings. The weight of vehicle is transmitted through centre pivot. Pivots must rotate freely around a centre pin when vehicle is negotiating a curve. vii) Side bearer - It can be of clearance type or constant contact type depending upon design requirement of bogie. Constant contact type side bearer helps in reducing bogie hunting which is combination of rolling and nosing motion. viii) Type of construction - Bogie construction may be fabricated or cast depending upon means and techniques. Cast steel construction requires less maintenance. ix) Track loading Density - This is defined as average load coming on the track. The maximum permissible tack loading on BG is 7.67 t/m. The wagon design is to be done in such a manner that potential available in the track loading is also utilized to the extent possible. The present wagons have TLD in the range of 3.37 ton/m to 7.16 ton/m. x) Payload to tare Ratio - It is defined as the ratio of (maximum weight of the commodity which can be carried) pay-load to the actual weight of the empty 36

wagon (tare weight). This indicates the carrying capacity of a wagon. This value is within the range of 2.15 to 2.78. xi) Coupler & Coupler height - Coupler is provided to connect the wagons mechanically. The height of coupler at which the inter-wagon connection is to be made, is also important for wagon design. The value for BG wagon is 1105mm. Since coupler also transmits tractive effort of loco to the wagons in the rear, couples forces coming on the last vehicle is also important for selection of the coupler for a particular service AAR type CBC coupler have now been standardized for BG wagons. The wagons are designed for different commodity for ensuring safety, ease of handling, storage etc. The different types of wagons now in use include Hopper type wagon. Tank, Open flat, Open Box, and Covered wagon etc. The bogie for such wagons may be different. The Bogie is an assembly consisting of wheel set, braking system etc on which body is assembled. The Body is primarily for storage of the material to be carried. The bogies now in used in Indian Railways are predominantly CASNUB and UIC type bogies. The important wagon stocks used in Indian Railways are : Wagon type Mechanical/Transportation Code Fitted with UIC bogie (Vacuum brake system) HOPPER TANK OPEN FLAT OPEN BOX COVERED BRS BRH BOX BCX Fitted with CASNUB (Air brake system) BOBRN BTPN BRN BOXN BCN

3.12 Comparative salient features of BOX-N and BOX wagons

S.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4.

DESCRIPTIONS Tare weight (Tones) Pay load Gross load TLD

BOX-N 22.47 58.81 81.28 7.59t/m

BOX 25.4 55.9 81.3 5.92t/m


5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

Gross weight/train Pay load/train Pay weight/ tare weight Brake system Flexible wheel base Rigid wheel base Axle load Wheel type Wheel diameter Condemning diameter Construction of bogie Type of bogie Type of bogie brake gear Suspension arrangements Over C.B.C. to C.B.C. Over head to head Width of wagon Height of wagon from rail level Height of wagon from floor area Height of wagon from rail level to floor area

4500t 3200t 2.78 Air brake 6524mm 2000mm 20.3t Solid 1000mm 906mm Cast steel CASNUB Push & pull Helical spring 10713mm 9784mm 3160mm 3225mm 1950mm 1275mm 27.9m2 HT& NHT

3500t 2400t 2.24 Vacuum brake 8800mm 2000mm 20.3t solid 1000mm 860mm fabricated Box or UIC Clasp Laminated spring 13720mm 1280mm 3134mm 3155mm 1879mm 1281mm 36.5 m2 Only NHT

25. 26.

Floor area Type of CBC


Design feature of main type freight stocks

3.13.1 Design features of box wagons (Vacuum brake system) i.

BOX wagon was first introduced on INDIAN RAILWAY in 1960. The special features of the wagons are indicated below :1. 2. Length over CBC Overall width 13716 mm 3137 mm


3. 4.

Approximate tare wt. Gross weight

25.4 tones 81.28 tones


U.I.C. Bogie frame

This bogie is designed for an axle load of 20.3 tones. It has a fixed bolster with only primary suspension incorporating 4 laminated springs. Bogie frame is of fully welded plate construction and as such it is very easy to repair by welding.


Roller bearing & axle boxes

BOX wagons are fitted with double row cylindrical roller bearing suitable for 130 mm dia. journals. Normally these roller bearing need to attention from POH to POH excepting topping up of grease during the schedule maintenance i.e. ROH repair (18 months after POH/ROH). Introduction of roller bearing has eliminated the incidence of hot axle to a great extent and has enabled the wagon to run a long distance without any hindrance with a higher speed.


Centre buffer coupler

Box wagons are fitted with center buffer coupler of knuckle type with rubber draft gear. This introduction of CBC over conventional draw bar and buffer has facilitated the hauling of heavier train and easy coupling and uncoupling of wagons within a very little time.


Empty load box device

These are fitted to BOX wagons to give higher leverage ratio (1:13) for automatic adjustment of slack between brake blocks and the wheels as also to restrict the maximum travel of piston rods. These are fitted to BOX wagons to give higher leverage ratio (1:13) for automatic adjustment of slack between brake blocks and the wheels as also to restrict the maximum travel of piston rods. Piston stroke: Empty condition 114 to140 mm Loaded condition 165 to 190 mm


3.13.2 Design features of BOX-N wagon (Air brake system)

There are increasing demands for heavier train load, better average speeds and higher throughput. Keeping these objectives in view the BOX-N wagon (Broad Gauge Bogie Open Wagon Type) has been inducted in the fleet of Rolling stock. The objective of heavier train load has been achieved by reducing the length and by increasing the width the height of the wagon proportionately so that maximum carrying capacity of a wagon remains same. The reduction in the length has helped to accommodate more number of wagons in the rake. Now there are 58 BOX-N wagons in one rake instead of 45 Nos. of BOX wagons, having almost same carrying capacity. To increase through put, the BOX-N wagons are running at high speed and are having heavier load i.e. up to 9000 tones. (In case of heavy haul trains.) The BOX-N wagons were introduced in Indian railway 1982. Indian railways were adopted air brake system 1968 for BOI wagons. The wagons are running in close circuit of 7500 KMs or 30 day which ever earlier with intensive examination/repairs every round trip at base depot. To meet the growth of bulk traffic, a new design of bogie open wagon type BOX-N has been evolved. This wagon exploits fully the permissible track loading density to the maximum possible value of 7.59t/m and therefore permits operation of 4500 t. train loads within the existing loop length of 686 metre. The special features of this wagon are as under :-

i. Cast Steel Bogie with load proportional frictional damping and IRS spherical pivots
The wagon has been fitted with CASNUB 22 W bogie and a modified CASNUB 22W(M) bogie and incorporates load proportional friction damping with the aid of snubber. This bogie is fitted with IRS spherical pivots.


Standard tapered cartridge Roller Bearings

The wagon is fitted with standard cartridge type tapered roller bearing in order to improve its capability for coping with lateral thrusts encountered on curves.


Single Pipe Air Brake System

Since this wagon is being used on unit train operation in heavier train loads and operating on higher speeds, the conventional vacuum brake system has been replaced with the Single pipe graduated release air brake so that the emergency braking distance is within the limit of 1.2 km.

iv. High Tensile Centre Buffer Coupler along with Higher Capacity Draft Gear


In order to permit the operation of heavier train loads, the strength of the coupler has been up rated by change of material. The dimensional details of the coupler, however, have remained unchanged and the new design of high tensile coupler is fully interchangeable with the standard centre buffer coupler. This up rated version of centre buffer coupler has a designed capacity of 120 t in tension (draft force) and 270 t. in compression (buffing force). Further, in order to undertake the operation of long trains without excessive damage, a new design of draft gear with higher energy absorption capacity has been incorporated on these couplers. These draft gears incorporate friction component along with a rubber pad/steel springs.

v. Body Construction
The various sub-assemblies of the body construction, viz. wagon sides, wagon ends and under-frame assemblies is fully welded. These subassemblies are assembled on the under-frame by riveting. Three doors have been provided on the side of the wagon to permit manual on loading during emergency.

3.14 Advantages of air brake over vacuum brake system

i. Braking distance It is comparatively quite low in case of air brake train . the relative figures for a 4500 tones trains are given belowS.No. Speed Kmph Emergency Braking Distance (Meters) VACUUM BRAKE 1. 2. 60 75 1140 1780 AIR BRAKE 570 870

ii. Brake power deterioration Brake power deteriorates every 400 kms for vacuum brake train. In air brake system the deterioration in negligible. iii. Heavy downgrades There is no brake fade due to inherent inexhaustibility and hence no additional locomotive is required to hold the train during recharging where as same is required in vacuum braked train.



Weight It is as low as 275.3 kg as compared to 683.5 kg for vacuum brake.


Length of train

There is no possibility in the vacuum system to go in for a train longer than 600meters as there is a drop of more than 30% in brake van and hence brake power becomes quite weak. In the air brake system 1500-2000mts trains can be operated as the drop in brake van is almost negligible. Long haul train s of such length have already been run on MGS- GZB section. vi. Pre- departure delays These are of the order of 1.5 to 4.0 hours in the case of vacuum brakes where as for air brake, it is 45-60 minutes. vii. Ineffective The percentage infective in case of air braked stock is one tenth of that in case of vacuum brake stock. viii. Maintenance cost For air braked stock, it is one fifth of that for the vacuum braked stock.

3.15 Air brake equipments comprises of the following for each wagon
The air brake equipments comprises of the following for the each wagon . Their details as under:S.No. A. Description Distributor Valve with pipe bracket and control reservoir B. C. D. E. F. Brake cylinder 355 mm dia. Auxiliary reservoir 100 lts. cut-off angle cock Dirt Collector Check valve with choke 01 01 01 02 01 01 No. Per Wagon


G. H. J.

Isolating cock Air brake hose coupling for BP Pipes and pipe fittings

01 02 01 Set

3.16 Cold Roll formed (CRF) section

Cold roll forming is usually described as a continuous process of bending metals in straight line without changing the material thickness using a successive pair of rotating tools. It is adding strength to freight stocks.

3.17 Profiles of CRF section

Profiles with a thickness of 3.0 mm to 10.0 mm and width up to 1400mm are manufactured. The dimensional details of CRF sections (BOXNHL) wagons are given as underSl.NO. 1 Description Sole Bar Size (wxhxt) in mm 204X76X6 Remarks RDSO DRG REF-WD05086-S-14 MTRL GRADE : IRSM-44 RDSO DRG REF-WD05086-S-17 MTRL GRADE : IRSM-44 3 End Stanchion 200X100X125X4mm RDSO DRG REF-WD05086-S-6 MTRL GRADE : IRSM-44 270X170.5X75X72 RDSO DRG REF-WD05086-S-14 MTRL GRADE : IRSM-44 RDSO DRG REF-WD05086-S-15 MTRL GRADE : IRS-M-44 RDSO DRG REF-WD05086-S-15 MTRL GRADE : IRS-M-44 RDSO DRG REF-WD05086-S-15 MTRL

Body Side Stanchion

160X102X8 mm

Center Sill Middle

Stringer End

100X 51 X 4 mm

Stringer Outer

100 X 51 X 4 mm

Stringer Inner

100 X 51 X 4 mm


GRADE : IRSM-44 8 Stringer 100 X 51 X 4 mm RDSO DRG REF-WD05086-S-15 MTRL GRADE : IRSM-44 RDSO DRG REF-WD05086-S-15 MTRL GRADE : IRSM-44 RDSO DRG REF-WD05086-S-15 MTRL GRADE : IRSM-44 RDSO DRG REF-WD05086-S-15 MTRL GRADE : IRSM-44 RDSO DRG REF-WD05086-S-15 MTRL GRADE : IRSM-44 RDSO DRG REF-WD05086-S-06 MTRL GRADE : IRSM-44 RDSO DRG REF-WD05086-S-05 MTRL GRADE : IRSM-44 15 Angle Corner Stanchion 110 X 110 X 8 mm RDSO DRG REF-WD05086-S-06 MTRL GRADE : IRSM-44 RDSO DRG REF-WD05086-S-05 MTRL GRADE : IRSM-44 RDSO DRG REF-WD05086-S-05 MTRL GRADE : IRSM-44 RDSO DRG REF-WD05086-S-07 MTRL GRADE : IRSM-44 50 X 50 X 5 mm RDSO DRG REF-WD05086-S-16 MTRL GRADE : IRSM-44

Cross Bar Stringer

100X 51 X 4 mm


Cross Bar Stringer

100 X 51 X 4 mm


Cross Bar Stringer

100 X 51 X 4 mm


Stringer Center

100 X 51 X 4 mm


End Top Coping

170 X 75 X 4 mm


Door Way Stiffening Cross Bar

145 X 36 X 4 mm


Body Side Top Coping

110 X 75 X 7 mm


Body Side Middle Coping Door Frame (Horizontal/Vertical)

71 X 40 X 4 mm


45 X 36 X 4 mm


Crib Angle & Floor End Angle


3.18 Application of CRF section



*The BOXNHL wagons are recently introduced in Indian Railways. 4.0 DEFECT AND FAILURE ANALYSIS OF FREIGHT STOCK

4.1 Definition of defects

During intensive examination in the yard, the wagons are detached from the rake where components are not within the prescribed tolerance limit for maintenance. These defective wagons are then brought to depot for repairs.

4.2 Method of reporting of defects

While examining the BOXN empty rake each and individual wagon numbers are noted by the J.E. (C&W) with the damages and deficiencies there of, both in the J.E. (C&W) diary and on Intensive book. The wagons warranting detachments for attention in the depot are marked specially and a memo sent to traffic department for information. The wagon numbers so recorded are transferred from Intensive register into trip register as well as in the history card. History card is provided with columns for trip recording on one side, and the details of repairs attended in depot on the other side. This way each and individual wagon is monitored every day and hence by looking at history card at a glance we can determine the number of failures with detail and duration, at the same time the frequency of trip also can be calculated. A format regarding billing attached Annexure I. After pasting damage labels on the wagons at yard requiring attention in depot, the same are placed in the depot repair line nominated for specific repairs as under: Light repairs Heavy repairs ROH/wagons requiring lifting The defective wagon numbers are recorded and are given to the yard staff for shunting. 45

4.3 Cause of Defects

As per PRM-8 report approximately 61686 BOXN wagons are running on Indian Railways. The round trip is about (CC rake) 7500 Kms or 30days whichever is earlier. The commodity transported is mainly Coal. New Katni Junction depot is maintaining a major portion of total population i.e. 9500 BOXN wagons on an average. We are examining approximately 24000 wagons in a month. Out of these 24000 wagons, we have to detach 1550 wagons .The ineffective is 6.45% in a month. Further these ineffective wagons are analyzed on several repair groups with their percentage as under:Repair Group Percentage Of defective wagons 49 17 12 7.5 6.5 6.2 1.8 100 No of defective Wagons (Cause wise) 760 264 186 116 100 96 28 1550

Brake gear Wheel ROH Draft gear Air Brakes Wagon Def. Bogie Total defective wagons


4.3.2 Bar chart of Defective Wagons 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Brake wheel ROH Draft Air Wagon Bogie gear Gear brake def

REMARKS As per table It is found that approximate 50% wagons are detached from brake gear defect. Rest wagons are detached from other defects.

4.3.3 Classification of defects

They are divided in 6 groups and as under Wheel and Axel Defects Bogie Defects Wagon Defects Draft Gear Defects Brake Gear Defects Air Brake Defects

4.4 Definition of failure

In case of wagons, normally there is no failure enroots except those wagons where due to unsafe conditions; they are detached from the trains. Such wagons are very few.


4.5 Analysis of failures of freight stocks

For all wagons failures a failure report is to be prepared by the DME and submitted to the zonal headquarters. Cases of material failures are investigated further by a "Chemist and Metallurgist" and a report is published. Cases of bad workmanship and mismanagement by driving care are taken up on the basis of depot records. Failure cases which result in accidents are considered to be of very serious nature and a scale of punishment has been laid down for such cases. A system also exists for screening repeated failures. If wagons suffer the same problem three times in a short period then such cases are brought to the notice of the ROH depot in charge and inspecting officials. At the national level the Research Design and standards organization (RDSO Lucknow) maintains, Depot wise, Rly. wise and cause wise analysis of all wagons failures and publishers annual reports. Roller bearing failures of wagons are reviewed annually at the national level by RDSO but the general health of the wagon fleet is commented on only by Neutral control wing of the Indian Railways Conferences Association (IRCA). All cases of suggestions for change of design or materials are brought to the consideration of the RDSO for analysis and ordering nationwide changes. Some changes in design and materials are also done by respective railways or ROH Depot on experimental or experience basis. Proper failure reporting and analysis is an important activity for ensuring proper maintenance and quality checking of components leading to improved performance. Feed back is needed for making design improvement also.

4.6 Bath Tub Shaped Failure Rate Curve


5.0 REPAIR OF FREIGHT STOCK 5.1 Introduction

Wagons which are under repairs for an entire calendar day is infective. The current target for ineffective wagon is 4%. The actual Ineffective of freight stocks are marginally higher. Due to large fleet of wagons with variety it is not possible to discuss the maintenance practice prescribed for each type of wagons. The area where maintenance is required to be minimized the defects and failure of wagon hence wagons are maximum utilized for traffic. In the case of different types of defect created after service of stock in mentioned components: Repairs to wagon body. Repairs to under frame. Repairs to suspension. Repairs to Bogies. Repairs to Brake Gear components. Repairs to Draw & Buffing gears. Special repairs to Tank wagons.

5.2 Repairs to Wagon Body

For all types of wagons the superstructure attached on to the under frame comes under wagon body. It consists of body side & ends with their supporting structures such as stanchions & copings, roof structure, carlines and roof sheets in case of covered wagons, hopers & their supporting members in case of hopper wagons & tank barrels, cladding, if any, and supporting saddles in the case of tank wagons. Door, door fittings, louvers for ventilation & various fittings such as cleats, handles, hooks, footsteps and ladders also forma part of the body. Indian Railways aim at preventive maintenance to minimize the defects & failure of Wagon bodies and enhance the life of wagons. The following items are checked and repaired whenever needed: Corrosion of panel, floor plates & roof plates. Puncturing of panels due to improper loading. Bulging of ends due to shifting of loads. Tearing of panels, fracture of stanchions and shearing of rivets due to severe impacts and shifting of loads. Corrosion of end floor angles & crib angles. Bulging of sides after prolonged service. 49

Slackening of rivets due to the combined effect of ageing, corrosion and, wear and tear. Wearing out of door hinges. Damage to door fittings because of wear and tear or mishandling. Distortion of door mainly because of mishandling failure of welded joints. Distortion or cracking of stanchions and other structural members because of abnormal load, e.g. those due to defective clamping on tipplers. Wear and tear or breakage of miscellaneous fittings such as ladders, cleats, label-holders etc.

5.3 Repairs to under frame

The main under frame of a wagon generally consists of 2 outer longitudinal members viz., sole bars and two headstock which are strengthened by 2 middle longitudinal and various cross members. The diagonals & gusset plates protect the under frame against diagonal deflection and help in absorbing and distributing the buffing loads over different members. Gussets and knees are provided at critical locations to impart additional strength to the joints. The whole structure is so designed that various loads are uniformly distributed and no single member had to bear excessive load than designed for. Various rolled sections are generally used under frame members. Channel Sections are generally used for Headstock and sole bars for facilitating fitment of axle guards & buffers. Riveting is generally used for joining the under frame members. In case of the bogie wagons, the under frame has comparatively stronger cross members known as bolster for fitting that upper centre pivot casting which rests on the bogie pivot. The under frame and all its members are necessarily to be rue and square and conforming to manufacturing tolerances. All under frames are given an initial camber at the time of manufacture so that under actual loading conditions, these do not so. In case of bogie wagons, trusses are also provided as additional strengthening members to avoid sagging of the under frame. Since the under frame constitutes the main load bearing member in the wagon which is subjected to static loads as well as dynamic impacts owing to the unevenness in the track, wagon under frames are, therefore, checked for the following items and repaired wherever needed : Buffer sub-assemblies and draw gear are within certain minimum and maximum dimensions. Buffer/CBC height is checked and maintained correctly. Buffer springs are not ineffective, otherwise buffing load will have to be directly taken by the under frame members leading to extensive. All the rivets, especially those of axle guards, scroll irons, headstock & knees joining the main members are checked for looseness and breakage and replaced by sound ones at the time to POH.


The horizontal cracks in the under frames, are gauged out the welded. The vertical cracks are strengthened by patching. Any deflection of the members of the under frame in the form of sagging or buckling is attended to and rectified. Bending or cracking of the sole bars are attended to alignment of the under frame is checked at various planes. In case of 4 wheeler wagons, the correct location of the scroll iron is very important for ensuring correct running of the wagons. So important fittings like scroll irons, horn cheeks, buffer etc. are checked with respect to important datum planes. Degusting and cleaning of the under frame and its fitting is done. Head stocks which are excessively damaged/bent are repaired both in case of 4-wheelers and bogie wagons.

5.4 Repairs to Suspension

The suspension of a wagon includes the wheels, bearing, axle boxes or adapters, springs, spring links & spring brackets/scrolls irons. In the case of 4wheeled wagons, the suspension is mounted directly under the wagon under frame whereas in the case of bogie stock, the under frame is carried on the bogies, which in turn are supported by springs, bearings & wheels. The suspension system is required to cushion the riding of a vehicle on the rails, take care of the irregularities in the track and dynamic augments arising out of various parasitic movements of the vehicle on the track. The following defects which could arise during service are attended to:(A) Defects in scroll iron Rivets loose, deficient or broken. Scroll iron cracked or broken. Scroll iron shifted or out of alignment. Eye hole worn/oversize or oval. (B) Defects in Shackle Pins Worn out in dia. beyond permissible limits. Broken/cracked. Bent Deficient or of wrong size. Having excessive lateral clearances in its assembly. Manufactured out of sub-standard material. (C) Defects in Shackle Pins Elongation of holes. Cracks/fractures. (D) Defects in Axle Guard Horn Cheek Assembly Excessive wear of the axle guards. Axle guard not square to the sole bar, both on its side and main face. Axle guard expanded beyond permissible limits or bent. 51

Rivets broken/deficient or slack. (E) Defects in Axle Boxes Axle Box visibly worn. More than one loose liner. Axle Box cracked below the journal center. Axle box broken. Deficient back plate or dust shield. Back top cover plate on BG wagons deficient. Integrally cast back plate broken. Hot box. Axle Box overdue oiling/ or overdue repacking. Axle box face plate broken/ insecurely fastened or gaping. Axle box face plate deficient or with a rivet broken. (F) Defects in Journals Worn out collar shoulder. Ovality on the Journal. Tapering on the Journal Scored Journals. Flanges sharp/deep/thin. Too insufficient radii at the root of flange. Gauge slack/light. Cracked or broken. Slack tyres (G) Defects in Wheel Assembly Wheels reached condemning limits. Flat places/skidded. Flanges sharp/deep/thin. Too insufficient radii at the root of flange. Gauge slack/light. Cracked or broken. Slack tyres

Bridle bar broken/deficient or improperly secured.

5.5 Repairs to Bogie

There are four types of IRS bogies, i.e., (i) Four wheeled Cast Steel bogie. (ii) Four wheeled diamond frame bogie. (iii) Four wheeled Fabricated UIC type Box bogie.


Four wheeled CASNUB bogie with long travel springs, friction snubbing device, centre pivot and side bearer assembly. Bogies usually require attention for the following places: Alignment of the Bogies i. Longitudinally ii. Transversally iii. Diagonally. Corrosion & excessive pitting of spring planks. Side frames & bolsters- cracked/distorted or pitted heavily. Uneven wear on the concave & convex surfaces of the pivots. Spring plate corroded. Rivets of the spring plank loose. Free height of springs reached condemning limit/springs found broken or cracked. Cracking of the sole plate of UIC bogies above the horn gap stiffener. Breakage of the laminated bearing springs of UIC bogies. Wear of Friction shoes. Wear or various mating surfaces, like side frame, autorotation lug, pedestal sides etc.


5.6 Repairs to Brakes Gear components

Vacuum as well as Air brake has been provided on various type of freight stocks. The main components of brakes as under Brake cylinder D.V. SAB Long pull rod etc. During maintenance of freight stocks, It is required to more care has taken in above components. Hence Reliability of freight stocks will be enhanced.

5.7 Repairs to Draw & buffing Gears

Screw coupling with side buffers in which draft load is transmitted through the screw coupling; draw hook and draw hook springs while the buffing forces are taken up by the side buffers. Centre buffer coupler which transmits both draft and buffing Loads. There being straight CBCs & Transition type CBCs. The buffing gear constitutes a vital equipment for the protection of the entire wagon against damages due to impacts. Repairs to the various components of buffing gear are required as follows: Wear on the plunger on the buffing face or at the portion of the body where it rubs against the casting. 53

Bending of plunger face. Bending/cracking of buffer casing. Bending of spindle/damage to its threads/cracking of spindle at the cotter way. The draw gear also constitutes a vital sub-assembly of the wagon & helps in transmitting the tractive efforts of a loco to the individual wagons. It has to perform this function smoothly without causing any damage to the wagon structure. Repairs to the various components of draw gear both conventional as well as couplings are required as under: Wearing of hooks beyond prescribed limit. Wear on shackle pin hole. Wear of the shackle of screw coupling at both the eyes and on the bend where it rubs against the hook of draw bar. Excessive wear on trunion & Trunion nut and shackle pin. Repairs to the various components of the CBC are required as follows: Shank bent out of alignment with the head. Full knuckle throw, lockset, lock-to-lock (anti-creep) and locking functions unsatisfactorily. Wearing of shank wear plates. Cracking of head in the knuckle side wall. Excessive distance between the nose of the knuckle and the guard arm. Knuckle nose wear stretch & cracks.

5.8 Special Repairs to Tank Wagons

Tank wagons from a special class of non-pooled rolling stock. They are classified according to the product carried by the tank and its design. These are used for transporting various types of liquids under different conditions and are provided with safety fittings, vapour extractor cock & valve assemblies for filling and discharge of the liquids. The Routine & periodical overhauling of tank wagons should be carried out as given in chapter-6. In addition to the repairs to under frames, suspension, running gear, draw and buffing gear & braking gear, attention is required to the following : Examination of tank barrels Testing of discharge valves and barrels to ensure that there is no leak. Adjustment and examination of security fittings of safety valves. Examination of tank barrel insulation where provided. Examination of dome equipment. Examination of barrel, cradles and other fastening arrangements.


Indian Railway Journal Spotlight on double-stack container movement, The Hindu Business Line Indian Railway Standard Specifications and Manual Rao, M. A. Indian Railways, New Delhi Wadhwa, Gopal Krishan. An Overview of the R&D Center of Indian Railways www.rdso.gov.in www.rdso.indianrailways.gov.in http://www.rdso.indianrailways.gov.in/works/uploads/File/publication_section.p df


With the end of day 20, my training at R. D. S. O. also came to a completion. It was a huge learning curve for me, especially as being a raw hand, I got my first opportunity to see the practical side of things and learn various aspects of Indian Railways. For this I would like to express my gratitude to the management at R. D. S. O. for having allowed me to take my training at their company, especially Mr. A. K. Vaidya(Director, Wagon Directorate). I would also like to express my gratitude to the various Officers assigned to me during the training period.