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E-mail: direct@levada.ru
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,
77981 10 2003 .
-, , 2008 ISSN 2070-5107

The Russian Public Opinion Herald


Data. Analysis. Discussions
1(107)
Quarterly

Analytic Centre
Yury Levada
(Levada-Centre)
The Interdisciplinary
Academic Centre for
Social Sciences
(InterCentre)

JanuaryMarch 2010

CONTENTS
MONITORING OF CHANGES: PRINCIPAL TRENDS
POST-SOVIET SOCIETY, ITS PROBLEMS
Post-Soviet Social Model: Characteristics and Current Situation
(by Andrei Ryabov)

Members of
the Editorial Council
Tatyana Zaslavskaya
(Chair)
Abel Aganbeghian
Anatoly Vishnevsky
Tatyana Vorozheikina
Leokadia Drobizheva
Natalia Rimashevskaya
Teodor Shanin
Vladimir Yadov
Yevgenii Yassin
Editorial Board
Lev Gudkov
(Editor-in-Chief)
Boris Dubin
(Deputy Editor-in-Chief)
Alexei Grazhdankin
Ludmila Khakhulina
(Deputy Editor-in-Chief)
Marina Krasilnikova
Galina Sterlikova
Natalia Zorkaya
(Executive Secretary)

3, 35

The Evolution of Post-Soviet Russian Nationalist Movement


(By Alexander Verkhovsky)

11

The Culture of Poverty. Post-Soviet Comments on Veblen


(by Marina Krasilnikova)

36

JUDICIAL SYSTEM AND LEGAL CULTURE


Issues and Prospects of Judicial Reform in Russia (by Sergei Pashin)

51

UKOS Court Case, Public Opinion, Legal Culture in Contemporary


Russia (by Boris Dubin)

57

SYMBOLIC PERSONS
Russian Leaders on TV Screen: Putin Phenomenon
and Medvedev Code (by Anna Kachkayeva)

63

Image of A. Sakharov in Public Opinion: 20 Years Later


(by Lev Gudkov and Alexei Levinson)

87

MASS CULTURE
On Musical Preferences of the Russians
(by Yuryi Poletayev and Yekaterina Perfilyeva)

102

RESEACH METHODOLOGY AND TECHNIQUE


Integral Indicators of Social Well-Being (by Marina Krasilnikova)

109

Autors of the issue

117

SUMMARY

118

:
1. (
;
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3,6
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3
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London and New York: Tauris, 2005. . 229242.

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1 (107) 2011

117

SUMMARY

Post-Soviet Social Model: Characteristics and


Current Situation (by Andrei Ryabov). The author
analyzes the strengthening of Russias position
on the international scene in 2010 and shows that
widespread argument that the post-Soviet space is
no longer exist as a holistic political-geographical
region haves no reason. The conditions of the
countries in the region are not of transitional, but
rather a new sustainable social model has developed.
In working order it is proposed to call it post-Soviet
capitalism.
The Evolution of Post-Soviet Russian Nationalist
Movement (By Alexander Verkhovsky). The author
considers the political successes and failures of
nationalists in Russia, as well as the dynamics of their
ideological orientations. During 1990-s there was a
period of gradual decline in the nostalgic form of
Russian nationalism that emerged after the collapse
of the Soviet Union. In 2003-2007, the nationalists
launched a new attempt to return to high politics,
but it was foiled by the efforts of the authorities. Two
main versions of nationalism developed in Russia in
mid-2000-s civilization nationalism and ethnic
nationalism related to racism. Their competition
has become a significant fact of social life in Russia.
The Culture of Poverty. Post-Soviet Comments
on Veblen (by Marina Krasilnikova). The present
day situation in the Russian society, the trends
of its development and potential for the future
are described best of all proceeding from poverty
hypothesis. Poverty of demands and expectations,
needs and choice patterns seems to be a basic feature
of the Russian society, not evident enough but very
important. The present economical development
of Russia accounts for the fact that in spite of the
increase of the level of the country population
material well-being in the 2000-s up to the crisis
the transition to higher consumption standards
necessary for realization of liberal model of meeting
families personal needs at their own expense is being

118

blocked. Typical beliefs of the Russian population


about normal life, their consumer plans dont
exceed the limits of current family needs. For all
reasons - mythologized idea of the past experience,
current limitation of families financial resources,
insufficient legitimacy of wealth in the opinions of
the majority of population, and maintaining the
poor culture of consumption - development of a
pattern different from the state one and mainly
free system of population social welfare is doomed
for considerable difficulties of spreading and
legitimizing new rules.
Issues and Prospects of Judicial Reform in
Russia (by Sergei Pashin). The main achievements,
contradictions and omissions of the judicial power
reform which has been going on in the country
since 1991 are scrutinized in the article. The author
emphasizes that the courts in Russia are still an
appendage to powerful structures legal and other
institutions thus preserving prosecution trend
of legal proceedings. During 20 years of judicial
reform the share of acquittals has remained below
1%, every third of them being repealed; every
fourth adult man in the country being on trial.
Judicial power in the country doesnt enjoy proper
independence. Competence of trials by jury has
been reduced considerably. Only about one half
of court decisions are carried out. Qualified legal
support is little available for the Russian citizens,
especially for less well-off. Judicial system is
managed by administration orders methods; judges
corps is organized according to vertical principle.
Disciplinary persecution is used for removing freethinking and independent judges, qualification
boards persecuting judges for inexplicable
mildness of their sentences. Operation of special
order of law-suits is expanding. Civil society as it
was earlier influences the situation in judicial system
to an extremely low degree. Reform and counterreform are entangled in the work of todays judicial
system.

1 (107) 2011

UKOS Court Case, Public Opinion, Legal


Culture in Contemporary Russia (by Boris Dubin).
The data of Levada Center 2004-2011 surveys on
the Russians attitudes towards the trial of Mikhail
Khodorkovsky and his fellow-workers from
UKOS are examined and analyzed in the article.
A considerable part of the Russian population
gradually perceive the trial and sentence if not as
fair ones but as those having actually taken place
and lacking alternatives and the other more and
more increasing part of respondents be indifferent
to the proceedings of Khamovniki court and escape
profound answers to sociologists questions. Both
are extending the sphere of ambiguity and reticence
around the case. Ambiguity described is specially
viewed as a social condition of fragmented passive
society the greater part of which doesnt aspire
to the best and the greatest, people fearing to lose
whatever little they have. Such ambiguity doesnt
contradict relative stability of the socio-political
regime established in Russia and on the contrary, is,
among other conditions, one of the foundations of
this flimsy but lasting stability, a pledge of worsening
but still reproducible status quo.
Russian Leaders on TV Screen: Putin Phenomenon
and Medvedev Code (by Anna Kachkayeva). The
article outlines transformation of screen images of
new Russia leaders in the 2000-s, the key events in
which these images are manifested most vividly, the
technique of TV propaganda. Particular attention is
paid to specific genres which are produced specially
for the first figures of the country and are embedded
in cultural and historical traditions of pre- and
post-Soviet Russia. The analysis of three electoral
campaigns and specific TV genres designed for
promoting the images of the country first figures
shows how the image of a nation leader was being
groped for in1999-2000. The description of visual
and lexical fixing the formula of power vertical,
stability and sovereign democracy in 20042005 helps tracing continuity between new TV
rituals and rituals of the tsarist and Soviet epochs.
Chronological description of political cycles in their
informational reflection allows seeing the way the
combination of two stars has been shaped who
maintain continuity between the teacher and the
disciple in power tandem in 2008-2009 and how
the usual TV ritual began transforming on the eve of
a new pre-election cycle in 2010-2011.

Image of A. Sakharov in Public Opinion: 20Years


Later (By Lev Gudkov and Alexei Levinson) On the
results of sociological research of VTCIOM and
Levada-Center the prominence of academician
Andrei Sakharov in post-soviet society, structure
and mass-attitudes towards him are analyzed. The
first survey was conducted by VTCIOM in May
1991, the latest survey in 2010. Andrei Sakharov
is represented in public opinion as a unique medium
of moral authority, and not as a politician.
On Musical Preferences of the Russians (by
Yuryi Poletayev and Yekaterina Perfilyeva). The
paper analyses the data of Levada Center survey
carried out in 2010 using the National sample
of adult population. About one quarter of the
respondents dont listen to music at all (most often
they are elder people of low educational level); the
majority of others listen to music practically every
day as a background for some other occupations,
and only 11% (most often young people with higher
education) listen to music for the sake of music
and mainly at home. The source of music for them
is more frequently radio or TV. The type of music
which is listened to most actively is modern Russian
and foreign pop-music, the Soviet variety music of
the former years, Russian chanson, and thieves
songs. With educated listeners, according to
Theodore Adorno typology (there were 10% of them
in the sample), classical music is added to the most
popular genres enumerated. Men, especially young,
prefer more aggressive male genres of modern
variety music (rock, etc.), while women prefer
more gentle ones (romances, musical comedies and
musicals, spiritual music, classical music, opera,
folk melodies and songs). The greatest variety of
musical tastes is typical for the most educated and
youngest groups of respondents.
Integral Indicators of Social Well-being
(by Marina Krasilnikova) The author describes
and analyzes the Levada-Centers methodology
of integrated assessment of social well-being
with the complex social sentiment index (SSI).
Explanatory possibilities of the methodology to
study the dynamics of mass sentiment, feeling and
ratings of various groups of Russian population are
demonstrated in the article.

1 (107) 2011

119


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118 ( 18% ).
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