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2002. 278 .

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:
................................................................................................................................9

I: (MORPHOLOGY).................................................................12
1. (THE NOUN ).......................................................................12

1.1. ..............................................................................................................12
1.2. (The Number)............................................12
1.3. ............14
1.4. (The Possssive Case).......................................................18
1.5. (The Gender) ............................................................................................................22
1.6. ............................................................23
2. (THE ARTICLE)....................................................................................................23

2.1. ..............................................................................................................23
2.2. (The Indefinite Article)......................................................24
2.2.1. ...................................................................................25
2.2.2. ...............................................................................................25
2.2.3. .......................................................................................................25
2.3. .......................................25
2.4. (The Definite Article).............................................................26
2.5. .......................27
2.6. ...................................................................................................29
3. (THE PRONOUN)....................................................................................33

3.1. ..............................................................................................................33
3.2. (Personal Pronouns)................................................................34
3.3. (Possessive Pronouns)..........................................39
3.4. - (Reflexive Pronouns)...............................40
3.5. (Indefinite Pronouns)...............................................42
3.5.1. some, any.............................................................................................42
3.5.2. .........................................................45
3.5.3. one ..........................................................................45
3.5.4. - One.............................................................................................46
3.5.5. ny, h, few, little .......................................................................47
3.6. (Negative Pronouns)...............................................49
3.6.1. N ........................................................................................................49
3.6.2. Neither .................................................................................................50
3.6.3. Nothing Nobody ..............................................................................50
3.6.4. None of.................................................................................................50
2

3.7. (Universal Pronouns)....................................................51


3.7.1. Every Each.......................................................................................51
3.7.2. Everything, Everybody Everyone.....................................................53
3.7.3. Either....................................................................................................53
3.7.4. All.........................................................................................................54
3.7.5. Both......................................................................................................56
3.7.6. Other.....................................................................................................57
3.7.7. Another.................................................................................................57
3.8. (Reciprocal Pronouns).........................................................58
3.9. (Demonstrative Pronouns)...........................................58
3.9.1. This, That ............................................................................................58
3.9.2. Such .....................................................................................................60
3.9.3. Same.....................................................................................................61
3.10. - (Interrogative-Relative Pronouns)
..................................................................................................................................................62
3.10.1. Who....................................................................................................62
3.10.2. What, Which That..........................................................................63
3.10.3. Whose.................................................................................................65
4. M (THE NUMRAL)........................................................................66

4.1. ..............................................................................................................66
4.2. (Cardinal Numerals)...............................................67
4.3. (Ordinal Numerals).........................................................72
4.4. ..........................................................................................75
4.5. ....................................................................75
5. (E ADJECTIVE) ................................................................75

5.1. ..............................................................................................................75
5.2. (The Degrees of Comparison)......................78
5.3. .............................................................................85
5.4. ....................................................................87
6. E (THE ADVERB).....................................................................................................88

6.1. ..............................................................................................................88
6.2. (The Degrees of Comparison of Adverbs)....................91
6.3. y a .........94
6.3.1. ........................................................................................................95
6.3.2. ............................................................................................................96
6.3.3. ..........................................................................................96
3

6.3.4. ...........................................................................................97
6.3.5. ................................................................................97
6.3.6. , pe .....................................................................97
6.3.7. .........................................................................................98
6.3.8. ..........................................................................................98
6.4. ....................................................................................99
6.5. (Modal Words)................................................................................103
7. ( VRB) ...........................................................................................................104

7.1. ............................................................................................................104
7.1.1. (The Person) (The Number)...............................................................107
7.1.2. (The Voice)........................................................................................................109
7.1.3. (The Md)............................................................................................110
7.1.4. (The spect).........................................................................................................110
7.2. : -
(The Indicative Mood: Verb Tenses).....................................................................................113
7.2.1. (Th Indefinite Tnss) ..................................................113
7.2.1.1. (he Present Indefinite ..............................113
Tense).....................................................................................................................................113
7.2.1.2. (h Past Indefinite Tense).........................118
7.2.1.3. (The Future Indefinite Tense)..........................121
7.2.1.4. ooe ....................................122
(The Future Indefinite in the Past Tens)............................................................................122
7.2.2. (Continuous Tenses).............................................................123
7.2.2.1. Hacoee e (The Present Continuous Tense)......................124
7.2.2.2. p (h Past Continuous Tense)...........................126
7.2.2.3. (The Future Continuous Tense).............................127
7.2.2.4. (he Future Continuous in
the Past Tense).......................................................................................................................128
7.2.3. (Perfect Tenses)...................................................................129
7.2.3.1. (The Present Perfect Tense)............................129
7.2.3.2. (The Past Perfect Tense).................................133
7.2.3.3. (Th Futur rft)..............................................136
7.2.3.4. (he Future Perfect
in the Past).............................................................................................................................136
7.2.4. (Perfect Continuous Tenses)........................137
7.2.4.1. (he Present Perfect Continuous
Tense).....................................................................................................................................137
4

7.2.4.2. (The Pst ...................................139


Perfect Continuous ns)....................................................................................................139
7.2.4.3. (The Future Perfect Continuous
Tense).....................................................................................................................................140
7.2.4.4. (The
Future Perfect Continuous in the Past)................................................................................141
7.3. (he Passive Voice)................................................................141
7.3.1. .....................................................................141
7.3.2. .............................................142
7.4. (h Imperative Mood) ................................................145
7.5. (h Subjunctive Mood)..............................................146
7.5.1. I (Subjunctive I).............................................................................147
7.5.2. II (Subjunctive II)..........................................................................149
7.6. (Conditional Mood)..................................................................151
7.7. (Non-Finite Verb Forms/ Verbals)..................................153
7.7.1. .........................................................................................................153
7.7.2. (The Infinitive)......................................................................................154
7.7.3. (The Participle).......................................................................................158
7.7.4. (The Gerund)..............................................................................................160
7.7.5. (Modal Verbs)..........................................................................165
7.7.5.1. Can ..............................................................................................................167
7.7.5.2. a................................................................................................................168
7.7.5.3. Must..............................................................................................................169
7.7.5.4. Have/ Have got......................................................................170
7.7.5.5. Should...........................................................................................................170
7.7.5.6. Ought............................................................................................................171
7.7.5.7. To Be............................................................................................................171
7.7.5.8. Need .............................................................................................................172
7.7.5.9. Dare..............................................................................................................173
8. ( RSITION).........................................................................................173

8.1. ............................................................................................................173
8.2. 3 .......................................................................................................175
8.2.1. .........................................................................................................175
8.2.2. ......................................................................................................182
8.2.3. .............................................................................185
8.2.4. ........187
8.3. ................................................................................188
5

9. (THE ONJUNCTION)..............................................................................................189

9.1. ............................................................................................................189
9.2. ...........................................................................................................190
9.2.1. .............................................................................................190
9.2.2. ..........................................................................................190
9.3. ...............................................................................................................191
9.4. , , ......................191
10. (PARTICLES)...................................................................................................192

10.1. ..........................................................................................................192
10.2. 3 .........................................................................................................192
10.3. ,
.....................................................................................................................................193
10.4. only, too also...................................................................................194
10.5. not....................................................................................................195
10.6. .......................................................................196
11. ( INTRJECTION).........................................................................196

11.1. Coceo .........................................................................................196


11.2. ...................................................................................197
11.3. ........................................................................................197
II: (SNT)..............................................................................198
12. EE (H SENTENCE) ...............................................................................198

12.1. ..........................................................................................................198
12.2. (Declarative Sentences)..................................199
12.3. (Interrogative Sentences).....................................203
12.3.1. (General Questions)......................................................................203
12.3.2. (Special/ Wh-Questions)....................................................205
12.3.3. (Alternative Questions)..............................................207
12.3.4. (Disjunctive Questions)...............................................207
12.4. () (Imperative Sentences)...........208
12.5. (Exclamatory Sentences)...................................209
12.6. (Negative Sentences).............................................210
13. (THE SIMPLE SENTENCE)...........................................212

13. 1. .........................................................................................................212
13.2. . ...................................................212
13.2.1. (The Subject).....................................................................................212
13.2.2. (he Predicate).......................................................................................216
13.2.2.1. (h Simple Verbal Predicate) .......................216
6

13.2.2.2. (h Modal Verbal Predicate) ...................216


13.2.2.3. a (h Group Verb Predicate) ..............................................217
13.2.2.4. o (he mnd Nominal Predicate) .............217
13.2.3. ............................................................218
13.3 (Secondary Parts of the Sentence)...........221
13.3.1. (The bject).........................................................................................221
13.3.1.1. (The Direct Object).............................................................221
13.3.1.2. (The Complex Object)........................................222
13.3.1.3. (The Indirect Object)

.................................................224

13.3.1.4. (The Prepositional Object)........................................226


13.3.2. (The Attribute)....................................................................................229
13.3.2.1. ............................................................................229
13.3.2.2. ..........................................................................231
13.3.2.3. (The Apposition).............................................................................233
13.3.3. (The Adverbial Modifier)..........................................................234
13.3.3.1. ..........................................................239
13.4. (Parentheses)...........................................................242
13.5. (Elliptical Sentences)........................................................243
13.6. - - (Word-Sentences and PhraseSentences)...............................................................................................................................245
14. (THE COMPOSITE SENTENCE)................................247

14.1. ..........................................................................................................247
14.2. (The Compound Sentence)..............................247
14.3. (The Complex Sentence)...............................248
14.4. ...........................................................................250
14.4.1. (Subject Clauses)............................250
14.4.2. (Predicate Clauses)..............................251
14.4.3. (Object Clauses).......................252
14.4.4. (Attribute Clauses).................253
14.4.4.1. (Descriptive Clauses).........254
14.4.4.2. (Limiting
Clauses)..................................................................................................................................254
14.4.4.3. (Appositive Clauses).................255
14.4.5. (Adverbial Clauses)........256
14.4.5.1. (Adverbial Clauses
of Place)..................................................................................................................................256
7

14.4.5.2. (Adverbial
Clauses of Time)....................................................................................................................257
14.4.5.3.
(Adverbial Clauses of Manner and Comparison)..............................................258
14.4.5.4. (Adverbial
Clauses of Cause)...................................................................................................................259
14.4.5.5. (Adverbial Clauses
of Purpose).............................................................................................................................259
14.4.5.6.
(Adverbial Clauses of Result)..........................................................................260
14.4.5.7.
(Adverbial Clauses of Concession) .......................................................................................262
14.4.5.8. (Adverbial
Clauses of Condition)............................................................................................................263
15. (SEQUENCE OF TENSES).............................................265
16. (DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH)....................268

16.1. ..........................................................................................................268
16.2. ..............269
16.3. .........................................................................................273
16.4. ...................................................275
17. (PUNCTUATION)..................................................................................275

17.1. ..........................................................................................................275
17.2. (Full Stop/ Period/ Point)..................................................................................277
17.3. (The Exclamation Mark)...................................................277
17.4. (The Question Mark)...........................................................278
17.5. (Dots)......................................................................................................278
17.6. (The Comma)................................................................................................278
17.7. (The Semicolon).............................................................................281
17.8. (The Colon)...............................................................................................282
17.9. (The Dash)...........................................................................................................283
17.10. (The Brackets)...............................................................................................284
17.11. (The Quotation Marks)..............................................................................286
17.12. (The Hyphen)..................................................................................................287
17.13. (The Apostrophe).....................................................................................288
17.14. (Capital Letters)..........................................................................289
14. 18. ................................................................................291
19. .......................................................................................................................297



,
. ,
. ,
, , .

.
. ,

(, ..). ,
, , , , ,
, ,
; ,

, .
I have read this book,
I, to read, this, book.
have. this, book
.
. , ,
( , , )
.


,
,
. , ,
-, :

subject
predicate
object
adverbial modifier
:
George
has done
this work
perfectly.


.
, ? -
,
.
: .
. , ,
, , .

, .

,
: Mr. Brown introduced Mr. Green? -
- - - ?
- -
.
.

Mister SPOM, .. subject, predicate,
object, modifier.
,

, .
. :
.
It is winter.
( )
( + )
.
It is getting colder.
( )
( + )

.
-. ,
- . ,
: - . ,

,
: () .
, -
.
.
-
:
- .
- .
My brother is a student.
His eyes are grey.
c
.
,
, .
,
.
:
- -

not
I
do
not
read
newspaper
in the morning
s

.
, ,
. ,
,
: not. ,
,
. : do not = dont; will not = wont ..
, ,
, .
, :

Has
George
done
his work
perfectly?
, /, .
, /
. :
:
Yes , = Yes, he has.
,

:
No,

= No, he has not.


+ not


: .
,
.

I: (MORPHOLOGY)
1. (THE NOUN )
1.1.

,
, , , , ,
, : a book, a student, a dog, a snake, a problem, water, a tree,
bread. ,
,
, ,
, .

,
. ,
,

.

,
,
: 1) (January - ; Sunday
); 2) (the
English - ; the English language - ).
1.2. (The Number)
-
.
(Countable Nouns)
,
: apple (one apple) - ( ); two, three, four
apples - , , .
.
.
(Uncountable Nouns) -
, , ,
, : silver, snow,
air, water, sand ( , , , , ), : love,
friendship, light ( , , ).
,
.
,
. .: sands, waters, steels (, , ).

. :

- What are you having?


- ?
- I shall have a Cola.
- () .

-s,
.

[s]:
a week - weeks [wi: ks] - -
a lip lips [lips]
- -

[z]:
a bag - bags [bgz]
- -
a boy - boys [b iz]
- -
a sea - seas [si:z]
- -
,
s, -ss, -x, -z, -ch, -tch, -sh,
es c [iz]:
lass - classes [`kl:siz]
- -
bus - buses [`bsiz]
- -
box - boxes [`b ksiz]
- -
dish

- dishes [`di iz]

- -

speech - speeches [`spi:t iz] - -


watch - watches [`w t iz] - -
[iz]
, -
s, c, z, g:
horse - horses [`h :siz]
- -
place - places [`pleisiz]
- -
prize - prizez [`praiziz]
- -
bridge - bridges [`brid3iz]
- - .
y,
,
-es, y i:
baby - babies
- -
army - armies
- -
y ,
s, y i:
toy - toys
- -
day - days
- -
,
-, ,

s:
hero - heroes
- - .
-
-s :
- - -oo :
radio - radios
- -
kangaroo - kangaroos
- -
- :
photo(graph) - photos
- () - ()
kilo(gramme) - kilos
- () - ()

:
concerto - concertos
- -
piano - pianos
- -
,
f -fe, -ves,
[vz]:
leaf - leaves [li:vz]
- -
wife - wives [`waivz]
- -
,
-f -fe,
-s:
roof - roofs
- -
safe - safes
- -
kerchief - kerchiefs
- - .
1.3.


:
:
man [mn] - men [m n]
- -
woman [`wum n]- women [`wimin] -
foot [fut] - feet [fi:t]
-
goose [gu:s] - geese [gi:s]
- -
tooth [tu:] - teeth [ti:]
- -
mouse [maus] mice [mais]
- -
-en:
child - children
- -
ox
- oxen
- -
,
, :
sheep - sheep
- -

deer - deer
- -
swine - swine
- -

:
basis [`beisis] - basis [`beisiz]
- -
crisis [`kraisis] - crisis [`kraisiz]
- -
thesis [`i:sis] - thesis [`i:siz]
- -
analysis [`nlisis] - analysis [`nlisiz] - -
axis [`ksis] - axis [`ksiz]
- -
datum[`deitm] - data [`deit]
- -
phenomenon[fi`n minn]-phenomena[fi`n min]- -
formula [`f :mjul] - formulae [`f :mjuli:] - -
nucleus [`nju:klis] - nuclei [`nju:kliai]
-
locus [`luks] - loci [`lusai]
- -
radius [`reidis] - radii [`reidiai]
- -
species [`spi: i:z] - species [`spi: i:z]
-
, ,
: spectacles - ; pincers -;
trousers - ; shorts - , ; scissors - ; opera-glasses
- .

: billiards - ; cards - ; dominoes - ;
draughts ., , : goods , ; embers - ; dregs - , ; valuables ; troops ; clothes - ; contents - ,
; whereabouts - ; surroundings - ;
savings - .
,
, .., ,
,
s:
the two Marys the two
-
Marys (y )
Mind your Ps and Qs
- P Q.
Cross your ts and dot your is. - t
i.
But me no buts!
- !
Oh, no, no, a thousand nos!
- , , !
Mr. Copperfield objected to my - threes and fives being too much ,
alike each other.
.

,

() :
mother-country - mother-countries - -
family-name family-names
- -
bookcase - bookcases
- -
gas mask - gas masks
- -
passer by - passers by
- -
mother-in-law - mothers-in-law
- ,

,
:
forget-me-not - forget-me-nots
- -
merry-go-round - merry-go-rounds - -
hold-all - hold-alls
- -
overall - overalls
- -
-ful
:
handful - handfuls
- -
spoonful - spoonfuls
- -
: column-full columns-full
- -
,
man woman ,

man/woman men/ women, ,
, man/woman :
postman - postmen
- -
sportswoman - sportswomen
- -
man-servant men-servants
- -
woman-writer women-writers
- -
, ,
, , : iron ; steel
; water ; air ; butter .
, :
steels - .

, ,
,
, ,
, : advice - , ; news , ; knowledge - , ; progress - , ;
strength - , ; information - . ,
, ink - , cream - , money - , hair , fruit -
, - .

inks, creams, fruits , , ;


moneys ;
a hair - hairs . .: He has some
grey hairs. .

, ,
:
watch - watches
-
clock - clocks
- ,
gate - gates
-
sledge- sledges
-
, -s,

. : news - , ; a
works - ; a barracks - ; : mathematics
; economics ; politics .
: Politics is a dirty business.
,
,

. :
His phonetics are excellent.
- .
h nly politics I understand are
- ,
honest politics.
, - .
,
: family - , group - , dience - , ,
army - , crew , team - , delegation - , party , , crowd , herd - , , flock - .,
,
- :
h audien was enormous.
- ( )
.
he family was large.
- .
The crew is ready for a take-off. - .
,
, -
:
The audience were enjoying the - (, )
the concert.
.
My family keep a close eye on me.
- ( )
.
The crew are now resting.
- ( )
.

: eople - , police ,
cattle -
:
There were few people in the street.
- .
The police are looking for the murderer.
- .
He found the field where the cattle were
- , .
grazing.
,
, , ..,
: kindness - ; courage - ; friendship - ; struggle
- ; music - ; time - ; sss - ; science - ; coal
-; snow .
, , ,
: science a science - , sciences - ; success
- , a success - , , successes -
.

: foliage - ,
leafage - . , shrubbery - , brushwood - ,
, linen , machinery - , ,
furniture - ..
,
,
- : five dozen apples , three score years - .

,
: dozens of people - .
.
,
, :
stone - , 6,36 (a man of 12 stone); head - ,
(100 head of cattle). , ,

+ , ,
, :
a two-year-old child
-
a fifty-dollar cheque
- 50 .
1.4. (The Possssive Case)

: (the Common Case),
, (the Possssive Case),

's '.
,

. : Mothers bag -
. , ,
.

,

s
. : the boys bag - ,
Kates toys - , the donkeys hoof - .
, ,
:
[s] [z]- - [iz] -



A cats tail
the childrens room
Georges pen
Mikes arm
the dogs ears
the horses leg
the babys cradle
Alexs key
, -s, -,
,
[iz]:

Alex
Alex [`liksiz ] lexs
[`liks]
Charles [`t a:lziz] Charless
Charles[`t
Denis [`denisiz] Deniss
a:lz]

Denis
[`denis]

-s, -
, , ,

, :
Socrates ideas

Tacitus style
-
Guy Fawkes night
-
Cervantess Don Quixote

s
( ):
the Duke of Edinburghs tailor -

Jacob the Firsts policy


- I
the woman next doors husband - ,
,
-s/-es, .
:
boys [b iz]
-
boys [b iz] books
-
-s/-es
s,
, , : childrens
voices - .

.

, :
childrens toys
- (?)
parents consent
- (?)
the girls story
- (?)

of ( of-phrase of-)
, :
the father of the boys
-
the explanation of the teacher
-
the windows of the house
-
the handle of the door
-
, of-phrase
,
, ,
s.

:
sheeps eyes
- ,
cows milk
- ( )
soldiers uniform
- (
)
girls school
-
,
:
:
an hours trip
-
a years absence
-
todays lesson
-

a miles distance
-
, , , :
Russias population
-
Londons banks
-
Septembers earliest frosts
-
summers rains
-
:
Europes future
-
the islands outline
-
ship, world, country, city, nature, earth, sun, moon, water,
ocean :
the citys council
-
the ships crew
-
the Earths resources
-
, ,
:
pistons motion
-
the planes propellers
-
,
:
the reports conclusions
-
the universitys president
-
the books author
-
:
a pins head
-
out of harms way
-
at ones fingers end
-

of-,

,
.
:
a kitchen table
-
a school bag
-
, +
, , :
chicken soup
-
calf skin
-
,
, :
cows milk
-
sheeps wool
-

a hens egg
-
,
, :
a sheeps heart
-
a cows horn
-

. , :
:
My room is bigger than Petes -
= than Petes room.
.
, , , ,
, , (
): St.Johns -
. ; St.Pauls - . ; Woodworths -
; the bakers - ; at my sisters - ; at Timothys
- .

of- (
): He is an old friend of my fathers. -
.

, .. : to the boy ; by the boy - ; about the boy - ; in power -
; with a pen - ..
1.5. (The Gender)

, , . ,
,
he - she - .
, .
c it, ,
,
. :
My father is a doctor.
He is a doctor.
- .
.
My sister is a student.
She is a student.
- .
.
The pupil is in the room.
He/she is in the room.
/ . / .
The milk is hot.
It is hot.
.
.
The bag is on the floor.
It is on the floor.
.
.

The cat is on the table.


It is on the table.
.
.
( . 3.2.)
,
, boy, girl, man,
woman, maid, male, female ( ) he, she, Tom, tabby ( ):
boy-friend - ; girl-friend - ; man-servant - ; maidservant - ; male-reader - ; female-reader - ;
he-wolf - ; she-wolf - ; Tom-cat - ; tabby-cat .
Man
. , man
, . : She was
chairman of the club. - .
chairperson chairman,
chairwoman.
, ,

-ess: actor actress - ; host hostess - ; lion
lioness - ; poet poetess- -; steward stewardess ; tiger tigress - .
1.6.

:

Life was slower in the 19th


19
century.
.

You did such splendid work.


.
(,

,
They gave their son good
.
advice.
).

My son is a teacher.
.

He found the car without



difficulty.
.
She lives in the country.
.

His mother, a doctor, was a


, , popular figure in the town.
.
2. (THE ARTICLE)
2.1.
,

: (the Indefinite Article) (the


Definite Article).
: 1) an,
, : an apple, an uncle, an
hour ( h ); 2) a,
, : a tree, a pen.
one ,
:
, ,


.
.
,
. :
He gave me a flower/flowers.
- /.
I saw admiration in her eyes.
- .

se
,
. :
This is the sort of thing I like.
- , .
,
, [ ]: the book [ `buk], ,
[i]: the author [i`: ], the hour
[i`au ].
,
, .
: a wild dirty black cat - ; the long busy
street -
,
/ :

A (an)
The


A cat
The cat


The cats
Cats

The
Water

water
2.2. (The Indefinite Article)

2.2.1.
-
- . , ,
a pencil -, , .
,
- , , , .
: This is a flower. - (
).
He is a teacher. - (
).
2.2.2.

.
, , .
: - A baseball is round. -
( . A cow gives milk. -
( ).
2.2.3.
: An
apple a day keeps the doctor away. - () -
. (
),
, , :
. .
. .

Tea
A tea ,
I ordered a tea.

.
Thought - A thought - ,
A thought struck him.

.
iron -
an iron
Do you need an iron?
?
2.3.
:
1)

there is:
There is a cup on the table.
- .
There was a knock at the door.
- .
2)

what, such, rather, quite, as:
What a day!
- / !
Its rather a long way from here!
- !
3)
many , :
For many a day it was raining hard.
- -
.

4)

, half:
Ill be back in half an hour.
- .
5)
: a lot of - , ; a great
deal of - ; as a rule - , ; at a loss -
(); for a while - ; in a hurry - ;
to have a good time - ; its a pity - ; to do
somebody a pleasure - - ; its a shame
- ; what a shame - , ..
2.4. (The Definite Article)
, ,
, .
, , ,
:
1) -
. :
Put the milk into the fridge. - .
( - , )
2) . :
How did you like the play? - a ?
( , )
) . :
0nce I saw an old man in the street. -
. The old man was carrying a
() ,
basket full of snakes.
.
4) , / .
:
This is the house that Jack built.
- Bo , .
Those are the girls who live next door. - ,
.
.
, :
January is the first month of the year;
- Pushkin was the best poet of
his time;

main - ; principal - , , ;
central - ; present - ; same - ; wrong -
, ; right - , ; very - ; only ; next, following - ; ; last ; former - , ; latter -
; other - , . next last
.
. : They studied at the same school. The dentist

pulled out the wrong tooth. Are we on the right road? Thats the very book
Im looking for. He was the only child in the family. He was the next man to
come. Ill tell you the following things. The previous lecture was very
important. It was the last chance to leave. The former USSR was the largest
country in the world. Id hire neither Bill nor Jack: the former is stupid, the
latter is ugly. He had two brothers: one was a sailor, the other was a tailor.
Ho: They came here last year and will come again next year.
5) : the Moon, the Sun, the Earth, the
Kremlin, the White House ..;
6) :
Can I see the director?
- ?
(, , - ).
, ,
, ,
.
:
:
) , : the
common people - ; the peasants - ; the workers ; the bourgeoisie - ; the aristocracy -
.;
)
: the poor - ; the rich - ; the strong ; the wounded - ; the learned ..
2.5.

,
.
, , :
1) , : the North /the South Pole
- / ; the Arctic - ; the Antarctic ; the North/ South - / (
south/ north - / ;
2) , , , , , ..: the Pacific
(Ocean), the Atlantic (Ocean), the Indian Ocean; the Baltic (Sea), the Black
Sea; the (river) Volga; the Panama Canal; the English Channel; the Bering
Strait; the Baikal, the Ontario (Ho: Lake Baikal, Lake Ontario);
3) , of-: the Bay of Bengal , : Hudson Bay, Baffin Bay;
4) : the Alps, the Urals, the Rocky
Mountains (=the Rockies); the Bermudas, the Canary Islands.
:
Everest, Elbrus; Cuba, Cyprus, Corsica. ,

: the Matterhorn, the


Maije. Ho: Mont Blank;
5) : the Sahara, the Gobi, the Karakum;
6) ,
: the Balkan Peninsula, the Kola Peninsula. Ho: Indo-China,
Labrador;
7) , : the Peoples
Republic of China, the United Arab Emirates, the USA, the ex-USSR.
, , ,
, ..;
8) , ,
: the Netherlands, the Argentine, the Congo, the
Crimea, the Ruhr, the Midwest; the Hague/ Ho: Argentine, Ukraine u ..;
9) : the Sedov, the Queen Mary, the Titanic;
10) : the Times, the Guardian. Ho: Izvestia, Pravda;
11) : the Odeon (Cinema), the Globe
(Theatre);
12) : the Savoy (Hotel), the Ambassador Hotel;
13) , ,
: the Botanical Gardens, the High/ Main street,
the Strand, the Tiergarten;
14) , , , : the British
Museum, the Tate (Gallery); the Festival Hall; the Rotary Club;
I5) : the Old Bailey, the Tower, the Royal
Exchange. Ho: Scotland Yard, Westminster Abbey;
16) , :
the Lake District, the Yorkshire Forests, the Tomsk Region;
17) ,
: the Supreme Soviet, the Duma; the Liberal Party, the Church; the
City Council. Ho: Parliament;
I8) , language: the English
language, the Italian language;
I9) , , , ,
: In his
novels Walter Scott described the England of Middle Ages;
20) ,
: the Forsytes - ; the Petrovs - .
, ,
.

, .

: -, . : Is he the

[i:] Mr Johnson? No, he is a [ei] r Johnson;


2I) , ,

: the country - ; the sea - ; the seaside ; the mountains - . : Im going to the country for
the week-end. I love the mountains, but I hate the sea.
22) : the French
- ; the Russians - ; the British - .
:
by the way, by the by

out of the question

on the one hand on the other hand ...
in the singular

in the plural

tell the truth

the other day
,
play the piano (the guitar and so on) ( ..)
Whats the time?
?
tell the time
( )

the sooner the better


...
in the morning (afternoon, evening)
(, )
2.6.

:
1) ,

:
We are students.
- .
Horses are domestic animals. - - .
,

,
:
A dog barks.
- Dogs bark.
The monkey lives in Africa. - Monkeys live in Africa.

,
some, any, several: Ive
got two cars. There are several apples on the plate.
2)

( ),

:
ts like milk.
- .
The sweater is made of wool. - .

,
some, any: Theres some milk in the fridge. Is there any meat
left?
3)
,
: eter is my best friend. Here Smirnov
comes. Moscow is the capital of Russia. Europe and Asia make up one
continent.
, , , ,
: Africa, :
Berkshire, : Texas, : Regent Street, : Red Square,
: Hyde Park, : Lake Windermere, ,
: Oxford University
(o: the University of Oxford), Cambridge Polytechnic, Westminster Abbey,
Salisbury Cathedral, Bognor Town Hall, Wigan Police Station, Birmingham
Airport ..;
4) ,
, ,
: Admiral Nelson, Dr Livingston, Mr. Smith, Duke Wellington,
Your Majesty, Professor Brown. : Good morning, sweet child. Hows
life, old chap? Id come back later, Father John.
5) ,
, , : Summer is my
favourite season. On Friday; in October; to have breakfast (lunch, dinner,
etc.) , ,
: in the fall (in the autumn, in the
October) of 1991. To weather: I like fine weather.
Whats the weather like?
6) ,
from to/ till: from Liverpool
to Manchester; from early morning till late at night;
7) , :
Man Killed On Mountain; , : Super Cinema Ritz
Hotel; , : Replace bulb
for blinker. Release cover; eepa: WIFE ILL MUST CANCEL
HOLIDAY; (palm - ); : Take car to
garage. Buy buttons; : J. Smith, Personnel Manager;
: In 17th century balance of power tween King and nobles
changed. : BA = Bachelor of Arts; MP
= Member of Parliament -,

, ,
, : NATO [`neit ], UNO [`ju:n ],
UNESCO [ju`nesk]. , ,
, , : the UN [i`ju:`en], the
BBC [`bi:`bi:`si:];
8)
( ),
, .. ,
, , , .
, ,
, :


) ..
be in bed -
lie on the bed
go to bed
go to the bed
go to church
go towards the church

be in prison go past the prison

be in hospital
be in the hospital

go to school
go to the school

be at college
be in the college

go home, be at home , A university is the home of learning

.
be in town, leave town approach the town
,

) ( by):
Travel, leave, go, get, come:
By bicycle
Ride on the bicycle
()
By bus
By car
By ship

Sit in the bus


Sleep in the car
Disembark from the ship

By train
Catch the train
By plane
Board the plane
On foot
Hurt the foot
) ( )
At dawn

At daybreak
At sunrise
At noon
At sunset

During the day ()

In the afternoon

Admire the sunset


()

At midnight
At dusk
At twilight
At night , by night

Invisible in the dusk

Wake up in the night

) :
Have, stay for/ before, at, after:
breakfast
Lunch
At the lunch for the chairman
Tea ( Br.English)
Have you made (the) tea?
?
Dinner
She was preparing (the) dinner.
.
Supper

The supper was cold.


.
Dinner will be served at 6 oclock. The dinner was well cooked.
6 .
.
At table ( Read sitting at the table
)

) :
They walked arm in arm/ hand in hand. He took her by the arm. -
- / .
.
They are husband and wife. - She is the wife of a famous artist. -
.
.
We met face to face - I punched him right in the face. -
.
.
, ,
:
At first

At first sight

At peace/ war /

By heart
By name
By mistake

By chance
On time

( )

By means of
In time
( )

3. (THE PRONOUN)
3.1.
- , , ,
, , .

, - . :
Lis learns chemistry. She likes it.
.
.
she , Lisa,
it - , chemistry.
The day was dull. Such days make me sleepy.
. .
such ,
dull.
I have some English books. - .
some - ,
.

9 :
;
;
- ;
;
- ;
;
;
;
.

, , 3-
,
:

. . -
(, )


1
. I
Me-
Myself
My
- mine
. We- Us-
Ourselves
Our - ours
. You - You-
Yourself
Your - yours

.
.
.
. .
.

.
.

You - You-
He Him-

Yourselves
Himself

Your His -

- yours
- his

She - Her -

Herself

Her -

It , It - ,
, ,
They- Them-

Itself
themselves

Its
Their -

hers

, - its
-

theirs

, :

Some, any -, No
-,

Every, each ,

All ,
One
None ,
Either ,
Neither , Both
Another, other
Somebody, anybody nobody -
Everybod
,
-, -
,
Someone, anyone - no one -
veryone , ,
, -

Something, anything Nothing


Everything
-, -
,
ae
, , ,
. ,
.
.
:

3.2. (Personal Pronouns)


: I, you, he, she, it, we, they.
-

. ,
, / , .
I .
I
, . :
My brother and I will help you. - .
we : ,
. :
Are we late, Mary?
- , ?
No, I hope we are not.
- , o.
Are we late, Mary?
- , ?
Yes, you are.
- , .
2- you

( ),
. :
Can you tell me where Miss Trotwood - He ,
lives?
?
What do you want with her, boy?
- , ?
, ,
2-
thou -, thee - , :
For a hundred summers I shall
- .
wait for thee.
you :
You never know what may happen. ,
.
: One
never knows what may happen.
3-
: he she
, it - , ,
, , .
,
,
, he:
A martyr is someone who
- - , gives up his life for his beliefs. .
: he
she. :
If a pupil makes brilliant pro- -
gress, he or she gets a
, .
scholarship.

.
he
she they :
If anyones lost a purse they can - - ,
get it from the office.
.
(a baby,
a very young child), , ,
it:
The baby was crying in its crib. - .
He she , ,
, .
he she, , , .
:
Once upon a time there lived a - - -
rabbit called Luke. He lived in
. O .
a forest.
That fox has got away three
-
times this year, but well get
, .
him again.
Felicitys upset about something. - - .
She is not giving much milk these
days.
.
This dog has to be destroyed - :
it started attacking sheep.
.
, ..,
she, ,
, - , . :
Hows your new car? Terrific!- ? .
Shes going like a bomb.
, .

, :
What a lovely ship! Whats
- !
she called?
?

she:
He took my watch and said,
- :
She is 4 minutes slow.
4 .
Lets move this bed to the
- .
corner. Oh, she is heavy!
- O, !
She ,
,
. :
Last year France increased
-

her exports by 10%.


I0%.
it
. It :

1. , :
)

ave you seen my pen


anywhere? Im afraid Ive
lost it.
)

He didnt believe in love. It


was beyond him.
)

The hurricane was terrible. It


ruined everything.
)

We saw the tiger. It was lying


under the bush.
2. Whos that? Its John.

3.
, -
Nothing happened, did it?
nothing,
everything, all
4. /
,
/-
Its difficult to remember all
their names.
/
He made it clear that he didnt

want to speak to me.


5. Its ten oclock.
It
,
rained three days.
It
, can be very warm in
,
September.
Its
, ,
awful!


? ,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
? .

-
it
.

.
, -
.
.
.

3- they -
, ,
:
We have written them already. - .
They are made of pure wool. - .
they -
, ( ).
they :
They speak Dutch in Holland. - .
They say she is a looker.
- , .
: (the
Nominative s) , (the Objective Case).

,

- .

. . . . .
I
around me
(to) me
me
by me About me

()

o
You
for you
(to) you
you
with you
on you
, () , , c , ,
He
out of him
(to) him
him
by him
in him


( )

She

because of her
(to) her
her
over her
about her
- -
( )


o
it
from it
(to) it
it
above it
of it
c , ( ), e, , o ,
we
from us
(to) us
us
with us
about us
o
()

c
o
they
for them
(to) them
them
by them
in them

()



:
Ive seen this play.
.
Whos going to drive?- I m. =
? .
Me.

Whos there? - Its I. = Its me.


? .
,
.

. :
We met them at the station.
He showed the picture to .

her.
3.3. (Possessive Pronouns)

Whose? - ? ,
o ,
. the my house -
this my friend - .
this friend of mine.
(my, your, his,
her, its, our, their)
,
:
Heres your hat.
- .

.
, :
I brought m dictionary.
- .
We brought our dictionaries.
- .

, ,
:
There stood a man at the door
- - ,
with his hat in his hand.
.

, ,
:
) , :
The little girl took me by the hand. - .
) , ,
:
was shot in the leg during the war.- .
) , ,
, .. :
She had ain in the shoulder. - .
She had a bird on her shoulder. - .

, .. ,
,
. :
Can I borrow your pen?
?
Yours works better than mine , .
does.

These books are ours.


.

Philip wanted a screwdriver, ,


so I let him take yours.

.
it

.
3.4. - (Reflexive Pronouns)
,
, pcco

I asked myself.
1

.
He asked himself.
3

.
She asked herself.
3

.
We asked ourselves.
1
.
You asked yourselves.
2
.
You asked yourself.
2

.
They asked themselves.
3
.
It controls itself.
3
.
()
.

:
He feels well.
- .
He behaved like a child.
- .
:
Behave yourself!
- !

is not feeling himself.


.

-/- ( ):
, , , . ep:
The soldiers tried to defend themselves. - .
She found herself in hospital.
- .
We enjoyed ourselves greatly.
- .
, ,
, ,
. : to wash ; to shave - ; to dress - ..
: I wash I get washed I wash
myself ( ).
, The child is learning to dress himself,
.
one
oneself:
One mustnt fool oneself. - .

himself themselves:
No one must fool himself. - .
Everyone should decide it - .
themselves.

, , .
:
She took her dog with her. - .
( - ).
She was talking with herself. - .
( - ,
her).

own :
He cooks his own dinner. =
- .
He cooks dinner for himself.
own very:
Do you like the cake? The recipe - ?
is my very own.
.
own
of:
Id love to have a house
-
of my own.
o.



.
, , .. ,
, . :
I saw it myself. = I myself saw it. - .

: as for - ; (un)like -
/; except for - ; but for - . :
As for myself, I doncare what
- , ,
you decide to do.
.
3.5. (Indefinite Pronouns)
,
, , . some,
any , one, many, much, few, little.
3.5.1. some, any
some, any , .
, some ,
, : 1) ,
-, -; 2) , , .
:
Some people dont enjoy country
-
life.
.
There were some people in the room. - B
.
I need some medicine for my
- o -
headache.
.
There is some medicine left.
-
.
some

.
some
. :
Give me some ink.
- .
Give me the ink.
- .
( , ).
Some
-,
, :
She works in some insurance
- -
company in Birmingham.
.
I dont want to spend my life in -

some muddy little village miles


-
from anywhere.
.
Some others -, all
- enough - :
Some people like the sea,
- ,
others prefer the mountains.
.
Ive got some money, but not
- ,
enough.
.
Some, ,
, :
Fantasia has exported some

four million tons of bootlaces

this year.
.
some any - : some,
, , any
. :
I want some razor blades.
- e (-) .
Have you got any razor blades? - (-) ?
Sorry, I havent got any
- , ()
razor blades.
.
Some ,
, ,
, , a:
Have you got some glasses
- -
you could lend me?
?
Would you like some more coffee? - He ?
Any some a
, , never - ; without ; hardly - ; fail - ; prevent - ..
:
never give me any help.
- .
We got there without any
-
trouble.
- .
Theres hardly any tea left.
- .
He failed to produce any impression - O
on her.
.
The noise of the party prevented me.
from getting any sleep
a .
:
If you want some/ any help, let me - ,
know.
.
, any

. ny
-, -. :
Is she any better?
- ?
any/ no good; any/ no
use:
Was the film any good?
, ?
No good at all.
, .
Is it any use talking to him? - ?
Its no use at all.
, .
any
:
You can take any book you - ,
like.
.
any but ... , :
Ill go to any restaurant but - , pe
that one.
.
Some any ,
f:
Would you like some of these sweets? - He ?
I couldnt understand any of the
- .
lectures.
Have some of my ice cream.
- .
I dont think any of us want(s) to
- ,
work tomorrow.
.
, any
,
, :
If any of your friends is (are)
- -
interested, let me know.
, .

.
some any -
:
Youve got some good jazz records. -
.
Will you ask any questions?
- -
?
, some any
:
Coffee? No, thanks. Ive got
- ? - ,
some.
.
Did you get the oil?
- ?
- No, they didnt have any.
- , .

Some workers squeezed into the


-
hall and some were left standing
a,
outside.
.
Which of them shall I give you?
- ?
- Any will do.
- .
3.5.2.

some any
-one, -body, -thing. ,
/: somebody/ one
, something - .
somebody/ anybody, someone/ anyone, something/
anything e, some any.
one
body : .
, :
somebody somebodys; someone someones.

, ,
, - :
Someones knocking at the
- .
door.

I cant hear anything.


.

She is somebody you know -,


well.
.
Did you hear anybodys - ?
voice?
3.5.3. one
one -,
, , , ,
. One
,
, :
One cant make an omelette
- He ,
without breaking eggs.
.
One believes things because
- , a
one has been conditioned to
.
believe them.
, e, one
, -
:

One shouldnt get upset about c


stupid things.
- .

e- One cant succeed without ,

taking pains.
.

, one. :
Im being served already.
- ye .
Its raining.
- .
Someones knocking at the door. - .
We speak English here.
- -.
one :
He talks to one like a school- ( ),
master.
.
One politician is as bad as another. - .
one .

oneself. ne
, , , ,
:
Ones family can be a real
-
nuisance at times.
.
nes oneself
, ne, he, him, his
himself:
One cannot succeed unless he
- ,
tries hard.
.
(Br. E.: one tries hard)
One should be careful in talking to -
his colleagues.
.
(Br. E.: to ones colleagues)
One should always give himself
-
plenty of time to pack.
.
(Br. E.: give oneself)
3.5.4. - One
- ne
, . - one
one ,
,
,
, .
- one
, .

Which apples would you like to


buy? I think the red ones are
better.
The normal state of a body is


? ,
.

one of rest.
Im looking for a flat. Id really
like one with a garden.

.
.
.

a/an
one ,
. :
Id like a big one with cream on it. - .
Id like one with cream on.
- .
ones
, . :
I caught nine.
- .
I caught nine big ones.
- .
One(s)
. my one(s), your one(s)
mine, yours:
one . :
Lets take yours.
- .
Lets take your new one.
- .
One
, this, that, these, those, either, neither:
I think my dog is the fastest
- ,
(one).
.
Either (one) will suit me.
- .
3.5.5. ny, h, few, little
many much ; few little
. some,
, . -

- .
-:
all/every
, all
/

most more more


most

many
less
less
much
several
fewer
some
some

a few
a little
few
little
none (no)
, many (a) few
, much (a) little -

:
Many
Much snow
friends
A few A little snow
friends
Few

Little snow
friends
Many much
,
(
):
. Lots (of) A lot of Plenty of
A large/good/great number of
.
Lots (of) A lot of Plenty of
A
A great/large
good/great quantity/amount of
deal of
:
How much money have you got? - ?
Ive got plenty.
- .
Celia talks lot.
- .
He's got plenty of men friends, but - -,
he doesnt know many girls.

.
Mr. Lucas has spent a great deal -
of time on the Far East.
.
Many much
, so - ;
very - ; too - ; as - . :
Much research has been carried
- a out in order to establish the
causes of cancer. In the opinion of .
many scientists
...
Youve bought too many tomatoes. -
.
Theres so much violence these

days.
.
Try to get as many opinions as -
you can.
.
I enjoyed the concert very much. - .
A few, a little - ,
, , ..
, few, little -
, .. :

Hes got a few friends.


- .
Hes got few friends.
- .
Hurry up! Weve got little
- !
time.
.
Dont hurry. Weve got a little - .
time before the train comes in. .
3.6. (Negative Pronouns)
no - , , no one -
, , nobody - , nothing - , neither - ,
- , , .
3.6.1. N
No ,
,
, .
No ,

, not any, not. No not any
a . no
. :
No cigarette is absolutely - a co
harmless.
epe.
There were no letters for
- e e .
you this morning.
No o , ,
:
You look n older than 32.
- , 32.
He ran no faster.
- .
c different:
I hadnt seen him for 15
- ,
years, but he was no different. c.
No c I
. No + I there is
- , , :
Sorry, there is no smoking in - , o
the waiting-room.
.
N PARKING
- .
NO SMOKING
- p .
No + e I
:
There was a no-parking sign - ,
there.
.
No more longer a
, more ,

, longer - .
heres no more bread.
- .
Hes no more a genius than I am.
- , .
I no longer support the Conservative -
Party.
c.
No , ep: no use,
no good - o; no doubt - .
3.6.2. Neither
Neither no none,
. Neither f
, ,
. ,
, :
Neither parent realised what was
- , ,
happening.
.
Neither car is exactly what I want. - , -
c , .
,
, neither c f +
.
( ),
( ). p:
Neither of these cars is exactly what - , -
I want.
c , .
Neither of my sisters is very tidy.
-
.
Neither of c us, you, them:
Neither of them can understand. - , .
3.6.3. Nothing Nobody
nothing - nobody , . nobody
nobodys ( a n ones
, ).
Nobody, no one, nothing
, ; nobodys -
:
Ive tried everything but ,
nothing works.
.
Thats nothing.
.

Ive got nothing to tell you.


.

Ive heard nobodys voice. .


3.6.4. None of

none of , ,
() no
, ,
. ep:
None of the furniture got wet.
- .
None of my friends lives near my -
place.
.
None of those buses goes to
- o
Cambridge.
- .
I liked none of that music.
- Me
.
None of them came in time.
- .
none of
, c ( ),
( ).
None f her relatives is/ are
- Ho
interested.
a.
,

- , :
e is no friend of mine.
- .
We accepted neither suggestion.
- M ,
.
e - a not,
no, nobody, no one, nothing, neither e
any, anybody, anyone, anything, either. e:
Theres nobody in the room.
.
Theres not anybody in the room.

( , ) .
3.7. (Universal Pronouns)
,
: every - ,
everybody, everyone, everything; each - ; other/ another
- ; either - , ;
all - , , , both - , .
3.7.1. Every Each
Every each . Every
;
. Each, ,
, ,
. :
We want every child to succeed.
- ,
.

Each child will find his own


-
personal road to success.
.
, every each
:
Each/ every time I see you
- , ,
you look more beautiful.
.
, each .
, almost every month - ;
every single one without exception - ( ),
each almost - , practically , nearly - without exception - .
, ach ,
every - , :
Each sex has its own physical and -
psychological characteristics.

( : every sex)
.
Every
;
:
Every player was on top form. - Bce .
, every


:
I go to Paris every six weeks
-
or so.
.
Every
.
:
Every room was occupied.
- .
:Every was occupied Every of the rooms was occupied.
Every one of the rooms was occupied. ,
every one , everyone =
everybody ( ).
Each

, ,
:
Each day is better than the one

.
before.
,
each of + :
Each of my aunts gave me socks -
for Christmas.
.
Each :

She phoned each of us.


- .
Each ,
:
I had some crazy dreams last
- -
night. Each was funnier than
.
the last.
.
each
one: Each one was funnier than the last.
each ,
:
W each have our own attitude -
to bringing up children.
.
each -
:
My sisters have each married
-
businessmen.
.
The witnesses were each
-
perfectly sure of what they said.
, .
Each ( !)
:
She sent them each a present. -
.
: She kissed them each.
- .
, each,
every, , :
Each person explained it in - -.
his/ their own way.
I told every single student
-
what I thought of him/ them.
, .
3.7.2. Everything, Everybody Everyone
everything ; everybody - ,
everyone -
, :

Everybody is ready.
.

She is everything for him.
.

I would like everyone to be



happy.
.
everything . everyone,
everybody everyones, everybodys,
:
Its everybodys duty.
- .
3.7.3. Either

either : 1)
, ( ), :
Come on Tuesday or Thursday. - .
Either day is OK.
.
2) , , , :
There were roses on either side - o .
of the road.
Either c
,
.
:
Either kind of school is quite - .
suitable.
either .
Either ,
, ,
a of + :
Has either of your parents visited
- -
you?
?
He will listen to either of you.
- O c.
either of
:
Either of the children is quite
able to look after the baby.
.
e
, :
I dont think either of them are/ is at home. - , .
3.7.4. All
all - , , , .

, :
All the pupils are present.
- .
All are present.
- .
All ,
.
everything, everybody. :

all,
, , .
,
, all, all of:
All (of) my friends like riding. - .
Ive read all (of) the books you - ,
lent me.
.
, all of
:
All children can be lazy sometimes. - .
,
:
All of you are wrong.
- .
,
.
always - , already - , vr -, never - ., ..:

My friends all like riding.


.

They would all have been E ,

invited if there had been .

room.
to be
We all are tired.
.
All ,
:
Ive eaten them all.
- .
: Ive eaten the cakes all.
- .
All e .
:
Ive finished it all.
- .
: This is it all.
- .
All ,
.
All who want tickets should go - , ,
to the office.
.
: All those who want tickets All the
people who want tickets.
all ,

:
1
All that I own is yours.
, .
2
Ill give you all you want. , .
3 This is all Ive got.
, .

all : ) everything (1, 2), ) the


only thing(s) - ().
All
. :
All Englishmen dont like fish
-
and chips.
.
not all no:
Not all Englishmen like fish and
- He
chips.
.
, , not no:
Not all birds can fly.
- He .
No bird can play chess.
-
.
3.7.5. Both
both - - ,
,
:

Both brothers live in


.
London.

Ill buy both.


.

Both will suit me.


.
Both
, :
Both (of) the children have been
- .
to Greece.
Both
Both both of
,

, :
Both (of) me/ these/ the children - /
are fair-haired.
c.
, both
of:
Both children have been to Greece. - .
Both of .
both of us - , we both - .
Both of us were born in March.
- .
We were both born in March.
- .
Both

both ,
.
:

We both like
.

cornflakes.

We have both studied

acting.
.

You are both wrong.
.
, ,
. ,
: Both cats are asleep. Both the cats are asleep. Both of the cats
are asleep. The cats are both asleep.
, both
, , , .
both ...:
The customer was both hungry and
- , .
cross.
She was both laughing and crying. - , .
both
3.7.6. Other
other .
other :
Have you got any other colours?
- -
?
other
others, other ones -
:
Some metals are magnetic, others
-
are not.
,
.
Other
,
. :
The other brother was a footballer. - .
Could you tell the others Ill be late? -
, ?
3.7.7. Another

another

, ,
, . :
Can I have another cup of tea, please? - ,
?

another
, few:
Another three pints, please.
- , .
Ill stay here for another few
- e
weeks.
.
another more, other: Three more
pints three other pints.
3.8. (Reciprocal Pronouns)
one another, each other - ,
- , -
- / :
They looked at each other and
-
smiled.
.
he streets were so alike one another -
that you could easily lose your way. ,
.
:
They forgot each others names.
- .

,
- :

John and Mary love each
other.
.
He put all books on top
of one another.
.

The students borrowed


each others notes.
.
, each other
, a one another -
.
. each
other one another . Each other ,
, ..
. :
Its rather difficult for people to
-
understand one another.
.
Theyve sat two hours without
- ,
speaking to each other.
.
3.9. (Demonstrative Pronouns)
this - , that - , such - , same , , . this
that : this bag these bags; that bag those bags.
3.9.1. This, That

this, that
, , ,
:
Well stay here, at this place. ,
.
Those are the lorries that ,
carry our brothers to the
mines.
.

Put that down.


.
e this that. This
, ,
, , . This
here - now - . That ,
, ,
. Tht there - then - .
:
Get this cat off my shoulder.
- .
Get that cat off the piano.
- .
That was nice.
- .
This will be interesting.
- .
, this that
.
, this,
, that - , :
Hallo. This is Elizabeth. Is that Ruth?- . . ?
this that ,
:
This costs more than that.
- .
: This says hes tired.
- , .
,
, this that :
That looks like Mrs. Walker.
- , .
This is Elizabeth.
- .
this that
. :
I didnt realise it was going to
- , .
be that hot.
If your boy-friend is that clever, - ,
why isnt he rich?
?
Not all that , ,
. :
w was the party? Not all
- ?
that good.
.

. :
It was that cold that I couldnt - ,
feel my fingers.
.

,
,
:
These are the books I told you - ,
about.
.
that
:
The butter we import is less
- ,
expensive than that (which) we
, , ,
produce ourselves.
.
that
. these those
,
. these/ those
, , -
:
These flowers are better than
- (), those which we planted last year. .
All bodies consist of molecules - , and these of atoms.
.
Then he bought a reader, some - ,
exercise-books and hid these

at the bottom of his trunk.
.
those :
He admires those who succeed. - , .
Those :
Those taking part in the compe- - , tition are requested to come
, .
onto the stage.
He never approved of those chosen - ,
by other people.
.
3.9.2. Such
such , ,
. such
,
. :
Its such a nice day!
- !
I adore such weather.
- .

,
such ,
.
Such a clever child!
- !
Such
, ,
:
We had such fun!
- !
Ive got such a headache/
- .
They are such fools.
- .
- -,
like this/ that this/ that sort of:
I dont like this sort of music.
- .
: such music.
Such

. such
so. :
Shes such a fool.
- .
Shes so stupid.
- .
Dont walk so quickly.
- .
such-and-such -:
When youre studying diagnosis - ,
you learn that such-and-such a
, -
symptom corresponds to such - .
and-such an illness.
3.9.3. Same
same .
,
:
He was wearing the same shirt. - .
Same
,
:

He gave me the same


answer again.
.

The same wont suit me.


.
It was just the same.

Give me the same again, ,


please.
.
the same +
as that
. :

I like the same music as you.

- ,
.
Thats the same man that asked
- ,
me for money yesterday.
.
That the same way ():
I went out the same way Id got in. - , .
3.10. - (InterrogativeRelative Pronouns)
- who
, whose - , what - , , which - .
that , .
3.10.1. Who
who
.
who
, , :
Who helps you in your work?
- ?
, ,
:
Who were playing chess at the
-
second table?
?
who c
, -
:
Who are they?
- ?
Who is this girl?
- ?
Who whom,
,
. who
. :

who
,

,
:
The girl who was barely 20 had
- , already worked 5 years.
20, 5 .
They heard the movements of those - ,
who were on the bank.
.
Who
it is (was) who ,
:
It was I who told the police.
- .
whom
:
This is Mr Perkins whom you met
- - ,
at the sales conference.

.
The people with whom he worked
- , ,
regarded him as eccentric.
.
whom that,
:
Theres the man (that) we met in
- ,
the pub last night.
.
3.10.2. What, Which That
What which ,
,
.
, what which
:
Which would you like steak or
-
place?
?
What would you like to drink?
- ?
which , what
.
What ,
. :
What are you?
- ?
Whats your brother?
- ?
- what
:
What has happened?
- ?
- what
:
What is your opinion on this question? -
?
What are his daughters like?
- ?

( what is/ are like? , ).


what
.
, what
, :
What is he going to talk about?
- ?
which what
, .
which what :
Which parent is more important
- in the first year of life?
?
Which colour would you like
green or yellow?
?
- What writers do you like?
?

What colour are her eyes?


?

what
. what

), ,
, , .
He asked me what I intended to - ,
do?
.
He asked me what colour Id
- ,
like.
.
The life in the country is not
- ,
what it used to be.
.
I gave her just what she needed. - , .
Do you want to hear what he - ,
said?
?
what ,
- , what that:
Do you want to hear the words - , that he said?
?
e that the words
. ,
,
what that which:
Sally went out with George,
- ,
which made Paul very angry.
.
Which
,
.
which :

They returned to their canoe

- ,

which they had left in the stream. .


that who (
) which ( )
,
, ,
. :
The woman that/ who usually - , cuts my hair has moved to
,
another hairdressers.
.
Dorothy, who cuts my hair, has - , moved to another hair, dressers.
.
,
: ,
.
. that:
Wheres the girl that sells the - , tickets? = who sells
?
Ive lost the bananas that Ive - ,
bought this morning.
.
That
all, every(thing), some(thing), any(thing), no(thing), none,
little, few, much, only:
Its the best film that evers
- , been made on this subject.
.
Is this all thats left?
- , ?
Have you got anything that
- -, belongs to me?
?
The only thing that matters is - , ,
to find our way home.
.
that
, , :
He is a man people like at first sight. - ,
.
3.10.3. Whose
whose
. whose
,
. :
Whose books are these?
- ?
Whose

, :
This is Henry whose wife works - , /
for my brother.
.
whose
:
It was a meeting whose impor- - ,

tance I didnt realise at the time. .


which:
It was a meeting the importance of which I didnt realise at the time.
4. M (THE NUMRAL)
4.1.
, ,
, .
(rdinal Numerals)
(rdinal Numerals).

w many?- ?
, , .

Which? - ?
.

4.2. (Cardinal Numerals)



. . :

, ,
: -teen, ,
13 19 , -ty -, -:
- teen
-ty
20 twenty [`twenti]
13 thirteen [`:`ti:n]
30 thirty [` :ti]
14 fourteen [`f :`ti:n]
40 forty [`f :ti]
15 fifteen [`fif`ti:n]
50 fifty [`fifti]
16 sixteen [`siks`ti:n]
60 sixty [`siksti]
17 seventeen [`sevn`ti:n]
70 seventy [`sevnti]
18 eighteen [`ei`ti:n]
80 eighty [`eiti]
19 nineteen [`nin`ti:n]
90 ninety [`ninti]
;
, .
.

.
1, 2, 3, 4 :
; .
: 20 100 , .
. : 25 twenty-five; 39 thirty-nine; 41 fortyone.
hundred , thousand , million
, milliard - ( billion , ) ,
, n. :
a hundred, one hundred - () co; a thousand, one thousand - ()
.
6

:
:
Five hundred books
- 500 ;
Six thousand cars
- 6 ;
Seven million pounds
- 7 .
(,
, ), -s
of. :
Hundreds of books
- ;
Thousands of cars
- ;
Millions of dollars
- .
, ,
, 1100 1900:
Seventeen hundred soldiers - 1700 ;
.
(Br.E.) and
(
) ,
(Am.E.):

,
hundred, thousand .. . : 146 a hundred
and forty-six; 3,146 - three thousand one hundred and forty-six. A thousnd
and
, one thsand
.
1,000 - a thousand;
1,031 - a thousand and thirty-one;
1,100 - one thousand one hundred.
1,198 - one thousand one hundred and ninety-eight.
: (7,000; 5,555,047; 43,705; 211,689). .:


.
hundred, thousand, million, dozen ( = 12), score ( = 20), gross ( =
144), stone (= 14 ), hundredweight (= ); head ( = ,
6

)
:
a hundred pages
- ;
h average span of human life
-

is three score and ten (years).


70 ().
He weighed nineteen stone.
- 19 .
He owned a hundred hed of cattle. - .
gross head (of ttl)
, . foot
,
:
George is six foot/ feet tall.
- 6 (183 ) .

:
Therere two types of berths in the
- B :
compartment: the upper and lower ones. .
, ,
:
There are thirty-one days in January. - .
:
(, 40 49 = ) (,
)
:
Though Jane was in her forties,
,
she was till pleasant to look at.

.
The book was published in the
- 70-
seventies (in the 70s/ in the 1970s). ().
,

:
a
fivepenny
piece
/; a four-foot pole - 4 ;
two-mile walk - ; a five pound note -
5 .
0, , nought [n :t]
zero [`zir] - .
n none:
her were no survivors in the air -
disaster.
.
None of the passengers and crew -
survived.
.
zero 0
:
6

Its five degrees below zero.


- 0.
0/Oh 0 ,
, ,
, ,
, :
My account number is four-one- 4102052.
oh-two-oh-five-two.
Dial 7050 (seven-oh-five-oh) and
- 7050
ask for extension 90 (nine-oh).
90.
His room number is 202 (two-oh-two). - 202.
Open your books at page 105 (one-oh- -
five).
105.
nil
nothing, - zero. :
Manchester five, Liverpool nil.
- - : 5 0.
razil won 4-0 (four nil/ four (to)
- 4 : 0.
nothing.
, -,
0 lv,
loeuf- , .. 0 :
Five love, your service
- 5 : 0, .
Borg leads by 30 0 (thirty love). - 30 : 0.
it .
, 0 oght (Br.E.) zero
(Am.E.):
2.5
Two point five

3.14
Three point five four

3.375 Three point three seven five

0.5
Nought point five/ point five/ zero
point five
: 37% = 37 per ent (.. 37 ),
cent .
:
At 5
At five oclock
At 5.15 At five fifteen/ at a quarter past five (at a quarter after five Am.E.)
At 5.30 At five thirty/ at half past five
At 5.45 At five forty-five/ at a quarter to six (at a quarter of six Am.E.)
At 5.50 At five fifty/ at ten (minutes) to six
At 6.10 At ten (minutes) past six (at ten minutes after six Am.E.)
6.10 at six ten , ,
, .

/
,

,
7

/ :
Lufthansa flight LH 203 (el- - 203
eih-oh-three) leaves at 09.20 9.20.
(oh nine twenty).
The coach leaves for the airport -
at 08.15 (oh ight fifteen).
8.15.
The latest time for reporting is -
08.35 (oh eight thirty-five).
8.35.
:
What time is the next train to -
Victoria (station), please?
- () ?
9.26 (nine twenty-six). Platform 9.26. . 4. Its due in at 11.35 (eleven
11.35.
thirty-five.
Which train would get me to
-
York by 4.30 (four thirty) p.m.?
- ()?
If you catch the 11.35 (eleven - () 11.35,
thirty-five) youll be there by
16.14.
16.14 (sixteen fourteen).
p. m. [`pi:`m] (post meridiem) - -
a.m. [`ei`m] (ante meridiem) - ,
, , .
, , :
20.00 Twenty hundred (hours)
( )
24.00 Twenty-four hundred (hours) ( )
: zero hour /.
the,
, a the
, .. :
Does the 21 (twenty-one) go - 21- ?
to the post-office?
No. Youll get there if you
- , ,
take a 143 (one four three).
143-.
, a o
100 , 100 -
. , , ,
.., :
I go to school by bus 15
-
(fifteen).
.
Will you read paragraph 3 (three)? - 3.
Wheres Group 45 (forty-five)?
- 45- ? ( 45?)
Theyre in Room 215 (two one five). - 215.
:
7

1900 = 1900 (nineteen hundred)


1066 = 1066 (ten sixty-six/ ten hundred and sixty-six)
1905 = 1905 (nineteen oh five/ nineteen zero five/ nineteen hundred
and five)
921 = 921 (nine twenty-one/ nine hundred and twenty-one)
1786 = 1786 (seventeen eighty-six/ seventeen hundred and eighty-six)
year
, in
:
Queen Victoria died in the year - 1900
1900.
.
,
, B.C. A.C. :
55 B.C. = 55 Po ( ..)
370 A.D.= 370 (..).
1000 . .. (.D. 1000). ,
: .D. 725 = 725 . .., 1752 = 1752 .
4.3. (Ordinal Numerals)
th
[] : four the fourth; seven the seventh;
thirteen the thirteenth; fifteen the fifteenth ..

: one the first; two the second; three the third.
5-, 8-, 9-, 12-

: five the fifth; eight- the eighth; nine the ninth; twelve
the twelfth.
,

, 20, - -i th [i]: twenty


the twentieth [`twentii]; sixty the sixtieth [`sikstii].
,
,
,
, :
the twenty-third
-
one hundred and eighty-seventh -
: 1/8 an eighth (one eighth).
, ,
, -s: 3/7 three
sevenths; 15/ 9 one and five ninths.

over: 319 - three hundred and seventeen over five hundred and nine.
7

509
, ,
.
, hour; 0,7 mile three quarters
of an hour; seven tenths of a mile.
, one and a half
. : one and a half kilometres.
, ,
: 2 metres two and a quarter metres
two metres and a quarter.
half,
:
half a kilometre
-
half an hour
-
half a distance
-
H: a kilometre and a half
-
an hour and a half
-
, ,
, : the first page; the
20th century. ,
, :
The second basket was the same -
size as the first.
, .

,
:
A second sputnik may enter the - ( )
outer orbit.
.
:
: the first of January/ January the first,
January first, . a
of, the -th
, , ,
. :
: He died on 5(th) May 1974
- Br. E.;
He died on May 5(th), 1974
- Am. E.
the fifth of May, nineteen seventy-four.
: He died on May the fifth, nineteen seventy-four (Br. E.).
May fifth, nineteen seventy-four (Am. E.).
,
. , 08.06.95 June the eighth , August the
sixth .
,
: Henry VIII (Henry the Eighth) -
7

, Louis XIV (Louis the Fourteenth) - ,


Catherine II (Catherine the Second) .

4.4.


(addition)
Two and two are four.
2+2=4
Six and five is eleven.
6 + 5 = 11
Whats eight and six?
712 + 145 = 857
() 8 + ()
6?

Four from seven is/ leaves


(subtraction)
three;
74=3
Seven take away/ less four
619 428 = 191
leaves/ is three.

Three fours are twelve.


(multiplication)
Six sevens are forty-two.
9 4 = 12
Six times seven is forty6 7 = 42
two.
17 381 = 6477


Seven
hundred
and
twelve plus a hundred
and forty-five is/ equals
eight hundred and fiftyseven.
Six hundred and nineteen
minus four hundred and
twenty-eight equals a
hundred and ninety-one.
Seventeen times three hundred and eighty-one is/
makes six thousand, four
hundred and seventy-seven.
17 multiplied by 381
equals 6477.
(division)
Three into nine goes three Two hundred and sixty9:3=3
(times).
one divided by nine
261 : 9 = 29
equals twenty-one.
4.5.
,
, .
.:

Five are missing the lesson.


.

Subtract 92 from 238 and the 92 238, remainder is the number you ,
want.
.

The second lesson begins at 10.


10.
Two times two is four.
.

5. (E ADJECTIVE)
5.1.
- , :
a new book - , a new house - , new houses -
, a new building - .
,
, .

(noun determiner), ,
.
7

,
. ,
:

It was late autumn.


.

The weather was warm .


yet.
c She lay motionless with ,
her face towards the wall. .

I thought him very clever. , .

The door was shut tight.



.

(qualitative) (relative).
()
, : - square , small - , solid , white - , sweet - ,
heavy - ..
,
, .
: , wooden , - rural - , mathematical - , - medieval - ..

very - .
:
1) , , : red - , long
- , tall - ;
2) ,
: useful - , unreal - ,
international - ;
3) , ,
: red-hot - , double-edged .
:
-ful
-al
-en
-ic
-ous

Peace -
Centre -
Wood -
Economy -
Mountain -

Peaceful -
Central -
Wooden -
Economic
Mountainous -


c
7

-y
-ly
-able
-ible
-ant
-ent
-ive
-less
-ish

Dirt -
Day -
To move -
To sense -
To resist-
To depend -
To create -
Use -
White -
Dane

Dirty -
Daily -
Movable -
Sensible -
Resistant -
Dependent -
Creative -
Useless -
Whitish
Danish -


-un -in. : unhappy - , incomplete . -l -in -il,
-r -ir, m, -p - im: illogical -, irregular , immobile - , impossible- ..
:

-
, :
I am sorry.
- .
7

He looks sorry.
- .
, .
: , , ..
. :

5.2. (The Degrees of


Comparison)
,
: , , .
1

: Its the busiest street here. She spoke


in a tired voice.
1
2

sure , , . Do you know this man?


Sure.
7

- short

, shorter
,
more useful

,
the shortest
useful
/
the most
useful
- difficult
less the
difficult
least difficult
bad
- worse
the worst
- little
- less
the least
,
:
1) -er est

();
2) more/ less most/ least
();
) .

the.

.
( -er
-est ) :
: tall taller the tallest; fat fatter
the fattest. : like more like the
most like; real - more real the most real;
, : happy
happier the happiest; funny funnier the funniest.
, le, -ow, -er
(: exact more exact the most exact),
common, handsome, pleasant, solid, quiet, wicked, cruel, stupid, tired
,
:
- gentle
More gentle/ gentler
The most gentle/ the gentlest
- hollow
More hollow/ hollower The most hollow/ the hollowest
clever
More clever/ cleverer
The most clever/ the cleverest
polite More polite/ politer
The most polite/ the politest
common More common/ommoner The most common/the commonest

.
,
7

un- -,
: unhappy - , unhappier/
more unhappy the unhappiest/ the most unhappy.
-er
-est :
-, -er
- - : ripe riper the ripest;

,
: big bigger the biggest; hot
hotter the hottest; thin thinner the thinnest;
- ,
- -i-: dirty dirtier
the dirtiest; busy busier the busiest; easy easier the easiest.
- , - : gay gayer the
gayest.
, ,
,
r- , - the most
- . : beautiful more beautiful the most
beautiful, frequent more frequent the most frequent.

less - the least -
. : able less able
the least able; interesting less interesting the least
interesting.
good, much, many, late, near, old, far
:
- good
better
,
the best
bad
worse
,
the worst
little less
the least
,
,
old
c older
the oldest
elder
the
eldest
, (
- late
later
) the latest
c ( ),
( ) the last
latter
,
near
nearer the nearest
8

( ),
the next
( )
the farthest

(
, )

- far
farther
, - the furthest
( )
further
far, old, near, late
.
farther/ the farthest
:
We live in the farther side of the
-
town.
.
further/ the furthest :
, ; . further,
, , :
Here is a further example.
- .
the eldest - . elder
:
My brother John is three years
-
older (than I am).
( ).
, .
older/ the oldest.

, .., last the.
We talked about that last
-
Christmas.
.
the last ,
, .
:
I had flu last week.

, .

I have had flu for the / 7
last week.
.
.
Last year was hard.
.
The last year has been / 12
difficult.
.
.
the last
( ):
In the last week of the holiday a
- strange thing happened.
.
8

That was the last Christmas I


- , spent at home.
.
the last three weeks , the three last weeks .
latest , - .
Last , . :
What do you think of his latest
-
play?
?
I like it much better than his last - ,
one.
.
Cymbeline was one of
-
Shakespeares last plays.
.
Have you heard the latest?
- (
) ?
Janes married! Oh, yes?
- ! ?
The last I heard, she was going
- , ,
to become a nun.
.
,
narest. next , ,
- . :
Excuse me. Wheres the nearest - ,
telephone-box?
?
We get off at the next stop.
-
.
Im looking forward to his next
-
visit.
.
When will we get our next pay
-
rise?
?
, next
nearest: next door - , ;
next to nothing - , ; next of kin -
.
, , ..,
, next the. ,
ext :
Goodbye! See you next week.
- .
.
Will you be at the party next
-
Tuesday?
?
Ill be abroad next Christmas.
-
.
The next ,
, . :
Im going to Corsica next ,
8

week.
.
.
Im going to be very busy
,
for the next week.
.
.
Next year will be difficult.
,
.
.
The next year will be very
12 ,
difficult.
.
.
The next ,
( ):
We missed the train and had to
- ,
wait 20 minutes for the next one.

() 20 .
Whens the next meeting?
- ?
older (My brother John is three
years older than I am), than - .
,
- one (ones ).
,
, :
The new designs are much better
-
the old ones.
.

,
that (those ):
The capital of the USA is less
- industrialised than that of the UK. , .
The curtains in my room are
-
prettier than those in the living .
room.
, ,
.
:
She is older than me.
- .
( )
She is older than I am.
- , .
( )
()
, as as () ... ,
:
He is as brave as a lion.
- , .

, thn -
, not so as - ...
8

:
She is prettier than her sister is. - ,
.
Her sister is not so pretty as
-
she is.
, .
,
as as : half -
; twice - ,
time - , :
half as much as
- , ;
twice as much as
- , ;
three times as long as
- , .
:
The price of pure wool is several - times as high as that of nylon.
.
as as .
:
Helium is four times the mass of -
a proton.
.

the the:
The older I am, the happier I get. - ,
.
The sooner you go away, the
- , .
better.
The more you learn, the less you - ,
know.
.

:
Im getting fatter and fatter.
- .
Its getting more and more
- .
interesting.
, more and more,
.
.

much - , , (by) far , , still - , ever - , , :
Much more Still (yet) colder
Much less

Far better

Much older Ever closer


/
Far more
Still (yet) more
useful
important
8


: very much, a lot, lots, any, a bit, a little, rather, no:
very much nicer
- ;
a lot happier
- ;
rather more quickly
- ;
a little less expensive
- e ;
a bit easier
- ;
no better
- ;
any more relaxed
- -/ -
.
quite -
quite better - - quite recovered (from
an illness) - ( ).
more
, far, many, much:
many/ far more opportunities
- ;
much/ far more money
- .
much less/ far less far
fewer, many fewer:
much less time = far less time - ;
far less mistakes
- .
( ).
.
: far fewer mistakes
- .
5.3.
,

, .. .
, (
, -s
, )
: ,
, .
:
The whitesve left the shore, - - , -
said one of the savages. Some .
of our braves are after them.
.

. : a Russian - , a
German - .

the: the Russians - , the Swedes - .
, sh, -ch, -ss, -se,
8

-s : the French - ,
the English- , the Swiss - , the Chinese - , the
Japanese - .
man
, woman -
men, women : an Englishman, an Englishwoman, two
Englishmen; a Frenchman, a Frenchwoman, two Frenchwomen ..
, ss, -se,
: a Chinese two
Chinese ; a Swiss two Swiss - .
,
, ,
, -s
the: the rich - ; the poor - ;
the young - ; the blind - ..

, :
the wounded - ; the killed - ; the unemployed -
..

,
: the good - , ; the singular - ; the
plural - ; the past - ; the future -
.

5.4.

:
London is a beautiful city ().
London is beautiful ( ).

. ,
.
, ,
,
:
several thousand fresh white loaves -

the nly Chinese carpet
-

. :
- - - - - -
(, , ) - / / / law - ,
medical - .
:
- - - c
.
/..
a
daring
young
man
a
small round
oak
table
a
charming
French
writing desk
a
dirt
old brow
coat
y
n
a
famous
German
medical school
a
larg
green Chinese
carpet
e
a
beautiful
little
old
Chinese porcelain
vase

, .
, ,
.

:
1)
:
Anyone intelligent can do it.
-
.
Ill tell you something terrific!
- -
.
2) absent - ,
87

present - , onerned - , involved :


All these present and all those
-
absent knew that.
.
3) :
Joe Sanches has a garden

nicer than mine.
.
They were the two girls easiest to
- ,
to teach.
.
3) : attorney general ; curt martial - - ; the
discussion proper -
6. E (THE ADVERB)
6.1.
- ,
.
, , , .
:
He works hard.
- .
She lives there.
- O .
Andrew arrived late.
- .
Did you sleep well?
- ?
,
II,
:
Ann is a very good friend.
- - .
He walked really fast.
- .
We saw a very slightly damaged car. -
.
, ,
.
, ,
: soon - , fast - ; here - ; there - ; then - ;
nw - ; while - ; often - ; seldom - ; never - ;
near - .

ly

:


Bad
Badly -
Hour -
Hourly -
Quick Quickly - Part -
Partly -
Rare
Rarely -
Name -
Namely -
Easy
Easily -
Week -
Weekly -
88

,
-ly, , : friendly ; brotherly - ; manly - ..
:
-, - -i: noisy
, noisily - ; merry , merrily - ;
-, - :
single - , , singly - , .
, ,
:


: inside - , outside - , sometimes - , somewhere -, nowhere - , elsewhere - - ,
meantime - , overhead - ..

, : at length
, at first - , in vain , at least - ,
at last - .
, .:

89


,
, :

He stayed a long time with us.


He stayed long with us.
.
.
The Guardian is a daily paper with
Our library receives 100 of copies of
wide circulation. - - the Guardian daily. - . 100
.
: ,
, - l,

:

90

He returned late yesterday.


I havent been there lately.
.
.
He studies hard.
Its hardly possible.
.
.
- to look, to smell, to seem, to feel, to
sound, ,
:
The rose smells sweet.
- .
The room looks tidy.
- .
I feel bad.
- .
He looks well.
- .
Well, ,
.
6.2. (The Degrees of Comparison of
91

Adverbs)
,
.

r, - est (
the) .
rly - .

, ,
more, - most.
:

92

often - , quickly - , slowly


- :

farther further ,
:
He is too tired to walk any further/ - ,
93

farther.
.
frther
. further :
Dont try my ptin any further. - .
, :
He said than he couldnt find it
- ,
and, further, that nobody would
, ,
ever find it.
.
(here, there .; tday, tomorrow,
yesterday .) .
6.3. y a

, ,
, , .

94

6.3.1.
,

. : )
now - , ; today - , yesterday - , tomorrow - ,
then - , before - , , at night - , since - )
( ): always - ,
sometimes - , ever - -, never - , often - ,
seldom, rarely - , usually - , already - , t - , , still ce , just - .
still yet,
. still
, ,
. t -
, ,
. :

95

6.3.2.
,
. : her - , ; there - ,
; far - ; back(wards) - , ; towards, forth - ;
inside - , ; within - ; outside - , yy;
down(stairs) - , ; up(stairs) - , ; everywhere - ;
nowhere -, ; somewhere - -, -, -;
anywhere - -, -; nrthward(s) , ;
southward(s) - , ..
, somewhere
, anywhere -
.
6.3.3.
,
. , ,
-l: quickly - ; slowly- ; quietly ;
attentively - ; hard - , ; wll - ; loudly ; closely - ; steadily - po; definitely - ; positively
- ; negatively - ..
,
.
. :

96

6.3.4.
, ,
II , .
: very ; nearly, almost - ; hardly, scarcely ; too - ; enough - ; quite - , ; little ; mh - , ; just - , .

very

.
much very much:
He is very busy.
- .
He comes here very often. - .
I was much surprised at - , .
what he said.
He works very much.
- .
much
a good deal (of), a great deal (of), a lot (of), lots of - .
6.3.5.
: therefore - ;
consequently - ; so , , ; accordingly ; besides ; moreover ; likewise
, ; nevertheless ; however -

.
.
It is very cold, therefore I shall not - ,
go out.
.
It was late night, so we went home. - ,
.
She made no friends, for she was - Macreadys wife; moreover,
, Macready did not want her to make ; , friends.
,
-.
6.3.6. , pe
97

, : theoretically - eopeec;
practically - ; rsll - ; technically ; economically - ; financially -
.. :
Financially, the plan is no good.
-
.
ersonally, I differ from you.
- ,
.
6.3.7.

, .
: why? - ?, how? - ?, when? - ?, where? - ? .:
Why did you come back?
- ?
Where do you live?
- ?
How are you?
- ?
,
.
when, why, where, how;
- yet - e ; therefore - ; so - , ;
besides - poe ; however - ; then - :
I cant understand why youre late. ,
.
Its five oclock, so wed better
- 5 ,
hurry.
.
6.3.8.
,
. never - ;
nowhere - ; seldom, rarely - ; hardly, scarcely, barely
- . :
The book was never found.
- .
It was nowhere to find.
- .
I hardly/ barely/ scarcely know him. - .
We seldom/ rarely see her.
- ( ) .
,
not.

some, ,
not -
ny. :


I havent any spare time.
I never have any spare time. -
.
.
She doesnt eat anything.
She hardly eats anything.
98

.
- .
,



,
. :

6.4.
,
:
The Browns are extremely ghastly
- pe
people.
.
John speaks Russian and English
- - equally well.
.
(very - .):
She speaks English very well. - -
.
She is a very good student. - O .
enough - :
He speaks English well enough.
-
-.
he night was dark enough.
- .
, nough :
We havent enough time (time
- ,
enough) to catch the train now.
.
: always, ever, never, usually, often,
seldom, rarely hardly, nearly, just, already ., ,
:
hy often read English books.
- .
Do they often read English books? -
?
They dont often read English books. -
.
(t once, very often .)
:
I have very often wondered why
- ,
people read advertisements.
.
:
His marks are always good.
- .
In the morning he is usually in the -
99

office.
.
sometimes ,
:

10

sometimes comes here.


Sometimes he comes here.
- .
He comes here sometimes.
yet -
, :
I have not yet finished my work. - .
I have not finished my work yet.
today, yesterday, tomorrow . :
Yesterday I was very busy.
- .
I was very busy yesterday.
(well .)
, , ,
.
. :
son studies well.
- .
Studies - -; well - oaa .
He knows English well.
- xop .
Knows - -; English - ; well -
.
The girl looked timidly at her
-
friend.
.
Looked - -; timidly - ; at her friend .
he waves broke noisily against -
the rocks.
.
Broke - -; noisily - ; against the
rocks - .
,
:
The driver quickly stopped the car.
-
The driver stopped the car quickly.
.
,
, /
.
,
:
A rainbow is often observed in
-
nature.
.
This formula has already been
-
mentioned above.
.
You could never understand me. - .
too, either, as well :
John wants a bath too.
- .
10

I dont like him either.


- .
We'd better get some butter as well. -
.

.
:
(?) (?),
(?) . :

me - , go - , arrive-
()
:
10

6.5. (Modal Words)



.
, , , ,
.
,
. : prhaps - , ; f
course, surely, certainly - , ; no doubt - ; in
fact - ; in truth - , .,
-ly, : possibly
- ; robably - ; undoubtedly - , ;
naturally - , ; evidently - ; happily -
..

, 1.
. .:


, ,


; .
.
The second day was exactly like the Certainly, you cannot interfere.
first. - , .
.
Certainly - , .. Exactly - , ..
, ,
.


.
( f urs, no doubt , perhaps, ..)
-:
- He taught you to speak, didnt he? - , ?
-No doubt.
- .
,
, :
10

Frankly, I think hes ly


- , , .
Actually, youre mistaken. - , .
The plane will evidently be - , ,
late due to bad weather.
- .
Did you enjoy your holiday? - e ?
Very much, actually.
- - , .

.
:
What dyou think of my hair, - o ,
dear?
?
Frankly, dear, its a disaster.
- , ,
.
Honestly, John, why do you - , ,
always have to be so rude?
?
7. ( VRB)
7.1.
,
(to go - ; to build ), (to sleep - ; to
rest ), (to hear - ; to love - ),
(to think - ; to understand ).
,
, , , ,
. :
Miss Johnson learns Russian.
- ,
to lrn ,

, 3- , .
,
(finite)
.
(non-finite) (the
Infinitive), (the Gerund) (the Participle).
, , ,
, .
.
, ,
, . a:

To speak to him was a waste of .


time.

Visiting her is
10

always a pleasure. .
.
Johns wish was to

sell the house.


.
Id like to know
you better.
.

Irene
likes .
reading.
He isnt the man to , do it.
.
She looked at the

laughing company. .
- He came up to the ,
pic-ture to have a
.
better look.
,
, .
, .
:
I - ; II - ; III
- II (). II
(
).
( I)
:

, : to
read - ; t work - a; to run - ..;

, : to
idealise - ; to magnify - ; to strengthen ; to foresee - ; to surpass - ..;

, , :
to whitewash ; to sightsee
; to fulfill - ..;

, -
(),
: to get up; to go away - ; to put (the meeting) off -
..
.
/
: to go in - ; to go out - ; to go by o ..
,
10

: to take , t take in - ; to
carry - , t carry out - , .
, ,
,
:
take care - ; take notice - ; take part - ..
to have
- , : to
have a smoke yp; to have a look - ; to have a wash .., o, ,
.
II III (
)
.
(Regular Verbs) - ,
II III -ed (I
t).
:
1) - ,
- -i: to rry - carried carried;
2) -,
-d - :to translate translated - translated; to
free freed freed;
) :
) ,
: to stp stopped - stopped;
) ,
: t admit admitted admitted; to prefer preferred - preferred;
) l
: to travel travelled - travelled.
-d :
[t] , -t: t work - worked
[w :kt]; t jump - jumped [d3 mpt];

[d] , -t,
: t stay stayed [steid]; to train trained [treind];

[id] -t d: - t want - wanted [`w


ntid]; to end ended [`endid].
III
.
, .
(The Irregular Verbs)
II
10


. II III
:


.
7.1.1. (The Person) (The Number)
:
.
:
1. 3-
s/ -s, to
10

have to be.
. t have has
3- ;
2. t be 1- 3-
to be
: I am; he/ she/ it is; we/ you/
they are. , to be
was 1- 3- were
;
3. ,
to be to have.
, ,

. :


(, ,
Notional Verbs, - Link-Verbs,
Auxiliary Verbs Modal Verbs.
/ Structural Verbs.


:
He does his homework regularly.
-
.
We live in Russia.
- .

10

.
,
, , , .
:
My mother is cooking dinner.
.
I have written a letter to Joe.
- .
Do you know him?
- ?
Sorry, but I dont know him.
- , .
The matter was soon forgotten.
.
Youll have my answer tomorrow. - .


.
,

, .
, ,
. ,
, to be.
to become, t get, to grow, to turn, to seem, to
look .:
is an engineer.
- .
Betty has grown a pretty girl.
-
.
It was getting lighter every
-
minute.
.
he town looked deserted.
- .
It grew cold towards evening. - .

can, may, must, ought t, need, dare, shall, should, will, would,
.

( , to).
, , ,
, .
:
I an speak English.
- -.
We must go now.
- .

t b to, to have to.
7.1.2. (The Voice)
, ,
,
- .
10

.
(he Active Vic) ,
,
:
Columbus discovered America in 1492.- 1492 .
(The Passive Voice) ,
- ,
:
America was discovered by Columbus -
in 1492.
1492 .
7.1.3. (The Md)
,
. , ,
: (the Indicativ d),
(Th Subjunctive Mood) (The Imperativ
Mod).

, ,
:
Brazil produces good coffee. - .
The table is made of wood.
- .

, ,
- .

()

,
.
() .

:
If we had waited to carry the - , canoe, time would have been
,
lost.
( ).
I wish you were here.
- , .
( )
,
, :
Write down your name, address - ,
and occupation here.
.
Mind you, this is your last chance! - ,
.
7.1.4. (The spect)
:
(, , ..) (, , ).
11

,
/ .
: - - ,
. ..,
,

.
see - have sen -
to s,
-. ,
(/), :
, , (the Indefinite, Simple, mmon
st), (th Perfct spt), ,
(th ntinuous Aspct) (h
Perfect Continuous Aspect).

:
I have read this book. - .

.

, , :


( ) .
- ,

, , . :
I have been waiting for you for two hours. - 2 .
The firemen have been trying to put out a - big forest fire in California.

.

/-: , , , ..

;
- ,
. :
Did you read the book?
T ?

Have you read the book?
?

Are you reading a book?
?
Do you read books like these? ?
11

, ,
, ,
(rsent), (st) (Future) .
.
, (nse)
(ime) ,
(Aspet). , 16
:

11

Time

Indefinite

Continuous

write

writes

am writing

is/are writing
/

wrote
()

was/were
writing
/
shall be
writing

will be writing

Aspect
Present

Past

shall write

will write

Perfect

Perfect
Continuous
have written have been writing


has written

has been writing



had written had been writing
() ()

shall have shall have been


written
writing
Future

will have
will have been
written
writing

should write should be


should have should have been

writing
written
writing
Future in the
would

Past
write
would be writing would have would have been

written
writing

Future in the Past,


,
yo ,
(. 7.2.1.).
7.2. :
- (The Indicative Mood: Verb Tenses)
7.2.1. (Th Indefinite Tnss)

, ,
(, ,
..).
7.2.1.1. (he Present Indefinite
Tense)
rsent Indefinite
.
, 3- ,
rsent Indefinite ,
. 3-
rsent Indefinite -s -s.
,
11

(. 1.2.).
Presnt Indefinite:
-

1
I
ask I do not ask Do I ask?
I do ask
2 You
ask You do not ask Do you ask?
You do ask
.
He
He does not
he
He does
3 She
She
ask
Does she
She ask
asks
It
ask?
It
It
it
1
We
ask We do not ask Do we ask? We do ask
.
2
You
ask You do not ask Do you ask?
You do ask
3
They ask They do not ask Do they ask?
They do ask
-

, ,
-, , ,
:
I do see something.
- - .
He does want you to come. , .
They do understand you, - ,
dear.
.
3-
rsent Indefinite :
1) to do, to say
:
do [du:] does [dz];
say [sei] says [sez];
2) :
I can he can
I ought she ought
I may he may
I should she should
I must he must
I would - she would
) t be to have resnt Indefinite
.
t be:
-
-

.
1 I
am
I
am not Am I?
I am
2 You
are
You
are not Are you?
You are
3 He
He
he?
He
She
is
She
is not
Is
she?
She
is
It
It
it?
It

1 We
are We
are not Are we?
We are
2 You
are
You
are not Are you?
You are
3 They
are They
are not Are they?
They are
11

to have:
-

.
1, 2 I
have
I
have Have I, you? I
do
You
You
not
You
have
He
He
has
he?
He
3
She
has
She
not
Is
she?
She
has
It
It
it?
It
. 1,2,3 We
We
have
we
We
do
You
have You
not
Have you
You
have
They
They
they? They
, to have
, ,
.
to have do
rsent Indefinite ( ):
Br. E. I havent any books in English.
-
Am. E. I dont have any books in English.
.
to have (,
, , ..),
, :
Does he have coffee with hid breakfast? - ?
Do you have any difficulties getting
- ?
there?
to have
have got, have
do:
I havent got any books.
- .

.
to have no not a/ not any:
I havent any books. = I havent got any books. = I have no books.
rsent Indefinite
:

11

rsent Indefinite
rsent Indefinite ,
, . rsent Indefinite
:
1) , c
;
, .:
I usually get up at 6 sharp.
- 6.
We go to school every day.
- .
She often writes letters to him.
- .

Prsent
Indefinite

,
, never,
sldom, rarely, sometimes
:
I never go to bed before ten.
-
10.
We seldom meet.
- .
he tcher doesnt often give -
us much homework.
.
I sometimes go for a swim in -
our swimming pool.
.
,
, rsent Indefinite,
,
:
We have our dinner at 5 oclock. - () 3 .
I get up, wash and dress, have - , ,
my breakfast and go to school.
.
2) :
The earth goes round the sun in -
24 hours.
24 .
Rockets fly faster than airplanes. - ,
.
3) ,
:
m speaks English very well. -
-.
is sister plays the piano.
- .
Janes mother works on a farm. - .
Where do you live?
- ?
4) ,
, , , ,
.
11

,
, , , ,
, ,
- , ,
, ..
. :
) : t see - , to hear - , to notice
- ;
) : t love - , to like - , to dislike -
, , t respect - , to hate - , to adore , to care for - , to detest - ..;
) : to want - , to wish - ;
) , , :
to appreciate - , to suppose - , , to believe , , t doubt - , to consider - , t assume
, to imagine - , , to fancy - , to
perceive - , to presume - , , , to
recognise - , to regard - , , to remember , to expect - ; to think , t trust , to
understand - , to know - ;
) : to be - , to belong to - ,
to concern - , to consist of - , to contain - , to
depend on - , to deserve - , to differ from , to equal - , to have - , to include - , to
involve - , to lack - , to matter - , to own
- , to owe - , to possess - , to remain , to demand - , to resemble - , t result , to suit - , , to mean - ..;
) ,
: to appear - , to feel - , to seem - , to
smell - , to sound - .;
) : to agree - , to allow , to astonish - , to claim - , to consent -
, to envy - , to fail - , to prevent , to forbid - , to forgive - , t object
, to prefer - , to puzzle - , to refuse , to remind (of) - , to tend - . :
I dont see him here.
- .
I respect my mother very much
- .
What do you want?
- ?
I dont understand you.
- .
It doesnt belong to me.
- .
She looks tired.
- .
I dont allow you to go there.
- .
11

, rsent Indefinite
:
1) ()
if - ,
unless - , till, until - (), when - , s sn as - ,
before - .
:
Ill wait till you finish your
- ,
breakfast.
.
What shall we do if it rains
- ,
tomorrow?
?

, if, when,
Future Indefinite:
Ask him if he will go with us.
- , .
I dont know when he will return. - , .
2)
( to leave , to start - , to
come - , , to return - , to go - ,
, , to arrive - . :
We leave next Saturday.
- .
He comes back tomorrow,
- ?
doesnt he?
The train starts at 3.45 a.m.
- 3.45 .
) ,
, ,
, :
So I open the door, and I look out - , into the garden and what do I see? , ?
Harrison shoots, but the ball hits - ,
the post.
.
4) I hear , I gather - , I see , ,
:
I hear youre getting married.
- , .
I gather, Petes looking for a job. - ,
.
No doubt you remember what
- , , ,
Wittgenstein says about the

difference between
...
7.2.1.2. (h Past Indefinite
Tense)
st Indefinite
11

st Indefinite
.
st Indefinite

-d to.
st Indefinite II
, ,
t be.
Pst Indefinite:
- -

She looked
She did not look Did she look? She did look
Pst Indefinite
- -

He saw
He did not see
Did he see?
He did see
to be Pst Indfinite
-

1
I was
I was not
Was I?
I
was
.
2
You were
You were not
Were you?
You were
He
He
he? He
3
She
was
She
was not Was she? She
was
It
It
it?
It
1
We were
We were not
Were we?
We were
.
2
You were
You were not
Were you
You
were
3
They were
They were not Were they?
They
were
ast Indefinite: did not =
didnt; was not = t; were not = werent.
Past Indefinite
Pst Indefinite ,
-
. ,
.
st Indefinite - , ,
. xapaep
, .
st Indefinite :
1) (, ),
;

:
I bought this book in Moscow.
Moc.
11

in Moscow
.
I knocked an the door but
- ,
nobody answered.
.
knocked, answer .
How did sle? - I slet like
- ? -
a dog.
.
- .
Sorry, I wasnt in when you called. - , ,
.
whn yu clled.
Past Indefinite
: yesterd, last week, last moth, the other d, in
1983, ag ( ): a wek ag,
five days ago. :
Where were ou sterd?
- ?
ushkin was born in 1799.
- 1799 .
He was here 5 minutes g.
- 5 .

when how:
When did you begin to study
-
English?
?
How did it happen?
- ?
2) ,
:
Last summer I often played chess. -
.
When he was ill w went to see him - ,
every other day.
.
,
, ( )
used to + :
He used to play cards lot.
- ().
Did you used to play cricket at
- ?
school? = Used you to play cricket?
I didnt use to like opera.
- .
: I usednt to like opera.

wuld + t , ,
used to + ,
:
When we were children we would - ,
go skating every winter.
.
12

3) ,
:
Jack played chess very well when -
h was small b.
.
4) ,
Past Indefinite:
He said he lived in the country. - , .
I said to him I didnt like fishing.- , .
oee
.
5) , ,
:
He said he would tell about this - , ,
when he returned.
.
She asked what I should do if I - , ,
missed the train.
.
7.2.1.3. (The Future Indefinite
Tense)
Future Indefinite
The Future Indefinite ns c .
shall will
.
Future Indefinite:

-


1 I shall (Ill) ask
Shall I ask?
I shall not (shant) ask
.
2 You will (youll) ask Will you ask? You will not (wont) ask
3 He
he
He
She will (ll) ask Will she ask? She will not (wont) ask
It
it
It
1 We shall (well) ask Shall we ask? We shall not (shant) ask
.
2 You will (youll) ask Will you ask? You will not (wont) ask
3 They will (theyll) ask Will they ask? They will not (wont) ask
-
.
Future Indefinite
Future Indefinite ,
, :
What will you do after the
-
lessons?
?
I shall write to you every week. - .
1- shall
:
:
12

Shall I red n?
- ?
shall, will ,
, :
He says he shall do it.
- ,
.
I wont forget wht ouve done - ,
for me.
.
I want to stay here and I will
- , .
will ,
:
If youll wait a minute, Ill come - ,
back in no time.
.
will
:
The door wont open.
- .
wont answer this question. - e poc.

Future Indefinite
:
1) to be going to + ( )
( ) :
Im going to write him a letter. - .
Its going to rain.
- .
2) t b sure (certain) +
:
Ann is sure to be there.
- .
Hes certain t come.
.
7.2.1.4. ooe
(The Future Indefinite in the Past Tens)
Future Indefinite in the Past
Future Indefinite in the Past - ,
should, would
.
Ce Future Indefinite in the Past

12

Future Indefinite in the Past


Future Indefinite in the Past .

- ,
. Future Indefinite in the Pst

say, tell, write, think, know Past
Indefinite (said, told, wrote, taught, knew ..).
He told me he would never repeat - O , the same mistake.
.
I was sure shed be late as usual. , , ,
.
would
:
The tape-recorder wouldnt work. - .
He wouldnt answer her letters. - xoe
.
7.2.2. (Continuous Tenses)
Continuous Tenses c.
to be (Present
Indefinite, Past Indefinite, Future Indefinite)
(Present Participle (Participle I)) .
,
12

()
(Present Continuous), - () p
(Past Continuous) (Future Continuous).
Continuous Tenses

, -
. , ,
e c. to have c
Continuous, e. Ha:
We are having guests tonight.
- .
When I came in he was having dinner. - , .
to listen, to feel, to think
Continuous, , c
:
Are you listening?
- cy?
I am feeling fine!
- !
What are you thinking of?
- ae?
7.2.2.1. Hacoee e (The Present Continuous
Tense)
Oaoa Present Continuous
Present Continuous

1
I am asking
Am I asking?
I am not asking
.
2
You are asking
Are you asking?
You are not asking
3
He,she,it is asking Is he,she,it
He,she,it is not asking
asking?
1
We are asking
Are we asking?
We are not asking
.
2
You are asking
Are you asking?
You are not asking
3
They are asking Are they asking?
They are not asking
ing

1) , , :
to take taking;
to make making;
2)
, :
to stop stopping;
to hit hitting;
3)
, :
to occur occurring;
to forget forgetting;
4) -l,
/ :
to travel travelling; to fulfil fulfilling;
5) d,
:
12

to stay staying;
to carry carrying;
6) i -i :
to lie lying;
to die dying.
Present Continuous
resent Continuous ,
.
resent Indefinite,
.
. :
I usually do homework in the evening. - .
Im doing homework now.
- .
Present Continuous :
1) , :
Dont you see I am writing a letter? - Pa ,
?
2) ,
,
:
Could you lend me the book you - ,
bought yesterday? Sorry, I
? - cant, Im reading it myself.
, , .
Where are you staying? Im
- ? - staying at my friends.
.
3) resent Cntinuous
, (
to come, to leave, to stay, to call to
have guests, to give a party ..):
When are you coming to see us? - ?
Were going to the cinema this
- M .
afternoon.
4) resent Continuous
;
always, constantly, all the time .. ,
:
ure always coming late!
- !
Hes constantly getting into
-
trouble.
.
5) rsnt Continuous to go c

:
Im going to visit him tomorrow. - .
Are you going to learn French or -
German?
?
6)
12

:
nd so I m standing there and - , minding my own business when
,
this policeman comes up to me.
.
7.2.2.2. p (h Past Continuous Tense)
Past ntinuous Tense
Past Continuous
-

1 I was asking
Was I asking?
I was not asking
2 You were asking
Were you asking?
You were not asking
3 He
he
He
She was asking
Was she asking? She was not asking
It
it
It
1 We were asking
Were we asking?
We were not asking
2 You were asking
Were you asking?
You were not asking
3 They were asking
Were they asking?
They were not asking
y Past ntinuous
Past Continuous
, . ,
-
. a
. ep:
It was snowing the whole day
- e .
yesterday.
What were o doing when I phoned - a, y?
?
Past Continuous :
1) a , :
What were you doing t 7 p.m.
- 7
yesterday?
e?
2) pa
, ,
/ .

Past Indefinite. ep:


Hilda was dancing but when she
- X ,
saw me she stopped.
, .
)

. Hep:
While I was taking a shower
- y,
Mother was oking breakfast.
.
4) oa :
The bride was wearing a white dress - Heeca
12

and carrying a bouquet of lilies.


.
The bridegroom was trembling and
e .
looking pale.
5) ,
. Hep:
At the end of the week she wired
-
that she was returning.
, c.
6)
, . Hep:
She ws constantly trying to
- attract attention.
.
7) to wonder, to
hope, to think:
I was wondering if youd like to - a,
come out with me one evening. a-
.
Pst Continuous
c, :
a) . Hep:
I was seeing Tom regularly now.

T.
) , ,
, c :
Hr fae had gone pale which
- Ee o ,
meant she wasnt liking it very
,
much.
a.
to feel, to look, to hurt, to ache, to itch, to wear
Past Continuous, Past Indefinite
e , .
.:
I saw that he was feeling/ felt upset. - , - .
I met her in the street. She was
- ee . Ha
wearing/ wore a warm coat.
.
7.2.2.3. (The Future Continuous Tense)
Future Continuous
Future Continuous
-

1 I shall be working Shall I be working? I shall not be working


.
2 You will be working Will you be working? You will not be working
3 He
he
He
She will be
Will she
be
She will not be
It working
it
working? It working
1 We shall be working Shall we be working? We shall not be working
12

2 You will be working Will you be working? You will not be working
3 They will be working Will they be working? They will not be working
Future Continuous:
shall nt = shant [:nt]; will nt = wn't [ wnt];
shall not, will not = ll not
Future Cntinuous
Future Cntinuous , -
.
.
to expect, to stay, to see
., ,
.
Ill be expecting you at 4 sharp.
- 4.
Will you be staying for dinner?
- ?
Ill be seeing him this afternoon.
- .
When m train arrives my parents
- ,
will be waiting on the platform.

.
Futur Continuous , -
, ,
:
rfessor Gorb will be giving another -
talk on this subject at the same time

next week.
.
They will be arriving here tomorrow. - .
The police will be trying to keep
- order.
.
Future Continuous ,
:
Will you be having dinner at home? - ?
Will you be going abroad this
-
summer?
?
Will you be staying in England?
- ?
7.2.2.4. (he
Future Continuous in the Past Tense)
Future Continuous in the Past
Cpe Future Continuous in the Past

1 I should be working Should I be working? I should not be working


2 You would be
Would you be
You would not be
.
working
working?
working
3 He
he
He
12

She
would be Would she be
She
would not be
It
working
it working? It
working
1 We should be
Should we be
We should not be
working
working?
working

2 You would be
Would you be
You would not be
working
working?
working
3 They would be
Would they be
They would not be
working
working
working
Future ntinuous in the Past
Future tinuus in th Past ,
Future ntinus,
to say, to tell, to think . .
. :
Dont trouble him now. He said - e . ,
hed be writing an article all day
long.
.
7.2.3. (Perfect Tenses)
Perfect Tenses - , , (Present
Perfect, Past Perfect, Future Perfect) -
to have (Present
Indefinite, Past Indefinite, Future Indefinite)
, II (Participle II) .
-
(resent rfect)
c y-
(Past Perfect Future Perfect).
p aoo-
, ,
. :
I have just received a letter from -
my brother Tim. Here it is.
. .
Business was very bad. Twenty - .
people had already left the firm.
.
Ill have done it by 5, I promise. 5, .
7.2.3.1. (The Present Perfect Tense)
Present Perfect
Present Perfect

12

e Present Perfect
Present Perfect aa ,
, , .. .
, -
. , o ,
Present Perfect, ,
Present Indefinite. Hep:
Some fl has let the cat in.
- - .
(The cat is in.)
( .)
13

Ive heard the doctors opinion. - .


(I know the doctors opinion.)
( .)
Present Perfect
, .
, (,
e .), . Hep:
We have bought a new TV-set. - y .
The students have left the room. - .
Present Perfect
1) resent Perfect , a e
, p
,
- a. p
o e e ea
. E a c,
,
Past Indefinite:
- Have a cup of coffee with us. - .
- Ive had a cup, thank you.
, o .
I had one after lunch.
- .
I have seen this play.
- .
I saw it at the Globe.
- .
, Present Perfect c
, when, where, how,
a
. Hep:
How did it become known?
- ?
When did you read this book?
- ?
2) Present Perfect ,

. Hep:
You must be tired. Im afraid Ive - , , . ,
talked too much.
.
Ive been a fool.
- .
3) Present Perfect
, ,
( ) ,
o p. Cpae:
The weather has changed for the worse. - .
The weather changed for the worse
- .
yesterday.
, today, this morning, this month,
this year .., p ,
, Present Perfect, a Past
13

Indefinite. c :
a) ye , Past
Indefinite. Hep:
I didnt read the paper this
- e
po
morning.
( ).
) , c
, o
, Past Indefinite:
I met him in the library tonight.
( ).
) c
, Present Perfect:
This year weve taken only one - o
assistant.
(
c,
).
4) o always, never, ever, already, not
yet, before . c Present Perfect
. Hep:
I have already washed up.
- .
o: I already washed up after dinner. - .
5) just - - Present Perfect,
just now - - Past Indefinite:
He has just come back.
O .
He came back just now.
6) Present Perfect ,
,
a .
Present Perfect Continuous:
I have known him for ages.
- .
Ive been all over Africa.
- o .
Present Perfect to
live to study. to work : Present Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous.
Ive lived in Kiev for three years.
- .
He has studied English since childhood. - O a
I have worked at my report since
- .
morning. = I have been working at my report since morning.
aa oo p since,
, :
Weve lived in Moscow since 1970. 1970 .
Ive lived in Moscow since my

13

family moved there in 1970.


1970.
Weve lived here since.
.

, ,
for :
He hasnt worked for years.
- .
7) Present Perfect ,
, a
, . ep:
Youll think otherwise after you
- c,
have seen this film yourself.
a .
Present Perfect c to hear, to say, to forget,
to understand . ,
.
c Past Indefinite, Present Indefinite:
I didnt hear your question.
.
What did you say?
- ?
Now I understand.
- .
Did you sleep well?
- ?
I hear Mike is in Moscow.
- a, Ma Mo.
I forget where he lives.
- , ( :
e o).
Ho: Ive forgotten to ring her up.
( :
).
7.2.3.2. (The Past Perfect Tense)
st Perfect
st Perfet
.
Pst rft.

He had asked
Had he asked
He had not (hadnt) asked
Pst Perfect
Pst Prfet .
,
- /
.
st rft .
.
. :
. - , .
:
He got this book yesterday. He told me he had got this book yesterday.
Pst Prfct :
13

1) ,
, ,
:
She had left before June 1.
- .
Outside the hotel I met Max who -
had gone to the same school.
.
.
2) , ,
, . st
Prfect ,
:
I had done the flat before Mother ,
came home.
.
After she had cried, she felt better. - ,
.
3) ,
.
st Prft Cntinuous,
st Perft.
, :
I felt as if I had known her all my - ,
life.
.
We went to see Mr Fennel who
- - ,
had been a widower for two years. .
4) , ..,
,
:
I had hoped we could leave
- ,
tomorrow but its beginning to
, , ,
look difficult.
( ).
I had intended to make a cake but - ,
I ran out of time.
( ).
5) ,

, :
decided he wouldnt look at
- ,
his watch till he had read 30 pages. , 30
.
Pst Perfect :
1) ,
:
I got a real shock when I opened - ,
the box.
.
2) ,
13

:
When I put the cat out he ran
- ,
away to the bushes.
.
3) , ,
Pst Perfect:
He told me that someone had
- , - ,
phoned when I was out.
.

13

7.2.3.3. (Th Futur rft)


Ftr Perfect
Future Perfect

1
I shall have done Shall I have done?
I shall not have done

2 You will have done Will you have done? You will not have done
3 He
he
He
She
will have
Will she have
She
will not have
He
done
it done?
He
done
1 We shall have done Shall we have done? We shall not have done

2 You will have done Will you have done? You will not have done
3 They will have
Will they have
They will not have done
done
done?
:
I shall not have = I shant have = Ill not have = I shantve

: Hellve done.
Future Perfect
Future Perfect ,
o .
. Future Perfect
, ,
.
The painters say they will have
- ,
finished the downstairs room by

Tuesday.
.
Ill have done my work by that time.
- K
.
7.2.3.4.
(he Future Perfect in the Past)
Future Perfect in the Past , Future Perfect,
, shall will
should would.
. , Future Perfect
t say, to tell, to think .
:
He said he would have translated the - O ,
article by two oclock.
.
She thought she would have made a - ,
cake by the time her husband came
,
from work.
.
13

7.2.4. (Perfect Continuous


Tenses)
Perfect Continuous Tenses (Present Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect
Continuous, and Future Perfect Continuous) - p o.
c a to be
(,
) I .
Perfect Continuous Tenses ,
(resent Perfect Continuous) -
(Past Perfect Continuous, Future Perfect
Continuous) .
:
I have been working hard all - .
morning. I have been trying to
get my new room in order.
.
By the lunchtime I had been -
working for three hours.
.
By 7 oclock this evening he -
will have been flying in the
36 .
orbit for 36 hours.
erfect Continuous o a ,
.
7.2.4.1. (he Present
Perfect Continuous Tense)
Present Perfect Continuous
Present Perfect Continuous

1 I have (Ive) been


Have I been working? I have (Ive) not
working
been working
2 You (Youve) have
Have you been
You (Youve) have
.
been working
working?
not been working
3 He has been
Has he been
He has not been
She (s been)
she working? She (s not)working
It
working
it
It
1 We have (Weve)
Have we been
We have (Weve)
been working
working?
not been working

2 You (Youve) have


Have you been
You (Youve) have
been working
working?
not been working
3 They have (Theyve) Have they been
They have (Theyve)
been working
working?
not been working
o copae cooae
have/ has ve s, aeo - o cop ve/s
13

have/ has, not


havent, hasnt .
p Present Perfect Continuous
Present Perfect Continuous ,
:
) ;
) .
resent Perfect Continuous
yo
. c rsent
Perfect Continuous rsent Perfect.
,
, resent Perfect
Continuous

:
I have been waiting for you for - !
twenty minutes!
( )
I have been writing this letter the -
whole morning.
( ).
Prsnt Prft Continuous
,
. :
I hope youve not been standing - ,
here long.
( , ).
The boys have not been sleeping -
at all well lately.
.
rsent Perfect:
He lost his job two years ago.
- .
hasnt worked since.
- ().
Ann hasnt slept fr two das.
- () .
resent Perfct ntinuous, ,
, .
:
) ll my 1if, these three
years, all this week, 1all this year, lately . :
We have been staying here all
- .
this week.
) , for:
Theyve been writing a composi- - .
tion for two hours.
) since, ,
:

13

returned t 3 and has been


reading since.
.
Hes been reading since 3.
.

Hes been reading since he


, .
returned.
,
, since, ast
Indefinite, ,
.
,
, /
, resent
Perfect Continuous:
I have been meeting your friend every -
day since we have been working on
,
the report.
.
, ,
, ,
st Indefinite. :
I have been playing for the school football team for two years
.
I played for the school football team - for two years at school.
,
.
rsnt Perfect Cntinuous
, .
,
. :
Its wet in the street. Its been
- . -
raining.
.
Im not hot. Ive just been running. - . .
rsent Perfet Continuous
,
. Prsnt Perfect
Continuous . :
Ive been wanting to talk to you.
-
.
7.2.4.2. (The Pst
Perfect Continuous ns)
Pst rfect Continuous
Past Perfect Cntinuus
.
13



She had (Shed) been Had she been cooking?
She had not (hadnt)
cooking
been cooking
st Perfect Continuous
st Perfect Continuous ,

, . :
I realised Id been overworking - ,
.
When at last she appeared I had - , , ,
been waiting for three hours.
.
Present Prfct Cntinuous, Pst Perfect Continuous
,
,
fr, since, .
Jim said hed been reading all day. - ,
.
I knew they had been correspond- - ,
ing for many years.
.
He said hed been working in a - ,
newspaper since the war.
.
She saw from their wet costumes - that they had been swimming.
, .
Prsnt Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous

. st Perfect:
I was told that the sisters hadnt - , met since their mothers death. .
She said she had been there all - ,
morning.
.
7.2.4.3. (The Future
Perfect Continuous Tense)
a Future Perfect Continuous

1
I shall (Ill) have
Shall I have (ve) I shall not (shant)
(ve) been running been running?
have (ve) been running
2
You will (youll)
Will you have
You will not (wont)
have (ve) been
(ve) been
have (ve)been
.
running
running?
running
3
He will (ll)
he have(ve) He will (ll) not
She have (ve) been Will she been
She (wont) have (ve)
It
running
it running? It
been running
14

We shall (Well)
Shall we have
We shall not (shant)
have (ve) been
(ve) been
have (ve) been
running
running?
running
2
You will (youll)
Will you have
You will not (wont)
.
have (ve) been
(ve) been
have (ve) been
running
running?
running
3
They will (theyll) Will they have
They will not (won/t)
have (ve) been
(ve) been
have (ve) been
running
running?
running
Future Perfect Continuous
Future Perfect Continuous ,
- /
/.
Future Prft Continuous

, -
, .

- :
Next year our Institute will have been -
working at this problem for five
,
years.

.
Yes, but by that time Ill have been - ,
waiting for half a year!
!
7.2.4.4.
(The Future Perfect Continuous in the Past)
Future Perfect Continuous in the Past
Future Perfect Continuous in the Past , Future
Perfect Continuous, ,
shall, will should would.
, Future Perfect Continuous,
to tell, to say, to think .
.
She exclaimed that by that time she - ,
would have been waiting for him for
half a year.
.
Future Perfect Continuous in the Past ,
Future Perfect Continuous
7.3. (he Passive Voice)
7.3.1.
he Passive Voice ,
14

to be
II (Participle II) .
he Passive Voice :
to be done ( )
Time
Aspect
Present
Past
Future
Future in the Past
am
was
shall
should
Indefinite
is
done
were done
be
be
are
done
would done
will
am being
was being
Continuous
is
done were done
are
Perfect
have been had been
shall have been should have
has
done done
will done
would been done
, Perfect
Continuous, Future Continuous, Future Continuous in the Past.

,
, :
1) not
- The bok hs not been written;
2)
Has the book been written?

, .
7.3.2.
The Passive Voice , ,
, ,
.
.
(rnsitive
Verbs),

( ) - ,
. ,
,
. : to
tell (a story, the truth); to see (a dog, the sun); to show (a room, a picture); to
give (something, advice); to buy (things, goods) ..
(Intransitive Verbs),
, ,
: to shine, to go, to
walk, to sleep, to remain, to live, to smile ..
,
.
14

. :
He walked in the park every evening. - .
The parents walked him into his room. -
.
He ran down the road towards the car.- .
We ran our boat into some quiet
-
little nook.
.
,
:
1) ,
, , ,
. ,
:
) - , :
I dont like when Im ordered about. - H , .
) :
He was told to stay at home.
- .
) :
He hasnt been heard from for two -
days.
.
2) ,
, ,
,
. :

to help

to manage

to ring

to answer

to follow

to attend

to influence

to affect
.
He was helped to open the door.
)
, ,
,
,
- /.
: to listen to, to look after, to wait for, to call upon, to search for
.:
The young trees were properly -
looked after.
.
14


:
1) (the Direct Passive),
.
:
W speak English here. English is - -.
spoken here.
I knew why theyd chosen me. I knew - ,
why I had been chosen.
.
2) (The Indirect Passive),

.
to tell, to give, to show, to pay, to leave, to promise, to lend, to send .,
- ,
:
, , . :
She gave her sister a car.
- .
Her sister was given a car.
- .
A car was given to her sister.

, :
You were lent ten thousands
-
pounds last year.
.
) (The Prepositional Passive),

.
. :
They have sent for the doctor.
he doctor has been sent for.
- .
She hated when somebody was - ,
laughing at her. She hated
.
when she was being laughed at.
,
.
, , ,
b. :
Many valuable pictures were
-
destroyed by the fire.
.
The theatre was closed by the
- .
police.
a ,
, :
1) ,
. :
14

We arranged to meet at 5 oclock. - 5


.
2) , ,
, , , ..,
,
,
, , . :
We knew that he wouldnt accept - ,
the offer. It was known that
. ,
he wouldnt accept the offer.
.
) (to resemble, to
suit, to fit, to have, to possess, to lack),
. :
The boy resembles his father.
- .
: The father is resembled by the boy.
4) t say, to explain, to announce, to point out, to devote, to
suggest, to propose .., ,
- . :
Then the difficulty was explained - .
to them.
7.4. (h Imperative Mood)
2-
:
Write! - !
Come - !

do nt
.
dont.
Do not be 1ate. = Dont be late.
- He .
Do not do it! = Dont do it!
- He !

, , .
:
Come along, Nick!
- , !
you

(,
,

..):
u mind your own business!
- !
dont:
And dont you forget it!
- !

do,
:
Do come tomorrow!
- !
14

,
les (
) will you, wont you
:
Open the window, please.
- , .
Help me with this task, will you?
- , a?
Have a cup of tea, wont you?
- , xo?
just ,
will you :
Just come here for a moment, will - ,
you?
o?
just
, -:
Just look at him!
- !
1- 3-
; lt
. /,
,
( - ),
lt .
Let her go home at once.
- .
Let me think.
- .
1- let us
lets:
Lets go to the cinema.
- .
,
1-
shall we, :
Lets go to the cinema, shall we? - , ?
1- 3-
d nt (dnt) let not
do,
:
Dont let us argue about it. =
-
= Let us not argue about it.
.
7.5. (h Subjunctive Mood)
, ,
,
, , .
I wish it were spring now!
- !
He would have come if he had not - ,
been ill.
.

14

,
:
Its strange that you should say all - , .
this.
Its surprising that they should - , .
be late.
, -
( ),
: I (Subjunctive I) II
(Subjunctive II).
7.5.1. I (Subjunctive I)
Subjunctive I
Subjunctive I : Present Subjunctive I, Past
Subjunctive I Perfect Subjunctive I, ,
to be.
Subjunctive I

Subjunctive I
Subjunctive I
( ),
.
Present Subjunctive I
, , ,
.. , .
Present Subjunctive I :
1) God save the King/
Queen! Heaven forbid; Be that as it may; Long live; God bless:
Long live peace throughout the world! - !
God bless America!
- , !
2) to suggest, to demand, to order, to command . + that:
I suggest that we all go to the
-
opera tonight.
.
14

) , It is
necessary It is recommended It is desirable It is better
It is necessary that all peace- - ,
loving people join their efforts
in the struggle for peace.
.
Present Subjunctive I
.
Subjunctive II, Present Subjunctive I
.
Pst Subjunctive I Perfect Subjunctive I ,
:
If I were you, Id go there.
- ,
.
He described Africa so vividly as if - ,
he had been there himself.
.
Pst Subjunctive I Perfect Subjunctive I

, ,
.
Past Subjunctive I ,
.
If it were not so late, I should go with - ,
you.
.
If I had more time, I should attend
-
all symphony concerts.
,
.
Perfect Subjunctive I ,
:
If you had been at the lecture, I
- ,
should have seen you.
.
He looked at me as if he had never
- O ,
seen me before.

.
I wish I had gone there.
- .
(, ).
Past Subjunctive I Perfect Subjunctive I :
1)
, :
If I were rich, I wouldnt work at all. - ,
c .
2) to wish

.
: , ... , ...:
14

I wish I knew how to do it.


- , .
)
, as if, as though:
She looked as if she were ill.
- .
4) Its
(about/ high) time,
,
If only, :
Its about time you knew how to
- ,
behave yourself.
.
If only she didnt snore!
- !
5) Past Subjunctive I t have
youd, hed (had) better +
:
Youd better stay at home.
- .
7.5.2. II (Subjunctive II)
Subjunctive II
Subjunctive II ,
should
. Subjunctive II :
II (Prsent Subjunctive II)
II (Perfect Subjunctive II).
Subjunctive II

Subjunctive II
Subjunctive II
, (, ..)
(, , , )
.
Nick suggested that we all should - ,
14

stay at his place.


().
If you should be at the post-office - ,
buy me couple of envelopes.
().
Its a pity that he should have
- ,
failed at the exam.
().
Subjunctive II
;
, .
rsent Subjunctive II ,
, :
Its strange that he should think so. - , a.
Perfect Subjunctive II ,
, :
Its a pity he should have fallen ill.
- , .
Subjunctive II :
1) ,
it: it is (was) strange (necessary, important, impossible, a pity,
a shame, unlikely):
It is important than the work should - ,
be finished by the end of the week.
.
Is it possible that the boy should have - ,
been so foolish?
?


for-:
Its necessary for you to go there at
-
once. : Its necessary that you .
should go there at once.
2)
, , , ,
, , to suggest, to recommend, to demand, to
insist, to order, to give orders, to be sorry, to command ..:
Im sorry that it should have
- , .
happened so.
The teacher advised that the boy
-
should be sent to a music school.
.
3)
:
If you should find out his address
- -
let me know.
,
.
if .
shuld ,
15

- , ..
.
:
Should he drop in, ask him to wait
- ,
for me.
.
4) , ,
, ..:
Why should I go there?
- ?
How should I know?
- ?
7.6. (Conditional Mood)
, ,
- ,
, - ,
.
Conditional Mood
Conditional Mood - ,
should would
. Conditional Mood :
(Present Conditional) (Perfect Conditional).

15

Conditional Mood


Future in the Past: should
1- , would .
Conditional Mood
Conditional Mood ,
,
.
If I were you I should tell him the
-
whole truth.
.
If Tom had been here yesterday hed - ,
have helped us.
.
, Conditional Mood
.
.
:
Id like to talk to you.
- .
Would you like to come for a walk? - ?
Present Conditional
:
It would be fine if you could join us - ,
tomorrow.
.
Would you mind shutting the door? - ?
Past nditional
:
If you had come yesterday youd have - ,
met Nick.
.
Conditional Mood :
1) :
It would be nice, wouldnt it?
- , ?
2) ,
ast Subjunctive Perfect
Subjunctive; Prsent Conditional Past
Subjunctive, a Past Conditional Perfect Subjunctive:
He would help us a lot if only he were - ,
here.
.
He would have helped us a lot if only - ,
15

he had been here yesterday.


.
3) to
wish :
I wish you would be more attentive. - ,
.
I wish the rain would stop.
- ,
.
4) ,
if it were not (had not been) for but for:
If it were not for his friend (but for his - ,
friend) he would feel very lonely in the
big city.
.
If it had not been for the rain (but for - ,
the rain) he would have gone to the
op .
country on Saturday.
5)
:
Even if you were right, I wouldnt
- ,
defend you.
.
6) would (d) rather would (d) sooner:
He would sooner die than give up his - ,
habit.
.
Would you do it? Id rather you did - o? it.
, .
7.7. (Non-Finite Verb Forms/ Verbals)
7.7.1.
, .. ,
, , ,
.

(Th Infinitive), (The Participle) (The
Gerund).

, - .
, , .

, .
Verbals :
1) ;
2) .

(, )
().

15

,
.. ,

( ,
, ):
Id like you to go with us.
,
.

Its difficult for me to speak

English.
-.

This is the book for you to


,

read.
.

He went home, his eyes


shining.
.

7.7.2. (The Infinitive)


- ,
.
t.
Be sure to come.
- .
Im so glad to have met you. , .
,
,
- .

-

Active Voice
Passive Voice
Indefinite
to swim - to discuss
to be discussed

Continuous to be swimming- to be discussing

Perfect
to have swum
to have discussed to have been discussed

-
Perfect
to have been
to have been discusContinuous swimming - sing (
( ) )
3
Indefinite Infinitive ( ),
( ),
.
Im very glad to see you.
- .
Im sorry to be late.
- , .
I dont like to be interrupted.
- , .
Continuous Infinitive ,
/, ,
15

:
The weather seems to be changing. - , .
It was a real pleasure to be swim- -
ming in the sea on such a hot day. .
rfect Infinitive /,
/, :
Im glad to have bought this book. - , .
It's awfully nice of you to have
-
come.
.
t hope, to mean, to expect Past Indefinite
shld, uld, ought (to), to be (to) Perfect
Infinitive , (, )
:
I hoped to have come in time.
- .
He could have written the
-
composition much better.
.
Sh was to have come yesterday. - .
Perfect Continuous Infinitive /,
/,
, ,
:
She turned out to have been
- ,
cleaning the house since morning. .
(Indefinite, Continuous,
Perfect, Perfect Continuous) a -
-.
- -.
This work must be done today.
-
.
Im afraid it cant be helped.
- , .
, ,
.
I nt speak so loudly.
- .
You must come back as soon as
-
possible.
.
, ,
, :
Ill be glad to keep compan
.
you company.
y
you


Im not going to
for you
.
wait for you.

1)
15


, to begin, to start, to continue, to end, to stop, to finish, to want,
to intend, to decide .., ,
, , , ,
:
We can actually begin the
-
experiment
.
y watch began to gain.
- .
2) :
To prolong this discussion is to
-
waste time.
.
3) :
To smoke is bad for health.
- .
- ,
it: It is bad for health
to smoke.
:
) It is (was, will be, has been, would be, must be) better (good, bad,
easy, difficult, necessary, nice, hard) + . :
It is impossible to understand what - ,
you say.
.
Will it be hard to pass this exam? - ?
) It is (was, etc.) kind (wrong, wise, unwise, clever, rude, nice, good,
bad, bold, careless) of smb. + . :
It was wrong of you to say that.
- p .
It was nice of you to help me.
-
.
4) to help, to like, to assist, to
prefer, to ask, to forget, to beg, to promise, to recommend .:
He forgot to wind the watch when - ,
he went to bed.
.
5) o :
verybody watched him walk across - ,
the garden.
.
6) :
He was the first to come here.
- .
Please give me some water to drink. - , .
, ,

,
.
:
We intended to camp in one of the -
inlets to be found round that tiny
,
15

shore.
He is the man to do it.

.
- ,
.

7) :
W came t th station to see them - ,
off.
.
8) :
At that time I was too young to
- ,
think of such things.
.
9) what,
which, whm, how,when, whre, whether, if
,
:
I dont know what to do.
, .

The question is where to , .

go.
What to do next was our -
main problem.
.
to
, , to,
.
What are you going t do now? - ?
Whats t be dne?
- ?
Im sorr to have done it.
- , .
, a ,
t :
Why didnt yu help him?
- ?
- e didnt ask me to.
- ().
,
and or, to
:
We wanted to find the boy and
-
persuade him to return home.
.
to to be to
have, ,
ght:
I have to be at home at 5.
- 5.
Youll have to obey me.
- .
You ought to be more attentive.
-
.
to :
1) ,
:
It must be six oclock.
- , , .
15

I cannot swim yet.


- .
Do you know the new timetable? - ?
2) to see, to hear, to watch,
to observe, to notice, to feel, to let, to make, to get, to have, to help:
I heard her play the piano.
- ,
.
Who let you take the jam?
- ?
,
t:
He was heard to lock the door.
- , .
He was made to do it.
- .
3) I wont have:
I wont have this cat play on my
- ,
bed!
!
4) why:
Why not go there?
- e ?
5) had better, would rather, would sooner:
He said he would rather stay at
- ,
home.
.
George said we had better get the - ,
canvas first.
.
7.7.3. (The Participle)
- ,
, .
.
:



Active Voice
Passive Voice
Active Voice
going - / asking c, being asked -

having
having asked
having being asked

gone - -

- gone
asked



(The Prsent Participle Active and Passive) ,
:
Seeing that I was late, I hurried. - , ,
.
Being left alone, I went on
- ,
working.
.

15

(The Prfect Prticile Active and Passive) ,


:
Having slept two hours he felt
- ,
rested.
.
Having prescribed the medicine
- , .
the doctor went away.
The Perfect Participle Passive ,
:
Hving been shown the wrong
- ,
direction, he lost his way.
.
(The Past rticiple)

,
, - :
On our excursion we saw a wall - ,
built many hundreds years ago. .

,
. :
The boy who went in front
- , ,
stopped.
.
The st Participle , ,
,
(, ).
,
:
He saw a group of children talking - ,
and laughing loudly.
.
, ,
:
Having read the book he went to - ,
the library.
.
Taking Mike by the hand Tom led - ,
the way upstairs.
.

,
.
The Present Past Participle
:
1) :
The sleeping children didnt hear - ,
when their father came home.
.
Lost time is never found again.
-
.
15

,
:
Heres a place set for you.
- , .
2) :
Im very much obliged to you.
- .
A page is missing from the book. - .
, ,
, c :
What are you doing?
- ?
Many houses have been built in
-
our town since then.
.
3) ( oo):
) :
Coming to the stadium they saw a - ,
game in full swing.
.
Be careful while crossing the
-
street.
.
) :
No, he answered shaking his
- , - ,
head.
.
) :
Not knowing what to say he kept - , , .
silent.
Being well prepared, he answered - ,
at once.
.
Having plenty of time I didnt
-
hurry.
, .

.
7.7.4. (The Gerund)
- ,
. .

Active Voice
Active Voice
Passive Voice

coming
asking
being asked

having come
having asked
having been asked
ce (The Present
Participle, The Perfect Participle).
,
. :
The boy, reciting a poem, , - Present
forgot several lines.
, . Participle
16

He likes reciting poems.

c. Indefinite
Gerund
Having passed the exams, ,
Perfect
we went on a hike.
.
Participle
He was proud of having ,
Perfect Gerund
passed the exams very
.
well.
.
The Indefinite Gerund ,
:
I couldnt help laughing when I saw - ,
her in that strange dress.
.
He went out without saying a word. - O , .
to remember, to forget, to excuse to forgive, to thank,
ftr, on/ upon The Indefinite Gerund
, , ..
The Perfect Gerund:
Thank you for your coming.
- , .
I dont remember seeing him
- ,
before.
.
On entering the room we found - , ,
it empty.
.
The Perfect Gerund ,
:
Ann was proud of having got an - ,
excellent mark at the exam.
.
The Passive Gerund (Indefinite and Perfect) ,
:
I insist on being told everything. - ,
.
He was proud of having been
- ,
elected chirmn.
.

:
1) :
) ,
:

Would you mind
me

? pas-sing me the
the bread

bread?

I like reading
books


books of that sort.
, Do you mind my to him

?
speaking to him?

16

) :
h child burst out crying bitterly. - .
2) :
) , ,
, of, for, in, without, before, after, on,
upon, by, about, to:
Whats the use of arguing?
- ?
Im tired of waiting.
- .
hnk you for helping me.
- .
) ,
:
What do you say to his joining us? - ,
?
Jns coming is always a pleasure. - -
.
) ,
: ,
.
-:
,
:
h floor in this room needs painting. -
.
St talking.
- .
Everybody laughed on hearing his
- ,
answer.
.
I remember hearing this story before. - ,
.

:
1) to vid, t enjy, to finish, t giv u, to
go on, ant hlp, to keep (on), to mind (
), t mention, to put off, to stop, to want ():
You must go on working.
- pa.
My brother gave up smoking a year -
ago.
.
Avoid making mistakes like these. -
.

, : t continue, to dislike, to begin, to like, to forget,
to intend, to hate, to love, to learn, to need, to mean (), to prefer,
to propose, to start, to try, to remember:
We intend to go to Moscow
-
going in summer.
.
16

Nick proposed to start


-
starting
.
the next morning.
2) to think of, to complain of, to dream
of, to begin by, to finish by, to end by, to mean by, to thank for, to go in for, to
excuse for, to use for, to prepare for, to help in, to fail in, to succeed in, to look
forward to, to save from, to keep from, to stop from, to insist on, to look like, to
feel like:
W are thinking of going on a hike - ,
during our summer holidays.

.
What do you mean by saying that? - ?
succeeded in solving the problem. - .
(
about)
yopeec What/ how about + :
What about going to the concert? - ,
?
How about having some tea?
- ?
3) ,
to be: fond of, sure f, proud of, tired of, ashamed of, afraid of,
good at, bad at, clever at, pleased at, surprised at, ready for, sorry for, grateful
for, famous for, good for, right in, used to:
Nick is very good at painting.
- .
Are you sure of winning the
- ,
omtition?
?
4) worth(while) busy:
This book is worth reading.
- .
Its not worthwhile quarrelling.
- He .
Soon she was busy eating.
- .
5) (
n, in, for .)
I dont see any use in going there. - ,
.
Is there any hope of getting tickets? - -
?
Ive had little time for reading this -
week.
.
6) The Indefinite Gerund, ,
.
.
: a swimming race - ();
wlking-stick ();
7) :
16

Walking always gives me an appetite. -


.
Learning rules without examples is of -
little use.
e .

16

- it :
It was a pleasure meeting you.
-
.
its no use (good/ sense) +
-:
Its no use waiting any longer.
- .
8) :
ur aim is learning to speak English. - -
-.
9) (
:
) ( on, upon, after, before, in):
Think bfr answering.
- .
On seeing me he stopped.
- , .
) ( in, without,
by):
The girl listened without saying a
- ,
word.
.
By doing this, youll save a lot of time. - ,
.
7.7.5. (Modal Verbs)
,
(), a :
, ,
.. :
I must go home.
- .
n you swim?
?
y I sit down?
?
cn - uld, must; have to, have got
to, may might, ought, should, be to, need, dare.
have, be, should ,
, need, have, be, get - :
You should consult a


doctor.
.
I should like to read this
book.
.

What a pity you have to go. ,


.
I have bought a new .

dictionary.

I have a new dictionary.


.
,
have, be, dare, have got, , .e.
e .
16

, -()s
3- Present Indefinite.
must, ought to, should, need, have got
o . an, may, be to
(Present Indefinite and Past
Indefinite), : can could; may - might; am, is, are to was,
were to. have to ,
(Prsent, Pst Future Indefinite), :
have/ has to had to shall/ will have to.
,
have to, do,
:
m I to come tomorrow?
- ?
You mustnt do it.
- B .
I cannot answer this question.
-
.


, .
must, n (could), may (might), should, need
(.e. to), be to,
ought to, have (got) to - (..
t):
Im afraid I must be off.
- , .
nt you see him?
- ?
May I speak to you?
- ?
What are we to do now?
- ?
You ought to know it.
- .
Wll have to wait for Mary.
- .

.
:
- n you speak English?
-?
- s, I can.
- .
u can come toda, cant u? - , ?

, . :
I dont feel like going there but - , , ,
Im afraid Ill have to.
.
h boy ran as fast as he could. - .
Do it yourself if you can.
- , .

16

7.7.5.1. Can
Can :

- -


Present Indefinite I can swim.
Can I swim?
I cannot (cant) swim.
Past Indefinite
I could swim. Could I swim? I could not (couldnt) swim.
Cn/ Could :
1) , ,
(n)
(ould) :
You can drive a car, cant you?
- ?
I culdnt cm earlier, I had a
- , y
music lesson.
.
can to
be able to ( Future Indefinite) + :
In two ars h will be able to
-
speak English prfctly well.
-.
to be able +

/ uld,
,
. :
I cant ski.
.
I am not able to ski today, Ive - ( )
hurt my leg.
, .
2) ,
:
Cant you keep quiet?
-
?
u an't pl ftbll here.
- .
3)
, , :
It cant be true!
- !
She cant have said it.
- .
Can he have left after all?
- -?
4) cannot but +
, ..:
I cannot but agree with you.
- .
One cannot but admit
- ...
5)
, .
can/ culd :
Can you see that house?
- ?
Can you hear that strange noise? - ?
6) could (not)
16

, ,
:
Could you give me some milk?
- ?
Couldnt you find the last copy
-
of the Guardian for me?
?
I wonder if you could possibly
- ,
answer a personal question?
?
7.7.5.2. a
ma :

Present Indefinite I may go


May I go?
I may not go
Past Indefinite
I might go
Might I go?
I might not (mightnt) go
m/ might :
1) , (
) ( ):
a I come in? - Yes, you . - ? , .
May I go out? No, you may not. - ? - , .
might :
Might I trouble you for a minute? - ?
2) , ( ,
). m/might
, . may
might , :
,
, might .
/
(The Indefinite Infinitive - The Perfect Infinitive):
He may/ might come at any
- .
moment.
He may/might have come already. - , .
3) might
:
You might be a bit more polite. - .
You might have told me
- .
everything.
4) may/ might
that, so that, in order that
( ; ):
Jerr has told him to meet him
-
next morning so that they may
,
work together.
.

16

7.7.5.3. Must
must .
must :
1) , , ,
( ) (
):
You must be red b nin.
- .
Must w do it today?
- ?
You mustnt speak like that.
- .
must
, need, have to, have got to
:
- Must we do exercise 2?
- 2?
- No, you neednt.
- , .
She doesnt have to come here
-
every week-end.
.

must hv to:
esterd I had to go to the doctor. - .
Tomorrow Ill have to leave.
- .
2) ,
must
;
must :
She must be ill.
- , , .
He must be playing football.
- , , .
We must have taken a wrong turn. - , e
.

, ..., , ...,
:
must b unaware of this.
- , , .
e must have misunderstood me. - , , .
must e ,
. must
probably . is sure
to:
He will probably come soon.
- , , .
is sure to

16

7.7.5.4. Have/ Have got


have :

Present
I have
to go
Do I
have to
I do
not have
Indefinite
She has
Does she go?
She does to go
Past Indefinite I had to go
Did I have to go?
I did not have to go
Future
I shall have
Shall I
have
I shall not have
Indefinite
She will to go
Will she to go?
She will to go
have to
(
) (
) , .
must have to
rsent Indefinite: must

/. have to ,
,
:
I must learn this m, I like it very - much.
, .
I dont like this poem but I have to - learn it.
, .
must hv to
hv got to,
:
W have got to finish this job by
-
three.
.
Is this all Ive got to do?
- , ?
7.7.5.5. Should
shuld
:
1) , :
You should be more careful.
- .
What should I do now?
- ?
2) should
-
( )
( ):
You should have helped your friend. -
.
You shouldnt have laughed at him. .
3) :
17

hy should be there by now, I think. , .


h film should be interesting.
- .
7.7.5.6. Ought
ought oy ,

.

ought

:
1) :
Perhaps she oughtnt to work in
- , ( the kindergarten, she is too nervous. ) ,
.
2) , :
You ought to help your sister.
- .
These things oughtnt to be done.
- .
3)
2- 3- . :
You ought to consult a doctor.
-
.
coe ought
(
) ( ).
ught should,
. Ought
, should
. :
You should have written this word
-
with capital ltter.
.
You ought to have been kinder to
-
him.
.
7.7.5.7. To Be
to be resent st Indefinite:

Present
I am
Am I
I am
Indefinite He is
to Is he
to come? He is
not to come
come
Are they
They are
They are
Past
I was
to
Was I
to
I was
not to
Indefinite They were come
Were they come?
They were come
to be to ,
1) ( )
17

, , :
What exams are we to take this year? -
?
The meeting is to start at 7.
- 7.
Ann was to arrive on Saturday.
-
.
The train is to arrive at 11.30.
- 11.30.
2) ws/were to
, :
We were to have gone on an
- excursion yesterday but the weather ,
was too wet.
.
3) to be to ,
. :
The chief says I am to be in charge of - ,
the programme.
.
The students are to hand in their
-
st
ourse rs by 1 .
1 .
4) to be to . :
At that time he didnt know that he - ,
was never to see his son again.

.
5) , :
His father was often to be seen
-
talking to the workers.
.
Where is he to be found?
- ?
, t be to
.
7.7.5.8. Need
need
.
need


:
You need not come.
- .
need ,
. :
You neednt have come.
- .

need ,
. to .
to have to,
,
. :
17

I do not need to explain anything. - .


Did you need to read all these
-
books?
?
7.7.5.9. Dare
dare
.
dare : dre -
dared - . -.

, how,
. :
How dare she come here?
- ?
He dared not look at her.
- .
dre , .
, dre,
. :
Nobody dared to ask him about it. -
.
I knew that he had never dared to - ,
come to their house since that

incident.
.
dare
t.
8. ( RSITION)
8.1.

, ,
.

. :
I found the book on the on
floor.
.

You can rely on (upon) - on (upon)


me.
.

John was born on the - on


twenty-first of May.
. . of
, of ,
; to -
( to); by with -
( ). by
/, with -
. , ,
17

,
:
He sent a letter to Paul.
.
Moscow is the capital of
.
Russia.
Dont write with a pencil.
.

The letter was written by him. .
,
: at last - , for good , by no means - , by the way - ..
, .
, ,
,
: in, on, at, by, to, with, from, of ..
.
.
: inside - , outside - , upon - , into , throughout , ..
, ,
, ,
, .

,
, e
. : because of - -; instead of - ; by
means of - ; as far as - ; by force of - ; in spite of ; in front of - ; in accordance with - ; as
compared with - c; opposite to - .
,
: during - ; including ; concerning, regarding - ..
e
. , by
: , , , , , , , , , , ,
.:
was sitting by the door.
.
He will come by five oclock.
- .
She took him by the hand.
- a a .
I go by your place every day.
-
.
I only know him by name.
- .
This box is larger than that by 3 - 3
inches.
.
,
:
17

) , :
I saw him on Monday/ in October/
- /
at 7 oclock.
/ 7 .
) ,
.
I rely on you.
- .
This district abounds in mineral
-
deposits.
.
Wht are you pointing at?
- ?
n, in, at
.
8.2. 3
8.2.1.
, ,
.
- ,
, : )
( Where? - ?); ) (
Where?/ From where?- ?/?).

,
.
. ,
, .
:

He `stayed in the house. .



He `stayed in.
.
eca:
) / :
X Go to X.
.
X Stay at X.
.
X Go away from X.
.
Y
X
Go from Y to X.
/ / .
Y
Go back to Y.
/ .
X Stay away from X.

.
X
Go as far as X.
/
.
X
Go through X.
.
X
We passed by X.
.
X
We have gone beyond X. / .
X

We have gone past X.

.
17

We are past X.

We are beyond X.

/ .

) / :
Were leaving for X.
.
Were walking toward(s) / .
X.
Were coming to X.

.
getting

Weve arrived to X.
.
) , :
Drive onto the
.
motorway.
Were on the motorway.

Drive off the motorway.

We are off the motorway.

.
Were driving along the .
road.
They live along the road. .
Were driving along the
river.
Were going across the
road.
Were safely across the
road.
They live across the
road.

.
.

.

.

) , :
Walk across the square. .

Were safely across the



square.
.

The bank is across the



square.
.
) , :
Go on(to) the platform.
.

Stay on the platform.


17

Get off the platform.


Stay off the platform.

) :
Come in(to)
my
inside
office.
Stay
in
your

inside
room.
Go
out of
my
outside(of) office.
Stay out of
my

outside(of) room.
Drive through the town.

.
.

.

-
.
.

Were through the town.


.
) :
Go up the hill.

() .

We are up the hill.


()
.

Go down the hill.


()
.
We are down the hill.
()

.
Jump over X.

The plane is flying over X.


It is over X.
()

Now we are over X.


Crawl under X.
.

Stay under X.

Were flying above the water.


.
()
.

We are above the water.


It is swim- underneath the

17

ming

beneath
below
underneath
beneath
below

surface /
.
the

sur /
face
.

The fish

underneath is
beneath
below
)
, ..:
Y
X is running in front of
X
Y.
Y
X is in front of Y.
X
X
X is running behind Y.
Y
X
X is behind Y.
Y
X
X is running beside Y.
Y
X
X is beside Y.
Y
Y
X
X is opposite Y.

X Y Z



X
Y

: , ,
.
.
.
.
.
.


.
Were going (a)round .
the circle.
Weve gone all (a)round /
the circle.

/
.
My belts (a)round my

waist.
()
.
Were going between X .
and Y.
Y is between X and Z.

Z
Dont worry: youre :
among(st) friends.

.
X is walking with Y.
() .
Y is walking with X.
() .

17

X
Y

X is with Y, Y is with X.

X
Y
X

I
you

you
X(near)?
X(far)?

X(near)

X(far from)

()
. ()

X is proceeding without ()
Y.
.
X is
against Y
/ .
fighting
with
Theres a ladder against .
the wall. Theres a bed .
against the wall.
Im sitting next to you.
.
Are we
near
X? /
going far(away)from
?
We
X are

near ()
far(away)from / .


, ,
. , :
Above , :
The seagull flies above the ship.
- .
Among(st) friends e/ - (. between).
As far as X = X ;
At , X :
aim at - ; laugh at - ; point at - .
Below , .
Beneath , below, below
beneath ones dignity , to be beneath ones contempt -
.
Beside - () = at the side of. : besides - , . :
Who was there besides you?
- , , ?
Between - y. :
There was a fight between two
-
boys.
.
Divide this money between you two. -
.

among - , -
:
17

They arranged among themselves. - .


Divide this money among you four. -
(, 2- ).
He divided his money between/
-
among his five sons.
.
between among -
. , between among
. mong
:
he Rhine flows between France
-
and Germany.
.
Switzerland is between France,
-
Germany, Austria and Italy.
, ,
.
, -o between (
), ,
. ,
- among ( ),
, ,
.
btwn ,
-:
The little valley is between high
-
mountains.
.
Between to divide - , to share ,
;
shared his property between his -
wife, his son and his sister.
,
.
I divide my time between teaching, -
writing books and lecturing.
,
.
Among
,
:
Amng the first to arrive was the -
Fantasian ambassador.
.
He has a number of novelists
-
among his friends.
.
Far w from (/ ) a long way
from (/ )
. :
We are a long way from X.
- X.
Are we far (away) from X?
- X?
18

No, we are not far from X.


- , X.
Far ()
so - , too - vr - . : We are so far
from X.
For (, , ) :
h train for Paris... - //
From (, )
aw - , :
We stayed away from home.
- .
He came (away) from the theatre. - .
from X to Y.
In :
Put this in your pocket.
- .
into :
) ,
, :
Run into the house.
- .
Dont run in the house.
- ea .
) . : to get into trouble -
.
Inside () ,
, , .
Near (, , )
ver:
Come nearer (to) the fire.
.
Com nearer.
- .
Who is nearest the door?
- ?
Dont come so/ too/ very near.
- //
.
Next to - , , , . : the chair
next to the fire - ; the house next to ours - .
On, ont () ,
. nto ,
. Onto on to.
on to :
We went on to Rome.
- .
Outside (, )
- :
We are outside the hotel.
- .
Keep outside this little room,
- ,
will you?
?
Ovr () ,
:
Hold the umbrella over your head. - .
18

all over over


. :
Ants are running all over me.
- o .
Im shivering all over.
- .
Theres mud all over your coat. - .
Through - , . , across (), through
.
crss , through -
/
. :
The lake froze and we walked
- ,
across the ice.
.
It took us two hours to walk
- ,
through the forest.
.
I walked across the square to the - .
caf.
I pushed my way through the
- c .
crowd to the bar.
Through
, , :
She swam across the river.
- .
Throughout (, )
:
The nws spread throughout the -
country.
( ).
Towards ( )
toward .
Under () -:
The cat is under the sofa.
- () .
Underneath () .
Within (, )
:
Over a thousand civilians were

crowded together within the
.
fortress.
within :
Its difficult sometimes to live
-
within ones income.
,
( ).
8.2.2.

, when? - ?
, since when?- ? until whn? -
?
18

After - ,
ome (at) any time after
= past ()
six oclock.
6 .
Am.E.
Its 20 minutes after six. 20 .
At (
Ill meet you at 8 oclock 8
.
(at midnight, midday,
( , ,
4.2.) ,
at dinner,
,
at sunrise/sunset).
/ ).
At that moment there was
a loud crash.
.
Weve got at New Year
a holiday at Christmas -
at Easter.

.
:
We always lock the door
at night.
.
Before - , Dont come before 6.
6.
By - , , Be ready by the time I ,
come back.
, .
We must leave by 6, or we
shall not arrive in time.
,
.
Can you read it by

Tuesday?
?
During - ,
I woke three times during
(the night.
.
, The doorsll remain locked )
during the concert.
()
.
For - ,
I walk (for) two hours 2

every day.
.
(
Weve been there (for) 6 (
weeks.
) 6 .
).
Well stay (for) another 2
- fortnight.
.
for 1- We waited to hear what
,
3
had happened to him for a ,
4, 5.
year.
.
The train will not arrive
for 2 hours.
2 .

18

From - ; The bank will be open from 8

8 oclock (onwards).
( ).

Itll be open until 4.


8 4.
from 8
to
In - ; I do most the morning

of my
the afternoon
, work in
the evening

.
January


winter

They
reached
March


America in 1968

1968 .
I woke up 3 times in the
3
in
night.
.
We met in June last.

.
Well meet in May next.

in

We met last June.



.
Well meet next May.

.
In - , Ill call again in 5
/ , ; - minutes.
/ 5

.
.
I cant give you an

, answer yet. Come back
.
a

in 3 months time (in 3
3 (
,
months from now).
).
time.
In - ;
John ran a mile

in

,
in under/
4 minutes ,
4

in less than

On - ;
Well meet (on) Friday

(next).
() .

My birthday is on March 28
28th.
.
They landed on

st
the morning of May 1
1
th
the afternoon of July 4
4
an evening in October

18

On

Well meet again Tuesday.


We met last Friday.
.
.
Past - , ;
Its past six oclock, a
.

quarter past six to be
,

precise.
.

It is
my bedtime/ the
,
time, age.
(long) time I usually go
past
to bed

Youre free to marry: youre past the age of , consent.
.
(A)round, about Ill see you (a)round 6 6
,
oclock.
.
Through(out) Dancing went on (all)

- ( through(out) the night.


().
)
To - ;
The exhibition will be
open from May 1st to 1 30 .
( from)
/till June 30th.
Till, until - , ; We waited until 8 8 .
oclock.
8

We didnt leave until 8 .
oclock.
Within - , You must be back

e; - in
15 minutes.

, within

15

,
-

: We waited until 8 clock


/ / ,
. :
We must leave by 6 oclock or w shnt arrive in time.
,
:
n rd it by Tuesday? by until
. We didnt leave until 8 oclock
, 8 ,
. until by,
: 8 , ,
, .
8.2.3.
18

,

:
, , , , , ,
..
:
A light fringe of snow lay like a -
ap on his had.
.
I lked in astonishment at the .
old man.
The scented air of the garden -
came to us in a warm wave.
.
, , :
e ws in great difficulty.
- .
ur ship was in a storm.
- .
Winter set in early and unexpectedly - with a heavy fall of snow.
.
I have slept late with the blind

drawn up.
.
I had slept unusually well, without , ,
a dream.
, .
, :
In this country the aristocracy is in -
power.
.
:
My dog pants with the heat.
-
.
Maggies cheeks began to flush with -
excitement.
.
Clara could hardly contain herself -
for excitement.
- .
:
Do it for your own sake.
-
.
He fought for his life.
- .
He went in search of gold.
- .
, , :
He chopped some wood with an axe. - .
The next five weeks were spent by -
Gemma and Gadfly in a whirl of

excitement and overwork.
.
:
They played all sorts of games with -
other children.
.
She trudged up the hill along the
-
18

tall hedge with her child.


.
, , :
to be in the army
- =
to be in the Parliament - =
8.2.4.

,
, , .
:


,
:

18

, ,
for.
8.3.
,
.
, ,
. :
1) :
What are you looking at?
?
Wht book did you talk with him
-
about?
?
2) :
I know who he is looking for.
- , .
Do you know what question are they - ,
going to start with?
?
3) :
The child was taken good care of. .
The doctor was sent for.
- .
4) :
hres nothing to worry about.
- .
Some ole hate to be laughed at. -
, .
18

,
, .
, , , ,
.
:
For whm r u lking? -
?
Who re ou looking for? -
9. (THE ONJUNCTION)
9.1.
- ,
, .
, , .
1) - , : and - ,
; but - ; or- ; if - ; tht - ..
2) ,
: beuse - ; unless - , , .
3) evr ,
: however - ; whrs - ; nevertheless -
; therefore - ..
4)
: in case - ; as though - ,
; in order that - .
(, ) , ,
: both and - ... ; ithr... or - ...
; neithernor - ... ; not only but also - , ... ; whether
or - ... .
5) ,
: provided, providing -
; seeing - ; supposing - , ..

(Cordinating Conjunctions) (Subordinating Conjunctions).
,
.

:
I like apples and plums.
- .
My sister is only a pupil but she
- ,
already can speak English well.

-.

, :
When she read a letter, she locked it - ,
in her desk.
.
18

He knew that I should go with him - , ,


if he asked me to.
.
,
,
, . , (not
so) not so as ,
(as) - :
The text was not so difficult - , .
as I expected.
9.2.
9.2.1.
:
1) (Cpulative): and - ; ; as well as
- e ; nor , ; neithernor - ... ; but (also) -
... () ; both... and - , ... ; ... ;
2) (Disjunctive): or - ; ; eitheror - ;
3) (Adversative): and ; but - ; still - ;
nvertheless - ; t - ; ; however, anyhow ;
4) (Regulative): hence - ; so -
; ; thus - ; therefore - ;
5) (f rson): for - ; . for
, ,
:
It is morning already for ( because) , ( :
the birds are singing.
) .
, ,
, .
9.2.2.
:
1) (bjective, Subjective, Predicative): that - , ;
whether, if ;
2) (f time): as son as - ; as long as- ; as -
, ; till, until - /; ; before ; after - ; whn - ; sin - ; while
- ; ; ..;
) (f rson or cause): as - ; bcaus - ;
buse of - -; since - ; ; sing -;
4) (of purpose): that, in order to, so that - ; ; lest
- ;
5) (of cndition): if - ; unless - ; provided (that),
rviding (that) - ; supposing (that) - ; , ;
n - ,
19

:
Once you hesitate you are lost.- -
.
6) (nssive): although, though - ;
7) (of mnnr): as - ; as if, as though - ,
;
8) (of comparison): as - , than - ; asas - () ...
(); not soas - a(o) ; so... as - ()... ; the... the - ...
. th th

... + /
. : the more... the less - ...
; the longerthe bttr - ... ..
9) (f result): tht - / ...; so that - ; :
That you should come here is my idea. -
.
9.3.
- ,
.
who -, ; whos - ,
; what - ; which - , ; that -
whn ; where - , ; hw - ; wh .
,
,
. :
W. Shakespeare is the
. whom greatest writer whom
, ,
England has ever known. .

William Sydney Porter ,


who

who is known under his


pen name OHenry is ., ,

one of the best known .


writers of America.
.
In the years of stagnati- ,
whn
on when Alexander Sol-
zenitsin was expelled
, ,
from the USSR he beca-

me a Nobel prize winner. .
.
9.4. , ,


.
19

:
I met him in 1983 and 1983 . since - , .. have not seen him since.
.
, o
He realised that the old , since - , .. life he had lived since , boyhood was ended.
, .
.
What have you been since - , .. doing since you left our ,
town?
?

.
M. Lomonosov was a . - since -
multitalented scientist the , like of whom Russia had ,
never known before.

.
He would sit brooding, , - before -
his paper unread before ,
him.
(.:
).
A tested specimen shrinks before -
before an explosion takes ,
place.
.
I wanted to do it, but I , but
couldnt.
.
I men nobody there but
but -
him.
, .
10. (PARTICLES)
10.1.
- ,
( )
. , ,
, .
/ ,
, , , , . :
The address is to be written only -
on this side.
.
(Only n this side)
Only the address is to be written -
on this side.
.
(Only the address)
10.2. 3
19


, ,
:
1) -: vn - ; only - ; merely , ; just - , , ; alone - .;
2) : vn - , yet, still - , just - , ; simply ; never - .
3) : just, right, exactly, precisely - , , ,
. :
John, Mary, Sam and even Bill came - , ,
to him.
.
Just you do this and I
- ...
He saw at once that Mr Gamfield
- , -
was exactly the kind of master that
,
Oliver Twist wanted.
.
Oh, I merely came to water the
- ,
roses.
.
10.3. ,

,
c (just, still, never, reisel ..), pe -
(right, ven, nl) (all, ithr).
,
, .
, ,
,
, , , ;
, , ;
, . ,
,
, , , ,
.
,
. :
He is just the man to do
it.
He has just left the
office.

, - just - , . the man



just
.

19

The
increase
of
industrial output during
the last several years
alone was enormous.
I can perform the
experiment alone.
He simply couldnt bear
joking on such subjects.
He did it quite simply.

- alone , -

the last several years
.
o alone -
.

simply - , .
could

simply
.
He wont be hurt if he , still
remains still under any c
circumstances.
c.
By breaking the chair still1 - , into still1 smaller pieces ,
2
we still get complete , ; still2 mess, not diamonds, , - ,
said Oscar Bender.
.

10.4. only, too also


only e ,
, :
He only promised to copy the
article.

Only he promised to copy the



article.
.
He promised only to copy the
article.
.
t ,
, :
I should like to know it too.
- .
She was late too.
- .
He was generous, too, and
- ,
courageous by nature.
, .
ls
, :
I remember also that a house
- ,
has a broken door.
.
There was also nothing attractive - a
in him.
.
It is also a fact that Scrooge had - , p
seen it.
() .
I shall also try to be there at ten. - 10.
not -.
19

, :
1) - :
Six weeks isnt really long.
- - .
I dont know, said Paul. - , - .
I cannot see you.
- .
2) :
He begged her not to go.
- O .
He said not a word more.
- O e .
3) ( )
:
- hn theres no danger?
, ?
- Certainly not
- , .
- You definitely shall not go till you - ,
have told me all! - I would rather
!
not, just now.
-
.
4) (
):
Are you going to tell him all about -
it? Not I (me).
? () .
Will he come and help us? Not he. - ? -
.
5) , (
, : to hope, to think, to believe ..:
Is it possible to repair the watch? - ?
- Im afraid not.
- , .
A man of your sort is not likely to - He , ,
be ignorant of it. I hope not.
,
- , .
6) or, whether (if) or not
:
I dont know if theyve come or not. - , .
I dont know whether he was
- , .
pleased or not.
When I opened the door, believe me - , or not, that man disappeared.
, ,
!
10.5. not
not, ,
- ,
, - .
t ,
.
not:
19

I shouldnt have found you even


- ,
now if I hadnt met Joe in the

street this morning.
.
He was not ready yet.
- .
You neednt be afraid of this dog. - .
a not :
be or not to be, that is the
- ,
question.
.
And up he went, not caring a button - ,
for that.
.
Not having lunched in time, he
- ,
would be hungry.
.
I was angry with him for not having - ,
told me about it.
a .
10.6.
s No - .
,
,
. ,
, -.
, :
he mate murmured to himself,
-
No. He cant. No!
: . . !
Did you leave the door unlocked? - ?
- Yes.
.
Is he going too? No, no, no!
?- , , !
Send me a wire, just in case.
- Yes.
. - .
11. ( INTRJECTION)
11.1. Coceo
,
.
- .
.
: ll! - .

, : (Oh! Ah! Ouch!
Wow! Bravo! Hush! Hurrah! Hey! Alas! Aha! Ha! ..)
, , , : For shame!
! Wll don - ! ! Gd boy! / Good girl! - !
Come, m - y-! , ! . :
Well, perhaps youre right.
- , , .
Oh, what a pleasure!
- , !
19

What a day, eh?


- , ?
Ay, ay, he answered, you told me - -, - o , -
that.
.
Tush! he answered turning red.
- !, - e.
There! There, he said patting the - ! - ,
boy on the shoulder.
.
11.2.

, : mew ; bow-wow - -; ock-a-doodle-do - --; oink-oink - -; neigh-neigh - - ..
, , :
Bang, bang, went a couple of guns. - , , .
Tot-totle-too, goes the horn.
- --, - .
11.3.

, . ,

. , ,
:
Alas for my hopes!
- !

.

: Help! - ! Silence! - ! Dear me! -
! Hear, hear! - , ! Look (here)! ()!
Why! - a ; ; ; Well! - ; I say! - !; O.K.! All right!
- ! .
Dear, dear, what changes!
- e, , !
Why, Jack, what a question!
- , , !
Come, come, come, said Mr Glagg - , , , -
soothingly.
.
My Lord! he said, I didnt know. ! - , -
.

19

II: (SNT)
12.EE (H SENTENCE)
12.1.
, ,
( )
( ), :
The sun rises in the east.
- .
Its difficult to find a black cat in a -
dark room, especially when theres - ,
none.
.
, -
, .
, :
- , ,
.
.
(Simpl Sentences)
(Unextended Sentences)
(Extended Sentences).
(Compound
Sentences) (Complex Sentences).
,
-
. :
A good beginning makes a good
-
ending.
. (.:
).
Help! Help! Fire!
- ! ! !
, ,
(Two-member Sentences).
, , . ,
,
(On-member Sentences). .
:
1) e,
:
Open the window.
- .
2) -,
, :
What a day!
- !
How wonderful!
- !
3) -, oy:
Why not send him a telegram?

?
19

What about inviting him to dinner - ?


4) - -:
Yes. - . No. .
5) :
Hi (Hello)!
- !
Good-bye.
- .
Thanks a lot.
- .
E ,
(Homogeneous Parts). ,
. , , ,
, :
The hotel was expensive but dirty. - ,
.
He is kind, friendly and willing to - ,
help.
.

, .
:
A ~~~~~~~~
pretty young woman came up -
~~~~~~~~~
to me.
.
~~~~~~
:
The train is late.
.

May I come in?


?
Come along, boys!
, !
(
)
How nice of you! !

,
,
. ,
, , , ,
,
.
12.2. (Declarative Sentences)

-
. :
Work is the basis of human development. - p
.
I dont quite understand you.
- .
19

, ,
.

,
.

(Direct Word Order),


,
.
.

:
-
-/
-

My
is Mary.
name
I
like
skiing.
My Dad teaches
me to swim
Peter
bought his
a book
sister
He
read
his
a letter.
friend
He
read
a letter to
his
friend
They
were
walking
Early in the they
morning
I

On the beach

were
walking
met

him

John

sent

a letter

some
people
I

were
lying
met

Jack

-
oe .

for a
present.

slowly along the early


river
in the
bank
morning
slowly along the
riverbank
there
last
night.
yesterday.
on the
sand.
by
in the
in
chance country summer


, ..
,
(The Inversion).
.
:
1) there is: There is a park near
my home (there is - ; rk ). there +
to be
20

( )
, .
there is , , .

: .
. . .
there is (are),

. to be
.

,
there is :
There is a book on the table.
- (, , )
.
her are plenty of books on that - (, ,
table.
) .
There will be a party tomorrow.
- .
,
there + to be ,
, there - :

There
is
a book
on the table.
to be ther + to be
:
There was such a sledge in the
-
camp with ten dogs hitched to it.
.
I suppose, said George, that , - ,
there has been an earthquake.
.
There are a lot of people there.
- .
:
her being nothing else to do, we -
went to bed.
, .
to be there
to seem, to appear - :
There must be some solution of the - -
problem.
.
There seems (appears) to be no
- (-)
doubt about it.
.
there (),
. there
,
:
20

I dont see anything there.


- e .
There is a student there.
- .
there ,
to remain - , to exist - , to arise - , to
come - , to happen - , to appear -
:
There appeared startling bright -
flashes of white light.
.
( , )
there ,
:
There lived an old woman in the - - ,
town who was very poor.
.
,
there there .
2) -
s, r neither So (neither, nor) do (have, am, can) I,
.
- (
resent Past
Indefinite) b, hve, shall, will
(
):
I like the film very much.
- .
- So do I.
- .
He came early. So did I.
- . .
Tom hasnt many English books. - .
- Neither (nor) has Mary.
- .
3) , here, there, now, then,
:
Here is the book youve been
- , .
looking for.
Here comes our bus.
- .
,
:
Here you are.
- , .
4)
had, were, should:
Had I not been ill I should have - ,
come by all means.
.
Should you meet him in town
-
ask him to ring me up.
, .
5) ,
:
20

Who can answer the question? -


asked the teacher.
? - .
,
:
Whats the matter? he said.
- ? - .
6)

,
hrdl, scrcly, no soonr, never,
nothing, not only .
, , ,
.
srel hardly,
when, no sooner,
than:
Scarcely (hardly) had he finished - ,
his work when somebody knocked - .
at the door.
No sooner had this letter arrived - e ,
that his mind was at work planning
a meeting.
.
Never had he felt such deep
-
hatred for the enemy.
.
Not only is the position of the
- H earth changing but the earth itself ,
is undergoing changes.
.
12.3. (Interrogative Sentences)

()
.

, .
,
,
Present Past Indefinite -
do, did. , (You saw Pete
yesterday? ?)
.

: (General Questions), (Special Questions),
(Alternative Questions) ()
(Disjunctive Questions).
12.3.1. (General Questions)
- ,

20

, .. ,
.
:
1) ,
t be to have rsent Indefinite Past Indefinite:
Have you a dictionary?
- ?
Were you very busy?
- ?
there is, to be
there, - :
Is there any bread left?
- ?
2) ,
:
n you give me anything to read? - -
?
Have you seen the ballet?
- ?

, :
Has she been working here for
- ?
five years?
2) rsent Indefinite st
Indefinite ( to be to have),
do (does) did,
:
Does he study at the University? - ?
Did you see him yesterday?
- ?
t have (to have
breakfast, to have a rest ..) ,
t d
:
What time do you have breakfast? - B ?
When do you have to be there?
- ?
CA to have
to do. :
Br. E.: Have you any English books?

Am. E.: Do you have any English books? ?
.
, Yes No, ,
,

. not
:
Do you play chess?
- ?
Yes, I do. No, I dont.
. - .
Can you do it? - ?
Yes, I can. No, I cant.
. - .
20

, thre is,
:
Is there a dictionary on the table? - - ? Yes, there is. No, there isnt.
. - e.
any,
some,
not any none:
Are there any dictionaries in the
- ? library? Yes, there are (some).
().
- No, there are not any
- .
(there are none).

not,
.

, ? ?:
Dont you want to see our park?

Do you not want to see our park? ?

,
:
Have you seen Jane?
- ?
Do you know Jane Morgan?
- ?

.
Yes.
:
Havent you seen Jane? - ? Yes, I have.
, .
Didnt you finish your work
-
yesterday? Yes, I did.
? - , .
12.3.2. (Special/ Wh-Questions)
,
- ,
, .
,
, ,
, , .
,
,
.
.
what, which, where, when, who, why, how, how
long, how much/ many
20

, : ,
, , .
:

What are you writing?
?
. What train shall we

take?
?
What are you laughing

at?
?
- What film are they

talking about?
?

Where are you going?


?

What street do you live

in?
?

What is he?
( )?
Who is this boy?
? (
,
..)

Whose pen is this?
?

How much is it?


?

Who told you that?


?

What river flows through

London?
?
How many students

attended the lecture?


-

?
who what
, .
, ,
:
Who helps you in your work?
- ?
Who were dancing in that corner - ,
near the palm-tree?
?

,
, , c
:
Who brought you this book? - ? My friend did.
.
Who invented the radio? Popov did. - ? - .

:
When are you leaving? We have - ? -
not fixed the day yet.
.
Whats the matter with you, Jane? - - , ? 20

Im feeling unwell, I have a


,
headache.
.

, ,
:
When are you leaving? Tomorrow. - ? - .
Whats the matter with you? Why, - ? - .
nothing.
Where are our seats? Row 12,
- ? -
seats 18 and 19.
, .
.
12.3.3. (Alternative Questions)
,
, , ..
.
( ) (
) or.
, r -
.
,
, :
Do you work or (do you) study?- ? I study.
.
When will you come: in the evening - :
or in the morning? I shall come in ? - y .
the morning.
,
,
. :
Did you or did your brother win the - first prize at the chess tournament?- My brother did.
? - .

, :
What conductors offer more
-
resistance: long ones or short ones? :
?
12.3.4. (Disjunctive Questions)
. - oec ,
- , -
.

20

- t d.
( Yes), - ;
( No),
.

.
:
, , ..
,
.
,
.

: ? ? ? ?
- :
He is here, isnt he?
- , ?
He isnt here, is he?
- , ?
Jne doesnt play tennis, does she? - , ?
You have such a book, havent you?- ?

:
Today is Monday, isnt it? Yes, it - ? .
is.
You dont like coffee, do you? No,- , ? -
I dont.
.

Thats right. Thats so. Quite right. Quite so:
You have been here before, havent - ,
you? Thats right.
? - .
You returned from the trip yester-
day, didnt you? Thats so.
?- .
,
yes, - no,
, o . :
You didnt like the song, did you? - , ?
Yes, I did.
- , .
No, I didnt.
- , .
12.4. () (Imperative
Sentences)

, , , ,
.
.
-
20

.
:
me here!
- !
Dont be silly!
- !
Lets go at once.
- .
please
will you? wont you?
, . will you?
wont you? . :
Close the window, will you?
- , , .
m and see me, wont you?
- , .
Pass me the salt, please.
- , .

t do:
Do write to me!
- , !
Do be serious, George!
- , !

you (,
):
You mind your own business! -
!
you dont:
And dont you forget it!
- !
, 1- 3- ,
t let

( . 13.3.1.2.):
Let him learn it by heart.
- .
Let us stay at home.
- .
Lets not quarrel.
- .

,
. :
1)

(
),
:
Would you please shut the door? - ?
Wont you stay a little longer?
- -?
2) :
You mustnt be late for school. - .
You should be more attentive. - .
3) :
Enough of this! Silence!
- ! !
12.5. (Exclamatory Sentences)

20

- (, ,
, ..).
- :
What a pretty hat youve got! - !
How well he speaks English! - -!
What a clever girl she is!
- !


(, ).
-
:
Why, its him!
- a, !
Oh, it will be very interesting! - Ax, !
Why, isnt it funny?
- ?

on
arth

( a
). :
Where on earth is my pen?
- , , o ?
Why on earth did you come so - , ,
late?
?

what, how,
. how
,
what - .
what
.


.
( +
) :
What a pretty room this is!
- !
What silly mistakes youve made! - !
What wonderful news this is!
- !
How tall youve grown!
- !
How late it is!
- !
,
.
:
How good of you to come!
- , !
How awful!
- !
Splendid!
- !
12.6. (Negative Sentences)
,
21

,
.
not, . not
:
1) .
not

:
I dont remember when he was
- ,
here last.
.
Without you he wouldnt have
, .
known what to do.
2) :
I cant live on my wages with
-
prices as they are.
.
3) :
She isnt yet forty.
- .
He wasnt there.
- .
4) to be there is,
, :
There werent any lessons today.
- .
There isnt a book there.
- .
Thre arent five pencils on the table. - .
5) to have - , ,
, :
I havent (got) a red pencil.
- .
m hasnt any money
- .
He didnt have the book last year.- po
.

no. ,
e :
I have no fountain pen.
- e .
There are no books on the table. - .

.

, (no, nobody,
no one, none, nothing), (never, nowhere)
neither nor. ,
,
,
.
:
Ive never seen anything like that. -
21

Nobody tells me anything.


Neither the war nor his months
back in the mines had aged him.

.
- .
- ,
.

13. (THE SIMPLE SENTENCE)


13. 1.
,
(
).
, ,
- , ,
- .

( )
; ,
, , ,
- ,
, - -.

. ,
,
:
Ever been here before?
- - ?
( )
Never.
- .
( )
Coming my way?
- ?
( )
- - - ,
, .
- , - -
,
- :
Are you willing to go to the cinema - with
me? Of course!
? - !
Good morning, Jane!
- poe , !
Are you tired? By no means.
- ? - .
13.2. .
13.2.1. (The Subject)
, ,
, -
, . :
21

Will you come here tonight?


- ?
- Yes, I shall.
- .

, - .
,
, , .
:

The moon was rising in



the sky.
.
Great Britain lies on the islands.
.

Ive known him for many .


years.
Someone is waiting for
- .
you downstairs.

Four will be enough.



.

Brown will suit me fine.



.

To smoke is bad for



ones health.
.

Printing helped to
standardise spelling.

.
/, The is the definite
h -
,
article.
.
, [u:] is a long vowel.
[u:]- .

-
, .
- e .
-
:
1) n - ,
, . n, ,
:
From the other window one could see - the four large blocks of university
buildings.
.
2) they , :
h say hell be back on Monday. - ,
.
3) ou , .
n:
21

If you want to make people angry


- x just tell them what youre really
, ,
thinking.
.

, ,
, , it.
it
- :
1) , , ,
:
Its only seven oclock now.
- .
Is it far to the station?
- ?
Its very cold today, isnt it?
- , ?

-,
(to rain, to snow, to freeze),
,
:
It is snowing.
- e.
It was raining all day yesterday. - .
,
, , ..,
, - to become, to get,
to grow, to turn.
:
It has grown dark.
- .
Its getting cold.
- .
Its getting harder and harder.
- .
2) ,
,
:
It takes me 10 minutes to get to
- 10 ,
school.
.
Is it necessary for you to go there -
now?
?
Its a pity he hasnt come.
- , .
3) it seems, it appears, it happens, it is said, it is believed.
,
:
It seems so.
- , .
It is said that swimming is a very - , -
useful sport.
.
,
and, either or, neither nor, not only but also, as
well as .
21

:
Neither you nor he is right.
- .
Gold, silver and platinum are
- ,
precious metals.
.

,
:
To invent a perpetual motion
-
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~
machine is impossible.
.

,
for. oe
.


, ()
, - :
Johns doing it at once is absolutely - ,
necessary.
.
,


,
- .
,
. :
1) to think, to believe, to know, to expect, to
consider, to suppose, to hear, to see. :
He is known to be good
- , -
sportsman.
.
He is expected to come at any
- .
moment.
2) to say, to report, to describe .. :
is said to be a good chess- - , .
player.
he plane was reported to land - , safely.
.
3) , , , , : to
advise, to allow, to ask, to permit, to order, to tell, to make :
I was told to stay there.
- .
He was made to do it.
- .
21

4) to seem, to appear, to happen, to prove, to turn out


:
u seem to know the material ,
very well.
.
He proved to be right in the end. .
5) sure, likely, unlikely, certain:
He is sure to come soon.
- .
She is unlikely to be late.
- .
for, for, for,
/

,
, it:
It will be impossible for me to - e .
come tomorrow.
It was necessary for him to go there. -
.
13.2.2. (he Predicate)
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) .
13.2.2.1. (h Simple Verbal
Predicate)
,
, :
I am going to the library today.
- .
Shall I change your books?
- ?
Wait for me. I am coming too.
- . .
Ann is not at home.
- .

, there is:
There is a fine park in our town. -
.
There wasnt a shop in our street. - .
.
13.2.2.2. (h Modal Verbal
Predicate)

(can, may, must, should, need, ought, be, have, have got)
.
21


- to be, to look, to appear, to seem, to feel . .
oe
(, , ,
..):
Can you swim?
- ?
He ought to be more polite.
- E .
It must be about ten.
- , , .
13.2.2.3. a (h Group Verb Predicate)
a
( - t have to take)
.
. O
:
I have dinner.
- .
I dine.
I have a rest.
- .
I rest.
()
. :
to have dinner (breakfast, supper, lunch, tea, a snack); to have a lesson
(lessons); to have a talk; to have a look; to have a cold; to have a good time; to
have a rest; to have a bite; to have a drink; to have a smoke; to have a quarrel;
to have (take) a walk; to take a bath; to take a seat; to take a tram (bus, etc.); to
take care, to pay a visit; to pay attention, to catch cold.
Lets have a swim.
- .
Did you have a talk with him?
- ?
13.2.2.4. o (he mnd Nominal
Predicate)
o - to be
( ).
- , -
, , .
, to be .
:
Our town is very beautiful.
- .
Are you ready?
- ?
to be, -
:
1) t sem, to look, to appear ,
to feel :
You look tired.
- .
She seemed very excited.
- .
He feels fine.
- .
21

2) to get, to become, to turn, to grow :


brother will become an engineer. - .
She turned pale.
- .
3) to remain, to keep, to continue, to begin, to start, to finish, to stop, to
cease, to go on ,
:
He kept talking.
- .
Everybody remained silent.
- .
Start working, please.
- , .
He stopped chatting at once.
- .
(h Predicative)
:
1) ()
:
This is my sister Ann. She is a
- . .
student.
Is it your book? No, its not
- ? , ,
mine, it is Nicks.
.
She is in good health.
- .
2) :
When will you be free today?
- ?
This chair is broken.
- .
3) ,
,
:
Its me.
- .
Thats something!
- -!
Whose book is this? Its mine. - ? .
4) :
We were only two.
- .
I was the first to come.
- .
5) :
Our plan was to start at once.
- .
Its up to you to decide.
- .
6) :
My hobby is collecting postage
-
stamps.
.
7) :
The lesson is over.
- .
Our time is up.
- .
8) :
My father is against my entering -
the college this autumn.
.
13.2.3.
21

:
What are you doing? I am
- ?
preparing for my lessons.
.
,
, :
Everybody knows it.
- .
Either month is all right.
- e .
,
:
Meeting her was a pleasure. - .
,
,
, ,
, ,
(),
:
The crowd was helpless.
- .
Th fleeing crowd were scattered -
by the mounted police.
.

, , , ..,
, ,
,

:
30 miles is a days journey in
- 30 -
these hills.
.
6 cm of aluminum are required - 6 ,
to stop all beta rays.
.
,
, and both nd,
:
h Earth and other planets mov -
around the Sun.
.
Both the dog and his master were - ,
dragged ashore by Peter and Hans.
.
,
, co neithernor, eitheror, not only
but also, -
:
Either Margaret or Im going with you. - .
Neither Margaret nor her sisters were - ,
ready.
.
21

as well as,
:
John, as well as his brothers, doesnt -, ,
bear townsfolk.
.

22

13.3 (Secondary Parts of the


Sentence)
13.3.1. (The bject)
, ,
,
: Whom ? - oo? What? ? To whom? - ? With whom? - ? By whom?- ? Abut whom? ? About what? - ? ..

. .
to,
.
13.3.1.1. (The Direct Object)
,
, ,
.

whom? - ? what- ?
.
,

:
He met a friend.
- .
The pilot started the engine.
- .

,
, ,
, ,
:
Give me some water.
- .
I have not read this book.
- .

,
x :
Help me, please.
- , .
He followed his brother.
- .
,
,
:
Substrct 92 frm 238.
92 238.
knew all the ups and downs of -
their family history.
.
Do you want to go with me?
- ?
22

Im very sorry to have kept you - ,


waiting.
.
, ,
:
Studying foreign languages is of -
great importance.
.
Reading the letter upset her.
- .
Having read the letter she got upset. - ,
.

, .
.
13.3.1.2. (The Complex Object)
,
,
( )
:
1) , to want, to like, to prefer, to mean, to
expect:
My mother wants you to come and - ,
stay with us next week.

.
He wants the book to be returned - ,
tomorrow.
.
Nobody expected him to come.
- .
2) , to hear, to see, to
feel, to watch, to notice, to make, to let, to help
I wont have.
to:
I saw him come in the garden.
- , .
I didnt hear the bell ring.
- , .
I wont have you talk like that.
- ,
.
What makes you think so?
- ?
3) to know, to think, to consider, to believe, to prove,
to turn out.
;
- :
Do you think him (to be) a good -
pupil?
?
I dont believe this to be true.
- , .
4) , , , , ..
to advise, to allow, to ask, to beg, to order, to permit, to promise, to tell, to
help, to warn:
22

What time did he ask you to come? -


?
He warned me not to be late.
- ,
.
,
,
( )
The Present Participle.
,
, . :
I saw you pass our house.
- ,
.
I saw you passing our house.
- ,
.

to hear, to feel, to listen, to notice, to observe, to see, to look
(at), to keep ( waiting), to find:
Lets listen to John playing the
- ,
piano.
.
I found him working at his model. -
.
Im sorry to have kept you waiting. - , .
,
,
( )
The Past Participle.
to have, to
get, to want, to wish,
must have must get. ,
- , :
I must have my TV-set repaired. -
( ).
.: I must repair my TV-set.
-
().
:
my hair cut (trimmed)
.
my hair done (set)
.
I must have my shoes mended .
have my photo taken
.
my clothes cleaned
.
, ,

, ,
to mind, to excuse, to forgive, to
22

pardon, to understand:
Would you mind my opening the - ,
window?
?
You must forgive our coming late. -
.

, :
-
, - ,
(, ) ,
. t name, to
elect, to choose, to find, to paint, to make:
We painted the door white.
- .
We elected Nick chairman of the -
circle.
.
I found the box empty.
- , .
.


:
Jack likes books on art.
- .
I gave him a book on art.
- .
(him - ; a book - )

,
:
1) ,
,
:
What are you reading?
?
What book are you reading?
- ?
~~~~
~~~~~~
2)
:
Have you a green pencil?
- ?
,
, :
What a funny story I heard
-
yesterday!
!
13.3.1.3. (The Indirect Object)
(),
, (,
, ).
( )
22

:
The teacher gave us a very difficult -
task.
.
(us ; task - )
The engineer showed the boys how - ,
to build a boat.
.
(the boys - ; how to build the boat - )

,
:
Show me your copybook.
- .
We gave our mother a nice present -
for her birthday.
.
He told nobody about this failure. -
.
, ,
:
1) to ask, to bring, to do sm. good (harm), to give, to hand, to lend, to offer, to
owe, to pass, to pay, to promise, to read, to refuse, to sell, to send, to show,
to take, to teach, to tell, to write, to wish:
I wish you all a Happy New Year! -
!
A cup of tea will do you no harm. - .

to,
:
She gave me her book.
.
She gave her book to me.
to , ,
:
) , :
He read the letter to all his friends. -
.
) :
Ive brought a book to you, not to him. - , .
) :
Give it to me, please.
- , .
) :
Give it to Father, please.
- , .
2) to bring, to buy, to choose, to cook, to do, to get, to leave, to make, to spare:
Will you buy me some envelopes?
-
?

22

He chose his sister a good present.

-
.

for,
. for
, to:
He bought a dictionary for his
- .
brother.
Ive made coffee for you all.
- .
13.3.1.4. (The Prepositional Object)
, ,
, o ,
.
.
. , ,
,
-:
We congratulated him on his success. - .
( ; )
I must speak to you at once.
-
.
,
c e , .
t
explain, to dictate, to express, to reveal:
I explained to him the rule for -
forming the Past Indefinite

Tense.
.
.: I explained to him the rule.
- .

c ( ).

,
:
What are you looking at?
- c?
What story are you talking of? - ?
:
1) :
I cannot agree to your proposal. -
.
2) :
Dont wait for me.
- .
3) :
Thank you for coming.
- , .
22

Excuse me for being late.


- .
4) :
You can rely upon his coming in - :
time.
.
I object to your going there
- ,
alone.
.
5) for-:
Lets wait for the shops to open. - ,
.

. ,
:
about to agree, to care, to I havent thought .
doubt, to hear, to
about it yet.
quarrel, to talk, to Have you read any
-
speak, to read, to
books about space

learn, to think
travel?
?
at
to aim, to laugh, to
You must work more fire, to look, to work, at your English.
.
to smile, to wonder What are you laughing ?
at?
after to look, to name
Our street is named
after Yury Gagarin.
.
Who looks after your
sister?
?
by

The poem Poltava
- was written by
.

Pushkin.

for
to care, to fight, to
Im waiting for Mary. .
hope, to look, to pay, Im preparing for my .
to prepare, to send, exams.
to struggle, to wait.
from to hear, to recover, She hasnt yet recover- a
to suffer
ed from her illness.
.
in
to believe, to end, to Tom failed in

fall, to succeed, to geography.
.
take part
Will you take part in
the concert?
?
of
to boast, to consist, What
are
you ?
to smell, to think, to thinking of?
make
He never boasted of
his success.
.
on,
to count, to call, to
Ill call on you
.
22

upon

depend, to insist, to
speak

tomorrow.
Can I count on your
help?
?
to
to agree, to answer, to And now listen to me,
belong, to
please.
, .
correspond, to
Im looking forward
happen, to listen, to
to seeing you again.
.
look forward, to object, to speak, to write
with
to agree, to meet, to Do you agree with me? ?
tremble
The girl trembled with
cold.
.
with

:
I usually write with a fountain pen. - .

to remind smb. about smth.; to praise smb. for smth.; to do smth.
for smb.; to borrow smth. from smb.; to translate smth. from one language into
another; to congratulate smb. on smth.; to spend time (money) on smth./smb.; to
compare smth. to/with smth.; to introduce smb. to smb.; to give (offer, tell) smth.
to smb.:
Please, remind me about it!
- , !
May I introduce you to my
-
brother?
?
,
:
about to be anxious about
We are anxious about
his health.
.
at
to be/get angry at smth.; to He is good at history.
be bad/good at; to be quick Im really surprised at , , /slow at; to be surprised at your laziness.
.
for
to be anxious for; to be
Pyatigorsk is famous
ready for; to be sorry for;
for its mineral to be suitable/fit for; to be springs.
.
necessary for
from to be absent from; to be Why was he absent from
free from; to be different the class yesterday?
?
from; to be safe from
Well be safe from rain here.
.
in
to be interested in; to be Are you not interested
rich in; to be successful in football?
?
in
Our country is rich in minerals.
.
22

of

to be afraid of; to be asha- The girl was afraid of med of; to be glad of; to be the big dog.
fond of; to be full of; to be
.
proud of; to be sure of; to Jane is fond of .
be tired of
singing.
to
to be good/ kind to; to be Is everything clear to ?
polite/rude to; to be clear/ you?
known to; to be useful to + Im so grateful to you.
.
With to be angry with; to be She was angry with him.
acquainted with; to be ill Are you acquainted
with; to be pleased with
with John?
?
13.3.2. (The Attribute)
- ,
, ,
, . ,
,
:
The Moscow Metro was once one of - -
~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~
the most beautiful underground railways
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
in the whole world.
.
~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~

, p
: ,
,
, .
13.3.2.1.
,
() . :

a
lovely white
flower
the
nice summer
dress
the
World Peace
Congress
all both,
, such
what, half,
(. 2.3.).
. ,
,
(, , ,
some, any, many, much, each, every, either, - no),

22

, . :
ak this pen.
~~~
Do you like our new English
~~~
teacher?

- .
~~~~
-
~~~
?

This is Jacks penknife, not yours. - , .


~~~~~
~~~~~
Whose book is this?
- ?
~~~~~
~~~
Ive got many things to do.
- M .
~~~~
~~~~~
There are no books on the table. - .
~~
~~~~~~~
Open your books at page five. - 5.
~~~~
~~~~
~~~~
~~
:
: a short text - ; a hard task -
~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
~~~~
~~~~~~
; slow motions - .
~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~

,
(. 5.4.):
1)

an ugly large old Scythian -


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
metallic weapon
.
~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
2) :
Give me another cup of tea, - , .
~~~~~~
please.
There is little milk in the jug. - .
~~~~
He gave each child an apple. - .
~~~~
~~~~~~~~
3) :
Two or three days went by.
~~~~ ~~~~
Nineteen persons were
~~~~~~~
gathered here.

- .
-
.

Ours was the first boat on the -


~~~~
~~~~~~
river.
.
4) I II:
The frozen ground was hard -
~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~
as stone.
.
The melting ice or snow keeps -
~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~
the same temperature while
.
melting.
We saw the lighted windows
~~~~~~
of the cottage.

- .
~~~~~~~~~~~
23

5) :.
Tomorrows my mothers birthday. - .
~~~~~~~
~~~~~
They are all in Janes room.
- .
~~~~~
~~~~~~
1) :
The garden was surrounded by a -
low stone wall.
.
~~~~~
~~~~~~~~


.
:
export oil ; oil export - .
~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~
~~~
~~~~~~

:

wave motion

wave length


tension test


war damage ,

.
, , ,
, :
Steam engine cylinder
-
~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Engine-driven generator
-
~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Permanent bar magnet
-
~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
A public supply power system -
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
7) :
The Trade Union conference -
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
opened at 6 oclock.
6 .
John was of think-before-you- - ,
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
speak sort.
, - .
~~~~~
13.3.2.2.

.
:
1) :

23

You will find him in this house -


in the room to your right.
.
~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

:
of

The works of M.V. Lomonosov


have been translated into many
foreign languages.
I like books about great
travellers.
Many thanks for the book.
The distance from Earth to
Venus is 40 million kilometres.

. .

.
about

.
for
.
from

40
.
in
Do you like the pictures in this
book?
?
on
I am going to make a report on
space flights.
.
to
Heres the key to the door.
.
with
Do you like coffee with milk?
?
without My little brother Tom doesnt
like books without pictures.

.
2)
-,
:
Jack London, a famous American - , ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
writer, was born in the family of
,
~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
a poor farmer.
.
3) :
She admired his way of doing
- , .
~~~~~~
things.
of,
(. 7.5.4.).
4)
:
He looked again at the shelves - of the books to be read.
, .
~~~~~~~~
5) for.
:
The first thing for you to do is to - , ,
~~~~~~~~~
go to the library and look up a

series of papers.
.
23

6) :
The bomb had fallen through the ~~~~
roof on the timbers below.
.
~~~~~
~~~
7) :
The high peak, lighted by the
- , ~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
morning sun, was very beautiful. , .
~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~
8) :
Thats all I have to say.
- , .
~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
9) :
Military units, famous for their - ,
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
heroic deeds, have the honorary ,
~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
title of Guards units.

.
10) ,
) , some, any, no every:
Everything possible was done to - ,
~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~
finish the work at the date fixed.
.
I saw nothing important there. - .
~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~
) ,
singular plural:
The only people present were
-
~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Dolton, Lucy and Lucys husband. , .
The first person singular
-
~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~
, ,

, ,
. .
,
. :
I heard the voices of the kids,
- ,
~~~~~~~
waiting for the school bell to ring. .
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
They behaved like schoolboys, - , ,
afraid of the teacher.
.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
13.3.2.3. (The Apposition)
(The Apposition).

23

; , .
:
This is Doctor Brown.
- .
~~~~~~
~~~~~~
My elder brother Tom is a
-
~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
university student.
.

:
London, the capital of Great
- , ,
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Britain, has a population of
9
~~~~~
about 9 million people.
.
Jack London, a famous American - , ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
writer, was born in 1876.
, 1876 .
~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

,
, , ,
. :
Ann, the daughter of the landlady, - , ,
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
helped us to pack.
.
There I met Mr Silton, a film
- -
~~~~~
producer.
, .
~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The Glory, a British steamship, -
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
was to arrive on Monday morning.
.
13.3.3. (The Adverbial Modifier)
, , -

(, , , ..),
.

, , , , ,
, , , ,
, , . ,
, .
,
. ,
, (
? ? ? ? ? ?
..).
, , , , , ..
:
23

1) :
He found himself in a lonely
- .
street.
The procession moved slowly
-
towards the embankment.
.
He will be here tomorrow.
- .
2) :
The snow began to fall early in the - .
morning.
Ill phone you on Sunday.
- .
He seldom spoke with such
-
frankness.
.
,

when while
,
.
:
When out of the flame (=When the
-
wire is out of the flame) it becomes
,
magnetic again.
.
The worthy old lady took a fancy to - Rawdon Crawly when a boy.
,
.
3) :
He moved steadily but slowly over
- ,
the soft snow.
.
He likes to sleep with the windows
-
open.
.
She was crying bitterly.
- .
He arrived by taxi.
- .
He walked very fast.
- .
4) :
Its very romantic to take a walk by - the moonlight.
.
I dont feel like going out in such
-
weather.
.
5) :
I did my best to prevent her from
- ,
making this mistake.

.
To achieve success one should work - ,
hard.
.
6) :
The plane was detained because of - - 23

the fog.
.
She was shivering with cold.
- .
7) :
She sat still like a statue.
- .
He was as ugly as a monkey.
- , .
8) :
Almost all pupils behaved well.
-
.
Papers and TV vary greatly in
- power of influence on people.
.
9) :
He was clever enough to
- ,
understand this.
.
She was too tired to go for a walk. - ,
.
10)
Whatever the reason, she should - ,
have come.
.
Though tired, he agreed to
- ,
accompany us.
.
11) :
To look at her you wouldnt believe - , she was a famous actress.
,
.
He said he would do it if
- ,
necessary.
.
12) :
He had no choice but to obey the -
order.
, .
:
1) :
The second day was exactly like -
the first.
.
You speak English quite well.
-
-.
2) .

:
about
, , Children were running
, () about the schoolyard. .
after
, (), Where will you go

(after classes?
?
)
Shut the door after
.
23

you.
at
, , ,
We were all sitting at ()
table when he entered. , .
Theres a post-office at
the end of the street.
.
at
, (,
My father works at a

)
plant.
.
Is Jane at school yet? ?
at
( ), Ill come at 9 oclock. 9 .
- He was a kid at that

at that
time.
.
(this) time
(moment, hour); at
night (dawn,
present)
before
, (, I came here before 10 10
)
oclock.
.
behind
,
He hid behind the

()
tree.
.
between (,
Ill come between 8
8 9.
)
and 9.
The Mediterranean

Sea is between

Europe and Africa.
.
by
()
Ill have finished the

report by Sunday.
.
by

Lets go by train.
.

She made no comment


, on it, except by a
,
scorn-ful movement of .

the lips.
for
, - Ive been there for a

() week.
.
for
(
Hes leaving for Kiev
- tomorrow.
.
to start, to
leave, to sail)
from
, , (,
When will you be back
)
from your trip?
?
Hell be here from 10 10
till 12.
12 .
in
, , (,
The book is in my

)
desk.
.
in
(,
Where will you go in

23

,
, , )

summer?
?
Ill be back in 2 hours. 2 .
In a day or two every-
thing will be ready.
.
into
,
He put the book into

(
the table drawer.
.
He poured some

-)
water into the glass.
.
(up)on
( Look, your cap is on
,

the floor!
!
-
Hang up this diagram
)
on the wall.
.
(up)on
, ,
On my way home I

(,
met my friend.
.

Are you going on an

)
excursion with us?
?
(up)on
(:
Dont come on
,
Tuesday, Ill be away. , .
)
I was born on the 2nd of
June.
.
till
()
I usually prepare my

lessons from 3 till 6.
3 6.
to
, , , (- Where are you going? ?
To school.
.
, ..;
to go, to
come, to return, to
lead, to send)
with
(
The children met him

with smiles and


.

laughter.

Ill do it with

)
pleasure.
.
without (
I cant translate this

-)
sentence without a

dictionary.
.
I cant do it without

your help.
.
3) :
Taking a dictionary, he began
- ,
translating the text.
.
23

Being very tired, I decided to stay - ,


at home.
.
4) :
Wait a minute.
- .
The rain lasted all day.
- .
5) ( ):
Ive come to tell you about
-
tomorrows concert.
.
Ernest was too tired to read, too
- ,
tired even to think about the future.
, ,
.
6) :
To my disappointment he passed by - ,
without speaking.
, .
On coming home I got down to work. - ,
.
He walked out without saying a word. - , .
7) (
):
I remember a holiday of mine being - ,
ruined by our paying attention to the , weather report of our local newspaper.
.
The weather was too cold for the
- children to have a walk.
, .
The weather being fine, the plane
- ,
took off.
.
8) :
Come whenever you like.
- , .
Do whatever you want.
- , .
13.3.3.1.

, .
-, .
- ,
- .
,
(.. ).

.
1) ()
:
He left a few weeks ago.
- .
23

Well start on Sunday morning. - .


,

:
This morning the train arrived late. - .
Last summer we went to the moun- -
tains, this summer were going to
,
the Black Sea coast.

.
, ,
:
After seeing the film we discussed it. - ,
.
We discussed the film after seeing it. -
.

:
He is leaving at 5 oclock tomorrow. - .
2) ( ):
,
,
to be:
I often meet him on my way home.
-
.
I am always ready to help you.
- .
I have never been here before.
- .
You must never do that again.
-
.

:
Do you often play tennis?
- ?
Have you ever been here?
- - ?
, ( every other
day, twice a week, several times ..),
- ,
:
I have been to the museum several -
times this year.
.
3) , ,

,
:
Hang up the map on the wall, please. - ,
.
We are going to Tula next week.
-
24

.

:
He was sitting on a bench in the park. - .
4)
.
,
( ):
Dont speak so fast, I can hardly
- ,
understand you.
.
Youve done this work well.
- .
Listen to me attentively.
- .

, :
The boy quietly went out.
- .
The boy went out quietly.
- .

, -
( ):
I can do it only with your help.
-
.
By doing that he managed to solve
- ,
the problem.
.
5) , ,
,
, to be:
I quite understand you.
- .
I have almost finished the work.- .
, ,
, .
nough :
Im awfully glad to see you.
- .
Youre quite right.
- .
You dont work hard enough.
-
.
6) .
:
Well have to run to catch the train. - ,
.
7) () .

. :
Im too tired to go any further.
- ,
.
24

Jack is clever enough to understand - ,


his mistake.
.
8) , ,
,
:
The weather being fine, they conti- - ,
nued their journey.
.
Being hungry and thirsty, the
-
tourists made up their minds to
,
camp at once.
.
,
,
:

:
The scouts were moving noiselessly -
along a narrow path in the dead of

night.
.

, :
) ,
:
Ill see him tomorrow at the meeting -
of the scientific society.
.
) .
:
Some day I may be able to do it, - - , ,
said Alan.
, - .
On your right youll see the splendid - buildings of Oxford University.

.
13.4. (Parentheses)
(),
- ,
.
,
.
. :
The day was rather rainy, but
- ,
fortunately it was not cold.
, , .
To tell you the truth, I dont want to - , go there myself.
.
24

It isnt quite correct, strictly


- ,
speaking.
.
:
1) :
Unfortunately, our train was late.
- ,
.
Maybe she is ill.
- , .
Of course I understand everything. - , .
2) :
To cut a long story short, our team - ,
won the match.
.
To tell you the truth, I didnt like - ,
her at first.
.
3) :
Frankly speaking, I dont like the
- ,
book.
.
Generally speaking, youre right.
- -, .
4) :
Jane will stay to lunch with us,
- I expect.
, .
He speaks English pretty well, I must - - say.
, .
One autumn morning I was with my - -
mother in the yard, when Mr Murd , -
stone I knew him by that name now -
came by, on horseback.

.
:
Heres a letter for you, dear.
- , .
Oh, how brave you are, Tom!
- , , !
Come here, Jane!
- , !
Now, Joe, the fowls.
- , , .
13.5. (Elliptical Sentences)

. .
, ,
,
:
) :
I sat near the window, he near the - , - .
door.
) :
I ran after him, he over the wall. - , - .
) :
24

Playing, children? (=Are you


- , ?
playing, children?)
Playing children
-
:
1) ,
, :
How are you? Quite well, thanks. - ()? - ,
.
What time is it? Six (oclock).
- ? ().
Wherere you going? To the
- Ky ? - .
stadium.

2) (I, we it) -,
;
:
(Im) Very glad to meet you.
- () .
(Im) Awfully glad to see you - () .
again.
(Im) Sorry I cant come today. - () ,

.
(Im) Much obliged to you.
- () .
(Im) Pleased to meet you.
- () .
(Its) Awfully kind of you to
- () ,
come.
.
(Its) Very nice of you.
- () ( ).
(Are you) Ready to go?
- () ()? .
(Are you) Tired? No.
- () ? .
3)
( ) to have (Present Perfect) to be (Present
Continuous):
(Have you) Been here long?
- () ? , 2 .
Yes, 2 hours already.
(Are you) Going home? Not
yet.
(Are) You actually leaving
tomorrow?
(Are you) Coming, Mary?

- ( ) ? .
- () ?

- () , ?
4) -
you would do:
(Would you) Mind if I come
- () , ?
along with you?
(Would you) Mind if I join you? - () ,

?
24

(Would you) Mind if he helps

() , you?
?
(Do you) See what I mean?
- () , ?
(Do you) Feel better?
- () ?
(Do you) Feel a bit tired?
- ()
?
5) ,
, :
Is that clear? Quite.
- ? - .
Are you tired? A bit, yes.
- ? , .
Coming with us? Id love to. - ? - .
Did you like the book? Very - ? - .
-

much.

n you speak English?

- -?
- A little.
- .
6) I
:
(I shall) See you tomorrow.
- .
(I) Hope I didnt disturb you. - () , ?
7) it (
it) it -:
(Its) No use asking him about it. - .
(Its) Ten oclock and no sign of - , .
him.
(It) Seems to me, boys, you are - , , .
all wrong.

8) ,
(, -).
:
How about an ice cream? - ?
What about a walk?
- ?
More coffee?
- ?
Tea for you, Jane?
- , ? - ,
No more, Joe.
.
Another cup, Pete? No, - , ? - , .
thanks.
An apple?

- ?
13.6. - - (Word-Sentences
and Phrase-Sentences)
- -,
,
.
- - :
24

1) : yes; no; of
course; of course not; sure; by all means; by no means; not at all; certainly;
certainly not; exactly; not exactly; perhaps; may be; probably; probably not.
:
Will you help me? Why, of course. - ?
.
May I ask you a question?- ?
Certainly.
.
2) , -
: Quite. Quite so. Exactly. Right. All right. Good. Very
well. OK.
I hope youll agree with my proposal. - ,
- Good!
. .
Are you willing to come with us? - ?
All right.
.
We are planning an outing for
-
tomorrow. Youre also invited. OK! .
.
!
3)

-,

:
Fine!
- !
Amazing!
- !
What a glorious day!
- !
4) , :
Hello! Hi!
- ! !
Good afternoon (morning, evening)! - (, )!
Good-bye! So long!
- ! !
Good night!
- !
5) :
Fire!
- !
Water!
- !
Danger!
- !
Help!
- ! !
:
Thank you. Thank you very much.
.

.
Thank you ever so much.
- .
6) - - (); - :
A cold winter day.
- .
September 1941.
- 1941 .
Post-Office
- ()
Entrance
- ()
24

The cat
English Grammar

- ( )
-
( )

14. (THE COMPOSITE


SENTENCE)
14.1.
, ,
, .
,
, .
.
, ,
clauses. ,
, ,
sentences.
:
1) , ( ):
Love me, love my dog.
- ,
.
A man is known by the company he
- , ,
keeps.
, . (.:

)
2) ( ):
It never rains but it pours.
- ,

(.:
)
He laughs best who laughs last.
- ,

.

.
14.2. (The Compound Sentence)

,
. ,

,
.
,
, :
1) and, but, for, or, yet, either or,
24

neither nor, as well as, not only but also . ,


, .
and or, ,
, .

.
A cold wind was blowing and a - ,
snowstorm began.
.
I have not much news to convey but- ,
there are some things to add. - .
I began to miss London, yet I - ,
was not coming back.

.
You can boil yourself an egg or - ,
Ill make you a cheese sandwich. .
They liked the house or they
- ,
wouldnt have bought it.
.
Ann had a headache, for she - ,
had slept badly last night.
.
2) .

, ,
:
A cold wind was blowing, a
- ,
snowstorm began.
.
My parents are quite young
-
people, they live their own life. , .
The house badly needs pain- - ;
ting; the garden is overgrown .
with weeds.
The rain stopped, the sky
- , cleared: we could continue our
journey.
.
They asked for food there
- .
was none.
14.3. (The Complex Sentence)
,

, .
,

,
.
, ,
24

.
. :
I dont know what you mean. - , .
(what - ,
,
- mean.)
I dont know how you do it.
- , .
(how - , , ,

.)

(The Principle/Main Clause)
(Subordinate Clauses),
.
,
.
:
1) that, if, when, because, as soon as,
as long as, till, as, before, after, since, lest, whether, unless, though, so that
.:
I know (that) he is right.
- , .
I was out when he came.
- , .
She had only a cup of tea
- ,
because she was not hungry.
.
that, when because ,
, .
2) -
where, how, what, which, who(m), that .:
He knew who had brought the - , .
letter.
He knew when I would come. - , .
He showed me the picture that - ,
he was given as a birthday
.
present.
who, when that
, who , when , that
.
3) :
The lad you have just talked to - ,
is my sisters friend.
, .
I never thought I should see
- ,
you again.
.
He quickly looked through the - ,
24

newspaper he had bought at


.
the station.
, o ,
:
He knew that they would
- ,
search the area where they had , .
lost him.
,
:
The house where L. Tolstoy was - , . ,
born is a museum, and the
, ,
surroundings in which Tolstoy
spent his childhood and youth ,
have been restored with
.
meticulous care.
14.4.

.
,
,
.

: ,
, ,

.
14.4.1. (Subject Clauses)

who? - ?
what? - ?
,

it. it
.

:
1) what, who, whom, which, whose
when, where, how, why;
what it .
:
What you dont understand is that
- :
hell never agree to this plan.
.
Whats worrying me now is the
- , ,
25

state of her health.


.
Who saved his life remained
- ,
unknown.
.
Why he did not come is still not
- ,
known.
.
2) that, whether, if ( that it).
:
Whether hell agree is another
- ,
question.
.
Is it true that youre going away? - , ?
it is necessary, it is strange, it is important .
, that, -
:
It is important that the letter
- ,
should be sent today.
.
It is strange that he should have - , .
said that.
3) ( it):
It is a pity you couldnt come.
- , .
,
whether/if,
. ,
:
When I shall come back is hard - , .
to say.
If I shall come back is hard to
- , .
to say.
14.4.2. (Predicate Clauses)

(
)

. :
1) what, who, whom, which, whose:
Thats what I want to tell you. - .
2) when, where, how, why:
This is where I live.
- .
Thats why I came here.
- .
3) that, whether, if:
The trouble is that weve got - ,
very little time.
.
The fact is that he didnt come - -, .
at all.
, ,
when if, -
25

:
Thats when he will appear.
- .

- to be, to get, to become, to grow
. :
The talk was getting what he - , ,
called pointless.
.
,
- to seem, to
appear, to look, to happen:
It seems that he was late for
- , .
the train.
14.4.3. (Object
Clauses)

( )
.
:
1) that, if, whether:
Do you doubt that I can do it? - ,
?
Do you know if any changes - ,
have been made in your time- -
table?
?
that ,
, :
I suppose (that) hell be there. - , .
2) what, who, whom, which, whose:
I dont know what you are
- , .
talking about.
Ive forgotten whom I gave the - , .
book.
3) when, where, how, why:
I wonder why he hasnt come. - , .
Do you remember where he - , ?
lives?
,
:
I cant understand, what you - ,
are laughing at.
.
4) .
,
I wish.
:
25

I wish it were summer now.


- , .
I wish I hadnt gone there.
- .


:
I hope you are ready now.
- , .
Im glad youre with us again. - , .

should:
The family decided that the elder
- ,
son should become a lawyer.
.
,
when if,
:
I dont know when he will come.
- , .
I dont know if hell be meeting you. - ,
.
14.4.4. (Attribute
Clauses)


which? what? - ?
,
, :
1) that, who, whom, as, which, whose:
Toms brother who lives in Moscow - ,
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
is an engineer.
, - .
~~~~~~~~
His words that he wasnt coming
- , ,
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
upset me.
.
whom, whose which,
, .
2) where, when, why:
The place where we stopped to rest - ,
was very beautiful.
,
3) :
You can take any seat you like.
- ,
~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~
.
~~~~~~~
I've done all I could.
- , .
~~~~~~
~~~~~~
This is the book I told you about.
- ,
~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
25

.
~~~~~~~
:
(Descriptive Clauses)
(Limiting Clauses).
14.4.4.1.
(Descriptive Clauses)


.
:
Emily, who thought she knew him so - , ,
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
well, was alarmed.
,
~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.
who thought she knew
him so well She thought she
knew him so well .
.

( ),
, :
In the street I met some children,
- ,
who showed me the way.
.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

that
(
who, which that . 3.10.).
14.4.4.2.
(Limiting Clauses)

, ,
.

.
,

,

,
:
He picked up the package
- ( ) ,
which she had dropped.
.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
We know B. Shaw as the writer - . ,
25

who wrote many interesting



~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
plays.
.
~~~~
~~~~
,

.
,
(.. ,
) -
:
Where is the letter (which) I
- ,
~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
gave you to read?
?
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~
, ,
,
:
He is the man we were talking - ,
~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
about this morning.
.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~
The hostel our students live in - ,
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
is situated in the park.
, .
~~~~~~~~
14.4.4.3. (Appositive
Clauses)

(Appositive
Clauses).

, that,
,
,

:
I had the impression that she was
- ,
~~~~~~~~~~
~~~
badly ill.
.
~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
( )
We turned down his suggestion
- that we should take in a border.
.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
( - )
The thought that she was unhappy
- , ,
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
kept him awake all the night.
.
( - )

25

idea, hope, news, thought, problem,


question, feeling, chance, suggestion, impression, offer, sense .:
I have the impression that you dont - ,
~~~~~~~~~~~
trust me.
.
~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The idea that can be of use made him - ,
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
happy.
, .
~~~~~~
14.4.5. (Adverbial
Clauses)


, ,
.
:
If we dont go now, we shall miss the - ,
train.
.
( miss)
The exercise was easier than I had - ,
expected.
.
( easier)

, ,
, , , ,
.

.
,
,
:
When the cat is away, the mice will - () ,
play.
.
14.4.5.1.
(Adverbial Clauses of Place)

where - ? ? from where -?
where - ,
wherever - ( ), ( ). :
They stopped where the road turned - ,
to the river.
.
He went where the doctor sent him. - ,
.
Wherever it was possible, the
- , 25

travellers camped for the night.


.
14.4.5.2.
(Adverbial Clauses of Time)
when ? since when - ? how long - ? till what time? till
when? - ?
when ; whenever - ;
while - , , ; as - , ,
; after - ; before - ; till, until - ,
; as soon as - ; as long as - ; since - ;
by the time (that) - .:
When they reached the village, - ,
Jane got out of the taxi and
.
looked about her.
While theres life, theres hope. - , .
I wont leave until you come. - , .

,
(Present Indefinite Present
Perfect). , ,
when, whenever, till, until, as soon as, as, after, as
long as, by the time, before, directly ( ),
.
Present Indefinite
( Future Indefinite), Present Perfect ( Future Perfect), Present
Continuous ( Future Continuous) (
Future in the Past):
Your room will be ready
- ,
when you come back.
.
My friend will help you
- ,
when you reach the city.
.
They move away onto the grass and -
stand waiting until it has gone.
, ()
.
,
after when, -
Past Perfect, , ,
,
, :
The article was translated after all -
the new words had been looked up in ,
the dictionary.
.
25

,
, ,
Past Indefinite:
After he retired to his study, she
-
knocked softly on the door and
, opened it.
.
,
before, - Past
Indefinite, - Past
Perfect, , ,
, ,
:
He had made many experiments
- ,
before he published the results of

his work.
.

,
, ,
, Past Indefinite:
Michael hurried after him, but Baird - ,
was gone before he reached the club. ,
.
14.4.5.3.
(Adverbial Clauses of Manner and
Comparison)

how - ? ?
as - ; as if, as though - , ()
how () ; that :
You ought to write as he does.- , .
He played so well, that every- - ,
body admired him.
.
Eric sat down in the nearest - ,
chair as if he were collapsing .
from fatigue.
There were thousands like
- , ,
himself whom the war would
,
blot out as though they had
.
never been born.
as ; than - ; as
as - () ... ; not so as - () ;
the the :
The air is not so cold now as it - ,
was in the early morning.
( ) .
A man is as old as he feels and - ,
25

the woman is as old as she


,
looks.
.
The book is not so interesting - ,
as you think.
.
The sooner we walk, the
- ,
sooner we get there.
.
as as not so as
, .

as if (as though): ,
.

, as if (as though)
(Past Subjunctive
Perfect Subjunctive):
She looked as if she were angry.
- ,

.
She looked as if she had been ill - ,
.
Her lips moved soundlessly, as
- ,
though she were rehearsing.

c.
14.4.5.4.
(Adverbial Clauses of Cause)
why
- ? because
; as - ; since - , ; for - ; now that , ; lest () ..:
We took umbrellas because we
- ,
were afraid it would rain.
, .
Now that he is here, he can help us. - ()
, .
As it is wet, we shall stay at home. - ,
.
Since you are ill, Ill do the job
- () ,
myself.
.
14.4.5.5.
(Adverbial Clauses of Purpose)
what
for? ? ? for what purpose? ?
so that,
in order that, that , ; in case - ; lest ()
. - so that.
25

so .

- may (might) should +
to. May (might) ,
- .
- should.
may + ,
- ,
might + , -

.
-

-
. - ,
lest,
, lest
( ).
may (might)

.
may (might) :
Leave the door open so that the - ,
light may show you the way. .
Make a note of it in case you
- , .
forget.
I gave him the textbook so that - ,
he might learn the lesson.
.
He spoke loudly and clearly so - ,
that all could hear him.
.
He speaks slowly so that (in
- ,
order that) children may
( ) .
understand him.
She feared to utter any word
- ,
lest it might jar his feelings.
(.:
).
Write down all the new words
-
from the text lest you should
, .
forget them.
14.4.5.6.
(Adverbial Clauses of Result)

,
.
that , so ,
, so that ,
so:
26

The night was so dark that I


- ,
could hardly see the road.
.
He was so embarrassed that he - ,
could hardly understand her.
.
She sat behind me so (that) I- , could
not see her expression. .
The box was blocking the way
- ,
so (that) one couldnt pass.
.

26

The leaves of the trees were very


-
dark and thick, so that no ray of
,
light came through the branches.

.
It was cold and windy, so we had
- ,

to put off our hike.



.
14.4.5.7.
(Adverbial Clauses of Concession)

in spite of what - ?
,
.
: although, though, as - ; however -
; whoever - ; whatever - , ; whichever ; even if, even though - ; no matter who (what, when,
how ..) (, , ..) ; in spite of the fact that . :
Whatever happens, she wont
- ,
have it her own way.
-.
Although the weather was bad,
- ,
we went for a walk.
.
There were few people in the- ,
streets in spite of the fact that

it was only nine oclock. .



may:
No matter where he may be, - , you
must find him.
.
,

:
I shant mind even if he doesnt
- ,
come.
.
Ill buy the book whatever it- , costs.
.
, as ,
, .

, ,
as, - ,

:
Difficult as was the work, it was
- ,
finished in time.
.
, -
:
I was glad of his help, slight as
- ,

it was.
.
14.4.5.8.
(Adverbial Clauses of Condition)

,
. if ,
unless ; provided (that), providing (that), on condition (that) -
, , ; in case (that) - ; supposing
(that), suppose (that) - , , ; once - :
If we start off now, well arrive
- ,
there by dinner time.
.
He wont go there unless he is
- ,
invited.
.
You may take this book on- , condition
that you dont keep it too long.
.

if.
:
1) , , ,
. -
( )
( )
. -
, ,
,
:
If I see him tomorrow, Ill tell him
- , about your request.
.
If you meet Jack, please tell him that - , we need him badly.
, ,
.
2) , . Future
Indefinite will (
), Present Conditional
would. Present

Conditional Future Indefinite Indicative:


Id be so glad if you would come.
- ,
.
Ill tell you everything if you will
- , only listen to me.
.
3) , ,
. - Present
Subjunctive II (should + )
were + .
Present Conditional, Future
Indefinite Indicative Imperative Mood:
If I should come across such a book
-
Ill buy it at once.
, .
If Ann should come, ask her to wait - , for me.
.
4) , ,
, .
-
Past Subjunctive I.
Present Conditional:
If I were you, I would accept the
-
offer.
.
If I had time, Id go with you.
- ,
.
5) ,
. -
Perfect Subjunctive I, Perfect
Conditional:
If they hadnt helped us, we - ,
shouldnt have finished the
.
work.
Youd have got a higher mark - ,
if you had studied harder in
.
winter.
had, should, were if
,
:
Hadnt they helped us, we shouldnt
- ,
have finished the work in time.

.
Should I come across such a book,
-
,
Ill buy it at once.
.
-

Present Subjunctive,
, , .

. :
If the mixture be well stirred, the
- temperature will be 20C. ,
20 .
,
,
could might The
Indefinite Infinitive:
If you had our canoe, might you not - pass to the shore?
,
?
,
, could might
The Perfect Infinitive:
If there had been no such accident with -
him, he might have been a failure of a

, writer.
,

.
15. (SEQUENCE OF TENSES)

-
, - .
( )
.

.
:
1) -
, -
, :
I think you are right.
- , .
Do you know why he was
- ,
absent yesterday?
?
Ill tell you what you will have - ,
to do.
.
2) -
( Past Indefinite),

, (Future in

the Past). . :
I didnt know he could speak
- , English
.
He told me that you were
- ,
writing your composition.
.
I hoped he would come.
- , .
, ,
,
Past Indefinite Past Continuous (
):
I thought you were ready.
- , .
He told me he was preparing - ,
for his exams.
.
, ,
, Past Perfect (
):
I didnt know she had gone.
- , .
(in 1937, yesterday)
Past Indefinite:
I thought you came back from - ,
your trip yesterday.
.

Future in the Past (
):
I didnt expect you would be - , .
late.
He said that he would meet us - ,
at the stadium.
.

. :
) :
Why he had voted against him - ,
was a mystery.
.
The only fear was that Tom
- , ,
would forget his promise.
,
.
) :
She had the feeling that some- - , -,
one hidden in the bushes was
,
watching her.
.
) :
He pinned the note on the front -
door so that she could see it as , ,
soon as she came back.
.

(,
, , , .)

:
At the exhibition yesterday I saw
-
the girl who lives next door
,
to my brothers.
.
He was very busy that month
- ,
because his firm was producing

a new car.
.
,
,


- ,
,

:
He said he would repair the
- ,
telephone after he had read the , .
article.

,
- :
1) ,
:
You made me understand how - ,
important education is.
.
2) ,
. :
If the storm were stronger, the - ,
waves would reach the tiny
.
house.
We saw that if the storm were - ,
stronger, the waves would
,
reach the tiny house.
.
3) ,
:
I said that you must do it at
- ,
once.
.
I said that you neednt go there. - ,
.
4) ( ),
,
. :

Meg said he has been ringing - ,


you up all day, Mother.
, .
I came to tell you that Ill vote - ,
against you.
.
You said you came in a taxi.
- , .
,
,
:
I came to see how your health was.- ,
.
I quite forgot it was my birthday - ,

today.
.
16. (DIRECT AND INDIRECT
SPEECH)
16.1.
-
. ,
, ,
, ,
. -
.
:
The teacher says, The lesson is over. - : .
, , ,
.
: The lesson is over, the teacher says.
, , .
, , ,
. , ,
, :
The lesson is over, the teacher - , - , -
said, and you can go home.
.
I cant go with you, Mary said. - , -
I must do my homework.
. .
.

. :


She said, Mike has been arrested.
She said that Mike had been arrested.
: .
, .
,
. ,
to say , . to say

,
, . to say
to:
Im fond of my dog, the girl - , -
said to her mother.
.
The girl said to her mother that - ,
she was fond of her dog.
.
to say, ,
, to say
to tell , .
to tell, to say,
:
He said to me, I have seen you - : - .
somewhere.
He told me that he had seen - , - .
me somewhere.
, that to say,
to tell, to write, to answer, to reply, to know, to think, to ask . to
write, to answer, to reply
:
Tom says he is going to study - ,
French.
.
She replied that she knew
- ,
nothing about it.
.
In her last letter she wrote that -
she had successfully passed all ,
her exams.
.
I didnt know she had left.
- , .
16.2.


:
1. , , , .
.
2.
, ( ,
).
3. that . that
to say, to know, to think.
-, (,
to reply -, to state - , to remark - ..)
that .
, ,

, - .
4.
,
- (
)
. -
, , ,
:


Im very sorry.
He says (that) he is very sorry.
Jane: Ill be ready in a moment. Jane says that shell be ready in a moment.
(
- Past Indefinite),
-
, -
:

(
- ).
.
, to answer
, , :
He said (that) he would go back by
- ,
the seven oclock train.
.


Dave said, Dan, I want to talk to Dave told Dan that he wanted to talk to
you. - : , him. - ,
.
.
Cora whispered, They are looking at Cora whispered that they were looking
you. - : at him. - ,
.
.
She said, I have been working at this She said (that) she had been working at
plant for 20 years. - : this plant for 20 years. - ,
20 . 20 .
A stranger said, I shall make a note A stranger said (that) he would make a
of it. - : note of it. - ,
.
.
He said, She disappeared in a conHe said that she had disappeared in a
centration camp. - : concentration camp. - ,



.
.
Tom said, He was given a new Tom said that he had been given a new
position. - : position. - ,
.
.
,
(..
) :
1) Past Perfect, Past Perfect
Continuous Future in the Past:


We had finished our work by 5 oclock They said they had finished their work
yesterday. - by 5 oclock yesterday. - ,
5 .
5
.
2) .

,
to be:


Peter: I was at the conference of Peter said that he was at the
inventors in 1995. - : conference of inventors in 1995.
1995 - ,
.
1995
.
He said, I was born in 1950. - He said (that) he was born in 1950.
: 1950 .
- , 1950
.
3) ,
.

, :


now -
then -
today -
that day -
tomorrow -
the next day -
the day after tomorrow -
in two days time - ;
two days later -
yesterday -
the day before
the previous day
the day before yesterday -
two days before - ;
two days earlier -

ago -

before -

next year -

the next year


the following year
here -
there -
this -
that -
these -
those -

, ,
,
:


I said, I shall be here tomorrow. - I said that I should be there the next day. : . ,
.
here tomorrow
there the next day ,
.


I said, I shall be here tomorrow. - I said that I should be here tomorrow.
: .
- , .
here- tomorrow
, .
16.3.

, .
, : , ,
, ..
.
: 1) ,
; 2)
,
. to ask
.
whether if,
whether.
. whether
if :


He said Have you read the morning He asked me whether (if) I had read
papers? - : the morning papers. -
?
, .
I asked, Do you understand now? - I asked him if he understood now. -
: ?
, ()
.


,
.
.
that:

Do you speak English? - Yes, I do.


No, I dont.

- I answered that I did.


I answered that I didnt.
?
, . ,
.
Have you received a let-ter Yes, I have.
No, I havent.
from home? - I answered that I had.
I answered that I hadnt.
? , . , .
Will he take part in the
Yes, he will.
No, he wont.
chess tournament? -
I answered that he I answered that he
would. - , wouldnt. - ,

() .
() .
?
Yes, I am.
No, I am not.
Are you very tired?
I answered that I was.
I answered that I wasnt.
?
, .
, .

:


He answered in the affirmative.
He answered in the negative.
.
.

,
.
:


Michael said, Why do they want to Michael asked why they wanted to
wear the uniform? - : wear the uniform. - ,
?
.
He asked, When did you see him? - He asked when I had seen him. -
: ?
, .
He asked, How will he find it out? - He asked how he would find it out. : ?
, .
He asked me, Who has come? - He asked me who had come. -
: ?
, .

16.4.
(, , )
, (to ask, to beg,
to request, to implore), , , (to
tell, to order, to compel).
,
,
.

.

not. :


She said, Open the window, please. - She asked me to open the window. : , ,
.
.
She said, Dont open the window,
She asked me not to open the
please. - : , window. -
, .
.
He said, Stop the car. - : He told me to stop the car. -
.
.
He said, Dont bang the door. - He told me not to bang the door. : .
.
The commander said to the sentry, Take The commander ordered the sentry
the prisoner away. - to take the prisoner away. : .

.
, (..
to ask, to order ..),
, ,
,
.
:


The commander said, Take the
The commander ordered the prisoner
prisoner away. - :
to be taken away. -
.
(
).
17. (PUNCTUATION)
17.1.

. ,

, .

. ,
, .
,
. ,

, .
, .
,
, ..
.

,
. ,
(: ,
) ,
.
(, a tape-recorder
), , ,
, .

:
;
, , ;
, ,
..

.
.

.
..
, ..
.
, ,
.. ,
.

,
,
.

17.2. (Full Stop/ Period/ Point)


:
1) :
The lesson is over.
- .
When it gets dark, well enter - , .
the house.
2) :
Co. = Company
-
Dpt./Dept. = Department
- ,
M.A. = Master of Arts
-
P.M. = Prime Minister
- -
S.W. = South-West
- -
p.m. = post meridiem
-
a.m. = ante meridiem
-
etc. = et cetera
-
oz. = onza
- ,
, (H.E. Eliot)
(Feb. = February).
. ,
,
, : Dr (Doctor), Mr (Mister), Mrs (Mistress), Chas (Charles),
Thos (Thomas), Wm (William).
: the
BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation), the USA (the United States of
America) ..
3) .
. ,
, point [p int].
nought [n :t] ( . 4.2.)
:
1) ; , , ..:
War and Peace
-
2) , $, %, .. : 10 5s. 6d. ( 10);
3) : 1st, 2nd, 3rd , 4th .;
4) - : 0 (); Cl (); Amp
(); cm (); mm () ..;
5) : per cent (); at par ( ); MS (); MSS
().
17.3. (The Exclamation Mark)
,
: , , , .
,
:
Help! Throw me a rope!
- ! !

How nice!
- !
Oh! ( : O); Aw!
- ()! ()!
,
:
Stop! weve left the light out! - ! !
,
.
:
Dear John,
!
Ive just received your letter.
17.4. (The Question Mark)
,
:
Who told you about it?
- ?
, ,
:
He asked where his pen was. - , .
, ,

:
Do you know when hell come? - , ?
17.5. (Dots)

, :
Winter drew to its close; and
- ,
still they had no news.
.

Spring was late; the weather


- ;

was cold and wet even in late

May...
,
, , ..:

s.
d.
Repair of garden wall8
4
3
. . .
8
4
3
17.6. (The Comma)

.

:

1) . ,
,
, and :
There are a lot of theatres, museums,
- ,
-and libraries in London.
.
2) , ,
, :
Washington, the capital of the USA,
- ,
, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~
is a very large city.
.
3) :
It being Sunday, the library was - ,
was closed.
.
, ,
:
The trees planted by the children - , grew very fast.
, .
4) , however
, ; thus - , ; in addition - ,
, ; for example - ; in the end, finally, at last, in
the long run - , ; further - , ; on the
contrary - , ; worst of all - ; in short, to cut a
long story short - ; besides - ; consequently ; on the other hand - ; luckily, fortunately .:
However, there may be a few - , .
exceptions.
Thus, that is not the whole - ,
story.
.
5) , :
Peter, wheres your notebook? - , ?
6)
, Sincerely yours - ; Yours faithfully ; Love - ..:
Sincerely yours,
- ,
John Brown.
.
7) :
)
( ) : 3,734; 2,720,000.
, ,
: 3 734; 2 720 000;
)
. :

5th June, 1978


5- , 1978 .
th
5 June 1978
,
. :
We went to Japan on Saturday, -
, 5- 5th June 1978.
1978 .

, , :
I opened the box, and Michael
- ,

took out a cigar.


.
Id like to become a doctor, but - ,

Im sick at the sight of blood.


.
and or,
:
The weight of his pack kept him -
-bent, but he did not fall and he ,
didnt ease his pace.
.
,
:
The sky was covered with - , clouds, a cold wind was
, .
blowing, a snowstorm began.

.
,

.
1) ,

, , :
How this happened is not clear - , .
to anyone.
The trouble is that Ive lost his - ,
address.
.
Ruth could not remember - , where she had left her camera. .
,
, :
Where she had left her camera, - ,
Ruth could not remember. .
2) ,
, ..
:

We went to the lake, which was - ,


~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~
very stormy that day.
.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Paris, which is so atrractive in - , ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
spring, is too hot in summer.
, .
~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~
,

,
..

:
He did not see the letters which - ,

~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
were lying on the table.
.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~
The day when I finish school
- ,
,
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
will be my seventeenth birthday. .
3)
,
:
If I see him, I shall tell him - ,
about it.
.
After the lessons are over, we
-
, shall go home.
.

, :
I shall tell him about it if I see him. - ,
him.
.
We shall go home after the lessons - ,
are over.
.
4) to say
, to tell - ..:
My father said that I could go out. - ,
.
The teacher told us that the lessons - ,
were over.
.
5) ,
, :
He said, Ill be back soon.
- : .
,
, , .
17.7. (The Semicolon)
:
1) ( )

, .
,
,
, , ,
,
. :
Some people work best in the
-
mornings; others do better in ;
the evenings.
.
His death was a great loss to
-

the stage; but it was a blessed


;
relief to his wife.
.
2) ,
:
You may use the sports facili-
- ties on condition that your sub-
, scriptions are paid regularly;

, that you arrange for all neces-
- sary cleaning to be carried out;

,
that you undertake to make .
good any damage.
3) ,
, . :
You will have full charge of the -
poultry, sheep and rabbits; also
,
-give a hand with the milking
;
-when required.
,
.
17.8. (The Colon)
:
1) ,
:
My sister finds all school sub-
-jects easy: French, history,
:
, maths, everything.
,
o.
,
. .
2) , ,

, :
His refusal did not surprise
- :
me: I had expected it.
.
3) , ;
4) , :
Please, send the following items: - , :
- birth certificate;
- ;
- passport;
- ;
- correct fee.
- .
5) , :
In the words of Oscar Wilde:
- ,

I can resist anything except


,
temptation.
.
6) :
Punctuation: Colon
- :
17.9. (The Dash)
:
1)
, :
Cameras, binoculars, jewelry,
- , ,
-perfume all sorts of expensive ,
goods were hidden in the
-smugglers car.
.
2) (
):
My uncle Joe he was himself -
an excellent swimmer gave a

cup for swimming to the school.


.
3)
:
Roger Toynbe was sitting up-
right in his leather chair dead.

.
4) ,
,
:
Well be arriving on Monday
-
morning at least, I think so.
,
.
5) , ,

:
There are three things I can
- ,
-never remember names, faces,
, -and Ive forgotten the other.
, .
We had a great time in Greece
-
- the kids really enjoyed it. .
17.10. (The Brackets)
:
1) ,
,
.
. :
My sister (and she is past thirty) - ( )
has only just got married.
.
York (population 108,600) is
- ( 108 600)
about three times the size of

(-Canterbury (population 32,790) 32 790).
2)

.
,
:
My copy of Great Expectations
-
-costs 75p. (You can get a paper- 75 .
( -back at 50p., but the print is not 50
, very good. It is not really good
. , value.) Have you seen any other
.) Dickenss novels in cheap
- -editions?
?

. , ,
, ,
.
,
:
Our highest score (20 goals to
-
- nil) came in our last match. (20 : 0).
The abbreviation e.g. comes - e.g.
from Latin exempla gratia (for
- exempla gratia
(example).
).
,

:
where for the first time I met -
Mary Slim (now Mrs James
(
Richards).
).
,
, :
I met Mary Slim. (She is now - . (
Mrs James Richards.)
.)
, , ,
:
The author is careless about
-
-his facts. Thus on page 42 we . ,
read: Edward Shanks was 42 :
-Senior Classical master [he was
Mathematics master] at the [
-Nelson School under Dr William ]
-Pidgin [who spelt his name
-
Pigeon] in 1921 [it was in [

1923]. He left there to join the ] 1921 [


-Colonial Service
1923 ].

,

,
:
Whan that Aprille with his
-
shoures sote [sweet showers]

The droghte [drought] of
Marche
:
He was born in 1769 (?) in
- 1769 . (?) .
Bisley.
He was born in 1769 (? 1768) - 1769 . (? 1768)
in Bisley.
.

, :
He was born in 1769 [?] in
- 1769 . [?] .
Bisley.
Pope [!], the author of Elegy
- [!], ,
Written in a Country Church-

yard
Pope [Gray!], the author of - [!], , -

Elegy Written in a Country



Churchyard
17.11. (The Quotation Marks)
:
.
(inverted commas). ,
. ,
- .
:
1) .
, ,
:
Ratterer asked Clyde, Would
- :

you recognise your uncle if you


,
-saw him?
?
2) , , , , ..
:
I read Emma by Jane Austin
-
last week.
.
,
:
Matthew
- ( )
The Book Matthew
-


(The New Testament; The Old Testament).
3) , , ,
, ..:
The Star of India sails on
-
Tuesday.
.
The Crown is the best hotel
-
in town.
.
The Empire State Building is the -
-best-known skyscraper in

.
America.
4) , :
I dont want to hear any dirty -
-words coming from you.
.
5) ;
,
:

Good heavens, thought Jane. - , - ,


-
What shall I do if he says
, Hello to me?
?
17.12. (The Hyphen)
, ,
.

:
1) ,
: nap-kin; plat-form; per-fect;
2) , ..
: kind-ly; kind-ness; work-er; build-ing;
3) , ,
: class-room; text-book; time-table; under-ground;
4) , ,
: but-ter; swim-mer; pat-tern; com-ment;
5) ch, sh, th, gh .;
6) ,
, city, pity .;
7) , , .
,
. , :
1) , :
Anglo-Saxon
- ;
Franco-Italian
- -;
2) , -ing:
dining-room
- ;
sewing-machine - ;
3) twenty-one ;
4) ,
: three-page ; ten-year - ;
4) , : world-famous -
; electro-magnetic - .

, .. , ,
, .
, .
:
1) 1) ,
ed
: blue-eyed - ; heart-broken ;

2) ,
:
an out-of-work lorry driver
- ;
3) (
);
:
book-case [`buk-keis]
make-up [`meikp]
paper bag [`peipbg]
to make up [meik`p]
17.13. (The Apostrophe)

( ). :
1) :
I am = Im
I have = Ive
do not = dont
he is = hes
I shall = Ill
does not = doesnt
she is = shes you are = youre have not = havent
it is = its cannot = cant
shall not = shant
2) 2) : flu = influenza flue ;
3) ,
: meetin = meeting; em = them; ave = have;
4) , : 02
2002 .;
5) :
, :
a boys book
- ;
boys books
- ;
a womans dress
- ;
womens dresses
- ;
a horses shoe
- ;
horses shoes
- ;
, , :
an hours walk
- ;
three years absence
- ;
a moments hesitation - ;
, , ..
:
Im going to the bakers (my - (
aunts; the Smiths; Smith and ; ;
Browns).
; );
6) ,
:
It seems an interesting idea,- , but there are a lot of ifs.
.
7) :

He writes bs instead of ds.


- .
It was in the early 1960s.
- .
17.14. (Capital Letters)
:
1) ;
2) : Mr George Lamb;
3) , , , , , .
: North Road; High Street; Boston; Japan; Mount
Everest; Lake Ontario; the Pacific Ocean;
4) , , : Monday; March; Easter;
5) , :
He is French.
- .
two Frenchman
- ;
a French passport
- ;
Do you speak French?
- -?
6) 6) : the British Museum - ; The
United Nations - ;
7) I
;
8) , . :
A republic usually elects a
-
president.
.
John Roberts, President of the
- ,
, Union, addressed the assembly. .
9) , . :
A committee is a group of - , people elected or appointed
to undertake certain duties. .
The (Executive) Committee will - ()

meet again on May 10th.


10 .
10)
, : the Middle Ages , ; the French Revolution -
;
11)

:Uncle Toms Cabin - ; Tender Is the
Night - ;
12)
,
:
Well, Doctor, is my father any
- , ,
better?
?
I say, Captain!
- , !

14.18.
Infinitive
abide
arise
awake
backbite
backslide

Past Tense
abode, adided
arose
awoke
backbit
backslid

be
bear
beat
become
befall
beget
begin
behold
bend
bereave
beseech
beset
bespeak
bestride

was, were
bore
beat
became
befell
begot
began
beheld
bent
bereaved, bereft
besought
beset
bespoke
bestrode

bet
betake
bethink
bid
bide
bind
bite
bleed
blend
bless
blow
break
breed
bring
broadcast
browbeat
build
burn
burst
buy
cast
catch
chide
choose
cleave

bet, betted
betook
bethought
bade, bid
bode, bided
bound
bit
bled
blended, blent
blessed, blest
blew
broke
bred
brought
broadcast
browbeat
built
burnt, burned
burst
bought
cast
caught
chid, chidded
chose
clove, cleft

Past Participle
abode, adided
arisen
awaked, awoke
backbit, backbitten
backslid,
backslidden
been
borne, born
beaten
become
befallen
begotten
begun
beheld
bent, bended
bereaved, bereft
besought
beset
bespoken, bespoke
bestridden, bestrid,
bestrode
bet, betted
betaken
bethought
bidden, bid
bided
bound
bitten, bit
bled
blended, blent
blessed, blest
blown
broken
bred
brought
broadcast
browbeatten
built
burnt, burned
burst
bought
cast
caught
chidden, chid
chosen
cloven, cleft

()
, ;
(), ()
,
,
, ;

/ ;


-.
;


()

()
,

,
,
,

()

cling
clothe
come
cost
creep
crow
cut
dare
deal
dig
dive
do
draw
dream
drink
drive
dwell
eat
fall
feed
feel
fight
find
flee
fling
fly
forbear
forbid
forecast
forego
foreknow
foresee
foretell
forget
forgive
forsake
forswear
freeze
gainsay
get
gild
gird
give
go
grave
grind
grow
hamstring

clung
clothed, clad
came
cost
crept
crowed, crew
cut
dared, durst
dealt
dug
dived (US dove)
did
drew
dreamed, dreamt
drank
drove
dwelt
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
flung
flew
forbore
forbade, forbad
forecast,
forecasted
forewent
foreknew
foresaw
foretold
forgot
forgave
forsook
forswore
froze
gainsaid
got
gilded, gilt
girded, girt
gave
went
graved
ground
grew
hamstringed,
hamstrung

clung
clothed, clad
come
cost
crept
crowed
cut
dared
dealt
dug
dived
done
drawn
dreamed, dreamt
drunk
driven
dwelt
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
flung
flown
forborne
forbidden
forecast, forecasted

,
;

---

;
;

()

,
,

foregone
foreknown
foreseen
foretold
forgotten
forgiven
forsaken
forsworne
frozen
gainsaid
got (US gotten)
gilded
girded, girt
given
gone
graven, graved
ground
grown
hamstringed,
hamstrung

,
,
;

,
,
,
,
;
;

hang
have
hear
heave
hew
hide
hit
hold
hurt
inlay
keep
kneel
knit
know
lade
lay
lead
lean
leap
learn
leave
lend
let
lie
light
lose
make
mean
meet
melt
miscast

hung, hanged
had
heard
heaved, hove
hewed
hid
hit
held
hurt
inlaid
kept
knelt
knitted, knit
knew
laded
laid
led
leant, leaned
leapt, leaped
learnt, learned
left
lent
let
lay
lighted, lit
lost
made
meant
met
melted
miscast

hung, hanged
had
heard
heaved, hove
hewed, hewn
hidden, hid
hit
held
hurt
inlaid
kept
knelt
knitted, knit
known
laden
laid
led
leant, leaned
leapt, leaped
learnt, learned
left
lent
let
lain
lighted, lit
lost
made
meant
met
melted, molten
miscast

misdeal
misgive
mislay
mislead
misspell

misdealt
misgave
mislaid
misled
misspelt

misdealt
misgiven
mislaid
misled
misspelt

misspend
mistake
misunderstand
mow

misspent
mistook
misunderstood
mowed

outbid
outdo

outbade, outbid
outdid

misspent
mistaken
misunderstood
mown (US
mowed)
outbidden, outbid
outdone

outgo
outgrow
outride
outrun

outwent
outgrew
outrode
outran

outgone
outgrown
outridden
outrun

,
,

,
,
,

, ,
,
;

;
,

,
; ;

,
; -

outshine
outspread
outwear

outshone
outspread
outwore

outshone
outspread
outworn

overbear
overcast
overcome
overdo

overbore
overcast
overcame
overdid

overborne
overcast
overcome
overdone

overdraw
overeat
overfeed
overgrow
overhang
overhear
overlay
overleap
overlie
override
overrun
oversee
overset
overshoot
oversleep
overspread
overtake
overthrow
overwork

overdrew
overate
overfed
overgrew
overhung
overheard
overlaid
overleapt,
overleaped
overlay
overrode
overran
oversaw
overset
overshot
overslept
overspread
overtook
overthrew
overworked

partake
pay
prove
put
quit
read
rebind
rebuild

partook
paid
proved
put
quitted, quit
read
rebound
rebuilt

overdrawn
overeaten
overfed
overgrown
overhung
overheard
overlaid
overleapt,
overleaped
overlain
overridden
overrun
oversee
overset
overshot
overslept
overspread
overtake
overthrown
overworked,
overwrought
partaken
paid
proved, proven
put
quitted, quit
read
rebound
rebuilt

recast

recast

recast

relay
rend
repay
reset
retell
rid
ride
ring

relaid
rent
repaid
reset
retold
ridden, rid
rode
rang, rung

relaid
rent
repaid
reset
retold
rid, ridden
ridden
rung

()
,
()
;
();
,
;

;
;
/ -
,

,
;
,
;
,
()


;
, ;
;

,

,

rise
rive
run
saw
say
see
seek
sell
send
set
sew
shake
shave
shear
shed
shine
shoe
shoot
show
shred
shrink
shrive
shut
sing
sink
sit
slay
sleep
slide
sling
slink
slit
smell
smite
sow
speak
speed
spell
spend
spill
spin
spit
split
spoil
spread
spring
stand
stave

rose
rived
ran
sawed
said
saw
sought
sold
sent
set
sewed
shook
shaved
sheared
shed
shone
shod
shot
showed
shredded, shred
shrank, shrunk
shrove, shrived
shut
sang
sank
sat
slew
slept
slid
slang
slunk
slit
smelt, smelled
smote
sowed
spoke
sped, speeded
spelt, spelled
spent
spilt, spilled
spun, span
spat
split
spoilt, spoiled
spread
sprang
stood
staved, stove

risen
riven, rived
run
sawn, sawed
said
seen
sought
sold
sent
set
sewn, sewed
shaken
shaved, shaven
shorn, sheared
shed
shone
shod
shot
shown, showed
shredded, shred
shrunk, shrunken
shriven, shrived
shut
sung
sunk, sunken
sat
slain
slept
slid, slidden
slung
slunk
slit
smelt, smelled
smitten
sown, sowed
spoken
sped, speeded
spelt, spelled
spent
spilt, spilled
spun
spat
split
spoilt, spoiled
spread
sprung
stood
staved, stove

steal

stole

stolen

()

,
, ( )

()
()
(, )
,
,

;
,

(., .)

;
( )
,
;
; ,

,
/

()
()

stick
sting
stink
strew
stride
strike
string
strive
sunburn
swear
sweep
swell
swim
swing
take
teach
tear
tell
think
thrive
throw
thrust
tread
unbend
unbind
underbid

stuck
stung
stank, stunk
strewed
strewed, strode
struck
strung
strove
sunburned,
sunburnt
swore
swept
swelled
swam
swung
took
taught
tore
told
thought
throve, thrived
threw
thrust
trod
unbent
unbound
underbid

stuck
stung
stunk
strewn, strewed
stridden, strid
struck, stricken
strung
striven
sunburned, sunburnt


;
;

undergo
undersell
understand
undertake
underwrite
undo

underwent
undersold
understood
undertook
underwrote
undid

sworn
swept
swollen, swelled
swum
swung
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thriven, thrived
thrown
thrust
tridden, trod
unbent
unbound
underbidden,
underbid
undergone
undersold
understood
undertaken
underwritten
undone

();

()

upset

upset

upset

wake
waylay
wear
weave
wed
weep
win
wind
withdraw
withhold
withstand
work
wring

woke, waked
waylaid
wore
wove
wedded
wept
won
winded, wound
withdrew
withheld
withstood
worked, wrought
wrung

waked, woken, woke


waylaid
worn
woven, wove
wedded, wed
wept
won
winded, wound
withdrawn
withheld
withstood
worked, wrought
wrung

()
, ,

; ,

;
;
;
,
,
,

write

wrote

written

19.
1.
:
/.., .., .. . .: . .,
1986.
2.
.. . 2- .,
. .: . ., 1990.
3.

..,

..

. .: . ., 1989.
4.
.., .., ..
: . .: , 1974.
5.
.. . 6-
. .: . .,1977.
6.
.. .
., 1986.
7.
.., ..
. 9- ., . .: . .,
1964.
8.
.. .
. .: , 1975.
9.
.., ..
. ., 1974.
10.
.., .. :
. : . . .: , 1992.
11.
.., .., ..
. .,
1981.
12.
.. .
. 3- ., . .: ,
1981.
13.
. .
3- . .: , 1967.
14.
.
. 2- . .: , 1968.
15.
.., ..
. 2- .
8- ., . . .: , 1996.
16.
:
(Up To The Top: English Grammar For Communication)/ . ..
.: , 1992.
17.
.. . :
. ., 1985.

18.

., ..
: .. .: .., 1989.
19.
.. .
( ). .:
., 1978.
20.
..
, , . . , 1990.
21.
..
. .: , 1968.
22.
. -.
.: .., 1984.
23.
.. . . .:
, 1975.
24.
..
i . ., 1976.
25.
.., ..
: . . .. 2- .
.: , 1983.
26.
., .
, , . ., 1963.
27.
Alexander L.G. Longman English Grammar Practice
(Intermediate Level). 13th impr. - Longman, 1999.
28.
Close R.A. Reference Grammar for Students of
English. Longman, 1975.
29.
Eastwood J., Mackin R. A Basic English Grammar.
th
7 impr. OUP, 1987.
30.
Kirn E. Issues and Answers: A Competency-Based
Grammar. Random, 1989.
31.
Leech G., Svartvik J. A Communicative Grammar of
English. Longman, 1975.
32.
Murphy R. Essential Grammar in Use: A Self-Study
Reference and Practice Book for Elementary Students of English: With
Answers. 9th print. CUP, 1994.
33.
Murphy R. English Grammar in Use: A Self-Study
Reference and Practice Book for Intermediate Students of English: With
Answers. 8th print. CUP, 1988.
34.
Quirk R., Greenboum S., Leech G., Svartvik J. A
University Grammar of English. Longman, 1973.
35.
Swan M. Practical English Usage. OUP, 1980.