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Database Mango - Mangifera indica

Sunday, August 07, 2011 12:03 PM

(Mangifera indica)

Family: Anacardiaceae Genus: Mangifera Species: indica Common Names: Mango, an lo kuo, anbah, manga agaci, manga, mangot fil, mangot, manguier, mamuang, aangga, merpelam, pelem Part Used: Fruit, seed, leaves, bark, latex

PLANT DESCRIP TION Documen anti-asthmatic, antiseptic, antiviral, cardiotonic, emetic, expectorant, hypotensive, laxative ted Propertie s & Actions:
Plant Chemical s Include: 2-octene, alanine, alpha-phellandrene, alpha-pinene, ambolic-acid, ambonic-acid, arginine, ascorbic-acid, beta-carotene beta-pinene, carotenoids, furfurol, gaba, gallic -acid, gallotannic-acid, geraniol, histidine, isoleucine, isomangiferolic -acid, kaempferol, limonene, linoleic-acid, mangiferic-acid, mangiferine, mangiferol, mangiferolic-acid, myristic-acid, neobeta-carotene-b, neo-beta-carot ene-u, neoxanthophyll, nerol, neryl-acetate, oleic-acid, oxalic-acid, p-coumaric-acid, palmitic-acid, palmitoleic-acid, pantothenic-acid, peroxidase, phenylalanine, phytin, proline, quercetin, xanthophyll


10. "MANGIFERA INDICA L. Mango (E,Cu,S) . Widely cultivated in Panama, the renowned mango tends to seed itself easily, although fruits from spontaneous seedlings may have the flavor of turpentine. The mango, besides being eaten as a ripe fruit, is used as follows in India. When green, the stone is extracted, the fruit halved or sliced, and put in curries, made into brine pickles, said to taste like olives, made into preserves by boiling and cooking in sugar, boiled and strained with milk and sugar made into a custard known as mango-fool, sundried and subsequently used to add acidity to certain curries, when very young cut into small pieces, mixed with salt, sliced peppers and milk to form a tasty salad. When ripe, it is made into curries and salads like above, the juice is squeezed out, spread thinly on plates and allowed to dry into a cake, the seeds, removed from the woody husk, may be boiled with potherbs eaten roasted, or ground to form a flour, which tends to induce constipation. Cubans substitute mangoes for squash, eat fried mangoes, mango fritters, mango omelets, and if there is rice, then rice with mangoes. Young flowers and newly unfolded leaves are said to be edible but could be dangerous to sensitive people. The sap may cause a rash like poison oak. Nonetheless, gum from the trunks is eaten in India, and is used for mending pottery. The twigs and leaves, used to clean the teeth, are said to be beneficial to the gums, while the bark is said to be useful for toothaches. The astringent stomachic bark is also used for internal hemorrhages, bronchitis , and catarrh. The resin is used for cracked feet, ringworm, and other fungi, syphilis, and to induce sweating. Smoke from the burning leaves is believed to cure various throat disorders, from asthma to hiccups. Dried flowers are used to treat gleet. Green fruits are considered anticholeric (baked and mixed with sugar and taken internally and also rubbed over the body), antidysmenorrheic, antiscorbutic, astringent, and diaphoretic. Roasted green fruits are dissolved in sugar water and taken internally to prevent sunstroke and they may be just rubbed on the body. Ripe fruits are considered diuretic, laxative, and unguent, and the gum is used to treak scabies; the seeds are anthelmintic, antiasthmatic, antimenorrhagic, antidysesnteric, and unguent. A gruel made of the seeds is taken internally for bleeding piles. The wood is favored for making shovels for working in the Salinas around Aguadulce." Morton, J. 1987. Mango. p. 221239. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL:

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Morton, J. 1987. Mango. p. 221239. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL: "Toxicity The sap which exudes from the stalk close to the base of the fruit is somewhat milky at first, also yellowish-resinous. It becomes pale-yellow and translucent when dried. It contains mangiferen, resinous acid, mangiferic acid, and the resinol, mangiferol. It, like the sap of the trunk and branches and the skin of the unripe fruit, is a potent skin irritant, and capable of blistering the skin of the normal individual. As with poison ivy, there is typically a delayed reaction. Hypersensitive persons may react with considerable swelling of the eyelids, the face, and other parts of the body. They may not be able to handle, peel, or eat mangos or any food containing mango flesh or juice. A good precaution is to use one knife to peel the mango, and a clean knife to slice the flesh to avoid contaminating the flesh with any of the resin in the peel. The leaves contain the glucoside, mangiferine. In India, cows were formerly fed mango leaves to obtain from their urine euxanthic acid which is rich yellow and has been used as a dye. Since continuous intake of the leaves may be fatal, the practice has been outlawed. When mango trees are in bloom, it is not uncommon for people to suffer itching around the eyes, facial swelling and respiratory difficulty, even though there is no airborne pollen. The few pollen grains are large and they tend to adhere to each other even in dry weather. The stigma is small and not designed to catch windborne pollen. The irritant is probably the vaporized essential oil of the flowers which contains the sesquiterpene alcohol, mangiferol, and the ketone, mangiferone. Mango wood should never be used in fireplaces or for cooking fuel, as its smoke is highly irritant. Other Uses Seed kernels: After soaking and drying to 10% moisture content, the kernels are fed to poultry and cattle. Without the removal of tannins, the feeding value is low. Cuban scientists declare that the mineral levels are so low mineral supplementation is needed if the kernel is used for poultry feed, for which purpose it is recommended mainly because it has little crude fiber. Seed fat: Having high stearic acid content, the fat is desirable for soap-making. The seed residue after fat extraction is usable for cattle feed and soil enrichment. Bark: The bark possesses 16% to 20% tannin and has been employed for tanning hides. It yields a yellow dye, or, with turmeric and lime, a bright rose-pink. Gum: A somewhat resinous, red-brown gum from the trunk is used for mending crockery in tropical Africa. In India, it is sold as a substitute for gum arabic. Medicinal Uses: Dried mango flowers, containing 15% tannin, serve as astringents in cases of diarrhea, chronic dysentery, catarrh of the bladder and chronic urethritis resulting from gonorrhea. The bark contains mangiferine and is astringent and employed against rheumatism and diphtheria in India. The resinous gum from the trunk is applied on cracks in the skin of the feet and on scabies, and is believed helpful in cases of syphilis. Mango kernel decoction and powder (not tannin-free) are used as vermifuges and as astringents in diarrhea, hemorrhages and bleeding hemorrhoids. The fat is administered in cases of stomatitis. Extracts of unripe fruits and of bark, stems and leaves have shown antibiotic activity. In some of the islands of the Caribbean, the leaf decoction is taken as a remedy for diarrhea, fever, chest complaints, diabetes, hypertension and other ills. A combined decoction of mango and other leaves is taken after childbirth."

The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.

Ins erted from <http://www.rain-tree.com/mango.htm>

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Veg Oil Motoring, diesel engine conversions to run on vegetable oil Courses
Sunday, August 07, 2011 12:22 PM

Convert your diesel engine to vegetable oil Learn all you need to know to convert your diesel vehicle to run on pure vegetable oil. This is perhaps the most environmentally sound approach to motoring. The course covers both methods of conversion single tank and two-tank. Participants will be involved with the step-by-step conversion of a vehicle, learning the practical considerations of kit installation. Other subjects covered are: how diesel engines work, vehicle suitability, the sourcing and use of new and used vegetable oil, where to buy components, fuel duty law, environmental impact and health and safety. The course assumes no existing knowledge of diesel engines. It is suitable for those who are hands-on as well as those who might consider getting their car converted by professionals but want to be informed about the technology and how to use it. Participant feedback: The course gave me a huge amount of knowledge in a concise, practical and methodological manner, in fantastic settings with a great community atmosphere.

Ins erted from <http://www.vegoilmotoring.com/eng/courses>

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Fatty acid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Monday, August 08, 2011 10:43 AM

Fatty acid
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Not to be confused with fat.

In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. Most naturally occurring fatty acids have a chain of an even number of carbon atoms, from 4 to 28.[1] Fatty acids are usually derived from triglycerides or phospholipids. When they are not attached to other molecules, they are known as "free" fatty acids. Fatty acids are important sources of fuel because, metabolized, they yield large quantities of ATP. Many cell types can use either glucose or fatty acids for this purpose. In particular, heart and skeletal muscle prefer fatty acids. The brain cannot use fatty acids as a source of fuel; it relies on glucose or ketone bodies.[2]

Types of fatty acids

Three dimensional representations of several fatty acids Fatty acids that have double bonds are known as unsaturated. Fatty acids without double bonds are known as saturated. They differ in length as well.

Length of free fatty acid chains

Fatty acid chains differ by length, often categorized as short, medium, or long. Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of fewer than six carbons (i.e butyric acid. Medium-Chain Fatty Acids (MCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 612[3] carbons, which can form medium-chain triglycerides. Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails longer than 12 carbons.[4] Very-Long-Chain Fatty Acids (VLCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails longer than 22 carbons
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Long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails longer than 12 carbons.[4] Very-Long-Chain Fatty Acids (VLCFA) are fatty acids with aliphatic tails longer than 22 carbons

Unsaturated fatty acids

Comparison of the trans isomer (top) Elaidic acid and the cis-isomer oleic acid. Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds between carbon atoms. (Pairs of carbon atoms connected by double bonds can be saturated by adding hydrogen atoms to them, converting the double bonds to single bonds. Therefore, the double bonds are called unsaturated.) The two carbon atoms in the chain that are bound next to either side of the double bond can occur in a cis or trans configuration. cis A cis configuration means that adjacent hydrogen atoms are on the same side of the double bond. The rigidity of the double bond freezes its conformation and, in the case of the cis isomer, causes the chain to bend and restricts the conformational freedom of the fatty acid. The more double bonds the chain has in the cis configuration, the less flexibility it has. When a chain has many cis bonds, it becomes quite curved in its most accessible conformations. For example, oleic acid, with one double bond, has a "kink" in it, whereas linoleic acid, with two double bonds, has a more pronounced bend. Alpha-linolenic acid, with three double bonds, favors a hooked shape. The effect of this is that, in restricted environments, such as when fatty acids are part of a phospholipid in a lipid bilayer, or triglycerides in lipid droplets, cis bonds limit the ability of fatty acids to be closely packed, and therefore could affect the melting temperature of the membrane or of the fat. trans A trans configuration, by contrast, means that the next two hydrogen atoms are bound to opposite sides of the double bond. As a result, they do not cause the chain to bend much, and their shape is similar to straight saturated fatty acids. In most naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids, each double bond has three n carbon atoms after it, for some n, and all are cis bonds. Most fatty acids in the trans configuration (trans fats) are not found in nature and are the result of human processing (e.g., hydrogenation). The differences in geometry between the various types of unsaturated fatty acids, as well as between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, play an important role in biological processes, and in the construction of biological structures (such as cell membranes). Common name Myristoleic acid Chemical structure CH3(CH2) 3CH=CH(CH2) 7COOH x cis-9 C:D 14:1 nx n5

Palmitoleic acid
Sapienic acid

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Sapienic acid Oleic acid Elaidic acid Vaccenic acid Linoleic acid -Linolenic acid Arachidonic acid


cis-6 cis-9 trans-9 cis-11 cis,cis- ,

9 12

16:1 18:1 18:1 18:1 18:2 18:2 18:3 20:4 20:5 22:1 22:6
12 15

n10 n9 n9 n7 n6 n6 n3 n6 n3 n9 n3

Linoelaidic acid CH3(CH2) 4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2) 7COOH


CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2) 7C cis,cis,cis- , , OOH CH3(CH2) 4CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2C cis,cis,cis,cisH=CH(CH2)3COOHNIST 58,11,14

Eicosapentaen CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH= cis,cis,cis,cis,cisoic acid CHCH2CH=CH(CH2) 3COOH 5,8,11,14,17 Erucic acid CH3(CH2) 7CH=CH(CH2) 11COOH cis-13 Docosahexaen CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH= cis,cis,cis,cis,cis,cisoic acid CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2) 2COOH 4,7,10,13,16,19 Examples of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

Essential fatty acids

Main article: Essential fatty acid Fatty acids that are required by the human body but cannot be made in sufficient quantity from other substrates and therefore must be obtained from food and are called essential fatty acids. There are two series of essential fatty acids: one has a double bond three carbon atoms removed from the methyl end; the other has a double bond six carbon atoms removed from the methyl end. Humans lack the ability to introduce double bonds in fatty acids beyond carbons 9 and 10, as counted from the carboxylic acid side.[5] Two essential fatty acids are linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). They are widely distributed in plant oils. The human body has a limited ability to convert ALA into the longer-chain n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which can also be obtained from fish.

Saturated fatty acids

Saturated fatty acids are long-chain carboxylic acids that usually have between 12 and 24 carbon atoms and have no double bonds. Thus, saturated fatty acids are saturated with hydrogen (since double bonds reduce the number of hydrogens on each carbon). Because saturated fatty acids have only single bonds, each carbon atom within the chain has 2 hydrogen atoms (except for the omega carbon at the end that has 3 hydrogens). Common name Chemical structure C:D Lauric acid CH3(CH2) 10COOH 12:0

Myristic acid Palmitic acid Stearic acid Arachidic acid Behenic acid
Lignoceric acid Cerotic acid


14:0 16:0 18:0 20:0 22:0

24:0 26:0

Examples of Saturated Fatty Acids


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Numbering of carbon atoms Several different systems of nomenclature are used for fatty acids. The following table describes the most common systems. System Example Explanation Trivial Palmitolei Trivial names (or common names) are non-systematic historical names, which nomencla c acid are the most frequent naming system used in literature. Most common fatty ture acids have trivial names in addition to their systematic names (see below). These names frequently do not follow any pattern, but they are concise and often unambiguous. Systemati (9Z)c octadece nomencla noic acid ture Systematic names (or IUPAC names) derive from the standard IUPAC Rules for the Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, published in 1979,[6] along with a recommendation published specifically for lipids in 1977.[7] Counting begins from the carboxylic acid end. Double bonds are labelled with cis-/transnotation or E-/Z- notation, where appropriate. This notation is generally more verbose than common nomenclature, but has the advantage of being more technically clear and descriptive.

x cis,cisnomencla 9,12 ture octadecad ienoic acid

In x (or delta-x) nomenclature, each double bond is indicated by x, where the double bond is located on the xth carboncarbon bond, counting from the carboxylic acid end. Each double bond is preceded by a cis- or trans- prefix, indicating the conformation of the molecule around the bond. For example, linoleic acid is designated "cis-9, cis-12 octadecadienoic acid". This nomenclature has the advantage of being less verbose than systematic nomenclature, but is no more technically clear or descriptive.
nx (n minus x; also x or omega-x) nomenclature both provides names for individual compounds and classifies them by their likely biosynthetic properties in animals. A double bond is located on the x th carboncarbon bond, counting from the terminal methyl carbon (designated as n or ) toward the carbonyl carbon. For example, -Linolenic acid is classified as a n3 or omega-3fatty acid, and so it is likely to share a biosynthetic pathway with other compounds of this type. The x, omega-x, or "omega" notation is common in popular nutritional literature, but IUPAC has deprecated it in favor of nx notation in technical documents.[6] The most commonly researched fatty acid biosynthetic pathways are n3 and n6, which are hypothesized[by whom?] to decrease or increase, respectively,[citation needed] inflammation. Lipid numbers take the form C:D, where C is the number of carbon atoms in the fatty acid and D is the number of double bonds in the fatty acid. This notation can be ambiguous, as some different fatty acids can have the same numbers. Consequently, when ambiguity exists this notation is usually paired with either a x or nx term.[6]

nx n3 nomencla ture

Lipid numbers

18:3 18:3, n6 18:3, cis,ci s,cis9,12,15

Fatty acids are usually produced industrially by the hydrolysis of triglycerides, with the removal of glycerol (see oleochemicals). Phospholipids represent another source. Some fatty acids are produced synthetically by hydrocarboxylation of alkenes.

Free fatty acids

Main article: fatty acid synthesis The biosynthesis of fatty acids involves the condensation of acetyl-CoA. Since this coenzyme carries a
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The biosynthesis of fatty acids involves the condensation of acetyl-CoA. Since this coenzyme carries a two-carbon-atom group, almost all natural fatty acids have even numbers of carbon atoms. The "uncombined fatty acids" or "free fatty acids" found in organism[which?] come from the breakdown of a triglyceride [citation needed]. Because they are insoluble in water, these fatty acids are transported (solubilized, circulated) while bound to plasma protein albumin. The levels of "free fatty acid" in the blood are limited by the availability of albumin binding sites.

Fatty acids in dietary fats

The following table gives the fatty acid, vitamin E and cholesterol composition of some common dietary fats.[8] [9] Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Cholesterol Vitamin E g/100g Animal fats Lard Duck fat Butter Vegetable fats Coconut oil Palm oil Cottonseed oil Wheat germ oil Soya oil 85.2 45.3 25.5 18.8 14.5 6.6 41.6 21.3 15.9 23.2 1.7 8.3 48.1 60.7 56.5 0 0 0 0 0 .66 33.12 42.77 136.65 16.29

g/100g 43.8 49.3 19.8

g/100g 9.6 12.9 2.6

mg/100g 93 100 230

mg/100g 0.00 2.70 2.00

40.8 33.2 54.0

Olive oil Corn oil Sunflower oil Safflower oil Hemp oil
Canola/Rapeseed oil

14.0 12.7 11.9 10.2 10


69.7 24.7 20.2 12.6 15


11.2 57.8 63.0 72.1 75


0 0 0 0 0

5.10 17.24 49.0 40.68


Reactions of fatty acids

Fatty acids exhibit reactions like other carboxylic acid, i.e. they undergo esterification and acid-base reactions.

Fatty acids do not show a great variation in their acidities, as indicated by their pKas. Nonanoic acid, for example, has a pKa of 4.96, being only slightly weaker than acetic acid (4.76). As the chain length increases the solubility of the fatty acids in water decreases very rapidly, so that the longer-chain fatty acids have minimal effect on the pH of an aqueous solution. Even those fatty acids that are insoluble in water will dissolve in warm ethanol, and can be titrated with sodium hydroxide solution using phenolphthalein as an indicator to a pale-pink endpoint. This analysis is used to determine the free fatty acid content of fats; i.e., the proportion of the triglycerides that have been hydrolyzed.

Hydrogenation and hardening

Hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids is widely practiced to give saturated fatty acids, which are less prone toward rancidification. Since the saturated fatty acids are higher melting that the unsaturated relatives, the process is called hardening. This technology is used to convert vegetable oils into margarine. During partial hydrogenation, unsaturated fatty acids can be isomerized from cis to trans configuration.[11] More forcing hydrogenation, i.e. using higher pressures of H2 and higher temperatures, converts fatty acids fatty alcohols. Fatty alcohols are, however, more easily produced from fatty acid esters.
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acids fatty alcohols. Fatty alcohols are, however, more easily produced from fatty acid esters. In the Varrentrapp reaction certain unsaturated fatty acids are cleaved in molten alkali, a reaction at one time of relevance to structure elucidation.

Auto-oxidation and rancidity

Main article: Rancidification Unsaturated fatty acids undergo a chemical change known as auto-oxidation. The process requires oxygen (air) and is accelerated by the presence of trace metals. Vegetable oils resists this process because they contain antioxidants, such as tocopherol. Fats and oils often are treated with chelating agents such as citric acid to remove the metal catalysts.

Unsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to degradation by ozone. This reaction is practiced in the production azelaic acid ((CH2) 7(CO2H) 2) from oleic acid.[11]

Digestion and intake
Main article: Digestion#Fat digestion Short- and medium-chain fatty acids are absorbed directly into the blood via intestine capillaries and travel through the portal vein just as other absorbed nutrients do. However, long-chain fatty acids are not directly released into the intestinal capillaries. Instead they are absorbed into the fatty walls of the intestine villi and reassembled again into triglycerides. The triglycerides are coated with cholesterol and protein (protein coat) into a compound called a chylomicron. Within the villi, the chylomicron enters a lymphatic capillary called a lacteal, which merges into larger lymphatic vessels. It is transported via the lymphatic system and the thoracic duct up to a location near the heart (where the arteries and veins are larger). The thoracic duct empties the chylomicrons into the bloodstream via the left subclavian vein. At this point the chylomicrons can transport the triglycerides to tissues where they are stored or metabolized for energy.

Fatty acids (provided either by ingestion or by drawing on triglycerides stored in fatty tissues) are distributed to cells to serve as a fuel for muscular contraction and general metabolism. They are consumed by mitochondria to produce ATP through beta oxidation.

Main article: Blood fatty acids Blood fatty acids are in different forms in different stages in the blood circulation. They are taken in through the intestine in chylomicrons, but also exist in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and low density lipoproteins (LDL) after processing in the liver. In addition, when released from adipocytes, fatty acids exist in the blood as free fatty acids. It is proposed that the blend of fatty acids exuded by mammalian skin, together with lactic acid and pyruvic acid, is distinctive and enables animals with a keen sense of smell to differentiate individuals.[12]

1. ^ IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology (2nd ed.). International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. 1997. ISBN 052151150X. http://goldbook.iupac.org/F02330.html. Retrieved 2007-10-31. 2. ^ Mary K. Campbell, Shawn O. Farrell (2006). Biochemistry (5th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 579. ISBN 0534405215. 3. ^ Medscape: Free CME, Medical News, Full-text Journal Articles & More 4. ^ Christopher Beermann1, J Jelinek1, T Reinecker2, A Hauenschild2, G Boehm1, and H-U Klr2, "Short term effects of dietary medium-chain fatty acids and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fat metabolism of healthy volunteers" 5. ^ Cell Biology: A Short Course 6. ^ a b c Rigaudy, J.; Klesney, S.P. (1979). Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry. Pergamon. ISBN 0080223699. OCLC 5008199. 7. ^ "The Nomenclature of Lipids. Recommendations, 1976". European Journal of Biochemistry 79
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7. ^ "The Nomenclature of Lipids. Recommendations, 1976". European Journal of Biochemistry 79 (1): 1121. 1977. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1977.tb11778.x. http://www.blackwellsynergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1977.tb11778.x. 8. ^ Food Standards Agency (1991). "Fats and Oils". McCance & Widdowson's the Composition of Foods. Royal Society of Chemistry. 9. ^ Ted Altar. "More Than You Wanted To Know About Fats/Oils". Sundance Natural Foods Online. http://www.efn.org/~sundance/fats_and_oils.html. Retrieved 2006-08-31. 10. ^ U. S. Department of Agriculture.. "USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference". U. S. Department of Agriculture.. http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 11. ^ a b David J. Anneken, Sabine Both, Ralf Christoph, Georg Fieg, Udo Steinberner, Alfred Westfechtel "Fatty Acids" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2006, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a10_245.pub2 12. ^ "Electronic Nose Created To Detect Skin Vapors". Science Daily. July 21, 2009. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/07/090721091839.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-18.

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List of vegetable oils - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Monday, August 08, 2011 10:54 AM

List of vegetable oils

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Plant oils

Olive oil Types Vegetable fats Macerated Uses Drying oil - Oil paint Cooking oil Fuel - Biodiesel Components Saturated fat Monounsaturated fat Polyunsaturated fat
Trans fat

(list) (list)

There are three methods for extracting vegetable oils from plants. The relevant part of the plant may be placed under pressure to "extract" the oil, giving an expressed oil. Oils may also be extracted from plants by dissolving parts of plants in water or another solvent. The solution may be separated from the plant material and concentrated, giving an extracted or leached oil. The mixture may also be separated by distilling the oil away from the plant material. Oils extracted by this latter method are called essential oils. Essential oils often have different properties and uses than pressed or leached vegetable oils. Macerated oils are made by infusing parts of plants in a base oil a process known as maceration. Although most plants contain some oil, only the oil from certain major oil crops [1] complemented by a few dozen minor oil crops [2] is widely used and traded. These oils are one of several types of plant oils. Vegetable oils can be classified in several ways, for example: By source: most, but not all vegetable oils are extracted from the fruits or seeds of plants, and the oils may be classified by grouping oils from similar plants, such as "nut oils". By use: oils from plants are used in cooking, for fuel, for cosmetics, for medical purposes, and for other
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By use: oils from plants are used in cooking, for fuel, for cosmetics, for medical purposes, and for other industrial purposes. The vegetable oils are grouped below in common classes of use.

Edible oils
See also: Cooking oil.

Major oils

Sunflowers, the seeds of which are the source of Sunflower oil. These oils account for a significant fraction of worldwide edible oil production. All are also used as fuel oils. Coconut oil, a cooking oil, high in saturated fat, particularly used in baking and cosmetics. [3] Corn oil, a common cooking oil with little odor or taste. [4] Cottonseed oil, used in manufacturing potato chips and other snack foods. [5] Olive oil, used in cooking, cosmetics, soaps, and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps.[6] Palm oil, the most widely produced tropical oil. Popular in West African and Brazilian cuisine.[7] Also used to make biofuel.[8] Peanut oil (Ground nut oil), a clear oil used for dressing salads and, due to its high smoke point, especially used for frying.[9] Rapeseed oil, including Canola oil, one of the most widely used cooking oils.[10] Safflower oil, produced for export for over 50 years, first for use in paint industry, now mostly as a cooking oil. [11] Sesame oil, cold pressed as light cooking oil, hot pressed for a darker and stronger flavor. [12] Soybean oil, produced as a byproduct of processing soy meal. [13] Sunflower oil, a common cooking oil, also used to make biodiesel.[14]

Nut oils

Hazelnuts from the Common Hazel, used to make Hazelnut oil. Nut oils are generally used in cooking, for their flavor. Most are quite costly, because of the difficulty of extracting the oil. Almond oil, used as an edible oil, but primarily in the manufacture of pharmaceutical drugs.[15] Cashew oil, somewhat comparable to olive oil. May have value for fighting dental cavities.[16] Hazelnut oil, mainly used for its flavor. Also used in skin care, because of its slight astringent nature.[17]

Macadamia oil, strongly flavored, contains no trans fat. Mongongo nut oil (or manketti oil), from the seeds of the Schinziophyton rautanenii, a tree which grows in South Africa. High in vitamin E. Also used in skin care. [19]
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in South Africa. High in vitamin E. Also used in skin care. [19] Pracaxi oil, from the seeds of the Pentaclethra macroloba, or Oil Tree, which is native to the wet tropical areas around the north eastern part of South America. Has one of the highest level of behenic acid among natural products. Pecan oil, valued as a food oil, but requiring fresh pecans for good quality oil. [20] Pine nut oil added to foods usually as a flavoring agent. Pistachio oil, strongly flavored oil, particularly for use in salads. [21] Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis) oil, contains no cholesterol and the highest omega-3 fatty acid concentration (~ 49%) Walnut oil, used for its flavor, also used by Renaissance painters in oil paints.[22][23]

Oils from melon and gourd seeds

Watermelon seed oil, extracted from the seeds of Citrullus vulgaris, is used in cooking in West Africa. Members of the cucurbitaceae include gourds, melons, pumpkins, and squashes. Seeds from these plants are noted for their oil content, but little information is available on methods of extracting the oil. In most cases, the plants are grown as food, with dietary use of the oils as a byproduct of using the seeds as food. [24] Bottle gourd oil, extracted from the seeds of the Lagenaria siceraria, widely grown in tropical regions. Used medicinally and as an edible oil. [25] Buffalo gourd oil, from the seeds of the Cucurbita foetidissima, a vine with a rank odor, native to southwest North America.[26] Butternut squash seed oil, from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata, has a nutty flavor that is used for salad dressings, marinades, and sauting' [27] Pumpkin seed oil, a specialty cooking oil, produced in Austria, Slovenia and Croatia. Used mostly in salad dressings. Poor tolerance for high temperatures. [28] Watermelon seed oil, pressed from the seeds of Citrullus vulgaris. Traditionally used in cooking in West Africa.[29]

Food supplements
A number of oils are used as food supplements, for their nutrient content or medical effect. Aa oil, from the fruit of several species of the Aa palm (Euterpe). Grown in the Amazon region. Similar to grape seed oil. They are used in cosmetics and as a food supplement.[30] Blackcurrant seed oil, used as a food supplement, because of high content of omega-3and omega-6 fatty acids.[31] Borage seed oil, similar to blackcurrant seed oil, used primarily medicinally. [32] Evening primrose oil, used as a food supplement for its purported medicinal properties. [33]

Other edible oils

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Carob seed pods, used to make carob pod oil. Amaranth oil, high in squalene and unsaturated fatty acids, used in food and cosmetic industries. [34] Apricot oil, similar to, but much cheaper than almond oil, which it resembles. Only obtained from certain cultivars.[35] Apple seed oil, used in cosmetics and shampoos. [36] Also used as an edible oil.[37] Argan oil, a food oil from Morocco that has also attracted recent attention in Europe.[38] Artichoke oil, extracted from the seeds of the Cynara cardunculus. Similar in use and composition to safflower and sunflower oil.[39] Avocado oil, a nutty-flavored culinary oil, also used as a base for infusions.[40] Also used in cosmetics.[41] Unusually high smoke point of 510F.[42] Babassu oil, similar to, and used as a substitute for, coconut oil.[43] Ben oil, extracted from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera. High in behenic acid. Extremely stable edible oil. Also suitable for biofuel.[44] Borneo tallow nut oil, extracted from the fruit of species of genus Shorea. Used as a substitute for cocoa butter, and to make soap, candles, cosmetics and medicines.[45] Cape Chestnut oil, otherwise known as Yangu oil, is a popular oil in African skin care. Carob pod oil (Algaroba oil), from carob, used medicinally.[46] Cassia oil, made from Cinnamon, this spiced oil is used to flavour Easter biscuits Cocoa butter, from the cacao plant. Used in the manufacture of chocolate, as well as in some cosmetics. Cocklebur oil, from species of genus Xanthium, with similar properties to poppyseed oil, similar in taste and smell to sunflower oil.[47][48] Cohune oil, from the Attalea cohune (cohune palm), similar to coconut oil in makeup and usage [49]

Coriander seeds are the source of an edible pressed oil, Coriander seed oil. Coriander seed oil, from coriander seeds, used medicinally. Also used as a flavoring agent in pharmaceutical and food industries. [50] Dika oil, from Irvingia gabonensis seeds, native to West Africa. Used to make margarine, soap and pharmaceuticals, where is it being examined as a tablet lubricant. Largely underdeveloped. [51][52] False flax oil made of the seeds of Camelina sativa, available in Russia as ryjhikovoye maslo ( ). Considered promising as a food or fuel oil. [53] Flax seed oil (called linseed oil when used as a drying oil). High in omega 3 and lignans, which can be used medicinally. Easily turns rancid.[54] Grape seed oil, suitable for cooking at high temperatures. Also used as a salad oil, and in cosmetics. [55] Hemp oil, a high quality food oil. [56] Kapok seed oil, used as an edible oil, and in soap production. [57]
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Kapok seed oil, used as an edible oil, and in soap production. [57] Kenaf Seed oil a fibre plant similar to Hemp. Lallemantia oil, from the seeds of Lallemantia iberica, discovered at archaeological sites in northern Greece.[58] Marula oil, extracted from the kernel of Sclerocarya birrea. Used in the food and cosmetic industry, it has strong antioxidant and moisturising properties.[59] Meadowfoam seed oil, highly stable oil, with over 98% long-chain fatty acids. Competes with rapeseed oil for industrial applications. [60] Mustard oil (pressed), used in India as a cooking oil. Also used as a massage oil.[61] Nutmeg butter, extracted by expression from the fruit of cogeners of genus Myristica. Nutmeg butter has a large amount of trimyristin. Nutmeg oil, by contrast, is an essential oil, extracted by steam distillation.[62] Okra seed oil, from Abelmoschus esculentus. Composed predominantly of oleic and linoleic acids.[63] The greenish yellow edible oil has a pleasant taste and odor. [64] Papaya seed oil, high in omega-3 and omega-6. Used as skin treatment. Similar to olive oil, with a sweet flavor.[65] Perilla seed oil, high in omega-3 fatty acids. Used as an edible oil, for medicinal purposes, in skin care products and as a drying oil. [66] Pequi oil, extracted from the seeds of Caryocar brasiliense. Used in Brazil as a highly prized cooking oil.[67] Pine nut oil. An expensive food oil, from pine nuts, used in salads and as a condiment. [68]

Poppy seeds, used to make poppyseed oil Poppyseed oil, used for cooking,[69] moisturizing skin, [70] in paints and varnishes,[71] and in soaps. Prune kernel oil, marketed as a gourmet cooking oil. [72] Quinoa oil, similar in composition and use to corn oil.[73] Ramtil oil, pressed from the seeds of the one of several species of genus Guizotia abyssinica (Niger pea) in India and Ethiopia. Used for both cooking and lighting. [74] Rice bran oil, suitable for high temperature cooking. Widely used in Asia.[75] Royle oil, pressed from the seeds of Prinsepia utilis, a wild, edible oil shrub that grows in the higher Himalayas. Used medicinally in Nepal.[76] Sacha Inchi oil, from the Peruvian Amazon. High in omega-3and omega-6 fatty acids.[77] Shea butter, used primarily in skin care products. [78] Some confectioners use shea butter as a substitute for cocoa butter. [79] Taramira oil, from the seeds of the arugula (Eruca sativa), grown in West Asia and Northern India. Used as a (pungent) edible oil after aging to remove acridity. [80][81] Tea seed oil (Camellia oil), widely used in southern China as a cooking oil. Also used in making soaps, hair oils and a variety of other products. [82] Thistle oil, pressed from the seeds of Silybum marianum. Relatively unstable. Also used for skin care products.[83] Tigernut oil (or nut-sedge oil) is pressed from the tuber of Cyperus esculentus. It has properties similar to soybean, sunflower and rapeseed oils. [84] It is used in cooking and making soap [85] and has potential as a biodiesel fuel.[84] Tomato seed oil. High in unsaturated fats and lysine. Potentially useful as a protein supplement. [86] Wheat germ oil, used as a dietary supplement, and for its "grainy" flavor. Also used medicinally. Highly
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Wheat germ oil, used as a dietary supplement, and for its "grainy" flavor. Also used medicinally. Highly unstable. [87]

Oils used for biofuel

See also: Vegetable oil used as fuel. A number of the oils listed above are used for biofuel (biodiesel and Straight Vegetable Oil) in addition to having other uses. A number of oils are used only as biofuel. [88][89] Although diesel engines were invented, in part, with vegetable oil in mind,[90] diesel fuel is almost exclusively petroleum-based. Vegetable oils are evaluated for use as a biofuel based on: 1. Suitability as a fuel, based on flash point, energy content, viscosity, combustion products and other factors 2. Cost, based in part on yield, effort required to grow and harvest, and post-harvest processing cost

A flask of biodiesel

Multipurpose oils also used as biofuel

The oils listed immediately below are all (primarily) used for other purposes - all but tung oil are edible but have been considered for use as biofuel. Castor oil, lower cost than many candidates. Kinematic viscosity may be an issue. [91] Coconut oil (copra oil), promising for local use in places that produce coconuts. [92] Corn oil, appealing because of the abundance of maize as a crop. Cottonseed oil, shown in one study not to be cost effective when compared with standard diesel. [93] False flax oil, from Camelina sativa, used in Europe in oil lamps until the 18th century. [53] Hemp oil, relatively low in emissions. High flash point. Production is problematic in some countries because of its association with marijuana.[94] Mustard oil, shown to be comparable to Canola oil as a biofuel. [95] Palm oil, very popular for biofuel, but the environmental impact from growing large quantities of oil palms has recently called the use of palm oil into question.[96] Peanut oil, used in one of the first demonstrations of the Diesel engine in 1900.[90] Radish oil. Wild radish contains up to 48% oil, making it appealing as a fuel. [97] Rapeseed oil, the most common base oil used in Europe in biodiesel production. [89] Ramtil oil, used for lighting in India.[98] Rice bran oil, appealing because of lower cost than many other vegetable oils. Widely grown in Asia. [99] Safflower oil, explored recently as a biofuel in Montana.[100] Salicornia oil, from the seeds of Salicornia bigelovii, a halophyte (salt-loving plant) native to Mexico.[101] Soybean oil, not economical as a fuel crop, but appealing as a byproduct of soybean crops for other uses.[89] Sunflower oil, suitable as a fuel, but not necessarily cost effective. [102] Tigernut oil has been described by researchers in China as having "great potential as a biodiesel fuel." [84] Tung oil, referenced in several lists of vegetable oils that are suitable for biodiesel.[103][104]

Inedible oils used only or primarily as biofuel

These oils are extracted from plants that are cultivated solely for producing oil -based biofuel. [105] These, plus the major oils described above, have received much more attention as fuel oils than other plant oils.
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oils. Algae oil, recently developed by MIT scientist Isaac Berzin. Byproduct of a smokestack emission reduction system. [106][107] Copaiba, an oleoresin tapped from species of genus Copaifera. Used in Brazil as a cosmetic product and a major source of biodiesel.[108] Honge oil (Pongamia), pioneered as a biofuel by Udipi Shrinivasa in Bangalore, India.[109][110] Jatropha oil, widely used in India as a fuel oil. Has attracted strong proponents for use as a biofuel.[111]

Jojoba oil, from the Simmondsia chinensis, a desert shrub. [113] Milk bush, popularized by chemist Melvin Calvin in the 1950s. Researched in the 1980s by Petrobras, the Brazilian national petroleum company. [114] Petroleum nut oil, from the Petroleum nut (Pittosporum resiniferum ) native to the Philippines. The Philippine government once explored the use of the petroleum nut as a biofuel. [115]

Drying oils
Drying oils are vegetable oils that dry to a hard finish at normal room temperature. Such oils are used as the basis of oil paints, and in other paint and wood finishing applications. In addition to the oils listed here, walnut, sunflower and safflower oil are also considered to be drying oils. [116] Dammar oil, from the Canarium strictum, used in paint as an oil drying agent.[117] Can also be used as in oil lamps.[118] Linseed oil, used in paints, also suitable for human consumption. [119] Poppyseed oil, similar in usage to linseed oil but with better color stability.[116] Stillingia oil (also called Chinese vegetable tallow oil), obtained by solvent from the seeds of Sapium sebiferum. Used as a drying agent in paints and varnishes.[120][121] Tung oil, used in wood finishing.[122] Vernonia oil is produced from the seeds of the Vernonia galamensis. It is composed of 73-80% vernolic acid, which can be used to make epoxies for manufacturing adhesives, varnishes and paints, and industrial coatings. [123]

Citrus oils
A number of citrus plants yield pressed oils. Some, like lemon and orange oil, are used as essential oils, which is uncommon for pressed oils. The seeds of many if not most members of the citrus family yield usable oils. [124][125][126] Grapefruit seed oil, extracted from the seeds of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). Grapefruit seed oil was extracted experimentally in 1930 and was shown to be suitable for making soap. [127] Lemon oil, similar in fragrance to the fruit. One of a small number of cold pressed essential oils. Used medicinally, as an antiseptic, and in cosmetics. [128] Orange oil, like lemon oil, cold pressed rather than distilled. Consists of 90% d-Limonene. Used as a fragrance, in cleaning products and in flavoring foods. [129] The fruit of the sea-buckthorn

Other oils
A number of pressed vegetable oils are either not edible, or not used as an edible oil.

Castor beans are the source of castor oil Amur cork tree fruit oil, pressed from the fruit of the Phellodendron amurense, used medicinally and as an insecticide.[130]
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an insecticide.[130] Balanos oil, pressed from the seeds of Balanites aegyptiaca, was used in ancient Egypt as the base for perfumes.[44] Bladderpod oil, pressed from the seeds of Lesquerella fendleri, native to North America. Rich in lesquerolic acid, which is chemically similar to the ricinoleic acid found in castor oil. Many industrial uses. Possible substitute for castor oil as it requires much less moisture than castor beans.[131] Brucea javanica oil, extracted from the seeds of the Brucea javanica. Used medicinally. [132] Burdock oil (Bur oil) extracted from the root of the burdock. Used medicinally in scalp treatment. [133] Candlenut oil (Kukui nut oil), produced in Hawai'i, used primarily for skin care products. [134] Carrot seed oil (pressed), from carrot seeds, used in skin care products. [135][136] Castor oil, with many industrial and medicinal uses. Castor beans are also a source of the toxin ricin.[137] Chaulmoogra oil, from the seeds of Hydnocarpus wightiana, used for many centuries, internally and externally, to treat leprosy.[138] Also used to treat secondary syphilis, rheumatism, scrofula, and in phthisis.[139][140] Crambe oil, extracted from the seeds of the Crambe abyssinica, is used as an industrial lubricant, a corrosion inhibitor, and as an ingredient in the manufacture of synthetic rubber. [141] Cuphea oil, from a number of species of genre Cuphea. Of interest as sources of medium chain triglycerides.[142] Illipe butter, from the nuts of the Shorea stenoptera. Similar to cocoa butter, but with a higher melting point. Used in cosmetics.[143] Jojoba oil, used in cosmetics as an alternative to whale oil spermaceti.[144] Mango oil, pressed from the stones of the mango fruit, is high in stearic acid, and can be used for making soap.[145] Mowrah butter, from the seeds of the Madhuca latifolia and Madhuca longifolia, both native to India. Crude Mowrah butter is used as a fat for spinning wool, for making candles and soap. The refined fat is used as an edible fat and vegetable ghee in India.[26] Neem oil, used in cosmetics, for medicinal purposes, and as an insecticide.[146] Ojon oil, extracted from the nut of the American palm (Elaeis oleifera). Used as a skin and hair treatment. Oil extracted from both the nut and husk is also used as an edible oil in Central and South America.[147] Rose hip seed oil, used primarily in skin care products, particularly for aging or damaged skin. Produced in Chile.[148] Rubber seed oil, pressed from the seeds of the Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), has received attention as a potential use of what otherwise would be a waste product from making rubber. It has been explored as a drying oil in Nigeria[149] as a diesel fuel in India [150] and as food for livestock in Cambodia and Vietnam[151] Sea buckthorn oil, derived from Hippophae rhamnoides, produced in northern China, used primarily medicinally.[152] Snowball seed oil (Viburnum oil), from Viburnum opulus seeds. High in tocopherol, carotenoides and unsaturated fatty acids. Used medicinally.[153] Tall oil, produced as a byproduct of wood pulp manufacture. A further byproduct called tall oil fatty acid (TOFA) is a cheap source of oleic acid.[154] Tamanu oil, originates in Tahiti, from the Calophyllum tacamahaca, used for skin care and medicinally.[155] Tonka bean oil (Cumaru oil), used for flavoring tobacco and snuff.[156]

Renewable energy portal Carrier oil discusses the use of (pressed) vegetable oils, mixed with essential oils Alternative medicine Fatty acid discusses the components of most vegetable fats and oils International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients explains naming conventions for oils used in cosmetics and soaps

General references
"Fats and Cholesterol: Out with the Bad, In with the Good - What Should You Eat? - The Nutrition Source - Harvard School of Public Health". www.hsph.harvard.edu.
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Source - Harvard School of Public Health". www.hsph.harvard.edu. http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/what-should-you-eat/fats-full-story/index.html. Retrieved 2009-05-04. "Bulk Oil Trading". Archived from the original on 2006-07-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20060718050203/http://www.bulkoil.com/scripts/oil_definition.asp . Retrieved 2006-07-25. This site was very helpful in making this list more comprehensive. R.O. Adlof and G. Duchateau. "Seed oil translations" (PDF). http://www.aocs.org/member/division/analytic/ISOseedoilsources7.pdf. Lists seed oil names in English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Turkish and Portuguese. "Hormel Foods: Other Oils and Fats Cooking Guide". Archived from the original on 2006-07-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20060712004636/http://www.hormel.com/templates/knowledge/knowle dge.asp?catitemid=42&id=571. Retrieved 2006-07-25. Lists smoke points of various oils. "Vegetable Oil Yields and Characteristics". http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_yield.html. Retrieved 2006-07-21. Compiles useful information on vegetable oils from a number of sources. "Yokayo Biofuels: History of Biodiesel". http://www.ybiofuels.org/bio_fuels/history_biofuels.html . Retrieved 2006-07-25. Gives a good overview of biodiesel and the oils that are used to produce it. Yokayo is a California-based company that sells biofuel. "Castor Oil". http://www.castoroil.in/. Retrieved 2006-07-25. The site contains a large set of resources on castor oil and many other oils, particularly those used to make biodiesel. Botanical Garden of Indian Republic (BGIR) (April 5, 2004). "Database of Oil Yielding Plants" (PDF). Botanical Survey of India. http://www.mnre.gov.in/list/oil-plants.pdf. Retrieved 2010-10-19. List of about 300 plants that grow in India, and that yield oil. Also gives common names in languages spoken in India. H.F. Macmillan. "Oils and Vegetable Fats". Handbook of Tropical Plants. Herbdata New Zealand. ISBN 8170411777. http://www.herbdatanz.com/oils_and_vegetable_fats.htm. Old reference with basic information on an unusually large variety of plant oils

1. ^ Economic Research Service (1995-2006). Oil Crops Outlook. United States Department of Agriculture. http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/MannUsda/viewDocumentInfo.do?documentID= 1288. This publication is available via email subscription. 2. ^ B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). Minor oil crops. FAO. http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5043E/X5043E00.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 3. ^ "Coconut-Info.com". http://www.coconut-info.com/. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 4. ^ "Bulk Oil: Corn oil". http://www.bulkoil.com/scripts/oiltype_item.asp?p=24. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 5. ^ "Bulk oil: Cottonseed oil". http://www.bulkoil.com/scripts/oiltype_item.asp?p=27. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 6. ^ "Olive oil history". http://www.globalgourmet.com/food/egg/egg0397/oohistory.html. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 7. ^ "Cook's Encyclopedia: Palm oil/palm kernel oil". Archived from the original on 2006-03-30. http://web.archive.org/web/20060330223658/http://allrecipes.com/advice/ref/ency/terms/7729 .asp. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 8. ^ "Bulk oil: Palm oil". http://www.bulkoil.com/scripts/oiltype_item.asp?p=9. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 9. ^ "Cook's encyclopedia: Peanut oil". Archived from the originalon 2006-07-04. http://web.archive.org/web/20060704154242/http://allrecipes.com/advice/ref/ency/terms/7832 .asp. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 10. ^ "Canola Oil". http://www.canolainfo.org/. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 11. ^ "Bulk oil: safflower". http://www.bulkoil.com/scripts/oiltype_item.asp?p=25. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 12. ^ "Bulk oil: sesame oil". http://www.bulkoil.com/scripts/oiltype_item.asp?p=34. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 13. ^ "Southeast Farm Press: World soybean consumption quickens". http://southeastfarmpress.com/mag/farming_world_soybean_consumption/index.html. Retrieved 2006-07-31.
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Retrieved 2006-07-31. 14. ^ "Bulk oil: Sunflower oil". http://www.bulkoil.com/scripts/oiltype_item.asp?p=11. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 15. ^ "Bulk oil: Almond oil". http://www.bulkoil.com/scripts/oiltype_item.asp?p=74. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 16. ^ Science Service, Inc. (March 23, 1991). "Cashew oil may conquer cavities". Science News. http://www.highbeam.com/library/docfree.asp?DOCID=1G1:10597226&ctrlInfo=Round19% 3AMode19a%3ADocG%3AResult&ao=. 17. ^ "Cook's encyclopedia: Hazelnut oil". Archived from the original on 2006-02-23. http://web.archive.org/web/20060223142440/http://allrecipes.com/advice/ref/ency/terms/6883 .asp. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 18. ^ "Bulk Carrier and Vegetable Oils: Hazelnut oil". http://www.mountainroseherbs.com/bulkoil/dl.php. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 19. ^ Busani Bafana (July 2009). "Mongongo - a tough nut worth cracking". New Agriculturist. http://new-ag.info/en/focus/focusItem.php?a=794. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 20. ^ J. Benton Storey. "Pecans as a health food". http://aggiehorticulture.tamu.edu/extension/fruit/pecanhealth/pecanhealth.html. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 21. ^ "Virgin pistachio oil". 1,001 Huiles Web site. http://www.1001huiles.fr/en/catalog/pistachio_oil.php. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 22. ^ "What's cooking America? - Walnut oil". http://whatscookingamerica.net/Q-A/WalnutOil.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 23. ^ "About.com: Is Walnut Oil a Good, Non-Toxic Medium for Oils?". http://painting.about.com/od/oilpaintingfaq/f/FAQwalnutoil.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 24. ^ B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). "Cucurbitaceae". Minor oil crops. FAO. http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5043E/x5043E07.htm#Cucurbitaceae. Retrieved 2007-01-01. 25. ^ B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). "Bottle gourd". Minor oil crops. FAO. http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5043E/x5043E07.htm#Bottle%20gourd. Retrieved 2007-01-01. 26. ^ a b "Squashes, Gourds and Pumpkins". ECHO. Archived from the original on 2007-02-22. http://web.archive.org/web/20070222220351/http://www.echotech.org/mambo/index.php? option=com_content&task=view&id=29&Itemid=59. Retrieved 2006-11-12. 27. ^ Joe Ogrodnick (Spring 2009). "Butternut Squash Seed Oil Goes to Market". CALS News. http://calsnews.cornell.edu/2009spring/made/buttnernut-squash-oil.html. Retrieved 2011-01-14. 28. ^ "Pumpkin seed oil - information". http://www.pumpkinseedoil.com/. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 29. ^ "Watermelon Seed Oil". From Nature With Love. http://www.fromnaturewithlove.com/soap/product.asp?product_id=oilwatermelon. Retrieved 2006-12-26. 30. ^ "Bulk oil: Acai oil". http://www.bulkoil.com/scripts/oiltype_item.asp?p=123. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 31. ^ "Gale Encyclopedia of Public Health: Blackcurrant Seed Oil". http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/black-currant-seed-oil. Retrieved 2010-10-19. 32. ^ "Truestar Health: Borage Oil". http://www.truestarhealth.com/Notes/2811005.html. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 33. ^ "Truestar Health: Evening primrose oil". http://www.truestarhealth.com/Notes/2841007.html. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 34. ^ "Nu World: Amaranth oil". http://www.nuworldfoods.com/industrial/content/industrial_products/amaranth_oil.asp. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 35. ^ "Botanical.com: Apricit". http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/a/apric050.html. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 36. ^ "Mammy Apple Seed Oil". Cardamo Oil. Archived from the original on 2007-12-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20071209080113/http://www.cardamomoil.com/mammy.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-27. 37. ^ Yu Xiuzhu, Frederick R. van de Voort, Li Zhixi and Yue Tianli (October 25, 2007). "Proximate Composition of the Apple Seed and Characterization of Its Oil". International Journal of Food Engineering 3 (5). doi:10.2202/1556-3758.1283. http://www.bepress.com/ijfe/vol3/iss5/art12.
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150. ^ A.S. Ramadha, S. Jayaraj and C. Muraleedharan (April, 2003). "Characterization and effect of using rubber seed oil as fuel in the compression ignition engines". Renewable Energy 20(5): 795803. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2004.07.002. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science? _ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V4S-4DD94BP-1&_user=10&_rdoc=1 &_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1 &_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=d6ac05a6563f9d8fed0e39603fec9ad1. Retrieved 2009-08-06. 151. ^ Bi Huy Nh Phc (2528 March 2003). Reg Preston and Brian Ogle. ed. "Ileal digestibility of coconut oil meal and rubber seed oil meal in growing pigs". Proceedings of Final National SeminarWorkshop on Sustainable Livestock Production on Local Feed Resources. http://www.mekarn.org/sarec03/Phuc.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-06. 152. ^ Subhuti Dharmananda. "Sea buckthorn". http://www.itmonline.org/arts/seabuckthorn.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 153. ^ "Limonnik: Viburnum oil". Archived from the original on 2006-07-21. http://web.archive.org/web/20060721193353/http://www.limonnik.ru/eng_pages/doctor.htm#V iburnum_oil. Retrieved 2006-07-25. Limonnik sells health related products from natural sources. 154. ^ "Tall Oil (Liquid Rosin)". http://www.chemicalland21.com/arokorhi/specialtychem/finechem/TALL%20OIL.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 155. ^ "Snowdrift Farm: Fixed Oil Glossary". http://www.snowdriftfarm.com/fixedoilglossary.html. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 156. ^ "Tropilab: Dipteryx Odorata - Tonka Bean". http://www.tropilab.com/dipter-odo.html. Retrieved 2006-07-25.

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Monday, August 08, 2011 11:01 AM

Syzygium cumini Skeels
Syzygium jambolanum DC. Eugenia cumini Druce
This member of the Myrtaceae is of wider interest for its medicinal applications than for its edible fruit. Botanically it is Syzygium cumini Skeels (syns. S. jambolanum DC., Eugenia cumini Druce, E. jambolana Lam., E. djouat Perr., Myrtus cumini L., Calyptranthes jambolana Willd.). Among its many colloquial names are Java plum, Portuguese plum, Malabar plum, black plum, purple plum, and, in Jamaica, damson plum; also Indian blackberry. In India and Malaya it is variously known as jaman, jambu, jambul, jambool, jambhool, jamelong, jamelongue, jamblang, jiwat, salam, or koriang. In Thailand, it is wa, or ma-ha; in Laos, va; Cambodia, pring bai or pring das krebey; in Vietnam, voi rung; in the Philippines, duhat, lomboy, lunaboy or other dialectal appelations; in Java, djoowet, or doowet. In Venezuela, local names are psjua extranjera or guayabo psjua; in Surinam, koeli, jamoen, or druif (Dutch for "grape"); in Brazil, jambulo, jalo, jamelo or jambol.

Plate LII: JAMBOLAN, Syzygium cumini

Description The jambolan is fast-growing, reaching full size in 40 years. It ranges up to 100 ft (30 m) in India and Oceania; up to 40 or 50 ft (12-15 m) in Florida; and it may attain a spread of 36 ft (11 m) and a trunk diameter of 2 or 3 ft (0.6-0.9 m). It usually forks into multiple trunks a short distance from the ground. The bark on the lower part of the tree is rough, cracked, flaking and discolored; further up it is smooth and light-gray. The turpentine-scented evergreen leaves are opposite, 2 to 10 in (5-25 cm) long, 1 to 4 in (2.5-10 cm) wide; oblong-oval or elliptic, blunt or tapering to a point at the apex; pinkish when young; when mature, leathery, glossy, dark-green above, lighter beneath, with conspicuous, yellowish midrib. The fragrant flowers, in 1-to 4-in (2.5-10 cm) clusters, are 1/2 in (1.25 cm) wide, 1 in (2.5 cm) or more in length; have a funnel-shaped calyx and 4 to 5 united petals, white at first, then rose-pink, quickly shed leaving only the numerous stamens. The fruit, in clusters of just a few or 10 to 40, is round or oblong, often curved; 1/2 to 2 in (1.25-5 m)
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The fruit, in clusters of just a few or 10 to 40, is round or oblong, often curved; 1/2 to 2 in (1.25-5 m) long, and usually turns from green to light-magenta, then dark-purple or nearly black as it ripens. A white-fruited form has been reported in Indonesia. The skin is thin, smooth, glossy, and adherent. The pulp is purple or white, very juicy, and normally encloses a single, oblong, green or brown seed, up to 1 1/2 in (4 cm) in length, though some fruits have 2 to 5 seeds tightly compressed within a leathery coat, and some are seedless. The fruit is usually astringent, sometimes unpalatably so, and the flavor varies from acid to fairly sweet. Origin and Distribution The jambolan is native in India, Burma, Ceylon and the Andaman Islands. It was long ago introduced into and became naturalized in Malaya. In southern Asia, the tree is venerated by Buddhists, and it is commonly planted near Hindu temples because it is considered sacred to Krishna. The leaves and fruits are employed in worshipping the elephant-headed god, Ganesha or Vinaijaka, the personification of "Pravana" or "Om", the apex of Hindu religion and philosophy. The tree is thought to be of prehistoric introduction into the Philippines where it is widely planted and naturalized, as it is in Java and elsewhere in the East Indies, and in Queensland and New South Wales, also on the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba and Mombasa and adjacent coast of Kenya. In Ghana, it is found only in gardens. Introduced into Israel perhaps about 1940, it grows vigorously there but bears scantily, the fruit is considered valueless but the tree is valued as an ornamental and for forestry in humid zones. It is grown to some extent in Algiers. By 1870, it had become established in Hawaii and, because of seed dispersal by mynah birds, it occurs in a semiwild state on all the Hawaiian islands in moist areas below 2,000 ft (600 in). There are vigorous efforts to exterminate it with herbicides because it shades out desirable forage plants. It is planted in most of the inhabited valleys in the Marquesas. It was in cultivation in Bermuda, Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica, the French Islands of the Lesser Antilles and Trinidad in the early 20th Century; was introduced into Puerto Rico in 1920; but still has remained little-known in the Caribbean region. At the Lancetilla Experimental Garden at Tela, Honduras, it grows and fruits well. It is seldom planted elsewhere in tropical America but is occasionally seen in Guatemala, Belize, Surinam, Venezuela and Brazil. The Bureau of Plant Industry of the United States Department of Agriculture received jambolan seeds from the Philippines in 1911, from Java in 1912, from Zanzibar and again from the Philippines in 1920. The tree flourishes in California, especially in the vicinity of Santa Barbara, though the climate is not congenial for production or ripening of fruit. In southern Florida, the tree was rather commonly planted in the past. Here, as in Hawaii, fruiting is heavy, only a small amount of the crop has been utilized in home preserving. The jambolan has lost popularity, as it has in Malaya where it used to be frequently grown in gardens. Heavy crops litter streets, sidewalks and lawns, attracting insects, rapidly fermenting and creating a foul atmosphere. People are eager to have the trees cut down. Where conditions favor spontaneous growth, the seedlings become a nuisance, as well. Varieties The common types of jambolan in India are: 1) Ra Jaman, with large, oblong fruits, dark-purple or bluish, with pink, sweet pulp and small seeds; 2) Kaatha, with small, acid fruits. Among named cultivars are, mainly, 'Early Wild', 'Late Wild', 'Pharenda'; and, secondarily, 'Small Jaman' and 'Dabka' ('Dubaka'). In Java, the small form is called Djoowet kreekil; a seedless form is Djoowet booten. In southern Malaya, the trees are small-leaved with small flower clusters. Farther north, the variety called 'Krian Duat' has larger, thicker leaves and red inner bark. Fruits with purple flesh are more astringent than the whitefleshed types. Climate The jambolan tree grows well from sea-level to 6,000 ft (1,800 m) but, above 2,000 ft (600 m) it does not fruit but can be grown for its timber. It develops most luxuriantly in regions of heavy rainfall, as much as 400 in (1,000 cm) annually. It prospers on river banks and has been known to withstand prolonged flooding. Yet it is tolerant of drought after it has made some growth. Dry weather is desirable during the flowering and fruiting periods. It is sensitive to frost when young but mature trees have been undamaged by brief below-freezing temperatures in southern Florida. Soil Despite its ability to thrive in low, wet areas, the tree does well on higher, well-drained land whether it be in loam, marl, sand or oolitic limestone. Propagation
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be in loam, marl, sand or oolitic limestone. Propagation Jambolan seeds lose viability quickly. They are the most common means of dissemination, are sown during the rainy season in India, and germinate in approximately 2 weeks. Semi-hardwood cuttings, treated with growth-promoting hormones have given 20% success and have grown well. Budding onto seedlings of the same species has also been successful. Veneer-grafting of scions from the spring flush has yielded 31% survivors. The modified Forkert method of budding may be more feasible. When a small-fruited, seedless variety in the Philippines was budded onto a seeded stock, the scion produced large fruits, some with seeds and some without. Approach-grafting and inarching are also practiced in India. Air-layers treated with 500 ppm indolebutyric acid have rooted well in the spring (60% of them) but have died in containers in the summer. Culture Seedlings grow slowly the first year, rapidly thereafter, and may reach 12 ft (3.65 m) in 2 years, and begin bearing in 8 to 10 years. Grafted trees bear in 4 to 7 years. No particular cultural attention seems to be required, apart from frost protection when young and control measures for insect infestations. In India, organic fertilizer is applied after harvest but withheld in advance of flowering and fruiting to assure a good crop. If a tree does not bear heavily, it may be girdled or root-pruned to slow down vegetative growth. The tree is grown as shade for coffee in India. It is wind-resistant and sometimes is closely planted in rows as a windbreak. If topped regularly, such plantings form a dense, massive hedge. Trees are set 20 ft (6 m) apart in a windbreak; 40 ft (12 m) apart along roadsides and avenues. Fruiting Season The fruit is in season in the Marquesas in April; in the Philippines, from mid-May to mid-June. In Hawaii, the crop ripens in late summer and fall. Flowering occurs in Java in July and August and the fruits ripen in September and October. In Ceylon, the tree blooms from May to August and the fruit is harvested in November and December. The main fruiting season in India and southern Florida (where the tree blooms principally in February and March) extends through late May, June and July. Small second crops from late blooms have been observed in October. Individual trees may habitually bear later than others. Harvesting and Yield In India, the fruits are harvested by hand as they ripen and this requires several pickings over the season. Indian horticulturists have reported a crop of 700 fruits from a 5-year-old tree. The production of a large tree may be overwhelming to the average homeowner. Pests and Diseases In Florida, some jambolan trees are very susceptible to scale insects. The whitefly, Dialeurodes eugeniae, is common on jambolans throughout India. Of several insect enemies in South India, the most troublesome are leaf-eating caterpillars: Carea subtilis, Chrysocraspeda olearia, Phlegetonia delatrbc, 0enospila flavifuscata, Metanastria hyrtaca, and Euproctis fraterna. These pests may cause total defoliation. The leafminer, Acrocercops phaeospora, may be a major problem at times. Idiocerus atkinsoni sucks the sap of flowering shoots, buds and flower clusters, causing them to fall. The fruits are attacked by fruit flies (Dacus diversus in India), and are avidly eaten by birds and fourfooted animals (jackals and civets). In Australia, they are a favorite food of the large bat called "flying fox." Diseases recorded as found on the jambolan by inspectors of the Florida Department of Agriculture are: black leaf spot (Asterinella puiggarii); green scurf or algal leaf spot (Cephaleuros virescens); mushroom root rot (Clitocybe tabescens); anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides); and leaf spot caused by Phyllosticta eugeniae. Food Uses Jambolans of good size and quality, having a sweet or subacid flavor and a minimum of astringency, are eaten raw and may be made into tarts, sauces and jam. Astringent fruits are improved in palatability by soaking them in salt water or pricking them, rubbing them with a little salt, and letting them stand for an hour. All but decidedly inferior fruits have been utilized for juice which is much like grape juice. When extracting juice from cooked jambolans, it is recommended that it be allowed to drain out without squeezing the fruit and it will thus be less astringent. The white-fleshed jambolan has adequate pectin and makes a very stiff jelly unless cooking is brief. The more common purple-fleshed yields richly colored jelly but is deficient in pectin and requires the addition of a commercial jelling agent or must be combined with pectinrich fruits such as unripe or sour guavas, or ketembillas.
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combined with pectinrich fruits such as unripe or sour guavas, or ketembillas. Good quality jambolan juice is excellent for sherbet, sirup and "squash". In India, the latter is a bottled drink prepared by cooking the crushed fruits, pressing out the juice, combining it with sugar and water and adding citric acid and sodium benzoate as a preservative. Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion* Moisture Protein Fat Crude Fiber Ash 83.7-85.8 g 0.7-0.129 g 0.15-0.3 g 0.3-0.9 g 0.32-0.4g

Carbohydrates 14.0 g

Calcium Magnesium Phosphorus Iron Sodium

Potassium Copper Sulfur Chlorine Vitamin A Thiamine Riboflavin Niacin Ascorbic Acid Choline Folic Acid

8.3-15 mg 35 mg 15-16.2 mg 1.2-1.62 mg 26.2 mg

55 mg 0.23 mg 13 mg 8 mg 80 I.U. 0.008-0.03 mg 0.009-0.01 mg 0.2-0.29 mg 5.7-18 mg 7 mg 3 mcg

*Values reported from Asian and tropical American analyses. Also present are gallic acid and tannin and a trace of oxalic acid. In Goa and the Philippines, jambolans are an important source of wine, somewhat like Port, and the distilled liquors, brandy and "jambava" have also been made from the fermented fruit. Jambolan vinegar, extensively made throughout India, is an attractive, clear purple, with a pleasant aroma and mild flavor. Virmani gives the following vinegar analysis: specific gravity, 1.0184; total acidity (as acetic acid), 5.33 per 100 cc; volatile acid (as ascetic acid), 5.072 per 100 cc; fixed acidity, as citric, .275%; total solids, 4.12 per 100 cc; ash, .42; alkalinity of ash, 32.5 (N/10 alkali); nitrogen, .6613 1; total sugars, .995; reducing sugars, .995; non-volatile reducing sugars, .995; alcohol, .159% by weight; oxidation value, (K MnO1),

186.4; iodine value, 183.7; ester value, 40.42. Other Uses Nectar: The jambolan tree is of real value in apiculture. The flowers have abundant nectar and are visited by bees (Apis dorsata) throughout the day, furnishing most of the honey in the Western Ghats at an elevation of 4,500 ft (1,370 m) where the annual rainfall is 300 to 400 in (750-1,000 cm). The honey is of fine quality but ferments in a few months unless treated. Leaves: The leaves have served as fodder for livestock and as food for tassar silkworms in India. In Zanzibar and Pemba, the natives use young jambolan shoots for cleaning their teeth.
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In Zanzibar and Pemba, the natives use young jambolan shoots for cleaning their teeth. Analyses of the leaves show: crude protein, 9.1%; fat, 4.3%; crude fiber, 17.0%; ash, 6.0%; calcium, 1.3%; phosphorus, 0.19%. They are rich in tannin and contain the enzymes esterase and galloyl carboxylase which are presumed to be active in the biosynthesis of the tannins. The essential oil distilled from the leaves is used to scent soap and is blended with other materials in making inexpensive perfume. Its chemical composition has been reported by Craveiro et al. in Brazil. It consists mainly of mono- or sesqui-terpene hydrocarbons which are "very common in essential oils." Bark: Jambolan bark yields durable brown dyes of various shades depending on the mordant and the strength of the extract. The bark contains 8 to 19% tannin and is much used in tanning leather and preserving fishing nets. Wood: The wood is red, reddish-gray or brownish-gray, with close, straight grain. The very small, oval pores are often connected by waxy belts of loose tissue. The medullary rays are so fine as to be clearly visible only when greatly magnified. When fresh, the sapwood is attacked by powerpost beetles, pinhole borers and ambrosia beetles. Both sapwood and heartwood are perforated by the borer, Aeolesthes holosericea, if the bark is left on for as long as 10 months. Air-dried wood is apt to crack and split. When kiln dried, the heartwood is hard, difficult to work but polishes well. It is durable in water and resistant to borers and termites; tends to warp slightly. In India, it is commonly used for beams and rafters, posts, bridges, boats, oars, masts, troughs, well-lining, agricultural implements, carts, solid cart wheels, railway sleepers and the bottoms of railroad cars. It is sometimes made into furniture but has no special virtues to recommend it for cabinetwork. It is a fairly satisfactory fuel. Medicinal Uses: The jambolan has received far more recognition in folk medicine and in the pharmaceutical trade than in any other field. Medicinally, the fruit is stated to be astringent, stomachic, carminative, antiscorbutic and diuretic. Cooked to a thick jam, it is eaten to allay acute diarrhea. The juice of the ripe fruit, or a decoction of the fruit, or jambolan vinegar, may be administered in India in cases of enlargement of the spleen, chronic diarrhea and urine retention. Water-diluted juice is used as a gargle for sore throat and as a lotion for ringworm of the scalp. The seeds, marketed in 1/4 inch (7 mm) lengths, and the bark are much used in tropical medicine and are shipped from India, Malaya and Polynesia, and, to a small extent, from the West Indies, to pharmaceutical supply houses in Europe and England. Extracts of both, but especially the seeds, in liquid or powdered form, are freely given orally, 2 to 3 times a day, to patients with diabetes mellitus or glycosuiria. In many cases, the blood sugar level reportedly is quickly reduced and there are no ill effects. However, in some quarters, the hypoglycemic value of jambolan extracts is disclaimed. Mercier, in 1940, found that the aqueous extract of the seeds, injected into dogs, lowered the blood sugar for long periods, but did not do so when given orally. Reduction of blood sugar was obtained in alloxan diabetes in rabbits. In experiments at the Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, the dried alcoholic extract of jambolan seeds, given orally, reduced blood sugar and glycosuria in patients. The seeds are claimed by some to contain an alkaloid, jambosine, and a glycoside, jambolin or antimellin, which halts the diastatic conversion of starch into sugar. The seed extract has lowered blood pressure by 34.6% and this action is attributed to the ellagic acid content. This and 34 other polyphenols in the seeds and bark have been isolated and identified by Bhatia and Bajaj. Other reported constituents of the seeds are: protein, 6.3-8.5%; fat, 1.18%; crude fiber, 16.9%; ash, 21.72%; calcium, 0.41%; phosphorus, 0.17%; fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic); starch, 41%; dextrin, 6.1%; a trace of phytosterol; and 6 to 19% tannin. The leaves, steeped in alcohol, are prescribed in diabetes. The leaf juice is effective in the

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treatment of dysentery, either alone or in combination with the juice of mango or emblic leaves. Jambolan leaves may be helpful as poultices on skin diseases. They yield 12 to 13% tannin (by dry weight). The leaves, stems, flowerbuds, opened blossoms, and bark have some antibiotic activity. A decoction of the bark is taken internally for dyspepsia, dysentery, and diarrhea and also serves as an enema. The root bark is similarly employed. Bark decoctions are taken in cases of asthma and bronchitis and are gargled or used as mouthwash for the astringent effect on mouth ulcerations, spongy gums, and stomatitis. Ashes of the bark, mixed with water, are spread over local inflammations, or, blended with oil, applied to bums. In modern therapy, tannin is no longer approved on burned tissue because it is absorbed and can cause cancer. Excessive oral intake of tannin-rich plant products can also be dangerous to health.
Ins erted from <http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/jambolan.html>

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Date palm products. Chapter 4.

Monday, August 08, 2011 11:19 AM

In date packing and processing operations a number of by-products are becoming available, for which a use should be found in order to improve the economics of the operation as a whole and to decrease disposal problems and costs. The main byproducts are cull dates and date pits from packing operations, and pits and presscakes from date processing:

4.1 Cull Dates

Whether on the household, small or large scale level of whole date use there is bound to be a selection of the fruit which will leave, proportionally to the quality standards set, a percentage of cull dates, which are not considered suitable for the main envisaged use. Consequently the definition of a cull date is rather flexible but is generally connected with "too hard, too small, blemished, poor appearance, foreign matter, infested" etc. In Chapters I to III the end use possibilities for the date have been described proportional to an increasing prominency of these defects with probably alcohol making as the least demanding product with regard to the quality of the raw material. But products based on date extraction like alcohol and syrup require substantial additional industrial set up. A more direct use, also very suitable for the rural level is the use in, or as animal feed. This heading on cull dates will therefore be used to look into the value of dates as an animal feed with the understanding that it will also include the use of low quality or surplus dates which otherwise would have been suitable for the product range described in Chapter 3. Making good use of the (cull) date as an animal feed source requires not only consideration of its chemical composition but also the physical form in which the date is fed to the animal. Although whole dates will be eaten by camels, cattle, goats and sheep it is not uncommon to see the pit coming out the other end, undigested, thus losing its effect as a feed source (see 2.). Furthermore, the date, especially without considering the pit, is an unbalanced feed, i.e. high in carbohydrates and low in protein and fat, and for best feed efficiency has to be supplemented. Apart from feeding dates as is, which surely is the cheapest but not the nutritionally most optimal method, several techniques can help to improve the feed value, but this goes at a cost, which has to be recovered from the gain in nutritional worth of the feed. One of them is size reduction and mixing with other feeds. However, technologically, whole dates, especially the wetter ones, are an awkward material because they are composed of a soft and sticky, and a very hard component. Unless they are very hard and dry when ground on their own, dates tend to smear and clog the sieves of the commonly used hammermills in feed plants. It is therefore necessary to make a premix with a dry material such as barley or maize or soybean meal, which normally forms part of the feed anyway, and then grind. It was found that incorporation of dates up to 30% of the mix is possible without fear of caking in the machinery (170). At this level also the compressing of the mix resulted in an excellent pellet and the beneficial effect of the use of dates in this case is that it can take the place of molasses as a
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and the beneficial effect of the use of dates in this case is that it can take the place of molasses as a lubricant and binder (170). Date ratios of 20% also gave this result but at lower levels the resulting pellets are poor and molasses would have to be added in compensation (170). A second point in size reduction and incorporation of whole dates in feed mixes is the presence of the pits. In grinding tests, curiously, it was found, that grinding whole dates costs more energy (about 30%) than the sum of grinding the components, of the mix, separately (170). As can be expected the pits are the highest energy consumer in grinding (a factor 10:1 compared with the energy required for the rest of the mix). To reduce the cost of energy some thought has been given to separate the pits from the flesh first and treat them on their own (see 2) or discard them. When the dates are rather soft date maceration as described in Chapter I could be considered, which also leaves the date flesh already broken up for more easy mixing with other materials. However, because for animal feed purposes usually the lower quality and drier dates are used, the available mechnical date pitters will not perform efficiently. Therefore a date mash was made by adding about 50% water and thorough mixing after which the pits are removed from the pulp in a rotary screen. The date mash was mixed with flaked barley (1:1) and dried in a rotary dryer to be used as a feed component (251). Apart from some technological limitations of mashing, screening and mixing, this process is however rather energy intensive too. On the other hand it produces a semi-finished product which does not necessarily have to pass through the grinder in the feed mill before final mixing. By and large, however, it would seem that the above process will not offset the alternative energy costs for grinding the whole date, but it leads to another possibility: could not a date mash from which the pits have been removed, replace molasses? This would simplify the preparatory operation to a (heated) mixing vessel for making a date pulp and a rotary screen for removing the pits. A possible limiting factor could be the moisture content of the mash, which cannot be expected to be lower than 50% at best (molasses 20-25%). It will not be a serious handicap when a fresh ration is made up for daily supplement feeding to the animals, but to produce storable compound mixes or pellets the final moisture content should not be more than 12-15% in the final mix. A compound mix of components averaging 7% moisture would not allow more than 13-16 kgs of date mash (corresponding to 6.5-8 kg of date flesh) to be added to 100 kgs of mix (molasses are normally added in the range of 5-10%). If above "wet" additions of dates do not fit the requirements of the feed to be produced, one has to resort to passing the whole dates through the grinder and accept the extra energy costs or investigate the efficiency of a specially designed whole date/barley groats mixer which by its action breaks up the date flesh but leaves the pit intact, and which is separated in a following operation (286). Grinding whole dates into a paste without premix has also been proposed and demonstrated in a reinforced powerful meat grinder with double plate and knife set (247). With regard to the nutritional acceptability and value of dates for different target animals, a few pertinent examples are cited: i. Chickens: - whole ground dates replacing maize at respectively 5, 10 and 30% of a diet for broilers supported growth as efficiently as the control, but 47.7% as a total replacement of the maize resulted in growth depression and reduced feed utilization (263) ii. Pigs: - high digestibility coefficients for carbohydrates, but low if any for the protein and fat. Intake of whole dates up to 2500 gms daily for 120 kgs pigs. No stones found in faeces (457, 458). (Plinius, incidentally, already refers to the use of dates in fattening pigs in Egypt (128)) - Fed on an equal based ration of 1 kg cereals and vegetable and animal protein, substitution of potatoes (up to 2 kgs daily) for dates did not affect rate of gain and efficicency of feed conversion in the control and 2 experimental groups fed (partially) on dates (458) iii. Sheep: - replacing barley by whole dates at the rate of 25, 40 and 60% in rations containing 20% soybean meal and supplemented with roughage, lamb performance was similar, also with the control, fed on 85% barley and 15% soybean meal (592) - Lambs fed ad lib alfalfa hay with incorporated respectively 10, 20, and 30% date flesh and ground pits showed for the 30% date level faster weight gain, highest feed intake with similar feed conversion rate, but a tendency to deposit fat. Date-fed lambs all showed highest in organoleptic testing of the loin chops for tenderness, juiciness and flavour (168) iv. Cattle: - for weaned male Jersey calves the average growth rate was 20% less when fed on fresh alfalfa and hay plus 1 kg dates than on alfalfa alone, though the diets were palatable (462). For young bulls on 3 kg alfalfa hay plus 3 kgs concentrate or alternatively 2.8 kg dates + 0.2 kg fishmeal, the date fed animals gained less and ate more dry matter per kg live weight gain (463)
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gained less and ate more dry matter per kg live weight gain (463) - Macerated dates can successfully replace barley up to 50% in rations for cattle fattening (161) - 25% of macerated dates incorporated in a ration for lactating dairy cows and replacing barley/oats by half with total protein kept constant, did not lower the milk yields (24). More information on the value of feeding whole dates and date flesh to animals can be found in literature (463, 22, 231, 230, 494, 23, 112, 492). In conclusion it can be stated that dates have a value as a carbohydrate feed but that its feed efficiency depends on suitable administration and supplementation to reach the best feeding results.

4.2 Date Pits

Date pits, also called pips, stones, kernels, or seeds form part of the integral date fruit in the order of, depending on variety and quality grade, 6-12% of its total weight in the tamr stage (Fig. 85). They become available in concentrated quantities when pitted dates are produced in packing plants or in industrial date processing plants based on juice extraction. In the latter case they may still be mixed with the exhausted presscake or they have been screened out in the process. At the rural level one may find some accumulation of date pits when immature dates are pitted before sundrying (e.g. on the coast of Libya) or countries where dates are pitted and preserved as a paste (agwa). For the rest, date pits follow the dispersed ways of distribution routes of the whole fruit and have no importance as an individual raw material.

Figure 85: Date Pits Adapted from a number of literature references (554, 503, 536, 559, 139, 167, 146, 509) an indicative picture of the chemical composition of the date seed has been collated in the following table: Table 19 Approximate composition of date pits Moisture 5-10%
Protein (N x 6.25) 5-7% Oil 7-10%

Crude fibre


Ash 1-2% Information on the amino acid pattern of date seed protein is scarce but from a study on 2 Saudi varieties (503) it appears that glutamic acid, aspartic acid and arginine account for nearly half of total amino acids whilst tryptophan is the most limiting essential amino acid followed by isoleucine, and lysine as a border case in reference to the FAO/WHO reference pattern of essential amino acids (for human consumption). The oil extracted from date pits is pale yellowish-green with a pleasant odour (146). Its main median characteristics are: spec weight, 0.9207 (15.5 C); 0.9174 (20 C), refr index, 1.4580 (40 C); 1.4633 (25 C); iodine value: (a measure for the degree of unsaturation of a fat): 50-55; saponification value: 205-210. Two independent analyses (i. (139); ii. (503)) on fatty acids show that oleic acid (i. 44.3%; ii. 52.2% including linoleic acid), lauric acid (17.4%; 24.2%), myristic acid (11.5%; 9.3%), palmitic acid (10.3%; 9.9%), and linoleic acid (8.5%; included with oleic acid) form by far the bulk of the total fatty acids. Stearic, capric and caprylic acid are present in minor amounts. In the above analyses (Table 19) "carbohydrates", the largest component, is found as the rest value (i.e. 100 minus the other main components). Only a small part, in order of a few percentage points, consists of sugar, the remainder of carbohydrates being of a more complex nature. With a special eye for use as an
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sugar, the remainder of carbohydrates being of a more complex nature. With a special eye for use as an animal feed and together with crude fibre content this part can be further split up in cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and ash. For date pits this gave the following results (608): Table 20 Composition date pit carbohydrates (excl. sugars) (% of dry weight) NDF 75.0 (neutral detergent fibre, total cell wall content) ADF 57.5 (acid detergent fibre, NDF less hemicellulose) Hemicellulo 17.5 (NDF minus ADG; hemicellulose is a long-chain carbohydrate composed of pentoses. se It is readily hydrolyzed by dilute acids into mainly xylose) Lignin 11.0 (determined by potassium lignin procedure on ADF residue, oxydixing the lignin)


42.5 (burning above residue)

Ash 4.0 (what remains upon burning) With regard to mineral content date pits show appreciable amounts of K followed by P, Mg and Ca and a low Na content. Of the micro elements Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu are the more important ones (503; 536; 355). On the basis of the above indicative composition figures a first prognosis can now be made on the possible use of date pits. For human consumption there seems to be little scope, though there are early reports of elaborate processes of pounding and boiling with the use of salt and vinegar, finally arriving at a soft paste, drying and grinding it into flour to be used for making a sort of pancake (445). Date seed oil is an edible oil but its low extraction for this purpose is no competitive match for the many other oil bearing crops. Date oil does not have any characteristic that would make it suitable for specific end uses, thus raising its value and compensating for its low extraction rate. Similar arguments apply also to the protein content. There remains therefore the use of the whole seed as an animal feed which apart from the value of the protein and fat is favoured by the rather high hemicellulose content. However, feed value is not only determined by composition but also by accessibility and digestibility of the components. The hard, enclosed structure of the seed is a real obstacle to optimize the feed value, although it is also claimed that pits are an excellent slow release energy feed for camels during long desert journeys. Traditionally, especially at the rural level one has resorted to soaking the pits after which they are fed whole to ruminants. Date pits submerged in water for 72 hours will gain 25% in weight, but may increase by 50% after a week or so. But even then they are not readily ingested by the animals. A second improvement is grinding which, again in view of the hard structure of the pit, is costly on energy and wear and tear of the machinery. Experimentally it was established that in a 40 HP swinging hammermill fitted with a 2 mm sieve the grinding of date pits consumed over 100 Kwh/ton whilst for barley or maize these figures are 19 and 15 Kwh respectively in the same mill. The energy consumption can be reduced by first crushing the pits and then grinding, but it requires more investment. The question is easily raised but only to be answered when all details are known, whether the high cost of size reduction is justified vis--vis the improved feed value resulting from it. With regard to the acceptability and feed value of date pits a number of research trials have been carried out over the last decennia, a sampling of which is summarized below: i. date stone meal can successfully replace a 10% barley content in chick rations, though the increased live weight gain over the control is related to more feed intake (9) ii. ground date seeds can be used from 20 to 75% in ruminant rations if a good protein supplement (e.g. cotton seed cake) or urea is added (178, 28) iii. except for its protein, date seeds have a high digestibility coefficient for ruminants and somewhat less for pigs (34) iv. a wheat bran/barley mixture for carp feed could be replaced by up to 75% by date seed meal, whilst complete replacement would reduce daily growth rate but increase fat content in carp flesh (37). Further references on the use of date pits in or as animal feed are found in (151, 598, 450, 451, 347, 348, 281, 45, 28, 252, 263). Next to physical pretreatment of the raw material to improve the accessibility of the feed, some chemical treatments are known to increase digestibility. For instance, alkali treated straw has a linearly higher digestibility coefficient (from 45% to 71% for respectively 0 to 120 g NaOH per kg of treated straw). The mechanism of alkali treatment is not known exactly but is most likely based on displacement of intrafibril hydrogen linkeages by much larger Na-ions, and breakage of bonds between lignin and cellulose. The result is a material with more accessible nutritive compounds and which is physically more attractive for the animal to ingest because the material becomes softer. The disadvantage is the high lye intake (average 6% of the straw) and the animal's water intake is greatly increased to remove excess sodium. Ammonia and urea in decreasing rates of efficiencies are also used for the purpose of upgrading lignobiodiesel Page 36

Ammonia and urea in decreasing rates of efficiencies are also used for the purpose of upgrading lignocellulosic materials. Sodium hydroxide treatment of date pits has been experimented with (608). Ground date pits were treated with respectively 2.4, 4.8 and 9.6% NaOH solution, which resulted in increased in vitro digestion rates. In another attempt to avoid costly size reduction of date pits to make them more valuable as a feed source, date seeds were germinated (over a period of 74 days). It could be concluded that without appreciable loss in nutrients (based on chemical analysis) the pits gained in softness to the point of possible direct consumption by the animals (560). A nutritional evaluation, if proven positive, might be interesting for village application of seeds for animal feed, in spite of the time factor involved for germination. The use of date pits for animal feed in the traditional way is still likely the most common practice but there are reports on other uses of date pits, both traditionally and experimentally. In remote parts of the desert a coffee like beverage is sometimes prepared from date pits by roasting and grinding in a similar way as for coffee beans. The result must have been promising because the method has been used to adulterate coffee powder. A research article devoted to possible toxic effects of this adulterant, states "date seeds are roasted by dry heat, then ground to a similar powder as for coffee. The colour is a little lighter, the odour is fairly agreeable, and when mixed with coffee is difficult to detect". (226) In Tibesti and other remote desert areas date pits are heated in closed pots and the tar thus formed is used as a preserving agent for wood. In a slightly modified form of dry distillation date pits can be turned into charcoal. In a test on making charcoal (554) the following results were obtained. Whole dates were carbonized (main reactions took place between 300-400 C) and the major formed products analysed: Table 21 Dry distillation of date pits Carbon 27% Tar, crude 13-14%

Acetic acid 2-3%

Methanol 2% The characteristics of the carbon were: Table 22 Composition of date pit carbon Moisture 0% Volatiles 8.8%

Real spec. grav.


Apparent spec.grav. 0.67%



Ion-absorption 1.8% mgaeq iodine/g carbon On the basis of these results it was concluded that pit carbon is not likely suitable as active carbon for use in metallurgy (ash content), though it has been quoted as a fine charcoal used by silversmiths (445). It does not exclude, however, the use as fire carbon which is still very common for small cooking stoves in the Arab World. Dates pits, cleaned and polished have been used in necklaces and as earrings by women (445). Some attention has been given to investigate microbial conversion of date seeds such as utilization of date pits and cheese whey for the production of citric acid by Candida lipolytica (7), the production of protein from date stone by Apergillus oryzae (421), and Candida Utilis (427) but practical follow-up to these investigations is unlikely in view of the type and composition of the raw material. A perhaps more interesting potential use already referred to in the fifties in animal feed literature is the presence of a growth stimulating hormone, identified as estrone at the rate of 1.9 mg per kg of date seeds (212). The synthetically produced sisters of this female sex hormone have been used in chemical caponization of young cocks, but are more known for their growth promoting effect in animals. Their use in most countries is strictly regulated or totally forbidden for fear of the continuing effects of the hormone by consumption of the animal products by humans. Chickens given 10 g daily of ground date seeds with the normal diet gained weight at a faster rate than the control as the following average figures (for 10 birds each) show (522). Table 23 Weight gain of chickens fed on date pit meal (grams)
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Weight gain of chickens fed on date pit meal (grams) Start After 1 week After 2 weeks After 3 weeks Total increase Chickens (control) 858 900 919 1 067 212 Chickens (fed on date pit 858 976 986 1 199 345 meal) In this experiment no mention is made of the total feed intake of the two groups. In another similar experiment (9) the same accelerated growth in chickens fed on (partly) date stone meal is reported, but it was also measured that this increased weight is proportional to increased feed intake, which does not exclude the effect of a growth promoting substance in date seeds. However, increased weight gain was not attained but did not change significantly in an experiment on broilers fed on rations replacing wheat bran/maize/lucerne at the rate of 5, 10 and 15% by date pit meal (263). And even a negative effect on growth rate of broilers by the feeding of date stones was reported (252). The feed value of date pit meal for chickens is therefore not quite clear as is shown from the various contrasting reports referred to (9, 522, 263, 252). The matter of purported hormonal effect of date stone meal was further pursued in tests measuring sperm output and concentration in rams (253, 349) but no conclusive results were obtained. Neither could any significant influence of incorporating date stone meal in the diet of Awassi ewes be detected on their reproductive performances (350). The search for minor components with a specific activity has not limited itself to the effects related to animal feeding: an ethanolic extract of date pits showed, albeit weak, antimicrobial activity on several strains of microorganisms and increased motor activity in mice (355). Date seed extract lowered blood pressure in dogs when administered intravenously (522). Some flavonoids were analyzed in date seeds (372).

4.3 Presscakes
Presscakes are the result of processes where dates are extracted such as for syrup and alcohol. It is the exhausted date flesh with some residual sugar with or without the pits incorporated, depending on the type of extraction. It is wet (up to 70% moisture) and therefore bulky (from Appendix III it can be seen that presscake constitutes about 30% of the weight of ingoing dates) and will deteriorate quickly and become a disposal problem. The composition of dried presscake (excluding the pits) varies but on average will be about: Table 24 Composition of dried date press cakes Dry matter 87.7 92.8 95.2 Crude protein 5.3 4.4 8.1

Crude fibre
Crude fat Ash

2.7 2.6

2.1 2.0 72.7

1.8 3.5 -

Nitrogen free extr. (NFE) 55.3

Sugar (part of NFE)

15.6 (458) (554) (215) The feed value is estimated somewhat lower than dried beet pulp (458) but no references on tests on ensiling date pulp have been traced. This method has been very successful for beet pulp and avoids the prohibitive costs of drying these wet pulps. Date waste in broiler diets partially replacing cereals at the rate of respectively 50, 100 and 150 g per kg of feed gave higher weight gains, but at the cost of higher feed intake per kg gained, as shown in the following table (215): Table 25 Weight gain, food consumption and conversion efficiency during fattening period (49 days) of broilers Treatments Weight gain, g. Food consumption (g/bird) Food cons./ weight gained (mean) I. Date waste (50)
III. Date waste


3324 3323
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2.26 2.26

II. Date waste (100) 1472

III. Date waste (150)




IV. (Control) 1371 2861 2.07 It can be concluded that date waste can be used in broiler diets and that its inclusion will relate to practicality and relative cost of the waste and the replaced grains. Further work on nutritional value has been reported (215, 439. 616) as well as a few attempts on microbial conversion of date presscakes (232, 611, 20, 420).
Ins erted from <http://www.fao.org/docrep/t0681E/t0681e09.htm>

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