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The Gaussian integral, also known as the Euler-Poisson integral or Poisson integral is the integral of the Gaussian function over the entire real line. It is named after the German mathematician and physicist Carl Friedrich Gauss. The integral is:

A graph of (x) = and the area between the function and the x-axis, which is equal to .

Though we are not concerned with the Gaussian integral but


Denoting the integral by I, we can write: I2 = =

Where the variable y has been substituted for x in the last integral. The product of two integrals can be expressed as a double integral.

I2= = The dierential dxdy represents an element of area in Cartesian coordinates, with the domain of integration extending over the entire xy-plane. An alternative representation of the last integral can be expressed in plane polar coordinates r, . The two coordinate systems are related by x = r cos , y = r sin So that r2= x2+ y2 The element of area in polar coordinates is given by rdrd, so that the double integral becomes I2= Integration over gives a factor 2. The integral over r can be done after the substitution u = r2, du = 2r dr: As I2= So I =

= =