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CHAPTER 9

Compressible Flow

Btu ft-lb lbm ft-lb


9.1 c p = 0.24 778 32.2 = 6012
o
lbm- R Btu slug slug-o R
ft - lb ft - lb 1 Btu 1 slug
cv = c p − R = 6012 − 1716 = 4296 o = 4296
slug - R slug - o R 778 ft - lb 32.2 lbm
Btu
= 0.171
lbm- o R

cp  1
9.2 c p = cv + R. c p = kcv . ∴cp = + R or c p  1 −  = R.
k  k
∴ c p = Rk / ( k − 1).

9.3 If ∆s = 0, Eq. 9.1.9 can be written as


cp R
T p T  p 
c p ln 2 = R ln 2 or ln 2  = ln 2 
T1 p1  T1   p1 
It follows that, using c p = cv + R and c p / cv = k ,
1
R /c p 1−
T2  p2  p  k
=  = 2 .
T1  p1   p1 
Using Eq. 9.1.7,
1
1− − 1/ k
T2 p 2 ρ 1  p 2  k ρ p 
= =  or 1 =  2  .
T1 ρ 2 p 1  p 1  ρ2  p1 
Finally, this can be written as
k
p2  ρ2 
=  .
p1  ρ1 

9.4 Substitute Eq. 4.5.18 into Eq. 4.5.17 and neglect potential energy change:
Q& −W & S V22 − V12 p 2 p 1
= + − +~u2 − ~
u1 .
m& 2 ρ 2 ρ1

200
Enthalpy is defined in Thermodynamics as h = ~ u + pv = u~ + p / ρ. Therefore,
Q& −W & S V22 − V12
= + h2 − h 1 .
m& 2
Assume the fluid is an ideal gas with constant specific heat so that ∆h = c p ∆T.
Then
& −W
Q & V 2 − V12
S
= 2 + c p (T2 − T1 ).
m& 2
Next, let c p = cv + R and k = c p / cv so that c p / R = k ( k − 1). Then, with the ideal gas
law T = p / Rρ , the first law takes the form
Q& −W & V22 − V12 k  p2 p 
S
= +  − 1 .
m
& 2 k − 1  ρ2 ρ 1 

9.5 Differentiate pρ − k = c using d( xy) = ydx + xdy:


ρ − k dp − pkρ − k − 1 dρ = 0.
Rewrite:
dp p
=k .
dρ ρ

9.6 The speed of sound is given by


c = dp / dρ .
For an isothermal process TR = p / ρ = K, where K is a constant. This can be
differentiated:
dp = Kdρ = RTdρ.
Hence, the speed of sound is
c = RT .

V2
9.7 Eq. 9.1.4 with Q& = W
& S = 0 is: + c p T = cons't.
2
V2 (V + ∆V ) 2 V 2 + 2V∆V + ( ∆V ) 2
+ c pT = + c p (T + ∆T ) = + c p T + c p ∆T .
2 2 2
2V ∆V ( ∆V )2
∴0 = + + c p ∆T . ∴ −V ∆V = c p ∆T = ∆h.
2 2
We neglected (∆V)2 . The velocity of a small wave is V = c. ∴ ∆h = − c∆V .

9.8 For water


dp
ρ = 2110 × 10 6 Pa

Since ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 , we see that

201
c = dp / dρ
= 2110 × 10 6 / 1000 = 1453 m / s

∆p dp 2110 × 10 6
9.9 For water c = ≅ = = 1453 m / s.
∆ρ dρ 1000
L = velocity × time = 1453 × 0.6 = 872 m.

9.10 Since c = 1450 m/s for the small wave, the time increment is
d 10
∆t = = = 0.0069 seconds
c 1450

V 200
9.11 a) M = = = 0.588.
c 1. 4 × 287 × 288
b) M = 600/ 1.4 × 1716× 466 = 0.567.
c) M = 200 / 1.4 × 287 × 223 = 0.668.
d) M = 600/ 1.4 ×1716 × 392 = 0.618.
e) M = 200 / 1.4 × 287 × 238 = 0.647.

9.12 c = kRT = 1. 4 × 287 × 263 = 256 m / s. ∴d = ct = 256 × 1.21 = 309 m.

9.13 a) Assume T = 20°C:


c = kRT = 1. 4 × 287 × 293 = 343 m /s.
d = c ∆t = 343 × 2 = 686 m

b) Assume T = 70°F:
c = kRT = 1. 4 × 1716 × 530 = 1130 fps.
d = c∆t = 1130 × 2 = 2260 ft.
For every second that passes, the lightning flashed about 1000 ft away. Count 5
seconds and it is approximately one mile away.

1 c V
9.14 c = 1.4 × 287 × 263 = 256 m / s. sin α = = .
M V 1000 m
1000
sin α = 0.256. ∴ tan α = 0.2648 = . ∴ L = 3776 m
L L
3776
∆t = = 3.776 s.
1000

202
9.15 Use Eq. 9.2.13:
c 1.4 × 287 × 288
a) = sin α or V = = 908 m / s
V sin 22 o

c 1.4 × 1716 × 519


b) = sin α or V = = 2980 fps
V sin 22 o

∆p ∆p 0. 3
9.16 Eq. 9.2.4: ∆V = − =− =− = −0.113 fps.
ρc ρ kRT .00237 1.4 × 1716 × 519
V2 (V = ∆V) 2
Energy Eq: + c pT = + c p ( T + ∆T ). ∴ 0 = V∆V + c p ∆T .
2 2
∴ ∆T = −c∆V / c p = − 1. 4 × 1716 × 519 ( −.113) /( 0.24 × 778 × 32.2) = 0.021o F.
Btu ft - lb lbm ft - lb
Note: c p =.24 × 778 × 32.2 =.24 × 778 × 32.2 .
lbm - F
o
Btu slug slug - o F
ft 2 / sec 2 ft 2 − lb - sec 2 − o F o
Then = = F. (units can be a pain!)
ft - lb / (slug - o F) sec 2 − ft - lb - ft

9.17 a) ρAV = ρAV + ρAdV + AVdρ + AdρdV + ρVdA + ρdAdV + VdρdA + dρdAdV
Keep only the first order terms (the higher order terms—those with more
than one differential quantity—will be negligible):
0 = ρAdV + AVdρ + ρVdA
Divide by ρAV:
dV dρ dA
+ + =0
V ρ A
b) Expand the r.h.s. of Eq. 9.3.5 (keep only first order terms):
V2 k p V 2 + 2VdV k p + dp
+ = + .
2 k−1ρ 2 k − 1 ρ + dρ
Hence,
2VdV k  p + dp p 
0= +  − 
2 k − 1  ρ + dρ ρ 
k  ρp + ρdp − pρ − pdρ 
= VdV +  
k −1 ρ 2 + ρdρ 
k  ρdp − pdρ 
= VdV +  
k −1 ρ2 
where we neglected ρdρ compared to ρ 2 . For an isentropic process Eq. 9.2.8
gives ρdp = kpdρ , so the above becomes

203
k kpdρ − pdρ
0 = VdV +
k−1 ρ2
k ( k − 1) pdρ p
= VdV + = VdV + k 2 dρ
k−1 ρ 2
ρ
But dρ / ρ = −dV / V − dA / A so that the above equation is
p dV dA
0 = VdV + k  − − 
ρ V A
which can be written as
dA  V 2 ρ  dV
= − 1 .
A  kp  V
Since c 2 = kp / ρ , and M = V/c, this is put in the form
dA  V 2  dV dA dV
=  2 − 1
A c  V
or
A
( )
= M2 − 1
V
c) Substituting in V = M c, c 2 = kRT , and R / c p = ( k − 1) / k , we find
T0 V2 M2 c 2 M 2 kRT
= +1= +1= +1
T 2c p T 2c p T 2c p T
M 2 k( k − 1) k−1 2
= + 1= 1+ M .
2k 2
k /( 1 − k )
 k − 1 2
p0  1 + M 
k  2  k
d) m
& =p AM = −1 / 2
AM
TR  k − 1 2 R
T0  1 + M 
 2 
k+1
k  k − 1 2  2( 1− k )
= p0 M A 1 + M 
RT0  2 
At the critical area A * , M * = 1. Hence,
k+1
k  k + 1  2( 1− k )
& = p0
m A*   .
RT0  2 
e) Since m & is constant throughout the nozzle, we can equate Eq. 9.3.17 to
Eq. 9.3.18:
k +1 k+1
k  k − 1 2  2( 1− k ) k  k + 1 2( 1− k )
p0 M A 1 + M  = p0 A*  
RT0  2  RT0  2 
or
k+1
A 1  2 + ( k − 1) M 2  2( k − 1)
=
A* M  k +1 

204
9.18 a) p s = patm + 10 = 69.9 + 10 = 79.9 kPa abs. V
V s=0
p1 = 69.9 kPa abs. 1 s

1/k
V2 p p p   79.9 
1/1. 4

From 1 → s : 1 + 1 = s . ρ s = ρ 1  s  =. 906  = 0.997 kg / m 3 .


2 ρ1 ρs  p1   69.9 
V12 69 900 79 900
∴ + = . ∴V1 = 77.3 m / s.
2 .906 .997
b) p s = 26.4 + 10 = 36.4 kPa abs. p 1 = 26.4 kPa abs.
1 /k
V2 p p p   36. 4 
1 /1 . 4

From 1 → s : 1 + 1 = s . ρ s = ρ 1  s  = 0. 412  = 0. 518 kg / m 3 .


2 ρ1 ρ s  p1   26.4 
V12 26 400 36 400
+ = . ∴V1 = 111 m /s.
2 .412 .518

1/ k 1/1.4
V2 p p p   105 
9.19 a) 1 + 1 = s . ρ s = ρ1  s  = 1.22   = 1.254 kg/m3 .
2 ρ1 ρ s  p1   101 
V12 1.4101 000 105 0001.4
+ = . ∴V1 = 81.3 m/s.
2 .4 1.22 1.254 .4
V 2 4000 81.3-81
b) 1 = . ∴V1 = 81.0 m/s. % error = × 100 = 0.42%.
2 1.22 81.3

9.20 Is p r < . 5283p 0 ? 0.5283 × 200 = 105.7 kPa.


a) p r < .5283 p 0 . ∴ choked flow. ∴ M e = 1. ∴V e2 = kRTe . p e = 105.7 kPa.
1.4 × 287 Te
1000 × 298 = + 1000 Te . ∴ Te = 248.1 K, Ve = 315. 8 m / s.
2
105.7
ρe = = 1.484 kg / m 3 . ∴ m& = 1.484 × π ×.01 2 × 315.8 = 0.1473 kg / s.
.287 × 248.1
1. 4
Ve2 1.4 130 000 130  ρ e 
b) p r > .5283 p 0 . ∴ M e < 1. 1000 × 298 = + . = 
2 .4 ρe 200  2.338 
200
ρ0 = = 2. 338. ∴ ρ e = 1.7187 kg / m 3 . ∴V e = 257. 9 m / s.
.287 × 298
∴m
& = 1.7187 × π ×.01 2 × 257.9 = 0.1393 kg / s.

9.21 Is p r < . 5283p 0 ? 0.5283 × 30 = 15.85 psia.


a) p r < 15.85. ∴ choked flow and M e = 1 , p e = 15.85 psia. V e2 = kRT.
1.4 × 1716 × Te
0.24 × 530 = + 0.24 Te . ∴ Te = 441.7 o R, Ve = 1030 fps.
2( 778 × 32.2)

205
15.85 ×144
ρe = = 0.003011 slug/ft 3 .
1716 × 441.7
2
 .5 
∴ m& = .003011 × π   × 1030 = 0.01692 slug/sec.
 12 
b) pr > 15.85. ∴ M e < 1, and pe = 20 psia.
30 ×144
ρ0 = = .00475 slug/ft 3 .
1716 × 530
1/1.4
 20 
∴ ρ e = .00475   = .003556 slug/ft 3 .
 30 
Ve2 1.4 20 × 144
0.24 × 530(778 × 32.2) = + .
2 .4 .003556
2
 .5 
∴Ve = 838. 9 fps. ∴ m
& =.003556 × π   × 838.9 = 0.01627 slug / sec.
 12 
ft-lb ft-lb
(Note: c p =0.24 Btu/lbm-oR=0.24×778 =0.24× 778×32.2 .)
lbm- Ro slug-oR

9.22 a) p r < .5283 p 0 . ∴ M e = 1. ∴ p e =.5283 × 200 = 105.7 kPa. Te =.8333 × 298 = 248.3 K.
105.7
ρe = = 1.483 kg / m 3 . V e = 1. 4 × 287 × 248. 3 = 315. 9 m / s.
.287 × 248.3
∴ m = 1.483 × π ×.01 2 × 315.9 = 0.1472 kg / s.
&
pe
b) p r > .5283 p 0 . ∴ p e = 130 kPa, = 0.65. ∴ M e =.81 , Te =.884T0
p0
130
ρe = = 1.719 kg / m 3 , Ve =. 81 1. 4 × 287 × 263. 4 = 263.5 m / s.
.287 × 263. 4
∴m
& = 1.719 × π ×.01 2 × 263. 5 = 0.1423 kg / s.

9.23 a) p r < .5283 p 0 . ∴ M e = 1. ∴ p e =.5283 × 30 = 15.85 psia.


Te =. 8333 × 530 = 441.6 o R.
15.85 × 144 slug
∴ρe = =.003012 . Ve = 1.4 × 1716 × 441.6 = 1030 fps.
1716 × 441.6 ft 3
2
.5
m& =.003012 × π   × 1030 = 0.01692 slug / sec.
 12 
p 20
b) p r > .5283 p 0 . ∴ p e = 20 psia. e = =.6667 . ∴ M e =.785. Te = 0.890T0 .
p 0 30
20 × 144
∴ ρ0 = =.00356. Ve =.785 1. 4 × 1716 × 472 = 836 fps.
1716 × 472
2
 .5 
∴m & =.00356π   × 836 = 0.01664 slug /sec.
 12 

206
9.24 p e =.5283 × 400 = 211.3 kPa abs . Te =.8333 × 303 = 252.5 K.
211.3
Ve = 1.4 × 287 × 252.5 = 318.5 m / s. ∴ m& = π ×.05 2 × 318. 5 = 7 .29 kg /s.
.287 × 252. 5

9.25 p e =.5283 p 0 = 101 kPa. ∴ p 0 = 191.2 kPa abs. Te =. 8333 × 283 = 235.8 K.
101
Ve = 1.4 × 287 × 235. 8 = 307. 8 m / s. ∴ m& = π ×.03 2 × 307 .8 = 1.30 kg /s.
.287 × 235.8
p 0 = 2 × 191.2 = 382.4 kPa abs. p e =.5283 p 0 = 202.0 kPa abs. Te = 235. 8 K.
202
Ve = 307.8 m / s since M e = 1. ∴ m & = π ×.03 2 × 307.8 = 2.60 kg / s.
.287 × 235.8

9.26 p e =.5283 p 0 = 14.7 psia . ∴ p 0 = 27. 83 psia . Te =.8333 × 500 = 416. 6o R.


Ve = 1.4 × 1716 × 416.6 =1000 fps.
∴ ρ e = 0.3203 kg/m3 and pe = 199.4 kPa abs.
p0 = 2×27.83. pe = 0.5283 p0 = 29.4 psia, Te = 416.6o R, Ve = 1000 fps.
∴m& = 0.202 slug / sec.

9.27 Treat the pipeline as a reservoir. Then, p e =. 5283 p 0 = 264.5 kPa abs.
M e = 1 and Ve = 1. 4 × 287(.8333 × 283 ) = 307 .8 m /s.
264.5
& =
m × 30 × 10 −4 × 307.8 = 3.61 kg / s.
.287 × (.8333 × 283)
m& ∆t 3.61 × 6 × 60
∆ V− = = = 333 m 3 .
ρ 264.5 / (.287× .8333 × 283)

1 . 667
1. 667 × 2077 T e  225  . 667
9.28 5193 × 300 = + 5193 T e . ∴ T e = 225 K. ∴ p e = 200 
2  300 
=97.45 kPa.
Next, Tt = 225 K, p t = 97. 45 kPa; ∴Vt = 1.667 × 2077 × 225 = 882. 6 m / s.
97.45
ρt = = 0.2085 kg/m 3. 0.2085 × π × .032 × 882.6 = ρeπ × 0.0752Ve
2.077 × 225
1. 667
V 2 1.667 p e  ρe 
5193 × 300 = e + . p e = 200  = 1330ρ e 1. 667 kPa.
2 . 667 ρ e  200 / 2.077 × 300 
Ve2
= + 3324 × 10 3 × 9.54Ve− . 667 .
2
or 3.116 × 10 = Ve2 + 63 420 × 10 3 Ve−. 667 . Trial - and - error: Ve = 91.8 m / s.
6

∴ ρ e = 0.3203 kg/m3 and pe = 199.4 kPa abs.

207
1 /1 . 4
p1 300 + 100  340 
9.29 ρ1 = = = 4.757 kg / m 3 . ρ 2 = 4 .757   = 4 .236 kg / m 3 .
RT1 .287 × 293  400 
V1 × 4 .757 × 10 2 = V2 × 4.236 × 5 2 . ∴V2 = 4. 492 V1 .
V12 k p 1 V22 k p2 V12 1.4 400 000 4.492 2 V12 1.4 340 000
+ = + . + = + .
2 k − 1 ρ1 2 k − 1 ρ2 2 . 4 4.757 2 .4 4.236
m
∴V1 = 37.35 .
s
∴m & = ρ 1 A1V1 = 4.757 × π ×.05 2 × 37.35 = 1. 395 kg / s.

p1 ( 45 + 14 .7 )144 slug
9.30 ρ1 = = = 0.009634 .
RT1 1716 × 520 ft 3
1 / 1. 4
50.7 
ρ 2 =.009634  =.008573 slug / ft 3 .
 59.7 
V1 ×.009634 × 4 2 = V2 ×.008573 × 2 2 . ∴V2 = 4 .495 V1 .
V12 1. 4 59.7 × 144 4.495 2 V12 1. 4 50.7 × 144
+ = + . ∴V1 = 121.9 fps.
2 .4 .009634 2 .4 .008573
∴m & =.009634 π × ( 2 / 12 ) 2 × 121.9 = 0.1025 slug / sec .

V22
9.31 Energy 0 → 2: 1000 × 303 = + 1000 T2 . V2 = 3 kRT2
2
1 2
∴ p2l = 1.627 × 20 = 32.5 kPa. 0

1.4
 107.9  .4 5.39
∴ p2 = 200   = 5.390 kPa. ρ 2 = = 0.1740 kg/m 3 .
 303  .287 × 107.9
2
V V12
Energy 0 → 1: 1000 × 303 = 1 + 1000 . ∴V1 = 318. 4 m / s, T1 = 252.3 K.
2 1.4 × 287
1. 4
 252.3  .4 105.4
p1 = 200  = 105.4 kPa. ρ 1 = = 1.455 kg / m 3 .
 303  .287 × 252.3
d 22
Continuity: 1.455π ×.05 2 × 318.4 =.174π × 3 1.4 × 287 × 107.9 . ∴ d 2 = 0.2065 m.
4

1.4 × 287 Tt
9.32 Vt2 = kRT t . 1000 × 293 = + 1000 Tt . ∴ Tt = 244 .0 K. V t = 313.1 m / s.
2
1. 4
 244  .4 263.5
∴ pt = 500  = 263.5 kPa abs. ∴ ρt = = 3.763 kg / m 3 .
 293  .287 × 244

208
Ve2 1.4 pe 2 2 pe 263 500
1000 × 293 = + . 3.763 × π × .025 × 313.1 = ρe π × .075 Ve . 1.4 =
2 .4 ρ e ρe 3.7631.4
Ve2
∴ 293 000= + 1.014 × 106 Ve−.4 . Trial-and-error: Ve = 22.2 m/s, 659 m/s.
2
∴ ρ e = 5.897 , 0.1987 kg / m 3 . ∴ p e = 494 .2 kPa, 4.29 kPa abs.

Ae pe
9.33 *
= 9. ∴ = 0.997 from Table D.1. ∴ pe = 500 ×.997 = 498.5 kPa.
A p0
p
and e = 0.00855 from Table D.1. ∴ pe = 4.28 kPa abs.
p0

9.34 M t = 1. ∴ pt =.5283 × 120 = 63.4 psia, Tt =.8333 × 520 = 433.3 o R.


slug π d t2
∴ ρ t =.01228 . & = 1 =.01228
m 1. 4 × 1716 × 433.3 . ∴ d t = 0. 319 ft.
ft 3 4
p 15
= =.125. ∴ M e = 2.014 , Te =.552 × 520 = 287 o R, Ve = 2.014 1.4 × 1716 × 287
p 0 120
= 684 fps.
A π de2
π ×.319 2

*
= 1.708. ∴ = 1.708 . ∴d e = 0.417 ft.
A 4 4

A
9.35 M e = 4. = 10.72, pe = .006586 × 2000 = 13.17 kPa, Te = .2381 × 293 = 69.76 K.
A*
A
For *
= 10.72 , M e =.0584. ∴ p e =.9976 p 0 =.9976 × 2000 = 1995.2 kPa abs.
A

150
9.36 Let M t = 1. Neglect viscous effects. M1 = = 0.430.
1.4 × 287 × 303
A A1 π × .052 π dt2
∴ = 1.5007. ∴ At = = = . ∴ dt = 0.0816 m or 8.16 cm.
A* 1.5007 1.5007 4

9.37 p e = .5283 × 400 = 211.3 kPa abs. Tes =.8333 × 303 = 252.5.
303 − Te
.96 = . ∴Te = 254.5 K. ∴Ve = 1.4 × 287 × 254.5 = 319.8 m/s.
303 − 252.5
211.3
∴ m& = π × .052 × 319.8 = 7.27 kg/s.
.287 × 254.5

209
9.38 Isentropic flow. Since k = 1.4 Ve ~= 0
for nitrogen, the isentropic table i t M<1
may be used. e
M>1 Mt = 1
A
M = 3: *
= 4.235.
A
100
Vi = 3 1.4 × 297 × 373 = 1181 m/s. ρi = = .9027 kg/m 3 .
.297 × 373
m& 10 .00938
∴ Ai = = = 0.00938 m 2 . ∴ A t = = 0.00221 m 2 .
ρ iV i .9027 × 1181 4 .235
At M = 3 , T =. 3571 T0 , p =.02722 p 0 .
373 100
∴ T0 = Te = = 1044 K or 772 o C . p 0 = = p e = 3670 kPa.
.3571 .02722

9.39 Isentropic flow. Since k = 1.4 Ve ~= 0


for nitrogen, the isentropic table i t M<1
may be used. e
M>1 Mt = 1
A
M = 3: *
= 4.235.
A
15 × 144 slug
Vi = 3 1.4 × 1776 × 660 = 3840 fps. ρi = =.001843 .
1776 × 660 ft 3
.2 .0283
Ai = =.0283 ft 2 . ∴ At = = 0.00667 ft 2 .
.001843 × 3840 4.235
At M = 3 , T =. 3571 T0 , p =.02722 p 0 .
660 15
∴ T0 = Te = = 1848 o R or 1388 o F. p0 = p e = = 551 psia.
.3571 .02722

101
9.40 Assume p e = 101 kPa. Then ρ e = =.4198 kg / m 3 .
.189 × 1273
80 000 × 9.81
Momentum: F = mV
& = ρ AV 2 . = .4198π × .252 V 2 .
6
∴V = 1260 m/s.

101
9.41 F = mV
& = ρAV 2 . ρ = =.403 kg / m 3 . (Assume gases are air. )
.287 × 873
100 × 9.81 = .403 × 200 × 10−4 V 2 . ∴V = 349 m/s.

Ae FB
9.42 M t = 1. *
= 4 ; ∴ M e = 2.94 , p e =.02980 p 0 . Ve
A p0A0
Te = .3665 T0 = .3665 × 300 = 109.95 K,
pe = 100 = .0298 p0 . ∴ p0 = 3356 kPa abs.

210
∴Ve = 2.94 1. 4 × 287 × 109.95 = 618 m / s.
−100
∴ FB = π ×.05 2 × 618 2 + 3 356 000π ×.2 2 = 412 000 N.
.287 × 109.95

9.43 Assume an isentropic flow; Eq. 9.3.13 provides


1
. p  k − 1 2  k −1
103
= 1+ M  .
p  2 
Using k = 1.4 this gives M 2 = 0.0424 or M = 0.206.
For standard conditions V = M c = 0.206 14. × 287 × 288 = 70 m / s.

9.44 a) 0.9850 × 1000 = ρ2V2 . 80 000 − p2 = 0.985 ×1000(V2 − 1000)


V22 − 1000 2 1.4  p 2   80 
+  − 287 × 283 = 0.  ρ 1 = =.9850 kg / m 3 .
2 .4  ρ 2   .287 × 283 
V22 10002 1.4 V2
− + ( −985V2 + 1 065 000) − 284 300 = 0
2 2 .4 985
∴ 3V22 − 3784V2 + 784 300 = 0. ∴V2 = 261 m / s. ρ 2 = 3.774 kg / m 3 .
Substitute in and find p 2 = 808 kPa.
1000 808
M1 = = 2.966. T2 = = 746 K or 473 o C .
1.4 × 287 × 283 .287 × 3.774
261
M2 = = 0.477 .
1. 4 × 287 × 746
b) M 1 = 1000 / 1.4 × 287 × 283 = 2.97. ∴ M 2 = 0.477. p 2 = 10.12 p 1 = 809.6 kPa.
809.6
T2 = 2.644 × 283 = 748 K or 475 o C . ∴ ρ 2 = = 3.771 kg / m 3 .
.287 × 748

12 × 144 slug
9.45 a) ρ 1 = =.002014 . .002014 × 3000 = ρ 2V2 .
1716 × 500 ft 3
Momentum: 12 ×144 − p2 = .002014 × 3000(V2 − 3000).
V22 − 3000 2 1.4  p2 
+  − 1716 ×500  = 0.
2 .4  ρ2 
2 2  V  6
V2 − 3000 + 7 2  ( 19 ,854 − 6.042V 2 ) − 6.006 × 10 = 0.
 6.042 
2 6 slug
∴ 6V2 − 23 ,000V2 + 15 × 10 = 0. ∴V2 = 833 fps. ρ 2 = 0.00725 .
ft 3
p2 = 102.9 psia.
3000 102.9 × 144
M1 = = 2.74. T2 = = 1191 o R or 731 o F.
1.4 × 1716 × 500 1716×.00725

211
833
M2 = = 0. 492.
1.4 × 1716 × 1191
b) M1 = 3000/ 1.4 ×1716 × 500 = 2.74. ∴ M 2 = 0.493. p2 = 8.592 ×12 = 103.1 psia.
103.1 × 144
T2 = 2.386 × 500 = 1193 o R or 733 o F. ∴ ρ 2 = = 0.00725 slug / ft 3 .
1716 × 1193

ρ 2 p2 T1 2 kM 21 − k + 1 ( k + 1) 2 M 21 ( k + 1)M 21
9.46 = = = .
ρ 1 p 1 T2 k +1 1 + k − 1 M 2  4 kM 2 − 2k + 2 2 + ( k − 1) M 21
 2 1

[1 ]
k + 1 p2 k − 1
M 21 = + . (This is Eq. 9.4.12). Substitute into above:
2k p 1 2k
 p2   p2 
( k + 1) ( k + 1) + ( k − 1)  ( k + 1) ( k + 1) + k − 1
ρ2  p1   p1 
= = .
ρ1  p2  p 2
4 k + ( k − 1)( k + 1) + ( k − 1) ( k + 1) + ( k − 1)( k + 1)
2

p1 p1
 
k − 1 + ( k + 1) p 2 / p 1
= .
k + 1 + ( k − 1) p 2 / p 1
p ρ2 k + 1
For a strong schock in which 2 >> 1, = .
p1 ρ1 k − 1

9.47 Assume standard conditions: T1 = 15 o C, ρ 1 = 101 kPa.


∴V 1 = 2 1.4 × 287 × 288 = 680 m / s. stationary
shock
M1 = 2. ∴ M 2 = .5774. T2 = 1.688 × 288 = 486 K.
p2 = 4.5 ×101 = 454 kPa. V2 V1
∴V2 = .5774 1.4 × 287 × 486 = 255 m/s.
∴Vinduced = V1 − V2 = 680 − 255 = 425 m/s.

The high pressure and high induced velocity cause extreme damage.

9.48 If M 2 =.5 , then M 1 = 2.645. ∴V1 = 2.645 1.4 × 287 × 293 = 908 m /s.
1600
p 2 = 8.00 × 200 = 1600 kPa abs. ρ 2 = = 8.33 kg / m 3 .
.287 × ( 2.285 × 293)

9.49 If M 2 =.5 , then M 1 = 2.645. ∴V1 = 2.645 1.4 × 1716 × 520 = 1118 fps .
240 × 144
p2 = 8.00 × 30 = 240 psia. ρ 2 = = 0.01695 slug / ft 3 .
1716 × ( 2.285 × 520)

212
9.50 p 1 =.2615 × 101 = 26.4 kPa. T1 = 223.3 K. M 1 = 1000 / 1. 4 × 287 × 223.3 = 3.34.
∴ M 2 =. 4578. p 2 = 12.85 × 26.4 = 339 kPa. T2 = 3.101 × 223.3 = 692.5 K.
For isentropic flow from ‚ → €: For M = .458, p = .866 p 0 and
T =.960 T0 . ∴ p 0 = 339/.866 = 391 kPa abs. T0 = 692.5/.960 = 721 K or 448 o C .

9.51 After the shock M 2 =.4752 , p 2 = 10.33 × 800 = 8264 kPa abs.
For isentropic flow from ‚ → €: For M = .475, p = .857 p 0 .
∴ p 0 = 8264 /.857 = 9640 kPa abs.

A
9.52 *
= 4. ∴ M e =.147. p e =.985 p 0 ∴ p 0 = 101/.985 = 102.5 kPa abs.
A
M t = 1. p t =.5283 × 102.5 = 54 .15 kPa. Tt =.8333 × 298 = 248. 3 K.
54.15
∴ ρt = =.7599 kg / m 3 . Vt = 1.4 × 287 × 248.3 = 315.9 m / s.
.287 × 248.3
∴ m =.7599 × π ×.025 2 × 315.9 = 0.471 kg / s. If throat area is reduced, M t
&
remains at 1, ρ t =.7599 kg / m 3 and m
& =.7599 × π × .02 2 × 315.9 = 0.302 kg / s.

A
9.53 p e = 101 kPa = p 2 . *
= 4. ∴ M 1 = 2.94 , and p 2 / p 1 = 9.918.
A
∴ p 1 = 101 / 9.918 = 10.18 kPa. At M 1 = 2.94 , p / p 0 =.0298.
∴ p 0 = 10.18 /.0298 = 342 kPa abs.
M t = 1, p t =.5283 × 342 = 181 kPa abs. Tt =.8333 × 293 = 244 .1 K.
∴Vt = 1.4 × 287 × 244.1 = 313 m / s.
M 1 = 2.94 , p 1 = 10.18 kPa abs. T1 =.3665 × 293 = 107.4 K.
∴V1 = 2.94 1.4 × 287 × 107 .4 = 611 m / s.
M 2 =. 4788, p e = 101 kPa . Te = T2 = 2.609 × 107 .4 = 280.2 K.
∴V2 =.4788 1.4 × 287 × 280.2 = 161 m / s.

A
9.54 p e = 14.7 psia = p2 . *
= 4. ∴ M 1 = 2.94 , and p 2 / p 1 = 9.918.
A
∴ p 1 = 14 .7 / 9.918 = 1.482 psia. At M 1 = 2.94 , p / p 0 =.0298.
∴ p 0 = 1.482/.0298 = 49.7 psia .
M t = 1, p t =.5283 × 49.7 = 26. 3 psia . Tt =.8333 × 520 = 433. 3 o R.
∴Vt = 1.4 × 1716 × 433.3 = 1020 fps.
M 1 = 2.94 , p 1 = 1.482 psia. T1 =.3665 × 520 = 190.6 o R.
∴V1 = 2.94 1.4 × 1716 × 190.6 = 1989 fps.

213
M 2 =. 4788, p e = 14.7 psia . Te = T2 = 2.609 × 190.6 = 497.3 o R.
∴V2 =.4788 1.4 × 1716 × 497.3 = 523 fps.

9.55 M t = 1. p t =.5283 × 500 = 264 kPa. Tt =.8333 × 298 = 248.3 K.


A1 8 2
= = 2.56. ∴ M 1 = 2. 47 , p 1 =.0613 × 500 = 30.65.
A* 5 2
T1 = .451 × 298 = 134.4 K. ∴V1 = 2.47 1.4 × 287 × 134 .4 = 574 m / s.
M 2 =.516 , p 2 = 6.95 × 30.65 = 213 kPa. T2 = 2.108 × 134.4 = 283.3 K.
A
After the shock it’s isentropic flow. At M =.516 , * = 1.314 .
A
π ×.04 2
p 02 =.511 × 500 = 255.5 kPa. A * = =.003825 m 2 .
1.314
Ae π ×.05 2
= = 2.05. ∴ p e =.940 × 255.5 = 240 kPa abs. = p r . M e =.298.
A* .003825
. 2857
 213 
Te = 283.3  = 273.8 K. ∴Ve =.298 1.4 × 287 × 273.8 = 99 m / s.
 240 

. 3 /1 . 3
655 
9.56 pt =.546 p0 =.546 × 1200 = 655 kPa. Tt = 673  = 585 K.
 1200 
655
∴ ρt = = 2. 42 kg / m 3 . Vt = 1. 3 × 462 × 585 = 593 m /s. ( M t = 1. )
.462 × 585
π × d t2
m& = ρ t At Vt . ∴ 4 = 2.42 × × 593. ∴ dt = 0.060 m or 6 cm.
4
. 3 / 1. 3
 101  101
Te = 673  = 380.2 K ∴ ρ e = =.575 kg / m 3 .
 1200  .462 × 380.2
2
Ve
+ 1872 × 380.2 = 1872 × 673. (Energy from € → e .) (c p = 1872 J / kg ⋅ K)
2
πd 2e
∴Ve = 1050 m / s. ∴ 4 =.575 × 1050. ∴ d e = 0.092 m or 9.2 cm.
4

9.57 M e = 1. p e =.546 p 0 =.546 × 1000 = 546 kPa.


.3
 546  1. 3 546 kg
Te = 623  = 542 K. ∴ρ e = = 2.18 .
 1000  .462 × 542 m3
πd 2
Ve = 1.3 × 462 × 542 = 571 m / s. 15 = 2.18 e × 571. ∴ d e = 0.124 m or 12.4 cm.
4

214
.3
 81.9  1. 3
9.58 M e = 1. p e =.546 × 150 = 81.9 psia. Te = 1160  = 1009 R.
o
 150 
81.9 × 144 slug
∴ρe = =.00423 . Ve = 1.3 × 2760 × 1009 = 1903 fps.
2762 × 1009 ft 3
πd e2
.25 =.00423 × 1903. ∴ d e = 0.199 ft. or 2.39".
4

. 3 / 1. 3
655 
9.59 M t = 1. p t =.546 × 1200 = 655 kPa. Tt = 673  = 585 K.
 1200 
655
∴Vt = 1.3 × 462 × 585 = 593 m / s. ρ t = = 2.42 kg / m 3 .
.462 × 585
∴m& = 2.42 × π ×.0075 2 × 593 = 0.254 kg / s per nozzle
. 3 /1 . 3
120 
Te = 673  = 396 K.
 1200 

800
9.60 M1 = = 2.29. V2
1. 4 × 287 × 303 V1
From Fig. 9.15, β = 46 o , 79 o . = 20o
a) β = 46o. ∴ M1n = 2.29sin46o = 1.65.
∴ M 2n = .654 = M 2 sin(46o − 20o ). ∴ M 2 = 1. 49.

p 2 = 3.01 × 40 = 120.4 kPa abs. T2 = 1.423 × 303 = 431 K.


V2 = 1.4 × 287 × 431 × 1.49 = 620 m / s.
b) β = 79 . ∴ M 1n = 2.29 sin 79 o = 2.25. ∴ M 2n =.541 = M 2 sin( 79 o − 20 o ).
o

∴ M 2 = 0.631.
p 2 = 5.74 × 40 = 230 kPa abs. T2 = 1.90 × 303 = 576 K.
V2 = 1.4 × 287 × 576 × .631 = 303 m / s.

a detached
shock
c)
V1
= 35o

215
9.61 β 1 = 40 o . ∴θ = 10 o .
M 1n = 2 sin 40 o = 1.29. ∴ M 2n =.791 = M 2 sin(40 o − 10 o ). ∴ M 2 = 1.58.
If θ 2 = 10 o then, with M = 1.58 , β 2 = 51o . 1.58 sin 51o = M 2n . ∴ M 2n = 1.23.
∴ M 3n =.824 = M 3 sin( 51o − 10 o ). ∴ M 3 = 1.26. β = β 2 − 10 = 51 − 10 = 41 o .

9.62 M 1n = 3.5 sin 35 o = 2.01. ∴ M 2n =.576. T2 = 1.696 × 303 = 514 K.


.576
M2 = = 2.26. θ 1 = 20 o = θ 2 . ∴ β 2 = 47 o .
sin( 35 − 20 )
o o

M 2n = 2.26 sin 47 o = 1.65. ∴ M 3n =.654 = M 3 sin( 47 o − 20 o ). ∴ M 3 = 1.44.


T3 = 1.423 × 514 = 731 K. V3 = M 3 kRT3 = 1.44 1.4 × 287 × 731 = 780 m /s.

9.63 M 1n = 3.5 sin 35 o = 2.01. ∴ M 2n =.576. T2 = 1.696 × 490 = 831o R.


.576
M2 = = 2.26. θ 1 = 20 o = θ 2 . ∴ β 2 = 47 o .
sin( 35 − 20 )
o o

M 2n = 2.26 sin 47 o = 1.65. ∴ M 3n =.654 = M 3 sin( 47 o − 20 o ). ∴ M 3 = 1. 44.


T3 = 1.423 × 831 = 1180 o R. V3 = M 3 kRT3 = 1.44 1.4 × 1716 × 1180 = 2420 fps .
9.64 M 1 = 3 , θ = 10 o . ∴ β 1 = 28 o . M 1n = 3 sin 28 o = 1.41. ∴ M 2n =.736.
∴ p 2 = 2.153 × 40 = 86.1 kPa.
.736
M2 = = 2. 38. ∴ p 3 = 6.442 × 86.1 = 555 kPa .
sin( 28 o − 10 o )
( p 3 ) normal = 10.33 × 40 = 413 kPa.

9.65 At M 1 = 3 , θ 1 = 49.8 o , µ 1 = 19.47 o . (See Fig. 9.18.)


θ 1 + θ 2 = 49.8 + 25 = 74 .8 o . ∴ M 2 = 4.78.
p p 1
From isentropic flow table: p2 = p 1 0 2 = 20 × ×.002452 = 1.80 kPa.
p1 p0 .02722
T T 1
T2 = T1 0 2 = 253 × × .1795 = 127K or −146o C. µ 2 = 12.08o.
T1 T0 .3571
V2 = 4 .78 1.4 × 287 × 127 = 1080 m / s. α = 90 + 25 − 70.53 − 12.08 = 32.4 o .

9.66 θ 1 = 26.4 o . For M = 4 , θ = 65.8 o . (See Fig. 9.18.)


∴θ = 65.8 − 26.4 = 39.4 o .
T T 1
T2 = T1 0 2 = 273 ×.2381 = 117 K. ∴V2 = 4 1.4 × 287 × 117 = 867 m / s.
T1 T0 .5556
T2 = −156 o C.

216
9.67 θ = 26.4 o . For M = 4 , θ = 65.8 o . ∴θ = 65.8 − 26.4 = 39.4 o .
T T 1
T2 = T1 0 2 = 490 × .2381 = 210o R or −250o F.
T1 T0 .5556
V2 = 4 1.4 × 1716 × 210 = 2840 fps.

1
9.68 a) θ 1 = 39.1 o . θ 2 = 39.1 + 5 = 44.1 o . ∴ M u = 2.72. p 2 u = 20 ×.04165
.0585
= 14.24 kPa.
For θ = 5 o and M = 2.5 , β = 27 o . M 1n = 2.5 sin 27 = 1.13. ∴ M 2n =.889.
o

∴ p 2l = 1.32 × 20 = 26.4 kPa.


.889
Ml = M2 = = 2. 37.
sin( 27 o − 5 o )
b) M = 2.72 , θ = 5 o . ∴ β = 25 o . M 1n = 2.72 sin 25 o = 1.15 , M 2n =.875.
.875
M 2u = = 2.56.
sin( 25 o − 5 o )
For M = 2. 37 , θ = 36.0 o . For θ = 36 + 5 = 41 o , M 2 l = 2.58.
c) Force on plate = ( 26.4 − 14.24 ) × 1000 × A = F .
F cos 5 o 12.2×.996 × 1000A
CL = = = 0.139.
1 1 Lift
ρ 1V1 A
2
× 1.4 × 2.5 × 20 000A
2 F
2 2 Airfoil
surface
F sin 5 o 12.2 × 1000 A×.0872
d) C D = = = 0.0122. Drag
1 1
ρ 1V1 A
2
× 1.4 × 2.5 × 20 000A
2

2 2

9.69 β = 19 o . M 1n = 4 sin 19 o = 1.30. ∴ p 2 = 1.805 × 20 = 36.1 kPa. M 2n =.786.


.786
M2 = = 3.25. θ 1 = 54.36. θ 2 = 59.36. ∴ M 3 = 3.55.
sin( 19 o − 5 o )
p p 1 shock
p3 = p 2 0 3 = 36.1 × ×.0122 = 23.4 kPa.
p2 p0 .0188 M p 2 M2 p3 M
3
1

 36.1 A − 23.4 A sin 5 o


 
 2 2 6.35×.0872
CD = = = 0.0025.
1 1
ρV1 A
2
× 1.4 × 4 × 20
2

2 2

217
9.70 If θ = 5o with M 1 = 4, then Fig. 9.15 → β = 18o . M1
o M2u shock
M1n = 4sin18 = 1.24. ∴ M 2n = .818.
∴ p2l = 1.627 × 20 = 32.5 kPa. shock
M2 l
.818
∴ M2 l = = 3.64.
sin( 18 o − 5 o )

p0 p2 .002177
At M 1 = 4 , θ 1 = 65.8 o . At 75.8 o M 2u = 4.88. p 2 u = p 1 = 20
p p0 .006586
= 6.61 kPa.
Lift 32.5 A cos5 − 20 × A / 2 − 6.61 × A / 2 × cos10
o o
CL = = = 0.0854.
1 1
ρV A
2
× 14
. × 4 × 20 A
2

2 1 2
Drag 32.5 A sin 5 o − 6.61 × A / 2 × sin 10 o
CD = = = 0.010.
1 1
ρV1 A2
× 1.4 × 4 × 20 A
2

2 2

218