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Kali Santarana Upanishad Hare Krishna Mahamantra

Hare Krishna Hare Krishna

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HARE KRISHNA l l l ll ll l l

Om Sahanaavavatu l Sahanau bhunaktu l Saha veeryam karavaa vahai l Tejasvinaavadheetamastu vidvishaavahai l Om Shantih Shantih Shantihee l Hari Om
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The translation of Kali Santarana Upanishad is that given by K. Narayanasvami Aiyar with minor changes (see link below). Om ! May He protect us both together; may He nourish us both together; May we work conjointly with great energy, May our study be vigorous and effective; May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !

Dwaparaante Naarado BrahmaaNam jagaama Katham Bhagavan gaam paryattan kalim santareyamiti l Hari Om ! Dwaapara yuga, when Krishna was present here on earth, is followed by Kaliyuga. So, at the end of Dvapara yuga, Narada went to Brahma and addressed him thus: "O Lord, how shall I, roaming over the earth, be able to across Kali?"

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Sa hovaaca Brahma sadhu prushtosmi l Sarva shruti rahasyam gopyam tat shruNu yena kali samsaaram tarishyasi l
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To which Brahma thus replied: "You have asked me a very good question. Hear to that which all Shrutis (the Vedas) keep secret and hidden, through which one may cross the Samsara (mundane existence) of Kali.

Bhagavata Aadhipurushasya NaaraayaNasya naamoccaaraNa maatreNa nirdhoota kalir bhavati l

He shakes off (the evil effects of) Kali through the mere uttering of the name of Bhagavan, the Lord Narayana, who is the primeval (aadi) Purusha.

Naradah punah papraccha tannaama kimiti Narada asked once again, What is that name?

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Sa hovaaca Hiranyagarbahaa Hare Raama Hare Raama Raama Raama Hare Hare l Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare ll 1 ll
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To which Hiranyagarbha (Brahma) replied as follows: Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare

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Iti shodashakam naamnaam kalikalmasha naashanam l Naatah parataropaayahaa sarva vedeshu drushyate ll 2 ll These sixteen names (words) are destructive of the evil effects of Kali. No better means than this is to be seen in all the Vedas.


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Iti shodasha kalasya jeevasyaavaraNa vinaashanam l Tatah prakaashate param Brahma meghapaaye Ravirashmi maNdaleeveti l These (sixteen names) destroy the Avarana (or the centripetal force which produces the sense of individuality, or a covering that obscures) of Jiva surrounded by the sixteen Kalas (rays). Then like the sphere of the sun which shines fully after the clouds (screening it) are dispersed, Parabrahman (alone) shines.

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This mantra mentions 16 avaranas (sheaths, something that covers) that surround the jiva. The Hare Krishna mahamantra has 16 namaas (rays, or kalaas)that help pierce these sheaths like the suns rays pierce the dense cloud (megha) covering: Hare 8 times, Krishna 4 times, Rama 4 times. The 16 sheaths are listed below, see http://www.srimatham.com/storage/docs/kali-santarana-upanisad.pdf Meghapaaye means upon removal of the dense cloud covering.

The 16 sheaths which envelope the subtle body (linga sharira) according to Sankhya philosophy, are discussed in the Prashna Upanishaad (Shasta prashna). They are: Praana = life force, shraddha = faith, kham = ether, vaayu = air, jyoti = fire/light, aapa = water, prthivi = earth, indriyas = sense organs, manas = mind, annam = the sheath comprised of the food eaten, veeryam = vital energy (regenerative power), tapas = meditation/inner heat, mantra = sonic power, karma = actions and their reactions, lokaa = the realms of existence, and naama = individuation.

Punah Naradah papracca Bhagavan kOsya vidhiriti l And Narada asked once again, What is the procedure and rules (vidhi) to follow for this?

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Tam hovaaca naasya vidhiriti l Sarvadaa shuchirashuchirvaa pattan BraahmaNahaa salokataam sameepataam saroopataam saayujyataam eti l
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To which Brahma replied that there are absolutely no rules in this practice. Whoever (BraahmaNahaa) in a pure (shuci) or an impure (ashuci) state, utters these always, attains being in the same world of (salokataam), or in proximity with (sameepataam), or having the same form of (saroopataam), or complete absorption into (saajyujyam) the Supreme. http://www.bvashram.org/articles/36/1/Chanting-mantras-without-aguru/Page1.html

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Yadaasya shodasheekasya sardhatrikoteer japati tada Brahmahatyaam tarati veerahatyaam l SwarNasteyaat pooto bhavati l Pitru deva manushyaaNaam apakaaraat pooto bhavati l Sarvadharma parityaaga paapaat sadyahaa shucitaam aapnuyaat l Sadyo mucyate sadyo mucyate ityupanishad l Whoever utters, for three and a half crores (or thirty-five millions) times, this Mantra composed of sixteen names (or words) overcomes the sin of the murder of a BrahmaNa. He becomes purified of the sin of destroying his seed (semen). He becomes purified from the sin of the theft of gold. He becomes purified from the sin of cohabitation with a woman of low caste. He is purified from the sins of wrongs done to Pitris, Devas and men. He becomes freed at once from all sins arising from abandonment of all Dharmas. He is at once released from all bondage.
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That he is at once released from all bondage. This is the statement of the Upanishad.

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Om Sahanaavavatu l Sahanau bhunaktu l Saha veeryam karavaa vahai l Tejasvinaavadheetamastu vidvishaavahai l Om Shantih Shantih Shantihee l Om ! May He protect us both together; may He nourish us both together; May we work conjointly with great energy, May our study be vigorous and effective; May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me ! Here ends the Kalisantarana Upanishad belonging to the Krishna-Yajur-Veda. Hari Om Tat Sat ! Om Shantih Shantih Shantihee! ************************************************************************************

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Dear All: Here is an interesting discussion about the Hare Krishna Mahamantra that I found in a Facebook entry. http://www.facebook.com/topic.php?uid=6673380901&topic=20207 Braja Haribol, I would like to know your opinion about HK mantra. According to the text below, up to the times of Baladeva Vidyabhushan it was recited starting with "hare rama". Any thoughts? Here is the text I found on one of the Vaishnava forums: "the mantra known as the "Hare Krishna" mantra is a revealed Vedic mantra. However, the actual mantra is not quite the "Hare Krishna" mantra that has become popular in recent decades. The earliest extant mention of it is found in the Kali Santarana Upanishad. The exact Sanskrit verse is this:

naradah punah papraccha tannama kimiti | sa hovaca hiranyagarbhah | hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare | hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare | iti sodasakam namnam kalikalmasanasanam | natah parataropayah sarvavedesu drsyate | iti sodasakalavrtasya jivasyavaranavinasanam | tatah prakasate param brahma meghapaye ravirasmimandaliveti | The actual mantra in the Kali Santarana Upanishad is thus actually:
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hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare

Darshan of Jagannatha, Subhadra and Balabhadra at Detroit ISKCON, on Radhashtami day, 2011

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Thus, to this very day, orthodox Hindu brahmanas, panditas and Sanskrit experts recite the mantra in this correct fashion. All indologists, Hindu scholars, professional Sanskritists and professors of Hinduism Studies acknowledge that this is, indeed, the correct wording of the text. In fact, even most Gaudiya Acharyas and sannyasis with whom I've discussed this issue also readily acknowledge that this is the correct wording in the original Sanskrit. Interestingly, the mantra was recited in the above, correct, manner even in the Gaudiya Vaishnava sampradaya during the first two to three centuries of its history. Where this specifically changed within the Gaudiya Vaishnava sampradaya was in the early 18th Century with Sri Baladeva Vidyabhusana. According to the traditional court records, the history is this: The Gaudiyas residing in the Mathura/Vrindavana area at that time were known for being very egalitarian and open about offering mantra diksha to any sincere soul, regardless of their previous caste designation. This is, of course, in keeping with true Vaishnavism and bhakti-yoga. However, after several decades of disagreements between the Gaudiyas and certain important Mathura-based caste brahmanas, the local raja was approached with the brahmanas' complaints. Their specific complaint was that the Gaudiyas were initiating shudras, etc. with Vedic mantras, which they felt was not acceptable. The raja threatened to disfavor the Gaudiya movement if they did not cease in offering Vedic mantras to non-twiceborn devotees. After some serious deliberation, the Gaudiya leaders of the Mathura/ Vrindavana community offered the compromise of switching the mantra thus saying the Hare Krishna portion first, followed by the Hare Rama rather than initiating people into the actual Vedic mantra. In this way, they were not initiating people in a Vedic mantra, would satisfied the caste brahmana complainants. Thus was born the "Hare Krishna" mantra as: "
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hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare / hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare. In actuality, there is not a "Hare Krishna" mantra found in any Vedic scripture and never has been; and no such mantra even existed previous to the 18th Century. Rather, what we always had both historically and in the Vedic canon was what we could term the "Hare Rama" mantra: hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare"


Darshan of Radharanis lotus feet on Radhashtami day 2011, at Detroit ISKCON temple. (It is the only day in the whole year when alankaram is performed to allow the lotus feet to be seen.)
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Also, the discussion of the meaning of "Hare" in this mantra, found in the following link is significant, especially the last paragraph. http://www.chakra.org/discussions/WomenDec10_02_02.html Mira prabhu's point, as I understand it, is that the mantra may be somehow defective for only addressing Sri Krsna and Sri Rama, without concurrently also addressing the feminine aspect of the Godhead in the name of Radharani Devi and Sitarani Devi.

Radha Krishna at the Durga temple in Detroit (Hammtramack), MI On Prana Pratishta day of new temple, Oct 2, 2011 (4215 E McNichols Rd)
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However, her presumed objection is invalid, because "Hare", as Srila Prabhupada has explained it, quoting Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati Thakur, is the vocative form of the name "Hara", and Hara refers directly to the consort of God, to the feminine aspect of God, see also http://gosai.com/writings/the-maha-mantra There is thus no way to chant Hare Krishna, Hare Rama -- invoking the Supreme Energetic -- without simultaneously invoking the Supreme Energy or Pleasure Potency of the Lord in the form of Radharani and Sita Devi. So, dear prabhu, your letter is mostly okay, but just, please, chant "Hare Krishna Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna Hare Hare; Hare Rama Hare Rama, Rama Rama Hare Hare," and your life will certainly be sublime. With best wishes, Ananda das

See also the discussion of this mantra and chanting of the Lords names by at links given below. http://www.bvashram.org/articles/36/1/Chanting-mantras-without-aguru/Page1.html http://www.stephen-knapp.com/chanting_hare_krishna.htm http://sriprahlada.com/latest-news/why-maha-mantra-kirtan http://www.hindudharmaforums.com/showthread.php?t=259 http://www.jswami.info/who_is_that_girl_with_krishna Very sincerely V. Laxmanan October 10, 2011
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The Gaudiya VaishNavite View of the Hare Krishna Mahamantra


hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare
In the Kali-santarana Upanisad, the Hare Krsna maha-mantra is given in that way. But to say that the Name of Rama must precede the Name of Krsna in the mantra is a superficial understanding. It is said that because it comes from the Upanisads, the Hare Krsna mantra is a Vedic mantra, and therefore, because the ordinary people may not have any entrance into Vedic mantras, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu readjusted this mantra by reversing the order of the words. In that way, it is said, the concern that it is a Vedic mantra is thereby canceled, and so Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu gave it to all without breaching the injunctions of the Vedas. The Names in the maha-mantra are Hare, Krsna and Rama. The followers of the Sankaracarya school, as well as those of the Ramanuja and Madhva schools, conceive the Name of Hare to be the vocative case of Hari. Thus for them Hare means Narayana, Rama means Ramacandra and Krsna means the avatar of Narayana [not Krsna the avatari, or source of Narayana]. The followers of Sankaracarya have adopted this version of the maha-mantra and the Vaisnava sampradayas of South India have also adopted the same. Hare in all these sampradayas means Hari, or Narayana. In all circumstances their way of thinking is about liberation (mukti) and not actually about bhakti (devotion). Moreover, the followers of Sankaracarya are sometimes found to chant the mahamantra and give more attention to the maha-mantra than the Ramanuja sampradaya or the Madhva sampradaya. The Kali-santarana Upanisad and the
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maha-mantra are accepted by all these sampradayas, yet the maha-mantra is of little importance to them. Only the Gaudiya Vaisnavas stake everything on the maha-mantra. Actually, according to one Madhva website, it appears that at least a certain section of their sampradaya has lost the plot so to speak. The following is a contemporary Madhva quote: And it is known that the Hare Krsna mantra is recited without proper procedure, without dhyana, sankalpa, etc., in the approved Vedic fashion. It has been arbitrarily picked out of a book and practiced in mutilated form, and is thus a false initiation (as the originators of the tradition were themselves unqualified to recite the mantra). Worst of all, it is recited as Krsna Himself, and not as a symbol or tool for his worship...as such, it stands to reason that the Hare Krsna mahamantra is best avoided by everybody. The most obvious mistake in the above quote is that the Kali-santarana Upanisad clearly states nasya vidhiriti there are no rules (vidhi) involved in chanting the maha-mantra. In fact the Upanisad guarantees liberation to anyone who chants the maha-mantra. punar-naradah paprccha bhagavan kosya vidhiriti tam hovaca nasya vidhiriti sarvada sucirasucirava pathan-brahmanah salokatam samipatam sarupatam sayujyatameti Again Narada enquired: O Lord, what are the rules to be observed with reference to it (chanting the maha-mantra)?" Brahma replied, There are no rules. Whoever, in a pure or an impure state, utters these always, attains the same world of the Lord (salokya), proximity with the Lord (samipya), the same form as the Lord (sarupya), or absorption into Brahman (sayujya). (Kali-santarana Upanisad 3) For the followers of Sankaracarya, the Name Hare means Hari He who takes away ones karma, material desire and illusion (maya). For Ramanujas and most Madhvas, Hari is He who takes away all inauspiciousness and bestows all good fortune. But for Gaudiya Vaisnavas the conception of Hare is altogether different. For the Gaudiyas, Hare is the vocative case of Hara, the internal pleasure potency of Krsna. Thus Hare means Srimati Radharani.
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It should not be misunderstood that we are arguing or fighting over the proper meaning of the names in the maha-mantra. There is certainly room for different bona fide conceptions within the maha-mantra. Each with his conception may attain that particular destination. yei yei rupe jane, sei taha kahe sakala sambhave krsne, kichu mithya nahe In whatever form one knows the Lord, one speaks of Him in that way. In this there is no falsity, since everything is possible in Krsna. (Cc. Adi 5.132) In this regard Srila A.C. Bhaktivedanta Svami Prabhupada writes in his purport to this verse: If someone calls Lord Ramacandra by the vibration Hare Rama, understanding it to mean O Lord Ramacandra! he is quite right. Similarly, if one says that Hare Rama means O Sri Balarama! he is also right. Those who are aware of the visnutattva do not fight over all these details. However, one must also remember that all realities are not the same, nor do all conceptions lead to the same destination. It is often said as a reference that the maha-mantra first appears or manifests in the Kali-santarana Upanisad portion of the Vedas, but such a statement is not actually correct according to Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura, who has stated: Lord Hari's Name is Lord Hari Himself. The maha-mantra was present before the scriptures manifested. The catuh-sloki of the Bhagavatam beginning with 'aham evasam evagre' is proof of this. The supremely independent Holy Name is not under the jurisdiction of scriptural control. Actually, the scriptures have appeared by the supreme will of the Holy Name. It is not a fact that the scriptures manifested first and then the Holy Name appeared after. The Brahma-samhita says that the Holy Name appeared first in Brahma's heart. (Sri Srila Prabhupader Upadesamrta) The maha-mantra chanted by Gaudiyas is always chanted as: hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare Whereas other sampradayas might chant the maha-mantra for liberation, the Gaudiyas chant the maha-mantra out of devotion to please Krsna. Hari takes
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away material desires, maya, etc, but Hare, the internal potency (hladinisakti/Radharani) captures or takes away the mind and heart of Krsna. Hara is the energy by which one can serve Krsna, and the only energy that can please Krsna. Krsna Himself is the reservoir of pleasure and Rama, or Radharamana, is the one who gives pleasure to Srimati Radharani. The Gaudiya conception of Rama in the maha-mantra meaning Krsna, the giver of pleasure to Sri Radha, is also collaborated by Sri Bhaktisiddhanta as follows: According to the mood of aisvarya, Rama refers to Ramacandra, the son of Dasaratha. According to the mood of madhurya, Rama refers to Krsna, the relisher of Sri Radha's association. Whenever the Name 'Rama' indicates service to Radha-ramana Krsna, then the word 'Hare' which is the vocative form of Hara, refers to Sri Radharani, who is the origin of all spiritual potencies. Sri Radha is known as Hara because She attracts the mind of Krsna. Hari means 'attracter'. Hare is the vocative form of the word 'Hara'. There are three Ramas Rama, the husband of Sita-devi, Rama the husband of Revati and Rama, the lover of Radha. (Sri Srila Prabhupader Upadesamrta) Commenting on the maha-mantra in his Maha-mantrartha Dipika, Sri Jiva Gosvami reveals the meaning of each of the sixteen Names in the maha-mantra in consecutive order as follows: hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare (1-Hare) sarva-ceta-harah krsnas tasya cittam haratyasau vaidagdhi-sara-vistarair ato radha hara mata Krsna steals the minds of everyone, yet Radha steals even His mind by Her divine expertise. Thus She is known as Hara. (2-Krsna) karsati sviyalavanya-murali-kala-nihsvanaih sri radham mohana-gunalankrtah krsna iryate He forcibly attracts Sri Radha with the sweet sound of His flute, therefore that Lord of all enchanting qualities is known as Krsna.

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(3-Hare) sruyate niyate rase harina harineksana ekakini rahah-kunje hareyam tena kathyate It has been heard that during the rasa-lila, doe-eyed Radha was stolen away by Krsna to be alone with Him in a secret forest bower. She is therefore known as Hara. (4-Krsna) anga-syamalima-stomaih syamalikrta-kancanah ramate radhaya sardham krsno nigadyate When Krsna sports with Radha, Her golden hue takes on the dark complexion of Krsna's skin. He is thus known as Krsna. (5-Krsna) krtvaranye sarah-srestham kantayanumatas-taya akrsya sarva-tirthani taj-jnanat krsna iryate In order to please Sri Radha, Krsna manifested the most wonderful lake (Syamakunda) in Vrndavana. He then called all the holy rivers to fill it. He is thus known as Krsna. (6-Krsna) krsyate radhaya premna yamuna-tata-kananam lilaya lalitas-capi dhiraih krsna udahrtah By Her unsurpassed love, Radha charms He who performs wonderful lilas on the banks of the Yamuna. Therefore, those who are sober know Him as Krsna. (7-Hare) hrtavan gokule tisthann-aristam pusta-pungavam sri haris tam rasad uccai rayatiti hara mata While in Gokula, Sri Hari (Krsna) killed the demon known as Aristasura. During that time, Radha cried out to Him with great feeling and by doing so, She stole His mind. She is thus known as Hara. (8-Hare) hyasphutam rayati priti-bharena hari-cestam gayatiti mata dhirair hara rasa-vicaksanaih
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Filled with ecstatic love, Radha sometimes sings the glories of Haris exploits quietly, and sometimes She sings them aloud. Those who are expert in the secrets of divine sentiments call Her Hara. (9-Hare) rasavesa-parisrastam jahara muralim hareh hareti kirtita devi vipine keli-lampata Due to the intense love of Sri Radha, Sri Hari becomes so captivated that His flute falls from His hand. With the desire to enjoy in the forest bowers with Krsna, Radha steals His flute. That goddess is thus famous as Hara. (10-Rama) govardhana-dari-kunje parirambha-vicaksanah sri radham ramayamasa ramastena mato harih Krsna, who is expert at embracing, sports with Radha in the forest groves or in the caves of Govardhana. Thus He is known as Rama. (11-Hare) hanti duhkhani bhaktanam rati saukhyani canvaham hara devi nigadita maha-karunya-salini That most merciful Radha destroys the miseries of Her devotees and gives them great happiness every day. Therefore that goddess is known as Hara. (12-Rama) ramate bhajato cetah paramananda-varidhau atreti kathito ramah syamasundara-vigrahah The minds of the devotees are continuously drowned in an ocean of supreme joy by seeing the beautiful dark form of Krsna. Therefore He is known by the Name Rama. (13-Rama) ramayaty-acyutam premna nikunja-vana-mandire rama nigadita radha ramo yutas taya punah Radharani is known as Rama because She enjoys loving pastimes with Acyuta (Krsna) in a secret forest pavilion. Since He is always by Her side, He is known as Rama.
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(14-Rama) rodanair gokule davanalam asayati hyasau visosayati tenokto ramo bhakta-sukhavahah When the residents of Gokula were crying due to fear of the forest fire, Krsna immediately swallowed it and gave His devotees great joy. In this way, He is known as Rama. (15-Hare) nihantum asuran yato mathura-puram ity-asau tadagamad-rahah-kamo yasyah sasau hareti ca Sri Krsna went to Mathurapuri in order to destroy the demons. However, due to being captivated by the love of Radha, He later returned. Therefore She is known as Hara. (16-Hare) agatya duhkha-harta yo sarvesam vraja-vasinam sri radha-hari-carito harih sri nandanandanah When the son of Maharaja Nanda returned to Vraja, He took away the suffering of all the Vrajavasis. By His wonderful exploits, He steals the heart of Sri Radha. Thus He is known as Hari. Throughout his Maha-mantrartha Dipika, Sri Jiva Gosvami reveals the meaning of Hare as Hara until the final verse wherein he says that Hare means Hari He who has stolen the heart of Srimati Radharani. In the first verse Radha steals the mind of Krsna, and in the last verse Krsna steals the heart of Radha. Indeed, Radha wears a locket with a picture of Krsna around Her neck, and Krsna wears a locket with a picture of Radha around His neck. These Two have stolen each others hearts and minds, thus one might suspect that Sri Jiva is alluding to the appearance of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu in his Maha-mantrartha Dipika as the combined form of both Radha and Krsna. In any case, according to Jiva Gosvami, the divine pastimes of Radha and Krsna are written throughout the maha-mantra.

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