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Field Guide

A Reference Guide to Mining Machine Applications 2007

CAT GLOBAL MINING

www.CAT.com 2007 Caterpillar

Printed in U.S.A. AEXQ003001

Scope
This document is intended for use primarily by Caterpillar and CAT dealer project managers as a ready reference for the assessment of machine application and haul road conditions on their project sites. It may also prove useful to other Caterpillar and CAT dealer personnel, and customers in need of a concise reference tool. It contains practical benchmarking data that is achievable with correct and well-managed machine application. It is also intended to provide guidance on assessing haul road design and maintenance that supports sound industry practices.

Contents
Basic Application Benchmarks and Operating Techniques Cost Per Ton (CPT) 2 Large Wheel Loaders 6 Hydraulic Front Shovels 12 Hydraulic Backhoes 20 Electric Rope Shovels 26 Large Mining Trucks 34 Motor Graders 40 Track-type Tractors 46 Wheel Dozers 56 Wheel Tractor Scrapers 60 Basic Haul Road Design and Maintenance Design and Maintenance 64 Basic Truck Dump Design and Maintenance Truck Dump Operation 80 Management Review Strategies 84 Ground Engaging Tools (GET) GET Application 94 Caterpillar Underground Machines Underground Applications 106 Reference Information Specifications from Performance Handbook 37 126 Notes

Cost Per Ton (CPT)

Electric Rope Shovel


$0.05 - 0.07/ton Reliable, low cost-per-ton

Hydraulic Front Shovel


$0.10 - 0.15/ton Breakout force and selectivity

Requires:
Long mine life Electric grid Hard floor 50-foot face Well-shot material Clean-up support

Requires:
Proper face height Limited tramming Clean-up support

Wheel Loader
$0.10 - 0.15/ton Mobility

Mass Excavator
$0.10 - 0.15/ton Breakout force and selectivity

Requires:
Solid floor Well-shot material Dry floor

Requires:
Proper bench height Limited tramming Clean-up support

Large Wheel Loaders


Basic Application Benchmarks and Operating Techniques

CAT GLOBAL MINING

LARGE WHEEL LOADERS


Optimal Bench Height

Basic Application Benchmarks LARGE WHEEL LOADERS


Bucket hinge pin height at maximum lift

and Operating Techniques

Cycle Times

28 - 42 seconds (avg. 35 seconds)

Bucket Fill Factor in Well-shot Rock

90 - 110%

Most Efficient Pass Match

4 - 6 passes

Conditions Favorable to Large Wheel Loaders

Level, dry, smooth, firm floors Sufficient crossfall and drainage in high rainfall areas to minimize tire damage Well-fragmented materials that minimize crowding time, particularly in the toe area of the cut Lower face profile Multiple faces and frequent tramming Poor underfoot conditions wet, soft, jagged Tight load areas Poorly shot material

Things to watch for: Enter pile straight-on, with bottom of bucket parallel to floor Operate in first gear, full throttle Limit travel to 11/2 tire revolutions Keep floor clean and smooth, maintain minimal spillage Keep time in face below 12 seconds Truck spotted at 45 Maintain proper bucket kickout adjustment Keep tight V loading pattern Adjust Rim Pull Control setting Work 11/2 bucket width dig pattern

Conditions Unfavorable to Large Wheel Loaders

LARGE WHEEL LOADERS

Basic Application Benchmarks LARGE WHEEL LOADERS

and Operating Techniques

Things to watch for:

Keep frame straight when digging Lift bucket before crowding Fill bucket by the time lift arms are horizontal in face Clean floor while approaching face when necessary with minimum floor contact Never operate with blunt GET or bare bucket edge Advance face left to right when possible Minimize truck exchange time Clean floor between trucks

Parallel Dig Pattern: Quick truck exchange Right to left set-up Works well with narrow cuts Trucks spotted 15 - 20 Loading: Operator controls dumping impact into bed (dump easy) Place material vs. dumping material in truck bodies Different loading tools have different effects on truck bodies Pad body floors with smaller material before placing in oversize material DO NOT contact truck side rails DO NOT push material in bodies

Hydraulic Front Shovels


Basic Application Benchmarks and Operating Techniques

CAT GLOBAL MINING

HYDRAULIC FRONT SHOVELS


Optimal Bench Height

Basic Application Benchmarks HYDRAULIC FRONT SHOVELS


Just above boom/stick pivot

and Operating Techniques

13

Cycle Times

24 - 28 seconds (avg. 26 seconds)

Bucket Fill Factor in Well-shot Rock

90 - 100%

Most Efficient Pass Match

4 - 6 passes Things to watch for: Keep work areas as tight as possible; keep swing distances to a minimum Avoid excessive prying or corner loading DO NOT swing into existing material Maximize GET* tip contact, minimize bowl contact (i.e., boom up and curl bowl through material) Use boom up to minimize bucket heel contact Never operate with blunt GET or bare bucket edge

Conditions Favorable to Hydraulic Front Shovels

Selective digging Multiple targets Tight load area Tough digging Can work in poor floor conditions Define dig pattern, L to R or R to L, and maintain pattern Excessive tramming Low benches

Conditions Unfavorable to Hydraulic Front Shovels

HYDRAULIC FRONT SHOVELS

Basic Application Benchmarks HYDRAULIC FRONT SHOVELS

and Operating Techniques

15

Things to watch for: 1. First two passes: Upper half of face

Things to watch for:

Single back-up Less floor clean-up Easier to maintain Square set-up & dig

2. Third/fourth passes: Load out the center

Double back-up Tight working envelope Highly productive Square set-up & dig

3. Final pass: Clean up floor and advance

HYDRAULIC FRONT SHOVELS

Basic Application Benchmarks HYDRAULIC FRONT SHOVELS

and Operating Techniques

17

Things to watch for:

Left to right dig pattern Single back-up loading Trucks positions on clean floor Shorter swing angles Can Be Most Productive with Shorter Reach Front Shovels

Things to watch for: Hauler pre-positions Hauler positions on swing radius of shovel Truck spotted on clean floor Quicker truck exchange time Clean up floor between shovel move Right to left dig pattern Single back-up loading Greater swing angles

Hydraulic Backhoes
Basic Application Benchmarks and Operating Techniques

CAT GLOBAL MINING

HYDRAULIC BACKHOES
Optimal Bench Height

Basic Application Benchmarks HYDRAULIC BACKHOES


Length of stick, or between truck side rail and ducktail 24 - 28 seconds (avg. 26 seconds)

and Operating Techniques

21

Cycle Times

Bucket Fill Factor in Well-shot Rock

80 - 110%

Most Efficient Pass Match

4 - 6 passes Things to watch for: Always maintain Key Cut Start at Key Cut and work toward truck Ideally dig no more than 45 either side of centerline Always work over idlers and swing no more than 60 to truck Prepare next cuts in advance Maintain proper bench height Never operate with blunt GET or bare bucket edge

Conditions Favorable to Hydraulic Backhoes

Low to moderate bench heights Truck spotted either on top of bench or on the floor below the backhoe Tight load area Short swing 60 or less Well-shot material Remove farthest pass during truck exchange (Key Cut) High benches Excessive tramming Unstable benches Low angle of repose material

Conditions Unfavorable to Hydraulic Backhoes

HYDRAULIC BACKHOES

Basic Application Benchmarks HYDRAULIC BACKHOES

and Operating Techniques

23

Things to watch for: Use through the gate loading to increase production Truck on bottom level Clean floor between backhoe move Quicker truck exchange time MOST PRODUCTIVE

Things to watch for: Through the gate loading Trucks & backhoe on same level Single or double side loading Minimum or maximum dig depth 60 maximum swing angle

Over the rail loading Trucks on bottom level Dig depth equals stick length Minimum swing angles Set-up provides ample dig and reach Alternate loading positions Three ways to increase productivity: 10 - 15% higher productivity when bench is correct height vs. too high 15 - 20% higher productivity when trucks are spotted on the floor below the excavator vs. on top of bench 5% higher productivity when excavator swings 60 vs. 90

Electric Rope Shovels


Basic Application Benchmarks and Operating Techniques

CAT GLOBAL MINING

ELECTRIC ROPE SHOVELS


Optimal Bench Height

Basic Application Benchmarks ELECTRIC ROPE SHOVELS


Top of boom sheaves 24 - 44 seconds (avg. 37 seconds)

and Operating Techniques

27

Cycle Times

Bucket Fill Factor in Well-shot Rock

80 - 110%

Most Efficient Pass Match

3 - 5 passes

Conditions Favorable to Electronic Rope Shovels

Working a single face of the correct height Solid, level floor Wide benches to facilitate truck maneuverability Well-shot material

Things to watch for: 70 - 90 maximum swing angle Efficient support machine activity to keep floor clean Power cable maintenance Never operate blunt GET or a bare edge DO NOT allow floor clean-up machine to interfere with truck loading Target 2 side loading and 0 truck exchange time
NOTE: Recommendations from Manufacturer

Conditions Unfavorable to Electronic Rope Shovels

Poor underfoot Low faces Poorly shot material Multiple faces

ELECTRIC ROPE SHOVELS

Basic Application Benchmarks ELECTRIC ROPE SHOVELS

and Operating Techniques

29

Things to watch for:

Things to watch for: Double side load whenever possible Keep exit from shovel in direct line to cable bridge Clean up floor between trucks, not during truck loading cycle Have trucks pre-spot when possible Position truck in target tolerance range Utilize marker on dipper handle or counterweight to assist truck operator pre-spotting and spotting Keep mirrors on shovel and truck clean

Advance dipper up face to get maximum bucket load Maintain floor grade Do Not jack boom Do Not stall during hoisting cycle Operate machine as level as possible Place material easily into body Pad body for oversize material loading
NOTE: Recommendations from Manufacturer

ELECTRIC ROPE SHOVELS

Basic Application Benchmarks ELECTRIC ROPE SHOVELS

and Operating Techniques

31

Things to watch for:

Evidence of previous instances of forward loading on the canopy

Single side loading

Load Placement: Correct load placement shown here Observe Caterpillar 10/10/20 Payload Policy Side boards are designed to control material spillage, not increase payload Double side loading (Double back-up) MOST PRODUCTIVE

Large Mining Trucks


Basic Application Benchmarks and Operating Techniques

CAT GLOBAL MINING

LARGE MINING TRUCKS

Basic Application Benchmarks LARGE MINING TRUCKS

and Operating Techniques

35

Things to watch for:

Incorrect loading Correct loading

Load Placement: Proper truck positioning Report safety issues Monitor body wear patterns Report any tire wear and rock spillage Manage proper spotting Control 2nd gear shift point for better TPMS accuracy Manage proper TPMS Calibration and Accuracy Lateral: Centered over hoist cylinders or on body arrow Longitudinal: Centered on centerline of body General: No substantial amount of material on headboard Enough freeboard to minimize spillage from sides through corners and from rear of body on grades Target 33%/66% payload split on front /rear axles

LARGE MINING TRUCKS

Basic Application Benchmarks LARGE MINING TRUCKS

and Operating Techniques

37

Truck exchange time: The elapsed time from when loaded truck receives last loading pass until next truck receives first loading pass

Caterpillar 10/10/20 Load Management Policy The mean (average) of the payload distribution shall not exceed the target payload No more than 10% of payloads may exceed 1.1 times the truck target payload No single payload shall ever exceed 1.2 times the target payload No more than 10% of loads above 1.10 No loads above 1.20 The average payload shall not exceed the target

90% of loads should fall into this range No more than 10% of loads should exceed 110% of the target payload No loads should be above 120% of the target payload

Exchange time: Good: 42 seconds or less Acceptable: 54 seconds Unacceptable: over 1 minute
Number of Loads

Durability

Productivity

90 %
80 85 90 95 100 % of Target Payload 105 110

10%
115 120

SAFETY

Motor Graders
Basic Application Benchmarks and Operating Techniques

CAT GLOBAL MINING

MOTOR GRADERS

Basic Application Benchmarks MOTOR GRADERS

and Operating Techniques

41

Favorable Applications:

Things to watch for: Grade in 2nd or 3rd gear: 6 - 11 km/h (4 - 7 mph) Use wheel lean and articulation to reduce turning radius Rip in first gear; manually operate throttle Excessive speeds negatively affecting cutting edge life Change cutting edges when down to 10 mm (0.5 in) Use ripper attachment to rip hard-packed top surface Always using differential lock when blading and ripping

Haul road construction/maintenance Selected load area cleanup Selected dump area maintenance Blasting cleanup Reclamation Snow removal Utility ripping

MOTOR GRADERS

Basic Application Benchmarks MOTOR GRADERS

and Operating Techniques

43

Things to watch for:

Maintain full blade contact with floor to avoid high point loading Consider using track-type tractors or wheel dozers for assistance when unable to maintain full blade load Use wheel lean to hold front of machine in line, reduce side draft forces, and help reduce turning radius Always use differential lock when blading in a straight line

Proper blade angle: Use widest possible pass width Reduce pass width (increase angle) if material flows around leading edge (toe) Use maximum 10 blade angle if using Graderbit system or serrated edge Maintain contact with road surface across the full width of the cutting edge Proper blade tip angle: Moldboard top should be 50 - 100 mm (2 - 4 in) ahead of cutting edge on Cat 16H and 24H motor graders Constant tip angle minimizes cutting edge wear

Cut

Normal

Carry

Track-Type Tractors
Basic Application Benchmarks and Operating Techniques

CAT GLOBAL MINING

TRACK-TYPE TRACTORS

Basic Application Benchmarks TRACK-TYPE TRACTORS

and Operating Techniques

47

Favorable Applications: Things to watch for: Excessive tramming between locations Tramming less than 5% of tractors work time Loose or missing track hardware

Production dozing Dedicated waste dump operations Stockpile operations/steep slopes Haul road construction Reclamation Ripping

DOZING APPLICATIONS Things to watch for: Dozing in 1st gear Steering with blade tilt cylinders rather than steering clutches when blade is loaded Minimized corner loading, prying, and impact dozing Maintain a steady dozing pressure Keep unloaded travel distance to a minimum

Sizing Tractors for the Truck Dump:

Optimal track-type tractor truck matchups:

D9 D10 D11

777 777/785/789 789/793/797

TRACK-TYPE TRACTORS

Basic Application Benchmarks TRACK-TYPE TRACTORS

and Operating Techniques

49

DOZING APPLICATIONS

Back to Front Technique (Less Efficient Technique) Operator progresses the cut from back to front Push distance is reduced with each pass Efficiency suffers from uphill blade loading Does not fully utilize the slot throughout the cut

Front to Back Technique (Most Efficient Technique) Most efficient method of dozing Works cut from front to back Push distance increases with each pass Uses more efficient downhill blade loading Slot is created and utilized throughout the cut Back Each Pass Technique (Less Efficient Technique) Operator starts each pass at the back of the cut Each pass uses the entire length of the cut at a uniform depth Efficiency and productivity suffer because the machine travels the entire length of the cut in both directions with each pass

TRACK-TYPE TRACTORS

Basic Application Benchmarks TRACK-TYPE TRACTORS

and Operating Techniques

51

DOZING APPLICATIONS Berm Management Berm height should not exceed blade height Berm should only be high enough to trap material for optimal loading Center berm width should be 1/3 the blade width The smaller the berm, the easier the disposal for improved productivity

Blade positioning on dual tilt machines: Begin cut with blade tilted forward Begin to lay blade back when nearly full Continue to fill blade while lying back Tilt blade forward to unload material

Criss/Cross Berm Removal Most efficient method of center berm removal Works cut from back to front Push distance reduces with each pass Uses existing slots to hold in material and increase blade load

TRACK-TYPE TRACTORS

Basic Application Benchmarks TRACK-TYPE TRACTORS

and Operating Techniques

53

RIPPING APPLICATIONS

Things to watch for: Rip downhill when possible If loading scrapers, rip material in same direction as loading 1.5 - 2.5 km/hr (1.0 - 1.5 mph) at 2/3 throttle is most economical Reduce speed in high impact conditions Try cross ripping if material will not free up

Ripper position: Begin pass with tip rearward Pull tip forward after tip penetrates Signs of incorrect positioning/operating: Excessive track slippage Blunt tips (GET) Breaking shank protector or ripper tip pins Ripper Ground Engaging Tools: Penetration ripper tip reinforcing ribs must face upward Ensure ground engaging tool pins, retainers, and bolts are installed correctly Never operate a bare shank or worn tip

Wheel Dozers
Basic Application Benchmarks and Operating Techniques

CAT GLOBAL MINING

WHEEL DOZERS

Basic Application Benchmarks WHEEL DOZERS

and Operating Techniques

57

Favorable Applications:
Wheel dozers are typically more cost-effective and offer greater speed than track-type tractors in light applications

Loading area cleanup Dump area maintenance Haul road construction/maintenance Blasting area cleanup Reclamation

Things to watch for: Keeps loads small, and material should roll Avoid excessive down pressure Push the load keeping machine as straight as possible Minimize heel-plate contact Maintain full blade contact with floor Keep heel plates parallel with floor and back of blade vertical

Sizing Wheel Dozers for the Truck Dump:

Optimal wheel dozer truck matchups:

834 844 854

773/777 777/785 785/789/793

Wheel Tractor Scrapers


Basic Application Benchmarks and Operating Techniques

CAT GLOBAL MINING

WHEEL TRACTOR SCRAPERS

Basic Application Benchmarks WHEEL TRACTOR SCRAPERS

and Operating Techniques

61

Favorable Applications:
Single and twin-engine scrapers are often push loaded by track-type tractors for greater productivity

Clay-type overburden Soft underfoot conditions Confined areas High speed/short hauls Loading time for open bowl push-loaded Wheel Tractor Scraper*

Push Loading Scrapers:

Scraper tractor push load matchups:

Good Average

621 631 651

D8 D9/D10 D10/D11

24 - 30 seconds 36 - 43 seconds

*Shorter time for tandem, longer time for single-powered scrapers. Consult publications for self-loading (elevating/auger) and push-pull machines.

Basic Haul Road Design and Maintenance

CAT GLOBAL MINING

DESIGN AND MAINTENANCE

Basic Haul Road Design MINE HAUL ROADS

and Maintenance

65

HAUL ROAD CONSIDERATIONS Three key factors in haul road design: Material Quality Design Maintenance

HORIZONTAL AND GENERAL VERTICAL ALIGNMENT Things to watch for: Design corners and crests with clear visibility at operating speeds Design for worst case scenarios Rules of thumb: If you can comfortably travel your haul roads at 60 km/h (35 mph) in a light vehicle, this is an indicator of good haul road conditions Haul roads begin at the loading face and end at the dump Maintain good floor conditions approaching and at the dump Maintain good floor conditions approaching and at the face Travel at reasonable speeds in the load and dump zones

1 10

DESIGN AND MAINTENANCE

Basic Haul Road Design MINE HAUL ROADS

and Maintenance

67

CROSS FALL On flats: Maintain minimum slope for drainage Use 2% constant cross fall with extreme caution and travel loaded truck on the uphill side If constant cross fall is not selected, crown haul roads with minimum slope angle

Two-Way Crossfall
1% - 4% 1% - 4%

KEEP GRADE SMOOTH AND CONSTANT

Smooth, constant grades: Grades less than 10% are recommended for maximum tire life Consistent grades should be maintained Minimize transmission shifts Maintain higher average speed Allow more constant braking effort on returns

On grades: Minimal cross fall is required unless rainfall is heavy

USE EXTREME CAUTION

10

2 constant cross fall

Incorrect

Correct

DESIGN AND MAINTENANCE

Basic Haul Road Design MINE HAUL ROADS

and Maintenance

69

ROAD WIDTH One-way straights and corners A minimum of 2 - 2.5 widths is recommended Two-way traffic: In straights, a minimum of 3 - 3.5 truck widths In corners, a minimum of 3.5 - 4 truck widths

CORNERS
Radius of Turn Feet 50 100
One-way (straight/corners) Two-way (In straights) Two-way (In corners)

Speed in mph 10 13.0 % 7.0 % 4.0 % 3.0 % 2.0 % 1.0 % 1.0 % 1.0 % 15 30.0 % 15.0 % 10.0 % 8.0 % 5.0 % 3.0 % 2.0 % 2.0 % 27.0 % 18.0 % 13.0 % 9.0 % 5.0 % 4.0 % 3.0 % 28.0 % 21.0 % 14.0 % 8.0 % 6.0 % 4.0 % 30.0 % 20.0 % 12.0 % 9.0 % 6.0 % 27.0 % 16.0 % 12.0 % 8.0 % 21.0 % 15.0 % 11.0 % 27.0 % 19.0 % 14.0 % 20 25 30 35 40 45

150 200 300

BENCH WIDTH Things to watch for: Truck should be able to clear loading tool under full acceleration Minimum bench width is the truck turning radius plus the safety berm plus loading tool swing radius (shovels)

500 700 1000

Radius: Use maximum practical radius Keep constant and smooth transitions

Superelevation: Employ if speeds exceed 15 km/h (10 mph) as per Performance Handbook Greater than 10% superelevation should be used with caution

DESIGN AND MAINTENANCE

Basic Haul Road Design MINE HAUL ROADS

and Maintenance

71

DRAINAGE

SAFETY BERMS (WINDROWS) Things to watch for: Recommended berm height is a minimum of half the wheel height Safety berm along the edge of the truck dump Safety berm along all haul road edges Check your local mining regulations

Things to watch for: Slope must adequately carry away maximum expected rainfall, with minimum puddling, pot-holing or water entry into road sub-base

DESIGN AND MAINTENANCE

Basic Haul Road Design MINE HAUL ROADS

and Maintenance

73

HAUL ROAD MODELING


These are examples of a poorly constructed haul road (top) and a well constructed haul road (bottom)

Top: Poor drainage Poor compaction Poor road base material

ROLLING RESISTANCE

Tire Penetration

For off-highway trucks running radial-ply tires, assume a minimum rolling resistance of: 1.5% for a hard, well-maintained, permanent haul road 3% for a well-maintained road with little flexing 4% for a road with 25 mm (1 in) tire penetration 5% for a road with 50 mm (2 in) tire penetration 8% for a road with 100 mm (4 in) tire penetration 14% for a road with 200 mm (8 in) tire penetration

Bottom: Good drainage Good compaction Good road base material

In practice, a 5% increase in rolling resistance can result in up to 10% decrease in production and a 35% increase in production costs.

DESIGN AND MAINTENANCE

Basic Haul Road Design MINE HAUL ROADS

and Maintenance

75

COMPACTION An example of high rolling resistance 610 mm (24 in) deep tire penetration 30% rolling resistance Reduced production Excessive fuel burn Reduced tire life Reduced component life
Tire Penetration
Fuel Cost

HAUL ROAD ECONOMICS Performance vs. Rolling Resistance 10,000 ft. Flat Haul

Fuel Cost 180% 160% 140% 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6%

Production 10% 0% Production -10% -20% -30% -40% -50% -60% 7% 8% 9% 10%

SOFT AND WET AREAS Things to watch for: Remove soft and wet spots; completely refill and compact with good dry material Without a good repair, these spots will continually deteriorate

Rolling Resistance

DESIGN AND MAINTENANCE

Basic Haul Road Design MINE HAUL ROADS

and Maintenance

77

DUST CONTROL

POINTS TO REMEMBER The haul road begins at the loading face and ends at the dump point Once a road deteriorates, it takes five times as long to repair it to good condition again Fix it once, fix it right! If one can travel comfortably in a light truck at 60 km/h (35 mph), then road surfaces are good Good roads improve production, extend tire life, and reduce overall operating costs

Watering removes dust hazard and maintains compaction Use checkerboard or spot intermittent pattern on grades to reduce slippage risk during retarding on grades Spot watering works well for areas with limited water supply

Basic Truck Dump Design and Maintenance

CAT GLOBAL MINING

TRUCK DUMP O P E R AT I O N

Basic Truck Dump Design TRUCK DUMPS

and Maintenance

81

POOR DUMP PRACTICES Body bulldozing Pulling through berm after dumping is hard on underside of the body

TRUCK DUMPS

Dumping into existing pile Not lowering body prior to moving forward

Things to watch for: DUMP CONSIDERATIONS Damage Indicates: Pulling through pile Pinching material under tail Pushing with a dozer Poor dumping practice can result in rear rib and tail area damage Maintain eye contact with dump maintenance tool whenever possible Watch dump edge for stability Dump away from safety berm if edge is unstable (dump short) Maintain proper safety berm height Lower body before moving from dump Advance haul road with dump Maintain slight slope for water drainage

Management Review

CAT GLOBAL MINING

STRATEGIES

Management Review VISUAL INSPECTIONS WHILE DRIVING THE HAUL ROAD

85

LOADING ZONE

HAUL ROADS Things to watch for: Well maintained, smooth road Sufficient drainage Smooth, constant grades Adequate passing room Adequate corner radius Expected haul road speeds are achieved No debris on roads

No potholes, ruts, gullies No rubber on tight or rocky turns No high braking forces required on curves

Things to watch for: Smooth floors Adequate water drainage No debris spillage from trucks Proper truck positioning No tight, high-speed turns as trucks return to loading area Loading zones that are too tight, rough, or congested Location of 2nd gear reweigh Trucks leave under full, continuous acceleration

DUMP ZONE Things to watch for: Smooth floor to maintain speed Entering parallel to edge Braking in straight line before turning and stopping to reverse and dump Safety berms at regulated height along entire edge Stable dumping capability No debris in area

STRATEGIES

Management Review MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES TO REDUCE COSTS

87

MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES TO REDUCE COSTS

MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR WHEEL LOADERS

Reducing your costs through proper operating procedures: To minimize cost, first look at the big picture, then use a common sense approach Select proper type of equipment Properly equip for the specific job Properly match buckets and bodies Stress teamwork and communication Properly set up load area

Better bucket fill factors through: Improved material fragmentation Correct bucket selection, GET selection, and maintenance Correct bench heights Correct loader orientation to face Faster loader cycle times through: Correct orientation to face Correct truck placement Improved material condition Improved floor condition

STRATEGIES

Management Review MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES TO REDUCE COSTS

89

MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR TRUCKS

MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Model the effects on total productivity through changes to: Average road speeds Higher on-grade speeds Reduced rolling resistance Reduced corner severity Removal of speed limits Improved bucket fill factors and truck/loader match Reduced truck exchange and waiting times Reduced fuel consumption Improved component life and machine/fleet availability Improved tire life/reduced tire costs

Higher average mining truck haul speeds through: Smoother roads (including loading and dump zones) VIMS System Truck Payload Measurement (TPM) Application Severity Analysis (ASA) Road Analysis Control (RAC) Minimize rolling resistance Better haul road designs Reduce switchbacks Remove crossovers that require stop signs Better payload control to ensure highest possible gear on grade Use VIMS System and VIMS Supervisor Truck Payload Management System (TPMS)

STRATEGIES

Management Review MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES TO REDUCE COSTS

91

ECONOMIC PUSH/HAUL DISTANCES


Dozers: 0 to 150 m (0 to 500 ft)

Load and Carry: 50 to 120 m (150 to 400 ft)

Scrapers: 120 to 1200 m (400 to 4,000 ft)

Articulated Trucks: 120 to 1200 m (400 to 4,000 ft)

Rear Dump Truck: 120 to 9000 m (400 to 30,000 ft)

Wagon/Hauler: 7000 to 20,000 m (4,000 to 65,600 ft)

Ground Engaging Tools (GET)

CAT GLOBAL MINING

GET APPLICATION

Ground Engaging Tools (GET)

95

GROUND ENGAGING TOOLS (GET)

HYDRAULIC BACKHOES Things to watch for: GET Maintain proper bench height Load square to the face Avoid excessive prying or corner loading Maximize GET* tip contact (i.e., boom up and curl bowl through material) Minimizes bowl contact Keeps heel clear of the material Keeps bucket throat open Use boom up to minimize bucket heel contact Never operate with blunt GET or bare bucket edge Incorrect Throat Open

Things to watch for: GET Use the best option for the application to maximize production Protect, but do not overprotect Increases bucket/implement weight Decreases payload Affects GET component life Reduces penetration and productivity Better penetration reduces fuel consumption Adversely affect operating techniques Replace components when they reach 100% wear Helps penetration thereby increasing bucket fill factor Better penetration reduces fuel consumption and tire slip Use worn GET wear patterns as a condition monitoring tool to manage operating techniques

GET APPLICATION

Ground Engaging Tools (GET)

97

WHEEL LOADERS

Incorrect Things to watch for: GET Things to watch for: GET Clean floor while approaching face when necessary with minimum floor contact Rear of the bucket kept clear of the floor Minimize floor contact (GET will overheat and melt) Minimize speed Never operate with blunt GET or bare bucket edge Enter pile straight-on, with bottom of bucket parallel to floor Operate in first gear, full throttle Smooth steady speed Keep floor clean and smooth with minimal bucket contact Maintain proper bucket kickout adjustment Tips do not touch the floor more than 150 - 400 mm (6 - 16) before the toe

GET APPLICATION

Ground Engaging Tools (GET)

99

TRACK-TYPE TRACTOR Ripping Applications

Ripper position: Begin pass with tip rearward Pull tip forward after tip penetrates Incorrect Things to watch for: GET 1.5 - 2.5 km/hr (1.0 - 1.5 mph) at 2/3 throttle is most economical and recommended Reduce speed in high impact conditions Try cross ripping if material will not free up Keep ripper beam parallel to the floor DO NOT turn or reverse with shank in ground Rip in 1st gear Signs of incorrect positioning/operating: Excessive track slippage Blunt tips Breaking ripper tip or shank protector pins Ripper Ground Engaging Tools: Penetration ripper tip reinforcing ribs must face upward Ensure ground engaging tool pins, retainers, and bolts are installed correctly Never operate a bare shank or worn tip

GET APPLICATION

Ground Engaging Tools (GET)

101

TRACK-TYPE TRACTOR Dozing Applications

Things to watch for: GET Doze in 1st gear Use slow steady speed (More speed = less production) Steer with blade tilt cylinders rather than steering clutches when blade is loaded Minimize corner loading, prying, and impact Maintain a steady dozing pressure Never back blade

LHD LOADER Things to watch for: GET Lift bucket before curling when first entering pile Keep frame straight when digging Keep lift arms as low as possible when tramming Never operate blunt GET or bare bucket edge Maintain proper bucket kick-out settings Minimize floor contact Cutting edge does not touch the floor more than 150 mm - 400 mm (6 - 16) before the toe

WHEEL DOZERS

Things to watch for: GET Keep loads small and material should roll Minimize heel-plate contact Maintain full blade contact with floor Avoid excessive down pressure Minimize speed and contact to prevent cutting edges from overheating and softening Keep heel plate parallel with floor and back of blade vertical

GET APPLICATION

Ground Engaging Tools (GET)

103

LHD LOADER

MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR LHDS Better bucket fill factors through: Improved fragmentation Correct bucket selection, GET selection, and maintenance Correct bench heights Correct loader orientation to face Faster loader cycle times through: Correct orientation to face Correct truck placement Improved material condition Improved floor condition

Things to watch for: GET Enter pile straight-on, with bottom of bucket parallel to floor Keep spillage to a minimum Keep floor clean and smooth Keep tight V loading pattern Clean floor while approaching face when necessary with minimum floor contact Rear of the bucket kept clear of the floor Minimize floor contact (GET will overheat and melt) Minimize speed

Caterpillar Underground Machines

CAT GLOBAL MINING

UNDERGROUND A P P L I C AT I O N S

Caterpillar Underground Machines

107

TRUCKS Things to watch for: Proper truck positioning Safety issues Body wear patterns Tire wear/rock spillage Proper spotting Overhead obstructions Loader operator spots truck Ensure truck does not have to turn around once loaded Position truck away from overhead services Position for fastest cycle times Wheel loaders tight V pattern Keep rear tires away from rocks and toe Minimize wait time

LOAD PLACEMENT ON TRUCKS Lateral: Centered over hoist cylinders or on body arrow Longitudinal: Centered on centerline of body General: No substantial amount of material on headboard Enough freeboard to minimize spillage from sides through corners and from rear of body on grades Target 33%/66% payload split on front/rear axles
Correct Loading Incorrect Loading

Correct Loading

Incorrect Loading

UNDERGROUND A P P L I C AT I O N S

Caterpillar Underground Machines

109

TRUCKS

Caterpillar 10/10/20 Load Management Policy The mean (average) of the payload distribution shall not exceed the target payload No more than 10% of payloads may exceed 1.1 times the truck target payload No single payload shall ever exceed 1.2 times the target payload No more than 10% of loads above 1.10 90% of loads should fall into this range No loads above 1.20 No more than 10% of loads should exceed 110% of the target payload The average payload No loads should be above 120% of shall not exceed the target
the target payload

Truck exchange time: The elapsed time from when loaded truck receives last loading pass until next truck receives first loading pass Exchange time:

Durability

Productivity

Number of Loads

90 %
80 85 90 95 100 % of Target Payload 105 110

10%
115 120

SAFETY

Good: 42 seconds or less Acceptable: 54 seconds Unacceptable: over 1 minute

UNDERGROUND A P P L I C AT I O N S
Cycle Times

Caterpillar Underground Machines LHD LOADER PARAMETERS


30 - 60 seconds (avg. 45 seconds) LHD LOADERS Things to watch for: Lift bucket before curling when first entering pile Keep frame straight when digging Keep lift arms as low as possible when tramming Keep time in face below 12 seconds Never operate worn GET or bare bucket edge Maintain proper bucket kick-out settings Control tire slippage

111

Bucket Fill Factor in Well-shot Rock

90 - 110%

Most Efficient Pass Match

2 - 4 passes

Conditions Favorable to LHDs

Stable, level, dry floors Good water drainage Well-shot material, less bucket fill time Average face height Multi-face loading Low face profile Poor, wet underfoot conditions Oversize material Poorly shot material

Conditions Unfavorable to LHDs

Things to watch for: Enter pile straight-on, with bottom of bucket parallel to floor Operate in first gear, full throttle Keep spillage to a minimum Keep floor clean and smooth Keep tight V loading pattern Clean floor while approaching face when necessary with minimum floor contact Minimize truck exchange time

UNDERGROUND A P P L I C AT I O N S

Caterpillar Underground Machines

113

LHD LOADERS

MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR LHDS Better bucket fill factors through: Improved fragmentation Correct bucket selection, GET selection, and maintenance Correct bench heights Correct loader orientation to face Faster loader cycle times through: Correct orientation to face Correct truck placement Improved material condition Improved floor condition

Loading: Operator controls dumping impact into body (dump easy) Place material vs. dumping material in body Different loading tools have different effects on truck body Pad body floor with smaller material before placing in oversize material DO NOT contact truck side rails DO NOT push material in body

UNDERGROUND A P P L I C AT I O N S

Caterpillar Underground Machines

115

MOTOR GRADERS

Proper blade angle: Use widest possible pass width Reduce pass width (increase angle) if material flows around leading edge (toe) Use maximum 10 blade angle if using Graderbit system or serrated edge Maintain contact with road surface across the full width of the cutting edge Proper blade tip angle: Moldboard top should be 50 mm (2 in) ahead of cutting edge Constant tip angle minimizes cutting edge wear

Things to watch for: Grade in 1st gear Determine drainage pattern prior to grading Obtain road bed material sufficient to slope road Always keep edges sharp for better penetration Change edges prior to moldboard damage Always lock differential when grading or ripping Always perform articulated turns with wheel lean to reduce turning radius

Cut

Normal

Carry

UNDERGROUND A P P L I C AT I O N S

Caterpillar Underground Machines

117

HAUL ROAD CONSIDERATIONS Three key factors in haul road design: Material Quality Design Maintenance

KEEP GRADE SMOOTH AND CONSTANT Smooth, constant grades: Grades less than 10% are recommended for maximum tire life Consistent grades should be maintained Minimize transmission shifts Maintain higher average speed Allow more constant braking effort on returns

HORIZONTAL AND GENERAL VERTICAL ALIGNMENT Things to watch for: Design corners and crests with clear visibility at operating speeds Design for worst case scenarios SAFETY BERMS (WINDROWS) Things to watch for: Recommended berm height is a minimum of half the wheel height Safety berm along the edge of the truck dump Safety berm along all haul road edges Check your local mining regulations

UNDERGROUND A P P L I C AT I O N S

Caterpillar Underground Machines

119

ROLLING RESISTANCE

HAUL ROAD ECONOMICS Performance vs. Rolling Resistance 10,000 ft. Flat Haul

Tire Penetration

Fuel Cost 180% 160% 140% Fuel Cost 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6%

Production 10% 0% Production -10% -20% -30% -40% -50% -60% 7% 8% 9% 10%

For off-highway trucks running radial-ply tires, assume a minimum rolling resistance of: 1.5% for a hard, well-maintained, permanent haul road 3% for a well-maintained road with little flexing 4% for a road with 25 mm (1 in) tire penetration 5% for a road with 50 mm (2 in) tire penetration 8% for a road with 100 mm (4 in) tire penetration 14% for a road with 200 mm (8 in) tire penetration
In practice, a 5% increase in rolling resistance can result in up to a 10% decrease in production and a 35% increase in production costs.

Rolling Resistance

UNDERGROUND A P P L I C AT I O N S

Caterpillar Underground Machines

121

SOFT AND WET AREAS Things to watch for: Remove soft and wet spots, completely refill and compact with good dry material Without a good repair, these spots will continually deteriorate HAUL ROAD MAINTENANCE

VISUAL INSPECTIONS WHILE DRIVING THE HAUL ROAD Loading Zone Things to watch for: Smooth floors Adequate water drainage No debris spillage from trucks Proper truck positioning No tight, high-speed turns as trucks return to loading area Loading zones that are too tight, rough, or congested Trucks leave under full, continuous acceleration Haul Roads Things to watch for:

Things to watch for: Begin at face; end at dump Truck travels at a reasonable and constant speed Where trucks slow down, evaluate the cause and repair Remove and repair wet/soft spots Ride in jump seat; if it is rough the road is too rough

Well maintained, smooth road Sufficient drainage Smooth, constant grades Adequate passing room Adequate corner radius Expected haul road speeds are achieved No debris on roads

No potholes, ruts, gullies No rubber on tight or rocky turns No high braking forces required on curves Use reference signs where necessary

UNDERGROUND A P P L I C AT I O N S

Caterpillar Underground Machines

123

VISUAL INSPECTIONS WHILE DRIVING THE HAUL ROAD

Dump Zone Things to watch for: Smooth floor to maintain speed Braking in straight line before turning and stopping to reverse and dump Stable dumping capability Back height is adequate for body Trucks brake in straight line, then turn and stop to reverse to dump Safety berms and ore pass stop blocks are regulation height Trucks dump the load without delays

LHD CYCLE TIMES Faster cycle times improve productivity and reduce cost per ton Achieve faster cycle times through: Correct orientation to face Improved floor conditions Correct truck placement Improved material condition Proper tram distance to and from truck

GENERAL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

Model the effects on total productivity through changes to: Higher fill factors improve productivity and reduce cost per ton Achieve higher fill factors through: Better fragmentation Correct bucket selection Correct GET selection and maintenance Correct bench heights Correct loader orientation to face Correct operating techniques for maximum production

UAT ROAD SPEEDS Higher truck road speeds improve productivity and reduce cost per ton Achieve faster speeds through: Smooth roads (load to dump) Reduced rolling resistance Better road design Better payload control

Reference Information
Caterpillar Performance Handbook Edition 37

CAT GLOBAL MINING

MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
MODEL Operating Weight Flywheel Power Engine Model Blade Capacity SU U CD Blade Width SU U CD (included end bits) Track On Ground Height To Top of Canopy (ROPS) Overall Length SU-Blade & Single Shank Ripper

Reference Information
TRACK-TYPE TRACTORS D9T 105,600 lb 47,900 kg 410 hp 306 kW C18 ACERT 17.7 yd (13.5 m ) 21.4 yd3 (16.4 m3)
3 3

127

D10T 146,500 lb 66,451 kg 580 hp 433 kW C27 ACERT 24.2 yd (18.5 m ) 28.7 yd3 (22 m3)
3 3

D11T 230,100 lb 104,600 kg 850 hp 634 kW C32 ACERT 35.5 yd (27.2 m ) 45.0 yd3 (34.4 m3)
3 3

D11T CD 248,600 lb 113,000 kg 850 hp 634 kW C32 ACERT 57 yd3 (43.6 m3) 22'0" ft/in (6.71 m) 14'7" ft/in 4.44 m 15'0" ft/in 4.57 m 35'5" ft/in 0.50 m

14'2" ft/in (4.31 m) 15'3" ft/in (4.65 m)

15'11" ft/in (4.86 m) 17'3" ft/in (5.26 m)

18'4" ft/in (5.60 m) 20'10" ft/in (6.35 m)

11'5" ft/in 3.47 m 13'1" ft/in 3.99 m 27'8" ft/in 8.48 m

12'9" ft/in 3.89 m 14'2" ft/in 4.34 m 30'4" ft/in 9.26 m

14'7" ft/in 4.44 m 15'0" ft/in 4.57 m 34'1" ft/in 10.68 m

MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
MODEL Operating Weight Engine Flywheel Power Rated Payload Dump Height Dump Reach Bucket Size Breakout Force Full Turn Tip Load

Reference Information
WHEEL LOADERS 992G 992G HL 993K 993K HL 994F 994F HL 994F SHL

129

210,424 lb 95,447 kg 3508B DITA 800 hp 597 kW 24 T 21.7 t 15'2" ft/in 4626 mm 7'7" ft/in 2315 mm 15 - 30 yd3 11.4 - 23 m3 137,692 lb 612 kN 112,764 lb 51,149 kg

218,513 lb 99,116 kg 3508B DITA 800 hp 597 kW 24 T 21.7 t 17'3" ft/in 5250 mm 7'7" ft/in 2315 mm 15 - 30 yd3 11.4 - 23 m3 134,753 lb 599 kN 108,664 lb 49,289 kg

294,670 lb 133,637 kg C32 ACERT 950 hp 708 kW 25 T 22.7 t 15'7" ft/in 4745 8'3" ft/in 2515 17 yd3 13 m3 159,562 lb 709.2 kN 158,026 lb 71,667 kg

296,800 lb 134,603 kg C32 ACERT 950 hp 708 kW 25 T 22.7 t 17'11" ft/in 5465 8'7" ft/in 2616 17 yd3 13 m3 159,416 lb 708.5 kN 131,417 lb 59,599 kg

427,300 lb 192,244 kg 3516B 1463 hp 1092 kW 38 T 35 t 18'3" ft/in 5698 mm 7'5" ft/in 2263 mm 19.5 - 41 yd3 15 - 31 m3 222,553 lb 989 kN 243,760 lb 110,570 kg

430,900 lb 193,782 kg 3516B 1463 hp 1092 kW 35 T 32 t 19'0" ft/in 5931 mm 8'11" ft/in 2643 mm 19.5 - 41 yd3 15 - 31 m3 203,968 lb 1015 kN 203,968 lb 92,518 kg

467,100 lb 207,068 kg 3516B 1463 hp 1092 kW 35 T 32 t 24'0" ft/in 7315 mm 9'6" ft/in 2926 mm 41- 47 yd3 31- 36 m3 156,562 lb 696 kN 152,014 lb 68,952 kg

MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
MODEL Operating Weight

Reference Information
WHEEL DOZERS 834H 103,849 lb 47,106 kg 844H 156,120 lb 70,815 kg C27 ACERT 627 hp 468 kW 20.7 yd3 (15.9 m3) 40.2 yd3 (30.7 m3) 19'2" ft/in (5.85 m) 17'8" ft/in (5.42 m) 3F/3R 14.0 mph (22.5 kph) 15.4 mph (24.8 kph) 16'6" ft/in 5.023 m 35'9" ft/in 10.94 m 14'4" ft/in 4.37 m 854G 219,128 lb 99,395 kg 3508B DITA 800 hp 597 kW 33.4 yd3 (25.5 m3) 58.2 yd3 (44.7 m3) 20'7" ft/in (6.32 m) 23'7" ft/in (7.20 m) 3F/3R 13.6 mph (23.2 kph) 15.0 mph (24.2 kph) 17'10" ft/in 5.44 m 44'0" ft/in 13.405 m 14'10" ft/in 4.52 m

131

Engine C18 ACERT Flywheel Power 498 hp 372 kW Blade Capacity Semi - U Coal Straight Blade Width Semi - U Coal Straight Transmission Gears Top Speed Forward Reverse Height To Top of Canopy (ROPS) Overall Length 34'2" ft/in 10.42 m Overall Width 11'5" ft/in 3.47 m 10.3 yd3 (7.9 m3) 9.0 yd3 (22.3 m3) 10.5 yd3 (8.04 m3) 15'5" ft/in (4.69 m) 18'7" ft/in (5.68 m) 16'8" ft/in (5.07 m) 4F/3R 24.1 mph (38.7 kph) 14.3 mph (23.0 kph) 13'5" ft/in 4.09 m

MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
MODEL Body Type Gross Machine Operating Weight* Target Payload* Maximum Capacity Heaped (2:1) (SAE) Engine No. Cylinders Gross Power Tires Top Speed (loaded) Loading Height Overall Length Overall Width

Reference Information
LARGE MINING TRUCKS 777F Dual Slope Lined 360,000 lb 163,293 kg 99.6 tons 90.4 tonnes 78.8 yd3 60.2 m3 C32 ACERT 12 1,016 hp 758 kW 27.00R49 (E4) 40.1 mph 64.5 km/h 14'7" ft/in 4.43 m 34'6" ft/in 10.53 m 21'4" ft/in 6.49 m 785C Dual Slope 550,000 lb 249,435 kg 150+ tons 136+ tonnes 102 yd3 78 m3 3512B EUI 12 1,450 hp 1,082 kW 33.00R51 33.6 mph 54.1 km/h 16'4" ft/in 4.97 m 34'10" ft/in 10.62 m 21'4" ft/in 6.49 m 789C Dual Slope 700,000 lb 327,515 kg 195+ tons 177+ tonnes 137 yd3 105 m3 3516B EUI 16 1,900 hp 1,417 kW 37.00R57 32.7 mph 52.6 km/h 17'1" ft/in 5.21 m 38'2" ft/in 11.63 m 25'2" ft/in 7.67 m 793D X Body 846,000 lb 383,673 kg Dependent on (MA#)** 195 yd3 140 m3 3516B EUI 16 2,415 hp 1,801 kW 40.00R57 33.7 mph 54.2 km/h 21'1" ft/in 6.43 m 42'9" ft/in 13.01 m 27'5" ft/in 8.36 m 797B MSD II 1,375,000 lb 623,583 kg 380+ tons 345+ tonnes 290 yd3 220 m3 3524B EUI 24 3,550 hp 2,648 kW 59/80R63 42 mph 67.6 km/h 23'6" ft/in 7.15 m 47'3" ft/in 14.4 m 31'9" ft/in 9.66 m

133

*Reference Caterpillars 10/10/20 Payload Policy Revision #4 for information on gross machine operating weight and target payload.

** MA1= 255T (232t), MA2= 254T (231t), MA3= 258T (234t), MA4= 254T (231t), MA5= 253T (230t).

MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
MODEL Operating Weight (Empty)* Gross Machine Weight Target Payload Maximum Capacity** Heaped (2:1) (SAE) Engine No. Cylinders Gross Power Tires Circular Clearance Dia. Top Speed (loaded) Height To Top of Cab Wheelbase (front -center of bogie) Overall Length Loading Height (Empty) Height @ Full Dump Overall Width Front Tire Tread

Reference Information
ARTICULATED DUMP TRUCKS 735 66,690 lb (30,250 kg) 138,781 lb (62,950 kg) 36 Tons (32.7 tonnes) 25.8 yd3 (19.7 m3) ACERT C15 6 408 hp (304 kW) 26.5R25 Radials 56'5" ft/in (17.2 m) 36.2 mph (58.3 km/h) 12'1" ft/in (3.7 m) 17'2" ft/in (5.23 m) 35'7" ft/in (10.89 m) 9'7" ft/in (2.97 m) 22'8" ft/in (6.96 m) 10'10" ft/in (3.35 m) 8'8" ft/in (2.69 m)
* Includes coolant, lubricant and a full fuel tank.

135

740 72,400 lb (32,840 kg) 156,175 lb (70,840 kg) 42 Tons (38 tonnes) 30 yd3 (22.9 m3) ACERT C15 6 457 hp (341 kW) 29.5R25 Radials 56'4" ft/in (17.2 m) 34 mph (54.7 km/h) 12'3" ft/in (3.75 m) 17'2" ft/in (5.23 m) 35'7" ft/in (10.89 m) 10'4" ft/in (3.18 m) 23'2" ft/in (7.07 m) 11'3" ft/in (3.43 m) 8'8" ft/in (2.69 m)

740 Ejector 78,507 lb (35,610 kg) 162,282 lb (73,610 kg) 42 Tons (38 tonnes) 30.2 yd3 (23.1 m3) ACERT C15 6 457 hp (341 kW) 29.5R25 Radials 59'6" ft/in (18.2 m) 34 mph (54.7 km/h) 12'3" ft/in (3.75 m) 18'3" ft/in (5.58 m) 38'0" ft/in (11.59 m) 10'1" ft/in (3.07 m) 11'5" ft/in (3.5 m) 8'8" ft/in (2.69 m)

** Rating dependent on optional equipment. Maximum gross weight (empty weight plus payload) should not be exceeded.

MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
MODEL Operating Weight (Empty)*

Reference Information
MOTOR GRADERS 14H 41,010 lb 18,600 kg

137

16H 54,350 lb 24,740 kg 265 hp (198 kW) 285 hp (213 kW) 3196 6 16'0" ft/in 4.88 m 27'0" ft/in 8.2 m 29.9 mph (48.1 km/h) 26.9 mph (43.2 km/h) 11'7" ft/in 3.52 m 38'2" ft/in 11.62 m 10'1" ft/in 3.08 m

24H 136,610 lb 61,950 kg 500 hp (373 kW) 3412 HEUI 12 24'0" ft/in 7.32 m 39'11" ft/in 12.0 m

14M 47,133 lb 21,379 kg 259 hp (193 kW) 274 hp (204 kW) C11 ACERT 6 14'0" ft/in 4.3 m 25'11" ft/in 7.9 m

16M 57,452 lb 26,060 kg 297 hp (221 kW) 312 hp (233 kW) C13 ACERT 6 16'0" ft/in 4.88 m 29'3" ft/in 8.9 m

24M 137,692 lb 62,456 kg 533 hp (397 kW) C18 ACERT 6 24'0" ft/in 7.32 m 40'9" ft/in 12.4 m

Flywheel Power Base : Gears 1 - 8 VHP : Gears 4 - 8 Engine Model No. Cylinders Blade Length Minimum Turn Radius** Full articulation & front wheel steer Top Speed Forward Reverse Height To Top of Cab Overall Length With ripper & push plate Overall Width At top of front tires

220 hp (164 kW) 240 hp (179 kW) 3176 6 14'0" ft/in 4.3 m 26'3" ft/in 8.0 m 28.7 mph (46.1 km/h) 31.8 mph (51.1 km/h) 10'11" ft/in 3.34 m 35'4" ft/in 10.77 m 9'3" ft/in 2.82 m

23.4 mph (37.7 km/h) 31.0 mph (49.8 km/h) 33.5 mph (53.9 km/h) 26.7 mph (43.0 km/h) 22.4 mph (36.1 km/h) 24.5 mph (39.4 km/h) 26.5 mph (42.6 km/h) 25.6 mph (41.2 km/h) 14'3" ft/in 4.35 m 51'10" ft/in 15.80 m 13'8" ft/in 4.23 m 11'6" ft/in 3.53 m 35'9" ft/in 10.9 m 9'1" ft/in 2.8 m 12'2" ft/in 3.7 m 38'4" ft/in 11.7 m 10'2" ft/in 3.1 m 14'4" ft/in 4.4 m 52'9" ft/in 16.1 m 14'0" ft/in 4.3 m

* Operating weight based on standard machine configuration with full fuel tank, coolant, lubricants and operator. 24H includes ripper.

** Minimum turning radius Combining the use of articulated frame steering, front wheel steer and unlocked differential.

MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
MODEL Empty Weight Flywheel Power Tractor (gears 1 - 2) Tractor (gears 3 - 8) Scraper (gears 1 - 2) Scraper (gears 3 - 8) Engine Model Tractor Scraper Capacity Struck Heaped Rated Load Top Speed (Loaded)

Reference Information
WHEEL TRACTOR SCRAPERS 631G 102,460 lb 46,475 kg 462 hp (345 kW) 500 hp (373 kW) C18 ACERT 24 yd3 (18.3 m3) 34 yd3 (26 m3) 82,200 lb 37,285 kg 33.0 mph 53.0 km/h 627G 83,441 lb 37,848 kg 330 hp (246 kW) 365 hp (272 kW) 239 hp (178 kW) 266 hp (198 kW) C15 ACERT C9 ACERT 15.7 yd3 (12 m3) 22 yd3 (17 m3) 52,800 lb 23,950 kg 32 mph 51.3 km/h 9'11" ft/in 3.02 m 12'2" ft/in 3.71 m 42'5" ft/in 12.93 m 11'4" ft/in 3.47 m 637G 114,744 lb 52,047 kg 462 hp (345 kW) 500 hp (373 kW) 266 hp (198 kW) 283 hp (211 kW) C18 ACERT C9 ACERT 24 yd3 (18.3 m3) 34 yd3 (26 m3) 82,000 lb 37,285 kg 33 mph 53 km/h 11'6" ft/in 3.51 m 14'1" ft/in 4.29 m 48'4" ft/in 14.74 m 12'11" ft/in 3.94 m 657G 149,592 lb 67,854 kg 564 hp (421 kW) 600 hp (447 kW) 410 hp (306 kW) 451 hp (337 kW) C18 ACERT C15 ACERT 32 yd3 (24.5 m3) 44 yd3 (33.6 m3) 104,000 lb 47,175 kg 33 mph 53 km/h 12'8" ft/in 3.85 m 15'5" ft/in 4.71 m 53'1" ft/in 16.2 m 14'4" ft/in 4.35 m

139

Width of Cut 11'6" ft/in 3.51 m Height To Top of Canopy (ROPS) Overall Length 48'4" ft/in 14.74 m Overall Width 12'11" ft/in 3.94 m 14'1" ft/in 4.29 m

MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
MODEL Engine Power Engine Empty Weight Loaded Weight Capacity M3 Heaped (2:1) (SAE) SAE Body Capacity Dump (D)

Reference Information
UNDERGROUND MINING TRUCKS AD30 408 hp 304 kW C15 66,140 lb 30,000 kg 132,280 lb 60,000 kg 18.8 yd3 14.4 m3 14.8 yd3 (11.3 m3) (D) 18.8 yd3 (14.4 m3) (D) 22.0 yd3 (16.8 m3) (D) 22.8 yd3 (17.5 m3) (D) 19.8 yd3 (15.2 m3) (E) 7'10" ft/in 2,385 mm 33'4" ft/in 10,160 mm 8'6" ft/in 2,650 mm

141

AD45B 587 hp 438 kW C18 89,303 lb 40,500 kg 188,528 lb 85,500 kg 27.9 yd3 21.3 m3 27.9 yd3 (21.3 m3) (D) 32.8 yd3 (25.1 m3) (D) 30.0 yd3 (22.9 m3) (E) 9'7" ft/in 2,925 mm 36'6" ft/in 11,194 mm 9'6" ft/in 2,817 mm

AD55 650 hp 485 kW C18 103,617 lb 47,000 kg 226,871 lb 102,000 kg 35.2 yd3 26.9 m3 35.2 yd3 (26.9 m3) (D) 44.2 yd3 (33.8 m3) (D) 47.9 yd3 (36.6 m3) (D) 35.2 yd3 (26.9 m3) (E) 10'0" ft/in 3,045 mm 37'8" ft/in 11,547 mm 10'9" ft/in 3,346 mm

Ejector (E) Loading Height Overall Length Overall Width

MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
MODEL Operating Weight Engine Power Engine Rated Payload Overall Length Overall Width Bucket Size Breakout Force Static Tipping Load

Reference Information
UNDERGROUND MINING LOADERS R1300G II R1600G 46,187 lb 20,950 kg 182 hp 136 kW C6.6 ACERT 44,991 lb 6,800 kg 28'7" ft/in 8,714 mm 6'10" ft/in 2,071 mm 3.1 - 4.4 yd3 2.4 - 3.4 m3 26,505 lb 12,020 kg 45,360 lb 20,575 kg 65,710 lb 29,800 kg 270 hp 201 kW 3176C EUI ATAAC 22,490 lb 10,200 kg 31'10" ft/in 9,710 8'7" ft/in 2,600 5.5 - 7.7 yd3 4.2 - 5.9 m3 43,000 lb 19,500 kg 73,537 lb 33,350 kg

143

R1700G 84,880 lb 38,500 kg 353 hp 263 kW C11 ATAAC 30,870 lb 14,000 kg 34'9" ft/in 10,600 9'3" ft/in 2,818 6.0 - 11.4 yd3 4.6 - 8.8 m3 49,672 lb 22,531 kg 82,316 lb 37,338 kg

R2900G 110,711 lb 50,209 kg 430/447 hp 321/333 kW C15 ACERT 37,930 lb 17,200 kg 35'11" ft/in 10,949 9'11" ft/in 3,010 8.4 - 11.6 yd3 6.4 - 8.9 m3 61,288 lb 27,800 kg 71,937 lb 32,630 kg

R2900G Xtra 123,459 lb 56,000 kg 430/447 hp 321/333 kW C15 ACERT 44,092 lb 20,000 kg 37'10" ft/in 11,083 10'6" ft/in 3,200 10.6 - 15.2 yd3 8.2 - 11.6 m3 55,340 lb 25,100 kg 100,940 lb 45,782 kg

Reference Information
MOTOR GRADERS Bias Ply
Model 120H Tire Size 13.00-24TG* 14.00-24TG 15.5-25 17.5-25 13.00-24TG* 14.00-24TG 15.5-25 17.5-25 13.00-24TG* 14.00-24TG 15.5-25 17.5-25 14.00-24TG* 17.5-25 14.00-24TG* 17.5-25 14.00-24TG* 17.5-25 14.00-24TG* 17.5-25 16.00-24TG* 20.5-25 18.00-25* 23.5-25 29.5-29 Ply Rating
kPa

145
GOODYEAR Pressure Front
psi kPa

BRIDGESTONE Pressure Rear


psi kPa

Front
psi kPa

Rear
psi

10, 12 10, 12, 14, 16 12 12, 16 10, 12 10, 12, 14, 16 12 12, 16 10, 12 10, 12, 14, 16 12 12, 16 10, 12, 14, 16 12 10, 12 12, 16 10, 12, 14, 16 12, 16 12 12 12 12, 14, 16 12, 16 12, 16, 20 22, 28

250 175 225 175 250 175 250 175 325 250 300 225 250 250 325 250 300 275 300 275 250 225 325 275 400

36 25 33 25 36 25 36 25 47 36 44 33 36 36 47 36 44 40 44 40 36 33 47 40 58

250 75 225 175 250 175 250 175 325 250 300 225 250 250 325 250 300 275 300 275 250 225 325 275 400

36 25 33 25 36 25 36 25 47 36 44 33 36 36 47 36 44 40 44 40 36 33 47 40 58

241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241

35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35

241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241

35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35

135H

12H

140H 143H 160H 163H 14H 16H 24H

Reference Information
MOTOR GRADERS Radial Ply
Model 120H Tire Size 13.00R24TG* 14.00R24TG 15.5R25 17.5R25 13.00R24TG 14.00R24TG 15.5R25 17.5R25 13.00R24TG 14.00R24TG 15.5R25 17.5R25 14.00R24TG 17.5R25 14.00R24TG 17.5R25 550/65R25 555/70R25 14.00R24TG 17.5R25 14.00R24TG 17.5R25 550/65R25 555/70R25 16.00R24TG 20.5R25 18.00R25 23.5R25 29.5R29 29.5R29 , Strength Rating Front
kPa psi

147
MICHELIN Pressure Rear
kPa psi kPa

GOODYEAR Pressure Front


psi kPa

BRIDGESTONE Pressure Rear


psi kPa

Front
psi kPa

Rear
psi

248 207 207 207 248 207 207 207 248 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 158 207 207 207 207 241 241

36 30 30 30 36 30 30 30 36 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 23 30 30 30 30 35 35

248 207 207 207 303 207 207 207 303 241 241 207 241 207 241 207 207 207 241 207 241 207 207 200 241 207 207 207 303 303

36 30 30 30 44 30 30 30 44 35 35 30 35 30 35 30 30 30 35 30 35 30 30 29 35 30 30 30 44 44

300 225 250 200 300 225 250 200 375 300 300 250 325 250 250 250 350 275 350 275 300 225 375 300 425 425

44 33 36 29 44 33 36 29 54 44 44 36 47 36 36 36 51 40 51 40 44 33 54 44 62 62

300 225 250 200 300 225 250 200 375 300 300 250 325 250 250 250 350 275 350 275 300 225 375 300 425 425

44 33 36 29 44 33 36 29 54 44 44 36 47 36 36 36 51 40 51 40 44 33 54 44 62 62

310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310

45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45

310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 310

45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45

135H

12H

140H 143H

160H 163H

14H 16H 24H

*Standard tire and ply rating. Refer to Tire Load Worksheet to determine proper ply rating.

Reference Information
WHEEL TRACTORS Bias Ply
Model 814F 824H 834H 844H 854G Tire Size 23.5-25* 29.5-25* 35/65-33* 41.25/70-39 45/65-45 Ply Rating
kPa

149
GOODYEAR Pressure Front
psi kPa

BRIDGESTONE Pressure Rear


psi kPa

Front
psi kPa

Rear
psi

12, 20 22, 26, 28 24, 30, 36, 42 34, 42 46, 50, 58

350 275 375 375 500

51 40 54 54 73

300 275 375 325 450

44 40 54 47 65

241 241 540

35 35 80

241 241 540

35 35 80

*Standard tire, ply rating, and inflation pressures.

WHEEL TRACTOR-SCRAPERS Bias Ply


Model 611 613C Series II 615C Series II 621G Tire Size 29.5-25 23.5-25 29.5-25 33.25-29 29.5-29 29.5-35 33.25-29 29.5-29 29.5-35 33.25-29 29.5-29 29.5-35 33.25-35 37.25-35 33.25-35 37.25-35 37.5-39 Ply Rating
kPa

GOODYEAR Pressure Front


psi kPa

BRIDGESTONE Pressure Rear


psi kPa

Front
psi kPa

Rear
psi

22, 28, 34 16, 20 22, 28, 34 26, 32 34 28 26, 32 34 28 26, 32 34 28 38 36, 42 38 36, 42 60

150 275 325 325 450 414 350 475 414 375 500 414 425 400 621

22 40 47 47 65 60 51 69 60 54 73 60 62 58 90

150 275 325 325 450 414 350 475 414 375 500 414 425 400 621

22 40 47 47 65 60 51 69 60 54 73 60 62 58 90

414 345 414 379 448 379 448 379 448 448 448

60 50 60 55 65 55 65 55 65 65 65

414 345 414 379 448 379 448 379 414 448 448

60 50 60 55 65 55 65 55 60 65 65

623G

627G

631G 637G 657G

Reference Information
WHEEL TRACTORS Radial Ply
Model 814F 824H 834H 844H 854 Tire Size 23.5R25 26.5R25 29.5R25 35/65R33 45/65R39* 40.5/75R39 45/65R45* Strength Rating Front
kPa psi

151
MICHELIN Pressure Rear
kPa psi kPa

GOODYEAR Pressure Front


psi kPa

BRIDGESTONE Pressure Rear


psi kPa

Front
psi kPa

Rear
psi

379 310 248 345 379 483 413

55 45 36 50 55 70 60

379 310 248 345 379 483 413

55 45 36 50 55 70 60

425 241 325 425 350 525

62 35 47 62 51 76

375 241 325 425 300 475

54 35 47 62 44 69

276 345 345 483 448

40 50 50 70 65

276 345 345 483 448

40 50 50 70 65

WHEEL TRACTOR-SCRAPERS Radial Ply MICHELIN


Model 611 613C Series II 615C Series II 621G 623G 627G 631G 637G 657G Tire Size 26.5R25 29.5R25 18.00R25 23.5R25 26.5R25 29.5R25 29.5R29 29.5R29 29.5R35 33.25R29 29.5R29 29.5R35 33.25R29 29.5R29 29.5R35 33.25R29 37.25R35 37.25R35 37.5R39 40.5R39 Strength Rating Pressure Front
kPa psi

GOODYEAR Pressure Rear Front


psi kPa psi kPa

BRIDGESTONE Pressure Rear


psi kPa

Front
psi kPa

Rear
psi

kPa

379 310 379 276 413 345 413 448 482 379 517 482 413 517 482 379 517 517 689 586

55 45 55 40 60 50 60 65 70 55 75 70 60 75 70 55 75 75 100 85

379 310 413 276 413 345 413 448 482 310 517 482 413 517 482 379 413 517 689 517

55 45 60 40 60 50 60 65 70 45 75 70 60 75 70 55 60 75 100 75

275 225 482 375 525 379 525 375 448 448 475 475 525

40 33 70 54 76 55 76 54 65 65 69 69 76

275 225 482 375 525 379 525 375 448 448 475 475 525

40 33 70 54 76 55 76 54 65 65 69 69 76

482 379 379 482 517 448 517 517 620

70 55 55 70 75 65 75 75 90

482 379 379 482 517 448 517 517 620

70 55 55 70 75 65 75 75 90

Reference Information
ARTICULATED TRUCKS Radial Ply
Model 725 730 730 EJ 735 Tire Size 23.5R25 650/65R25 750/65R25 23.5R25 650/65R25 750/65R25 23.5R25 750/65R25 26.5R25 29.5R25 750/65R25 850/65R25 29.5R25 850/65R25 29.5R25 850/65R25 Strength Rating Strength Rating Front
kPa psi

153
MICHELIN Pressure Center
kPa psi kPa

Rear
psi kPa

Front
psi

GOODYEAR Pressure Center


kPa psi kPa

Rear
psi

740 740EJ

324 358 303 345 345 276 500 427 350 427 310 358 345 425

47 52 44 50 50 40 73 62 51 62 45 52 50 62

351 400 324 413 413 310 500 427 350 427 310 345 345 425

51 58 47 60 60 45 73 62 51 62 45 50 50 62

351 400 324 413 413 310 500 400 427 350 427 310 345 345 425

51 58 47 60 60 45 73 58 62 51 62 45 50 50 62

375 300 450 350 400 425 375

54 44 65 51 58 62 54

375 300 450 350 400 425 375

54 44 65 51 58 62 54

375 300 450 350 425 375

54 44 65 51 62 54

MINING TRUCKS & TRACTORS Radial Ply MICHELIN


Model 770 772 773F 775F 776D 777F 784C 785C 789C 793D 797B Tire Size 18.00R33 21.00R33 24.00R35 24.00R35 27.00R49 27.00R49 33.00R51 37.00R57 40.00R57 46/90R57 45R57 59/80R63 Front
kPa

Pressure
psi

Rear
psi kPa

Front 109 102 102 102 100 102 102 94 102 105 109 102 799 689 675 703 751 825 725 775

GOODYEAR Pressure
psi kPa

Rear
psi kPa

BRIDGESTONE Pressure Front Rear


psi kPa psi

kPa

751 703 703 703 689 703 703 648 703 725 703

109 102 102 102 100 102 102 94 102 105 102

751 703 703 703 689 703 703 648 703 725 750 703

116 100 98 102 109 120 105 112

772 689 675 703 751 825 725 775

112 100 98 102 109 120 105 112

689 689 689 689 689

100 100 100 100 100

689 689 689 689 689

100 100 100 100 100

Reference Information
WHEEL LOADERS Bias and Bias Belted
Model 904B 906 908 914G 924G 928G 930G 938G 950H 962H 966H 972H 980H 988H 990H 992G 994F Tire Size 12.5-18 12.5-20 14.5-20 15.5-25 15.5-25 17.5-25 20.5-25 17.5-25 20.5-25 17.5-25 20.5-25 20.5-25 23.5-25 23.5-25 26.5-25 26.5-25 29.5-25 35/65-33 41.25/70-39 45/65-45 49.00R57 49.5/85-57 49.00R57 52/80-57 53.5/85-57 55.5/80R57 55/80R57 58/85-57 60/80R57 Ply Rating
kPa

155
GOODYEAR Pressure Front
psi kPa

BRIDGESTONE Pressure Rear


psi kPa

Front
psi kPa

Rear
psi

10 10 10 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 16, 20 16, 20 20 20 22 42 42 50, 58 68 76

241 241 276 276 241 310 241 345 241 345 241 350 425 475 375 400 450 625 550 625 625

35 35 40 40 35 45 35 50 35 50 35 51 62 69 54 58 65 91 80 91 91

172 172 241 172 172 207 172 241 172 241 172 225 250 275 225 225 275 425 350 425 425

25 25 35 25 25 30 25 35 25 35 25 33 36 40 33 33 40 62 51 62 62

241 241 276 276 241 310 241 345 241 345 241 310 345 379 413 448 482 655 586 689

35 35 40 40 35 45 35 50 35 50 35 45 50 55 60 65 70 95 85 100

172 172 241 172 172 207 172 241 172 241 172 207 207 241 276 276 276 413 413 482

25 25 35 25 25 30 25 35 25 35 25 30 30 35 40 40 40 60 60 70

Reference Information
WHEEL LOADERS Radial Ply
Model 904B 906 Tire Size 335/80R18 XM27 335/80R18 SPT9 365/80R20 SPT9 375/75R20 XM27 405/70R20 SPT9 425/75R20 XM27 405/70R20 SPT9 15.5R25 17.5R25 17.5R25 550/65 R25 20.5R25 17.5R25 600/65 R25 20.5R25 17.5R25 600/65 R25 20.5R25 20.5R25 550/65R25 20.5R25 550/65R25 650/65R25 23.5R25 650/65R25 750/65R25 23.5R25 650/65R25 Strength Rating Front
kPa psi

157
MICHELIN Pressure Rear
kPa psi kPa

GOODYEAR Pressure Front


psi kPa

BRIDGESTONE Pressure Rear


psi kPa

Front
psi kPa

Rear
psi

304 276 276 310 276 276 276 241 379 310 310 379 310 310 310 310 310 345 310 241 241 241 241 276

44 40 40 45 40 40 40 35 55 45 45 55 45 45 45 45 45 50 45 35 35 35 35 40

221 193 193 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172

32 28 28 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25

276 276 241 276 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 414 276 276 425 275 425 425 475 475

40 40 35 40 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 40 40 62 40 62 62 69 69

172 172 172 207 276 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 241 241 250 150 250 250 275 275

25 25 25 30 40 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 35 35 36 22 36 36 40 40

414 414 414 414 414 414 414 276 276 276 276 310 310 345 345

60 60 60 60 60 60 60 40 40 45 40 50 45 50 50

276 276 276 276 276 276 276 207 207 207 207 207 207 207 207

40 40 40 40 40 40 40 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30

908 914G 924G

928G

930G

938G 938H

950H

962G

Reference Information
WHEEL LOADERS Radial Ply (CONTINUED) MICHELIN
Model 962H Tire Size 23.5R25 650/65R25 750/65R25 26.5R25 750/65R25 26.5R25 750/65R25 26.5R25 750/65R25 755/65R25 26.5R25 750/65R25 29.5R25 26.5R25 29.5R25 35/65R33 35/65R33 875/65R33 45/65R39 45/65R39 40.5/75R39 45/65R45 45/65R45 55/80R57 55.5/80R57 60/80R57 49.00R57 Strength Rating Pressure Front
kPa psi

159
GOODYEAR Pressure Rear
kPa psi kPa

BRIDGESTONE Pressure Rear Front


psi kPa psi kPa

Front
psi kPa

Rear
psi

276 276 276 310 310 310 310 345 345 345 345 379 379 586 599 625 517 517 551 625 703

40 40 40 45 45 45 45 50 50 50 50 55 55 85 87 91 75 75 80 91 102

172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 379 207 310 599 425 276 276 276 425 703

25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 55 30 45 87 62 40 40 40 62 102

450 400 475 450 345 414 500 550 685

65 58 69 65 50 60 73 80 95

275 255 275 275 276 276 300 350 414

40 33 40 40 40 40 44 51 60

345 345 345 345 540 580 580

50 50 50 50 80 85 85

276 276 276 276 345 414 414

40 40 40 40 50 60 60

966G 966H 972G

972H 980G 980H 988G 988H 990G 990H 992G 994F

Reference Information
UNDERGROUND MINING Bias & Bias Belted
Model Wheel Size 14.0 x 25 13.0 x 25 22.0 x 25 25.0 x 25 25.0 x 29 28.0 x 33 29.5 x 29 13.0 x 33 13.0 x 33 15.0 x 35 Tire Size 17.5 x 25 18.0 x 25 26.5 x 25 29.5 x 29 29.5 x 29 35/65R33 29.5 x R29 18.0 x R33 18.0 x R33 21.0 x R35 Ply Rating
kPa

161
BRIDGESTONE Pressure
psi kPa

Front* 680 680 580 640 640 620 640 620 700

Rear*
psi

LOAD - HAUL DUMP

R1300 R1600 R1700G & R1700G SUPA14 R2900 & R2900 SUPA 20 AD45 AD55 AE40 Series II 69D Dump 69D Ejector 73D

20 28 32 34 40 40 36 40 42

100 100 85 94 94 90 94 91 102

580 414 414 414 640 620 640 620 700

85 60 60 60 94 90 94 91 102

ARTICULATED TRUCKS RIGID x TRUCKS

UNDERGROUND MINING Bias & Radial Ply


Model Wheel Size 13.0 x 25 22.0 x 25 25.0 x 29 28.0 x 33 14.0 x 25 13.0 x 25 22.0 x 25 25.0 x 29 28.0 x 33 22.0 x 25 25.0 x 29 28.0 x 33 Tire Size 18.0 x 25 26.5 x 25 29.5 x 29 35/65 x 33 17.5 x 25 18.0 x 25 26.5 x 25 29.5 x 29 35/65 x 33 26.5R25 29.5 x R29 35/65R33 Ply Rating
kPa

BRIDGESTONE Bias

Front*
psi

Pressure
kPa

Rear*
psi

LOAD - HAUL

R1600G R1700G R2900G R2900G Xtra R1300G II R1600G R1700G R2900G R2900G Xtra AD30 AD45B AD55

28 36 34

685 580 615 685 685 580 640 640 540 650 640

100 85 90 102 100 85 94 94 80 95 94

410 410 410 580 410 410 410 410 615 650 640

60 60 60 85 60 60 60 60 90 95 94

BRIDGESTONE Radial

ARTICULATED TRUCKS

*For standard loading applications. NOTE: When tramming cycles exceed 150 m (500 ft) contact tire supplier.

NOTE: The operating inflation pressure is based on the weight of the ready-to-work machine without attachments, at rated payload and in average operating conditions. The tire pressure for each application may vary. The tire pressure should always be obtained from your tire dealer.

Reference Information
LIQUID BALLASTING* TABLE 75% Fillage***
Weight Increase Per Tire
kg lb kg

163
BIAS PLY TIRES Mixing Proportions Water
lb liter gal

CaCl** 55 63 56 98 77 134 123 119 154 173 207 224 222 209 286 310 344 258 439 505 552 396 614 561 753 122 140 125 217 170 296 272 263 340 382 458 494 490 462 632 684 758 570 968 1115 1218 873 1353 1236 1659

Weight Increase Per Tire


kg lb

RADIAL PLY TIRES Mixing Proportions CaCl**


kg lb

Water
liter gal

13.00-24TG 14.00-24TG 15.5-25 16.00-24TG 17.5-25 18.00-25 18.4-34 20.5-25 23.1-26 23.5-25 24.5-32 26.5-25 26.5-29 28L-26 29.5-25 29.5-29 29.5-35 30.5L-32 33.25-35 37.25-35 38-39 35/65-33 40/65-39 41.25/70-39 45/65-45

188 215 192 333 262 454 417 405 522 585 703 758 752 709 970 1050 1159 874 1485 1712 1870 1339 2077 1897 2548

414 475 423 735 577 1002 919 892 1151 1291 1549 1671 1658 1563 2139 2315 2556 1928 3275 3775 4123 2953 4580 4183 5617

132 151 136 234 185 322 295 284 367 412 496 533 530 500 685 738 821 617 1048 1211 1317 942 1465 1336 1794

35 40 36 62 49 85 78 75 97 109 131 141 140 132 181 195 217 163 277 320 348 249 387 353 474

185 256 224 355 311 502 448 633 841 928 1073 1190 1286 1592 2128 1430 2194

407 565 493 783 686 1107 987 1396 1853 2045 2368 2623 2835 3508 4692 3152 4836

57 79 69 109 95 154 137 194 258 284 328 365 394 487 653 438 673

125 173 151 240 210 340 303 428 568 627 723 804 869 1074 1439 967 1483

128 179 155 246 216 348 310 439 583 644 745 825 892 1105 1476 992 1522

34 47 41 65 57 92 82 116 154 170 197 218 236 292 390 262 402

*Ballast weight for bias ply tires from Goodyear data, radial ply weights from Michelin data. Contact your tire supplier for additional information. Under abnormal tire wear conditions, ballasting of rear tires may be desirable. Ballasting of front tires also should only be done where extremely rapid tire wear rates are encountered. Excessive weight will reduce machine performance. **1.6 kg (3 12 lb) Calcium Chloride per gallon water. Solution weighs 4.6 kg (10.15 lb) per gallon.

***Fillage beyond 75% of tire enclosed volume is not recommended. With liquid ballasting, inflation pressure must be checked at least once per day. NOTE: When liquid ballasting telehandler tires, consult Telehandlers Operation and Maintenance Manual for requirements.Total machine mass including all attachments in operating condition, all reservoirs at full capacity and ballasted tires must not exceed certification mass listed on the ROPS certification label.

Reference Information
CONVERSION FACTORS
MULTIPLY METRIC UNIT BY TO OBTAIN ENGLISH UNIT

165
CONVERSION FACTORS
MULTIPLY METRIC UNIT BY TO OBTAIN ENGLISH UNIT

kilometer (km) meter (m) meter (m) centimeter (cm) millimeter (mm) sq kilometer (km2) hectare (ha) sq meter (m2) sq meter (m2) sq centimeter (cm2) cu centimeter (cm3) cu meter (m3) liter (L) liter (L) km/h liter (L) liter (L) metric ton (t) metric ton (t) kilogram (kg) gram (g or gr) kilonewton (kN) newton (N) cu centimeter (cm3) kilograms/cu meter kilograms/cu meter

.6214 1.0936 3.28 .0328 .03937 .3861 2.471 10.764 1550 .1550 .061 1.308 61.02 .001308 .621 .2642 .22 .984 1.102 2.205 .0353 225 .225 .0338 1.686 .062

mile yard foot foot inch square mile acre square foot square inch square inch cubic inch cubic yard cubic inch cubic yard mph U.S. gallon Imperial gallon long ton short ton pound, avdp. ounce, avdp. pound (force) pound (force) fluid ounce pounds/cu yd pounds/cu ft

kilograms/sq cm (kg/cm2) kilocalorie (kcal) kilogram-meter (kgm) meter-kilogram (mkg) metric horsepower (CV) kilowatt (kW) kilopascal (kPa) bar tons/m3 decaliter mile, statute (m) yard (yd) foot (ft) inch (in) sq mile (mile2) acre sq foot (ft2) sq inch (in2) cu yard (yd3) cu inch (in3) cu foot (ft3) cu inch (in3) cubic yard (yd3) mph Ton mph U.S. gallon (US Gal)

14.225 3.968 7.233 7.233 .9863 1.341 .145 14.5 1692 .283 1.609 .9144 .3048 25.4 2.590 .4047 .0929 .000645 .7645 16.387 .0283 .0164 764.55 1.61 1.459 3.785

pounds/sq in Btu foot-pound pound-foot hp hp psi psi pounds/cu yd bushel kilometer meter meter millimeter sq kilometer hectare sq meter sq meter cu meter cu centimeter cu meter liter liter km/h tkm/h liter

NOTE: Some of the above factors have been rounded for convenience. For exact conversion factors please consult International System of Units (SI) table.

Reference Information
CONVERSION FACTORS (CONTINUED)
MULTIPLY METRIC UNIT BY TO OBTAIN ENGLISH UNIT

167
TEMPERATURE FACTORS
CELSIUS
320 300 280 520 260 480 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 160 60 37 20 120 98.6 80 440 400 360 320 280 240 212 200

FAHRENHEIT
600 580

U.S. gallon long ton (lg ton) short ton (sh ton) pound (lb) ounce (oz) pound (lb) (force) pound (lb) (force) fluid oz (fl oz) lb/cu ft (lb/ft3) lb/cu yd (lb/yd3) pounds/sq. in. psi psi Btu foot-pound (ft-lb) horsepower (hp) horsepower (hp) pounds/cu yd pounds (No. 2 diesel fuel) bushel

.833 1.016 .907 .4536 28.35 .00445 4.45 29.57 16.018 .5933 .0703 .0689 6.89 .2520 .1383 1.014 .7457 .0005928 .1413 3.524

Imperial gallon metric ton metric ton kilogram gram kilonewton newton cu centimeter kg/cu meter kg/cu meter kilogram/sq cm bar kilopascal kilogram-calorie kilogram-meter metric horsepower kilowatt tons/m3 U.S. gallon decaliter

C = (F 32) 1.8

F = (C 1.8) + 32

NOTE: Some of the above factors have been rounded for convenience. For exact conversion factors please consult International System of Units (SI) table.

0 -20 -40 0

32

-40

Reference Information
EQUIVALENTS
METRIC UNIT EQUIVALENTS ENGLISH UNIT EQUIVALENTS

169
APPROXIMATE COEFFICIENT OF TRACTION FACTORS
MATERIALS RUBBER TIRES TRACKS

1 km 1m 1 cm 1 km2 1 ha 1 m2 1 cm2 1 m3 1 liter 1 metric ton 1 quintal 1N 1 kg 1g 1 bar 1 cal 1 cal 1 cal 1 CV 1 kg/cm2

1000 m 100 cm 10 mm 100 ha 10,000 m2 10,000 cm2 100 mm2 1000 liters 1000 cm3 1000 kg 100 kg 0.10197 kgm/s2 1000 g 1000 mg 14.504 psi 427 kgm 0.0016 cvh 0.00116 kwh 75 kgm/s 0.97 atmosph.

1 mile 1 yd 1 ft 1 sq mile 1 acre 1 sq ft 1 cu ft 1 gal 1 gal 1 quart 1 fl oz 1 sh ton 1 lg ton 1 lb 1 Btu 1 Btu 1 Btu 1 mechanical hp 1 atmosph.

1760 yd 3 ft 12 in 640 acres 43,560 sq ft 144 sq in 7.48 gal liq 231 cu in 4 quarts liq 32 fl oz 1.80 cu in 2000 lb 2240 lb 16 oz, avdp 778 ft lb 0.000393 hph 0.000293 kwh 550 ft-lb/sec 14.7 lb/in2

Concrete Clay Loam Dry Wet Rutted Sand Dry Wet Quarry Pit Gravel Road (Loose not hard) Packed Snow Ice Earth Firm Loose Coal, Stockpiled
*Semi-Skeleton shoes = .27

.90 .55 .45 .40 .20 .40 .65 .36 .20 .12 .55 .45 .45

.45 .90 .70 .70 .30 .50 .55 .50 .27 .12* .90 .60 .60

POWER UNIT EQUIVALENTS

kW hp CV PS 1 hp 1 hp 1 hp

Kilowatt Mechanical Horsepower Cheval Vapeur* Pferdestrke** 1.014 CV 1.014 PS 0.7457 kW

1 PS 1 PS 1 PS 1 kW 1 kW 1 kW

1 CV 0.986 hp 0.7355 kW 1.341 hp 1.36 CV 1.36 PS

* (Steam Horsepower) French Designation For Metric Horsepower ** (Horsepower) German Designation For Metric Horsepower

Reference Information
MATERIALS
Basalt Bauxite, Kaolin Caliche Carnotite, uranium ore Cinders Clay Natural bed Dry Wet Clay & gravel Dry Wet Coal Anthracite, Raw Anthracite, Washed Ash, Bituminous Coal Bituminous, Raw Bituminous, Washed Decomposed rock 75% Rock, 25% Earth 50% Rock, 50% Earth 25% Rock, 75% Earth Earth Dry packed Wet excavated Loam Granite Broken Gravel Pitrun Dry Dry 6-50 mm (1/4"-2") Wet 6-50 mm (1/4"-2")

171
SWELL %
LOOSE kg/m3 lb/yd3 kg/m3

LOAD FACTORS
.67 .75 .55 .74 .66 .82 .81 .80 .85 .85 .74 .74 .93 .74 .74 .70 .75 .80 .80 .79 .81 .61 .89 .89 .89 .89

WEIGHT* OF MATERIALS
BANK lb/yd3

51 33 80 35 50 22 23 25 18 18 35 35 8 35 35 43 33 25 25 24 23 65 12 12 12 12

1960 1420 1250 1630 560 1660 1480 1660 1420 1540 1190 1100 530-650 950 830 1960 1720 1570 1510 1600 1250 1660 1930 1510 1690 2020

3300 2400 2100 2750 950 2800 2500 2800 2400 2600 2000 1850 900-1100 1600 1400 3300 2900 2650 2550 2700 2100 2800 3250 2550 2850 3400

2970 1900 2260 2200 860 2020 1840 2080 1660 1840 1600 590-890 1280 2790 2280 1960 1900 2020 1540 2730 2170 1690 1900 2260

5000 3200 3800 3700 1450 3400 3100 3500 2800 3100 2700 1000-1500 2150 4700 3850 3300 3200 3400 2600 4600 3650 2850 3200 3800

*Varies with moisture content, grain size, degree of compaction, etc. Tests must be made to determine exact material characteristics.

Reference Information
MATERIALS
Gypsum Broken Crushed Hematite, iron ore, high grade Limestone Broken Crushed Magnetite, iron ore Pyrite, iron ore Sand Dry, loose Damp Wet Sand & clay Loose Compacted Sand & gravel Dry Wet Sandstone Shale Slag Broken Snow Dry Wet Stone Crushed Taconite Top Soil Taprock Broken Wood Chips**

173
SWELL %
LOOSE kg/m3 lb/yd3 kg/m3

LOAD FACTORS

WEIGHT* OF MATERIALS
BANK lb/yd3

.57 .57 .85 .59 .85 .85 .89 .89 .89 .79 .89 .91 .60 .75 .60 .60 .58 .70 .67

75 75 18 69 18 18 12 12 12 24 12 9 65 33 65 65 70 43 51

1810 1600 1810-2450 1540 1540 2790 2580 1420 1690 1840 1600 2400 1720 2020 1510 1250 1750 130 520 1600 1630-1900 950 1750

3050 2700 4000-5400 2600 2600 4700 4350 2400 2850 3100 2700 4050 2900 3400 2550 2100 2950 220 860 2700 3600-4200 1600 2950

3170 2790 2130-2900 2610 3260 3030 1600 1900 2080 2020 1930 2230 2520 1660 2940 2670 2360-2700 1370 2610

5350 4700 4700-6400 4400 5500 5100 2700 3200 3500 3400 3250 3750 4250 2800 4950 4500 5200-6100 2300 4400

**Weights of commercially important wood species can be found in the last pages of the Logging & Forest Products section. To obtain wood weights use the following equations: lb/yd3 = (lb/ft3) x .4 x 27 kg/m3 = (kg/m3) x .4

*Varies with moisture content, grain size, degree of compaction, etc. Tests must be made to determine exact material characteristics.

Reference Information
TYPICAL ROLLING RESISTANCE FACTORS
UNDERFOOTING TIRES BIAS RADIAL 1.5%* 1.2% TRACK** TRACK +TIRES 0% 1.0%

175
FORMULAS AND RULES OF THUMB
Production (yds./hr.) = Load (cu.yds.) X Trips per hour Load (b.c.y.) = Weight of Load (lbs.) Lbs. Per Bank Yard Bank Yards = Loose yds. X load factor Bank Yards = Loose yds. X 100 100 + % Swell

A very hard, smooth roadway, concrete, cold asphalt, or dirt surface, no penetration or flexing A hard, smooth, stabilized surfaced roadway without penetration under load, watered, maintained A firm, smooth, rolling roadway with dirt or light surfacing, flexing slightly under load or undulating, maintained fairly regularly, watered A dirt roadway, rutted or flexing under load, little maintenance, no water, 25 mm (1") tire penetration or flexing A dirt roadway, rutted or flexing under load, little maintenance, no water, 50 mm (2") tire penetration or flexing Rutted dirt roadway, soft under travel, no maintenance, no stabilization, 100 mm (4") tire penetration or flexing Loose sand or gravel Rutted dirt roadway, soft under travel, no maintenance, no stabilization, 200 mm (8") tire penetration and flexing Very soft, muddy, rutted roadway, 300 mm (12") tire penetration, no flexing

2.0%

1.7%

0%

1.2%

3.0%

2.5%

0%

1.8%

Bank Yards = Compacted Yards Shrinkage Factor


4.0% 4.0% 0% 2.4%

Trips per Hour =


5.0% 5.0% 0% 3.0%

60 min. Cycle Time (min.)

Or

Working Min. per Hr. Cycle Time (min.)

Cycle Time = Fixed Time + Variable Time Fixed Time = (see respective machine production tables)

8.0%

8.0%

0%

4.8%

Variable Time = Total Haul Time + Total Return Time


10.0% 14.0% 10.0% 14.0% 2% 5% 7.0% 10.0%

Travel Time (min.) =

Distance (ft.) Speed (ft. per min.)

Or

Distance (ft.) Mph X 88

20.0%

20.0%

8%

15.0%

*Percent of combined machine weight. **Assumes drag load has been subtracted to give Drawbar Pull for good to moderate conditions. Some resistance added for very soft conditions.

Rolling Resistance (lbs.) = RR Factor (lbs./ton) X Weight on Wheels (tons) Or 40lbs./ton + 30 lbs./ton (for each 1 tire penetration) X Weight on Wheels (lbs.) Or 2% + 1 1/2% (for each 1 tire penetration) X Weight on Wheels (lbs.)

Reference Information
FORMULAS AND RULES OF THUMB (CONTINUED)
Grade Resistance (lbs.) = 20 lbs./ton X % grade (units) X Total Weight (tons) Or % grade (decimal) X Total Weight (lbs.) Total Road Resistance Factor (lbs./ton or %) = Rolling Resistance Factor (lbs./ton or %) + Grade Resistance Factor (lbs./ton or %) Total Pull Required = Rolling Resistance (lbs.) + Grade Resistance (lbs.) Usable Lbs. Pull (Traction limitation) = Coeff. of Traction X Weight on Drivers Alt. Derating: 3% lb. Pull loss for each 1000 feet above 3000 feet Hourly Prod. Required = Quan. (b.c.y.) Working Time (hr.) Typical dragline calculating factors: Using 110 swing, average swing cycle For 1/2 yd. = 24 seconds For 11/2 yd = 30 seconds For 2 yd. = 33 seconds Bucket Factors: Easy digging = approx. 95-100% of rated capacity Med. digging = approx. 80-90% of rated capacity Medium hard digging = approx. 65-75% of rated capacity Hard digging = approx. 40-65% of rated capacity

177

Typical shovel calculating factors: Using 90 swing average swing cycle For 1/2 yd. = 20 sec. For 1 yd. = 21 sec. For 1 1/2 yd. = 22 sec. For 2 yd. = 23 sec. For 2 1/2 yd. = 24 sec. Dipper Factors: Easy digging = approx. 95-100% or rated capacity Medium digging = approx. 85-90% of rated capacity Medium hard digging = approx. 70-80% of rated capacity Hard digging = approx. 50-70% of rated capacity

No. Units Required =

Hourly Prod. Required Unit Prod.

No. of Scrapers a Pusher will load = Scraper cycle time Pusher cycle time Drawbar Horsepower = lbs. Pull X ft./min. 33000

Reference Information
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
APOTHECARIES WEIGHT 20 grains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 scruple 8 drams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 ounce 3 scruples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 dram 12 ounces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 pound
NOTE: Ounce and pound are the same as in Troy Weight

179
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
DRY MEASURE 2 pints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 qt 4 pecks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 bushel 8 qts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 peck 36 bushels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 caldron LIQUID MEASURE 4 gills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 pt 4 qts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 gallon 2 pts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 qt 31-1/2 gallons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 barrel 2 barrels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 hogshead LONG MEASURE 12 inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 foot 40 rods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 furlong 3 feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 yd 8 furlongs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 std. Mile 5 1/2 yards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 rod 3 miles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 league MARINERS MEASURE 6 ft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 fathom 120 fathoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 cable length 7 1/2 cable lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 mile 5280 feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 std. mile 6076.1 feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 nautical mile PAPER MEASURE 24 sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 quire 20 quires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 ream ( 480 sheets) 2 reams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 bundle 5 bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 bale

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT 27.344 grains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 dram 25 pounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 quarter 16 drams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 ounce 4 quarters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 cwt 16 ounces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 pound 2,000 lbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 short ton 2,240 lbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 long ton TROY WEIGHT 24 grains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 pwt 20 pwt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 ounce 12 ounces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 pound
NOTE: used for weighing gold, silver, and jewels

CLOTH MEASURE 2 1/4 inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 nail 4 nails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 quarter 4 quarters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 yard CUBIC MEASURE 1,728 cubic inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 cubic foot 27 cubic feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 cubic yard 128 cubic feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 cord (wood) 40 cubic feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 ton (shipping) 2,150.42 cubic inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 standard bushel 231 cubic inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 U.S. standard gallon 1 cubic foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .about 4/2 of a bushel

Reference Information
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES (CONTINUED)
SQUARE MEASURE 144 sq. inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 sq. foot 40 sq. rods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 rood 9 sq. feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 sq. yard 4 roods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 acre 30 1/4 sq. yards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 sq. rod 640 acres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 sq. mile SURVEYORS MEASURE 7.92 inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 link 25 links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 rod 4 rods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 chain 10 sq. chains or 160 sq. rods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 acre 640 acres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 sq. mile 36 sq. miles ( 6 miles sq.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 township TIME MEASURE 60 seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 min. 60 min . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 hr. 24 hr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 day 7 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 week 28, 29, 30,or 31 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 calendar month 30 days . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 month . . . . . . . . . . . .in computing interest 365 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 yr 366 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 leap yr. APPROXIMATE METRIC EQUIVALENTS 1 decimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 inches 1 liter . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 06 quarts liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.9 quart dry 1 meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1 yds 1 kilometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5/8 of a mile 1 hectoliter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5/8 bushels 1 hectare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1/2 acres 1 kilogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1/5 lbs 1 stere, or cubic meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1/4 of a cord 1 metric ton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2,200 pounds

181
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES (CONTINUED)
METRIC EQUIVALENTS LINEAR MEASURE 1 centimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.3937 inches 1 inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.54 centimeters 1 decimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.937 inches 1decimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.328 foot 1 foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.048 decimeters 1 meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39.37 inches 1 meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.0936 yards 1 yard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.9144 meter 1 dekameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.9884 rods 1 rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.5029 dekameter 1 kilometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.62137 mile 1 mile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.6093 kilometers 1 kilogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1/5 lbs 1 stere, or cubic meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1/4 of a cord 1 metric ton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2,200 pounds 1 sq. centimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.1550 sq. inch 1 sq. inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.452 sq. centimeters 1 sq. decimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.1076 sq. foot 1 sq. foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.2903 sq. decimeters 1 sq. meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.196 sq. yds 1 sq. yard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.8361 1 acre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 sq. rods 1 sq. rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.00625 acre 1 hectare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.47 acres 1 acre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.4047 hectare 1 sq. kilometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.386 sq. mile 1 sq. mile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.59 sq kilometers METRIC EQUIVALENTS WEIGHTS 1 gram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.03527 ounce 1 ounce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28.35 grams 1 kilogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2046 pounds 1 pound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.4536 kilogram 1 metric ton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.98421 English ton 1 English ton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.016 metric tons

Reference Information
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES (CONTINUED)
METRIC EQUIVALENTS MEASURE OF VOLUME 1 cubic centimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.061 cubic inch 1 cubic inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16.39 cubic centimeters 1 cubic decimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.0353 cubic foot 1 cubic foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28.317 cubic decimeters 1 cubic meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.308 cubic yards 1 cubic yard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.7646 cubic meter 1 stere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.2759 cord 1 cord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.624 steres 1 liter . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.908 quart dry . . . . . . . . . .1.0567 quarts liquid 1 quart dry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.101 liters 1 quart liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.9463 liter 1 dekaliter . . . . . . . . . .2.6417 gallons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.135 pecks 1 gallon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.3785 dekaliter 1 peck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.881 dekaliter 1 hectoliter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.8375 bushels 1 bushel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.3524 hectoliter TEMPERATURES (in Fahrenheit) Milk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .freezes 30 above zero Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .freezes 32 above zero Olive Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .freezes 36 above zero Wine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .freezes 20 above zero Vinegar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .freezes 28 above zero Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .boils at 173 above zero Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .boils at 212 above zero Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .boils at 306 above zero Blood heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98.4 above zero Eggs hatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 above zero MISCELLANEOUS 3 inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 palm 4 inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 hand 6 inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 span 18 inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 cubit 21.8 inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Bible cubit 2 1/2 ft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 military pace

183
MISCELLANEOUS TECHNICAL DATA
To find diameter of a circle, multiply circumference by .31831 To find circumference of a circle, multiply diameter by 3.1416 To find area of a circle, multiply square of diameter by .7854 To find surface of a ball, multiply square of diameter by 3.1416 To find side of an equal square, multiply diagonal by .7072 To find cubic inches in a ball, multiply cube of diameter by .5236 Doubling the diameter of a pipe increases its capacity four times Double riveting is from 16 to 20 percent stronger than single One cubic foot of anthracite coal weighs about 53 pounds One cubic foot of bituminous coal weighs from 47 to 50 pounds One ton of coal is equivalent to two cords of wood for steam purposes A gallon of water (US standard) weighs 8 1/3 lbs. and contains 231 cubic inches There are nine square feet of heating surface to each square foot of grate surface A cubic foot of water contains 7 1/2 gallons, 1728 cubic inches, and weighs 62 1/2 pounds Each nominal horsepower of a boiler requires 30 to 35 lbs. of water per hour To sharpen dull files, lay them in diluted sulfuric acid until they are eaten deep enough A horsepower is equivalent to raising 33,000 lbs. one foot per minute, or 550 lbs. on foot per second To find the pressure in pound per square inch of column of water, multiply the height of the column in feet by .434 Steam rising from water at its boiling point (212 degrees) has a pressure equal to the atmosphere (14.7 lbs. to the square inch) CAT, CATERPILLAR, their respective logos, Caterpillar Yellow and the POWER EDGE trade dress, as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar and may not be used without permission.

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