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1
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1. ........................................................................................................9
2. ..................................................................................................................10
2.1. .................................................................10
2.2. ........................................................................11
3. () ....................................................................................12
3.1. ................................................................................................................13
3.2. ().......................................................................13
3.3. ......................................................................................................14

2
...................................................................................................15
1. ...............................................................................15
2. .................................................15
3. ............................................................16
3.1. .......................................................................16
3.2. .............................................................17
3.2.1. ................................................................................................17
3.2.2. .............................................................................................18

4. ..................................................................................................19

3
() ..............................................................................22
1. ......................................................................................................................22
1.1. ............................................................................................22
1.2. .........................................................................................................23
1.2.1. ..................................................................................................23
1.2.2. ...........................................................................................................................24

2. ...........................................................................................26
2.1. ...................................................................................26
3. .................................................................................27
3.1. ........................................................................................27
3.2. .........................................................................................28
3.3. ..................................................................................................................29

4
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1. ......................................................................................................................................30
.......................................................................................................................30
1.2. ......................................................................................................................30
2. .....................................................................................................................................31
2.1. .........................................................................31
2.2. .....................................................................................................................33
3. .....................................................................................................................................34
2

3.1. .............................................................................................................34
3.2. ....................................................................................................................35
4. .....................................................................................................................................35
4.1. ..............................................................................................................35
4.2. ....................................................................................................36

....................................................................................................................37
1. ..........................................................................................37
2. .................................................................................................38
2.1. ..................................................................38
2.2. .............................................................39
2.3. ...............................................................39
3. ............................................................................................39
3.1. ............................................................................................39
3.2. to have a smoke.............................................................................................40
3.3. - give in........................................................40

6
...........................................................................................42
1. .............................................................................................42
1.1. .........................................................................................42
1.2. ...................................................................................43
2. ....................................................................................44
2.1. : ............................................................................................44
2.2. .............................................................................................45

7
......................................................................................................................46
1. ........................................................................................46
1.1. ...........................................................................................46
1.2. .......................................................................46
2. ..........................................................................................47
2.1. ...........................................................................................................................47
2.2. ......................................................................................................................48
2.3. ...............................................................48
3. ......................................................................................49
3.1. ..................................................................................................................................49
3.2. ...............................................................................................................................49
3.3. ............................................................................................................................50
3.4. ..........................................................................................................................51

.......................................................................................................53
1. ............................................53
1.1. ...................................................................................53
1.2. .....................................................................54
1.2.1. ..........................................................................55
3

1.2.2. .........................................58

2. ...............................59



, ,
(. leksis, leksicos , ; logos ). ,
() .
. , - general lexicology,
, , ,
. (special lexicology)
, , , .
, , ,
,
.
,
. ,
. ,
-
. ,
(. descriptive lexicology). , ,
(historical lexicology)
.

, (contrastive lexicology).

, .
,
. ,
. ,
, , ,
.. /, hut/ heart ,
[dl], [], [l], [h] [w].

, , , carian
ur, .
,
, .
, arm arms
(arms and hands; coat of arms); genius genii, geniuses; open (open the door; the open door).
, (We
are going there tomorrow We shall go there Gone today, forgotten tomorrow),
, We are going there now, . .
.
, .
sculan ( shall),
.

,
5

, ,
. ,
father dad ,
, ,
(
dad, father).
,
. .
: - ,
, , .
: , , ,
, ,
, .
.. , , . ,
,
;
(,
1986). 70 ,
, , , .
,
- , ,
. . . ,
, , ,
.
.

. ,
.
, .
.
1. ?
. ,
, , .
2. ? ,
,
, ,
, ,
.
3. ?
, .
4. ? ,
.
; .
5. ,
(casual free and easy; to begin (smth.) to get (smth.) under way; etc). ,
, .
, .
6

6. ?
,
. ,

70 %
.
7. ? ?
? , ,
.
, .
, ,
1.
, . ,
-
; ,
.
, , , .
, , ,
. , .. ,
, , ()
(,1987, . 13). .. ,
3 :
(will work, an egg), (worked, eggs) , ..
(work, egg) (,1989, . 32).
, ,
. , ..
, , ,
, .
() () ,
. ,
,
,
.

, , ,
.
. ,
haerfest, ,
autumn .
(season for) reaping and gathering in of grain or other products.
1

.
. ..
: ... - ... , ,
,
... (, 1994, . 8). .. ,

(, 1992).

knave.
cnafa boy, servant (. . Knabe).
, unprincipled man, rogue.
. layer
layered. . , 60- . XX .
(layered hair
styles introduced by Vidal Sassoon), (the layered look big skirts with tight
pants, tiers of fabric, one color on top of the other). ,
(, ), .
: They never fired
anyone either. They just put a super-whatever on top. When they put somebody else in below, they
call it sandwiching (Safire, 1993, p. 181).
, ,
.
,
- .

.
, , . ,
mo (
camouflage): a colour combination and pattern resembling the camouflage garments of soldiers and
their equipment.
mouse.
, , , address, behaviour
(pleasing address) , .
, - ,
, () -
. ,
. box:
1) kinds of small evergreen shrub, esp. one with small leathery leaves, much used in garden borders
(L. buxus); 2) receptacle of wood, cardboard, metal, etc. (L. buxum boxwood); 3) slap with hand
( ). , ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
.

1

1.
,
, 2.
, ,
, . ; ,
. , . ,
,
. ,
,
. (),
-
, .
, ,
. ., . . , -
.
. ()
, . ,
,
. ,
, -:

(, , . .)

[.]
(, )

(, )
, .
, .
/ .
, ,
; , , [on] ,
on, .
(),
, ( 1) ; 2)
; 3) , ; fork 1) implement used for lifting food to
the mouth; 2) farm tool; 3) place where a road, tree-trunk, etc. divides or branches). ,
2

., , . . ,
, . . .
9


,
, , ,
andswerian,
answer.
, ,
, . ,
.
, goblin UFO ,
. ,
, (
money ,
Papa, what is money?, ).
(run trot joggle;
house mansion building; etc.);
(quickly in the nick of time; limb arm, hand, wrist; etc.),
(croissantization, revolution).
. ,
, ,
- ,
. , ,
,
, .
, . . , ,
. . ,
, ,
.
, , ,
, ,
.
2.
2.1.
, .
, , .
., , ,
,
() .
. , chairs, children,
phenomena ,
.
(-on
). ,
, , .

. .
10

, ,
. , ,
() .
.. , -
,
(, 1977).

, . .
(, magic, magically, magician (connected with the use of)
supernatural forces; boy, boyhood, boyish, boyishness young man, time of man's youth, young
man's behaviour; etc.) ,
. , -ness (darkness, boyishness,
happiness) ,
( ). ,
, , ,
.
, be am, is, are, was were;
boy, boy's boys ,
.
, , ,
, .
. , in the box in
, give in
.
,
. , .. ,
:
( ) ,
().
. .. -
, , -,
, .
,
, - ,
.
, ,
.
2.2.
( )
, (<Lat. ilenotare , ),
(-, connotation <Lat. con + notare ,
) . ,
.
. ,

11

( ,
3):



notorious widely
for criminal acts or bad traits of
celebrated known
character
(-)
for
special
achievements(+)
glare
look
steadily, lastingly (long)
glance
briefly, passingly (short)
father
parent
(neutral)
daddy
(colloquial)
, ,
(), (,
, )
. ,
, , . ,
(look, know, parent, long ). ,
(,
, good, awkward, dirt, murder, riot, treason, etc.4).
(, )
( , ).
bias words, .. ,
. , , (communist,
fascist, democracy, etc.).
, , , -
, , ,
- , ,
.
. , ()
.
3. ()
,
- . ,
,
() .
, . ,
( )
.

.: Arnold I. The English Word. M., 1986.


(J. Harington, 1561-1612):
Treason doth never prosper: What's the reason?
For if it prosper, none dare call it treason. . :
.
4

12

3.1.

.
buzz, cuckoo, splash, gargle, purr
, .

, . ,
loudspeaker loud speak r (
, ); prefabricate (pre fabric ate:
); bestseller, rewrite, employee .
.
;
: barking (cough)
(barking of a dog).
: snowdrop
; buttercup .
, ;
, .
. , snowdrop; ,
honeysuckle, volleyball, willful, , home, read,
alphabet, parachute, etc.
; ,
, .
, , oilcloth.
, .
( ) glasses
( ).
;
cock-a-doodle-do .
3.2. ()
,
.

.
, . . ,
.
,
(cupboard, forehead), . ,
lord, window, daisy,
(hlaf + weard, wind + eaze dges+eage ).
-
( ). ,
tyrel mere,
nostril (nase + yrel) mermaid (mere + mgden).

13


, . alphabet parachute,
, ,
,
(alpha, beta prer .
+ chute . ).

, .
sweetmeats, ,
,
. spoon
, spon ,
.

telegram/wire ( );
pseudonym/pen name ( );
radio/wireless ( , ) ..
3.3.

.
.
. (J. Greenough) . (G.
Kitteredge), . ,

. , reindeer rein deer, ..
, hrenn
() deer (); shamefaced
, scam
(. modesty) faest (. confirmed to). , ,
.
, , ,
(sirloin),
. , sir;
surloin
( ).
.
, rime (rhyme)
rhythm, cisoires
scissor.
, . ,
.
primrose, primerole
(), ,
rose.

14

2

1.
, ,
,
. ,
, - .
.
,
. , ; ,
,
, ,
, ,
.
(, )
( , ).
,
.. - .
,
,
,
.
2.
,
. , core
(horny capsule containing seeds of apple, pear, etc.) ,
, bar of soft iron forming center of electro-magnet or induction coil.
, screen, ,
- , , ,
.
(., , antennae, pilot, cabin, to sail, etc).
-
. , , atom, XIX .
(an atom of a girl).
, atom (supposed ultimate
particle or matter).
probe, surgical instrument for exploring wound,
an instrument for exploring outer space (lunar probe).
.
to sail
(travel over, glide through),
(travel on water by use of sails).
, .
, mill, (building fitted
15

with machinery), . Hospice (house of rest for travellers, esp. one kept by
religious order), , ,
.

. (. , phemo
) ,
- . , cancer,
rumour growth; fatal inoperable ..
, , : pass away, perish, join the
better, kick the bucket, go to green pastures, etc. ,
.
: pass away
, ; the better
-, , ; . .
,
, .

(political correctness). , ,
correct thinking, , 80-
. , . . , . ,
, .
crisis depression, starvation undernourishment, unemployed
redundant, salary cuts adjustment, secondhand pre-owned, etc. ,
: When
Government spokesmen talk about REDEPLOYMENT of American troops; they mean
WITHDRAWAL. When sociologists refer to BLACKS LIVING IN SLUMS they are likely to
mumble something about NON-WHITES IN A CULTURALLY DEPRIVED ENVIRONMENT
(Tune).
3.
3.1.

,

.
.
.
. , ,
foe, enemi (. . enemy)
.
valley/dale people/folk ,
.
, , , starve,
. die
16

, (. .
). reindeer,
.
animal
, .
, . .
,
.
(. ( ) (
, )). : a weekly (paper); a musical (show); (policy
of) brinkmanship; (steam) engine . . ,
,
.
,
, ().
, . , brick
tactless to drop a brick to say
or do smth tactless; chaff (outer part of grain, removed before the grain is used as food)
easy trick An old bird isn't caught with chaff.
,
. ,
,
.
3.2.

.
, ,
. ,
.
.
( , ,
) (
). .
.
3.2.1.
, ,
, , ,
,
.
( )
, ,
. ;
, : town (The
17

whole town was asleep); hall (The hall was silent); Whitehall government; British Government
(policy); kettle (The kettle is boiling) . .
. , mint
(place where money is coined) mynet (money, coin; coinage),
,
, Moneta,
. (youth period of one's life > a person
in this period), / (cork outer bark of the tree > a
stopper for a bottle; paper substance manufactured from wood fibre, etc. > a document written on
it; etc.). ,
.
(-), ,
(the Crown = monarchy),
(penny = (a pretty penny)a good sum of money),
(royal horse
= cavalry) . .
(pars pro toto)
(totum pars parte), (lunch meal taken > (packet lunch) food
for the meal).
,
- . , sad
It is sad ( ) His story
is sad ( ).
wear: The coat wears long ( )
wears a coat ( ).
3.2.2.

, .
, ,
, .
(, )
, .
bridge,
smth to join two parts over smth:
1. Structure carrying a road across a river, etc.
2. Platform over and across the deck of a ship.
3. Upper bony part of a nose [between the two cheekbones].
4. Movable part over which the strings of a violin etc. are stretched.
eye (of a needle), neck (of a bottle), , foot (of a
mountain), back (of a boot),
, , nut, onion head.
(-)
. , soft
:
soft music, voice, whispers quiet, pleasant to hear, tender;
soft surface, ground, velvet smooth and delicate, pleasant to touch or walk on.
18

sharp:
sharp voice, sound piercing, going deep into or through;
sharp feelings, pain, flavour producing a physical sensation like cutting or piercing;
sharp mind, intelligence acute, keen, deep.
deep (cutting),
sharp knife with a fine cutting edge, not blunt. ,
sharp unscrupulous, not altogether honest (lawyer,
practice).
, . ,
-, .
,
,
. ,
, , caterpillar.
, ,
lungs (of a town).
sharp ,
.
. , leg , : one of the
parts of an animal's or a person's body; support for (a body, a cover of a table, etc.).
stool-pigeon: a) pigeon used as a decoy; b) (fig) person acting
as a decoy, e. g. one employed by the police to trap a criminal.
,
,
, .
, ,
, (., ,
is a regular mouse leg of a table
the Bar All the world is a stage).
4.
.
, . XIX .,
: 1) ; 2) ; 3)
( ) . ,
, , , . ,
, , ,
.
, . ,
, . (
(, ) ) ; ,
.
, , ..
.

, .
, - ()
19

. , to bootleg,
,
(sell alcoholic drinks illegally) (sell anything illegally).
, ,
.
holiday. .-. halig dajg a
religious feast day, c.-a. holi day church festival falling on a week day,
day of rest from work.
. ,
season spring season part of the year between winter and
summer any part of the year.
. ,
,
affection ( any feeling,
feeling feeling of love) hound ( any dog,
a certain kind of dog).
,
. atom,
.
, ,
: beauty 1) quality; 2) person of this quality ( ).
, ,
. ,
. .
-
, , , caterpillar,
. .
, .-a. gebed (prayer)
bead (for counting prayers),
small ball of wood, glass, etc with a hole through it,
for threading with others on a string or wire.
,
. , ,
villain (feudal serf, farm-servant)
(person guilty or capable of great wickedness, scoundrel).
boor.
(a peasant, farmer).
illiterate, dull or insensitive peasant,
boor a rude, ill-mannered person.
urbane ( , . urban living or
situated in town, courteous, elegant, or refined in manner), marshal (servant looking after
horses general officer of highest rank), nice (.-a. foolish, c.-a. pleasant), etc.
boy knave.
Knave, .-. cnafa, c.-a. knave ,
a male infant, a boy, or youth (. . . Knabe
). a boy or lad employed as servant, a stable boy,
groom; a cook's servant a man low in rank or position. ,
20


rogue, unprincipled man.
knave . ,
knave.
,
boy. boi(e), knave, (servant,
person of low rank and position) a person lacking refinement,
an ordinary fellow. , , boy
a youth, a male child. ,
.
, ,
, .
,
, ().

21

3
()
1.
, , ( poly + sema)


. , .
2- :
the ,
(The tiger was old), (The tiger is a cat-like animal) .

().
.

. , ..
, . ,
, ,
(igloo, koala).
. ,
.
,
,
. robot
a user who is actually a
programme ( -).
kangaroo XIX XX . a tall
thin man, especially ill-shaped and round-shouldered.
-
. . (. Warrel) Science of Human Behavior
(Warrel, 1962) : 500
10 000 , ,
. ,
25 . , .
, ,
.
1.1.
.
. . ; ,
. , .. ,
. ,
.
. , , ,
. ,
22

, , ,
( !) , . . .
.
take , lay hold of smth, ,
: take smth from the table lay hold of smth with the hands; take
advantage use; take smb. else's hat borrow without permission; take smb home carry,
accompany; take a cup of tea eat, drink; take notes make a record of smth; take smb for a fool
suppose, consider, etc. ,
, ,
. take
,
, .
.
, thing any material or nonmaterial object. ,
: swimming things belongings; there's another thing I would like to ask you
about there's another subject...; That only makes things worse circumstances; You take things
too seriously events, circumstances.
(sweet little thing a darling) (., ,
, .
).
1.2.
1.2.1.
,
(. contextus ,
). ,
, , .. :
(, 1990). , ,
, ,

.
, . ,
(,

, ),
-. , ,
.. . : ,
, , , . . , .
, , ,
(. , .. ,
).
. ,
23

: , - .
. ,
.
,
-, .
, , ..
, , ,
, , .
,
.
,
. , -
,
, . .,
, .
()
() ; ,
, . ..
, , , , ;
.
,
, ..
.
1.2.2.
, ,
. , (
) (-) .
-,
. ,
sound : 1)
healthy, not injured, hurt or decayed; 2) based on reason, prudent; 3) capable, careful; 4) thorough,
complete. : 1)
sound mind in a sound body; sound fruit; 2) sound argument (policy); sound advice; 3) a sound tennis
player; 4) sound sleep; sound thrashing. mind, body, fruit (smth
that can be injured, hurt or decayed) 1. reason,
argument, policy, advice,
2. player sleep thrashing.
: mouth opening through which
animals take food in; space behind this containing the tongue, etc. dog,
animal. mouth opening or outlet
bag, cave, river, etc.,
inanimate. , ,
.
, . , , ill ,
. (fall ill; be taken ill),
24

in bad health. (ill luck; ill will)


bad, hostile. make,
(make smth move) compel, cause (They
made me tell the story.),
construct or produce smth (She made coffee for all of us. Bricks can be made of clay.).
, ,
(-) ,
, . ,
ran a horse ran the risk make
move expose oneself to a possibility of danger .

- , , The horse ran.
It stopped to start again soon
, stop (. It
stopped doing smth). it.
living being,
come to rest, halt (The dog stopped to start again. The tourists stopped for a night to start again in the
morning.); it inanimate object discontinue (The rain stopped.).
, ,
, ,
, . ,
, , .
.
, . . ,
.
table Move that table a bit to the right.
a piece of furniture;
, list of facts, numbers, systematically arranged
(mathematical tables).
, .
, , .
, ,
, . , ,
, . ,
. , ,
, .
()
case. form of a noun or pronoun,
question to be decided in a law-court, person suffering
from a disease, operation, actual state of affairs ,
, instance or example of the occurrence of smth.
,
, , .
, : What a mess this table is! (bangs his fist on it
spilling the tea).
, .
, , .
(a
25

boy's girl's dog's cat's mouth).


, .
,
.
2.
,
,
, .
2.1.
, , ,
, . .
, ,

. , room part of a flat,
space (no room to drop an apple) possibility (There's always room for improvement)
. . .
- ().
,
. (,
) . .
. ,
, ,
.

. , , ,
. ,
. , hand part of the human arm
beyond the wrist, ( )
(influence or agency; a source from
which smth comes; skill; employee who works with his hands; applause; etc.)
(keeping; possession; responsibility; share in an activity; pointer on a
watch, clock, etc.; handwriting; signature).
;
,
- (to surprise: 1. give a feeling of smth sudden or
unexpected; 2. come upon suddenly), ,
, . .
, ,
.

.
.
.
, room part of a flat.
26

,
.
, .
make,
: V + construct or produce smth; e. g. make coffee, make bricks; V + +
Inf compel, force, persuade; e. g. They made me repeat the story; V + + cause smth or smb
to be a particular thing or possess a particular quality; e. g. make the world a better place; make smb a
star. ill
: to be ill//an ill omen.
-
, - . ,
walk , journey on foot,
quick, lazy, morning . ., .
, - ,
, path or route (my favourite walks in the neighbourhood; a stony
walk to the castle, etc.). ,
(stony
walk/quick walk).
.
()
, ,
. , blank empty,
blank wall, blank look, blank despair blank verse
with no door, window, or other opening; without interest or expression; utmost; without rhyme
.
3.
3.1.

- (. dia chronos ),
, . ,
bandy ,
(to bandy compliments, suggestions) to exchange.
, ..
to throw (a little ball).
, ,
.
,
.

, ,
. , quick (speedy; lasting a
short time) . quick
, to touch to the quick the quick and
the dead, quick silver.
27

, quick alive, ,
,
.
.
beam: 1) line of light that shines
from a torch or the sun; 2) a long thick bar of wood, metal, or concrete, esp. one which is used to
support the roof of a building. ,
,
beam um .
3.2.
,
, .

, .
brand.
Brand 1) burning or charred log or stick; 2) mark made by hot iron; 3) stigma; 4) trademark; 5) particular kind of goods (.-, brandoz: bran-pret. of brinnan burn + suf. -do).
, .
- .
order: I) way in which things are placed in relation to one
another (alphabetical order); 2) condition in which everything is carefully arranged (working order); 3)
obedience to law, rules authority (keep order); 4) rules accepted (on a point of order); 5) command
given with authority (obey orders); 6) request to supply goods (an order for two tons of coal); 7)
written direction (bank order). , ,
.
,
. ,
. ,
, .

. ,
. ,
.
step. (0. movement of one's leg)
, 1) one action in a series of actions to gain a
purpose; 2) putting the right (or wrong) foot at the same/different time with others; 3) way of walking
(as seen or heard); 4) place for the foot when going from one level to another.
(0. movement of one's leg) 3 (way of walking as seen or heard)
, 3- (sound made by
smb when walking). 4 (place for the foot when
going from one level to another), 4- (grade,
rank, promotion).

28

3.3.
,
.
.
:
1. ,
.
. .
industry, ,
diligence (his industry and thrift) trade or manufacture (cotton
industry), toast (cp. A buttered toast to propose a toast).
2. , .
, stock: I) share (stock
exchange); 2) part of a gun; 3) family; (central part of a tree) ,
.
.
3. . , florem
flour
part of a plant that produces seed (flower) fine meal, powder made from grain
(flour). account of real or imaginary
events (story) floor or level in a building (storey)
estoree, a building.
4. ,
. ,
box ,
.
, .
,
( , ,
),
.

29

4

1.


(homonyms < Gk homo same+ onoma name), . . ,
.
(stock part of a gun; a share; line of
ancestry; etc.), ,
( );

(knight < kniht; night < niht).
, ,
. , basis base
lowest part of anything, ,
deep sounding (voice).
1.2.
,
.
, ,
; ,
.
, , ,
, ,
.
,
. (homophones < Gk homos same, phono sound),
, ,
, (bare/bear, road/rode, etc.). (homographs < Gk homos
same, grapho write), , , (row, read,
bow, etc.). ,
(bear carry, bear animal; match
contest, match person; match fit).

, (lighter device; lighter boat, PI. lighters),
, (rose flower; Past form of rise),
,
, ; saw (
see saw). (
.. ,
) ,
.
30

-
, -.
, , . .
. , match contest match person
, .
,
.
, , , ,
. , matchcontest (noun) match put smth in competition
(verb) ,
compete;
. mere (noun) pond, small lake
mere (adj.) not more than, . , ,
, .
match possible husband / match put smth in competition; stem severe, strict / stern back
end of a ship . , ,
,
. -
. ,
, ,
.
,
, (-s: 3rd person Sg, Present Indefinite form of a verb/Pl of a
noun/Possessive marker; -er: Noun suffix/ Comparison form of Adjective suffix).
- .
, , , (.,
, , .. , .. , ..
), .
, , ,
,
( ),
( ).
2.
2.1.
( . synonymia )


. ,
, , .
,

. -
.
31


. , ,
, ,
-
, , , . , . .
, ,

. ,
, ,
, . ,
, , ,
, (spirants/fricatives;
/; / . .)
,
, (), .
, , ,
.
,
, .
, , .
, . .
. ,
rotten addled egg,
brain head.
. , jail, prison,
(be in jail/prison; put in jail/prison; jail bird/-).
tongue/language: mother tongue/language, dead
language/-; to wage/carry: to wage/carry on straggle, campaign, to wage/- war.

.
,
, ,
, . , Its effect on history is
exaggerated. They have been overrating it for years exaggerate overrate
.
, .
.
, .
- (mistake/blunder: wrong
opinion, idea, act/foolish mistake); (mistake/slip (small
mistake)/lapse (unexpected mistake) . .,
(die/expire/pop off). o-
.

32

2.2.
.
-
(gentleman/man/chap; thrifty/economical/stingy),
(cowshed/cowhouse;
haystack/hayrick; tap/faucet; windshield/windscreen).
, . . , ,
. , please pray
; stop talking shut up
, , .
, ,
. , small/ little/ tiny/ wee (girl)
small little (small not large in degree,
size, etc.; little small, usually emotive, often preceded by another adjective, expressing feeling: a
pretty little girl), tiny small (tiny extremely small), a wee
,
(wee very small, Scottish). ,
, ,
, ( ).
;
.
,
, , ( ) ,
, (power
force energy , power (power
ability to do or act; force power of body or mind; energy force, capacity to do things and get
things done; beautiful handsome pretty ,
).
, . . ,
. .
, , .
power good-looking .
(
), ( )
. , ( )
(spirants/ fricatives).
(,
. .),
. ,
( ) .
valley
dale, ; us
causate, ,
. cause
cause trigger start,
, , (cause: make smth
happen; trigger be the cause of smth serious or violent; start make a beginning of smth).
33

,
,
. , poet swan ,
poet, . (the Swan of
Avon).
. ,
,
. , smash, condemn, stop, fight
, racism
fight.
.
, , ,
, .
, jump, bounce, hop, spring, leap ,
( - ), oak, pine, elm, fir, birch
, .
3.
3.1.
, ,
, . ,
. :
1) , : not tall but short; 2) , : (I'll tell you if you are) right or wrong; 3) X
A, a Y : (Jack is) tall, but (Jim is) short.
, (wisdom foolishness),
(mingle separate), (quickly slowly), (up down) . .
,
. , dull
stupid bright, monotonous, tedious interesting,
blunt sharp, a dismal, cheerless happy, cheerful.
,
. , crown - discrown ,
, , ..
, . truth fib ,
, truth
, a fib , ..
.
,
, .
, ,
. ,
, , ,
, , .

34

3.2.
, ,
. , tall short
, hot cold.
short medium hot warm, cool
chilly, warm cool . . ,
, . . .
( ), (
).
, ,
: happy unhappy; regular irregular.
, . . ,
;
. , ,
, , (
), , (
).
.
, , , , . . ,
(mother father (
parent); employer employee ( person at work) . .).
, , (give take
( ), lay lie ( ) . .).
.
, , .
,
. ,
.
It was the best of times, it was the worst of times; it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of
foolishness; it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair... (Ch. Dickens. A Tale of Two
Cities). ,
spring winter.
, , ,
, . spring
winter , , .
4.
4.1.

. ( . para onima )
, , ()
. ,
() ,
, ,
(adage/adagio).
35

, (. /;
. conservatory/conservatoire).
,
.
,
. ,
. ,
, . ,
disburse (pay smth out, especially from a fund)
disperse (spread out over a wide area),
(Quite an amount of money was dispersed in regional development
grants).
4.2.
,
, ..
, ( )
, ,
. ,
.
; .

36

5


1. .
, .
,
.
. , + N,
,
, ,
: ,
.
: May I come in? Knock at the door, etc.
.
, ,
. ,
; , , ,
, Good morning
.
,
. ,
, ,
, . .
, ,
. , red
(red frock, red banner, red strip, red hair,
etc.), . ,
, ,
, (red frock, dirty frock, new
frock, expensive frock, etc.).
. ,
black sheep (= the worst member), + N,

(black ram grey sheep). ,
() , . .
-
.
, ,
. ,
, .
, , , ;
-
. , , Instead
of taking urgent measures the government chose sitting on the fence sit on the fence
waiting

37

( ,
chose sitting in the pub).
, , ,
. to
place oneself on record, : to do smth noteworthy to say smth. in public.

. , wear and tear
- (breaking down),
(overstrain).
,
.
,
. , brain-trust - brain-truster,
single-rhyme single-rhymer.
,
.
: I ground my teeth; he was grinding his teeth; let her
grind her teeth then, etc. -,
: You are the coolest
cucumber I've ever met. , ,
.
, ()
, . ,
( )
. .
2.
2.1.
,
, . , ,
(take silk; break the ice, etc.).
(pick and choose; rain or shine; light to darkness; for love or money; by
hook or by crook; etc.). (as the matter
stands; before you could say Jack Robinson; as the crow flies).
, (Take it easy! Draw it mild! Bless
my soul! Take your time; etc.), (as dead as a door-nail;
as mad as a hatter; etc.). ,
(behind the scenes; in the blood;
for good), - ,
(to bear up; to give in; etc.).

38

2.2.
.. ,
.
, , (a bitter pill to
swallow; a wolf in sheep's clothing; a cock-and-bull story; to stir up a hornets' nest; much cry and little
wool; to call a spade a spade; etc.). -
,
(as hell; birds of a feather; this cat won't jump; the fat's in the fire; etc.).
2.3.
,
. ,
. ..
; ,
.. , (mare's nest nonsense; spill the beans reveal a secret).
,
. .. ,
, .. (husband's tea very
weak tea; dressed up to the nines dressed to perfection).
3.
,
(, ..
, ..
), .
, .
, . . ,
, to pay compliments (respect, attention,
court). , to pay,
, ,
(, greeting, love), ..
, ,
.
3.1.
, ,
,
. , ,
,
.
,
, . . .
39


.
, , , book
of reference, -
rough copy . . ,
,
.
3.2. to have a smoke
,
. , , , ,
, (. .
) (a laugh, a smoke, a look, a walk, etc.).

. , , ,
, ,
(
, to make a laugh, to have a look) (
, to take strolls). ,
,
. ,
. , to take a
run, to have/make a run,
. , ,
, . ,
, .
3.3. - give in
,
. , .. ,
,
; , ,
- . .. ,
, .
.. ,
. ,
, .
, , adverb.
, , ,
, ,
, .
,
.
, : to look
back/down/up/around ( ); to sit/to sit down (
40

); to end/to end up ( ) . .
(to give up resign, surrender; to go on
continue; etc.), . ,
.
, to let out (a secret) to go on.
,
: come in enter (He came in and shut the door) ;
come in be concerned (Where do I come in in this business?) ; look out
try to see what is outside (Look out into the street) ; look out be on the
watch (Will you go to the station and look out for Mr. Hill?); look out afford an outlook (Our hotel
room looks out on the sea front) ..
, ,
, ,
.
, , .
(, .)
,
, .

41

6

1.
1.1.
,
(. morphe ).
, . . ,
, .
,
, (
) ( ).
- , , .
,
, , super-, (1)
situated directly over smth; 2) above; 3) more than, beyond the norm; 4) exceeding by).
.
(columnar; impose) 1 super-columnar; super marine;
superimpose; 2 super celestial;
superlunary; 3 supernatural;
supernormal; supersensible; 4
supertertius. , ;
impose (1) lay or place, usually by force; (2) take advantage of; (3) practise
deception superimpose (put one thing on top of smth else) natural (concerned with, produced by
nature) supernatural (spiritual; not controlled or explained by physical laws),
. . ,
. , man, cut,
red. ,
. ( ,
, , , blackboard schoolboy)
, ;
.
, , ,
( )
( ). ,
. , . .
( ) .
- -est, -s,
, -ing . .
,
. ,
, ,
.
,
. , -ess
tigress, actress, hostess, lioness .,
42

, *cattess *guestess
.
, ,
, , ,

.
-man -boy postman, spaceman, horseman, fisherman, etc.; cowboy, newsboy,
playboy, etc. man,
boy, , ,
(., , old man, young boy
, ). after
aftereffect (delayed result), aftermath (fig. consequence), afterthought (reflection about a past event),
afternoon (time between morning and evening), etc.
, .
, after , ,
, . . .
,
(free morphemes)
(bound morphemes). ,
( black bird
blackbird; list enlist; after, effect aftereffect, etc.).
.
, teacher teach ,
, .
- .
, , ,
astronom- astronomer astronomical, .
vegetarian, vegetable, vegetation; theory, theoretician,
theoretical. () , .
. , ,
. ,
n- cranberry, ,
blackberry, blueberry, raspberry, strawberry, .
1.2.
,
.
, ,
(conceive, conclave,
include, invest, etc.)
(immediate constituents analysis).
, . ,
discouragement disappear, disclose, discover, etc.,
dis-; government, settlement, installment, etc. -ment;
courage ,
, , (courageous,
43

encourage, etc.). ,
. ,
astronomer theoretician, ,

(astronomical, theoretician, etc.; writer, reader; phonetician, optician, etc.).
, , ,
cranberry. , , ,
, ,
.
2.
2.1. :

, .
,
. ,
-er (reader; writer) -ist (escapist; snowboardist),
-ous -1. ,
,
.
. ,
.
, ,
. , notifi- notification
note; snowboard- snowboardist
snow board.
(quick- quickly; write- writer, etc.) possibly.
,
. , courageous
courage- ,
.
, ,
. , ,
(quick- quickly, read- reader, etc.).
,
. , governmental govern-
-ment; prefabricate ,
fabric- -ate.
. ( ) (snowboard-
snowboardist. vacuum-clean- vacuum-cleaner, etc.).
, ,
: light + heart; light-heart- +-ed light-heartedness;
colour- + blind; clour-blind-ed colourblindedness. etc.
, . .
(quick-, fabric-, heart-, employ-, etc. ), ,
44

(eleg- elegance, lamin- laminate, etc.),


, ,
, (hamlet eaglet, piglet, leaflet,etc;
chrysanthemum geranium, alyssum, etc.).
2.2.
, . . ,
. ,
, . ,
V+ -r
(writer, teacher, speaker, etc.) (V
verb) . N + -ous
, -
(courageous, monstrous, dangerous, etc.). ,
.
. , + > ,
. N + -ous V + -r,
, , .
(, . .),
, . .
.
, . V + -r
, ,
(hacker, codger);
, . N+-OUS
,
-ous.
, ,
, , , .
, writer , ,
.
, . ,
. ,
, , (scribbler, novelist,
poet, etc.), .

45

1.
1.1.
, .
, , ,
. .
(violin -ist); ,
, (lovely loveliness
bystand bystander).
(brinkman brinkmanship), ,
(lopsided lopsidedness).
. , disappointment (
) appoint. disappoint
( , ).
-ment .
, , (
).
(word-family). ,
.
, grade. , ,
(grade step, stage, or degree).
to grade, gradation, gradient, gradual, etc.,
. , ,
, .
; ,
. , grade graduate
mark with degree for measuring,
graduate give a degree or diploma person who has taken a university degree
.
1.2.
, ,
,
. ,
.
.
( 5 ) ,

. , ,
6 : ( + ),
( + ), ( V > N N > V), (
-), ( ,
) (
46

). (, feed food; (murmur),


(cuckoo; splash)
, , , tip-top; hocus-pocus)
. - ,
(.
).
, ,
( ), ( )
( , , -).
,
.
2.

, . ,
, ,
,
; , ,
. ( )
, ( ) .
2.1.
,
. ,
, .
, ,
(courageous, friendly, dictation, etc.),
(anti-missile, postwar, disengage, etc.).
,
- .
, (befriend,
hatter),
. ,
,
. , , -dom,
,
rank, condition, domain
(kingdom, earldom, freedom, officialdom, etc.).
(-fy, -er, -izer),
(-or, -ous), ,
. , anti-missile
, outdazzle , beautiful
, re-read, , .
, ,
1 + .
(derived word).
47

2.2.
+ ,
(compound word).
(cowboy, blackboard, spaceship,etc.),
(pen-holder, match-maker, baby-sitter).
, (eye-brow, sunrise, schoolgirl),
(handicraft, tradesman, mother-of-pearl).

. , whitewash blackboard
,
. ,
,
. , barefoot
, . , ,
, .
,
.

.
, , ,
(blacklist to blacklist; daydream to daydream; stage manager to stage-manage; babysitter
to baby-sit; honeymoon to honeymoon honeymooner; etc.).
2.3.

make up, . . ,
. , ,
,
, . , , ,
. ,
teach-in ,
, get-together .
, , ,
,
.
- (derivational
compounds) forget-me-not,
.
, () .
(, ) ,
, I-am-no-that-kind-of-girl (look) this
modem behind-the-ears-nonsense.
- by heart at large,
, , , .
48

, , ,
.
3.
3.1.
, (back formation), ,
, . ,
, , ,
.
. ,
write writer; work worker; paint painter
burgle burglar. , ,
: burglar , ,
burgle, (,
,
: commit burglary). ,
flight-test flight-testing baby-sit baby-sitting.
lase,
laser (light amplification of stimulated emission of
radiation). , ,
, ,
"-".
3.2.

.
,
, to finger
finger; to elbow elbow, etc. ,
.
, , .
, , ,
, ,
, .
,
. ,
, .
, ,
, . .
() , ,
. , poor people
poor ,
; the poor poor people.
.
49

Adj + N (a lunatic asylum a lunatic) Adv + N (a weekly paper a weekly),


. ,
telephone I'll telephone soon,
other I'll ask the others, etc.
,
, . ,
. , ,
,
(a go-no-go (person), a go-getting (man), etc.).
,
. ,
: to host (a party)
to be a host (at a party); to elbow (one's way through the crowd) to use one's elbow for the
purpose; etc. N > V /
: fish to fish; skin to skin; etc.
V > N,
(a laugh, a smoke, etc.)
, (a photograph;
some peel; etc.).
(a help, a switch), (a stop, a walk) ..
, (empty, dark, etc.). ,
, :
a) (to fall a fall; mother
to mother; etc.);
b) (a hand handy,
handful, handicraft, etc. to hand).
, , , .
3.3.
,
, , .
.
(clipped or stump words) (initial words, or acronyms).
: doc< doctor; frig< refrigerator;
phone< telephone, etc. exam, doc, gym (
examination, doctor, gymnasium ). plane, phone ( airplane,
telephone) , frig flu ( refrigerator, influenza)
- .
,
. (mike<microphone,
ambish<ambition, etc.). ,
, , , .
, zoological zoological garden
zoo;
movie (<moving pictures).

50

, ,
( < British Broadcasting Corporation; AIDS < acquired immune
deficiency syndrome; USA < United States of America; etc.).
, , .
, .
,
(kg, km, mph, Dr, Mr., etc.).
, ( ).
,
-. i. e. ( id
est, that is); e. g. ( exempli gratia, for example); etc. ( et
cetera, and so on) . .
, (. libra, .
pound), d (. denarius, . penny) . .5
, . .
(A-bomb < atomic bomb; Vday < Victory day, etc.). ,
X-mas, ,
Christ .
3.4.
, , ,
.
, (
). ,
, .
, ,
() () .
(Euroshima
< Europe + Hiroshima). (motel < motorist + hotel).
, , -,
( blending; ,
, blends portmanteau words).
smog, smoke fog
.
, (motel <
motorist+hotel; Euroshima < Europe + Hiroshima; etc.). ,
(docudrama < documentary +
drama; vidkid < video+ kid; etc.). ,
.
, ( )
.
, . .
. , infobit: info- <
5

, ($), S
.
51

information + bit (intentional pun on the computer acronym bit, meaning a binary digit).
- an individual item of information, such as a recipe or a description of a
place, that meets the requirements for inclusion in a data bank.
.
,
. , illiterature (illiterate + literature)
literature for the illiterate, poorly written fiction.
, ,
. , -teria caveteria < cave + cafeteria
washeteria . , ,
,
-holic, addict bookaholic, workaholic,
computerholic, etc. ,
. positron
(positive + electron), advertistics (advertising + statistics), feminalls (feminine overalls) .
-. ,
XIX .,
, ,

.

52

8


1.
1.1.
30% ,
. , , ,
,
.
.
, .
, .

. , ,
, , ,
, , , . .
.
father (fadar),
(Vater), (fader),
(. pater, . pater, , pedaer). ,
, .
, pitr
. ,
,
. daughter,
(.-. dohtor, . dauhtar, . dottir, . datter, . dotter, .
Tochter), (. dukte, . , . thygater, ,
dokhtaer). , , duhitr.
,
, , ,
. , , moon (.-. mona, . mena, . Mond, . mani, .
menulis, . , . mus); night (.-a. niht, . nahts, . Nacht, . nacht, .
nat, . nos, . naktis, . , . n, . nakt);
,
. , cat (.-. cat, ., . kat, .
Katze, . catus, . ), bull (.-. bull-uc, . bul, . Bulle, . bulius), goose (.-. gos,
., . gas, . gans, . Gans, . anser, . );
, fish (.-. fisc, . fisks, . Fisch, . piscis, . ichthys), wolf (.. wulf, . wolfs, . wolf, . Wolf, ., . ulv, . vulpes, . vilkas, . ,
. vrkas).
, , , know (.-. cnawan, . noscere < gnoscere, . gignoskein, .. gnath , . , . jna); lie (.-. licgan, . ligge, . liegen, .
, . lectus < *legtus , . lexos); work (.-. wyrcan, . verk, . werk, .
ergon); tear (.-. teran, . dirti , . derein , . , . daraya
) .
53


, light (.-. leoht, . liuhab, .
Light, . light, . lux, . leuxos, . rucan), .
: one (.-. an, . ains, . ein, . en, . unus, . oine);
six (.-. six, ., . seks, . sechs, . sains, . , . sex, . hex, .
sas); hundred (.-. hundred, hund, . hundert, . centum, . hekaton,
. catam, . ).
,
. , , ,
,
.
, (,
, , ).
ankle (.-. ancleow, ., .
ankle, . enkel, . Enkel); calf (.-a. cealf, . kalbo, ., . kalf, . Kalb); hunger (.. hunger, . hungr, . Hunger, . honger, . huhrus) .; free (.-.
freo, . freis, . frei), sick (.-. seoc, . siuks, . sjukr, . sjuk, . siech) . .;
to drink (.-. drincan, . drigkan, . drekka, . dricka, . drikke, . trinken),
to make (.-. macian, .-. macon, . maken, . machen) .
, all (.-.
eal, . alls, ., . al, . all, . all), along (.-. andlang, . entlang), forward (.-.
foreweard, . vorwarts, . voorwaarts) . .
.
,
.
, .
.
garlic (.-. gar leac)
(geirr ), (Ger )
(laukr ), (log), (look), (Lauch).
.
about .
on-be-utan, onbutan.
;
on (ana), (); be
bei by, utan
(ud) aus, ut, ut. understand
,
. .
, ;
.
1.2.
,
70% , .
;
54

,
,
, .
,
,
. , ,
, / -,
;
.
.
,
, .
.
1.2.1.
, , ,
.
. , , paper (papier),
papuros, papyrus. cinnabar (,
- ) (cinnabaris),
(kinnabari), , .

.
, ,
.
, .
,
.
.
, , ,
.

, (. ), butter (. butyrum), copper (. cuprum) . .
.
, street (. via strata), wall
(. vallum), mint (. menta, moneta) .
. ,
, -Chester (. castra ) Chester,
Colchester, Manchester, Lancaster Gloucester, Worcester; -wich Greenwich, Harwich
vicus .
.
priest (. presbuteros), minster (. monastermm), candle (. candela, candela), creed (.
credo) . . ,
, ,
, chest (. cista, ), silk (. sericum, ), coriander (.
coriandrum), parsley (. petroselinum), rose (. rosa) .
55

,
: school (. schola), verse (. versus), circle (.
circulus), .

(formula, fraction, magnanimity, fatal, jovial, beneficial,
vernacular). ,
.
, ,
(oculist, osteotomy, etc.).

.
,
, IX .
,
. proud, tower,
chancellor ( ).
1066 . XVI .
.
,
. , country, valley, river,
border . . .
; king, queen, earl, lord, lady.
emperor, duke, duchess, baron, count, dame, damsel .,
, .
,
: sovereign, crown, administration, parliament, guardian, reign . .
,
: justice, crime, plaintiff, evidence, dungeon ., :
war, navy, peace, captain, admiral, victory, conquer . .
XII-XVI .
, , ,
: chastity, innocence, devotion; barber, butcher, merchant, coin; garment, cotton, towel; fry,
boil, mutton, cabbage.
XVII .
: capital, commerce, insurance, bank, machine, investment .
XVIII . : aristocrat,
democracy, despot, section . .
;
(garage, chauffer, development, fiance . .).

.

(X-XI .). , ,
.

. XII . ,
,
. ,
56


, .
, .
;
: husband, fellow, drag, bag, snare, leg, calf, skin, skirt; cast, take, guess; ill, wrong,
low .
; ombudsman a person appointed by an
institution (such as a government or a university) to receive a report on complaints made by ordinary
people against the services of that institution.
.
..
(. ),
. .


(bowsprit, buoy, cruise, dock, reef, yacht) (rock , spool , stripe
). XVI-XVII .
(easel, etch, landscape);
, -
(bushman, kraal, veldt).
(, , )
.

XVI . (adagio, allegro, basso, opera, trio, sonata),
, (cameo, fresco, studio, intaglio;
canto, stanza).
(volcano, lava, casino, gondola, cicerone).
, (fascism, bank, traffic).

, .
pasta, paparazzi, mafia.
XVI-XVII ., ,
, ,
, ,
, .
armada, banana, barbecue, canyon, cargo, chocolate, cigar,
cocoa, hurricane, potato, ranch.
, ,
, , ,
, , .
cobra, Madeira, tank, veranda, mandarin, banana.
, ,
, ,
80- . XX .
, ,
(altyn, boyar, borzoi, samovar, vodka, nihilist, tundra, taiga).
- :
Komsomol, artel, Soviets. ,
57

: sputnik, cosmonaut. ,
XX ., -
(perestroika, glasnost).
1.2.2.
-, - .
, , .
/ .
,
.
,
(domino, protege, tete-a-tete).
.
,
(reason, culture, exhibition).

,
. , caseus (),
, ,
. alouer, ,
allow, .
canister ( canistrum ), coffin (
coffin ), travel ( travailler
).
,
.
, ,
. ,
anion, cation ( . ana , cata ion ); telephone,
phonograph, teletype.
.
.
, , ,
. - ,
. , , . .
. ciao ( ), rajah ( ,
, ), wigwam ( , ) .
.
, ,
. , ,
(etymon, homonym, lexical; pensive, oration, gregarious, matron). H.H.
.
,
(genius genii, geniuses), (garage- [grid3/gra:3]),
(ballet, queue). , .
, ,
.
58

,
- , ,
.
. take,
wall, table . ,
, H.H. .
2.
.
, 800
, .
, , . .
( , , chainsmoking,
kettel-rauchen),

( ). , .. ,
, ,
. , -
, . ,
. ,
,
(); ,
, .
, , ,
. 1) (
) bio-computer, telecommuter, audiotyper; 2) (
) sudser (soap opera), bigC (cancer); 3)
( ) acid (narcotics), bread (money), box
(TV-set).
.
, . . .
,
(acryl, perlon). .. - (yuk, yech),
(zizz short n), .
, .
.

59