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MechanicsPracticalNumber2

CentrifugalForceApparatusHFC21

Objective:
The object of the experiment is to verify that the centrifugal force varies in direct proportion to 1. The mass of the rotating body M (Experiment parts 1 and 2) 2. The square of the speed of rotation (Experiment part 3) 3. The radius of gyration k (Experiment part 4) In accordance with the formula; F = M2k

Apparatus:
Centrifugal Force Apparatus HFC21, Cast iron calibrated weights arranged as in Figs.1 and 2.

Figure1CentrifugalForceApparatusHFC21

Figure2CentrifugalForceHFC21detail

Theory:
According to Newton's first law of motion, a moving body travels along a straight path with constant speed (i.e., has constant velocity) unless it is acted on by an outside force. For circular motion to occur there must be a constant force acting on a body, pushing it toward the center of the circular path. This force is the centripetal (center-seeking) force. For a planet orbiting the sun, the force is gravitational; for an object twirled on a string, the force is mechanical; for an electron orbiting an atom, it is electrical. The magnitude F of the centripetal force is equal to the mass m of the body times its velocity squared v 2 divided by the radius r of its path: F=mv2/r. According to Newton's third law of motion, for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. The centripetal force, the action, is balanced by a reaction force, the centrifugal (center-fleeing) force. The two forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. The centrifugal force does not act on the body in motion; the only force acting on the body in motion is the centripetal force. The centrifugal force acts on the source of the centripetal force to displace it radially from the center of the path. Thus, in twirling a mass on a string, the centripetal force transmitted by the string pulls in on the mass to keep it in its circular path, while the centrifugal force transmitted by the string pulls outward on its point of attachment at the center of the path. The centrifugal force is often mistakenly thought to cause a body to fly out of its circular path when it is released; rather, it is the removal of the centripetal force that allows the body to travel in a straight line as required by Newton's first law. If there were in fact a force acting to force the body out of its circular path, its path when released would not be the straight tangential course that is always observed.

Centrifugal Force, in physics, the tendency of an object following a curved path to fly away from the center of curvature. Centrifugal force is not a true force; it is a form of inertia (the tendency of objects that are moving in a straight line to continue moving in a straight line). Centrifugal force is referred to as a force for conveniencebecause it balances centripetal force, which is a true force. If a ball is swung on the end of a string, the string exerts centripetal force on the ball and causes it to follow a curved path. The ball is said to exert centrifugal force on the string, tending to break the string and fly off on a tangent.

Procedure:
Record the individual weights of the CF weights into table 1. The weight of the CF shafts is nominally 0.03Kg (30grams). As these parts are not removable then this is the value of the CF shafts that should be used and recorded. Part 1 (Self weight and mass) No CF Weights added to CF shafts This part of the experiment does not require the CF weights to be added to the CF shaft. REMOVE ANY CF WEIGHTS THAT ARE MOUNTED ONTO THE SHAFT. To compensate for self-weight due to the CF shafts being rotated it is essential to establish the centrifugal forces readings without any CF weights added. In the first place turn the power onto the unit without the dome fitted. Ensure no CF weights are added to the shaft. Check the force display functions by pushing down the thrust plate at the centre of the main base unit. Fit the protective dome is in position and the unit powers up. Check the tachometer and force display are showing values. IMPORTANT: Ensure the CF shafts flow easily and smoothly through the end supports. Adjust if necessary. Record the force reading from the force display as the tare weight of the apparatus in table 1. This will not necessarily be zero due to the in house calibration procedure and the self weight of the system. Rotate the speed control potentiometer to select a speed of 50 rpm. Record the new force reading from the force display into column 3 of table 2. Repeat this for higher speeds by increments of 50 rpm up to around 300 rpm. Record all Reduce the boom speed and then turn the unit off before commencing with the next part of the experiment. Part 2 (Varying mass)

Figure30.1KgCFweightsadded

Snap out the CF shafts from their end supports and thread a 0.1Kg CF weight onto each CF shaft. Use the setscrews in the CF weights to secure them in position on the CF shaft so that the centre of each mass is at 0.150m radius from the centre of rotation of the boom (see image above). Record the zero speed load cell reading into table 3. Start the motor and select a speed of 300 rpm. Record the force reading from the force display into column 4 of table 3. Now thread a further 0.1Kg CF weight onto each shaft. This now makes 0.2Kg added to each CF shaft. Adjust the radius of both CF weights on each shaft such that the interface between the two CF weights is 0.150m from the centre of rotation of the boom. Run the motor at 300 rpm and record the force display reading into column 4 of table 3 above. Repeat this procedure after adding the remaining CF weight (making 0.3Kg on each CF shaft), recording the force display reading in column 4 of table 3. The 0.150m radius will now be from the groove of the middle CF weight to the centre of rotation of the boom. Part 3 (Varying speed) Keep the three CF weights on each CF shaft at the same radius (0.15m) from the last procedure from part 2 above. Run the motor at 50 rpm, and record the force display reading in column 3 of table 4. Repeat the procedure increasing the speed in increments of 50 rpm up to 300 rpm. Part 4 (Varying radius) Reduce the CF weights on each shaft to 0.2 Kg with the interface between the two CF weights at a 0.150m radius. Run the motor at 300 rpm and record the force display value in column 3 of table 5. Repeat the procedure with the CF weight interface (centres of mass) at decreasing radii from 0.15m by 10 mm decrements to

0.10m. After all experimental running, turn the power off to the unit, remove the power lead and ensure the protective dome is fitted and secured in position. Store away.

Results:
CFWeight No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Average
Table1Results

MassofCFWeight (kg) 0.0997 0.0998 0.0999 0.0998 0.0996 0.0999 0.0998

WeightofCFWeight(N) 0.978 0.979 0.980 0.979 0.977 0.980 0.979 ActualCentrifugalForce (N) 0 0.40 1.00 2.00 3.60 5.40 8.00 10.80 TheoreticalCentrifugal Force(N) 0 0.22 0.88 1.97 3.50 5.47 7.88 10.72

SpeedN (rpm) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

N2 0 2500 10000 22500 40000 62500 90000 122500

ForceDisplay Reading(N) 0.3 0.50 0.80 1.30 2.10 3.00 4.30 5.70

Table2CentrifugalForceduetoapparatus

Part1Graph;EffectofSelfMassonCentrifugalForce
12 y=0.0000874x+0.0776730 10 ActualCentrifugalForce(N)

0 0 20000 40000 60000 SpeedN2 80000 (rpm) 100000 120000 140000

AddedMass (kg) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6

SpeedN (rpm) 300 300 300 300

N2 90000 90000 90000 90000

ForceDisplay Reading(N) 4.3 18.80 33.40 48.50

ActualCentrifugal Force(N) 8 37 66.2 96.4

TheoreticalCentrifugal Force(N) 7.88 34.13 60.38 86.63

Table3CentrifugalForcewithvaryingmassat0.15mradiusand300rpm

Part2Graph;EffectofVaryingMassonCentrifugalForce
120 y=146.64x+8 ActualCentrifugalForce(N) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 AddedMass(kg) 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

SpeedN (rpm) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

N2 0 2500 10000 22500 40000 62500 90000 122500

ForceDisplay Reading(N) 0.3 2.20 5.70 12.20 21.80 33.80 48.00 64.20

ActualCentrifugalForce (N) 0 3.4 9.8 21.8 39.4 61.6 87.4 117

TheoreticalCentrifugal Force(N) 0 2.41 9.63 21.66 38.50 60.16 86.63 117.91

Table4CentrifugalForcewithvaryingspeedwith0.6kgmassandat0.15mradius

Part3Graph;EffectofVaryingSpeedonCentrifugalForce
140 120 ActualCentrifugalForce(N) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20000 40000 60000 SpeedN2 80000 (rpm) 100000 120000 140000 y=0.0009581x+0.6349057

Positionof AddedMass(m) 0.15 0.14 0.13 0.12 0.11 0.10

EffectiveRadiusof GyrationKe(m) 0.148 0.139 0.130 0.122 0.113 0.105

ForceDisplay Reading(N) 33.4 31.10 29.20 27.80 25.90 23.40

Actual Theoretical CentrifugalForce CentrifugalForce(N) (N) 66.2 67.14 61.6 63.15 57.8 59.19 55 55.28 51.2 51.42 46.2 47.62

Table5CentrifugalForcewithvaryingradiiat300rpmandwith0.4Kgaddedmass

Part4Graph;EffectofVaryingRadiionCentrifugalForce
80 70 ActualCentrifugalForce(N) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.150 y=453.95x

0.140

0.130 Radii(m)

0.120

0.110

0.100

Conclusion:
The experimental value for Modulus of Elasticity closely agreed with the expected reference values obtained from the Granta material selection software. There was a discrepancy of 9% for Material 1 (brass), 0.5% for Material 2 (brass) and 8% for Material 3 (steel). These errors are most likely due to the readings taken from the extension scale (scalar error). However, due to the close accuracy of Material 2, the comparatively larger error for the other two samples could arguably be due to another factor, the most likely being strain hardening due to constant loading/unloading.