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Network Fundamentals,

CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide Instructor Edition


Antoon W. Rufi Priscilla Oppenheimer Belle Woodward Gerlinde Brady

Cisco Press
800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, Indiana 46240 USA

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide


Instructor Edition Antoon W. Rufi, Priscilla Oppenheimer, Belle Woodward, and Gerlinde Brady
Copyright 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. Published by: Cisco Press 800 East 96th Street Indianapolis, IN 46240 USA All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Printed in the United States of America First Release January 2008 ISBN-10: 1-58705-583-X ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-583-6

Publisher Paul Boger Associate Publisher Dave Dusthimer Cisco Representative Anthony Wolfenden Cisco Press Program Manager Jeff Brady Executive Editor Mary Beth Ray Production Manager Patrick Kanouse Development Editor Dayna Isley Project Editors Patrick Kanouse Jennifer Gallant Copy Editors Gayle Johnson Keith Cline Technical Editors Cindy G. Layman Michael Duane Taylor Tony Chen Editorial Assistant Vanessa Evans Book and Cover Designer Louisa Adair Composition Mark Shirar Proofreader Leslie Joseph

iii

Warning and Disclaimer


This book is designed to provide information about the Network Fundamentals course of the Cisco Network Academy CCNA Exploration curriculum. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information is provided on an as is basis. The authors, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc. shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the discs or programs that may accompany it. The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of Cisco Systems, Inc.

Trademark Acknowledgments
All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Cisco Press or Cisco Systems, Inc. cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

Corporate and Government Sales


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Feedback Information
At Cisco Press, our goal is to create in-depth technical books of the highest quality and value. Each book is crafted with care and precision, undergoing rigorous development that involves the unique expertise of members from the professional technical community. Readers feedback is a natural continuation of this process. If you have any comments regarding how we could improve the quality of this book, or otherwise alter it to better suit your needs, you can contact us through e-mail at feedback@ciscopress.com. Please make sure to include the book title and ISBN in your message. We greatly appreciate your assistance.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

About the Authors


Antoon Tony W. Rufi currently is the associate dean of computer and information science for all the ECPI College of Technology campuses. He also teaches the Cisco Networking Academy CCNA, CCNP, Network Security, Fundamentals of Wireless LAN, and IP Telephony curricula. Before becoming an instructor for ECPI, he spent almost 30 years in the U.S. Air Force, working on numerous electronic projects and computer programs. Tony has a masters degree in information science from the University of Maryland and a bachelors degree in industrial technology from Southern Illinois University. Priscilla Oppenheimer is an author and network consultant with more than 25 years of experience in the computer industry. Priscilla has a masters degree in information science from the University of Michigan and has worked at such big-name companies as Apple Computer and Cisco Systems. She currently teaches at Southern Oregon University and provides network consulting to companies in her hometown of Ashland, Oregon, and elsewhere. Belle Woodward, CCNA, CCAI, CCNP, is an assistant professor in the School of Information Systems and Applied Technologies in the College of Applied Sciences and Arts at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois. She has more than nine years experience in the networking and network security field. Belle teaches network security, advanced networking, and telecommunications. After redesigning the networking and network security undergraduate curriculum, her students took first place at the 2006 Regional Midwestern Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (CCDC) and fourth place at the national CCDC. In addition to publishing several journal articles in the network security discipline, Belle has also contributed several chapters included in published network security and networking books. Gerlinde Brady has been teaching Cisco CCNA and CCNP courses at Cabrillo College, a Cisco Regional Networking Academy, since 1999. She holds a masters degree in education from the University of Hannover, Germany, and a masters degree in translation (English/German) from the Monterey Institute of International Studies. Her IT industry experience includes LAN design, network administration, technical support, and training.

About the Technical Reviewers


Cindy G. Layman has been an instructor at Itawamba Community College in Tupelo, Mississippi, for more than 10 years. She has been teaching programming, computer servicing, and networking courses, including the full CCNA curriculum in the Cisco Networking Academy. Cindy has a bachelor of science degree in mathematics and a bachelor of science degree in computer science, both from Mississippi State University. Before teaching at ICC, she was a programmer analyst for nine years. Michael Duane Taylor is department head of computer information sciences at the Raleigh Campus of ECPI College of Technology. He has more than seven years of experience teaching introductory networking and CCNA-level curriculum and was awarded the Instructor of the Year Award. Previously, Michael was a lab supervisor with Global Knowledge working with router hardware configuration and repair. He holds a bachelors degree in business administration from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a master of science degree in industrial technology/computer network management from East Carolina University. His certifications include CCNA, CCNP-router, and MCSE.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Dedications
I would like to dedicate this book to my wife, Linda, who is instrumental in getting me to apply myself. Always supportive, she has been the catalyst that has kept me going. Tony Rufi This book is dedicated to my hard-working students who have inspired me to be a better teacher. Priscilla Oppenheimer This book is dedicated to my husband, Jeff, and son, Alan, whose tireless support helped see me through another project. Belle Woodward To my wonderful husband, Paddy, and my daughters Fiona, Teresita, and Ejay, who let me take time away from them to be a part of this project. Gerlinde Brady

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Acknowledgments
From Tony Rufi: Id like to give special recognition to Mike Taylor for his diligent approach to tech editing. He has provided a tremendous amount of input to get the technical aspects of this endeavor correct. I have enjoyed working with him. I also want to thank Mary Beth Ray; she has been instrumental in allowing me to pursue the dream of authoring a book. A special thank you to ECPI College of Technology, specifically President Mark Dreyfus, Vice President of Academic Affairs John Olson, and Director of Operations Barbara Larar. Without their support, I would not have been able to write this book. From Priscilla Oppenheimer: Id like to thank Cisco Press for giving me the opportunity to work on this project. I especially want to thank Mary Beth Ray and Dayna Isley for turning this complex project into a success. Thanks also go to our technical reviewers for their persistence and attention to detail. Finally, Id like to thank the Cisco Networking Academy for developing courses that inspire students to do amazing things with networks. From Belle Woodward: It has been a great pleasure to be part of such an outstanding group of professionals, and to these people and everyone on the team I extend my heartfelt thanks. Dayna Isley, thanks for all your help and patience. Cindy and Michael, thanks for providing your expert technical knowledge in editing the book. I want to give special recognition to Susanne Ashby, a great friend, who has always been willing to read and edit my work. From Gerlinde Brady: I would like to thank Dayna Isley and Mary Beth Ray for their unending patience. A special thanks goes to the technical editors, Cindy Layman, Mike Taylor, and Tony Chen, for their diligence and expertise.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Contents at a Glance
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Living in a Network-Centric World Communicating over the Network 1 33 63

Application Layer Functionality and Protocols OSI Transport Layer OSI Network Layer 91 125 151

Addressing the Network: IPv4 OSI Data Link Layer OSI Physical Layer Ethernet 231 199 217

Planning and Cabling Networks

263 297

Configuring and Testing Your Network

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Contents
Chapter 1 Living in a Network-Centric World Concept Questions 1 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 2
The Network as a Platform 3

1
1

Communicating in a Network-Centric World

2
2

Communication: An Essential Part of Our Lives

Vocabulary Exercise: Define Vocabulary Exercise: Identify

3 3 4 4
5

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 5


The Architecture of the Internet

Vocabulary Exercise: Define Concept Questions 6

5 7

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Trends in Networking 8

Multiple-Choice Questions 8
Activity 1-1: Using Google Earth to View the World (1.1.1.4) 10

Task 1: Install Google Earth Task 2: Run Google Earth Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 13 13

11 11 11

Task 3: Navigate the Google Earth Interface Task 5: Challenge 13

Activity 1-2: Identifying Top Security Vulnerabilities (1.4.5.3)

13

Task 1: Locate the SANS Resources Task 2: Review the SANS Resources Task 3: Collect Data Task 4: Reflection 15 16

14 15

Task 5: Challenge 16
Lab 1-1: Using Collaboration Tools: IRC and IM (1.6.1.1) 16

Task 1: Configure the Chat Client Task 2: Connect to the Chat Server Task 3: Consider the Chat Session Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 21 22 Task 5: Challenge 22

19 20 21

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Lab 1-2: Using Collaboration Tools: Wikis and Web Logs (1.6.2.1)

22

Task 1: Define the Terms Wiki and Blog Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 28 28

22 23

Task 2: Explore Wiki Features with the TWiki Tutorial Task 4: Challenge 28

Skills Integration Challenge: Introduction to Packet Tracer (1.7.1.3)

28

Task 1: Explore the PT Interface Task 2: Explore PT Operations Task 4: Reflection Chapter 2 32

30 30 32

Task 3: Review the Standard Lab Setup

Communicating over the Network


The Platform for Communications 33

33

Concept Questions

33 34
34

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


LANs, WANs, and Internetworks

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


Protocols 36

34 35 36

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 36


Using Layered Models Network Addressing 37

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


38

37 38
39

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions 38

Activity 2-1: Using NeoTrace to View Internetworks (2.2.5.1)

Task 1: Trace Route to Remote Server Task 2: Trace Route Using NeoTrace Task 3: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 41 41 Task 4: Challenge 41

40 41

Lab 2-1: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.6.1.1)

42

Task 1: Create a Peer-to-Peer Network Task 3: Cable the Peer-to-Peer Network Task 5: Reflection 48

43 43 47 43

Task 2: Identify the Cables Used in a Network

Task 4: Connect Your Workstations to the Classroom Lab Switch

Packet Tracer Companion: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.6.1.2) 48

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Lab 2-2: Using Wireshark to View Protocol Data Units (2.6.2.1)

49

Task 1: Ping PDU Capture 53 Task 2: FTP PDU Capture 56 Task 3: HTTP PDU Capture 58 Task 4: Reflection Task 6: Cleanup 58 59 Task 5: Challenge 58 Packet Tracer Companion: Using Packet Tracer to View Protocol Data Units (2.6.2.2) 59
Skills Integration Challenge: Examining Packets (2.7.1.3) 59

Task 1: Complete the Topology

60 61 61 61

Task 2: Add Simple PDUs in Real-Time Mode

Task 3: Analyze PDUs in Simulation Mode (Packet Tracing) Task 4: Experiment with the Model of the Standard Lab Setup Task 5: Reflection CHapter 3 61 63
63

Application Layer Functionality and Protocols


Applications: The Interface Between the Networks

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 64

64
65

Making Provisions for Applications and Services

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Multiple-Choice Questions 65

65
66

Application Layer Protocols and Services Examples

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions 67

66 66
69

Activity 3-1: Data Stream Capture (3.4.1.1)

Task 1: Create a Sound File Task 3: Reflection Task 4: Clean Up 71 71

69 70

Task 2: Observe the Properties of the Audio File

Lab 3-1: Managing a Web Server (3.4.2.1)

71

Task 1: Download, Install, and Verify the Apache Web Server Task 2: Verify the Default Web Server Configuration File Task 3: Capture and Analyze HTTP Traffic with Wireshark Task 4: Challenge 78 Task 5: Reflection Task 6: Clean Up 78 79
79

73 77

76

Lab 3-2: E-mail Services and Protocols (3.4.3.1)

Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer for E-mail Service

81

Task 2: Capture and Analyze E-mail Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and an E-mail Server 84

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Task 3: Challenge 86 Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 86 86


87

Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring Hosts and Services (3.5.1.3)

Task 1: Repair and Test the Topology Task 3: Reflection Chapter 4 89 91


91

88 89

Task 2: Explore How DNS and HTTP Work Together

OSI Transport Layer

Roles of the Transport Layer

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 92 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Port Type Ranges Exercise 92

91 92
92

The TCP Protocol: Communicating with Reliability

Concept Questions 93 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


Managing TCP Sessions 93

93

Internet Research Exercise 93 Concept Questions 94


94 95 The UDP Protocol: Communicating with Low Overhead

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion

94 96

Lab 4-1: Observing TCP and UDP Using netstat (4.5.1.1)

Task 1: Explain Common netstat Command Parameters and Outputs

Task 2: Use netstat to Examine Protocol Information on a Pod Host Computer 98 Task 3: Reflection Task 4: Challenge Task 5: Cleanup 100 100 100
100

Lab 4-2: TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols, TCP and UDP (4.5.2.1)

Task 1: Identify TCP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark FTP Session Capture 102 Task 2: Identify UDP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark TFTP Session Capture 108 Task 3: Reflection Task 4: Challenge Task 5: Cleanup 110 111 111
111

Lab 4-3: Application and Transport Layer Protocols (4.5.3.1)

Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer to Capture Application Layer Protocols 113 Task 2: Capture and Analyze HTTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server 114 Task 3: Capture and Analyze FTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server 116

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Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Challenge Task 6: Clean Up

121 121 122

Packet Tracer Companion: Application and Transport Layer Protocols Examination (4.5.3.2) 122
Skills Integration Challenge: Analyzing the Application and Transport Layers (4.6.1.3) 122

Task 1: Repair and Test the Topology Task 3: Reflection Chapter 5 OSI Network Layer
IPv4 125

123 124

Task 2: Explore How DNS, UDP, HTTP, and TCP Work Together 124 125

Concept Questions 125 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Define 126
127

126

Networks: Dividing Hosts into Groups

Internet Research Exercise 127 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 127 Vocabulary Exercise: Define 128
129 130 Routing Processes: How Routes Are Learned

127
127

Routing: How Our Data Packets Are Handled

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion

129 132

Lab 5-1: Examining a Devices Gateway (5.5.1.1)

Task 1: Understand and Explain the Purpose of a Gateway Address

Task 2: Understand How Network Information Is Configured on a Windows Computer 134 Task 3: Troubleshoot a Hidden Gateway Address Problem Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Challenge Task 6: Clean Up 137 137 137 137
138

136

Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Devices Gateway (5.5.1.2)


Lab 5-2: Examining a Route (5.5.2.1)

Task 1: Use the route Command to Modify a Windows Computer Routing Table 139 Task 2: Use a Windows Telnet Client Command telnet to Connect to a Cisco Router 144 Task 3: Examine Router Routes Using Basic Cisco IOS Commands Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Challenge Task 6: Clean Up 147 147 147 147 145

Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Route (5.5.2.2)

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Skills Integration Challenge: Routing IP Packets (5.6.1.3)

148

Task 1: Configure a Router Interface Task 2: Examining Routes 149

149 150 150

Task 3: Configure a Route Using a GUI Task 5: Reflection Chapter 6 150 151

Task 4: Examine the Routing of the IP Packet

Addressing the Network: IPv4


IPv4 Addresses 151

Concept Questions 151 Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Exercise 152 Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Exercise 152
Addresses for Different Purposes 152

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Internet Research Exercise 153 Vocabulary: Completion Concept Questions 153
Assigning Addresses 154

152

153

Internet Research Exercises 154 Concept Questions 154


Is It on My Network? 155

Binary Matching Exercise 155 Concept Questions 156 Internet Research Exercise 156
Calculating Addresses 156

Concept Questions 156 Multiple-Choice Questions 157


Testing the Network Layer 157

Concept Questions 157 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 158


159 Lab 6-1: Ping and Traceroute (6.7.1.1)

Task 1: Use the ping Command to Verify Simple TCP/IP Network Connectivity 160 Task 2: Use the tracert Command to Verify TCP/IP Connectivity Task 3: Challenge Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 166 168 168 168
169

164

Packet Tracer Companion: ping and traceroute (6.7.1.2)


Lab 6-2: Examining ICMP Packets (6.7.2.1)

Task 1: Understand the Format of ICMP Packets Task 3: Challenge 177

170 173

Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Examine ICMP Messages

xv

Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up

177 177 177 178


178

Packet Tracer Companion: Examining ICMP Packets (6.7.2.2)


Activity 6-1: IPv4 Address Subnetting, Part 1 (6.7.3.1)

Task 1: For a Given IP Address, Determine Network Information Task 2: Challenge Task 3: Clean Up 180 182
183

Activity 6-2: IPv4 Address Subnetting, Part 2 (6.7.4.1)

Task 1: For a Given IP Address and Subnet Mask, Determine Subnet Information 184 Task 2: Challenge Task 3: Clean Up 188 191
192

Lab 6-3: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.7.5.1)

Task 1: Subnet the Address Space

192 193 193

Task 2: Determine Interface Addresses Task 4: Verify the Configurations Task 5: Reflection 194 193

Task 3: Configure the Serial and FastEthernet Addresses

Packet Tracer Companion: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.7.5.2)

194

Skills Integration Challenge: Planning Subnets and Configuring IP Addresses (6.8.1.3) 194

Task 1: IP Subnet Planning

195 196 196

Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer Task 3: Configure the Network Task 4: Test the Network Task 5: Reflection chapter 7 OSI Data Link Layer 197 199
199

197

Data Link Layer: Accessing the Media

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 199 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Media Access Control Techniques

199 200
200

Concept Questions 200 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 202
Putting It All Together: Follow Data Through an Internetwork 203

201
201

Media Access Control: Addressing and Framing Data

201

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Lab 7-1: Frame Examination (7.5.2.1)

203
205

Task 1: Explain the Header Fields in an Ethernet II Frame

206 209

Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Ethernet II Frames

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Task 3: Challenge Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up

212 212 213


213

Skills Integration Challenge: Data Link Layer Issues (7.6.1.3)

Task 1: IP Subnet Planning

214

Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer, Attending to Some Layer 2 Issues 215 Task 3: Configure the Network Task 4: Test the Network Task 5: Reflection Chapter 8 OSI Physical Layer 216 217
217

215

216

The Physical Layer: Communication Signals

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 217

217
218

Physical Signaling and Encoding: Representing Bits

Concept Questions 218 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 219 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching 219
220 Lab 8-1: Media Connectors Lab Activity (Lab 8.4.1.1)

218 218
219

Physical Media: Connecting Communication

Task 1: Become Familiar with the Most Common Functions of a Cable Tester 221 Task 2: Test Different Cables for Type and Wiring Problems Task 4: Verify Cable Length Task 5: Reflection Task 6: Challenge Task 7: Clean Up 226 226 226 226 223 224 Task 3: Perform Initial Configuration of the Fluke LinkRunner

Skills Integration Challenge: Connecting Devices and Exploring the Physical View (8.5.1.3) 227

Task 1: Connect the Devices in the Standard Lab Setup

228 228

Task 2: View the Standard Lab Setup in the Physical Workspace chapter 9 Ethernet 231
231

Overview of Ethernet

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 232

231
232

Ethernet: Communication Through the LAN

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Concept Questions 233

232

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The Ethernet Frame

233

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Multiple-Choice Questions 234 Concept Questions 235


Ethernet Media Access Control

233

235

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Questions 236


Ethernet Physical Layer Hubs and Switches 237 236

235

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Concept Question 238
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

236 237 237


238 240

Multiple-Choice Questions 238


Lab 9-1: Address Resolution Protocol (9.8.1.1)

Task 1: Use the Windows arp Command Task 3: Reflection Task 4: Challenge Task 5: Clean Up 248 248 248

242 246

Task 2: Use Wireshark to Examine ARP Exchanges

Packet Tracer Companion: Address Resolution Protocol (9.8.1.2)


Lab 9-2: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.8.2.1) 249

248

Task 1: Use the Telnet Protocol to Log in to a Cisco Switch

251

Task 2: Use the Cisco IOS show mac-address-table Command to Examine MAC Addresses and Port Associations 251 Task 3: Challenge Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 253 253 253

Packet Tracer Companion: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.8.2.2) 253
Lab 9-3: Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.8.3.1) 253

Task 1: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Frames Originating from Network Nodes 255 Task 2: Examine the Origination of Frames in a Small Network Task 3: Reflection Task 4: Challenge Task 5: Clean Up 258 259 259 256

Packet Tracer Companion: An Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.8.3.2) 259


Skills Integration Challenge: Switched Ethernet (9.9.1.3) 259

Task 1: IP Subnet Planning

260 261

Task 2: Repair Problems with the Ethernet Switched LAN

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Task 3: Test the Network Task 4: Reflection Chapter 10 261

261

Planning and Cabling Networks Concept Questions 263 Multiple-Choice Questions 264 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion
Device Interconnections 264

263
263

LANs: Making the Physical Connection

264

Concept Questions 264 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Developing an Addressing Scheme

265
265

Concept Questions 266 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion Multiple-Choice Questions 266


Calculating the Subnets Device Interconnections 267 267

266

Concept Questions 267 Concept Question 268 Multiple-Choice Questions 268


Lab 10-1: How Many Networks? (10.3.2.2) 269

Task 1: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram A Task 2: Record Subnet Information Task 4: Record Subnet Information Task 6: Record Subnet Information Task 8: Record Subnet Information Task 9: Reflection 273
274

269 270 271 272

270 271 272 273

Task 3: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram B Task 5: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram C Task 7: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram D

Lab 10-2: Creating a Small Lab Topology (10.6.1.1)

Task 1: Design the Logical Network

276 278 278

Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 6: Challenge Task 7: Clean Up 281 281 281 280

Packet Tracer Companion: Creating a Small Topology (10.6.1.2) Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable

281
282

Lab 10-3: Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal (10.6.2.1)

282

Task 2: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Router 283

xix

Task 3: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Switch 285 Task 3: Reflection Task 4: Challenge Task 5: Clean Up 286 286 286
287

Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm

Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable

287

Task 2: Configure TeraTerm Web to Establish a Console Session with the Router 288 Task 3: Reflection Task 4: Challenge Task 5: Clean Up 288 289 289

Packet Tracer Companion: Establishing a Console Session with PT Terminal (10.6.2.2) 289
Lab 10-4: Establishing a Console Session with Minicom (10.6.3.1) 290

Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable

290

Task 2: Configure Minicom to Establish a Console Session with the Router 291 Task 3: Perform Basic Commands Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Clean Up 292 293 292

Skills and Integration Challenge: Planning and Cabling Networks (10.7.1.3) 293

Task 1: Build the Network Topology Task 3: Interface Configuration Task 4: Testing Connectivity Chapter 11 295

294 294

Task 2: Create and Assign an Addressing Scheme 295 297

Configuring and Testing Your Network


Configuring Cisco Devices: IOS Basics

297

Concept Questions 297 Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Test Your Knowledge 299
Applying a Basic Configuration Using Cisco IOS 299

298

Cisco IOS Command Exercises 298

Concept Questions 300 Multiple-Choice Questions 300 Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Verifying Connectivity 301

301

Test Your Knowledge 301 Concept Question 301

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Lab 11-1: Network Latency Documentation with ping (11.4.3.3)

302

Task 1: Use the ping Command to Document Network Latency Task 3: Measure Delay Effects from Larger Datagrams Task 4: Reflection Task 5: Challenge 308 309
310

303 304

Task 2: Compute Various Statistics on the Output of a ping Capture 306

Lab 11-2: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.5.1.1)

Task 1: Configure Cisco Router Global Configuration Settings Task 2: Configure Cisco Router Password Access Task 3: Configure Cisco Router Interfaces Task 4: Save the Router Configuration Files Task 5: Configure a Cisco Switch Task 6: Reflection Task 7: Challenge Task 8: Clean Up 323 324 325 320 317 319 315

312

Packet Tracer Companion: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.5.1.2)


Lab 11-3: Managing Device Configuration (11.5.2.1) 327

326

Task 1: Configure Network Connectivity Task 3: Reflection Task 4: Challenge Task 5: Clean Up 333 333 335

328 329

Task 2: Use TFTP to Save and Restore a Cisco IOS Configuration

Packet Tracer Companion: Managing Device Configuration (11.5.2.2)


Lab 11-4: Configure Host Computers for IP Networking (11.5.3.1)

335
336

Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 6: Challenge Task 7: Clean Up 341 341 341
342

337 338 338

Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 340

Lab 11-5: Network Testing (11.5.4.1)

Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Reflection Task 6: Challenge Task 7: Clean Up 350 350 351

343 345 345

Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 349

xxi

Lab 11-6: Network Documentation with Utility Commands (11.5.5.1)

352

Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity Task 5: Document the Network Task 6: Reflection Task 7: Challenge Task 8: Clean Up 358 358 359 357

353 354 354

Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology 356

Lab 11-7: Case Study: Datagram Analysis with Wireshark (11.5.6.1)

366

Task 1: Prepare the Lab

367 368 370 372

Task 2: Review the Process of Data Flowing Through the Network Task 3: Analyze Captured Packets Task 4: Complete the Final Analysis Task 5: Conclusion Task 6: Summary 373 374

Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring and Analyzing Networks (11.6.1.3) 374

Task 1: Plan

375 376 377

Task 2: Build and Configure the Network Task 3: Test and Analyze Task 4: Reflection 377

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Icons Used in This Book

Desktop Computer

Laptop

Firewall

Packet

Streaming Video

IP Phone

Switch

Router

Route/Switch Processor

Phone

Server

Cloud

Wireless Router

Hub

Printer

Wireless Media

LAN Media

WAN Media

Command Syntax Conventions


The conventions used to present command syntax in this book are the same conventions used in the IOS Command Reference. The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows:
I

Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown. In actual configuration examples and output (not general command syntax), boldface indicates commands that are manually input by the user (such as a show command). Italics indicate arguments for which you supply actual values. Vertical bars (|) separate alternative, mutually exclusive elements. Square brackets [ ] indicate optional elements. Braces { } indicate a required choice. Braces within brackets [{ }] indicate a required choice within an optional element.

I I I I I

xxiii

Introduction
The Cisco Networking Academy is a comprehensive e-learning program that provides students with Internet technology skills. A Networking Academy delivers web-based content, online assessment, student performance tracking, and hands-on labs to prepare students for industry-standard certifications. The CCNA Exploration curriculum includes four courses oriented around the topics of the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) certification. Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide is a supplement to your classroom and laboratory experience with the Cisco Networking Academy. To be successful on the exam and achieve your CCNA certification, you should do everything in your power to arm yourself with a variety of tools and training materials to support your learning efforts. This Labs and Study Guide is just such a collection of tools. Used to its fullest extent, it will help you gain knowledge and practice the skills associated with the content areas of the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course.

Goals and Methods


First and foremost, this book is designed to help you learn all the required materials of the first course in the Networking Academy CCNA Exploration curriculum. By establishing a firm foundation in the fundamental topics taught in this course, you will be better prepared to move on to the rest of the CCNA Exploration curriculum and ultimately to pass the CCNA certification exam (640-802). Passing this foundation exam means that you not only have the required knowledge of the technologies covered by the exam, but also that you can plan, design, implement, operate, and troubleshoot these technologies. In other words, these exams are rigorously application based. You can view the exam topics any time at http://www.cisco.com/go/certifications. The Study Guide sections of this book offer dozens of exercises to help you learn the concepts crucial to your success as a CCNA exam candidate. Each chapter is slightly different and includes multiplechoice, fill-in-the-blank, matching, and open-ended questions designed to help you
I I I I I

Review vocabulary Strengthen troubleshooting skills Boost networking skills Reinforce concepts Research topics

Each chapter also includes a Labs and Activities section that includes the online curriculum labs and a Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge activity. Many of the hands-on labs include Packet Tracer companion activities, where you can use Packet Tracer to complete a simulation of the lab. Each chapter also includes a culminating activity called the Packet Tracer Skills Integration Challenge. These activities require you to pull together several skills learned from the chapterand previous chapters and coursesto successfully complete one comprehensive exercise.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

A Word About Packet Tracer


Packet Tracer is a self-paced, visual, interactive teaching and learning tool developed by Cisco. Lab activities are an important part of networking education. However, lab equipment can be a scarce resource. Packet Tracer provides a visual simulation of equipment and network processes to offset the challenge of limited equipment. Students can spend as much time as they like completing standard lab exercises through Packet Tracer, and have the option to work from home. Although Packet Tracer is not a substitute for real equipment, it allows students to practice using a command-line interface. This e-doing capability is a fundamental component of learning how to configure routers and switches from the command line. Packet Tracer version 4.x is available only to Cisco Networking Academies through the Academy Connection website.

A Word About Eagle Server


The CCNA Exploration courses are designed to provide a hands-on learning approach to networking. The top-down approach adopted in the Network Fundamentals course enables students to set up and implement application layer services in a network lab environment. Many of the hands-on labs in Network Fundamentals are based on an Internet model that uses a local server to provide a range of network services and applications that students can experiment with in the lab environment. The Eagle Server is developed by the Cisco Networking Academy to provide network services and applications that are typically accessed over the Internet in an isolated lab environment. The Eagle Server provides the following network services:
I I I I I I I I

DNS Web server FTP TFTP SSH Instant messaging Wiki server E-mail

The Eagle Server is required to complete most of the labs in CCNA Exploration. The Eagle Server software and complete FAQ documentation can be downloaded by your instructor from the Tools section of Academy Connection. Your instructor needs to follow those instructions to set up the labs for you accordingly.

xxv

Audience for This Book


This books main audience is anyone taking the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course of the Cisco Networking Academy curriculum. Many academies use this textbook as a required tool in the course, while other academies recommend the Companion Guides as an additional source of study and practice materials.

How This Book Is Organized


Because the content of Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide and the online curriculum is sequential, you should work through this Lab Study Guide in order, beginning with Chapter 1. The book covers the major topic headings in the same sequence as the online curriculum for the CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals course. This book has 11 chapters, with the same numbers and similar names as the online course chapters.

Chapters and Topics


The book has 11 chapters, as follows:
I

Chapter 1, Living in a Network-Centric World, provides exercises and labs to supplement your study of the basics of communication and how networks support the way we live. The questions in the chapter focus on network architectures, network components, scalability, quality of service (QoS), security issues, and network collaboration tools. Activities and labs let you practice your skills using and configuring network applications such as Google Earth, Internet Relay Chat, blogs, wikis, and Packet Tracer. Chapter 2, Communicating over the Network, introduces the devices, media, and protocols that enable network communication. The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses different types of questions to test your knowledge of how devices communicate over the network. The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills needed to use some critical tools, such as Wireshark, to help evaluate network communications. Chapter 3, Application Layer Functionality and Protocols, introduces you to the top network model layer, the application layer. Work through the different types of questions to test your knowledge of the TCP/IP application and OSI application, presentation, and session layer. The labs further reinforce that you have mastered the skills needed to work with the application layer of the OSI model. Chapter 4, OSI Transport Layer, provides exercises and labs that focus on the role of the transport layer as it provides the end-to-end transfer of data between applications. You learn how TCP and UDP apply to common applications. Chapter 5, OSI Network Layer, introduces the concepts of routing packets from a device on one network to a device on a different network. The questions and labs help you reinforce important concepts related to addressing, path determination, data packets, and IP. Chapter 6, Addressing the Network: IPv4, focuses on network addressing in detail and tests your knowledge of how to use the address mask, or prefix length, to determine the number of subnetworks and hosts in a network. This chapter also includes questions and labs related to Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) tools, such as ping and trace.

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Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide

Chapter 7, OSI Data Link Layer, supplements your study of how the OSI data link layer prepares network layer packets for transmission. This chapter tests your ability to describe the encapsulation processes that occur as data travels across a LAN and a WAN. The chapter also helps you study Media Access Control (MAC) and MAC addressing. A hands-on lab lets you practice your skills using Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet frames. A Packet Tracer skills integration lab provides an opportunity to practice IP subnetting, and building and configuring a complex network. Chapter 8, OSI Physical Layer, provides questions and labs that explore the functions, standards, and protocols associated with the physical layer (Layer 1). Use this chapter to reinforce that you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills needed to understand and work with the OSI physical layer. Chapter 9, Ethernet, examines the technologies and operation of Ethernet. Topics include the evolution of Ethernet technologies, MAC, and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). This chapter continues the examination of Ethernet frames that you started in Chapter 7, with a focus on ARP frames. The chapter also helps you develop skills related to examining Cisco switch MAC address tables. A Packet Tracer skills integration lab lets you simulate the steps of installing an Ethernet card in a PC, connecting it to a switch, and setting speed and duplex settings. Chapter 10, Planning and Cabling Networks, focuses on designing and cabling a network. You will apply the knowledge and skills developed in the previous chapters to determine the appropriate cables to use, how to connect devices, and how to develop an addressing and testing scheme. Chapter 11, Configuring and Testing Your Network, provides questions and extensive, challenging labs that ask you to connect and configure a small network using basic Cisco IOS commands for routers and switches. You will configure Cisco routers and switches for basic network operations.

About the CD-ROM


The CD-ROM included with this book has all the Packet Tracer Activity, Packet Tracer Companion, and Packet Tracer Challenge files that are referenced throughout the book as indicated by the Packet Tracer Activity, Packet Tracer Companion, and Packet Tracer Challenge icons. You can obtain updates to these files from the website for this book, http://www.ciscopress.com/title/1587132036. The files will be updated to cover any subsequent releases of Packet Tracer.

About the Cisco Press Website for This Book


Cisco Press may provide additional content that can be accessed by registering your individual book at the Ciscopress.com website. Becoming a member and registering is free, and you then gain access to exclusive deals on other resources from Cisco Press. To register this book, go to http://www.ciscopress.com/bookstore/register.asp and enter the books ISBN, which is located on its back cover. Youll then be prompted to log in or join Ciscopress.com to continue registration. After you register the book, a link to any supplemental content will be listed on your My Registered Books page.

CHAPTER 1

Living in a Network-Centric World

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching, fill-in-the-blank, multiple-choice, and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the importance of data networks and the major components and characteristics of network architectures. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure that you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with modern networks. As you work through this chapter, use Chapter 1 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or the corresponding Chapter 1 in Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance.

Study Guide
Communicating in a Network-Centric World
Humans are social animals who need to communicate with each other. Communication was once limited to face-to-face conversations, but it has evolved over the years to encompass many types of media, ranging from paper to fiber-optic cabling. High-speed data networks that span the globe with cabling and networking devices have had a profound effect on human communication and will continue to revolutionize how humans interact with each other.

Concept Questions
1.

In addition to data networks, what other breakthroughs in communication media have extended the reach of human interactions? Answers will vary but could include smoke signals, the written word, the printing press, newspapers, radio, telephony, telegraphy, movies, and television.

2.

How has data networking changed your community (your family, school, city, or country?) Answers will vary.

3.

Early data networks carried character-based messages between computer systems. What types of network traffic do modern networks carry, and how has this changed human interactions? Answers will vary but should mention that modern networks carry voice, video, text, and graphics. The addition of all these different types of network traffic has enabled the creation of online communities where geographic distances and physical limitations are no longer major obstacles and where humans around the globe can collaborate in their work, play, and education.

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks in the following questions.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Instant Messaging (IM) is a form of online real-time communication between two or more people based on entered text. A blog is a web page that is easy to update and edit by someone who wants to publish a record of his or her thoughts on a subject. A wiki is a web page that groups of people can edit and view together. Podcasting is an audio-based medium that lets people record audio and publish it on a website. Packet Tracer is a Cisco collaborative learning tool that provides a way to build virtual representations of networks that behave much like actual networks.

Communication: An Essential Part of Our Lives


Communication helps us work, play, and learn. Because communication is so important, communication networks include rules (or protocols) that help ensure reliable delivery of messages. Rules help data networks function despite the many factors that can degrade communication. Factors that are external to the message can affect reliability, as can internal factors that are related to aspects of the message itself.

Concept Questions
1.

List four external factors that affect data networks. Students should include at least four of the following correct answers:

I I I I I I I I

The quality of the pathway between the sender and receiver The number of times a message changes form The number of times a message is redirected The number of times a message is readdressed The number of times a message is reformatted The number of other messages sharing the communication pathway Whether a confirmation of the message was returned to the sender The amount of time allotted for successful communication List three internal factors that affect data networks. The messages size The messages complexity The messages importance

2.

Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World

The Network as a Platform


Data networks provide a platform for humans to communicate and thus play an increasingly important role in the business and personal lives of humans. Modern networks support fast and reliable message transfer among millions of users across the globe. To achieve the scale, speed, and reliability that are required, network experts have standardized many elements and components of a data network.

Vocabulary Exercise: Define


Table 1-1 lists the four fundamental elements of a network. Fill in the definition for each element.
Table 1-1 Element Network Element Definitions Definition

Rule Medium Message Device

An agreement or protocol that governs how messages are sent, directed, received, and interpreted A means of interconnecting devices; a physical environment, such as a cable or the air for wireless, in which data is transferred A unit of information that travels from one device to another across a medium Equipment that connects directly to a network

Vocabulary Exercise: Identify


Networks consist of many elements. Network engineers often include these elements in network topology drawings. Engineers use a set of standard icons to refer to the elements. Figure 1-1 shows some of these icons. The figure shows a network topology for a typical small company.
Figure 1-1 Network Topology Icons
B D C

G H K IP

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Provide the name of each element in the network topology shown in Figure 1-1.
A Firewall B Router C WAN medium D Network cloud E Server F LAN medium G LAN switch H Wireless router I IP phone J Desktop computer K Wireless media L Laptop computer

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


In Table 1-2, match the term on the left with its definition on the right.
Table 1-2 Device Network Devices Definition

a. Switch b. Firewall c. Router d. Wireless router e. Cloud f. Serial link

f. One form of a wide-area network (WAN) connection a. Interconnects computers and cabling to form a local-area network (LAN) e. Summarizes a group of network elements in topology drawings d. A device often found in home and small networks that lets laptop computers connect to a network without cabling c. Connects two or more networks and directs messages as they travel across a set of networks b. Provides network security

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks in the following questions.
1. 2.

In wired connections, the medium is either copper, which carries data in the form of electrical signals, or optical fiber, which carries data in the form of light signals. Wireless media include the wireless connection between a wireless router and a computer in a home network, the terrestrial wireless connection between two ground stations, or the communication between devices on Earth and satellites in orbit. Network applications such as web browsing, e-mail, and instant messaging require a network to provide services. Protocols are the rules that network devices use to communicate.

3. 4.

Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World

5. 6.

TCP/IP is a set of standard protocols that is widely used in home and business networks as well as on the Internet. Messages must be converted to bits (binary coded digital signals) before they are sent to their destination.

Concept Questions
1.

List the steps that take place on a network when you send an instant message. Answers will vary depending on how much students already know. If they are just starting to learn networking and have grasped the information in Elements of a Network section in Chapter 1 of the curriculum and the Companion Guide, their answers should read something like the following:
1. The computer converts the message to bits. 2. The Network Interface Card (NIC) converts the bits to electrical or optical signals and

places them on the medium.


3. The bits travel through network devices such as switches in the LAN. 4. The bits arrive at a router, which directs them to their destination. 5. At their destination, the bits get converted back into a human-readable format. 2.

What is meant by the term converged network, and why are converged networks becoming so common? What advantages do converged networks offer? A converged network carries network traffic of many different types, including traffic that was once relegated to its own separate network, such as voice or radio. Converged networks have become common because they allow engineers to build one common infrastructure instead of multiple specialized networks. This can save money, simplify troubleshooting, and enable advanced applications such as videoconferencing and online gaming.

The Architecture of the Internet


A network architecture describes a networks physical infrastructure and the high-level services and protocols that move messages across that infrastructure. The Internets architecture shares many of the same characteristics of any large network that supports numerous users. Business networks, education networks, and the Internet must provide fault tolerance, scalability, quality of service, and security. Many large networks, including the Internet, are also hierarchical, with different tiers offering different levels of service.

Vocabulary Exercise: Define


Table 1-3 lists four fundamental characteristics of network architectures. Fill in the definition for each characteristic.

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Table 1-3

Network Architecture Characteristics Definition

Characteristic

Fault tolerance Scalability Quality of service Security

The capability of a network to withstand hardware and software failures and recover quickly when failures occur The capability of a network to expand quickly to support new users and applications without degrading performance for existing users A method of providing different priorities for different applications, based on the requirements of the applications and their importance to users Measures taken to guard against unauthorized access to a network and the data traveling on the network

Concept Questions
1.

Why was fault tolerance a major focus of the initial design for the Internet? The United States Department of Defense (DoD) designed the network that evolved into the Internet with fault tolerance because the department was concerned about a military attack or other severe problem that could destroy numerous sites and transmission facilities.

2.

Compare and contrast circuit switching and packet switching. Why did the Internet designers choose packet switching instead of circuit switching? With circuit switching, a call goes through a setup process whereby a temporary path, or circuit, is created through various switching locations between the sender and receiver. The circuit is dedicated to the call for the duration of the call. Even if no communication is occurring between the sender and receiver, the circuit and its resources remain reserved until one end disconnects. If theres a problem with any device in the path during a call, the call is dropped and must be reestablished. A new call requires a new setup process that creates a new circuit. With packet switching, theres no requirement for call setup. Messages are divided into small blocks of data (packets) that can travel across many paths to the destination. The early Internet designers chose packet switching because it provides better fault tolerance and scalability. Packets are routed according to the best path available at the time and can be routed around problem areas. Packets from different sources are intermixed, using all available resources. The problem of underutilized idle circuits is eliminated, because resources are used dynamically as packets arrive at switching locations.

3.

How does the Internet benefit from using a hierarchical architecture? The hierarchical architecture permits Internet service providers (ISP) of different levels, which improves scalability and fault tolerance. For example, Tier 1 providers, such as AT&T and Verizon, provide national and international connections and are optimized for carrying huge loads of traffic across the globe. Tier 2 providers are smaller and often provide regional service. Tier 3 providers are smaller yet and focus on getting end users on the Internet. Each tier can optimize its services for its unique role. The hierarchical structure also means that network traffic that is destined for a service that is local to the sender does not need to traverse to a central point for distribution.

Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World

4.

List some applications that are time-sensitive and the negative consequences of their packets getting dropped or delayed. Answers will vary, but here are some examples based on the curriculum: Streaming video and audio are time-sensitive and will appear or sound choppy, with lots of starts and stops, if their traffic is delayed. Business transactions can be time-sensitive. For example, a stock price could change while a buyer is making a purchase if traffic is delayed. Calls to an emergency response center are time-sensitive. The consequence of the calls being dropped or delayed include people dying or suffering needlessly with injuries. Production control in factories can be time-sensitive. The consequences of a lost control signal to an automated piece of heavy machinery, for example, could cause death or dismemberment.

5.

List some consequences of a network security breach. Answers will vary, but here are some examples based on the curriculum: A network outage that stops communications and transactions, with consequent loss of business Misdirected or lost personal or business funds Stolen company intellectual property (research ideas, patents, or designs, for example) Private customer contract details becoming known to competitors or made public, resulting in a loss of confidence in the business Loss of sales and eventual company failure because of a loss of public trust in the companys ability to maintain privacy, confidentiality, and integrity

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks in the following questions.
1.

The two types of network security concerns are network infrastructure security, which protects devices and cabling, and content security, which protects the information carried in packets and stored on network-attached devices. Tools to provide security for individual messages must be implemented on top of the underlying protocols, which are the rules that govern how packets are formatted, addressed, and delivered. Three fundamental security measures include ensuring confidentiality so that only intended and authorized recipients can read data, maintaining integrity to ensure that information is not altered in transmission, and ensuring availability so that timely and reliable access to services is not disrupted by security breaches. Network firewalls can help ensure system reliability by detecting, repelling, and coping with network attacks.

2.

3.

4.

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Trends in Networking
Data networks continue to evolve quickly. Modern networks need to be ready to support increasing numbers of users who will make innovative use of the networks to enhance human communication. Networks will need to be scalable, fault-tolerant, and flexible as users continue to depend on their networks to help them live, learn, work, and play.

Multiple-Choice Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the following questions.
1.

Which of the following are major trends that are contributing to the current evolution of networks? (Choose two.)

a. The increasing number of mobile users b. Fewer services as networks converge c. Fewer applications as networks converge d. Increasing use of simplified network devices e. The need to protect networks from unauthorized access f. The need to support circuit switching 2.

Which of the following is most associated with the concept of converged networks?

a. More users wanting to access web pages in character mode b. More voice and video transmissions that require a level of consistent quality and uninterrupted

delivery
c. More networks that are locked down so that new applications and services cannot be added d. More networks that are open and unconcerned with protection from unauthorized access 3.

Which of the following is a relatively new information technology (IT) job title?

a. Programmer b. Information security officer c. Network technician d. Software engineer 4.

Which of the following best defines a fault-tolerant network?

a. A fault-tolerant network supports users who have different viewpoints. b. A fault-tolerant network limits the impact of hardware or software failures and recovers quick-

ly when a failure occurs.


c. A fault-tolerant network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without

causing errors for existing users.


d. A fault-tolerant network is built to withstand earthquakes.

Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World

5.

Which of the following best defines a scalable network? satellite dishes on mountains.

a. A scalable network is built to support high-altitude environments, including skyscrapers and b. A scalable network supports redundant connections so that alternative paths are available when

a device or link fails.


c. A scalable network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without impact-

ing the performance of the service being offered to existing users.


d. A scalable network ensures that priorities are matched with the type of communication and its

importance to an organization.

10

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Labs and Activities


Activity 1-1: Using Google Earth to View the World (1.1.1.4)
Upon completion of this activity, you will be able to
I I I I I

Explain the purpose of Google Earth. Explain the different versions of Google Earth. Explain the hardware and software requirements needed to use Google Earth (free edition). Experiment with Google Earth features such as Help and Tutorial. Experiment with Google Earth to explore continents, countries, and places of interest.

Background Google Earth is a popular application that executes on the desktop of most operating systems; it requires a broadband connection to the Internet. Google Earth displays the Earth as a manipulated 2D or 3D image. The popular world news channel CNN regularly uses Google Earth to show where a news story has occurred. Currently, three versions of Google Earth exist. The version that fits most needs is the free version, Google Earth. The Google Earth Plus version includes GPS support, a spreadsheet importer, and other support features. The Google Earth Pro version is for professional and commercial use. The URL http://earth.google.com/product_comparison.html contains a description of the versions. Use this link to answer the following questions:
1.

Which versions support Tilt and 3D rotation? All versions

2.

Which Google Earth version supports the highest resolution? Google Earth Pro supports 4800 pixels.

To use Google Earth, version 4, the following minimum computer hardware requirements must be met:
I I I I I I I

Operating system: Microsoft Windows 2000 or Windows XP CPU: Pentium 3 with 500 MHz System memory (RAM): 128 MB Hard disk: 400 MB of free space Network speed: 128 kbps Graphics card: 3D-capable with 16 MB of video RAM (VRAM) Screen: 1024768 pixels, 16-bit high-color screen

Scenario This activity is to be performed on a computer that has Internet access and on which you can install software. Estimated completion time, depending on network speed, is 30 minutes.

Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World

11

Task 1: Install Google Earth


If Google Earth is not installed on the computer, you can download the free application from http://earth.google.com/download-earth.html. Follow the installation instructions, and the Google Earth download should start automatically. Remember, you may have to disable any popup blockers on your browser. Figure 1-2 shows the opening screen for Google Earth.
Figure 1-2 Google Earth Opening Screen

Task 2: Run Google Earth


Refer to Figure 1-2, the opening screen. The Menu bar is located in the upper-left corner. On the Help menu, choose User Guide to launch a default web browser and bring up the Google Earth Users Guide (http://earth.google.com/userguide/v4/). Take a few minutes to browse the Users Guide. Before leaving the Users Guide website, answer the following questions:
1.

List the three ways to move the image. Placemark, mouse, navigation controls.

2.

Which mouse control zooms in and out? Right mouse button or scroll wheel.

3.

What is the purpose of the left mouse button? It rotates the image.

Task 3: Navigate the Google Earth Interface


Step 1:

Use the Overview Map feature. Choose View > Overview Map. This handy feature provides a relative global position of the magnified image.

Step 2:

Review the navigation controls. The navigation controls, shown in Figure 1-3, are located in the upper-right quadrant. They control the image magnification and position. The mouse pointer must be moved close to the controls; otherwise, only a compass is displayed.

12

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Figure 1-3

Google Earth Screen Navigation Tools


Tilt- 2D or 3D

Rotate or Move

Zoom

Step 3:

Use the Sightseeing feature. On the left navigation bar, experiment with the Places > Sightseeing folder. Expand Sightseeing, choose a location that you want to see, and double-click that location. The image takes you to that site. When the location has been reached, an image streaming indicator reports when the image resolution is complete.

Step 4:

Experiment with the Search > Fly To folder. Enter 95134, a U.S. zip code. What U.S. state and city are displayed? San Jose, California What if you would like to Fly To London, UK? What data would you need to enter? London, UK

Step 5:

Use the Fly To feature. Some locations have better resolution than others, and some location images are older than others. For example, one user commented that he found his home, but the new house next door had not yet been built. Try to find your home using the Search > Fly To folder. Is the resolution for your home the same quality as the Sightseeing location in Step 3? Answers will vary. If the resolution for your neighborhood is sufficient, browse the surrounding area to see if you can determine approximately how old the image is.

Step 6:

View geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates are displayed in the lower-left quadrant of the image. The first number is called the latitude; its the angle between a point and the equator. For example, the equator is an imaginary line dividing the globe into a Northern and Southern Hemisphere. The equator has a 0 latitude. The second number is called the longitude; its the angle east or west of an arbitrary earth point. The Royal Observatory, United Kingdom, is the international zero-longitude point. The combined longitude and latitude are called the common graticule. Common graticule is the grid created by the longitude and latitude lines as depicted on a globe. The coordinate measurements are in degrees, minutes, seconds, and tenths. For latitude, the reference is North (N) or South (S) of the equator. For longitude, the reference is East (E) or West (W) of the Royal Observatory. Choose View > Grid to display Google Earth Gridlines. Using the pointer and coordinates shown in the lower-left quadrant of the image, what are the coordinates of your home? Answers will vary.

Chapter 1: Living in a Network-Centric World

13

Task 4: Reflection
Google Earth can bring the world into your home or office. While enjoying the images, consider what digital communication resources were used. For example, satellite communication with an Earth station transmitted the image of your home to a ground location. Some type of database was used to store the image. A LAN sent your image request across the Internet, probably through several WANs and then to another LAN with a computer that returned the image to you. The delay in retrieving the image may have been short or long, depending on the slowest speed of all network connections in the path between the database repository and your computer. Could the image be displayed faster if data compression techniques were used? Answers will vary. Consider network security. Could someone eavesdrop on your network connection? Answers will vary.

Task 5: Challenge
Google Earth displays image coordinates in the lower-left quadrant of the image. Use the following URL to learn about different coordinate systems: http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/coordsys/coordsys.html. Wikipedia also contains a useful definition of common geographic terms. Use the geographic coordinate system to describe your home with as much accuracy and detail as possible.

Task 6: Clean Up
You may be required to remove Google Earth from the computer. If so, follow these steps:
Step 1. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4.

Choose Start > Settings > Control Panel. Double-click Add or Remove Programs. Locate and click Google Earth. Click Remove and follow the prompts.

Additional removal information is available at http://earth.google.com/support/bin/answer.py?answer=20738&ctx=sibling. Unless instructed otherwise, turn off the computer.

Activity 1-2: Identifying Top Security Vulnerabilities (1.4.5.3)


Upon completion of this activity, you will be able to
I I I I

Use the SANS site to quickly identify Internet security threats. Explain how threats are organized. List several recent security vulnerabilities. Use the SANS links to access other security-related information.

14

Network Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Background One of the most popular and trusted sites related to defending against computer and network security threats is SANS. SANS stands for SysAdmin, Audit, Network, Security. SANS contains several components, each a major contributor to information security. For additional information about the SANS site, go to http://www.sans.org/ and select items from the Resources menu. How can a corporate security administrator quickly identify security threats? SANS and the FBI have compiled their list of the top 20 Internet Security Attack Targets at http://www.sans.org/top20/. The list is regularly updated with information related to the following:
I I

Operating systems: Windows, UNIX/Linux, Mac Applications: Cross-platform, including web, database, peer-to-peer, instant messaging, media players, DNS servers, backup software, and management servers Network devices: Network infrastructure devices (routers, switches, and so on), VoIP devices Human elements: Security policies, human behavior, personnel issues Special section: Security issues not related to any of the preceding categories

I I I

Scenario This activity introduces you to computer security vulnerabilities. You will use the SANS website as a tool for threat vulnerability identification, understanding, and defense. You must complete this lab outside of the Cisco lab from a computer with Internet access. Estimated completion time is one hour.

Task 1: Locate the SANS Resources


Step 1.

Open the SANS Top 20 List. Using a web browser, go to http://www.sans.org. On the resources menu, choose top 20 list, as shown in Figure 1-4.

Figure 1-4

SANS Menu

The SANS Top-20 Internet Security Attack Targets list is organized by category. A letter indicates the category type, and numbers separate category topics. Router and switch topics fall under the Network Devices category, N. There are two major hyperlink topics:
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N1. VoIP Servers and Phones N2. Network and Other Devices Common Configuration Weaknesses

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Step 2:

Click hyperlink N2. Network and Other Devices Common Configuration Weaknesses to jump to this topic.

Task 2: Review the SANS Resources


Step 1.

Review the contents of N2.2 Common Default Configuration Issues. For example, N2.2.2 (as of this writing) contains information about threats associated with default accounts and values. Open Google and search on wireless router passwords to return links to multiple sites that publish a list of wireless router default administrator account names and passwords. Failure to change the default password on these devices can lead to compromise and vulnerability by attackers.

Step 2.

Note the CVE references. The last line under several topics references is Common Vulnerability Exposure (CVE). The CVE name is linked to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Vulnerability Database (NVD), sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) National Cyber Security Division and US-CERT, which contains information about the vulnerability.

Task 3: Collect Data


The remainder of this lab walks you through a vulnerability investigation and solution.
Step 1:

Choose a topic to investigate, and click a sample CVE hyperlink.

Note: Because the CVE list changes, the current list may not contain the same vulnerabilities as those that were present at the time of this writing.

The link should open a new web browser connected to http://nvd.nist.gov/ and the vulnerability summary page for the CVE. Fill in the following information about the vulnerability: Original release date: Answers will vary. Last revised: Answers will vary. Source: Answers will vary. Overview: Answers will vary.
Step 2.

Under the Impact heading are several values. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) severity is displayed. It contains a value between 1 and 10. Fill in information about the vulnerability impact: CVSS Severity: Answers will vary. Range: Answers will vary. Authentication: Answers will vary. Impact Type: Answers will vary.

Step 3.

The next heading, References to Advisories, Solutions, and Tools, contains links with information about the vulnerability and possible solutions. Using the hyperlinks, write a brief description of the solution as found on those pages. Answers will vary.

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Task 4: Reflection
The number of vulnerabilities for computers, networks, and data continues to increase. Governments have dedicated significant resources to coordinating and disseminating information about the vulnerability and possible solutions. It remains the responsibility of the end user to implement the solution. Think of ways that users can help strengthen security. Think about user habits that create security risks.

Task 5: Challenge
Try to identify an organization that will meet with you to explain how vulnerabilities are tracked and solutions are applied. Finding an organization willing to do this may be difficult, for security reasons, but this will provide beneficial information about how vulnerability mitigation is accomplished in the world. It will also give representatives of the organization an opportunity to meet the class and conduct informal intern interviews.

Lab 1-1: Using Collaboration Tools: IRC and IM (1.6.1.1)


Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
I I I I

Define Internet Relay Chat (IRC) and Instant Messaging (IM). List several collaborative uses of IM. List several misuses of and data security issues involving IM. Use IRC to demonstrate collaboration.

Background E-mail permits multiple users to collaborate, share ideas, and transfer files. However, unless the user constantly monitors the e-mail account, unread e-mail may go unnoticed for a long period of time. When people have wanted immediate contact, the telephone has been the technology of choice. Unfortunately, the telephone cannot be used to transfer files. What collaborators need for communication in the human network is a tool that has the flexibility of e-mail with the responsiveness of the telephone. IRC and IM fit nicely into these requirements. Using the Internet or a private corporate network, users can easily exchange ideas and files. IMing and chatting are both methods of real-time communication; however, they are implemented differently. IM provides one-on-one communication with accepted individuals. To initiate an instant message, one person needs to invite another. The recipient of the invitation knows aboutand acceptsthe IM session based on the other users screen name. IM clients allow you to have an approved list of users, often called a Buddy List. If you want to communicate with more than one person at a time, you can open additional IM windows. Each of these windows represents a two-person communication. IRC, on the other hand, allows multiple people to interact. Chat also provides a degree of anonymity. To start chatting, you establish a connection to a Chat server and join a discussion on a particular topic. When you join, you are said to join a room. In the chat room, you typically create your own identity and can give as little information about yourself as you choose. Although the following discussion focuses primarily on IM, a brief hands-on lab will demonstrate the ease of IRC.

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IM requires a device providing services that allows users to communicate. This device is called the Instant Messenger Server. The users on the end devices, such as a computer, use a piece of software called the Instant Messenger Client. This arrangement is called a client/server relationship. IM clients connect to an IM server, and the server joins clients. This relationship is called an IM network. Many different IM networks are available, each with a dedicated following of users. Popular IM networks include America OnLine (AOL) Instant Messenger (AIM), Windows Live Messenger (MSN), Yahoo! Messenger, and ICQ (I Seek You). Figure 1-5 shows the AIM client application connected to the AIM network.
Figure 1-5 AIM Client

Features IM services have several common features:


I

When an IM client connects to the IM network, any existing connections can be alerted through a contact lista list of other people that you communicate with through the IM client. File sharing between IM clients enables work collaboration. Text messaging between clients is possible and can be logged. Some IM networks offer audio services. Newer services that some IM networks are beginning to provide include videoconferencing, Voice over IP (VoIP), web conferencing, desktop sharing, and even IP radio and IPTV.

I I I I

Protocols Each IM network uses an agreed-upon method of communication, called a protocol. Many of the IM networks use proprietary protocols. AIM and ICQ (purchased by AOL) use the proprietary Open System for Communication in Real Time (OSCAR) protocol. Both Microsoft and Yahoo! have proprietary protocols but have partnered services for joint connectivity. Throughout this course we will learn about many different protocols. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has attempted to standardize IM protocols, notably with Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). SIPv2 was originally defined in RFC 2543 and was made obsolete by RFC 3261. As with proprietary IM protocols, numerous open-source protocols exist. Some IM client applications, such as Gaim and Trillian, can differentiate between the various IM network protocols; IM servers can also incorporate this support. The IETF formalized an open standard, Jabber, based on the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (EMPP). Applicable IETF references are RFC 3920 and RFC 3921. Encrypted communication is supported. Social misuse of IM has been a concern for parents, and many IM networks encourage parental control. Child restrictions include limiting IM contacts and providing supervision while online. AIM and

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Yahoo! Messenger provide free supervision software tools. Some parental supervision tools include background logging, online time limits, chat room blocking, blocking specific users, and disabling certain functions of the client. Security Multiple security issues have been identified with IM. As a result, many organizations either limit or block IM from entering the corporate network. Computer worms, viruses, and Trojan horses, categorized as malware, have been transferred to IM client computers. Without strong security methods, information exchanged between users can be captured and disclosed. IM clients and IM servers have experienced application vulnerabilities, which have resulted in vulnerable computers. Even legitimate users can congest network throughput by transferring large files. The SANS Institute recommends several countermeasures that system administrators can use to protect their networks from IM vulnerabilities and misuse. The following list is from the SANS website at http://www.sans.org/top20/#c4: C4.4 How to Protect Against IM Vulnerabilities and Unauthorized IM Usage
I

Establish policies for acceptable use of IM. Ensure that all users are aware of those policies and clearly understand the potential risks. Standard users should not be permitted to install software. Restrict Administrative and Power User level privileges to support personnel acting in their support capacity. If a user must have Administrative or Power User privileges, create a separate account to be used for his or her daily office functions, Internet surfing, and online communication. Ensure that vendor patches are promptly applied to IM software, interrelated applications, and the underlying operating system. Employ antivirus and antispyware products. Do not rely on external IM servers for internal use of IM; provide a commercial-grade IM proxy or internal IM server. Create secure communication paths when using IM with trusted business partners. Appropriately configure intrusion detection and prevention systems. Understand that many IM applications can enable associated communications to masquerade as otherwise legitimate traffic (for example, HTTP). Consider deploying products specifically designed for IM security. Filter all HTTP traffic through an authenticating proxy server to provide additional capabilities of filtering and monitoring IM traffic. Block access to known public IM servers that have not been explicitly authorized. (Note: This offers only partial protection because of the number of potential external servers.) Block popular IM ports. (Note: This offers only partial protection because of the number of potential protocols and associated ports and the ability of applications to bypass port restrictions.) Monitor using an Intrusion Detection/Prevention system for users creating tunnels for IM or bypassing proxies.

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The Future of IM The future of IM is promising, enabling users to adapt new technologies for collaboration. For example, mobile IM supports mobile users, providing IM services to handheld cellular phones. Most popular cellular phone manufacturers have their own form of mobile IM. Another popular handheld appli-

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ance is the BlackBerry. The BlackBerry supports common IM tools, such as text messaging, as well as push e-mail, telephony, and web browsing. Scenario Figure 1-6 shows two computers connected to a cloud. In networking, a cloud is often used to symbolize a more complex network, such as the Internet, which is not the current focus of this discussion. In this lab, the cloud represents the network and networking devices between an IRC client and a server called eagle-server. In subsequent chapters you will study in great detail the devices and protocols that are inside the cloud. This lab uses Gaim as the IRC client, but any IRC client may be used if available. An IRC client is available for download from eagle-server at http://eagleserver.example.com/pub.
Note: Eagle Server is a component of the Cisco Networking Academy. Some of the labs in this book, including this one, assume that a Cisco Networking Academy instructor has already set up Eagle Server and named it eagleserver.example.com. Figure 1-6 Topology for Lab 1-1
Eagle Server Pod#A

Estimated completion time is 45 minutes.

Task 1: Configure the Chat Client


The IRC protocol is an open standard, originally described in RFC 1459, for communicating across plain-text links.
Step 1:

Verify that an IRC client is on the lab computer. If not, download and install gaim-1.5.0.exe (a Windows executable) from ftp://eagleserver.example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1. Accept the default settings during the installation. After verifying that the Gaim chat client is installed, follow the next steps to configure Gaim.

Step 2:

Open the Accounts window. Open Gaim and select the Login window, icon Accounts. The Accounts window is shown in Figure 1-7.

Figure 1-7

Gaim Accounts Window

In the Accounts window, click Add.

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Step 3:

Add a new account. In the Add Account window, expand the Show more options option. Fill in required information, as shown in Figure 1-8:
I I I I

Protocol: IRC Screen Name: (how others will know you) Server: eagle-server.example.com Proxy type: No Proxy
Gaim Add Account Window

Figure 1-8

When youre finished, click Save. Close the Accounts window.

Task 2: Connect to the Chat Server


Step 1:

Sign on. Return to the Login window, where the new account to eagle-server should be visible. Click Sign-on. Two windows should open. Figure 1-9 shows the IRC Connect Status window. Figure 1-10 shows the main Gaim IM client window, used for chatting or IM.

Figure 1-9

IRC Connect Status Window

Figure 1-10

Gaim IRC Client Window

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Step 2:

Join the chat. When the IRC client connects to the IRC server, the status window closes, and a Buddy List window appears. Click Chat, as shown in Figure 1-11.

Figure 1-11

Joining a Chat

Note: For you to join a chat channel, the Channel name must start with #. If the Channel name is incorrect, you will be in a chat room alone (unless other students made a similar error).

Task 3: Consider the Chat Session


Figure 1-12 shows a brief chat between users root and student2. Multiple students can join and interact with each other.
Figure 1-12 Participating in a Chat

During the chat, consider how youas a parent or network administratorwould manage this type of connection. Answers will vary.

Task 4: Reflection
On a network with an Internet connection, the Gaim IM client can be used to connect to several different IM providers. Most teenagers and young adults today are familiar with IMing between friends and sharing files, but you might not understand the communication between the client and server. As a future network engineer, you should understand the social and security issues with IM and IRC.

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Task 5: Challenge
While you are connected in chat, transfer files between partners. Use a continuous ping from the host to Eagle Server to monitor network throughput. Observe the response time before and during the file transfer. Write a brief description of the network response timeduring file transfers and without file transfers.

Task 6: Clean Up
Check with your instructor before removing Gaim and shutting down the computer.

Lab 1-2: Using Collaboration Tools: Wikis and Web Logs (1.6.2.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
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Define the terms wiki and blog. Explore wiki features.

Background The lab topology shown in Figure 1-13 should be configured and ready for use. If there are connectivity issues with the lab computer connecting to Eagle Server, ask the instructor for assistance.
Figure 1-13 Topology for Lab 1-2
Eagle Server Pod#A

Note to Instructor: The lab should be preconfigured for students. Use the Orientation lab to configure and test connectivity before students arrive in class.

Figure 1-13 shows two computers connected to a cloud. In networking, a cloud is often used to symbolize a more complex network that is not the current focus of discussion. In this lab, you will use a host computer that connects across the cloud to access the TWiki wiki server. In subsequent chapters you will study in great detail the devices and protocols that are inside the cloud. Scenario In this lab, you have the opportunity to learn about the different parts of a wiki. If you have ever used Wikipedia, you are probably familiar with the look and feel of a wiki. To gain experience with a wiki, you explore the TWiki wiki server installed on Eagle Server in this lab.

Task 1: Define the Terms Wiki and Blog


Wiki is a Hawaiian-language word that means fast. In networking terms, a wiki is a web-based collaboration tool that permits almost anyone to immediately post information, files, or graphics to a common site for other users to read and modify. A wiki lets you access a home page (first page) that provides a search tool to assist you in locating the articles that interest you. A wiki can be installed for

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the Internet community or behind a corporate firewall for employee use. The user not only reads wiki contents but also participates by creating content within a web browser. Although many different wiki servers are available, the following common features have been formalized into every wiki:
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Any web browser can be used to edit pages or create new content. Edit and auto links are available to edit a page and automatically link pages. Text formatting is similar to creating an e-mail. A search engine is used for quick content location. Access control can be set by the topic creator, defining who is permitted to edit content. A wiki web is a grouping of pages with different collaboration groups.

I I I

For more information on wikis, visit the following URLs outside of class: http://www.wiki.org/wiki.cgi?WhatIsWiki http://www.wikispaces.com/ A web log, called a blog, is similar to a wiki in that users create and post content for others to read. Blogs are normally the creation of a single person, and the blog owner controls blog content. Some blogs permit users to leave comments and provide feedback to the author, but others are more restrictive. Free Internet blog hosting is available, similar to a free website or e-mail account, from such providers as www.blogger.com.

Task 2: Explore Wiki Features with the TWiki Tutorial


The TWiki tutorial explores some of the more common features of a wiki. It covers the following major topics:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Get set... Take a quick tour. Open a private account. Check out TWiki users, groups. Test the page controls. Change a page and create a new one. Use your browser to upload files as page attachments. Get e-mail alerts whenever pages are changed.

As you investigate each topic in the tutorial, complete the questions in this task. Note that you wont be able to carry out the instructions in the 3. Open a private account topic. TWiki requires e-mail verification for new accounts, and e-mail has not been configured on the lab host computers. Instead, users have already been created for steps that require login privileges. The power of a wiki is in the rich hyperlink content. Following hyperlinks can present continuity problems. It is recommended that you open two browsers. Point one browser at the TWiki URL, and

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use the other browser for working pages. Adjust the browser window sizes so that instructions can be viewed in one browser and actions can be performed in the other. Any external links that are selected will result in an error.
Step 1:

Establish a web client connection to the Eagle Server wiki. Open a web browser and connect to the TWiki Sandbox at http://eagleserver.example.com/twiki/bin/view/Sandbox/WebHome. The URL name is case-sensitive, so enter it exactly as shown. The Sandbox, shown in Figure 1-14, is a web topic designed to test wiki features.

Figure 1-14

TWiki Sandbox Web

Step 2:

Open the TWiki Tutorial. Click the TWiki Tutorial link, highlighted in Figure 1-14, to open the wiki tutorial page.

Step 3:

Complete the TWiki tutorial. Refer to the tutorial, topic 1, Get set... and topic 2, Take a quick tour. After completing the first two tutorial sections, answer the following questions: What is a WikiWord? A WikiWord is a topic name, made up of two or more words with initial capital letters, that hyperlinks to the topic. How many results are returned from a search of WebSearch? 5 Refer to the tutorial, topic 3, Open a private account. E-mail is not possible at this time; therefore, you will not be able to register. Instead, user IDs have been created for you to use later in this lab. The key point to understand about this step is that registration is a two-part process. First, users fill in registration information and submit the form to TWiki. List the mandatory information required for registration: First Name Last Name E-mail address Your password Retype password Organization name Country

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TWiki responds to a registration request by sending an e-mail to the user that contains a unique activation code. The second part of the registration process is when the user either enters the code in the activation window or responds with e-mail by clicking the TWiki response link. At this time, the user account is added to the TWiki database. Refer to the tutorial, topic 4, Check out TWiki users, groups. A list of TWiki users and groups is displayed. After completing this tutorial section, answer the following questions related to user and group issues: How is a users password reset? The user selects WikiWord Reset Password and enters the login ID. The TWiki system generates a new password and sends it to the users e-mail account. The user logs in with the new password and creates a new, memorable password. How can inappropriate changes be fixed in a wiki topic? A topic revision can be undone by a member of the TWikiAdminGroup. Tutorial topic 5, Test the page controls, makes you familiar with page-editing commands. After completing this tutorial section, answer the following question: What is the latest revision number? 15 In Table 1-4, place the correct action link next to the descriptions of page controls. Place the following action links: Attach, Backlinks, Edit, History, More, Printable, r3 > r2 > r1, and Raw View.
Table 1-4 Description Action Links Action Link

Add to or edit the topic Show the source text without editing the topic Attach files to a topic Find out what other topics link to this topic (reverse link) Additional controls, such as rename/move, version control, and setting the topics parent Topics are under revision controlshows the topics complete change history, such as who changed what and when View a previous version of the topic or the difference between two versions Goes to a stripped-down version of the page; good for printing

Edit Raw View Attach Backlinks More History r3 > r2 > r1 Printable

Tutorial topic 6, Change a page and create a new one, is an opportunity for you to add content to the wiki. Complete this tutorial, using Table 1-5 to log in to the wiki server.
Note to Instructor: This tutorial is an opportunity for the student to create a personalized page. Recognize the student who has the best topic page!

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On Eagle Server, a group with private accounts has been created to allow participation in a private TWiki topic. These accounts are StudentCcna1 through StudentCcna22. All accounts have the same password, cisco. You should use the account that reflects your pod and host computer number. Refer to Table 1-5.
Table 1-5 Account Logins Account Login ID (Case-Sensitive)

Lab pod#host#

Pod1host1 Pod1host2 Pod2host1 Pod2host2 Pod3host1 Pod3host2 Pod4host1 Pod4host2 Pod5host1 Pod5host2 Pod6host1 Pod6host2 Pod7host1 Pod7host2 Pod8host1 Pod8host2 Pod9host1 Pod9host2 Pod10host1 Pod10host2 Pod11host1 Pod11host2

StudentCcna1 StudentCcna2 StudentCcna3 StudentCcna4 StudentCcna5 StudentCcna6 StudentCcna7 StudentCcna8 StudentCcna9 StudentCcna10 StudentCcna11 StudentCcna12 StudentCcna13 StudentCcna14 StudentCcna15 StudentCcna16 StudentCcna17 StudentCcna18 StudentCcna19 StudentCcna20 StudentCcna21 StudentCcna22

From the lab Wiki Welcome Screen, click the Log In link, located in the upper-left corner of the page. See Figure 1-15.

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Figure 1-15

Log In Link

A login box similar to the one shown in Figure 1-16 should appear. Enter the applicable TWiki username and password cisco. Both the username and password are case-sensitive.
Figure 1-16 Login Box

This should bring up your wiki topic page, similar to the one shown in Figure 1-17.
Figure 1-17 Wiki Topic Page

Tutorial topic 7, Use your browser to upload files as page attachments, describes the process of uploading files into the wiki. To complete this tutorial, create a document using Notepad, and upload it to the wiki server. What is the default maximum file size that can be transferred? 10 MB Tutorial topic 8, Get e-mail alerts whenever pages are changed, details how to receive e-mail alerts whenever a particular page has been updated. Sometimes it is not convenient to return regularly to a

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wiki simply to check for updates to postings. Because e-mail is not configured on the host computer, alerts are not sent. Describe how you could receive e-mail notifications whenever a topic changes. Answers will vary. Edit the WebNotify page, and add the web name and your e-mail address. Heres a possible format:
three spaces * [ webname . ] wikiName - SMTP mail address three spaces * [ webName . ] wikiName three spaces * SMTP mail address three spaces * SMTP mail address : topics three spaces * [ webname . ] wikiName : topics ccna1@example.com: CiscoStudentsStuff

Task 3: Reflection
This lab presented the mechanics of a wiki. Usefulness and collaboration will not be realized until you actually join a wiki. Here are some wikis of possible interest:
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CCNA: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/CCNA_Certification Cisco Systems corporate history: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cisco_Systems Wiki web about Cisco equipment and technology: http://www.nyetwork.org/wiki/Cisco Network+: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Network_Plus_Certification/Study_Guide Network Dictionary: http://wiki.networkdictionary.com/index.php/Main_Page Wireshark network protocol analyzer: http://wiki.wireshark.org/

Task 4: Challenge
Depending on the type of Eagle Server installation, the class may be able use the TWiki wiki server to post interesting topics related to computer network theory and class progress. Create a personal blog of your network education experience. Internet access is required.

Task 5: Clean Up
Close all web browsers and shut down the computer unless instructed otherwise.

Packet Tracer Challenge

Skills Integration Challenge: Introduction to Packet Tracer (1.7.1.3)


Figure 1-18 shows the topology for this challenge, and Table 1-6 reflects the addressing information.

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Figure 1-18

Topology for Skills Integration Challenge


1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server

2960-24TT S1-Central

1841 R2-Central

PC-PT 1A

PC-PT 1B

Table 1-6 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP R2-Central S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server

Fa0/0 S0/0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC

192.168.254.253 10.10.10.6 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.5 172.16.254.1 172.16.1.1 172.16.1.2 192.168.254.254

255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0

10.10.10.6 10.10.10.6 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.253

Upon completion of this activity, you will be able to


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Explore Packet Tracer Real-time mode. Explore the Logical Workplace. Explore Packet Tracer operation. Connect devices. Examine a device configuration. Review the standard lab setup. Describe the devices.

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Background Throughout the course you will use a standard lab setup created from actual PCs, servers, routers, and switches to learn networking concepts. This method provides the widest range of features and the most realistic experience. Because equipment and time are limited, this experience can be supplemented by a simulated environment. The simulator that is used in this course is Packet Tracer. Packet Tracer provides a set of protocols, equipment, and features but only a fraction of what is possible with real equipment. Packet Tracer is a supplement and not a replacement for experience with real equipment. You are encouraged to compare the results obtained from Packet Tracer network models with the behavior of real equipment. You are also encouraged to examine the Help files built into Packet Tracer, which include an extensive My First PT Lab, tutorials, and information on the strengths and limitations of using Packet Tracer to model networks. This activity gives you an opportunity to explore the standard lab setup using the Packet Tracer simulator. Packet Tracer can create two file formats: .pkt files (network simulation model files) and .pka files (activity files for practice). When you create your own networks in Packet Tracer, or modify existing files from your instructor or your peers, you will often use the .pkt file format. When you launched this activity from the curriculum, these instructions appeared. They are the result of the .pka Packet Tracer activity file format. At the bottom of these instructions are two buttons:
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Check Results gives you feedback on how much of the activity you have completed. Reset Activity restarts the activity if you want to clear your work or get more practice.

Task 1: Explore the PT Interface


Step 1: Examine the Logical Workplace.

Open the file LSG01-PTSkills1.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. When Packet Tracer starts, it presents a logical view of the network in realtime mode. The main part of the PT interface is the Logical Workplace. This is the large area where devices are placed and connected.
Step 2:

Explore symbols navigation. The lower-left portion of the PT interface, below the yellow bar, is the portion of the interface that you use to select and place devices into the Logical Workplace. The first box in the lower left contains symbols that represent groups of devices. As you move the mouse pointer over these symbols, the name of the group appears in the text box in the center. When you click one of these symbols, the specific devices in the group appear in the box to the right. As you point to the specific devices, a description of the device appears in the text box below the specific devices. Click each group, and study the various devices that are available and their symbols.

Task 2: Explore PT Operations


Step 1:

Connect the devices using auto connect. Click the connections group symbol. The specific connection symbols provide different cable types that can be used to connect devices. The first specific type, the gold lightning bolt, automatically selects the connection type based on the interfaces available on the devices. When you click this symbol, the pointer resembles a cable connector.

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To connect two devices, click the auto connection symbol, click the first device, and then click the second device. Using the auto connection symbol, make the following connection:
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Connect Eagle Server to the R1-ISP router. Connect PC-PT 1A to the S1-Central switch.

Step 2:

Examine device configuration with a mouseover. Move the mouse over the devices found in the Logical Workplace. As you move the mouse pointer over these symbols, the device configurations appear in a text box:
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Router displays port configuration information, including IP address, port status, and MAC address. Server displays IP address, MAC address, and gateway information. Switch displays port configuration information, including IP address, MAC address, port status, and VLAN membership. PC displays IP address, MAC address, and gateway information.

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Step 3:

Examine device configuration.

Click each device type found in the Logical Workplace to view the device configuration:
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Router and Switch devices contain three tabsPhysical, Config, and CLI (command-line interface). The Physical tab displays physical components of the device, such as modules. New modules can also be added using this tab. The Config tab displays the general configuration information, such as device name. The CLI tab allows the user to configure the device using the command-line interface.

Server and Hub devices contain two tabsPhysical and Config. The Physical tab displays components of the device, such as ports. New modules can also be added using this tab. The Config tab displays the general information, such as device name.

PC devices contain three tabsPhysical, Config, and Desktop. The Physical tab displays components of the device. New modules can also be added using this tab. The Config tab displays the device name, IP address, subnet mask, DNS, and gateway information. The Desktop tab allows the user to configure IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, DNS server, dialup, and wireless. A terminal emulator, the command prompt, and a simulated web browser can also be accessed using the Desktop tab.

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Task 3: Review the Standard Lab Setup


The standard lab setup consists of two routers, one switch, one server, and two PCs. Each of these devices is preconfigured with such information as device names, IP addresses, gateways, and connections.

Task 4: Reflection
You have completed your first Packet Tracer lab. You are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor or Academy Connections, if you have not done so already.

CHAPTER 2

Communicating over the Network

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice, matching, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of how devices communicate over the network. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills needed to use some critical tools to help evaluate network communications. As you work through this chapter, use Chapter 2 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 2 in the Networking Fundamentals, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide, for assistance.

Study Guide
The Platform for Communications
Communication begins with a message, or information, that must be sent from one individual or device to another. People exchange ideas using many different communication methods. All of these methods have three elements in common.

Concept Questions
1.
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What are the three elements of communication? Message source or sender Destination or receiver Channel or media What is the process of breaking large messages, or flow of data, into smaller, easier-to-manage pieces called? Segmentation

2.

3.

What is the process used to allow many different conversations to be interleaved on a network called? Multiplexing

4.

Modern networks primarily use three types of media to interconnect devices. What are these three types? Metallic wires within cables Glass or plastic fibers (fiber-optic cable) Wireless transmission

I I I

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Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


In Table 2-1, match the definition on the right with a term on the left.
Table 2-1 Term Components of the Network Definition

a. Devices b. Media c. Services

b. Cat5 cable, wireless connection, fiber-optic cable a. Computer, switch, router c. E-mail, web browser

In Table 2-2, identify the definition on the left with either end devices or intermediary devices on the right.
Table 2-2 Definition End or Intermediary Device Device Type

Computers (work stations, laptops, file servers, web servers) Mobile handheld devices (such as wireless barcode scanners, PDAs) Network access devices (hubs, switches, and wireless access points) Network printers Internetworking devices (routers) VoIP phones Communication servers and modems Security cameras Security devices (firewalls)

End devices End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device End devices Intermediary device

LANs, WANs, and Internetworks


Network infrastructures can vary greatly in terms of the following:
I I I

The size of the area covered The number of users connected The number and types of services available

This section tests your knowledge of the differences between LANs, WANs, and internetworks.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks for the following statements.
1.

The term intranet is often used to refer to a private connection of LANs and WANs that belongs to an organization, and is designed to be accessible only by the organizations members, employees, or others with authorization.

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2. 3. 4.

A LAN is usually administered by a single organization. WANs use specifically designed network devices to make the interconnections between LANs. The media connecting the PC to the networking device plugs directly into the NIC.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


In Table 2-3, match the definition on the right with a term on the left.
Table 2-3 Term LANs, WANs, and Internetworks Definition

a. LANs

b. When a company or organization has locations that are separated by large geographic distances, it might be necessary to use a telecommunications service provider (TSP) to interconnect the LANs at the different locations. a. An individual network usually spans a single geographic area, providing services and applications to people within a common organizational structure, such as a single business, campus, or region. c. A global mesh of interconnected networks.

b. WANs

c. Internetworks

In Table 2-4, match the term on the left with the correct symbol number from Figure 2-1.
Table 2-4 Device LANs, WANs, and Internetworks Number

Router Firewall Wireless access point LAN hub LAN switch IP phone Wireless router Wireless media Server Laptop LAN media Desktop computer WAN media

1 7 9 3 2 8 10 13 4 6 12 5 11

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Figure 2-1

Common Data Network Symbols


1 7

IP

10

11 5 12 6 13

Protocols
All communication, whether face to face or over a network, is governed by predetermined rules called protocols. These protocols are specific to the characteristics of the conversation.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks for the following statements.
1.

Successful communication between hosts on a network requires the interaction of many different protocols. A group of interrelated protocols that are necessary to perform a communication function is called a protocol suite. All communication, whether face to face or over a network, is governed by predetermined rules called protocols. A standard is a process or protocol that has been endorsed by the networking industry and ratified by a standards organization. The most common internetwork protocol is Internet Protocol (IP).

2. 3. 4.

Concept Questions
1.
I

What processes do networking protocol suites describe? The process by which networking devices share information about pathways with other networks How and when error and system messages are passed between devices The setup and termination of data transfer sessions

I I

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2.
I

What are some benefits to using a layered model to describe network protocols and operations? Assists in protocol design, because protocols that operate at a specific layer have defined information that they act upon and a defined interface to the layers above and below Fosters competition because products from different vendors can work together Prevents technology or capability changes in one layer from affecting other layers above and below Provides a common language to describe networking functions and capabilities

I I

Using Layered Models


To visualize the interaction between various protocols, it is common to use a layered model. A layered model depicts the operation of the protocols occurring within each layer, and the interaction with the layers above and below it.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


In Table 2-5, match the definition on the right with a term on the left.
Table 2-5 Term TCP/IP Model Definition

a. Application layer b. Transport layer c. Internet layer d. Network access layer

b. Uses packet sequencing and application mapping through port numbers a. Represents data to the user plus encoding and dialog control d. Controls the hardware devices and media that make up the network c. Determines the best path through the network

In Table 2-6, match the definition on the right with a term on the left.
Table 2-6 Term OSI Model Definition

a. Application layer b. Presentation layer c. Session layer

f. Protocols describe methods for exchanging data frames between devices over a common media. a. Provides the means for end-to-end connectivity between individuals in the human network using data networks. g. Describes the mechanical, electrical, functional, and procedural means to activate, maintain, and deactivate physical connections for bit transmission to and from a network device. c. Provides services to the presentation layer to organize its dialogue and to manage data exchange. Ensures that loss of connection can be recovered and reset if data flow is interrupted before all data is received. b. Provides for common representation of the data transferred between application layer services.
continues

d. Transport layer

e. Network layer

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Table 2-6 Term

OSI Model

continued Definition

f. Data link layer g. Physical layer

e. Provides connectivity services that route packets from source network to destination network. d. Defines services to segment, transfer, and reassemble the data for individual communications between the end devices.

Network Addressing
Various types of addresses must be included in a packet to successfully deliver the data from a source application running on one host to the correct destination application running on another. Using the OSI model as a guide, you can see the different addresses and identifiers that are necessary at each layer.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks for the following statements.
1.

The first identifier, the host physical address, is contained in the header of the Layer 2 protocol data unit (PDU), called a frame. Layer 2 is concerned with the delivery of messages on a single local network. The Layer 2 address is unique on the local network and represents the address of the end device on the physical media. In a LAN using Ethernet, this address is called the Media Access Control (MAC) address. A unique dialogue between devices is identified with a pair of Layer 4 source and destination port numbers that are representative of the two communicating applications.

2.

Multiple-Choice Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the questions that follow.
1.

What kind of protocols are primarily designed to move data from one local network to another local network within an internetwork?

a. Layer 1 b. Layer 2 c. Layer 3 d. Layer 4 2.

Which devices make Layer 3 decisions?

a. Routers b. Switches c. Hubs d. Servers

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Labs and Activities


Activity 2-1: Using NeoTrace to View Internetworks (2.2.5.1)
Upon completion of this activity, you will be able to do the following:
I I I

Explain the use of route tracing programs, such as tracert and NeoTrace. Use tracert and NeoTrace to trace a route from its PC to a distant server. Describe the interconnected and global nature of the Internet with respect to data flow.

Background Route-tracing software is a utility that lists the networks data has to traverse from the users originating device to a distant destination network device. This network tool is typically executed in UNIX and similar systems at the command line as follows:
traceroute <destination network name or end device address>

This network tool is typically executed in Microsoft Windows systems at the command line as follows:
tracert <destination network name or end device address>

This tool determines the route taken by packets across an IP network. The traceroute (or tracert) tool is often used for network troubleshooting. By showing a list of routers traversed, it enables the user to identify the path taken to reach a particular destination on the network or across internetworks. Each router represents a point where one network connects to another network and the packet was forwarded through. The number of routers is known as the number of hops the data traveled from source to destination. The displayed list can help identify data-flow problems when trying to access a service such as a website. It can also be useful when performing tasks such as downloading data. If multiple websites (mirrors) are available for the same file of data, one can trace each mirror to get a good idea of which mirror would be the fastest to use. Note, however, that because of the meshed nature of the interconnected networks that make up the Internet and IPs capability to select different pathways over which to send packets, two trace routes between the same source and destination conducted some time apart might produce different results. Tools such as traceroute/tracert are usually embedded within the operating system of the end device. Others such as NeoTrace are proprietary programs that provide extra information. NeoTrace uses available online information to graphically display the route traced on a global map, for example. Scenario Using an Internet connection, you use two route-tracing programs to examine the Internet pathway to destination networks. You should perform this activity on a computer that has Internet access and access to a command line. First, you use the Windows embedded tracert utility, and then the more enhanced NeoTrace program. This lab assumes the installation of NeoTrace. Remember, some computers running Windows XP might have firewall programs enabled that might prevent tracert and NeoTrace from operating; you might have to turn your firewalls off for this lab.

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Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Task 1: Trace Route to Remote Server


Step 1.

Trace the route to a distant network. To trace the route to a distant network, the PC being used must have a working connection to the class/lab network.

Step 2.

At the command-line prompt, enter tracert www.cisco.com. The first output line should show the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) followed by the IP address. The lab Domain Name Service (DNS) server was able to resolve the name to an IP address. Without this name resolution, the tracert would have failed, because this tool operates at the TCP/IP layers, which understand valid IP addresses only. If DNS is not available, the IP address of the destination device rather than the server name has to be entered after the tracert command.

Step 3.

Examine the output displayed. How many hops between the source and destination? Answer varies based on location Example 2-1 shows the successful result when running tracert www.cisco.com from a location in Bavaria, Germany.

Example 2-1

tracert Output

C:\> tracert www.cisco.com Tracing route to www.cisco.com [198.133.219.25] Over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 <10 ms <10 ms 20 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 30 ms 30 ms 30 ms 100 ms 110 ms 171 ms 161 ms 160 ms 170 ms 170 ms 160 ms 160 ms 10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 30 ms 30 ms 30 ms 100 ms <10 ms <10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 20 ms 20 ms 31 ms 90 ms 10-37-00-1.internal.alp.dillingen.de [10.317.0.11] 194.95.207.11 ar-augsburg2.g-win.dfn.de [188.1.37.145] ar-augsburg1.g-win.dfn.de [188.1.74.193] cr-muenchen1.g-win.dfn.de [188.1.74.33] cr-frankfurt1.g-win.dfn.de [188.1.18.81] so-6-0-0.ar2.FRA2.gblx.net [208.48.23.141] pos3-0-622M.cr1.FRA2.gblx.net [62.16.32.73] so0-0-0-2488M.cr2.LON3.gblx.net [195.8.96.174] pos1-0-622M.br1.LON3.gblx.net [195.8.96.189] sl-bb21-lon-5-0.sprintlink.net [213.206.131.25] sl-bb20-msq-10-0.sprintlink.net [144.232.19.69] sl-bb20-rly-15-1.sprintlink.net [144.232.19.694] sl-bb22-sj-5-1.sprintlink.net [144.232.9.125] sl-bb25-sj-12-0.sprintlink.net [144.232.3.210] sl-gw11-sj-10-0.sprintlink.net [144.232.3.134] sl-ciscopsn2-11-0-0.sprintllink.net [144.228.44.14] sjck-dirty-gw1.cisco.com [128.107.239.5] sjck-sdf-ciod-gw1.cisco.com [128.107.239.106] www.cisco.com [198.133.219.25]

110 ms 110 ms 160 ms 170 ms 160 ms 170 ms 181 ms 160 ms 151 ms 160 ms 151 ms 160 ms 160 ms 161 ms 150 ms 161 ms

Trace complete.

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The first output line shows the FQDN, followed by the IP address. Therefore, a DNS server was able to resolve the name to an IP address. Then, there are listings of all routers through which the tracert requests had to pass to get to the destination.
Step 4.

Try the same trace route on a PC connected to the Internet and examine your output: Number of hops to www.cisco.com: Answer varies based on location

Step 5.

Try another trace route on the same PC, and examine your output. Destination URL: Answer varies based on URL Destination IP address: Answer varies based on URL

Task 2: Trace Route Using NeoTrace


Step 1. Step 2. Step 3.

Launch the NeoTrace program. On the View menu, choose Options. Click the Map tab, and in the Home Location section click the Set Home Location button. Follow the instructions to select your country and location within your country. Alternatively, you can click the Advanced button, which enables you to enter the precise latitude and longitude of your location.

Step 4. Step 5.

Enter www.cisco.com in the Target field and click Go. From the View menu, List View displays the list of routers similar to tracert. Node View from the View menu displays the connections graphically with symbols. Map View from the View menu displays the links and routers in their geographic location on a global map.

Step 6. Step 7.

Select each view in turn and note the differences and similarities. Try a number of different URLs and view the routes to those destinations.

Task 3: Reflection
Review the purpose and usefulness of route-tracing programs. Relate the displays of the output of NeoTrace to the concept of interconnected networks and the global nature of the Internet.

Task 4: Challenge
Consider and discuss possible network security issues that could arise from the use of programs such as traceroute and NeoTrace. Consider which technical details are revealed and how this information could perhaps be misused.

Task 5: Clean Up
Exit the NeoTrace program. Unless instructed otherwise by your instructor, properly shut down the computer.

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Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Lab 2-1: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.6.1.1)


Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
I I I

Correctly identify cables for use in the network. Physically cable a peer-to-peer and switched network. Verify basic connectivity on each network.

Background Many network problems can be fixed at the physical layer of a network. Therefore, you need to understand clearly which cables to use for your network connections. At the physical layer (Layer 1) of the OSI model, end devices must be connected by media (cables). The type of media required depends on the type of device being connected. In the basic portion of this lab, you use straight-through or patch cables to connect workstations and switches. In addition, two or more devices communicate through an address. The network layer (Layer 3) requires a unique address (also known as a logical address or IP address), which allows the data to reach the appropriate destination device. Addressing for this lab is applied to the workstations and is used to enable communication between the devices. Scenario This lab starts with the simplest form of networking (peer to peer) and ends with the lab connecting through a switch, as shown in Figure 2-2.
Figure 2-2 Topology for Lab 2-1
Peer-to-Peer Network

Switched Network

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Task 1: Create a Peer-to-Peer Network


Step 1. Step 2.

Select a lab partner. Obtain the following equipment and resources for the lab:
I I I I

Two workstations Two straight-through (patch) cables One crossover cable One switch (or hub)

Task 2: Identify the Cables Used in a Network


Before the devices can be cabled, you must identify the types of media you intend to use. The cables used in this lab are crossover and straight-through. Use a crossover cable to connect two workstations to each other through their network interface card (NIC) Ethernet port. This is an Ethernet cable. Notice when you look at the plug that the orange and green wires are in opposite positions on each end of the cable. Use a straight-through cable to connect the routers Ethernet port to a switch port or a workstation to a switch port. This is also an Ethernet cable. Notice when you look at the plug that both ends of the cable are exactly the same in each pin position.

Task 3: Cable the Peer-to-Peer Network


Step 1.

Connect two workstations. Using the correct Ethernet cable, connect two workstations together, as shown in Figure 2-3. Connect one end of the cable to the NIC port on PC1 and the other end of the cable to PC2.

Figure 2-3

Peer-to-Peer Cabling

Which cable did you use? Crossover cable


Step 2.

Apply a Layer 3 address to the workstations. To complete this task, use the following step-by-step instructions.

Note: These steps must be completed on each workstation. The instructions are for Windows XP. Steps may differ slightly if you are using a different operating system. a.

On your computer, click Start, right-click My Network Places, and then click Properties. The Network Connections window should appear, with icons showing the different network connections. See Figure 2-4.

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Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Figure 2-4

Network Connections

b. Right-click the Local Area Connection and click Properties. c. Select the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) item as shown in Figure 2-5, and then click the

Properties button.
Figure 2-5 Local Area Connection Properties

d. On the General tab of the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window, select the

Use the following IP address option.


e. In the IP address box, enter the IP address 192.168.1.2 for PC1. Enter the IP address

192.168.1.3 for PC2.

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f. Press the Tab key; the subnet mask lists automatically. The subnet address should be

255.255.255.0, as shown in Figure 2-6. If this address is not automatically listed, enter the address manually.
Figure 2-6 Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties

g. Click OK. h. Close the Local Area Connection Properties window. Step 3.

Verify connectivity. On your computer, click Start, and then click Run. The dialog box shown in Figure 2-7 appears.

Figure 2-7

Run Command

Enter cmd in the Open box, and then click OK. The DOS command (cmd.exe) window will appear as shown in Figure 2-8. You can enter DOS commands using this window. For the purposes of this lab, you enter basic network commands to test your computer connections.

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Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Figure 2-8

cmd Command

The ping command is a computer network tool used to test whether a host (workstation, router, server, and so on) is reachable across an IP network.
Step 4.

Use the ping command to verify that PC1 can reach PC2 and PC2 can reach PC1. From the PC1 DOS command prompt, enter ping 192.168.1.3. From the PC2 DOS command prompt, enter ping 192.168.1.2. What is the output of the ping command? Answer for PC1: Reply from 192.168.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Answer for PC2: Reply from 192.168.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

If the ping command displays an error message or doesnt receive a reply from the other workstation, troubleshoot as necessary. Possible areas to troubleshoot include the following:
I

Verifying the correct IP addresses on both workstations

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Ensuring that the correct type of cable is used between the workstations What is the output of the ping command if you unplug the network cable and ping the other workstation? Answer for PC1: Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable Destination host unreachable

Task 4: Connect Your Workstations to the Classroom Lab Switch


Step 1.

Connect the workstation to a switch. Using the correct cable, connect one end of the cable to the NIC port on the workstation and the other end to a port on the switch, as shown in Figure 2-9.

Figure 2-9

Switched Network
1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server

2960-24TT S1-Central

1841 R2-Central

PC-PT 1A

PC-PT 1B

Step 2.

Repeat this process for each workstation on your network. Which cable did you use? Straight-through cable

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Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Step 3.

Verify connectivity. Verify network connectivity by using the ping command to reach the other workstations attached to the switch. What is the output of the ping command? Answer for PC1: Reply from 192.168.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 192.168.1.3: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 What is the output of the ping command if you ping an address that is not connected to this network? Answer for PC1: Request timed out Request timed out Request timed out Request timed out

Step 4.

Share a document between PCs. On your desktop, create a new folder and name it test. Right-click the folder and click Sharing and Security. A hand symbol will appear under the icon. Place a file in the folder. On the desktop, double-click My Network Places and then Computers Near Me. Double-click the workstation icon. The test folder should appear. You can access this folder across the network. When you can see it and work with the file, you have access through all seven layers of the OSI model.

Task 5: Reflection
What could prevent a ping from being sent between the workstations when they are directly connected? Wrong IP address on workstation, pinging wrong IP address, and media disconnected What could prevent the ping from being sent to the workstations when they are connected through the switch? Wrong IP address, media disconnected, or a misconfiguration of the switch, switch powered off

Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: Topology Orientation and Building a Small Network (2.6.1.2)
You can now open the file LSG01-Lab2612.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.

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Lab 2-2: Using Wireshark to View Protocol Data Units (2.6.2.1)


Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
I I I I

Explain the purpose of a protocol analyzer (Wireshark). Perform basic PDU capture using Wireshark. Perform basic PDU analysis on straightforward network data traffic. Experiment with Wireshark features and options such as PDU capture and display filtering.

Background Wireshark is a software protocol analyzer, or packet sniffer application, used for network troubleshooting, analysis, software and protocol development, and education. Before June 2006, Wireshark was known as Ethereal. A packet sniffer (also known as a network analyzer or protocol analyzer) is computer software that can intercept and log data traffic passing over a data network. As data streams travel back and forth over the network, the sniffer captures each protocol data unit (PDU) and can decode and analyze its content according to the appropriate RFC or other specifications. Wireshark is programmed to recognize the structure of different network protocols. This enables it to display the encapsulation and individual fields of a PDU and interpret their meaning. It is a useful tool for anyone working with networks and can be used with most labs in the CCNA courses for data analysis and troubleshooting. For information and to download the program, go to http://www.Wireshark.org. Scenario To capture PDUs, the computer on which Wireshark is installed must have a working connection to the network, and Wireshark must be running before any data can be captured. When Wireshark is launched, the screen shown in Figure 2-10 displays.
Figure 2-10 Wireshark Opening Screen

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Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

To start data capture, select Options from the Capture menu. The Capture Options dialog box, shown in Figure 2-11, provides a range of settings and filters to determine which and how much data traffic is captured.
Figure 2-11 Wireshark: Capture Options Dialog Box

First, you must ensure that Wireshark is set to monitor the correct interface. From the Interface dropdown list, select the network adapter in use. Typically, for a computer this is the connected Ethernet adapter. Then, you can set the other options. Among those available in the Capture Options dialog box, the two highlighted in Figure 2-12 deserve examination.
Figure 2-12 Wireshark Capture Options

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If the Capture packets in promiscuous mode feature is not checked, only PDUs destined for this computer will be captured. If this feature is checked, all PDUs destined for this computer and all those detected by the computer NIC on the same network segment (that is, those that pass by the NIC but are not destined for the computer) are captured.
Note: The capturing of these other PDUs depends on the intermediary device connecting the end-device computers on this network. As you use different intermediary devices (hubs, switches, routers) throughout these courses, you will experience the different Wireshark results.

The Enable transport name resolution option allows you to control whether Wireshark translates network addresses found in PDUs into names. Although this is a useful feature, the name-resolution process might add extra PDUs to your captured data, perhaps distorting the analysis. Wireshark also provides a number of other capture-filtering and capture-process settings. Clicking the Start button starts the data-capture process, and a message box displays the progress of this process (as shown in Figure 2-13).
Figure 2-13 Wireshark Capture Start

As data PDUs are captured, the types and number are indicated in the message box. The examples in Figure 2-14 show the capture of a ping process (box on left) and then accessing a web page (box on right).

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Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Figure 2-14

Wireshark Capture Output

When the Stop button is clicked, the capture process is terminated and the main screen displays. This main display window of Wireshark has three panes, as shown in Figure 2-15.
Figure 2-15 Wireshark Capture Main Panes

The PDU (or packet) list pane at the top of Figure 2-15 displays a summary of each packet captured. By clicking packets in this pane, you control what displays in the other two panes. Each line in the packet list corresponds to one PDU or packet of the captured data. If you select a line in this pane, more details will display in the packet details pane and in the packet bytes pane. The example in Figure 2-15 shows the PDUs captured when the ping utility was used and http://www.Wireshark.org was accessed. Packet number one is selected in this pane. The PDU (or packet) details pane in the middle of Figure 2-15 displays the packet selected in the packet list pane in more detail. The packet details pane shows the current packet (selected in the pack-

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et list pane) in a more detailed form. This pane shows the protocols and protocol fields of the selected packet. The protocols and fields of the packet display in a tree form, which you can expand and collapse. The PDU (or packet) bytes pane at the bottom of Figure 2-15 displays the actual data (in hexadecimal form representing the actual binary) from the packet selected in the packet list pane, and highlights the field selected in the packet details pane. The packet bytes pane shows the data of the current packet (selected in the packet list pane) in what is known as hexdump style. In this lab, this pane is not examined in detail. However, when a more in-depth analysis is required, you will find this displayed information useful for examining the binary values and content of PDUs. You can save the information captured for the data PDUs in a file, and then open this file in Wireshark for later analysis without having to recapture the same data traffic. The information displayed when a capture file is opened is the same as the original capture. When closing a data-capture screen or exiting Wireshark, a prompt asks whether you want to save the captured PDUs, as shown in Figure 2-16.
Figure 2-16 Wireshark Save Option

Clicking Continue without Saving closes the file and exits Wireshark without saving the captured data.

Task 1: Ping PDU Capture


Step 1.

After ensuring that the standard lab topology and configuration is correct, launch Wireshark on a computer in a lab pod. Set the capture options as described in the preceding section, and then start the capture process. From the command line, ping the IP address of another network-connected and poweredon end device in the lab topology. In this case, ping the Eagle Server using the command ping 192.168.254.254. After receiving the successful replies to the ping in the command-line window, stop the packet capture.

Step 2.

Examine the packet list pane. The packet list pane on Wireshark should now look something like Figure 2-17.

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Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Figure 2-17

Wireshark Packet List Pane

Look at the packets listed in Figure 2-17, particularly packet numbers 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, and 15. Locate the equivalent packets on the packet list on your computer. If you performed Step 1, match the messages displayed in the command-line window when the ping was issued with the six packets captured by Wireshark. From the Wireshark packet list, answer the following: What protocol is used by ping? ICMP What is the full protocol name? Internet Control Message Protocol What are the names of the two ping messages? Echo Request Echo Reply Are the listed source and destination IP addresses what you expected? Why? Answers may vary. Yes, the source address is my computer, and the destination is the Eagle Server.
Step 3.

Select (highlight) the first echo request packet on the list. The packet details pane will now display something similar to Figure 2-18.

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Figure 2-18

Wireshark Packet Details Pane

Click each of the four plus sign (+) buttons to expand the information. The packet details pane will now display something similar to Figure 2-19.
Figure 2-19 Wireshark Packet Details Pane, Expanded

As you can see, you can further expand the details for each section and protocol. Spend some time scrolling through this information. Although at this stage of the course you might not fully understand the displayed information, make a note of the information you do recognize. Locate the two different types of source and destination. Why are there two types? The Ethernet II shows the MAC addresses, and the Internet Protocol shows the IP addresses. What protocols are in the Ethernet frame? eth:ip:icmp:data As you select a line in the packet details pane, all or part of the information in the packet bytes pane also becomes highlighted. For example, if you select (highlight) the second line (+ Ethernet II) in the details pane, the bytes pane highlights the corresponding values, as shown in Figure 2-20.

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Figure 2-20 Wireshark Packet Expanded, Highlighted Pane

This line shows the particular binary values that represent that information in the PDU. At this stage of the course, it is not necessary to understand this information in detail.
Step 4.

Go to the File menu and select Close. Click Continue without Saving when the message box shown in Figure 2-16 appears.

Task 2: FTP PDU Capture


Step 1.

Start packet capture. Assuming Wireshark is still running from the previous steps, start packet capture by clicking the Start option on the Capture menu of Wireshark. At the command line on your computer running Wireshark, enter ftp 192.168.254.254. When the connection is established, enter anonymous as the user without a password, as follows:
Userid: anonymous Password: <ENTER>

You may alternatively log in with userid cisco and password cisco. When successfully logged in, enter get /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim-1.5.0.exe and press the Enter key <ENTER> to start downloading the file from the FTP server. The output will look similar to Example 2-2.
Example 2-2 Eagle Server Output

C:\Documents and Settings\ccna1>ftp eagle-server.example.com Connected to eagle-server.example.com. 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. User (eagle-server.example.com:(none)): anonymous 331 Please specify the password. Password:<ENTER> 230 Login successful. ftp> get /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim-1.5.0.exe 200 PORT command successful. Consider using PASV. 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter1/gaim1.5.0.exe (6967072 bytes). 226 File send OK. ftp: 6967072 bytes received in 0.59Seconds 11729.08Kbytes/sec. When the file download is complete, enter quit, as follows: ftp> quit 221 Goodbye. C:\Documents and Settings\ccna1>

When the file has successfully downloaded, stop the PDU capture in Wireshark.

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Step 2.

Increase the size of the Wireshark packet list pane and scroll through the PDUs listed. Locate and note those PDUs associated with the file download. These will be the PDUs from the Layer 4 protocol, TCP, and the Layer 7 protocol, FTP. Identify the three groups of PDUs associated with the file transfer. If you performed Step 2, match the packets with the messages and prompts in the FTP command-line window. The first group is associated with the connection phase and logging in to the server. List examples of messages exchanged in this phase. Answers will vary. 1292 > ftp [SYN], FTP > 1292 [SYN, ACK], Response: 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service, 1292 > ftp [ACK], Request: User anonymous, Response: 331 Please specify the password, Request: Pass. Locate and list examples of messages exchanged in the second phase (that is, the actual download request and the data transfer). Answers will vary. FTP Data: 1448 bytes, 1294 > ftp-data [ACK.] The third group of PDUs relate to logging out and breaking the connection. List examples of messages exchanged during this process. Answers will vary. Request:QUIT, Response: 221 Goodbye, 1292 > ftp [FIN, ACK], ftp >1292 [FIN, ACK.] Locate recurring TCP exchanges throughout the FTP process. What feature of TCP does this indicate? Send and receipt of data

Step 3.

Examine packet details. Select (highlight) a packet on the list associated with the first phase of the FTP process. View the packet details in the details pane. What protocols are encapsulated in the frame? Eth:ip:tcp:ftp-data Highlight the packets containing the username and password. Examine the highlighted portion in the packet bytes pane. What does this indicate about the security of this FTP login process? Security isnt high because the name and password are visible. Highlight a packet associated with the second phase. From any pane, locate the packet containing the filename. The filename is gaim-1.5.0.exe. Highlight a packet containing the actual file content; note the plain text visible in the bytes pane. In the details and bytes panes, highlight and examine some packets exchanged in the third phase of the file download.

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Which features distinguish the content of these packets? A [FIN, ACK] is issued to close the connection. When finished, close the Wireshark file and continue without saving.

Task 3: HTTP PDU Capture


Step 1.

Start packet capture. Assuming Wireshark is still running from the previous steps, start packet capture by clicking the Start option on the Capture menu of Wireshark.

Note: Capture options do not have to be set if you are continuing from previous steps of this lab.

Launch a web browser on the computer that is running Wireshark. Enter the URL of the Eagle Server as example.com or enter the IP address 192.168.254.254. After the web page has fully downloaded, stop the Wireshark packet capture.
Step 2.

Increase the size of the Wireshark packet list pane and scroll through the PDUs listed. Locate and identify the TCP and HTTP packets associated with the downloaded web page. Note the similarity between this message exchange and the FTP exchange.

Step 3.

In the packet list pane, highlight an HTTP packet that has the notation (text/html) in the Info column. In the packet details pane, click the + box next to Line-based text data: html. When this information expands, what is displayed? HTML code for the web page Examine the highlighted portion of the bytes pane. This shows the HTML data carried by the packet. When you have finished, close the Wireshark file and continue without saving.

Task 4: Reflection
Consider the encapsulation information pertaining to captured network data Wireshark can provide. Relate this to the OSI and TCP/IP layer models. It is important that you can recognize and link both the protocols represented and the protocol layer and encapsulation types of the models with the information provided by Wireshark.

Task 5: Challenge
Discuss how you could use a protocol analyzer such as Wireshark to troubleshoot the failure of a web page to download successfully to a browser on a computer. Also, identify data traffic on a network that is requested by users. Answers may vary. Wireshark could show when a request for a web page failed because of an incorrect URL. User traffic could be monitored to identify errors in source or destination.

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Task 6: Cleanup
Unless instructed otherwise by your instructor, exit Wireshark and properly shut down the computer.

Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: Using Packet Tracer to View Protocol Data Units (2.6.2.2)
You can now open the file LSG01-Lab2622.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.

Skills Integration Challenge: Examining Packets (2.7.1.3)


In this activity, you start building, testing, and analyzing a model of the Exploration lab network. You can now open the file LSG01-PTSkills2.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to do the challenge lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Figure 2-21 shows the topology for this challenge, and Table 2-7 reflects the addressing information.
Figure 2-21 Topology for Challenge
1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server

2960-24TT S1-Central

1841 R2-Central

PC-PT 1A

PC-PT 1B

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Table 2-7 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

192.168.254.253 10.10.10.6 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.5 172.16.254.1 172.16.1.1 172.16.1.2 192.168.254.254

255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0

N/A N/A 10.10.10.6 10.10.10.6 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.253

R2-Central

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server

VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC

Upon completion of this activity, you will be able to do the following:


I I I I

Complete the topology. Add simple PDUs in real-time mode. Analyze PDUs in simulation mode. Experiment with the model of the standard lab setup.

Background Throughout the course, you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs, servers, routers, and switches to learn networking concepts. In this activity, you continue learning how to build and analyze this standard lab topology. If you have not done so already, you are encouraged to examine the Help files available from the Help pull-down menu at the top of the Packet Tracer GUI. Resources include a My First PT Lab to help you learn the basic operation of Packet Tracer, tutorials to guide you through various tasks, and information about the strengths and weaknesses of using Packet Tracer to model networks. This activity provides an opportunity to explore the standard lab setup using the Packet Tracer simulator. Packet Tracer can create two file formats: PKT files (network simulation model files) and PKA files (activity files for practice). When you create your own networks in Packet Tracer, or modify existing files from your instructor or your peers, you will often use the PKT file format. When you launched this activity from the curriculum, these instructions appeared. They are the result of the PKA Packet Tracer activity file format. Two buttons appear at the bottom of these instructions: Check Results (which gives you feedback on how much of the activity you have completed) and Reset Activity (which starts the activity over, in case you want to clear your work or gain more practice).

Task 1: Complete the Topology


Add a PC to the workspace. Configure it using the following parameters: IP address 172.16.1.2, subnet mask 255.255.0.0, default gateway 172.16.255.254, DNS server 192.168.254.254, display name 1B. Connect PC 1B to the Fa0/2 port of the S1-Central Switch and check your work with the Check Results button to see that the topology is complete.

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Task 2: Add Simple PDUs in Real-Time Mode


Using the Add Simple PDU, send a test message: one between PC 1B and Eagle Server. Note that this packet will appear in the event list as something that was detected or sniffed on the network, and in the lower right as a user-created PDU that can be manipulated for testing purposes.

Task 3: Analyze PDUs in Simulation Mode (Packet Tracing)


Switch to simulation mode. Double-click the red Fire button in the User-Created PDU window. Use the Capture / Forward button to move the packet through the network. Click the packet envelope, or click the colored square in the Info column of the event list, to examine the packet at each step in its journey.

Task 4: Experiment with the Model of the Standard Lab Setup


The standard lab setup will consist of two routers, one switch, one server, and two PCs. Each of these devices is preconfigured. Try creating different combinations of test packets and analyzing their journey through the network.

Task 5: Reflection
If you have not already done so, you are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor and complete My First PT Lab (available by accessing the Help pull-down menu and choosing Contents).

CHAPTER 3

Application Layer Functionality and Protocols

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice, matching, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the TCP/IP model application layer and the OSI model application, presentation, and session layers. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills needed to work with the application layer of the OSI model. As you work through this chapter, use Chapter 3 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum, or use the corresponding Chapter 3 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide, for assistance.

Study Guide
Applications: The Interface Between the Networks
Visualizing the mechanisms that enable communication across the network is easier if you use the layered framework of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. In this section you explore the upper layers of both the OSI and TCP/IP models. How the human network generates data and how that data then enters the computer network is discussed. Application layer software and application layer services and protocols are examined in the labs. When placed side by side, as shown in Figure 3-1, the OSI and TCP/IP models provide a means by which you can visualize and discuss the flow of networking.
Figure 3-1 OSI and TCP/IP Models

OSI Model
7 Application 6 Presentation 5 4 3 2 1 Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Application Layers

TCP/IP Model
Domain Name System Application Hypertext Transfer Protocol Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Post Office Protocol Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

Transport Data Flow Layers Internet

Network Access

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Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


In Table 3-1, match the term on the left with its definition on the right.
Table 3-1 Term OSI and TCP/IP Model Comparison Definition

a. Application layer b. Layer 7 c. Presentation layer d. Session layer e. GIF, JPEG, TIFF f. DNS, HTTP, SMTP, FTP g. Telnet h. Request For Comments (RFC)

h. Generally defines the protocols in the TCP/IP suite a. Top layer of both the OSI and TCP/IP models d. Functions at this layer create and maintain dialogs between source and destination applications f. The most widely known TCP/IP application layer protocols that provide for the exchange of user information b. Top layer of the OSI model g. Protocol used to provide remote access to servers and network work devices c. This layer provides coding, compression, and encryption e. Graphic image formats

Concept Questions
1.

What does the term network-aware application mean? List a few examples. Network-aware applications are software programs used to communicate over the network. These software programs are considered network-aware if they implement the application layer protocols and can communicate directly with the lower layers of the protocol stack. Email clients and web browsers are a couple of examples.

2.

What is meant by the term application layer services? Why are protocols important when used in conjunction with application layer services? Software programs need the assistance of application layer services to use network resources, such as file transfer or network print spooling. Protocols define the standards and data formats used. Without protocols, the data network would not have a common way to format and direct data.

3.

It is difficult to generalize about protocols because they vary so greatly in purpose, but what properties do application protocols display? Answers will vary. Define the start and end of a message. Define the syntax of a message. Define the format of a message. Specify what to do with corrupted or improperly formatted messages. Define interaction with the next lower layer. Define processes on either end of the communication. Define the types of messages. Define the meaning of any informational fields. Define how messages are sent and the expected response.

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Making Provisions for Applications and Services


When people attempt to access information on their device, whether it is a PC, laptop, PDA, cell phone, or some other device connected to a network, the data may not be physically stored on their device. If that is the case, a request to access that information must be made to the device where the data resides.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


In Table 3-2, match the term on the left with its definition on the right.
Table 3-2 Term Application Layer Terms Definition

a. Client b. Server c. Web services d. Web browser e. Telnet services f. Peer-to-peer networks

b. Device responding to the request d. Hosted on a client e. Can be on a client and/or a server a. Device requesting information c. Hosted on a web server f. Two or more computers are connected via a network and can share resources (such as printers and files) without having a dedicated server.

Multiple-Choice Questions
Choose the best answer(s) for each of the following questions.
1.

Peer-to-peer applications can be used on which of the following? (Choose all that apply.)

a. Peer-to-peer networks b. Client/server networks c. Across the Internet d. Across the intranet only e. Across the peer-to-server network 2.

A Telnet server may have _____________.

a. a single client requesting a service b. multiple clients requesting services, but not at the same time c. multiple clients requesting services, simultaneously but as separate transactions d. multiple clients requesting services, simultaneously and as a single transaction

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Application Layer Protocols and Services Examples


As you will see later in this course, the transport layer uses an addressing scheme called a port number. Port numbers identify applications and application layer services that are the source and destination of data. Server programs generally use predefined port numbers that are commonly known by clients.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


In Table 3-3, match the port number on the left with its protocol on the right.
Table 3-3 Port Number Port Numbers and Protocols Protocol

a. TCP/UDP port 53 b. TCP port 80 c. TCP port 25 d. UDP port 110 e. TCP port 23 f. UDP port 67 g. TCP ports 20 and 21

b. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) d. Post Office Protocol (POP) e. Telnet a. Domain Name System (DNS) f. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) g. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) c. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks in the following statements.
1. 2. 3. 4.

A DNS server provides name resolution using the name daemon. DNS uses a hierarchical system to create a name database to provide name resolution. When a web address (or URL) is entered into a web browser, the web browser establishes a connection to the web service running on the server using the HTTP protocol. When a client, typically a web browser, sends a request message to a server, HTTP defines the message types that the client uses to request the web page and also the message types the server uses to respond. E-mail, the most popular network service, has revolutionized how people communicate through its simplicity and speed. The e-mail server operates two separate processes: Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) and Mail Delivery Agent (MDA). The FTP client is an application that runs on a computer that is used to push files to and pull files from a server. DHCP allows a host to obtain an IP address dynamically when it connects to the network. The Server Message Block (SMB) is a client/server file-sharing protocol. based on the Gnutella protocol, people can make files on their hard disks available to others for downloading.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10. Sharing files over the Internet has become extremely popular. With peer-to-peer applications

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11.

Telnet provides a standard method of emulating text-based terminal devices over the data network.

Multiple-Choice Questions
Choose the best answer(s) for each of the following questions.
1.

The Open Systems Interconnection reference model is a layered, abstract representation created as a guideline for network protocol design. The OSI model divides the networking process into which seven layers?

a. Application, presentation, session, transport, network, data link, and physical b. Application, presentation, session, transport, Internet, data link, and physical c. Application, presentation, session, transport, network, Internet, and physical d. Application, presentation, Internet, transport, network, data link, and physical 2.

What is the most popular application service?

a. World Wide Web b. E-mail c. P2P d. eBay 3.

The e-mail server operates which two separate processes?

a. Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) b. Mail Transfer Bridge (MTB) c. Mail User Agent (MUA) d. Mail Delivery Agent (MDA) 4.

Data transfer from a client to a server is referred to as which of the following?

a. Query b. Download c. Upload d. Pull 5.

Which of the following best describes a peer-to-peer network?

a. It decentralizes the resources on a network. b. It centralizes the resources on a network. c. It uses file servers. d. It uses the client/server model. 6.

The Domain Name System (DNS) was created to do what?

a. Resolve domain names to e-mail addresses. b. Resolve domain names to MAC addresses. c. Resolve domain names to computer names. d. Resolve domain names to IP addresses.

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7.

The different top-level domains represent which of the following? (Choose all correct answers.)

a. Type of organization b. Country of origin c. Company or brand name d. File server name 8.

For secure communication across the Internet, which protocol is used to access or post web server information?

a. HTTPS b. SHTTP c. Telnet d. STelnet 9.

To receive e-mail messages from an e-mail server, the e-mail client can use which of the following protocols?

a. SMTP b. SSH c. STP d. POP 10. Which service automates the assignment of IP addresses, subnet masks, gateway, and other IP

networking parameters?
a. SMTP b. TFTP c. HTTP d. DHCP

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Labs and Activities


Activity 3-1: Data Stream Capture (3.4.1.1)
Upon completion of this activity, you will be able to
I I I

Capture or download an audio stream. Record the files characteristics. Examine data transfer rates associated with the file.

Background When an application creates a file, the data that comprises that file must be stored somewhere. The data can be stored on the end device where it was created, or it can be transferred for storage on another device. In this activity, you will use a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder to capture an audio stream. Microsoft Sound Recorder is a Windows accessory. You can find it in Windows XP by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment > Sound Recorder. If a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder are not available, you can download an audio file to use in this activity from http://newsroom.cisco.com/dlls/podcasts/audio_feeds.html. Scenario Perform this activity on a computer that has a microphone and Microsoft Sound Recorder or Internet access so that you can download an audio file. Estimated completion time, depending on network speed, is 30 minutes.

Task 1: Create a Sound File


Step 1.

Open the Windows Sound Recorder application. You can find the application in Windows XP by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment > Sound Recorder. The Sound Recorder interface is shown in Figure 3-2.

Figure 3-2

Sound Recorder Interface

Step 2.

Record an audio file. To begin recording, click the Record button on the Sound Recorder interface. Speak into the microphone, or create sounds that the microphone can pick up. As the audio is recorded, the sounds waveform should appear on the Sound Recorder interface, as shown in Figure 3-3.

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Figure 3-3

Recording in Progress

Click the Stop button when you are finished.


Step 3.

Check the audio file that was recorded. Click the Play button to listen to the recording. The recording should be played back, as shown in Figure 3-4.

Figure 3-4

Playback

If you are unable to hear the recording, check the microphones configuration, the speakers, and the volume settings, and attempt to create the recording again. If you are unable to create a recording, download an audio file from News@Cisco at http://newsroom.cisco.com/dlls/podcasts/audio_feeds.html. Save the audio file to the desktop, and proceed to Task 2.
Step 4.

Save the audio file. Save to the desktop the audio file you created. Name the file myaudio.wav. After saving the file, close the Sound Recorder application.

Task 2: Observe the Properties of the Audio File


Step 1.

View audio file properties. Right-click the audio file you saved to the desktop, and choose Properties from the popup menu. What is the file size in kilobytes? Answers will vary, depending on the file created. What is the file size in bytes? Answers will vary, depending on the file created. What is the file size in bits? Answers will vary, depending on the file created.

Step 2.

Open the audio file in Windows Media Player. Right-click the audio file and choose Open With > Windows Media Player. When the file is open, right-click at the top of the Media Player interface, and choose File > Properties from the popup menu.

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What is the length of the audio file in seconds? Answers will vary, depending on the file created. Calculate the amount of data per second in the audio file, and record the result. Answers will vary, depending on the file created.

Task 3: Reflection
Data files do not have to remain on the end devices where they are created. For example, you may want to copy the audio file that you created to another computer or a portable audio device. If the audio file that you saved to the desktop were to be transferred at a rate of 100 megabits per second (Mbps), how long would it take for the file transfer to be completed? Answers will vary, depending on the file created. Even with an Ethernet connection operating at 100 Mbps, the data that makes up a file is not transferred at this speed. All Ethernet frames contain other information, such as source and destination addresses, that is necessary for the frames delivery. If the Ethernet overhead uses 5 percent of the available 100 Mbps bandwidth, and 95 percent of the bandwidth is left for the data payload, how long would it take the file transfer to be completed? Answers will vary, depending on the file created.

Task 4: Clean Up
You may be required to remove from the computer the audio file you saved. If so, delete the file from the desktop. Unless instructed otherwise, turn off the computer.

Lab 3-1: Managing a Web Server (3.4.2.1)


Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
I I I

Download, install, and verify a web server application. Verify the default web server configuration file. Capture and analyze HTTP traffic with Wireshark.

Background Web servers are an important part of the business plan for any organization with a presence on the Internet. Consumers use web browsers to access business websites. However, web browsers make up only half the communication channel. The other half is web server support. Web server support is a valuable skill for network administrators. Based on a survey by Netcraft in January 2007, Table 3-4 shows the top three web server applications by percentage of use.

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Table 3-4 Web Server

Web Server Choices Percent of Use

Apache Microsoft Sun Scenario

60 percent 31 percent 1.6 percent

In this lab you will download, install, and configure the popular Apache web server. You will use a web browser to connect to the server, using Wireshark to capture the communication. Analyzing the capture will help you understand how the HTTP protocol operates. The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 3-5 and Table 3-5. If it is not, ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding.
Figure 3-5 Topology for Lab 3-1

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

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Table 3-5 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

10.10.10.4 192.168.254.253 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified

before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity:
Step 1. Step 2.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail the ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, as shown in Table 3-5, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Download, Install, and Verify the Apache Web Server


Step 1.

Download the software from Eagle Server. The Apache web server application is available for download from Eagle Server. Using a web browser, go to ftp://eagle-server.example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3 to access and download the software. Right-click the file, and save the software on the pod host computer.

Step 2.

Install the Apache web server on the pod host computer. Open the folder where the software was saved, and double-click the Apache file to begin installation. Choose default values and consent to the licensing agreement. The next installation step requires customized configuration of the web server, as shown in Figure 3-6.

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Figure 3-6

Customized Configuration Screen

Use the values shown in Table 3-6.


Table 3-6 Information Apache Server Values Value

Network Domain Server Name Administrators E-mail Address

example.com The computers IP address ccnaxx@example.com. For example, for users 1 through 22, if the computer is on Pod 5, Host B, the administrators e-mail address is ccna10@example.com.

Accept the recommended port and service status. Click Next. Accept the default typical installation, and click Next. What is the default installation folder? C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2.2\ Accept the default installation folder, click Next, and click Install. When the installation has finished, close the screen.
Note: If a Windows Security Alert is displayed, as shown in Figure 3-7, click Unblock. This permits connections to the web server. Figure 3-7 Windows Security Alert

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Step 3.

Verify the web server. The netstat command displays protocol statistics and connection information for this lab computer. Choose Start > Run and open a command-line window. Enter cmd, and then click OK. Use the netstat -a command to discover open and connected ports on your computer, as shown in Example 3-1.

Example 3-1

netstat -a Output

C:\> netstat -a Active Connections

Proto TCP TCP TCP TCP

Local Address GW-desktop-hom:http GW-desktop-hom:epmap

Foreign Address GW-desktop-hom:0 GW-desktop-hom:0

State LISTENING LISTENING

GW-desktop-hom:microsoft-ds GW-desktop-hom:3389

GW-desktop-hom:0 LISTENING LISTENING

GW-desktop-hom:0

<output omitted> C:\>

Using the command netstat -a, verify that the web server is operating properly on the pod host computer. The Apache web server monitor icon should be visible on the lower-right side of the screen, near the time. Open a web browser, and connect to your computers URL. A web page similar to Figure 3-8 appears if the web server is working properly.
Figure 3-8 Web Server Default Page

The 127.0.0.0 /8 network address is reserved and is used for local IP addresses. The same page should be displayed if the URL is changed to the IP address on the Ethernet interface or to any host IP address in the 127.0.0.0 /8 network range. Test the web server on several different IP addresses from the 127.0.0.0 /8 network range. Fill in Table 3-7 with the results.

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Table 3-7 IP Address

Web Server Test Status Description

127.0.0.1 127.255.255.254 127.255.255.255 127.0.0.0

OK OK Fail Fail

Legal host address Legal host address Network broadcast address Network address

Task 2: Verify the Default Web Server Configuration File


Step 1.

Access the httpd.conf file. A system administrator may need to verify or modify the default configuration file. Open the Apache web server configuration file, C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2.2\conf\httpd.conf, as shown in Figure 3-9.

Figure 3-9

Apache Web Server Configuration File

Step 2.

Review the httpd.conf file. Numerous configuration parameters allow the Apache web server to be fully customizable. The # character indicates a comment for system administrators; the web server ignores the comment. Scroll down the configuration file, and verify the settings listed in Table 3-8.

Table 3-8 Value

Apache Web Server Settings Description

#Listen 12.34.56.78:80 Listen 80 Listen on TCP port 80 for all incoming connections. To accept connections from only this host, change the line to Listen 127.0.0.1 80. If there are problems, e-mail the web server at this e-mail address. For servers without DNS names, use the IP address:port number. This is the root directory for the web server.

ServerAdmin ccna2@example.com ServerName 172.16.1.2:80 DocumentRoot C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/ Apache2.2/htdocs

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Table 3-8 Value

Apache Web Server Settings

continued

Description

<IfModule dir_module> DirectoryIndex index.html </IfModule> DirectoryIndex sets the file that Apache serves if a directory is requested. If no page is requested from that directory, display index.html if it is present.

Step 3.

Modify the web server default page. Figure 3-8 shows the default web page from file index.html. Although this page is sufficient for testing, something more personal should be displayed. Open folder C:\Program Files\Apache Software Foundation\Apache2.2\htdocs. The file index.html should be present. Right-click the file, and choose Open With. From the pulldown list, choose notepad. Change the file content to something similar to Example 3-2.

Example 3-2

htdocs Edit

<html><body><h1>Welcome to the Pod1HostB Web Server!!!</h1> <center><bold> Operated by me! </center></bold> Contact web administrator: ccna2@example.com </body></html>

Save the file, and refresh the web browser. Or, go to http://127.0.0.1. The new default page should be displayed. As you make and save changes to index.html, refresh the web browser to view the new content. Some students may already be familiar with creating web pages, so you should encourage them to personalize the page. Be wary of content, howeverthis is a classroom setting.

Task 3: Capture and Analyze HTTP Traffic with Wireshark


Wireshark will not capture packets sent from or to the 127.0.0.0 network on a Windows computer. The interface will not appear. To complete this task, access the web server by running Apache from a separate client machine.
Step 1.

Analyze HTTP traffic. Start Wireshark, and set the capture interface to the interface destined for the 172.16 network. Open a web browser, and connect to another computer with an active web server. Why does index.html not have to be entered in the URL for the file contents to be displayed? The web server configuration directive for that server displays index.html as the default page. Deliberately enter a web page that is not on the web server. Note that an error message is displayed in the web browser, as shown in Figure 3-10.

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Figure 3-10

404 Not Found Error

Figure 3-11 shows a captured HTTP session. File index.htm was requested from the web server, but the server did not have it. Therefore, the server sent a 404 error. The web browser simply displayed the server response The page cannot be found.
Figure 3-11 Wireshark Capture of HTTP Traffic

What are the contents of the HTTP session?


Line-based text data: text/html <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC -//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0// EN> <html><head> <title>404 Not Found</title> </head><body> <h1>Not Found</h1> <p>The requested URL /index.htm was not found on this server. </p> </body></html>

Task 4: Challenge
Modify the default web server configuration file httpd.conf by changing the Listen 80 line to Listen 8080. Open a web browser and go to http://127.0.0.1:8080. Verify with the netstat command that the new web server TCP port is 8080.

Task 5: Reflection
Web servers are an important component of e-commerce. Depending on the organization, the network or web administrator has the responsibility of maintaining the corporate web server. This lab has demonstrated how to install and configure the Apache web server, test for proper operation, and identify several key configuration parameters. You modified the default web page index.html and observed the effect on the web browser output. Finally, you used Wireshark to capture an HTTP session of a file that could not be found. The web server responded with an HTTP 1.1 error 404 and returned a file not found message to the web browser.

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Task 6: Clean Up
During this lab the Apache web server was installed on the pod host computer. It should be uninstalled. To uninstall the web server, choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. Click Apache Web Server, and then click Remove. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

Lab 3-2: E-mail Services and Protocols (3.4.3.1)


Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
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Configure the pod host computer for e-mail service. Capture and analyze e-mail communication between the pod host computer and a mail server.

Background E-mail is one of the most popular network services that uses a client/server model. The e-mail client is configured on a users computer and is configured to connect to an e-mail server. Most Internet service providers (ISP) provide step-by-step instructions for using e-mail services. Consequently, the typical user may be unaware of the complexities of e-mail or the protocols used. In network environments where the Mail User Agent (MUA) client must connect to an e-mail server on another network to send and receive e-mail, the following protocols are used:
I

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) was originally defined in RFC 821 in August 1982. It has undergone many modifications and enhancements. RFC 2821, from April 2001, consolidates and updates previous e-mail-related RFCs. The SMTP server listens on well-known TCP port 25. SMTP is used to send e-mail messages from the external e-mail client to the e-mail server, deliver e-mail to local accounts, and relay e-mail between SMTP servers. Post Office Protocol version 3 (POPv3) is used when an external e-mail client wants to receive e-mail messages from the e-mail server. The POPv3 server listens on well-known TCP port 110. Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is an Internet protocol that allows a central server to provide remote access to e-mail messages. IMAP servers listen on well-known TCP port 143. In this lab, you will use IMAP instead of POPv3 for e-mail delivery to the client. Earlier versions of both protocols should not be used. Also, secure versions of both protocols employ Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS) for communication.

E-mail is subject to multiple computer security vulnerabilities. Spam attacks flood networks with useless, unsolicited e-mail, consuming bandwidth and network resources. E-mail servers have had numerous vulnerabilities, which have left computers open to compromise. Scenario In this lab, you will configure and use an e-mail client application to connect to eagle-server network services. You will monitor the communication with Wireshark and analyze the captured packets. You will use an e-mail client such as Outlook Express or Mozilla Thunderbird to connect to the eagleserver network service. Eagle-server has SMTP mail services preconfigured, with user accounts that can send and receive external e-mail messages.

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The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 3-12 and Table 3-9. If it is not, ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding.
Figure 3-12 Topology for Lab 3-2

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

Table 3-9 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

10.10.10.4 192.168.254.253 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

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Note to Instructors: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified

before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity:
Step 1. Step 2.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, as shown in Table 3-9, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer for E-mail Service


Step 1.

Download and install Mozilla Thunderbird. If Thunderbird is not installed on the pod host computer, you can download it from eagleserver.example.com, as shown in Figure 3-13. The download URL is ftp://eagleserver.example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3.

Figure 3-13

FTP Download for Wireshark

Double-click the Thunderbird filename, and then select Save the file to the host pod computer.
Note: Depending on the connection speed of the link between the two routers and the number of students downloading the file, this download may be slow.

When the file has downloaded, double-click the filename and install Thunderbird with the default settings. When finished, start Thunderbird.
Step 2.

Configure Thunderbird to receive and send e-mail messages. If prompted for Import Options, select Dont import anything, and click Next. When Thunderbird starts, you must configure an e-mail account. In the New Account Setup, select Email account, and then click Next. Fill in the account information, as prompted, with the information shown in Table 3-10.

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Table 3-10 Field

Account Information Value

Account Name

The account name is based on the pod and host computer. A total of 22 accounts are configured on Eagle Server, labeled ccna[1...22]. If this pod host is on Pod1, Host A, the account name is ccna1. If the pod host is on Pod 3, Host B, the account name is ccna6, and so on. Use the same name as the Account Name. your_name@eagle-server.example.com IMAP eagle-server.example.com eagle-server.example.com Use the same name as above (see Account name discussion). your_name@eagle-server.example.com

Your Name E-mail address Type of incoming server you are using Incoming Server (SMTP) Outgoing Server (SMTP) Incoming User Name Account Name

When Thunderbird starts, you may be prompted for a password for your e-mail account. Click Cancel. The Thunderbird client needs to have SMTP server login disabled. To do this, choose Tools > Account Settings > Outgoing Server (SMTP). From the outgoing server screen, shown in Figure 3-14, click Edit.
Figure 3-14 Thunderbird SMTP Server Settings

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On the SMTP Server screen, shown in Figure 3-15, uncheck the Use name and password box. Click OK, and then click OK again.
Figure 3-15 SMTP Server Edit

You may also want to verify account settings, as shown in Figure 3-16, by choosing Tools > Account Settings.
Figure 3-16 Thunderbird Account Settings

In the left pane of the Account Settings screen, click Server Settings. A screen similar to Figure 3-17 appears.

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Figure 3-17

Thunderbird Server Settings

What is the purpose of the SMTP protocol, and what is the well-known TCP port number? The SMTP protocol is used to send e-mail messages to an e-mail server for forwarding to a mail recipient. SMTP listens on TCP port 25.

Task 2: Capture and Analyze E-mail Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and an E-mail Server
Step 1.

Send an uncaptured e-mail. Ask another student in the class for his or her e-mail name. To create and send an e-mail, click the Write icon. Using the name provided in the preceding task, each of you should compose and send an e-mail message to the other. When the e-mails have been sent, check your e-mail. To do so, you must be logged in. If you have not previously logged in, enter cisco as the password. Please note that this is the default password that is embedded in the Eagle Server.

Step 2.

Start Wireshark captures. When you are certain that the e-mail operation is working properly for both sending and receiving, start a Wireshark capture. Wireshark displays captures based on packet type.

Step 3.

Analyze a Wireshark capture session of SMTP. Using the e-mail client, again send and receive e-mail from a classmate. This time, however, the e-mail transactions will be captured. After sending and receiving one e-mail message, stop the Wireshark capture. A partial Wireshark capture of an outgoing e-mail message using SMTP is shown in Figure 3-18.

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Figure 3-18

SMTP Capture

Highlight the first SMTP capture in the top Wireshark window. In Figure 3-18, this is line 7. In the second Wireshark window, expand the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol record. Many different types of SMTP servers exist. Malicious attackers can gain valuable knowledge simply by learning the SMTP server type and version. What are the SMTP server name and version? Sendmail, version 8.13.1 E-mail client applications send commands to e-mail servers, and e-mail servers send responses. In every first SMTP exchange, the e-mail client sends the command EHLO. The syntax may vary between clients, however, and the command may also be HELO or HELLO. The e-mail server must respond to the command. What is the SMTP server response to the EHLO command? 250-localhost.localdomain Hello host-1.example.com [172.16.1.1], pleased to meet you\r\n The next exchanges between the e-mail client and server contain e-mail information. Using your Wireshark capture, fill in the e-mail server responses to the e-mail client commands shown in Table 3-11.
Table 3-11 E-mail Client Response Table E-mail Server

MAIL FROM:<ccna1@example.com> RCPT TO:<ccna2@example.com> DATA (message body is sent)

250 2.1.0 ccna1@example.com Sender ok 250 2.1.5 ccna2@example.com Recipient ok 354 Enter mail, end with . on a line by itself 250 2.0.0 mail-serial-number Message accepted for delivery

What are the contents of the last message body from the e-mail client? QUIT How does the e-mail server respond? It sends a response to the e-mail client, 221, closing connection.

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Task 3: Challenge
Access a computer that has Internet access. Look up the SMTP server name and version for known weaknesses or compromises. Are any newer versions available?

Task 4: Reflection
E-mail is probably the most common network service used. Understanding the flow of traffic with the SMTP protocol will help you understand how the protocol manages the client/server data connection. E-mail can also experience configuration issues. Is the problem with the e-mail client or the e-mail server? One simple way to test SMTP server operation is to use the Windows command-line Telnet utility to telnet into the SMTP server. To test SMTP operation, open the Windows command-line window, and begin a Telnet session with the SMTP server, as shown in Example 3-3. The highlighted lines are what you enter into the blank Telnet window.
Example 3-3 Telnet Session
C:\> telnet eagle-server.example.com 25 220 localhost.localdomain ESMTP Sendmail 8.13.1/8.13.1; Sun, 28 Jan 2007 20:41:0 3 +1000 HELO eagle-server.example.com 250 localhost.localdomain Hello [172.16.1.2], pleased to meet you MAIL From: ccna2@example.com 250 2.1.0 ccna2@example.com... Sender ok RCPT To: instructor@example.com 250 2.1.5 instructor@example.com... Recipient ok DATA 354 Please start mail input. e-mail SMTP server test... . 250 Mail queued for delivery. QUIT 221 Closing connection. Good bye. Connection to host lost. C:\ >

Task 5: Clean Up
If Thunderbird was installed on the pod host computer for this lab, the instructor may want the application removed. To remove Thunderbird, choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. Scroll to and click Thunderbird, and then click Remove. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

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Packet Tracer Challenge

Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring Hosts and Services (3.5.1.3)


Open the file LSG01-PTSkills3.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Upon completion of this activity, you will be able to
I I I I

Configure hosts and services. Add, configure, and connect hosts and servers. Explore how DNS and HTTP work together. Use simulation mode to view the details of packets generated by DNS and HTTP.

Background Throughout the course, you will use a standard lab setup created from actual PCs, servers, routers, and switches to learn networking concepts. At the end of each chapter, you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer. Figure 3-19 shows the topology for this Skills Integration Challenge, and Table 3-12 shows the corresponding addressing table.
Figure 3-19 Topology for the Challenge
1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server

2960-24TT S1-Central

1841 R2-Central

PC 1A

PC 1B

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Table 3-12 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

192.168.254.253 10.10.10.6 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.5 172.16.254.1 172.16.1.1 172.16.1.2 192.168.254.254

255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0

10.10.10.6 10.10.10.6 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.168.255.254 192.168.254.253

R2-Central

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server

VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC

Task 1: Repair and Test the Topology


Add a PC with a display name of 1B to the topology. Configure it with the following settings:
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IP address: 172.16.1.2 Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0 Default gateway: 172.16.255.254 DNS server: 192.168.254.254

Connect PC 1B to the Fa0/2 port of the S1-Central switch. Connect Eagle Server to the Fa0/0 port on the R1-ISP router. Turn on web services on the server by enabling HTTP. Enable DNS services, and add a DNS entry that associates eagle-server.example.com with the servers IP address. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab. Test connectivity in real time by using ADD SIMPLE PDU to test connectivity between PC 1B and the Eagle Server. Note that when you add a simple PDU, it appears in the PDU List Window as part of Scenario 0. The first time you issue this one-shot ping message, it shows Failed because of the ARP process. Double-click the Fire button in the PDU List Window to send this single test ping a second time. This time it succeeds. In Packet Tracer, the term scenario means a specific configuration of one or more test packets. You can create different test packet scenarios by clicking the New button. For example, Scenario 0 might have one test packet from PC 1B to Eagle Server, and Scenario 1 might test packets between PC 1A and the routers. You can remove all test packets in a particular scenario by clicking the Delete button. For example, if you use the Delete button for Scenario 0, the test packet you just created between PC 1B and Eagle Server is removed. Do this before the next task.

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Task 2: Explore How DNS and HTTP Work Together


Switch from Realtime mode to Simulation mode. Open a web browser from the desktop of PC 1B. Enter eagle-server.example.com, press Enter, and then use the Capture / Forward button in the Event List to capture the interaction of DNS and HTTP. Play this animation. Examine the Packet contents (PDU Information Window, Inbound PDU Details, Outbound PDU Details) for each event in the event list, especially when the packets are at PC 1B or at Eagle Server. If you receive a Buffer Full message, click the View Previous Events button. Even though the processing of the packets by the switch and the routers may not make sense to you yet, you should be able to see how DNS and HTTP work together.

Task 3: Reflection
Can you now explain the process that occurs when you enter a URL into a browser and a web page returns? What types of client/server interactions are involved? If you have not already done so, you are encouraged to obtain Packet Tracer from your instructor and complete My First PT Lab (choose Help > Contents).

CHAPTER 4

OSI Transport Layer

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice, matching, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the OSI transport layer. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills needed. As you work through this chapter, use Chapter 4 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 4 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA 1 Exploration Companion Guide for assistance.

Study Guide
Roles of the Transport Layer
The transport layer provides vital control over the network: It enables multiple applications to work at the same time over the same network. That way, one computer can use instant messaging, surf the web, use a Voice over IP (VoIP) phone, stream video, and check e-mail. The transport layer provides for data network needs by
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Dividing data received from an application into segments Adding a header to identify and manage each segment Using the header information to reassemble the segments back into application data Passing the assembled data to the correct application

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


In Table 4-1, match the definitions on the right with the terms on the left.
Table 4-1 Term Transport Layer Matching Exercise Definition

a. Multiplexing b. Data segmentation c. Error checking d. Establishing a session e. Same order delivery f. Reliable delivery g. Flow control

d. Ensures the application is ready to receive data. g. Manages data delivery if there is congestion on the host. b. Facilitates data preparation for delivery by the lowest four OSI layers. a. Multiple network-aware applications can use the network at the same time. c. Performed on the data in the segment to check if the segment was changed during transmission. f. Means lost segments are present so the data is received complete. e. Ensures segment sequencing so that data can be presented by the session layer to the application layer with all data intact and ready for processing.

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Concept Questions
1.

How does the transport layer multiplex different applications communication? Dividing data into small parts and sending these parts from the source to the destination enables many different communications to be interleaved (multiplexed) on the same network.

2.

How does the transport layer tell the difference between different data segments? To identify each segment of data, the transport layer adds to the segment a header containing binary data. In TCP, each segment header contains a sequence number. This sequence number allows the transport layer functions on the destination host to reassemble segments in the order in which they were transmitted. This ensures that the destination application has the data in the exact form the sender intended.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks for the following questions.
1. 2. 3.

The pieces of communication in UDP are called datagrams. Additional functions specified by TCP are same order delivery, reliable delivery, and flow control. A TCP segment has 20 bytes of overhead in the header encapsulating the application layer data, whereas each UDP segment only has 8 bytes of overhead.

Port Type Ranges Exercise


Table 4-2 lists port types. Fill in the port number ranges in the Numbers column.
Table 4-2 Port Type Port Type Ranges Numbers

Well-known ports Registered ports Dynamic or private ports

0 to 1023 1024 to 49151 49152 to 65535

The TCP Protocol: Communicating with Reliability


The key distinction between TCP and UDP is reliability. This reliability is achieved by having fields in the TCP segment, each with a specific function. A complete TCP conversation requires the establishment of a session between the source and the destination in both directions. As the source receives an acknowledgment from the destination, it knows that the data has been successfully delivered and can quit tracking that data. If the source does not receive an acknowledgment within a predetermined amount of time, it retransmits that data to the destination.

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Concept Questions
1.

When the host is using TCP, why does the transport layer initiate a process to create a connection with the destination? This connection enables the tracking of a session, or communication stream between the hosts. This process ensures that each host is aware of and prepared for the communication.

2.

A key feature of TCP is its reliability. Define reliability. Reliability means ensuring that each segment of data that the source sends arrives at the destination.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


In Table 4-3, match the definition on the right with a flag on the left.
Table 4-3 Flags Flag-Matching Exercise Definition

a. ACK b. PSH c. SYN d. URG e. FIN f. RST

d. Urgent pointer field significant a. Acknowledgment field significant b. Push function f. Reset the connection c. Synchronize sequence numbers e. No more data from sender

Managing TCP Sessions


When services send data using TCP, segments may arrive at their destination out of order. For the original message to be understood by the recipient, the data in these segments is reassembled into the original order. Sequence numbers are assigned in the header of each packet to achieve this goal. Segment sequence numbers enable reliability by indicating how to reassemble and reorder received segments.

Internet Research Exercise


Using your favorite search engine, enter the keywords TCP segment reassembly, and find a website that explains it. Using this site, be prepared to share your findings with the class.
Note to instructor: Answers will vary, but encourage students to find a website, provide the URL, and be prepared to explain or present the information found. This exercise works best if the students are required to present their website to the class or to teach each other in small groups.

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Concept Questions
1.

What is expectational acknowledgment? Expectational acknowledgment is TCP using the acknowledgment number in segments sent back to the source to indicate the next byte in this session that the receiver expects to receive.

2.

In what case would it be possible for the destination to acknowledge bytes in discontiguous segments and request that the host retransmit only the missing data? In this case, both hosts would have to support selective acknowledgments.

3.

What is flow control, and what does it do? Flow control assists the reliability of TCP transmission by adjusting the effective rate of data flow between the two services in the session.

The UDP Protocol: Communicating with Low Overhead


User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a simple protocol that provides the basic transport layer functions. It has much lower overhead than TCP because it is not connection oriented and does not provide the sophisticated retransmission, sequencing, and flow-control mechanisms. Some applications, such as online games and VoIP, can tolerate some loss of data. If these applications use TCP, they might experience large delays while TCP detects data loss and retransmits data. These delays would be more detrimental to the application than small data losses. The low overhead of UDP makes it very desirable for such applications. Some applications, such as DNS, simply retry the request if they do not receive a response, and therefore they do not need TCP to guarantee the message delivery.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks in the following sentences.
1. 2. 3.

UDP is said to be transaction based. After a client has chosen the source and destination ports, the same pair of ports is used in the header of all datagrams used in the transaction. For the data returning to the client from the server, the source and destination port numbers in the datagram header are reversed.

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Labs and Activities


Lab 4-1: Observing TCP and UDP Using netstat (4.5.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
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Explain common netstat command parameters and outputs. Use netstat to examine protocol information on a pod host computer.

Background netstat is an abbreviation for the network statistics utility, available on both Windows and UNIX/Linux computers. Passing optional parameters with the command will change output information. netstat displays incoming and outgoing network connections (TCP and UDP), host computer routing table information, and interface statistics. Scenario In this lab, you examine the netstat command on a pod host computer, and adjust netstat output options to analyze and understand TCP/IP transport layer protocol status. Figure 4-1 shows the topology for this lab. Table 4-4 shows the corresponding addressing table.
Figure 4-1 Topology for Lab 4-1

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

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Table 4-4 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

N/A N/A 10.10.10.4 N/A 192.168.254.253 N/A 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

N/A N/A

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

N/A N/A N/A

Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified

before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity:
Step 1. Step 2.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on, and that Eagle Server is on. From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server.example.com. If the ping test fails, ping S1-Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally Eagle Server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, shown in the preceding logical addressing table, and can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Explain Common netstat Command Parameters and Outputs


Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run. Enter cmd, and click OK. To display help information about the netstat command, use the /? options, as shown here:
C:\> netstat /?

Use the output of the netstat /? command as reference to fill in the appropriate option that best matches the description in Table 4-5.

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Table 45 Option

netstat Table Description

-a -n 5 (interval) -p

Displays all connections and listening ports. Displays addresses and port numbers in numeric form. Redisplays statistics every 5 seconds. Press Ctrl+C to stop redisplaying statistics. Shows connections for the protocol specified by proto; proto may be any of TCP, UDP, TCPv6, or UDPv6. If used with the s option to display per-protocol statistics, proto may be any of IP, IPv6, ICMP, ICMPv6, TCP, TCPv6, UDP, or UDPv6. Redisplays all connections and listening ports every 30 seconds. Display only open connections. This is a tricky problem.

-an 30 No options

When netstat statistics are displayed for TCP connections, the TCP state is displayed. During the life of a TCP connection, the connection passes through a series of states. Table 4-6 is a summary of TCP states, compiled from RFC 793, Transmission Control Protocol, September 1981, as reported by netstat.
Table 4-6 State Packet State Table Connection Description

LISTEN ESTABLISHED TIME-WAIT

The local connection is waiting for a connection request from any remote device. The connection is open, and data may be exchanged through the connection. This is the normal state for the data-transfer phase of the connection. The local connection is waiting a default period of time after sending a connection termination request before closing the connection. This is a normal condition, and will normally last between 30 and 120 seconds. The connection is closed, but is waiting for a termination request from the local user. The local connection is waiting for a response after sending a connection request. The connection should transition quickly through this state. The local connection is waiting for a confirming connection request acknowledgment. The connection should transition quickly through this state. Multiple connections in SYN_RECEIVED state may indicate a TCP SYN attack.

CLOSE-WAIT SYN-SENT SYN_RECEIVED

IP addresses displayed by netstat fall into several categories, as shown in Table 4-7.
Table 4-7 IP Address Packet State Table Description

127.0.0.1 0.0.0.0 Remote Address

This address refers to the local host, or this computer. A global address, meaning any. The address of the remote device that has a connection with this computer.

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Task 2: Use netstat to Examine Protocol Information on a Pod Host Computer


Step 1.

Use netstat to view existing connections. From the terminal window in Task 1, issue the command netstat a:
C:\> netstat a

A table will display that lists the protocol (TCP and UDP), local address, foreign address, and state information. Addresses and protocols that can be translated into names are displayed. The n option forces netstat to display output in raw format. From the terminal window, issue the command netstat an:
C:\> netstat an

Use the window vertical scrollbar to go back and forth between the outputs of the two commands. Compare outputs, noting how well-known port numbers are changed to names. Write down three TCP and three UDP connections from the netstat a output and the corresponding translated port numbers from the netstat an output. If fewer than three connections translate, note that in Table 4-8.
Note to instructor: Answers will vary. Table 4-8 provides a list of several common services on a host computer. Table 4-8 Connection Protocol netstat Output Table Local Address Foreign Address State

TCP TCP

GW-desktop-hom:epmap 0.0.0.0:135

GW-desktop-hom:0 0.0.0.0:0

LISTENING LISTENING

GW-desktop-hom:microsoft-ds 0.0.0.0:445 TCP UDP UDP UDP GW-desktop-hom:netbios-ssn 192.168.254.1:139 GW-desktop-hom:ntp 192.168.254.1:123 GW-desktop-hom:netbios-ns 192.168.254.1:137 GW-desktop-hom:netbios-dgm 192.168.254.1:138

GW-desktop-hom:0 0.0.0.0:0 GW-desktop-hom:0 0.0.0.0:0 *:* *:* *:* *:* *:* *:*

LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING LISTENING

Refer to the following netstat output shown in Example 4-1.

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Example 4-1

Netstat Output

C:\> netstat n Active Connections Proto TCP TCP C:\> Local Address 127.0.0.1:1070 127.0.0.1:1071 Foreign Address 127.0.0.1:1071 127.0.0.1:1070 State ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED

A new network engineer suspects that his host computer has been compromised by an outside attack against ports 1070 and 1071. How would you respond? Because the foreign address is 127.0.0.1, the host computer has made a TCP connection with itself.
Step 2.

Establish multiple concurrent TCP connections and record netstat output. In this task, several simultaneous connections will be made with Eagle Server. The venerable telnet command is used to access Eagle Server network services, thus providing several protocols to examine with netstat. Open four additional terminal windows. Arrange the windows so that all are visible. The four terminal windows that will be used for Telnet connections to Eagle Server can be relatively small, approximately 12 screen width by 14 screen height. The terminal windows that will be used to collect connection information should be 12 screen width by full screen height. Several network services on Eagle Server will respond to a Telnet connection. You will use the following:
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DNS: Domain Name System server, port 53 FTP: FTP server, port 21 SMTP: SMTP mail server, port 25 Telnet: Telnet server, port 23

Why should Telnet to UDP ports fail? Telnet is a TCP protocol, and UDP cannot build the TCP session. To close a Telnet connection, press the Ctrl+] keys together. That will bring up the t=Telnet prompt, Microsoft Telnet>. Type quit and press Enter to close the session. In the first Telnet terminal window, telnet to Eagle Server on port 53. In the second terminal window, telnet on port 21. In the third terminal window, telnet on port 25. In the fourth terminal window, telnet on port 23. The command for a Telnet connection on port 21 follows:
C:\> telnet eagle-server.example.com 53

In the large terminal window, record established connections with Eagle Server. Output should look similar to the output in Example 4-1. If typing is slow, a connection might close before all connections have been made. Eventually, connections should terminate from inactivity.

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Example 4-2
C:\>netstat Proto TCP TCP TCP TCP

Eagle Server Output Table

Local Address 192.168.254.1:1688 192.168.254.1:1691 192.168.254.1:1693 192.168.254.1:1694

Foreign Address 192.168.254.254:21 192.168.254.254:25 192.168.254.254:53 192.168.254.254:23

State ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED

Task 3: Reflection
The netstat utility displays incoming and outgoing network connections (TCP and UDP), host computer routing table information, and interface statistics. Ponder the utility of netstat in small and large networks and consider how netstat can help you diagnose problems.

Task 4: Challenge
Close established sessions abruptly (close the terminal window), and issue the netstat an command. Try to view connections in stages different from ESTABLISHED.

Task 5: Cleanup
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab and leave the room ready for the next class.

Lab 4-2: TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols, TCP and UDP (4.5.2.1)
Upon completion of this activity, you will be able to do the following:
I I

Identify TCP header fields and operation using a Wireshark FTP session capture. Identify UDP header fields and operation using a Wireshark TFTP session capture.

Background The two protocols in the TCP/IP transport layer are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), defined in RFC 761, January 1980, and User Datagram Protocol (UDP), defined in RFC 768, August 1980. Both protocols support upper-layer protocol communication. For example, TCP is used to provide transport layer support for the HTTP and FTP protocols, among others. UDP provides transport layer support for Domain Name System (DNS) services and Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP), among others. The ability to understand the parts of the TCP and UDP headers and operation is a critical skill for network engineers. Scenario Using Wireshark capture, analyze TCP and UDP protocol header fields for file transfers between the host computer and Eagle Server. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer, you can download it from ftp://eagle-server.example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/, file wiresharksetup-0.99.4.exe.

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Windows command-line utilities FTP and TFTP will be used to connect to Eagle Server and download files. Figure 4-2 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 4-9 shows the corresponding addressing table.
Figure 42 Topology for Lab 4-2

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

Table 4-9 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

N/A N/A 10.10.10.4 N/A 192.168.254.253 N/A 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

N/A N/A

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

N/A N/A N/A

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Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology might have been modified

before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps:
Step 1. Step 2.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on, and that Eagle Server is on. From a known good host computer, ping Eagle Server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally Eagle Server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, shown in the preceding logical addressing table, and can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Identify TCP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark FTP Session Capture
Step 1.

Capture an FTP session. TCP sessions are well controlled and managed by information exchanged in the TCP header fields. In this task, an FTP session is made to Eagle Server. When finished, the session capture will be analyzed. Windows computers use the FTP client, ftp, to connect to the FTP server. A command-line window will start the FTP session, and the text configuration file for S1-Central from Eagle Server will be downloaded, /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/s1-central, to the host computer. Open a command-line window by clicking Start > Run, type cmd, and then click OK. A window similar to Figure 4-3 should open.

Figure 43

Command-Line Window

Start a Wireshark capture on the interface that has IP address 172.16.Pod#.[1-2]. Start an FTP connection to Eagle Server. Enter the following command:
> ftp eagle-server.example.com

When prompted for a user ID, type anonymous. When prompted for a password, press Enter.

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Change the FTP directory to /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/:


ftp> cd /pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter4/

Download the file s1-central:


ftp> get s1-central

When finished, terminate the FTP sessions in each command-line window with the FTP quit command:
ftp> quit

Close the command-line window with the command exit:


> exit

Stop the Wireshark capture.


Step 2.

Analyze the TCP fields. Switch to the Wireshark capture windows. The top window contains summary information for each captured record. Your capture should be similar to the capture shown in Figure 44. Before we delve into TCP packet details, an explanation of the summary information is needed. When the FTP client is connected to the FTP server, the transport layer protocol TCP created a reliable session. TCP is routinely used during a session to control datagram delivery, verify datagram arrival, and manage window size. For each exchange of data between the FTP client and FTP server, a new TCP session is started. At the conclusion of the data transfer, the TCP session is closed. Finally, when the FTP session is finished, TCP performs an orderly shutdown and termination.

Figure 44

FTP Capture

In Wireshark, detailed TCP information is available in the middle window. Highlight the first TCP datagram from the host computer, and move the cursor to the middle window. You might need to adjust the middle window and expand the TCP record by clicking the protocol expand box. The expanded TCP datagram should look similar to Example 4-3.

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Example 4-3

Wireshark Capture of a TCP Datagram

>Transmission Control Protocol, Src Port: 1052 (1052), Dst port: ftp (21), Seq: 0, Len: 0 Source Port: 1052 (1052) Destination Port: ftp (21) Sequence number: 0 (relative sequence number) Header length: 28 bytes >Flags: 0x02 (SYN) 0... .... = Congestion Window Reduced (CWR): Not Set .0.. .... = ECN-Echo: Not set ..0. .... = Urgent: Not set ...0 .... = Acknowledge: Not set .... 0... = Push: Not set .... .0.. = Reset: Not set .... ..1. = Syn: Set .... ...0 = Fin: Not set Window size: 64240 Checksum: 0xb965 [correct] >Options: (8 bytes) Maximum segment size: 1460 bytes NOP NOP SACK permitted

How is the first datagram in a TCP session identified? The initial datagram originates from the host computer, 172.16.x.x, on some port above 1023, to Eagle Server, 192.168.254.254, port number 21, and contains a SYN flag. Figure 4-5 shows a TCP datagram.
Figure 4-5
0

TCP Packet Fields for Lab 4-2


TCP Segment 4 10 16 Sequence Number Acknowledgment Number HLEN Reserved TCP Checksum Options (If Any) Data Data... Code Bits: U A R P S F RCS S Y I GK T HNN Code Bits Window Urgent Pointer Padding 24 TCP Destination Port Number 31 TCP Source Port Number

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An explanation of each field is provided to refresh your memory:


I

TCP source port number: Belongs to the TCP session host that opened a connection. The value is normally a random value above 1023. TCP destination port number: Is used to identify the upper-layer protocol or application on the remote site. The values in the range of 0 to 1023 represent the so-called well-known ports and are associated with popular services and applications (as described in RFC 1700, such as Telnet, FTP, HTTP, and so on). The quadruple field combination (Source IP Address, Source Port, Destination IP Address, Destination Port) uniquely identifies the session to both sender and receiver. Sequence number: Specifies the number of the last octet in a segment. Acknowledgment number: Specifies the next octet expected by the receiver. Code bits: Have a special meaning in session management and in the treatment of segments. Among interesting values are
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ACK: Acknowledgment of a segment receipt SYN: Synchronize, which is only set when a new TCP session is negotiated during the TCP three-way handshake FIN: Finish, which is the request to close the TCP session

I I

Window size: Is the value of the sliding window (that is, how many octets can be sent before waiting for an acknowledgment). Urgent pointer: Is only used with an URG (Urgent) flag (when the sender needs to send urgent data to the receiver). Options: The only option currently defined is the maximum TCP segment size (optional value). Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (SYN bit set to 1), fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-10.

Table 4-10

TCP Header: SYN Bit Set to 1 Answers

Characteristics

Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size
* May differ from what student enters.

* 172.16.1.1 192.168.254.254 *1052 21 0 (relative) N/A 28 bytes * 64240

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Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (SYN and ACK bits are set to 1), fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-11.
Table 411 TCP Header: SYN and ACK Bits Set to 1 Answers

Characteristics

Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size
* May differ from what student enters

192.168.254.254 * 172.16.1.1 * 21 1052 0 (relative) 1 28 bytes * 5840

Using the Wireshark capture of the first TCP session start-up (only ACK bit is set to 1), fill in information about the TCP header in Table 4-12.
Table 412 TCP Header: ACK Bits Set to 1 Answers

Characteristics

Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number Sequence number Acknowledgment number Header length Window size
* May differ from what student enters

* 172.16.1.1 192.168.254.254 *1052 21 1 (relative) 1 20 bytes * 64240

Ignoring the TCP session started when a data transfer occurred, how many other TCP datagrams contained a SYN bit? None, a SYN bit is only used during the beginning of a TCP session. Attackers take advantage of the three-way handshake by initiating a half-open connection. In this sequence, the opening TCP session sends a TCP datagram with the SYN bit set, and the receiver sends a related TCP datagram with the SYN ACK bits set. A final ACK bit is never sent to finish the TCP handshake. Instead, a new TCP connection is started in half-open fashion. With sufficient TCP sessions in the half-open state, the receiving computer may exhaust resources and crash. A crash could involve a loss of networking

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services or could corrupt the operating system. In either case, the attacker has won; networking service has been stopped on the receiver. This is one example of a denial-ofservice (DoS) attack. The FTP client and server communicate with each other, unaware and uncaring that TCP has control and management over the session. When the FTP server sends a Response: 220 to the FTP client, the TCP session on the FTP client sends an acknowledgment to the TCP session on Eagle Server. This sequence, visible in the Wireshark capture, is shown in Figure 4-6.
Figure 46 TCP Session Management
FTP Client
FTP Welcome TCP Acknowledgment FTP Userid Sent TCP Acknowledgment FTP Password Response

FTP Server

When the FTP session has finished, the FTP client sends a command to quit. The FTP server acknowledges the FTP termination with a Response: 221 Goodbye. At this time, the FTP server TCP session sends a TCP datagram to the FTP client, announcing the termination of the TCP session. The FTP client TCP session acknowledges receipt of the termination datagram, and then sends its own TCP session termination. When the originator of the TCP termination, FTP server, receives a duplicate termination, an ACK datagram is sent to acknowledge the termination, and the TCP session is closed. This sequence, visible in the Wireshark capture, is shown in Figure 4-7.
Figure 47 Orderly TCP Session Termination
FTP Client
FTP Client- Quit FTP Server- Goodbye TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session ACK FIN Sent TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session ACK FIN Sent TCP Acknowledgment TCP Session Ends

FTP Server

Without an orderly termination, such as when the connection is broken, the TCP sessions will wait a certain period of time until closing. The default timeout value varies, but is normally 5 minutes.

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Task 2: Identify UDP Header Fields and Operation Using a Wireshark TFTP Session Capture
Step 1.

Capture a TFTP session. Following the procedure in Task 1, open a command-line window. The TFTP command has a different syntax than FTP. For example, there is no authentication. Also, there are only two commands, GET, to retrieve a file, and PUT, to send a file. Example 4-4 contains Windows TFTP client syntax. The TFTP server has its own directory on Eagle Server, /tftpboot, which is different from the directory structure supported by the FTP server. No authentication is supported.

Example 4-4
>tftp help

TFTP Syntax for a Windows TFTP Client

Transfers files to and from a remote computer running the TFTP service.

TFTP [-i] host [GET | PUT] source [destination]

-i

Specifies binary image transfer mode (also called octet). In binary image mode the file is moved literally, byte by byte. Use this mode when transferring binary files.

host GET

Specifies the local or remote host. Transfers the file destination on the remote host to the file source on the local host.

PUT

Transfers the file source on the local host to the file destination on the remote host.

source

Specifies the file to transfer. Specifies where to transfer the file.

Destination

Start a Wireshark capture, and then download the s1-central configuration file from Eagle Server with the Windows TFTP client. The command and syntax to perform this follows:
>tftp eagle-server.example.com get s1-central

Step 2.

Analyze the UDP fields. Switch to the Wireshark capture windows. Student capture should be similar to the capture shown in Figure 4-8. A TFTP transfer will be used to analyze transport layer UDP operation.

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Figure 4-8

UDP Session Capture

Note: If students point to UDP acknowledgments, explain that the UDP header does not contain an acknowledgment field. Instead, it is the responsibility of the upper-layer protocol, in this case TFTP, to manage data transfer and receipt information. This will be shown during the UDP datagram examination.

In Wireshark, detailed UDP information is available in the middle window. Highlight the first UDP datagram from the host computer, and move the cursor to the middle window. You might have to adjust the middle window and expand the UDP record by clicking the protocol expand box. The expanded UDP datagram should look similar to Figure 4-9.
Figure 49 UDP Datagram Capture

See Figure 4-10, a UDP datagram diagram. Header information is sparse, compared to the TCP datagram. There are similarities, however. Each UDP datagram is identified by the UDP source port and UDP destination port.
Figure 410 UDP Format
UDP Segment 0 UDP Source Port UDP Message Length Data Data... 16 UDP Destination Port UDP Checksum 31

Using the Wireshark capture of the first UDP datagram, fill in information about the UDP header in Table 4-13. The checksum value is a hexadecimal (base 16) value, denoted by the preceding 0x code.

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Table 4-13

UDP Header Table Answers

Characteristics

Source IP address Destination IP address Source port number Destination port number UDP message length UDP checksum
* May differ from what student enters.

* 172.16.1.1 192.168.254.254 * 1038 69 * 30 bytes * 0x1f04 (correct)

How does UDP verify datagram integrity? A checksum is sent in the UDP datagram, and the datagram checksum value is recomputed upon receipt. If the computed checksum is identical with the sent checksum, the UDP datagram is assumed complete. Examine the first packet returned from Eagle Server. Fill in information about the UDP header in Table 4-14.
Table 4-14 UDP Header Information Answers

Characteristics

Source IP address Destination IP address: 172.16.___.___ Source port number Destination port number UDP message length UDP checksum: 0x
* May differ from what student enters.

192.168.254.254 * 172.16.1.1 * 32799 * 1038 *524 bytes * 0xc5cf (correct)

Notice that the return UDP datagram has a different UDP source port, but this source port is used for the remainder of the TFTP transfer. Because there is no reliable connection, only the original source port used to begin the TFTP session is used to maintain the TFTP transfer.

Task 3: Reflection
This lab provided you with the opportunity to analyze TCP and UDP protocol operations from captured FTP and TFTP sessions. TCP manages communication much differently from UDP, but reliability and guaranteed delivery requires additional control over the communication channel. UDP has less overhead and control, and the upper-layer protocol must provide some type of acknowledgment control. Both protocols, however, transport data between clients and servers using application layer protocols and are appropriate for the upper-layer protocol each supports. Both protocols have advantages

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and disadvantages. Applications are designed to use one protocol or another based on maximizing the advantages while minimizing the disadvantages. Consider how you would determine which protocol to use if you were designing an application.

Task 4: Challenge
Because neither FTP nor TFTP are secure protocols, all data transferred is sent in clear text. This includes any user IDs, passwords, or clear-text file contents. Analysis of the upper-layer FTP session will quickly identify the user ID, password, and configuration file passwords. Upper-layer TFTP data examination is a bit more complicated, but the data field can be examined and configuration user ID and password information extracted.

Task 5: Cleanup
During this lab, several files were transferred to the host computer and should be removed. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

Lab 4-3: Application and Transport Layer Protocols (4.5.3.1)


Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
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Configure the host computer to capture application layer protocols. Capture and analyze HTTP communication between the pod host computer and a web server. Capture and analyze FTP communication between the pod host computer and an FTP server. Observe TCP establish and manage communication channels with HTTP and FTP connections.

Background The primary function of the transport layer is to keep track of multiple application conversations on the same host. However, different applications have different requirements for their data, and therefore different transport protocols have been developed to meet these requirements. Application layer protocols define the communication between network services, such as a web server and client, and an FTP server and client. Clients initiate communication to the appropriate server, and the server responds to the client. For each network service, a different server is listening on a different port for client connections. There may be several servers on the same end device. A user may open several client applications to the same server, yet each client communicates exclusively with a session established between the client and server. Application layer protocols rely on lower-level TCP/IP protocols, such as TCP and UDP. This lab examines two popular application layer protocols, HTTP and FTP, and how transport layer protocols TCP and UDP manage the communication channel. Also examined are popular client requests and corresponding server responses. Scenario In this lab, you use client applications to connect to Eagle Server network services. You monitor the communication with Wireshark and analyze the captured packets.

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A web browser such as Internet Explorer or Firefox will be used to connect to the Eagle Server network service. Eagle Server has several network services preconfigured, such as HTTP, waiting to respond to client requests. The web browser will also be used to examine the FTP protocol, as will the FTP command-line client. This exercise demonstrates that although clients may differ, the underlying communication to the server remains the same. The lab should be configured as shown in Figure 4-11 and Table 4-15. If it is not, ask the instructor for assistance before proceeding.
Figure 411 Topology for Lab 4-3

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

Table 415 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP R2-Central Eagle Server Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 Fa0/0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

N/A N/A 10.10.10.4 N/A 192.168.254.253 N/A 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

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Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology might have been modified

before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps:
Step 1. Step 2.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on, and that Eagle Server is on. From a known good host computer, ping Eagle Server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally Eagle Server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, shown in the preceding logical addressing table, and can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Configure the Pod Host Computer to Capture Application Layer Protocols
Step 1.

Download and install Wireshark. If Wireshark is not installed on the pod host computer, you can download it from eagleserver.example.com. See Figure 4-12. The download URL is ftp://eagleserver.example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter3. Right-click the Wireshark filename, and then save the file to the host pod computer.

Figure 4-12

Wireshark Interface Capture

After the file has downloaded, double-click the filename and install Wireshark with the default settings.
Step 2.

Start Wireshark and configure the capture interface. Start Wireshark from Start > All Programs > Wireshark > Wireshark. When the opening screen appears, set the correct capture interface. The interface with the IP address of the pod host computer is the correct interface.

If students ask why the Wireshark icon is a directory folder, it is because the file is a link, or shortcut, to another file. This is also why the file has no physical size.

Wireshark can be started by clicking the interface Start button. Thereafter, the interface is used as the default and does not need to be changed. Wireshark should begin to log data.
Step 3.

Stop Wireshark for the moment. Wireshark will be used in upcoming tasks.

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Task 2: Capture and Analyze HTTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server
HTTP is an application layer protocol, relying on lower-level protocols such as TCP to establish and manage the communication channel. HTTP version 1.1 is defined in RFC 2616, dated 1999. This part of the lab demonstrates how sessions between multiple web clients and the web server are kept separate.
Step 1.

Start Wireshark captures. Wireshark will display captures based on packet type.

Step 2.

Start the pod host web browser. Using a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Firefox, connect to URL http://eagleserver.example.com. A web page similar to Figure 4-13 will display. Do not close this web browser until instructed to do so.

Figure 4-13

Web Server Screen

Click the web browser Refresh button. There should be no change to the display in the web client. Open a second web browser, and connect to URL http://eagleserver.example.com/page2.html. This will display a different web page. Do not close either browser until Wireshark capture is stopped.
Step 3.

Stop Wireshark captures and analyze the captured data. Close the web browsers. The resulting Wireshark data will display. There were actually at least three HTTP sessions created in Step 2. The first HTTP session started with a connection to http://eagleserver.example.com. The second session occurred with a refresh action. The third session occurred when the second web browser accessed http://eagleserver.example.com/page2.html. Figure 4-15 shows a sample captured HTTP session. Before HTTP can begin, the TCP session must be created. This is seen in the first three session lines, numbers 10, 11, and 12.

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Figure 4-14

Captured HTTP Session

Fill in Table 4-16 from the information presented in the HTTP session.
Table 4-16 HTTP Session Table Answers

Characteristics

Web browser IP address Web server IP address Transport layer protocol (UDP/TCP) Web browser port number Web server port number

172.16.1.2 192.168.254.254 TCP 1056 80

Which computer initiated the HTTP session, and how? 172.16.1.2 started the HTTP session to 192.168.254.254 with the SYN flag set. This is the beginning of the TCP three-way handshake. Which computer initially signaled an end to the HTTP session, and how? 192.168.254.254 signaled an end to the session with the FIN ACK flags set, acknowledged, and repeated by 172.16.1.2. Highlight the first line of the HTTP protocol, a GET request from the web browser. In Figure 4-14, the GET request is on line 13. Move into the second (middle) Wireshark window to examine the layered protocols. If necessary, expand the fields. Which protocol is carried (encapsulated) inside the TCP segment? Hypertext Transfer Protocol Expand the last protocol record and any subfields. This is the actual information sent to the web server. Complete Table 4-17 using information from the protocol.
Table 417 HTTP Session Table Answer

Characteristics

Protocol version Request Method * Request URI Language

HTTP/1.1 GET \ En-us

*Request URI is the path to the requested document. In the first browser, the path is the root directory of the web server. Although no page was requested, some web servers are configured to display a default file if one is available.

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The web server responds with the next HTTP packet. In Figure 4-14, this is on line 15. A response to the web browser is possible because the web server understands the type of request and has a file to return. Crackers sometimes send unknown or garbled requests to web servers in an attempt to stop the server or gain access to the server command line. Also, a request for an unknown web page will result in an error message. Highlight the web server response, and then move into the second (middle) window. Open all collapsed subfields of HTTP. Notice the information returned from the server. In this reply, there are only a few lines of text (web server responses can contain thousands or millions of bytes). The web browser understands and correctly formats the data in the browser window. What is the web server response to the web client GET request? 200 OK. From RFC 2616 What does this response mean? The request has succeeded. GET, an entity corresponding to the requested resource, is sent in the response. Scroll down the top window of Wireshark until the second HTTP session, refresh, is visible. Figure 4-15 shows a sample capture.
Figure 4-15 Captured HTTP Session

The significance of the refresh action is in the server response, 304 Not Modified. With a single packet returned for both the initial GET request and refresh, the bandwidth used is minimal. However, for an initial response that contains millions of bytes, a single reply packet can save significant bandwidth. Because this web page was saved in the web clients cache, the GET request contained the following additional instructions to the web server:
If-modified-since: Fri, 26 Jan 2007 06:19:33 GMT\r\n If-None-Match: 98072-b8-82da8740\r\n <- page tag number (ETAG)

What is the ETAG response from the web server? 98072-b8-82da8740

Task 3: Capture and Analyze FTP Communication Between the Pod Host Computer and a Web Server
The application layer protocol FTP has undergone significant revision since it first appeared in RFC 114, in 1971. FTP version 5.1 is defined in RFC 959, dated October 1985. The familiar web browser can be used to communicate with more than just the HTTP server. In this task, the web browser and a command-line FTP utility are used to download data from an FTP server.

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In preparation for this task, open a command line on the host pod computer. To do so, click Start > Run, enter cmd, and then click OK. A screen similar to Figure 4-16 will display.
Figure 4-16 Windows Command Line

Step 1.

Start Wireshark captures. If necessary, refer to Task 1, Step 2, to open Wireshark.

Step 2.

Start the pod host command-line FTP client. Start a pod host computer FTP session with the FTP server, using the Windows FTP client utility. To authenticate, use user ID anonymous. In response to the password prompt, press Enter, as shown in Example 4-5.

Example 4-5

FTP Eagle Server Example

>ftp eagle-server.example.com Connected to eagle-server.example.com. 220 Welcome to the eagle-server FTP service. User (eagle-server.example.com:(none)): anonymous 331 Please specify the password. Password: <ENTER> 230 Login successful.

The FTP client prompt is ftp>. This means that the FTP client is waiting for a command to send to the FTP server. To view a list of FTP client commands, type help and press Enter, as shown in Example 4-6.
Example 4-6
ftp> help Commands may be abbreviated. ! ? append ascii bell binary bye cd close delete debug dir disconnect get glob hash help lcd Commands are: prompt put pwd quit quote recv remotehelp rename rmdir send status trace type user verbose

FTP Client Commands

literal ls mdelete mdir mget mkdir mls mput open

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Unfortunately, the large number of FTP client commands makes using the command-line utility difficult for a novice. We will only use a few commands for Wireshark evaluation. Enter the command dir to display the current directory contents, as shown in Example 4-7.
Example 4-7 FTP Directory Output

ftp> dir 200 PORT command successful. Consider using PASV. 150 Here comes the directory listing. drwxr-xr-x 3 0 0 4096 Jan 12 04:32 pub

If students ask what the values at the beginning of the line mean, the values are UNIX file permissions. The first character, d, indicates that the file is a directory. The permissions are arranged as r (read), w (write), x (access), for the owner, group, and world. World (anyone) can read and access the directory.

The FTP client is at the root directory of the FTP server. This is not the real root directory of the server, but only the highest point that user anonymous can access. User anonymous has been placed into a root jail, prohibiting access outside of the current directory. Subdirectories can be traversed, however, and files transferred to the pod host computer. Move into directory pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter2, download a file, and exit. See Example 4-8.
Example 4-8 FTP Subdirectory Example

ftp> cd pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter2 250 Directory successfully changed. ftp> dir 200 PORT command successful. Consider using PASV. 150 Here comes the directory listing. -rw-rr -rw-rr -rw-rr -rw-rr 1 0 100 1 0 100 1 0 100 5853 Jan 12 04:26 ftptoeagle-server.pcap 4493 Jan 12 04:27 http to eagle-server.pcap 1486 Jan 12 04:27 ping to 192.168.254.254.pcap

1 0 100 15163750 Jan 12 04:30 wireshark-setup-0.99.4.exe

226 Directory send OK. ftp: 333 bytes received in 0.04Seconds 8.12Kbytes/sec. ftp> get ftptoeagle-server.pcap 200 PORT command successful. Consider using PASV. 150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for ftptoeagle-server.pcap (5853 bytes). 226 File send OK. ftp: 5853 bytes received in 0.34Seconds 17.21Kbytes/sec. ftp> quit 221 Goodbye.

Close the command-line window with the exit command. Stop Wireshark captures, and save the captures as FTP_Command_Line_Client.

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Step 3.

Start the pod host web browser. Start Wireshark captures again. Open a web browser as shown in Figure 4-17, and enter the URL ftp://eagle-server. example.com. A browser window opens with the pub directory displayed. Also, the web browser logged in to the FTP server as user anonymous, as shown on the bottom of the Figure 4-17.

Figure 4-17

Web Browser FTP Client

Using the browser, go down the directories until the URL path is pub/eaglelabs/eagle1/chapter2. Double-click the file ftptoeagle-server.pcap and save the file. When finished, close the web browser. Stop Wireshark captures, and save the captures as FTP_Web_Browser_Client.
Step 4.

Analyze the captured data. If not already opened, open the Wireshark capture FTP_Web_Browser_Client. On the top Wireshark window, select the FTP capture that is the first FTP protocol transmission, Response: 220. In Figure 4-18, this is line 23.

Figure 4-18

Wireshark FTP Capture

Move into the middle Wireshark window and expand the FTP protocol. FTP communicates using codes, similar to HTTP. What is the FTP server response 220? Service is ready for a new user.

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When the FTP server issued a Response: 331 Please specify the password, what was the web browser reply? IEUSER@ Which port number does the FTP client use to connect to the FTP server port 21? Port number will vary. In Figure 4-18, the port number is 1073. When data is transferred or with simple directory listings, a new port is opened. This is called the transfer mode. The transfer mode can be either active or passive. In active mode, the server opens a TCP session to the FTP client and transfers data across that port. The FTP server source port number is 20, and the FTP client port number is some number above 1023. In passive mode, however, the client opens a new port to the server for data transfer. Both port numbers are above 1023. What is the FTP data port number used by the FTP server? The port number is 20. The Windows FTP client used for this lab did not support the passive transfer mode. If possible, students should be shown a passive transfer mode. Open the Wireshark capture FTP_Web_Browser_Client, and observe the FTP communication. Although the clients are different, the commands are similar.
Step 5.

Compare FTP active and passive transfer modes. The implications between the two modes are important from an information security perspective. The transfer mode sets how the data port is configured. In active transfer mode, a client initiates an FTP session with the server on well-known TCP port 21. For data transfer, the server initiates a connection from well-known TCP port 20 to a clients high port, a port number above 1023. See Figure 4-19.

Figure 4-19

Active FTP
FTP Client
FTP Control Connection on TCP Port 21

FTP Server

FTP Data Connection From TCP Port 20 on Server to a High Port on the Client.

Unless the FTP client firewall is configured to permit connections from the outside, data transfer may fail. To establish connectivity for data transfer, the FTP client must permit either FTP-related connections (implying stateful packet filtering) or disable blocking. In passive transfer mode, a client initiates an FTP session with the server on well-known TCP port 21, the same connection used in the active transfer mode. For data transfer, however, there are two significant changes. First, the client initiates the data connection to the server. Second, high ports are used on both ends of the connection. See Figure 4-20.

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Figure 4-20 Passive FTP


FTP Client
FTP Control Connection on TCP Port 21

FTP Server

FTP Data Connection From the Client High TCP Port to the Server High TCP Port.

Unless the FTP server is configured to permit a connection to a random high port, data transfer will fail. Not all FTP client applications support changes to the transfer mode.

Task 4: Reflection
Both HTTP and FTP protocols rely on TCP to communicate. TCP manages the connection between client and server to ensure datagram delivery. A client application may be either a web browser or command-line utility, but each must send and receive messages that can be correctly interpreted. The communication protocol is normally defined in an RFC. The FTP client must authenticate to the FTP server, even if the authentication is open to the world. User anonymous normally has restricted access to the FTP server and cannot upload files. An HTTP session begins when a request is made to the HTTP server and ends when the response has been acknowledged by the HTTP client. An FTP session, however, lasts until the client signals that it is leaving with the quit command. HTTP uses a single protocol to communicate with the HTTP server. The server listens on port 80 for client connections. FTP, however, uses two protocols. The FTP server listens on TCP port 21, as the command line. Depending on the transfer mode, the server or client may initiate the data connection. Multiple application layer protocols can be accessed through a simple web browser. Although only HTTP and FTP were examined here, Telnet and Gopher may also be supported on the browser. The browser acts as a client to the server, sending requests and processing replies. All of these services use TCP. Think about the differences between TCP and UDP, and consider why UDP is inappropriate for HTTP, FTP, Telnet, and Gopher.

Task 5: Challenge
Enabling Wireshark capture, use a web browser or command-line Telnet client to connect to a Cisco device such as S1-Central or R2-Central. Observe the Telnet protocol behavior. Issue a GET request and observe the results. How is the application layer protocol Telnet similar to HTTP and FTP? How does Telnet differ? Answers will vary, but Telnet is similar to HTTP and FTP in that all three use the TCP protocol for connection-oriented, guaranteed delivery of datagrams.

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Task 6: Clean Up
If Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer for this lab, the instructor may want the application removed. To remove Wireshark, click Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs. Scroll to the bottom of the list, right-click Wireshark, and then click Remove. If downloaded files need to be removed from the host pod computer, delete all files retrieved from the FTP server. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: Application and Transport Layer Protocols Examination (4.5.3.2)
You can now open the file LSG01-Lab4532.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.

Packet Tracer Challenge

Skills Integration Challenge: Analyzing the Application and Transport Layers (4.6.1.3)
Open the file LSG01-PTSkills4.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Upon completion of this activity, you will be able to do the following:
I I I I

Configure hosts and services. Connect and configure hosts and services on the model of the lab network. Explore How DNS, UDP, HTTP, and UDP work together. Use simulation mode to visualize the operation of DNS, UDP, HTTP, and TCP on the model of the lab network.

Background Throughout the course, you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs, servers, routers, and switches to learn networking concepts. At the end of each chapter, you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer, and analyze increasingly more complex protocol interactions. You will use the topology in Figure 4-21 and the addressing table in Table 4-18 to document your design.

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Figure 4-21 Topology for Challenge


1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server

2960-24TT S1-Central

1841 R2-Central

PC 1A

PC 1B

Table 4-18 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

192.168.254.253 10.10.10.6 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.5 172.16.254.1 172.16.1.1 172.16.1.2 192.168.254.254

255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0

N/A N/A 10.10.10.6 10.10.10.6 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.253

R2-Central

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server

VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC

Task 1: Repair and Test the Topology


The server has been replaced. It must be powered on. Then configure it with the following settings:
I I I I I

IP address 192.168.254.254 Subnet mask 255.255.255.0 Default gateway 192.168.254.253 DNS enabled, with the association of eagle-server.example.com with the servers IP address HTTP enabled

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Connect the Eagle Server to the Fa0/0 port on the R1-ISP router using a crossover cable. PC 1A has lost its IP address information. Configure it with the following settings:
I I I I

IP address 172.16.1.1 Subnet mask 255.255.0.0 Default gateway 172.16.255.254 DNS server 192.168.254.254

Connect PC 1A to the Fa0/1 port of the S1-Central switch using a straight-through cable. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab. Test connectivity, in real time, by using the Add Simple PDU to test connectivity between PC 1A and the Eagle Server. Note that when you add a simple PDU, it appears in the PDU List window as part of Scenario 0. The first time you issue this one-shot ping message, it will show as Failed; this is because of the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) process, which is explained later in Chapter 9, Ethernet. Double-clicking the Fire button in the PDU List window, send this single test ping a second time. This time it will succeed. In Packet Tracer, the term scenario means a specific configuration of one or more test packets. You can create different test packet scenarios by using the New button (for example, Scenario 0 might have one test packet from PC 1A to Eagle Server, Scenario 1 might have test packets between PC 1B and the routers). You can remove all test packets in a particular scenario by using the Delete button. For example, if you use the Delete button for Scenario 0, the test packet you just created between PC 1A and Eagle Server will be removed; please do this before the next task.

Task 2: Explore How DNS, UDP, HTTP, and TCP Work Together
Switch from real time to simulation mode. Make sure Event Filter is set to display DNS, UDP, HTTP, TCP, and ICMP. Open a web browser from the desktop of 1A. Type the URL eagleserver.example.com, press Enter, and then use the Capture / Forward button in the event List to capture the interaction of DNS, UDP, HTTP, and TCP. You can examine the packet in two ways: by clicking the packet envelope as it is displayed in the animation, or by clicking the Info column for that packet instance as it is listed in the Event List. Play this animation and examine the packet contents (PDU Information window, Inbound PDU Details, Outbound PDU Details) for each event in the event list, especially when the packets are at PC 1A or at the Eagle Server. If you receive a Buffer Full message, click the View Previous Events button. Although the processing of the packets at the switch and the routers might not make sense to you yet, you should be able to see how DNS, UDP, HTTP, and TCP work together by studying tracing the packets and using the PDU Information window to look inside them.

Task 3: Reflection
Can you make a diagram of the sequence of protocol events involved in requesting a web page using a URL? Where might things go wrong? Compare and contrast DNS and HTTP, and UDP and TCP.

CHAPTER 5

OSI Network Layer

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching, fill-in-the-blank, multiple-choice, and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the importance of data networks and the major components and characteristics of network architectures. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with modern networks. As you work through this chapter, use Chapter 5 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 5 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance.

Study Guide
IPv4
The network layer provides services to exchange the individual pieces of data over the network between end devices. The most significant network layer protocol is the Internet Protocol (IP). IP version 4 (IPv4) is the network layer protocol used as an example throughout this study guide. IPv4 defines many different fields in the packet header. These fields contain binary values that the IPv4 services reference as they forward packets across the network.

Concept Questions
1.

What are the four basic processes used in the network layer to accomplish end-to-end transport? To accomplish end-to-end transport, Layer 3 uses the following four basic processes:

1. 2. 3. 4. 2.

The network layer must provide a unique address for these end devices. The data must be packaged so that it can be sent in a manageable size. The network layer must provide services to direct these packets to their destination host. The packet arrives at the destination host and is processed at Layer 3. List three protocols implemented at the network layer that carry user data. Answers will vary but could include Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6), Novell Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX), AppleTalk, and Connectionless Network Service (CLNS/DECNet)

3.

IPv4 is going to be replaced by IPv6. What is the most significant difference between the two? Although answers will vary, the most significant difference between IPv4 and IPv6 is length. The address space for IPv4 is 32 bit, whereas IPv6 is 128 bit.

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4.

List three basic characteristics of IPv4. IPv4 is connectionless, best effort (unreliable), and media independent.

5.

If out-of-order or missing packets create problems for the application using the data, which services have to resolve these issues? The upper-layer services resolve these issues.

6.

In some cases, an intermediary device, usually a router, will need to split up a packet when forwarding it from one media to a media with a smaller maximum transmission unit (MTU). What is this process called? Fragmentation

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks for the following questions.
1. 2. 3. 4.

Each route that a packet takes to reach the next device is called a hop. Intermediary devices that connect the networks are called routers. Any individual IP packet can be communicated electrically over cable, as optical signals over fiber, or wirelessly as radio signals. The header of an IPv4 packet does not include fields required for reliable data delivery. There are no acknowledgments of packet delivery. There is no error control for data.

Vocabulary Exercise: Define


Table 5-1 lists the six key fields in a typical IPv4 header. Fill in the purpose of each field.
Table 5-1 Field Key Fields of IPv4 Header Purpose

IP source address IP destination address Time-to-Live (TTL) Type-of-Service (ToS) Protocol

IPv4 address of host sending the packet: enables the destination host to respond to the source if required. IPv4 address of host to receive the packet: enables routers at each hop to forward the packet towards the destination. Number of hops before packet is dropped: This value is decremented at each hop to prevent packets being passed around the network in routing loops. Data quality of service (QoS) priority: Enables router to give priority to voice and network route information over regular data. The data payload protocol type: Denotes whether the data is a UDP datagram or TCP segment, because these transport layer protocols manage the receipt of their protocol data units (PDU) differently. These 13 bits allow a receiver to determine the place of a particular fragment in the original IP datagram.

Fragment offset

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Networks: Dividing Hosts into Groups


As networks get larger, it is a good idea to break the network into groups. Dividing large networks so that hosts who need to communicate are grouped together reduces the unnecessary overhead of all hosts needing to know all addresses. Separating networks is relatively simple if you use hierarchical addressing. Using a hierarchical addressing scheme means that the higher levels of the address can be retained, with the middle level denoting the network addresses and the lower level the individual hosts.

Internet Research Exercise


Use your favorite Internet search engine to find a website that describes the advantages to using hierarchical addressing. Be prepared to discuss and present your findings in class. Answers will vary. Please be prepared to allot class time for discussions/presentations.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks for the following questions.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

As networks grow larger, they present problems that can be at least partially alleviated by dividing the network into smaller interconnected networks. To support data communications between networks over internetworks, network layer addressing schemes are hierarchical. A hierarchical address uniquely identifies each host. A broadcast is a message sent from one host to all other hosts on the network. Broadcasts are contained within a broadcast domain. The firewall function performed by an intermediary permits only known, trusted data to access the network. The default gateway is a router on a network that serves as an exit from that network.

Routing: How Our Data Packets Are Handled


Within a network or a subnetwork, hosts communicate with each other without the need for any network layer intermediary device. When a host needs to communicate with another network, an intermediary device, or router, acts as a gateway to the other network. The gateway, also known as the default gateway, is needed to send a packet out of the local network. Routing is done packet by packet and hop by hop. A router will do one of the following with a packet:
I I I

Forward it to the next-hop router Forward it to the destination host Drop it

Concept Questions
1.

On a Windows computer, what graphical user interface (GUI) tool do you use to configure the default gateway IPv4 address? The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties tools

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2.

What piece of addressing information should both the IPv4 host address and its default gateway share? The host IPv4 address and gateway address both must have the same network (and subnet, if used) portion of their respective addresses.

3.

Can a packet be forwarded without a route? No, a packet cannot be forwarded without a route.

4.

Routes must have which three main features in a routing table? The three main features that routes must have in a routing table are destination network, next hop, and metric.

5.

When forwarding a packet, which route will a router select? When forwarding a packet, the router will select the most specific route.

6.

Why is Layer 3 addressing hierarchical? The hierarchical nature of Layer 3 addressing means that one route entry could refer to a large general network and another entry could refer to a subnet of that same network.

7.

What is a default route? A default route is a route that will match all destination networks.

8.

When should you use a default route? A default route is used to forward packets for which there is no entry in the routing table for the destination network. Packets with a destination network address that does not match a more specific route in the routing table are forwarded to the next-hop router associated with the default route.

Vocabulary Exercise: Define


Table 5-2 lists some terms about routing. Define each term and write your responses in the definition column.
Table 5-2 Terms Routing Terms Definitions Definition

Next hop

A next hop is the address of the device that will process the packet next. For a host on a network, the address of the default gateway (router interface) is the next hop for all packets destined for another network. A default route is a route that will match all destination networks. In IPv4 networks, the address 0.0.0.0 is used for this purpose. The default route is used to forward packets for which there is no entry in the routing table for the destination network. Packets with a destination network address that does not match a more specific route in the routing table are forwarded to the next-hop router associated with the default route. The default gateway is needed to send a packet out of the local network. If the network portion of the destination address of the packet is different from the network of the originating host, the packet has to be routed outside the original network. To do this, the packet is sent to the gateway.

Default route

Gateway

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Routing Processes: How Routes Are Learned


Routing requires that every hop, or router, along the path to a packets destination have a route to forward the packet. Otherwise, the packet is dropped at that hop. Each router in a path does not need a route to all networks. It only needs to know the next hop on the path to the packets destination network. The routing table contains the information that a router uses in its packet-forwarding decisions. For the routing decisions, the routing table needs to represent the most accurate state of network pathways that the router can access. To ensure that packets are routed to use the best possible next hops, each known destination network needs to either have a route or a default route configured. Because packets are forwarded at every hop, every router must be configured with static routes to next hops that reflect its location in the internetwork. Routing protocols are the set of rules by which routers dynamically share their routing information. As routers become aware of changes to the networks for which they act as the gateway, or changes to links between routers, this information is passed on to other routers. When a router receives information about new or changed routes, it updates its own routing table and, in turn, passes the information to other routers.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks for the following questions.
1. 2. 3.

Out-of-date routing information means that packets might not be forwarded to the most appropriate next hop, causing delays or packet loss. Static routing is routing that depends on manually entered routes in the routing table. Routing is the process of finding a path to a destination host.

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Labs and Activities


Lab 5-1: Examining a Devices Gateway (5.5.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
I I I

Understand and explain the purpose of a gateway address. Understand how network information is configured on a Windows computer. Troubleshoot a hidden gateway address problem.

Background An IP address is composed of a network portion and a host portion. A computer that communicates with another device must first know how to reach the device. For devices on the same LAN, the host portion of the IP address is used as the host identifier. The network portion of the destination device is the same as the network portion of the host device. However, devices on different networks have different source and destination network numbers. The network portion of the IP address is used to identify when a packet must be sent to a gateway address, which is assigned to a network device that forwards packets between distant networks. A router is assigned the gateway address for all the devices on the LAN. One purpose of a router is to serve as an entry point for packets coming into the network and exit point for packets leaving the network. Gateway addresses are important to users. Cisco estimates that 80 percent of network traffic will be destined to devices on other networks, and only 20 percent of network traffic will go to local devices. This is called the 80/20 rule. Therefore, if a gateway cannot be reached by the LAN devices, users will not be able to perform their job. Scenario Pod host computers must communicate with Eagle Server, but Eagle Server is located on a different network. If the pod host computer gateway address is not configured properly, connectivity with Eagle Server will fail. By the use of several common utilities, network configuration on a pod host computer will be verified. Figure 5-1 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 5-3 shows the corresponding addressing table.

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Figure 5-1

Topology for Lab 5-1

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

Table 5-3 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

N/A N/A 10.10.10.6 N/A 192.168.254.253 N/A 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

N/A N/A

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

N/A N/A N/A

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Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology might have been modified

before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity with the following steps:
Step 1. Step 2.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on, and that Eagle Server is on. From a known good host computer, ping Eagle Server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally Eagle Server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, shown in the preceding logical addressing table, and can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Understand and Explain the Purpose of a Gateway Address


For LAN traffic, the gateway address is the address of the Ethernet device. Figure 5-2 shows two devices on the same network communicating with the ping command. Any device that has the same network address (in this example, 172.16.0.0) is on the same LAN.
Figure 5-2 Communication Between LAN Devices

Referring to Figure 5-2, what is the MAC address of the network device on IP address 172.16.1.1? 00:10:a4:7b:01:5f Several Windows commands will display a network gateway address. One popular command is netstat r. In Example 5-1, the netstat r command is used to view the gateway addresses for this computer. The first highlighted line shows what gateway address is used to forward all network packets destined outside of the LAN. The quad-zero Network Destination and Netmask values, 0.0.0.0 and 0.0.0.0, refer to any network not specifically known. For any nonlocal network, this computer will use 172.16.255.254 as the default gateway. The fourth highlighted line displays the information in humanreadable form. More specific networks are reached through other gateway addresses. A local interface, called the loopback interface, is automatically assigned to the 127.0.0.0 network. This interface is

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used to identify the local host to local network services. See the second highlighted entry. Finally, any device on network 172.16.0.0 is accessed through gateway 172.16.1.2, the IP address for this Ethernet interface. This entry is the third highlighted line.
Example 5-1 Output of the netstat Command

C:\>netstat r

Route Table ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 ......................... MS TCP Loopback interface 0x20005 ...00 16 76 ac a7 6a Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection

======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0.0.0.0 127.0.0.0 172.16.0.0 172.16.1.2 172.16.255.255 255.255.255.255 Default Gateway: Netmask 0.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.255 255.255.255.255 255.255.255.255 172.16.255.254 Gateway 172.16.255.254 127.0.0.1 172.16.1.2 127.0.0.1 172.16.1.2 172.16.1.2 Interface 172.16.1.2 127.0.0.1 172.16.1.2 127.0.0.1 172.16.1.2 172.16.1.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1

======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\>

Step 1.

Open a terminal window on a pod host computer. What is the default gateway address? 172.16.255.254

Step 2.

Use the ping command to verify connectivity with IP address 127.0.0.1. Was the ping successful? Yes

Step 3.

Use the ping command to ping different IP addresses on the 127.0.0.0 network, 127.10.1.1, and 127.255.255.255. Were responses successful? If not, why? For 127.10.1.1, yes. Pings are successful to any valid 127.0.0.0 host IP address. For 127.255.255.255, no. Pings will fail; 127.255.255.255 is the network broadcast address.

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A default gateway address permits a network device to communicate with other devices on different networks. In essence, it is the door to other networks. All traffic destined to different networks must go through the network device that has the default gateway address. As shown in Figure 5-3, communication between devices on different networks is different than on a LAN. Pod host computer 2, IP address 172.16.1.2, initiates a ping to IP address 192.168.254.254. Because network 172.16.0.0 differs from 192.168.254.0, the pod host computer requests the MAC address of the default gateway device. This gateway device, a router, responds with its MAC address. The computer composes the Layer 2 header with the destination MAC address of the router and places frames on the wire to the gateway device.
Figure 5-3 Communication Between Devices on Different Networks

Referring to Figure 5-3, what is the MAC address of the gateway device? 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 Referring to Figure 5-3, for which IP can you not find a MAC address? 192.168.254.254. The information cannot be determined from any device on this LAN. Because IP address 192.168.254.254 is on a different network, the Layer 2 MAC addresses will change before the packet reaches its destination. The MAC address of 192.168.254.254 is only important to the gateway device on the same LAN that must eventually deliver the packet to that IP address.

Task 2: Understand How Network Information Is Configured on a Windows Computer


Many times connectivity issues are attributed to incorrect network settings. For troubleshooting connectivity issues, several tools are available to quickly determine the network configuration for any Windows computer.
Step 1.

Examine network properties settings. One method that might prove useful to determine the network interface IP properties is to examine the pod host computers Network Properties settings. To access this window, Click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Right-click Local Area Connection, and choose Properties. On the General tab, scroll down the list of items in the pane, select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and click the Properties button. A window similar to the one in Figure 5-4 will display.

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Figure 5-4

Network Interface with Static IP Address

However, a dynamic IP address may be configured, as shown in Figure 5-5. In this case, the Network Properties settings window is not very useful for determining IP address information.
Figure 5-5 Network Interface with Dynamic IP Address

A more consistently reliable method for determining network settings on a Windows computer is to use the ipconfig command, as shown in Example 5-2.
Example 5-2 Output of the ipconfig Command

C:\>ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 172.16.1.2 Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . Default Gateway . . . . . . . . : 255.255.0.0 . : 172.16.255.254

The first highlight shows the IP address for this pod host computer. The second highlight shows the subnet mask. The third highlight shows the default gateway address.

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Several options are available with the ipconfig command, accessible with the command ipconfig /?. To show the most information about the network connections, use the command ipconfig /all, as shown in Example 5-3. The highlighted line shows the domain name server IP address.
Example 5-3 Output of the ipconfig /all Command

C:\>ipconfig /all Windows IP Configuration Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . : GW-desktop-hom Primary Dns Suffix IP Routing Enabled WINS Proxy Enabled . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . : No . . . . . . . : No . : Node Type . . . . . . . . . . . . : Unknown

Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix Network Connection Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 00-16-76-AC-A7-6A Dhcp Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : No IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 172.16.1.2 Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.0.0 Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 172.16.255.254 DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.254.254 Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Intel (R) 82562V 10/100

Step 2.

Using the command ipconfig /all, fill in the Table 5-4 with information from your pod host computer.
ipconfig Table Address

Table 5-4 Description

IP address Subnet mask Default gateway DNS server

172.16.1.2 255.255.0.0 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254

Note to instructors: Only the IP address should be different on a students pod host computer; all

other values should be the same as shown.

Task 3: Troubleshoot a Hidden Gateway Address Problem


When troubleshooting network issues, a thorough understanding of the network can often assist in identifying the real problem. Refer to the network topology in Figure 5-1 and the logical IP address assignments in Table 5-3. As the third-shift help desk Cisco engineer, you are asked for assistance from the help desk technician. The technician received a trouble ticket from a user on computer host 1A, complaining that computer host 11B, host-11B.example.com, does not respond to pings. The technician verified the cables and network settings on both computers, but nothing unusual was found. You check with the corporate network engineer, who reports that R2-Central has been temporarily brought down for a hardware upgrade.

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Nodding your head in understanding, you ask the technician to ping the IP address for host 11B, 172.16.11.2 from host 1A. The pings succeed. Then, you ask the technician to ping the gateway IP address, 172.16.254.254, and the pings fail. What is wrong? Because the DNS server is on a different network than the LAN, IP network 192.168.254.0, DNS requests from the LAN devices must go through the gateway device, R2-Central. If the gateway is down, LAN computers still have connectivity between each other, but DNS will not work. You instruct the help desk technician to tell the user to use the IP address for host 11B temporarily; after that, the user is able to establish connectivity with the computer. Within the hour, the gateway router is back on line and normal network operation resumes.

Task 4: Reflection
A gateway address is critical to network connectivity, and in some instances LAN devices require a default gateway to communicate with other devices on the LAN. Windows command-line utilities such as netstat r and ipconfig /all will report gateway settings on host computers.

Task 5: Challenge
Use Wireshark to capture a ping between two pod host computers. You might have to restart the host computer to flush the DNS cache. First, use the hostname of the destination pod computer for DNS to reply with the destination IP address. Observe the communication sequence between network devices, especially the gateway. Next, capture a ping between network devices using only IP addresses. The gateway address should not be needed.

Task 6: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

Packet Tracer Activity

Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Devices Gateway (5.5.1.2)


You can now open the file LSG01-Lab5512.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.

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Lab 5-2: Examining a Route (5.5.2.1)


Learning Objectives Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
I I I

Use the route command to modify a Windows computer routing table. Use a Windows Telnet client command telnet to connect to a Cisco router. Examine router routes using basic Cisco IOS commands.

Background For packets to travel across a network, a device must know the route to the destination network. This lab compares how routes are used in Windows computers and the Cisco router. Some routes are added to routing tables automatically, based upon configuration information on the network interface. The device considers a network directly connected when it has an IP address and network mask configured, and the network route is automatically entered into the routing table. For networks that are not directly connected, a default gateway IP address is configured that will send traffic to a device that should know about the network. Scenario Using a pod host computer, examine the routing table with the route command and identify the different routes and gateway IP address for the route. Delete the default gateway route, test the connection, and then add the default gateway route back to the host table. Use a pod host computer to telnet into R2-Central, and examine the routing table. Figure 5-6 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 5-5 shows the corresponding addressing table.
Figure 5-6 Topology for Lab 5-2

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

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Table 5-5 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

N/A N/A 10.10.10.6 N/A 192.168.254.253 N/A 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

N/A N/A

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

N/A N/A N/A

Note to instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology might have been modified

before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps:
Step 1. Step 2.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on, and that Eagle Server is on. From a known good host computer, ping Eagle Server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally Eagle Server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to Eagle Server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, shown in the preceding logical addressing table, and can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address, and can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

In this lab, students telnet into R2-Central and view the routing table. Ensure that the privileged exec password has been changed from the default value of cisco.

Task 1: Use the route Command to Modify a Windows Computer Routing Table
Shown in Example 5-4, output from the netstat r command is useful to determine route and gateway information.

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Example 5-4

Output of the netstat Command

C:\>netstat r Route Table ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 ......................... MS TCP Loopback interface 0x20005 ...00 16 76 ac a7 6a Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection

======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0.0.0.0 127.0.0.0 172.16.0.0 172.16.1.2 172.16.255.255 255.255.255.255 Default Gateway: Netmask 0.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.255 255.255.255.255 255.255.255.255 172.16.255.254 Gateway 172.16.255.254 127.0.0.1 172.16.1.2 127.0.0.1 172.16.1.2 172.16.1.2 Interface 172.16.1.2 127.0.0.1 172.16.1.2 127.0.0.1 172.16.1.2 172.16.1.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1

======================================================================= Persistent Routes: None C:\>

Step 1.

Examine the active routes on a Windows computer. A useful command to modify the routing table is the route command. Unlike the netstat r command, the route command can be used to view, add, delete, or change routing table entries. To view detailed information about the route command, use the option route /?, as shown in Example 5-5.

Example 5-5

Output of the route Command

C:\>route /? An abbreviated option list for the route command is shown below: route PRINT route ADD route DELETE route CHANGE Prints active routes Adds a route: Deletes a route: Modifies an existing route

route ADD network MASK mask gateway route DELETE network

To view active routes, issue the command route PRINT, as shown in Example 5-6.

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Example 5-6

Output of the route PRINT Command

C:\ >route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 ........................... MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 ...00 16 76 ac a7 6a .Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 0.0.0.0 127.0.0.0 172.16.0.0 172.16.1.2 172.16.255.255 255.255.255.255 Default Gateway: Persistent Routes: None C:\> Netmask 0.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.255 255.255.255.255 255.255.255.255 172.16.255.254 Gateway 172.16.255.254 127.0.0.1 172.16.1.2 127.0.0.1 172.16.1.2 172.16.1.2 Interface 172.16.1.2 127.0.0.1 172.16.1.2 127.0.0.1 172.16.1.2 172.16.1.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1

=======================================================================

Verify network connectivity to Eagle Server, as shown in Example 5-7.


Example 5-7 Output of the ping Command

C:\> ping eagle-server.example.com Pinging eagle-server.example.com [192.168.254.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms C:\>

What is the gateway address to eagle-server.example.com? 172.16.255.254


Step 2.

Delete a route from the Windows computer routing table. How important is the default gateway route? Delete the gateway route, and try to ping Eagle Server. The syntax to remove the default gateway route is this:
route DELETE network

The full command is as follows:


C:/> route DELETE 0.0.0.0

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Examine the active routing table, and verify that the default gateway route has been removed: What is the default gateway IP address? With the default route removed, there is no default gateway IP address.
C:\> route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 ..........................MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 ...00 16 76 ac a7 6a .Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: Network Destination 127.0.0.0 172.16.0.0 172.16.1.2 172.16.255.255 224.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 Persistent Routes: None C:\> Netmask 255.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.255 255.255.255.255 240.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 Gateway 127.0.0.1 172.16.1.2 127.0.0.1 172.16.1.2 172.16.1.2 172.16.1.2 Interface 127.0.0.1 172.16.1.2 127.0.0.1 172.16.1.2 172.16.1.2 172.16.1.2 Metric 1 20 20 20 20 1

=======================================================================

Try to ping Eagle Server. What are the results? Eagle Server cannot be reached. If the default gateway IP address is removed, how can the DNS server be reached to resolve eagle-server.example.com? The IP address for eagle-server.example.com is stored in the computers cache. If the computer is rebooted, or the cache times out, the name will not be resolved because the DNS server is not on the LAN. Can other LAN devices be reached, such as 172.16.255.254? Yes. Removing the default gateway has no effect on LAN connectivity.
Step 3.

Insert a route into the Windows computer routing table. In the following configuration, use the IP address assigned to your host pod interface. The syntax to add a route to the Windows computer routing table is this:
route ADD network MASK mask gateway-IP address

The full command appears is as follows:


C:/> route ADD 0.0.0.0 MASK 0.0.0.0 172.16.255.254

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Examine the active routing table. Has the default gateway route been restored? Yes
C:\ >route PRINT ======================================================================= Interface List 0x1 ........................... MS TCP Loopback interface 0x70003 ...00 16 76 ac a7 6a .Intel(R) 82562V 10/100 Network Connection ======================================================================= ======================================================================= Active Routes: NetworkDestination 0.0.0.0 127.0.0.0 172.16.0.0 172.16.1.2 172.16.255.255 Netmask 0.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.255 255.255.255.255 Gateway 172.16.255.254 127.0.0.1 172.16.1.2 127.0.0.1 172.16.1.2 172.16.1.2 Interface 172.16.1.2 127.0.0.1 172.16.1.2 127.0.0.1 172.16.1.2 172.16.1.2 Metric 1 1 20 20 20 1

255.255.255.255 255.255.255.255 Default Gateway: 172.16.255.254 Persistent Routes: None C:\>

=======================================================================

Try to ping Eagle Server. What are the results? Eagle Server can be reached again.
C:\> ping eagle-server.example.com Pinging eagle-server.example.com [192.168.254.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms C:\>

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Task 2: Use a Windows Telnet Client Command telnet to Connect to a Cisco Router
In this task, you telnet into the R2-Central router and use common Cisco IOS commands to examine the router routing table. Cisco devices have a Telnet server and, if properly configured, will permit remote logins. Access to the router is restricted, however, and requires a username and password. The password for all usernames is cisco. The username depends on the pod. Username ccna1 is for users on pod 1 computers, ccna2 is for students on pod 2 computers, and so on.
Note to instructors: In this lab, students telnet into R2-Central and view the routing table. Ensure that

the privileged exec password has been changed from the default value of cisco. For instructors, the username is instructor. The default password should have been changed to something other than cisco.
Step 1.

Using the Windows Telnet client, log in to a Cisco router. Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run. Type cmd, and then click OK. A terminal window and prompt should be available. The Telnet utility has several options and can be viewed with the telnet /? command. A username and password will be required to log in to the router. For all usernames, the corresponding password is cisco. Table 5-6 shows the pod numbers and the corresponding usernames.

Table 5-6 Pod Number

Pod Number Table Username

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

ccna1 ccna2 ccna3 ccna4 ccna5 ccna6 ccna7 ccna8 ccna9 ccna10 ccna11 To start a Telnet session with router R2-Central, enter the following command:
C:/> telnet 172.16.255.254 <ENTER>

A login window will prompt for a username, as shown in Example 5-8. Enter the applicable username, and press Enter. Type the password, cisco, and press Enter. The router prompt should be visible after a successful login.

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Example 5-8

Output for R2-Central

************************************************************ This is Eagle 1 lab router R2-Central. Authorized access only. ************************************************************ User Access Verification Username: ccna1 Password: cisco !The password is hidden when typed in R2-Central>

At the prompt, R2-Central#, a successful Telnet login has been created. Only limited permissions for ccnax usernames are available; therefore, it is not possible to modify router settings or view the configuration. The purpose of this task was to establish a Telnet session, which has been accomplished. In the next task, the router routing table is examined.

Task 3: Examine Router Routes Using Basic Cisco IOS Commands


As with any network device, gateway addresses instruct the device about how to reach other networks when no other information is available. Similar to the host computer default gateway IP address, a router may also employ a default gateway. Also similar to a host computer, a router is knowledgeable about directly connected networks. This task does not examine Cisco IOS commands in detail, but instead uses a common IOS command to view the routing table. The syntax to view the routing table is this:
show ip route <ENTER>

Enter the command to display the router routing table. The route information displayed is much more detailed than the route information on a host computer. This is to be expected, because the job of a router is to route traffic between networks. The information required of this task, however, is not difficult to glean. Example 5-9 shows the routing table for R2-Central.
Example 5-9 Output of the show ip route Command

R2-Central#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - Static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2 i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2 ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is 10.10.10.6 to network 0.0.0.0

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Example 5-9

Output of the show ip route Command

continued

172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets

C S*

10.10.10.4 is directly connected, Serial0/2/0 0.0.0.0/0 [1/0] via 10.10.10.6

R2-Central#

The Codes section shown in Example 5-10 explains the symbols to the left of each route entry.
Example 5-10 Explanation of Codes

R2-Central#show ip route Codes:?C - connected, S - Static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2 i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2 ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is 10.10.10.6 to network 0.0.0.0

172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 10.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets

C S*

10.10.10.4 is directly connected, Serial0/2/0 0.0.0.0/0 [1/0] via 10.10.10.6

R2-Central#

Two highlighted lines in the example show C, which denotes directly connected networks and the interface that supports the connection. One highlighted line shows S, denoting a static route, which is manually entered by the network administrator. The asterisk shows the example is a candidate default route, because the route is quad-zero(0.0.0.0). If there is no other route in the routing table, use the gateway of last resort IP address to forward packets. How is IP mask information displayed in a router routing table? Unlike the pod host computer, IP mask information is displayed as a numeric value (prefix), such as /30 or /16. What would the router do with packets destined to 192.168.254.254? The router will use gateway of last resort IP address to forward packets destined to 192.168.254.254. When finished examining the routing table, exit the router with the command exit. The Telnet client will also close the connection with the Telnet escape sequence Ctrl+] and quit. Close the terminal window.

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Task 4: Reflection
Two new Windows commands were used in this lab. The route command was used to view, delete, and add route information on the pod host computer. The Windows Telnet client, telnet, was used to connect to a lab router, R2-Central. This technique will be used in other labs to connect to Cisco network devices. The router routing table was examined with the Cisco IOS command show ip route. Routes for directly connected networks, statically assigned routes, and gateway of last resort information are displayed.

Task 5: Challenge
You can use other Cisco IOS commands to view IP address information on a router. Similar to the Windows ipconfig command, the Cisco IOS command show ip interface brief shown in Example 511 will display IP address assignments.
Example 5-11 Output of the show ip interface brief Command

R2-Central#show ip interface brief Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 Serial0/2/0 Serial0/2/1 R2-Central# IP-Address 172.16.255.254 unassigned 10.10.10.5 unassigned OK? Method Status YES manual up YES unset Protocol up

administratively down down up

YES manual up YES unset

administratively down down

Using Windows commands and the Cisco IOS commands in this lab, compare network information output. What was missing? What critical network information was similar? Both devices displayed directly connected routes and a default gateway route. The Cisco router, however, did not display DNS server information.
R2-Central#show hosts Default domain is not set Name/address lookup uses domain service Name servers are 192.168.254.254 <output omitted> R2-Central#

Task 6: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: Examining a Route (5.5.2.2)


You can now open the file LSG01-Lab5522.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.

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Packet Tracer Challenge

Skills Integration Challenge: Routing IP Packets (5.6.1.3)


Open the file LSG01-PTSkills5.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Upon completion of this activity, you will be able to do the following:
I I I I

Configure a router interface using a GUI. Explore a routing table. Configure a static route using a GUI. Explore the routing of IP packets.

Background Throughout the course, you will be using a standard lab setup created from actual PCs, servers, routers, and switches to learn networking concepts. At the end of each chapter, you will build increasingly larger parts of this topology in Packet Tracer, and analyze increasingly more complex protocol interactions. You have already studied a variety of application protocols, such as DNS, HTTP, TFTP, DHCP, and Telnet, and two transport layer protocols, TCP and UDP. You may have noticed that regardless of what application and transport protocols were involved, in Inbound and Outbound PDU Details view they were always encapsulated in IP packets. In this activity, you will examine how IP, the dominant network layer protocol of the Internet, works in the context of a simple example of IP routing. Figure 5-7 shows the topology for this skills integration challenge, and Table 5-7 shows the corresponding addressing table.
Table 5-7 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

192.168.254.253 10.10.10.6 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.5 172.16.254.1 172.16.1.1 172.16.1.2 192.168.254.254

255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0

N/A N/A 10.10.10.6 10.10.10.6 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.253

R2-Central

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server

VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC

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Figure 5-7

Topology for Challenge


1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server

2960-24TT S1-Central

1841 R2-Central

PC 1A

PC 1B

Task 1: Configure a Router Interface


There is a problem on the LAN: PC 1A cannot reach the Eagle Server (verify this in real-time mode). It appears there is a problem with the router. Move your cursor over the R2-Central router, and note the condition of the Fa0/0 interface (to which switch is connected). This interface must have an IP address, subnet mask, and be turned on to act as the default gateway for the LAN. Click router R2-Central and go to the Config tab. At the end of the course, you will learn how to use the Cisco IOS command-line interface (CLI) to perform this task. For now, the Config tab is easier and will allow you to focus on the basic idea of IP routing. In the list shown, find INTERFACE, FastEthernet0/0. Add the IP address 172.16.255.254 with subnet mask 255.255.0.0, and turn the port on. Close the router window. Verify that the router interface (port) is now working by using the mouse over. Try reaching Eagle Server. The request still fails. What are some possible reasons why? One possible reason Eagle Server cannot be reached is the fact that it is using a static IP and not the default route.

Task 2: Examining Routes


Use the Inspect tool (magnifying glass) to examine the routing table of R2-Central. You will see the routers directly connected networks, but there is no way to reach the Eagle Server network.

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Task 3: Configure a Route Using a GUI


Click router R2-Central and go to the Config tab. In the list shown, find ROUTING, Static. Configure what is known as a default static route, using the address 0.0.0.0, mask 0.0.0.0, and the next hop of 10.10.10.6 (the S0/0/0 interface on the R1-ISP router) and click the Add button. This route is configured so that wherever packets from the 172.16.0.0 /16 LAN are destined, they will go to the R1-ISP router. Under GLOBAL, Settings, click the Save button to save the interface and route configuration you have just done to NVRAM (in case the router is power cycled). Use the Inspect tool (magnifying glass) to examine the routing table of R2-Central again. You should now see the route you configured in the routing table. Verify your work using feedback from the Check Results button and the Assessment Items tab. Test connectivity, in real time, by using Add Simple PDU to test connectivity between PC 1A and the Eagle Server. The PDU, a one-shot ping, will appear in the User Created PDU list for future use, too.

Task 4: Examine the Routing of the IP Packet


Switch to simulation mode. Using the PDU you created in Task 3, double-click Fire to send it again. Trace the packets journey from PC 1A to Eagle Server and back using the Capture / Forward button and examining the packets contents by either clicking the envelope or clicking the colored square in the Info column of the event list.

Task 5: Reflection
What data can an IP packet contain? What is meant by the phrase the IP packet is routed? What is a route? Where might things go wrong?

CHAPTER 6

Addressing the Network: IPv4

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching, fill-in-the-blank, multiple-choice, and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of network addressing. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills needed to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with IPv4. As you work through this chapter, use Chapter 6 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum, or use the corresponding Chapter 6 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide, for assistance.

Study Guide
IPv4 Addresses
With IPv4, each packet has a 32-bit source address and a 32-bit destination address in the Layer 3 header. These addresses are used in the data network as binary patterns. Data that appears in binary may represent many different forms of data to the human network. In this chapter, we refer to binary as it relates to IPv4 addressing. This means that we look at each byte as a decimal number in the range of 0 to 255. For each IPv4 address, some portion of the high-order bits represents the network address. At Layer 3, we define a network as a group of hosts that have identical bit patterns in the network address portion of their addresses.

Concept Questions
1.

What is another name for digital logic? Boolean logic.

2.

What is the format used for IP addresses called? Dotted decimal.

3.

What is another way to refer to 1 byte or 8 bits? Octet.

4.

What does IPv4 provide for packets that carry data? Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) provides hierarchical addressing for packets that carry data.

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Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Exercise


Convert the following 32-bit binary number into an IP address, keeping in mind the following:
I I I

Divide the 32 bits into four octets. Convert each octet to decimal. Add a dot between each decimal.

Binary number: 10101100000100000000010000010100 IP address: 172.16.4.20

Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Exercise


Convert the following IP address into a 32-bit binary number. IP address: 172.16.5.20 Binary number: 10101100000100000000010100010100

Addresses for Different Purposes


Within the address range of each IPv4 network are three types of addresses:
I I I

Network addresses Broadcast addresses Host addresses

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


In Table 6-1, match the type of network address on the left to its definition on the right.
Table 6-1 Network Address Type Matching Exercise Definition

Address Type

A. Network address B. Broadcast address C. Host address

B. A special address used to send data to all hosts in the network C. An address assigned to an end device in the network A. The address by which we refer to the network

In Table 6-2, match the type of communication on the left to its definition on the right.
Table 6-2 Communication Type Matching Exercise

Communication Type Definition

A. Unicast B. Broadcast C. Multicast

B. The process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the network C. The process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of hosts A. The process of sending a packet from one host to an individual host

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Internet Research Exercise


Using any search engine available on the Internet, look up a website detailing the utility of calculating addresses by hand, or find a calculator for the three address types. Answers will vary. Be sure to include class time for presentations or discussions.

Vocabulary: Completion
Fill in the blanks in the following sentences.
1. 2.

Expressed in dotted-decimal format, the IPv4 address range is 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255. One major block of addresses reserved for special purposes is the IPv4 experimental address range 240.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.254. Currently, these addresses are listed as reserved for future use (RFC 3330). Another major block of addresses reserved for special purposes is the IPv4 multicast address range 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. The globally scoped multicast addresses are 224.0.1.0 to 238.255.255.255.

3. 4.

Concept Questions
1.

How do you know how many bits represent the network portion and how many bits represent the host portion? When we express an IPv4 network address, we add a prefix length to the network address.

2.

What is the prefix length? The prefix length is the number of bits in the address that gives us the network portion.

3.

What are the private address blocks? 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255 (10.0.0.0 /8) 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255 (172.16.0.0 /12) 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 (192.168.0.0 /16)

4.

Which addresses in a network cannot be assigned to hosts? The first (network address) and last (broadcast address).

5.

What is the reserved block for default routing? 0.255.255.255 (0.0.0.0 /8)

6.

What is the loopback address, and what block is reserved for loopback? Although only the single 127.0.0.1 address is used, addresses 127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255 are reserved.

7.

What block of addresses is designated link-local? 169.254.0.0 to 169.254.255.255 (169.254.0.0 /16)

8.

What block of addresses is designated TEST-NET? 192.0.2.0 to 192.0.2.255 (192.0.2.0 /24)

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9.

Define classless addressing. Answers will vary. With the classless system, address blocks appropriate to the number of hosts are assigned to companies or organizations without regard to the unicast class.

Assigning Addresses
The allocation of network layer address space within the corporate network needs to be well designed. Network administrators should not randomly select the addresses used in their networks. Nor should address assignment within the network be random. The allocation of these addresses inside the networks should be planned and documented for the following reasons:
I I I

Preventing duplication of addresses Providing and controlling access Monitoring security and performance

Internet Research Exercises


Using your favorite search engine, search for an example of an IPv4 addressing scheme or an article about IPv4s addressing. Be prepared to present your findings. Go to the IANA website at http://www.iana.org, and spend a few minutes familiarizing yourself with the site. Be prepared to discuss your opinions of the IANA with the class. Answers will vary for both exercises. Be sure to include class time for presentations or discussions.

Concept Questions
1.

Describe the pros and cons of static addressing. Answers will vary. Static addresses are useful for printers, servers, and other networking devices that need to be accessible to clients on the network. If hosts normally access a server at a particular IP address, it would cause problems if that address changed. Additionally, static assignment of addressing information can provide increased control over network resources. However, it can be time-consuming to enter the information on each host.

2.

Describe the pros and cons of using DHCP for addressing. Answers will vary. DHCP generally is the preferred method of assigning IP addresses to hosts on large networks because it reduces the burden on network support staff and virtually eliminates entry errors. Another benefit of DHCP is that an address is not permanently assigned to a host but is only leased for a period of time. If the host is powered down or taken off the network, the address is returned to the pool for reuse. This feature is especially helpful for mobile users who come and go on a network.

3.

List four types of devices that work best using static IP addresses. Any of the following, in any order, are acceptable: Servers, peripherals, hosts that are accessible from the Internet, intermediary devices, routers, firewalls.

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4.

What is the primary focus of each of the three tiers of ISPs? Tier 1: The primary focus of Tier 1 ISPs is reliability and/or speed. Tier 2: Tier 2 ISPs generally focus on business customers. Tier 3: The focus of these ISPs is the retail and home markets in a specific locale.

5.

List some improvements that IPv6 will provide. Answers will vary, and any of these may appear in any order: Improved packet handling, increased scalability and longevity, QoS mechanisms, integrated security, 128-bit hierarchical addressing, header format simplification, improved support for extensions and options, flow labeling capability, authentication and privacy capabilities.

Is It on My Network?
To define the network and host portions of an address, the devices use a separate 32-bit pattern called a subnet mask. We express the subnet mask in the same dotted-decimal format as the IPv4 address. The prefix and the subnet mask are different ways of representing the same thingthe network portion of an address.

Binary Matching Exercise


There are a limited number of subnet mask octets. In Table 6-3, match the binary number to its numeric value.
Table 6-3 IPv4 Binary Matching Exercise Numeric Value

Binary Number

a. 00000000 b. 10000000 c. 11000000 d. 11100000 e. 11110000 f. 11111000 g. 11111100 h. 11111110 i. 11111111

c. 192 d. 224 f. 248 e. 240 a. 0 i. 255 g. 252 h. 254 b. 128

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Concept Questions
1.

How is a subnet mask created? The subnet mask is created by placing a binary 1 in each bit position that represents the network portion and placing a binary 0 in each bit position that represents the host portion.

2.

Why do routers use ANDing? Routers use ANDing to determine an acceptable route for an incoming packet.

3.

How does ANDing help an originating host? An originating host must determine if a packet should be sent directly to a host in the local network or be directed to the gateway.

4.

If the routers and end devices calculate these processes without your intervention, why do you need to learn how to AND? Answers will vary. Basically, the more students understand and can predict the operation of a network, the more equipped they are to design and administer one.

Internet Research Exercise


Using your favorite search engine, research ANDing (be sure to specify that you mean in IPv4 networks). Be prepared to present your findings. Answers will vary. Allow class time for presentations or discussions.

Calculating Addresses
Subnetting lets you create multiple logical networks from a single address block. Because we use a router to connect these networks, each interface on a router must have a unique network ID. Every node on that link is on the same network.

Concept Questions
1.

What is the formula to calculate the number of subnets? 2^n, where n = the number of bits borrowed.

2.

What are the two most useful tools in designing a network? A network diagram and a spreadsheet of IP addresses are the two most useful tools.

3.

Using VLSM makes it easier to group networks around what commonalities? VLSM makes it easier to group based on common geographic location, to group based on ownership, and to group hosts used for specific purposes.

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Multiple-Choice Questions
1.

Why would you use a VLSM chart?

a. This method helps prevent assigning addresses that have already been allocated. b. This method lets you assign addresses that have already been allocated. c. This method prevents addresses from being allocated. d. Using a chart makes calculating VLSM easier. 2.

For what is VLSM an acronym?

a. Very Long String of Marbles b. Variant Language Superior Model c. Variable-Length Subsidiary Mode d. Variable-Length Subnet Mask 3.

What utility attempts to trace the path that a packet takes through the network?

a. ping b. SNMP c. traceroute d. Configmaker

Testing the Network Layer


Ping is a utility for testing IP connectivity between hosts. Ping sends out requests for responses from a specified host address. Ping uses a Layer 3 protocol that is a part of the TCP/IP suite called Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP).

Concept Questions
1.

How does ping work? Be as specific as you can. Ping uses an ICMP Echo Request datagram. If the host at the specified address receives the Echo request, it responds with an ICMP Echo Reply datagram. For each packet sent, ping measures the time required for the reply. As each response is received, ping displays the time between when the ping was sent and the response was received. This is a measure of the network performance. Ping has a timeout value for the response. If a response is not received within that timeout, ping gives up and sends a message indicating that a response was not received. After all the requests have been sent, the ping utility provides output that summarizes the responses. This output includes the success rate and average round-trip time to the destination.

2.

What does a response from 127.0.0.1 indicate? A response from 127.0.0.1 indicates that IP is properly installed on the host.

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3.

Assume that you ping your gateway. If the gateway does not respond, but another host does, what sort of problem could this indicate? Answers will vary, but any of the following are correct. This could indicate a problem with the routers interface serving as the gateway. One possibility is that we have the wrong address for the gateway. Another possibility is that the router interface might be fully operational but might have security applied to it that is preventing it from processing or responding to ping requests. It is also possible that other hosts may have the same security restriction applied.

4.

Why is ping not always the most reliable test for connectivity on a network? Answers will vary. Many network administrators limit or prohibit the entry of ICMP datagrams into the corporate network. Therefore, the lack of a ping response could be caused by security restrictions, not by nonoperational network elements.

5.

What does traceroute do? Traceroute (tracert) is a utility that lets you observe the path between hosts.

6.

What does RTT stand for? Round-Trip Time

7.

What does TTL stand for? Time to Live

8.

Name the different ICMP message types. The following may be in any order. Host Confirmation, Unreachable Destination or Service, Time Exceeded, Route Redirection, Source Quench.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks in the following statements.
1.

What do the first four Destination Unreachable codes mean? 0 = Net unreachable 1 = Host unreachable 2 = Protocol unreachable 3 = Port unreachable

2.

If a router does not have enough buffer space to receive incoming packets, the router discards these packets. A destination host may also send a source quench message if datagrams arrive too fast to be processed.

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Labs and Activities


Lab 6-1: Ping and Traceroute (6.7.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
I I

Use the ping command to verify simple TCP/IP network connectivity. Use the tracert/traceroute command to verify TCP/IP connectivity.

Background Two tools that are indispensable when testing TCP/IP network connectivity are ping and tracert. The ping utility is available on Windows, Linux, and Cisco IOS; it tests network connectivity. The tracert utility is available on Windows, and a similar utility, traceroute, is available on Linux and Cisco IOS. In addition to testing for connectivity, tracert can be used to check for network latency. For example, when a web browser fails to connect to a web server, the problem can be anywhere between the client and the server. A network engineer may use the ping command to test for local network connectivity or connections where there are few devices. In a complex network, the tracert command would be used. Where to begin connectivity tests has been the subject of much debate; it usually depends on the experience of the network engineer and familiarity with the network. Both ping and tracert use Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) to send messages between devices. ICMP is a TCP/IP network layer protocol, first defined in RFC 792 in September 1981. ICMP message types were later expanded in RFC 1700. Scenario This lab examines the ping and tracert commands. Command options will be used to modify the command behavior. To familiarize you with the use of the commands, devices in the Cisco lab will be tested. Measured delay time will probably be less than that on a production network. This is because the Eagle Server lab has little network traffic. Figure 6-1 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 6-4 is the corresponding addressing table.
Table 6-4 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

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Figure 6-1

Topology for Lab 6-1

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified

before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity with the following steps:
Step 1. Step 2.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, as shown in Table 6-4, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Use the ping Command to Verify Simple TCP/IP Network Connectivity
The ping command is used to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer or another device in the network. This command can be used with a destination IP address or qualified name, such as eagle-server.example.com, to test Domain Name System (DNS) functionality. For this

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lab, only IP addresses are used. The ping operation is straightforward. The source computer sends an ICMP echo request to the destination. The destination responds with an echo reply. If there is a break between the source and destination, a router may respond with an ICMP message that the host is unknown or the destination network is unknown.
Step 1.

Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer. Open a Windows terminal and determine the IP address of the pod host computer with the ipconfig command, as shown in Example 6-1.

Example 6-1
C:\> ipconfig

Output of the ipconfig Command

Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :

IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 172.16.1.2 Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.0.0 Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 172.16.255.254 C:\>

The output should look the same except for the IP address. Each pod host computer should have the same network mask and default gateway address; only the IP address may differ. If the information is missing or if the subnet mask and default gateway are different, reconfigure the TCP/IP settings to match the settings for this pod host computer. Record local TCP/IP network information in Table 6-5.
Table 6-5 TCP/IP Information Value

TCP/IP Information

IP address Subnet mask Default gateway

Depends on the pod host computer. 255.255.0.0 172.16.255.254

Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the local host computer. By default, four ping requests are sent to the destination, and reply information is received. The output should look similar to that shown in Example 6-2.
Example 6-2 Output of the ping Command on the Local TCP/IP Stack

C:\> ping 172.16.1.2 Pinging 172.16.1.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.16.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.16.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.16.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.16.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

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Example 6-2

Output of the ping Command on the Local TCP/IP Stack

continued

Ping statistics for 172.16.1.2: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms C:\>

The first highlighted line shows the destination address, set to the IP address of the local computer. The second highlighted entry shows the following reply information:
I I I

Bytes: Size of the ICMP packet. Time: Elapsed time between transmission and reply. TTL: Default TTL value of the destination device, minus the number of routers in the path. The maximum TTL value is 255. For newer Windows machines the default value is 128.

Students may ask why default TTL values differ when different devices are accessed. The default TTL value of the Windows XP computer is 128, Cisco IOS is 255, and the Linux computer is 64. The third highlighted line shows summary information about the replies:
I I I

Packets sent: The number of packets transmitted. By default, four packets are sent. Packets received: The number of packets received. Packets lost: The difference between the number of packets sent and received.

Example 6-2 also shows information about the delay in replies, measured in milliseconds. Lower round-trip times indicate faster links. A computer timer is set to 10 milliseconds. Values faster than 10 milliseconds display 0. In Table 6-6, fill in the results of the ping command on your computer.
Table 6-6 Field Field Information Value

Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay
Step 2.

32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms

Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity on the LAN. Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to the default gateway. The results should be similar to those shown in Example 6-3.

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Example 6-3

Output of the ping Command to the Default Gateway

C:\> ping 172.16.255.254 Pinging 172.16.255.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.16.255.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172.16.255.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172.16.255.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172.16.255.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255 Ping statistics for 172.16.255.254: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 0ms C:\>

The Cisco IOS default TTL value is set to 255. Because the router was not crossed, the TTL value returned is 255. In Table 6-7, fill in the results of the ping command to the default gateway.
Table 6-7 Field Field Information Value

Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay

32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms

What would be the result of a loss of connectivity to the default gateway? No external networks would be reachable. For example, users may complain that the Eagle Server web server is down. In reality, it is the default Gateway that has failed or that has misconfigured TCP/IP network settings.
Step 3.

Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to a remote network. Use the ping command to verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity to a device on a remote network. In this case, Eagle Server is used. The results should be similar to those shown in Example 6-4.

Example 6-4

Output of the ping Command to Eagle Server

C:\> ping 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62

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Example 6-4

Output of the ping Command to Eagle Server

continued

Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms C:\>

The Linux default TTL value is set to 64. Two routers were crossed to reach Eagle Server; therefore, the returned TTL value is 62. Step 4: In Table 6-8, fill in the results of the ping command on your computer.
Table 6-8 Field Field Information Value

Size of packet Number of packets sent Number of replies Number of lost packets Minimum delay Maximum delay Average delay

32 bytes 4 4 0 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms

The ping command is extremely useful when youre troubleshooting network connectivity. However, there are limitations. In Example 6-5, the output shows that a user cannot reach Eagle Server. Is the problem with Eagle Server or a device in the path? The tracert command, examined next, can display network latency and path information.
Example 6-5 Output of the ping Command to the Lost Packets

C:\> ping 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Request timed out. Request timed out. Request timed out. Request timed out. Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 0, Lost = 4 (100% loss), C:\>

Task 2: Use the tracert Command to Verify TCP/IP Connectivity


The tracert command is useful for learning about network latency and path information. Instead of using the ping command to test the connectivity of each device to the destination, one by one, you can use the tracert command.

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On Linux and Cisco IOS devices, the equivalent command is traceroute.


Step 1.

Verify TCP/IP network layer connectivity with the tracert command. Open a Windows terminal, and issue the following command: C:\> tracert 192.168.254.254 The output from the tracert command should be similar to that shown in Example 6-6.

Example 6-6

Output of the tracert Command to Eagle Server

C:\> tracert 192.168.254.254 Tracing route to 192.168.254.254 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 3 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6 192.168.254.254

Trace complete. C:\>

Record your results in Table 6-9.


Table 6-9 Field Field Information Value

Maximum number of hops First router IP address Second router IP address Destination reached?
Step 2.

30 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6 Yes

Observe tracert output to a host that lost network connectivity. S1-Central is a switch and does not decrement the packet TTL value. If there is a loss of connectivity to an end device such as Eagle Server, the tracert command can give you valuable clues about the source of the problem. The ping command would show the failure but not any other kind of information about the devices in the path. Referring to the topology diagram shown in Figure 6-1, both R2-Central and R1-ISP are used for connectivity between the pod host computers and Eagle Server. Refer to Example 6-7. Options are used with the tracert command to reduce wait time (in milliseconds), -w 5, and maximum hop count, -h 4. If Eagle Server were disconnected from the network, the default gateway would respond correctly, as well as R1-ISP. The problem must be on the 192.168.254.0/24 network. In this example, Eagle Server has been turned off.

Example 6-7

Output of the tracert Command

C:\> tracert -w 5 -h 4 192.168.254.254 Tracing route to 192.168.254.254 over a maximum of 4 hops 1 2 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.6

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Example 6-7
3 4 * *

Output of the tracert Command


* * * *

continued

Request timed out. Request timed out.

Trace complete. C:\>

What would the tracert output be if R1-ISP failed? Connectivity would stop after R2-Central. What would the tracert output be if R2-Central failed? There would be no connectivity.

Task 3: Challenge
The default values for the ping command normally work for most troubleshooting scenarios. There are times, however, when fine-tuning ping options may be useful. Issuing the ping command without any destination address displays the options shown in Example 6-8.
Example 6-8
C:\> ping

Output of a ping Command with No Destination Address

Usage: ping [-t] [-a] [-n count] [-l size] [-f] [-i TTL] [-v TOS] [-r count] [-s count] [[-j host-list] | [-k host-list]] [-w timeout] target_name

Options: -t Ping the specified host until stopped. To see statistics and continue - type Control-Break; To stop - type Control-C. -a -n count -l size -f -i TTL -v TOS -r count -s count -j host-list -k host-list -w timeout C:\> Resolve addresses to hostnames. Number of echo requests to send. Send buffer size. Set Dont Fragment flag in packet. Time To Live. Type Of Service. Record route for count hops. Timestamp for count hops. Loose source route along host-list. Strict source route along host-list. Timeout in milliseconds to wait for each reply.

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The most useful options are highlighted. Some options do not work together, such as the -t and -n options. Other options can be used together. Experiment with those described in this section. To ping the destination address until stopped, use the -t option, as shown in Example 6-9. To stop the output, press Ctrl-C.
Example 6-9 Output of a ping Command Using the -t Option

C:\> ping -t 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 6, Received = 6, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms Control-C ^C C:\>

To ping the destination once and record router hops, use the -n and -r options, as shown in Example 6-10.
Note: Not all devices honor the -r option. Example 6-10 Output of a ping Command Using the -n and -r Options

C:\> ping -n 1 -r 9 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=63 Route: 10.10.10.5 -> 192.168.254.253 -> 192.168.254.254 -> 10.10.10.6 -> 172.16.255.254 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 1, Received = 1, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 1ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 1ms C:\>

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Task 4: Reflection
Network engineers use both ping and tracert to test network connectivity. For basic network connectivity, the ping command works best. To test latency and the network path, the tracert command is preferred. The ability to accurately and quickly diagnose network connectivity issues is a skill expected from a network engineer. Knowledge about the TCP/IP protocols and practice with troubleshooting commands will build that skill.

Task 5: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.
Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: ping and traceroute (6.7.1.2)


You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6712.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. The instructions are summarized within the activity.

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Lab 6-2: Examining ICMP Packets (6.7.2.1)


Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
I I

Understand the format of ICMP packets. Use Wireshark to capture and examine ICMP messages.

Background Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) was first defined in RFC 792 in September 1981. ICMP message types were later expanded in RFC 1700. ICMP operates at the TCP/IP network layer and is used to exchange information between devices. ICMP packets serve many uses in todays computer networks. When a router cannot deliver a packet to a destination network or host, an informational message is returned to the source. Also, the ping and tracert commands send ICMP messages to destinations, and destinations respond with ICMP messages. Scenario Using Eagle Server, Wireshark captures will be made of ICMP packets between network devices. Figure 6-2 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 6-10 is the corresponding addressing table.
Figure 6-2 Topology for Lab 6-2

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

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Table 6-10 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity using the following steps:
Step 1. Step 2.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, as shown in Table 6-10, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Understand the Format of ICMP Packets


Refer to Figure 6-3, which shows the ICMP header fields common to all ICMP message types. Each ICMP message starts with an 8-bit Type field, an 8-bit Code field, and a computed 16-bit Checksum. The ICMP message type describes the remaining ICMP fields. Table 6-11 shows ICMP message types from RFC 792.
Figure 6-3
0 Type

ICMP Message Header


7 8 Code 16 24 Checksum 31

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Table 6-11 Value

ICMP Message Types Meaning

0 3 4 5 8 11 12 13 14 15 16

Echo Reply Destination Unreachable Source Quench Redirect Echo Time Exceeded Parameter Problem Timestamp Timestamp Reply Information Request Information Reply

Codes provide additional information to the Type field. For example, if the Type field is 3, Destination Unreachable, additional information about the problem is returned in the Code field. Table 6-12 shows message codes for an ICMP Type 3 message, Destination Unreachable, from RFC 1700.
Table 6-12 Code Value ICMP Type 3 Message Codes Meaning

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Net Unreachable Host Unreachable Protocol Unreachable Port Unreachable Fragmentation Needed and Dont Fragment Was Set Source Route Failed Destination Network Unknown Destination Host Unknown Source Host Isolated Communication with Destination Network Is Administratively Prohibited Communication with Destination Host Is Administratively Prohibited Destination Network Unreachable for Type of Service Destination Host Unreachable for Type of Service

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Using the ICMP message capture shown in Example 6-11, fill in the fields in Figure 6-4 for the ICMP packet echo request. Values beginning with 0x are hexadecimal numbers.
Example 6-11 ICMP Packet Echo Request

Internet Control Message Protocol Type: 8 (Echo (Ping) request) Code: 0 Checksum: 0x365c [correct] Identifier: 0x0200 Sequence number: 0x1500 Data (32 bytes)

Figure 6-4
0

ICMP Packet Echo Request


7 8 16 24 31

Data...

Using the ICMP message capture shown in Example 6-12, fill in the fields in Figure 6-5 for the ICMP packet echo reply.
Example 6-12 ICMP Packet Echo Reply

Internet Control Message Protocol Type: 0 (Echo (Ping) reply) Code: 0 Checksum: 0x3e5c [correct] Identifier: 0x0200 Sequence number: 0x1500 Data (32 bytes)

Figure 6-5
0

ICMP Packet Echo Reply


7 8 16 24 31

Data...

At the TCP/IP network layer, communication between devices is not guaranteed. However, ICMP does provide minimal checks for a reply to match the request. From the information provided in the ICMP messages just shown, how does the sender know that the reply is to a specific echo? The identifier is used to identify this host computer, and the sequence number is used to identify this echo request.

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Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Examine ICMP Messages


If Wireshark has not been loaded on the pod host computer, you can download it from Eagle Server:
1. 2. 3.

Open a web browser and go to ftp://eagle-server.example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter6. Right-click the Wireshark filename, choose Save Link As, and save the file to the pod host computer. When the file has been downloaded, open and install Wireshark. Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages to Eagle Server. In this step, you use Wireshark to examine ICMP echo messages. Open a Windows terminal on the pod host computer. When ready, start the Wireshark capture. From the Windows terminal, ping Eagle Server. You should receive four successful replies, as shown in Example 6-13.

Step 1.

Example 6-13

Successful ping Replies from Eagle Server

C:\> ping eagle-server.example.com Pinging eagle-server.example.com [192.168.254.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=63 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms C:\>

Stop the Wireshark capture. There should be a total of four ICMP echo requests and matching echo replies, similar to those shown in Figure 6-6.
Figure 6-6 Wireshark Capture of ping Requests and Replies

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Which network device responds to the ICMP echo request? The destination device Expand the middle window in Wireshark, and expand the Internet Control Message Protocol record until all fields are visible. The bottom window also is needed to examine the Data field. In Table 6-13, record information from the first echo request packet to Eagle Server.
Table 6-13 Field Ping Echo Request Fields Value

Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence number Data

8 (Echo (ping) request) 0 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwabcdefghi Are there 32 bytes of data? Yes In Table 6-14, record information from the first echo reply packet from Eagle Server.

Table 6-14 Field

Ping Echo Reply Fields Value

Type Code Checksum Identifier Sequence number Data

0 (Echo (ping) reply) 0 Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary acdefghijklmnopqrstuvwabcdefghi Which fields, if any, changed from the echo request? Type field and Checksum field
Note: The Identifier field may change for subsequent echo request messages, depending on the operating system. For example, Cisco IOS increments the Identifier field by 1, but Windows keeps the Identifier field the same.

Continue to evaluate the remaining echo requests and replies. In Table 6-15, fill in information from each new ping.

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Table 6-15 Packet

Ping Echo Requests and Replies Checksum Identifier Sequence Number

Request #2 Reply #2 Request #3 Reply #3 Request #4 Reply #4

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2 Same as request #2

Answers will vary Same as request #2 Answers will vary Same as request #3 Answers will vary Same as request #4

Why do the Checksum values change with each new request? The Identifier remains the same, but the sequence number changes.
Step 2.

Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages to 192.168.253.1. In this step, pings are sent to a fictitious network and host. The results from the Wireshark capture are evaluated. Try to ping IP address 192.168.253.1.
C:\> ping 192.168.253.1

See Example 6-14. Instead of a request timeout, an echo response occurs.


Example 6-14 Ping Results from a Fictitious Destination

C:\> ping 192.168.253.1 Pinging 192.168.253.1 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.16.255.254: Destination host unreachable. Reply from 172.16.255.254: Destination host unreachable. Reply from 172.16.255.254: Destination host unreachable. Reply from 172.16.255.254: Destination host unreachable. Ping statistics for 192.168.253.1: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms C:\>

What network device responds to pings to a fictitious destination? The gateway router Figure 6-7 shows Wireshark captures to a fictitious destination. Expand the middle Wireshark window and the Internet Control Message Protocol record.

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Figure 6-7

Wireshark Capture from a Fictitious Destination

Which ICMP message type is used to return information to the sender? Type 3 message What code is associated with the message type? Code 1, Host Unreachable
Step 3.

Capture and evaluate ICMP echo messages that exceed the TTL value. In this step, pings are sent with a low TTL value, simulating an unreachable destination. Ping Eagle Server, and set the TTL value to 1:
C:\> ping -i 1 192.168.254.254

Example 6-15 shows ping replies when the TTL value has been exceeded.
Example 6-15 Ping Results for an Exceeded TTL

C:\> ping -i 1 192.168.254.254 Pinging 192.168.254.254 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.16.255.254: TTL expired in transit. Reply from 172.16.255.254: TTL expired in transit. Reply from 172.16.255.254: TTL expired in transit. Reply from 172.16.255.254: TTL expired in transit. Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms C:\>

What network device responds to pings that exceed the TTL value? The gateway router Figure 6-8 shows Wireshark captures to a fictitious destination. Expand the middle Wireshark window and the Internet Control Message Protocol record.
Figure 6-8 Wireshark Capture of TTL Value Exceeded

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Which ICMP message type is used to return information to the sender? Type 11 message What code is associated with the message type? Code 0, Time to live exceeded in transit Which network device is responsible for decrementing the TTL value? Routers decrement the TTL value.

Task 3: Challenge
Use Wireshark to capture a tracert session to Eagle Server and then to 192.168.254.251. Examine the ICMP TTL exceeded message. This demonstrates how the tracert command traces the network path to the destination.

Task 4: Reflection
The ICMP protocol is very useful when troubleshooting network connectivity issues. Without ICMP messages, a sender has no way to tell why a destination connection failed. Using the ping command, you can capture and evaluate different ICMP message type values.

Task 5: Clean Up
Wireshark may have been loaded on the pod host computer. If the program must be removed, choose Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs, and scroll down to Wireshark. Click the filename, click Remove, and follow the uninstall instructions. Remove any Wireshark pcap files that were created on the pod host computer. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: Examining ICMP Packets (6.7.2.2)


You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6722.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. The instructions are summarized within the activity.

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Activity 6-1: IPv4 Address Subnetting, Part 1 (6.7.3.1)


Upon completion of this activity, you will be able to determine network information for a given IP address and network mask. Background This activity is designed to teach you how to compute network IP address information from a given IP address. Scenario When given an IP address and network mask, you will be able to determine other information about the IP address, such as
I I I I

Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts

Task 1: For a Given IP Address, Determine Network Information


Given the following information:
I I

Host IP address: 172.25.114.250 Network mask: 255.255.0.0 (/16)

you will determine the following information in this task:


I I I I

Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Translate the host IP address and network mask into binary notation. In Table 6-16, convert the host IP address and network mask into binary.

Step 1.

Table 6-16

Decimal-to-Binary Conversion 172 25 114 250

IP address Network mask

10101100 11111111 255

00011001 11111111 255

01110010 00000000 0

11111010 00000000 0

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Step 2.

Determine the network address. In Table 6-17, perform the following tasks:
I I

Draw a line under the mask. Perform a bitwise AND operation on the IP address and subnet mask.

Note: 1 AND 1 results in a 1; 0 AND anything results in a 0.


I

Express the result in dotted-decimal notation. The result is the network address for this host IP address, which is 172.25.0.0.
AND Operation 172 25 114 250

Table 6-17

IP address Subnet mask

10101100 11111111

00011001 11111111 00011001 25

01110010 00000000 00000000 0

11111010 00000000 00000000 0

Network address 10101100 172


Step 3.

In Table 6-18, determine the broadcast address for the network address. The network mask separates the network portion of the address from the host portion. The network address has all 0s in the host portion of the address, and the broadcast address has all 1s in the host portion of the address.

Table 6-18

Broadcast Information 172 25 0 0

Network address Subnet mask

10101100 11111111

11001000 11111111 11001000 25

00000000 00000000 11111111 255

00000000 00000000 11111111 255

Broadcast address 10101100 172

By counting the number of host bits, you can determine the total number of usable hosts for this network. Host bits: 16 Total number of hosts: 216 = 65,536 65,536 2 = 65,534 (addresses that cannot use the all-0s address [the network address] or the all-1s address [the broadcast address]) Add this information to Table 6-19.

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Table 6-19 Field

Host Bits: Information on the Number of Hosts Value

Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts

172.25.114.250 255.255.0.0 (/16) 172.25.0.0 172.25.255.255

16 bits or 216 or 65,536 total hosts 65,536 2 = 65,534 usable hosts

Task 2: Challenge
For all problems, create a subnetting worksheet to show and record all work for each problem. Table 6-20 shows Problem 1.
Table 6-20 Field Problem 1 Value

Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-21 shows Problem 2.
Table 6-21 Field Problem 2

172.30.1.33 255.255.0.0 172.30.0.0 172.30.255.255 16 bits 65,536 2 = 65,534

Value

Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts

172.30.1.33 255.255.255.0 172.30.1.0 172.30.1.255 8 bits 256 2 = 254

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Table 6-22 shows Problem 3.


Table 6-22 Field Problem 3 Value

Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-23 shows Problem 4.
Table 6-23 Field Problem 4

192.168.10.234 255.255.255.0 192.168.10.0 192.168.10.255 8 bits 256 2 = 254

Value

Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts Table 6-24 shows Problem 5.
Table 6-24 Field Problem 5

172.17.99.71 255.255.0.0 172.17.0.0 172.17.255.255 16 bits 65,536 2 = 65,534

Value

Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts

192.168.3.219 255.255.0.0 192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255 16 bits 65,536 2 = 65,534

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Table 6-25 shows Problem 6.


Table 6-25 Field Problem 6 Value

Host IP address Network mask Network address Network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts

192.168.3.219 255.255.255.224 192.168.3.192 192.168.3.223 5 bits 32 2 = 30

Task 3: Clean Up
Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

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Activity 6-2: IPv4 Address Subnetting, Part 2 (6.7.4.1)


In this activity, you learn how to determine subnet information for a given IP address and subnetwork mask. Background Determine how many bits must be allocated to create a certain number of subnets or a certain number of hosts per subnet. Using the chart shown in Table 6-26, it is easy to determine how many bits must be borrowed.
Table 6-26 Hosts or Subnets

210 1,024

29 512

28 256

27 128

26 64

25 32

24 16

23 8

22 4

21 2

20 1

Number of bits borrowed:

10 1,024

9 512

8 256

7 128

6 64

5 32

4 16

3 8

2 4

1 2

1 1

Remember, subtract 2 for the usable number of hosts per subnetone for the subnet address and one for the subnets broadcast address. Because subnet masks must be contiguous 1s followed by contiguous 0s, the converted dotted-decimal notation can contain one of a certain number of values, as shown in Table 6-27.
Table 6-27 Decimal Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Binary

255 254 252 248 240 224 192 128 0

11111111 11111110 11111100 11111000 11110000 11100000 11000000 10000000 00000000

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Scenario When given an IP address, network mask, and subnetwork mask, you will be able to determine other information about the IP address:
I I I I I I I

The subnet address of this subnet The broadcast address of this subnet The range of host addresses for this subnet The maximum number of subnets for this subnet mask The number of hosts for each subnet The number of subnet bits The number of this subnet

Task 1: For a Given IP Address and Subnet Mask, Determine Subnet Information
Given the following information:
I I I

Host IP address: 172.25.114.250 Network mask: 255.255.0.0 (/16) Subnet mask: 255.255.255.192 (/26)

you will determine the following information in this task:


I I I I I I I I

Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Translate the host IP address and subnet mask into binary notation in Table 6-28.
Translate Host IP Addresses Value

Step 1.

Table 6-28 Field

IP address

172 10101100

25 00011001 11111111 255

114 01110010 11111111 255

250 11111010 11000000 192

Subnet mask

11111111 255

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Step 2.

In Table 6-29, determine the network (or subnet) where this host address belongs. Draw a line under the mask. Perform a bitwise AND operation on the IP address and subnet mask.

Table 6-29

Determine the Network 172 25 114 250

IP address Subnet mask Subnet address

10101100 11111111 10101100 172

11001000 11111111 11001000 25

01110010 11111111 01110010 114

11111010 11000000 11000000 192

Note: 1 AND 1 results in a 1; 0 AND anything else results in a 0.

Express the result in dotted-decimal notation. The result is the subnet address of this subnet, which is 172.25.114.192.
Step 3.

Determine which bits in the address contain network information and which contain host information. As shown in Figure 6-9, draw the major divide (M.D.) as a wavy line where the 1s in the major network mask end (also the mask if there was no subnetting). In this example, the major network mask is 255.255.0.0, or the first 16 leftmost bits.

Figure 6-9

Major Divide/Subnet Divide


M.D. S.D. 01110010 11111111 01110010
10 Bits

IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add.

10101110 11111111 10001010

11001000 11111111 11001000

11 111010 11 000000 11 000000

Draw the subnet divide (S.D.) as a straight line where the 1s in the given subnet mask end. The network information ends where the 1s in the mask end. The result is the number of subnet bits, which can be determined by simply counting the number of bits between the M.D. and S.D., which in this case is 10 bits.
Step 4.

Determine the bit ranges for subnets and hosts. As shown in Figure 6-10, label the subnet counting range between the M.D. and the S.D. This range contains the bits that are being incremented to create the subnet numbers or addresses.

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Figure 6-10

Bit Ranges for Subnets and Hosts


M.D. S.D. 01110010 11111111 01110010
Subnet Counting Range

IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add.

10101110 11111111 10001010

11001000 11111111 11001000

11 111010 11 000000 11 000000


Host Counting Range

Label the host counting range between the S.D. and the last bits at the end on the right. This range contains the bits that are being incremented to create the host numbers or addresses.
Step 5.

Use Figure 6-11 to determine the range of host addresses available on this subnet and the broadcast address on this subnet.
Subnet Counting Range and Host Counting Range
M.D. IP Address Subnet Mask Subnet Add. 10101100 11111111 10101100 11001000 11111111 11001000 01110010 11111111 01110010
Subnet Counting Range

Figure 6-11

S.D. 11 111010 11 000000 11 000000


Host Counting Range

First Host

10101100 172

11001000 25 11001000 25 11001000 25

01110010 114 01110010 114 01110010 114

11 000001 193 11 111110 254 11 111111 255

Last Host

10101100 172

Broadcast

10101100 172

Write down all the network/subnet bits of the network address (that is, all bits before the S.D.). In the host portion (to the right of the S.D.), make the host bits all 0s except for the rightmost bit (or least-significant bit), which you make a 1. This gives us the first host IP address on this subnet, which is the first part of the result for Range of Host Addresses for This Subnet, which in the example is 172.25.114.193. Next, in the host portion (to the right of the S.D.), make the host bits all 1s except for the rightmost bit (or least-significant bit), which you make a 0. This gives us the last host IP address on this subnet, which is the last part of the result for Range of Host Addresses for This Subnet, which in the example is 172.25.114.254. In the host portion (to the right of the S.D.), make the host bits all 1s. This gives us the broadcast IP address on this subnet. This is the result for Broadcast Address of This Subnet, which in the example is 172.25.114.255.

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Add the missing information to Table 6-30.


Table 6-30 Field Fill in the Missing Information Value

Host IP address Major network mask Major (base) network address Major network broadcast address Total number of host bits Number of hosts

172.25.114.250 255.255.0.0 (/16) 172.25.0.0 172.25.255.255

16 bits or 216 or 65,536 total hosts 65,536 2 = 65,534 usable hosts

Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet
Step 6.

255.255.255.192 (/26) 26 bits 210 = 1024 subnets 6 bits 26 2 = 64 2 = 62 hosts per subnet 172.25.114.192 172.25.114.193 172.25.114.254 172.25.114.255

Determine the number of subnets. The number of subnets is determined by how many bits are in the subnet counting range (in this example, 10 bits). Use the formula 2n, where n is the number of bits in the subnet counting range. 210 = 1024 Number of subnet bits: 10 bits Number of subnets (all 0s used, all 1s not used): 210 = 1024 subnets

Step 7.

Determine the number of usable hosts per subnet. The number of hosts per subnet is determined by the number of host bits (in this example, 6 bits) minus 2 (1 for the subnet address and 1 for the broadcast address of the subnet). 26 2 = 64 2 = 62 hosts per subnet Number of host bits per subnet: 6 bits Number of usable hosts per subnet: 26 2 = 64 2 = 62 hosts per subnet

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Step 8.

Review the final answers in Table 6-31.


Final Answers Value

Table 6-31 Field

Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet

172.25.114.250 255.255.255.192 (/26) 26 bits 210 = 1024 subnets 6 bits 26 2 = 64 2 = 62 hosts per subnet 172.25.114.192 172.25.114.193 172.25.114.254 172.25.114.255

Task 2: Challenge
For all problems, create a subnetting worksheet to show and record all work for each problem. Table 6-32 shows Problem 1.
Table 6-32 Field Problem 1 Value

Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet

172.30.1.33 255.255.255.0 8 bits 256 2 = 254 8 bits 256 2 = 254 172.30.1.0 172.30.1.1 172.30.1.254 172.30.1.255

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Table 6-33 shows Problem 2.


Table 6-33 Field Problem 2 Value

Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Table 6-34 shows Problem 3.
Table 6-34 Field Problem 3

172.30.1.33 255.255.255.252 14 bits 16,384 2 = 16,382 42=2 2 172.30.1.32 172.30.1.33 172.30.1.34 172.30.1.35

Value

Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet

192.192.10.234 255.255.255.0 24 bits 224 8 bits 256 2 = 254 192.192.10.0 192.192.10.1 192.192.10.254 192.192.10.255

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Table 6-35 shows Problem 4.


Table 6-35 Field Problem 4 Value

Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet Table 6-36 shows Problem 5.
Table 6-36 Field Problem 5

172.17.99.71 255.255.0.0 16 bits 216 2 16 bits 256 2 = 254 172.17.0.0 172.17.0.1 172.17.255.254 172.17.255.255

Value

Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet

192.168.3.219 255.255.255.0 24 bits 224 8 bits 256 2 = 254 192.168.3.0 192.168.3.1 192.168.3.254 192.168.3.255

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Table 6-37 shows Problem 6.


Table 6-37 Field Problem 6 Value

Host IP address Subnet mask Number of subnet bits Number of subnets Number of host bits per subnet Number of usable hosts per subnet Subnet address for this IP address IP address of the first host on this subnet IP address of the last host on this subnet Broadcast address for this subnet

192.168.3.218 255.255.255.252 6 bits 64 2 = 62 42=2 2 192.168.3.216 192.168.3.217 192.168.3.218 192.168.3.219

Task 3: Clean Up
Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

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Lab 6-3: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.7.5.1)


Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
I I I I I

Subnet an address space given requirements. Assign appropriate addresses to interfaces and document them. Configure and activate serial and FastEthernet interfaces. Test and verify configurations. Reflect on and document the network implementation.

Scenario In this lab activity, you design and apply an IP addressing scheme for the topology shown in Figure 612. You are given one address block that you must subnet to provide a logical addressing scheme for the network. The routers then will be ready for interface address configuration according to your IP addressing scheme. When the configuration is complete, verify that the network is working properly.
Figure 6-12 Topology for Lab 6-3
192.168.1.32/27 192.168.1.64/27 Fa0/0 192.168.1.96/27 Fa0/0

PC1

R1

S0/0/0 DCE

S0/0/0

PC2

R2

Task 1: Subnet the Address Space


Step 1.

Examine the network requirements. You have been given the 192.168.1.0/24 address space to use in your network design. The network consists of the following segments:
I I I

The network connected to router R1 requires enough IP addresses to support 15 hosts. The network connected to router R2 requires enough IP addresses to support 30 hosts. The link between router R1 and router R2 requires IP addresses at each end of the link.

Step 2.

Consider the following questions when creating your network design:


I I I I

How many subnets are needed for this network? 3 What is the subnet mask for this network in dotted-decimal format? 255.255.255.224 What is the subnet mask for the network in slash format? /27 How many usable hosts are there per subnet? 30

Step 3.

Assign subnetwork addresses to the topology diagram shown in Figure 6-12:


I I I

Assign subnet 1 to the network attached to R1. Assign subnet 2 to the link between R1 and R2. Assign subnet 3 to the network attached to R2.

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Task 2: Determine Interface Addresses


Step 1.

Assign appropriate addresses to the device interfaces:


I I I I I I

Assign the first valid host address in subnet 1 to the LAN interface on R1. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 1 to PC1. Assign the first valid host address in subnet 2 to the WAN interface on R1. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 2 to the WAN interface on R2. Assign the first valid host address in subnet 3 to the LAN interface on R2. Assign the last valid host address in subnet 3 to PC2.

Step 2.

In Table 6-38, document the addresses to be used.


Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

Table 6-38 Device

R1

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

192.168.1.33 192.168.1.65 192.168.1.97 192.168.1.94 192.168.1.62 192.168.1.126

255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224

192.168.1.33 192.168.1.97

R2

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

PC1 PC2

NIC NIC

Task 3: Configure the Serial and FastEthernet Addresses


Step 1.

Configure the router interfaces. Configure the interfaces on the R1 and R2 routers with the IP addresses from your network design. Note that to complete the activity in Packet Tracer, you will use the Config tab. When you have finished, be sure to save the running configuration to the routers NVRAM.

Step 2.

Configure the PC interfaces. Configure the Ethernet interfaces of PC1 and PC2 with the IP addresses and default gateways from your network design.

Task 4: Verify the Configurations


Answer the following questions to verify that the network is operating as expected:
I I I I

From the host attached to R1, can you ping the default gateway? Yes From the host attached to R2, can you ping the default gateway? Yes From the router R1, can you ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R2? Yes From the router R2, can you ping the Serial 0/0/0 interface of R1? Yes

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Note: The answers to the preceding questions should be yes. If any of the pings failed, check the physical connections and configurations.

Task 5: Reflection
Are there any devices on the network that cannot ping each other? Answers will vary What is missing from the network that is preventing communication between these devices? Answers will vary
Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: Subnet and Router Configuration (6.7.5.2)


You can now open the file LSG01-Lab6752.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. The instructions are summarized within the activity.

Packet Tracer Challenge

Skills Integration Challenge: Planning Subnets and Configuring IP Addresses (6.8.1.3)


Open the file LSG01-PTSkills6.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
I I I

Do IP subnet planning: Practice your subnetting skills. Build the network: Connect devices with Ethernet and serial cables. Configure the network: Apply your subnetting scheme to servers, PCs, and router interfaces; configure services and static routing. Test the network: Using ping, trace, web traffic, and Inspect tools.

Background You have been asked to implement the standard lab topology, but with a new IP addressing scheme.

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You will use many of the skills you have learned to this point in the course. Figure 6-13 shows the topology for this lab.
Figure 6-13 Topology for Challenge
1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server

2960-24TT S1-Central

1841 R2-Central

PC-PT 1A

PC-PT 1B

Task 1: IP Subnet Planning


You have been given an IP address block of 192.168.23.0 /24. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth. Fill in your answers in Table 6-39.
Table 6-39 Device Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

192.168.23.110 192.168.23.130 192.168.23.62 192.168.23.129 192.168.23.1 192.168.23.2 192.168.23.109

255.255.255.240 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.192 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.192 255.255.255.192 255.255.255.252

192.168.23.130 192.168.23.130 192.168.23.62 192.168.23.62 192.168.23.110

R2-Central

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server

NIC NIC NIC

Subnet assignments:
I I

First subnet, existing student LAN (off of router R2-Central), up to 60 hosts Second subnet, future student LAN, up to 28 hosts

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I I I I I

Third subnet, existing ISP LAN, up to 12 hosts Fourth subnet, future ISP LAN, up to 8 hosts Fifth subnet, existing WAN, point-to-point link Sixth subnet, future WAN, point-to-point link Seventh subnet, future WAN, point-to-point link

Interface IP addresses:
I I

For the server, configure the second-highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISPs Fa0/0 interface, configure the highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISPs S0/0/0 interface, configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Centrals S0/0/0 interface, use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Centrals Fa0/0 interface, use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. For hosts 1A and 1B, use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet.

I I

Additional configurations:
I I

For PCs 1A and 1B, in addition to IP configuration, configure them to use DNS services. For the server, enable DNS services, use the domain name eagle-server.example.com, and enable HTTP services. For the R1-ISP router serial interface, you need to set the clock rate (a timing mechanism required on the DCE end of serial links) to 64000. No clock rate is needed on the DTE sidein this case, R2-Centrals serial interface.

Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer


Add cables where they are missing:
I I I I

Connect a serial DCE cable to R1-ISP S0/0/0, with the other end to R2-Central S0/0/0. Connect PC 1A to the first FastEthernet port on switch S1-Central. Connect PC 1B to the second FastEthernet port on switch S1-Central. Connect interface Fa0/0 on router R2-Central to the highest FastEthernet port on switch S1Central. For all devices, make sure the power is on to the device and the interfaces.

Task 3: Configure the Network


You need to configure the server, both routers, and the two PCs. You do not need to configure the switch, nor do you need the IOS CLI to configure the routers. Part of the router configuration has already been done for you. All you must do is configure the static routes and the interfaces via the GUI. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing student LAN subnet via R2-Centrals

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serial interface IP address. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISPs serial interface IP address. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 Skills Integration Challenge.

Task 4: Test the Network


Use ping, trace, web traffic, and the Inspect tool. Trace packet flow in simulation mode, with HTTP, DNS, TCP, UDP, and ICMP viewable, to test your understanding of how the network is operating.

Task 5: Reflection
Reflect on how much you have learned so far! Practicing IP subnetting skills and network building, configuration, and testing skills will serve you well throughout your networking courses.

CHAPTER 7

OSI Data Link Layer

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the data link layer. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure that you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills you need to work with the data link layer. As you work through this chapter, use Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum, or use the corresponding Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide, for assistance.

Study Guide
Data Link Layer: Accessing the Media
The data link layer plays a major role in networks, because it is the layer that accesses the physical medium and causes network traffic to traverse different physical media. The media can consist of many different types, including copper cabling, optical fibers, and the air in the case of wireless. The data link layer hides the details of these media from the upper layers and takes on the job of transmitting data across each network segment.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


In Table 7-1, match the term on the left to its definition on the right.
Table 7-1 Term Data Link Layer Terms Definition

a. Frame b. Node c. Media d. Network e. Data link

d. Two or more devices connected to a common medium e. A layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model that frames upper-layer data and controls how data is placed on a medium b. A device on a network c. The physical means used to carry data signals a. The protocol data unit (PDU) used in Layer 2 of the OSI model

Concept Questions
1.

What are the two main jobs of the data link layer? The data link layer allows upper layers to access media. It also controls how data is placed on and received from media.

2.

What is the difference between a logical network and a physical network? The network layer defines the logical network using a hierarchical addressing scheme. The data link layer defines the physical network as a set of devices on a common medium.

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3.

If the data link layer didnt exist, what changes would be required of a network layer protocol such as Internet Protocol (IP)? Without a data link layer, IP or other network layer protocols would need to make provisions for connecting every type of media that could exist along a delivery path. Moreover, IP would need to change every time a new network technology or medium were developed. This disadvantage is avoided by using a layered model for networking and by giving the data link layer the job of placing data on a medium and controlling access to the medium.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks in the following statements.
1. 2. 3. 4.

The technique for getting a frame on and off a medium is called the media access control method. To connect to a network, a node uses an adapter, such as a Network Interface Card (NIC) on a local-area network (LAN). The adapter manages the framing and media access control. An intermediary device, such as a router, has physical interfaces that can encapsulate a packet into the appropriate frame and handle the media access control method to access each link. A router uses data link layer services to receive a frame from one medium, decapsulate the frame to the Layer 3 PDU, encapsulate the Layer 3 PDU into a new frame, and place the frame on the medium of the next link in the network.

Media Access Control Techniques


Media access control regulates the placement of data frames on a medium. There are different ways to accomplish this regulation, depending on the medium and the data link layer protocols in use. Some methods are complicated and add overhead to the process. Other methods are less complicated but may not scale as well.

Concept Questions
1.

Compare and contrast controlled media access control and contention-based media access control. With controlled media access control, each node has its own time to use the medium. Network devices take turns, in sequence, to access the medium. With contention-based media access control, all nodes compete for the use of the medium. Any device can try to access the medium whenever it has data to send. The controlled method provides predictable, deterministic throughput, but it can be inefficient because a device has to wait its turn before it can use the medium. The contention-based method has less overhead but does not scale well under heavy use. As more nodes try to access the network to send data, the probability of successful access without a data collision decreases.

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2.

List the steps in the carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) process. At this point, you can keep the list simple. You will learn more about CSMA/CD in Chapter 9, Ethernet. Sense whether the medium is free. If a carrier signal from another node is detected, wait and try again later. If a carrier signal is not detected, transmit the data. While transmitting, monitor the medium for the presence of another nodes signal. If another node is also transmitting, stop transmitting and wait a random amount of time before trying again. What is the difference between full-duplex communication and half-duplex communication? With full-duplex communication, both devices can transmit and receive on the medium at the same time. Receiving data while transmitting is allowed. With half-duplex communication, only one device can transmit at any given time. Receiving data while transmitting is not allowed.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 3.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks in the following statements.
1. 2. 3.

A logical multiaccess topology enables a number of nodes to communicate by using the same shared medium. Having many nodes share access to the medium requires a data link layer media access control method to regulate the transmission of data. Three media access control methods used by logical multiaccess topologies include carrier sense multiple access collision detect, carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance, and token passing. Data link layer rules (also called protocols) specify the media access control method that is used for a particular technology. For example, Ethernet uses CSMA/CD.

4.

Media Access Control: Addressing and Framing Data


A fundamental job of the data link layer is to encapsulate a Layer 3 PDU into a Layer 2 PDU. The Layer 2 PDU is called a frame. Although different protocols place different fields in a frame, most protocols specify that the frame should have a header, data field, and trailer. Most Layer 2 frames also have addressing fields in the header that identify the sender and receiver.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


Table 7-2 lists some typical fields that appear in frame headers. Match the field on the left to its definition on the right.

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Table 7-2 Field

Frame Header Fields Definition

a. Start frame b. Address c. Type d. Length e. Priority f. Flow control g. Congestion control

g. Used to indicate overloading on the medium f. Used to start and stop traffic when overloading occurs d. Specifies the number of bytes in the data part of the frame c. Indicates the upper-layer service contained in the frame a. Tells other devices on the network that a frame is coming along the medium b. Identifies the sender and receiver e. Indicates a particular type of communication service for special processing

Table 7-3 lists three major data link layer protocols. Match each protocol on the left to its specifications on the right.
Table 7-3 Protocol Data Link Layer Protocols Specification

a. Ethernet b. Point-to-Point Protocol c. 802.11

c. A protocol for wireless networks that uses CSMA/CA a. Defined by the IEEE 802.3 standard a. Includes specifications for operation at 10, 100, 1000, and 10,000 Mbps b. Establishes a logical connection (session) between two nodes a. Uses a preamble field at the beginning of the frame b. Often found on WANs a. Provides unacknowledged connectionless service over a shared medium using CSMA/CD b. Defined in a Request For Comments (RFC) document b. Uses a flag field at the beginning of the frame c. Uses an acknowledgment to confirm that a frame was received successfully

Concept Questions
1.

Compare and contrast Layer 2 addresses with Layer 3 addresses. Layer 2 addresses are used only for local delivery when transporting a frame across a shared local medium. When a packet crosses an internetwork, it gets encapsulated in a new data link layer header with new Layer 2 addresses for each hop it takes. Layer 2 addresses use a flat addressing scheme and do not indicate on what network a device is located. If a device is moved to another network, its Layer 2 address does not need to change. Layer 3 addresses, on the other hand, are carried from source to destination host across an internetwork. Layer 3 addresses use a hierarchical addressing scheme and indicate a network number and host identifier.

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2.

Why are Layer 2 addresses not needed in point-to-point topologies? Layer 2 addresses are not needed in point-to-point topologies because there can be no confusion about the frames destination. Only two devices are connected. After it is on the medium, a frame has only one place to go (to the other device).

3.

What is the purpose of the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) in a frame trailer? The FCS field is used to determine if errors occurred in the transmission and receipt of a frame. The FCS field is necessary because the signals on the medium are subject to interference, distortion, or loss that would change the bit values that those signals represent.

Putting It All Together: Follow Data Through an Internetwork


When a user on a LAN wants to access a service, a number of packets are generated and encapsulated in Layer 2 frames. If you have done the reading in Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or if you have used the corresponding Chapter 7 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide, you should now be able to put together at a high level the events that take place on a network when a user accesses a service.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks in the following statements that describe a user accessing a web page stored on a web server that is located on a remote network. The user is on an Ethernet LAN. The user sends data to a router on that Ethernet LAN. The router sends the data to another router across a PPP WAN link. The recipient router forwards the data onto an Ethernet LAN where the server resides.
1. 2. 3.

The user starts by clicking a link or URL on a web page. A TCP three-way handshake sets up a connection with the server. The users web browser initiates a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) GET request. The application layer adds a Layer 7 header. The transport layer identifies the upper-layer service that the user wants to reach as the HTTP (or World Wide Web [WWW]) service. The transport layer places a destination port number of 80 in the TCP segment to indicate the WWW service. The transport layer also places the source port number for this session in the segment. TCP adds an acknowledgment number that tells the web server the sequence number that TCP expects in the next segment it receives. At the network layer, an IP packet is constructed to identify the source and destination hosts. For the destination address, the client uses the IP address associated with the WWW servers hostname. It uses its own IPv4 address as the source address. The data link layer refers to the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache to determine the Media Access Control (MAC) address that is associated with the Ethernet interface on the clients router. The client builds an Ethernet II frame to transport the IPv4 packet across the local medium.

4. 5.

6.

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7.

The data link layer frame indicates that the upper-layer data is IPv4 by placing 0x0800 in the Type field of the Ethernet II header. The frame begins with a Preamble field and ends with an FCS field for error detection. The client uses the CSMA/CD media access control method to verify that the medium is not already in use. The Physical layer transmits the frame onto the medium bit by bit. The router that receives the frame checks the FCS at the end of the frame to determine if the frame was received intact without any errors. The router removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. routing table. A match is found, and the router determines that the next hop for the packet is a router at the other end of a PPP WAN link.

8. 9.

10. At the network layer, the destination IPv4 address in the packet is compared to the routes in the

11.

The router creates a PPP frame to transport the packet across the WAN. an IPv4 packet is encapsulated.

12. The router includes a Protocol field in the PPP header with a value of 0x0021 to indicate that 13. The PPP session has already been established, so the physical layer begins transmitting the

frame onto the WAN medium bit by bit.


14. The recipient router checks the FCS to determine if the frame was received intact without any

errors. The router removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer.
15. At the network layer, the destination IPv4 address in the packet is compared to routes in the

routing table. The router determines that the packet should be sent out an Ethernet network to the web server.
16. The router consults its ARP cache to determine the MAC address of the web server. It then

builds an Ethernet II frame to transport the IPv4 packet to the server. It uses CSMA/CD to verify that the medium is not already in use.
17.

The physical layer transmits the frame onto the medium bit by bit. without any errors.

18. The server examines the frame. It checks the FCS to determine if the frame was received intact 19.

The server compares the destination MAC address in the frame to the MAC address of the NIC in the server. Because it matches, the server removes the data link header and pushes the packet up to the network layer. Because it matches, the server removes the network layer header and pushes the data to the transport layer. Because the IP network layer header identified the upper-layer protocol as 0x06, the server pushes the data to TCP.

20. The server compares the destination IPv4 address in the packet to its own IPv4 address.

21.

The server examines the TCP segment to determine the session to which the data belongs. This is done by examining the source and destination ports. The TCP sequence number is used to place this segment in the proper order to be sent upward to the application layer. can now form a response. The 22 steps reverse themselves, and a packet flows back to the client. Eventually, as soon as all the necessary packets have been sent and received, the user sees a web page.

22. At the application layer, the HTTP GET request is delivered to the WWW service. The service

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Labs and Activities


Lab 7-1: Frame Examination (7.5.2.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
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Explain the header fields in an Ethernet II frame. Use Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet II frames.

Background When upper-layer protocols communicate with each other, data flows down the OSI layers and is encapsulated in a Layer 2 frame. The frame composition depends on the media access type. For example, if the upper-layer protocol is TCP/IP and the media access is Ethernet, the Layer 2 frame encapsulation is Ethernet II. When learning about Layer 2 concepts, it is helpful to analyze frame header information. The Ethernet II frame header is examined in this lab. Ethernet II frames can support various upper-layer protocols, such as TCP/IP. Scenario Wireshark will be used to capture and analyze Ethernet II frame header fields. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer, you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter7/. The file is wireshark-setup-0.99.4.exe. The Windows ping command will be used to generate network traffic for Wireshark to capture. Figure 7-1 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 7-4 is the corresponding addressing table.
Figure 7-1 Topology for Lab 7-1

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

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Table 7-4 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified

before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity by following these steps:
Step 1. Step 2.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, shown in the logical addressing table, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Explain the Header Fields in an Ethernet II Frame


Figure 7-2 shows the format for an Ethernet II frame.
Figure 7-2 Ethernet II Frame Format
Destination Address Source Address Frame Type 2 Octets

Preamble

Data

FCS

8 Octets

6 Octets

6 Octets

461500 Octets

4 Octets

In Figure 7-3, the Panel List window shows a Wireshark capture of the ping command between a pod host computer and Eagle Server. The session begins with the ARP protocol querying for the MAC address of the Gateway router, followed by a DNS query. Finally, the ping command issues echo requests.

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Figure 7-3

Wireshark Capture of the ping Command

In Figure 7-3, the Packet Details window shows Frame 1 detail information. Using this window, you can obtain Ethernet II frame information. Table 7-5 shows the information you can obtain.
Table 7-5 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Value Description

Preamble Destination Address

Not shown in the capture ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

This field contains synchronizing bits, processed by the NIC hardware. Layer 2 addresses for the frame. Each address is 48 bits long, or 6 bytes, expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits, 0 to 9, A to F. A common format is 12:34:56:78:9A:BC. The first six hex numbers indicate the manufacturer of the network interface card (NIC). Refer to http://www.neotechcc.org/forum/macid.htm for a list of vendor codes. The last six hex digits, ac:a7:6a, are the serial number of the NIC. The destination address may be a broadcast that contains all 1s, or unicast. The source address is always unicast.

Source Address Frame Type

00:16:76:ac:a7:6a 0x0806 For Ethernet II frames, this field contains a hexadecimal value that is used to indicate the type of upper-layer protocol in the data field. Ethernet II supports numerous upper-layer protocols. Here are two common frame types: Value Description 0x0800 IPv4 protocol 0x0806 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Contains the encapsulated upper-layer protocol. The Data field is between 46 and 1500 bytes.

Data

ARP

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Table 7-5 Field

Ethernet II Frame Header Value

continued Description

FCS

Not shown in the capture

Frame Check Sequence, used by the NIC to identify errors during transmission. The value is computed by the sending machine, encompassing frame addresses, type, and data field. It is verified by the receiver.

What is the significance of all 1s in the destination address field? This is a broadcast address. All computers on the LAN receive the frame, and the computer with the corresponding IP address sends a unicast reply to the source. From the information contained in the Packet List window for the first frame, answer the following questions about the destination and source MAC address. Destination Address MAC address: ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff NIC manufacturer: Does not apply NIC serial number: Does not apply Source Address MAC address: 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a NIC manufacturer: Intel NIC serial number: ac:a7:6a From the information contained in the Packet List window for the second frame, answer the following questions about the destination and source MAC address. Destination Address MAC address: 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a NIC manufacturer: Intel NIC serial number: ac:a7:6a Source Address MAC address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 NIC manufacturer: Cisco NIC serial number: cf:66:40 Figure 7-4 is an expanded view of Frame 3 from the Wireshark capture.

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Figure 7-4

Frame 3 Fields

Use the information shown in Figure 7-4 to complete Table 7-6.


Table 7-6 Field Ethernet II Frame Header Completion Value

Preamble Destination Address Source Address Frame Type Data FCS

Not shown in the capture 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 00:16:76:ac:a7:6a 0x0800 IP Not shown in the capture

Task 2: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Ethernet II Frames


In this task, you use Wireshark to capture and analyze packets captured on the pod host computer.
Step 1.

Configure Wireshark for packet captures. Prepare Wireshark for captures. Choose Capture > Interfaces, and then click the start button that corresponds to the 172.16.x.y interface IP address. This begins the packet capture.

Step 2.

Start a ping to Eagle Server, and capture the session. Open a Windows terminal window. Choose Start > Run, enter cmd, and click OK.

Ping eagle-server.example.com, as shown in Example 7-1. When the command has finished executing, stop the Wireshark capture.

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Example 7-1

Pinging Eagle Server

Microsoft Windows XP [Version 5.1.2600] Copyright 1985-2001 Microsoft Corp. C:\> ping eagle-server.example.com Pinging eagle-server.example.com [192.168.254.254] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Reply from 192.168.254.254: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=62 Ping statistics for 192.168.254.254: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms C:\>

Step 3.

Analyze the Wireshark capture. The Wireshark Packet List window should start with an ARP request and reply for the Gateways MAC address. Next, a DNS request is made for the IP address of eagleserver.example.com. Finally, the ping command is executed. Your capture should look similar to the one shown in Figure 7-3. If you dont see an ARP exchange, you can flush the ARP cache using the arp -d * command, as shown in Example 7-2.

Example 7-2

Displaying and Flushing the ARP Cache

C:\> arp -a Interface: 172.16.1.1 --- 0x30004 Internet Address 172.16.255.254 C:\> arp -d * C:\> arp -a No ARP Entries Found C:\> Physical Address 00-0c-85-cf-66-40 Type dynamic

If you do not see a DNS query, it is because the DNS record for eagle-server.example.com is stored in the DNS cache. Use the Windows XP ipconfig /flushdns command to clear the DNS cache, as shown in Example 7-3.

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Example 7-3

Displaying and Flushing the DNS Cache

C:\> ipconfig /displaydns Windows IP Configuration 1.0.0.127.in-addr.arpa ---------------------------------------Record Name . . . . . : 1.0.0.127.in-addr.arpa. Record Type . . . . . : 12 Time To Live . . . . : 549045 Data Length . . . . . : 4 Section . . . . . . . : Answer PTR Record . . . . . : localhost eagle-server.example.com ---------------------------------------Record Name . . . . . : eagle-server.example.com Record Type . . . . . : 1 Time To Live . . . . : 86386 Data Length . . . . . : 4 Section . . . . . . . : Answer A (Host) Record . . . : 192.168.254.254 localhost --------------------------------------Record Name . . . . . : localhost Record Type . . . . . : 1 Time To Live . . . . : 549045 Data Length . . . . . : 4 Section . . . . . . . : Answer A (Host) Record . . . : 127.0.0.1 C:\> ipconfig /flushdns Windows IP Configuration Successfully flushed the DNS Resolver Cache. C:\> ipconfig /displaydns Windows IP Configuration 1.0.0.127.in-addr.arpa --------------------------------------Record Name . . . . . : 1.0.0.127.in-addr.arpa. Record Type . . . . . : 12 Time To Live . . . . : 549013 Data Length . . . . . : 4 Section . . . . . . . : Answer PTR Record localhost --------------------------------------Record Name . . . . . : localhost Record Type . . . . . : 1 Time To Live . . . . : 549013 Data Length . . . . . : 4 Section . . . . . . . : Answer A (Host) Record . . . : 127.0.0.1 C:\> . . . . . : localhost

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Use your Wireshark capture of the ping command to answer the following questions. Pod computer MAC address information MAC address: Answers will vary. NIC manufacturer: Answers will vary. NIC serial number: Answers will vary. R2-Central MAC address information MAC address: Answers will vary. NIC manufacturer: Cisco NIC serial number: Answers will vary. A student from another school wants to know the MAC address for Eagle Server. What would you tell the student? MAC addresses are visible only on the LAN and are different for each LAN. Because the students Eagle Server is on a different LAN than yours, the information cannot be obtained from a Wireshark capture on your LAN. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ARP Request? 0x0806. Because ARP is not encapsulated inside an IP packet, it must have a unique identifier, different from the identifier for IP. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ARP Reply? 0x0806 What is the Ethernet II frame type value for a DNS query? 0x0800. 0x0800 is the frame type for IP. DNS is encapsulated in an IP packet. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for a DNS query response? 0x0800 What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ICMP echo? 0x0800. Again, 0x0800 is the frame type for IP. ICMP is encapsulated in the IP packet. What is the Ethernet II frame type value for an ICMP echo reply? 0x0800

Task 3: Challenge
Use Wireshark to capture sessions from other TCP/IP protocols, such as FTP and HTTP. Analyze the captured packets, and verify that the Ethernet II frame type remains 0x0800.

Task 4: Reflection
In this lab, Ethernet II frame header information was examined. A preamble field contains 7 bytes of alternating 1010 sequences and 1 byte that signals the beginning of the frame, 10101011. Destination and source MAC addresses each contain 12 hex digits. The first six hex digits contain the manufacturer of the NIC, and the last six hex digits contain the NIC serial number. If the frame is a broadcast, the destination MAC address contains all 1s. A 2-byte frame type field contains a value that indicates the

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protocol in the data field. For IPv4, the value is 0x0800. The data field is variable and contains the encapsulated upper-layer protocol. At the end of a frame, a 4-byte FCS value is used to verify that there were no errors during transmission. Reflect on the necessity and formatting of each of these fields. For example, consider why the preamble field is necessary and why it consists of alternating 1s and 0s. Also reflect on the destination and source addresses, and consider why the developers of Ethernet chose to place the destination address first, before the source address.

Task 5: Clean Up
Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled, choose Start > Control Panel. Click Add or Remove Programs. Choose Wireshark, and click Remove. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

Packet Tracer Challenge

Skills Integration Challenge: Data Link Layer Issues (7.6.1.3)


Open file LSG01-PTSkills7.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Upon completion of this activity, you will be able to
I I I I I I

Practice your IP subnet planning skills. Practice your subnetting skills. Build the network. Connect devices with Ethernet and serial cables. Configure the network. Apply your subnetting scheme to server, PCs, and router interfaces, and configure services and static routing. Test the network. Use ping, trace, web traffic, and the Inspect tool.

I I

Background Network Interface Cards (NIC) are sometimes thought of as Layer 2 and Layer 1 devices (or as Layer 2 and Layer 1 components of devices that function at all seven layers). Sometimes the NIC for a serial connection, typically used in WAN connections, is called a WAN interface card (WIC). In this challenge you must add a WIC to a device to complete the network. In addition, you have been asked to implement a new IP addressing scheme for the Exploration lab topology. Figure 7-5 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 7-7 is the corresponding addressing table.

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Figure 7-5

Topology for the Challenge


1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server

2960-24TT S1-Central

1841 R2-Central

PC-PT 1A

PC-PT 1B

Table 7-7 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway (Route)

R1-ISP

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

172.16.3.62 172.16.3.98 172.16.1.254 172.16.3.97 172.16.0.1 172.16.0.2 172.16.3.61

255.255.255.192 255.255.255.252 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.254.0 255.255.254.0 255.255.255.192

172.16.3.98 172.16.3.98 172.16.1.254 172.16.1.254 172.16.3.62

R2-Central

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server

NIC NIC NIC

Task 1: IP Subnet Planning


You have been given an IP address block of 172.16.0.0/22. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth. Subnet assignments:
I I I

First subnet, existing student LAN, up to 400 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central) Second subnet, future student LAN, up to 180 hosts (not yet implemented) Third subnet, existing ISP LAN, up to 40 hosts (Fa0/0 on R1-ISP)

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Fourth subnet, future ISP LAN, up to 18 hosts (not yet implemented) Fifth subnet, existing WAN, point-to-point link (S0/0/0 on R1-ISP and R2-Central) Sixth subnet, future WAN, point-to-point link (not yet implemented) Seventh subnet, future WAN, point-to-point link (not yet implemented)

Interface IP addresses:
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For the server, configure the second-highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISPs Fa0/0 interface, configure the highest usable IP address on the existing ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISPs S0/0/0 interface, configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Centrals S0/0/0 interface, use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Centrals Fa0/0 interface, use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. For PCs 1A and 1B, use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet.

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Additional configurations:
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For PCs 1A and 1B, in addition to IP configuration, configure them to use DNS services. For the server, enable DNS services, use the domain name eagle-server.example.com, and enable HTTP services.

Task 2: Finish Building the Network in Packet Tracer, Attending to Some Layer 2 Issues
On the R2-Central router, a NIC is missing for the serial connection to R1-ISP. Add a WIC-2T in the slot on the right. Also on R2-Central, Fa0/0 is shut down; turn it on. Connect a serial DCE cable to R1-ISP S0/0/0, with the other end connected to R2-Central S0/0/0. For all devices, make sure the power is on.

Task 3: Configure the Network


You need to configure the server, both routers, and the two PCs. You do not need to configure the switch, nor do you need the IOS CLI to configure the routers. Part of the router configuration has already been done for you; all you must do is configure the static routes and the interfaces via the GUI. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing student LAN subnet via R2-Centrals serial interface IP address. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISPs serial interface IP address. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 Skills Integration Challenge, and you practiced them in the Chapter 6 Skills Integration Challenge.

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Task 4: Test the Network


Use ping, trace, web traffic, and the Inspect tool. Trace packet flow in simulation mode, with HTTP, DNS, TCP, UDP, and ICMP viewable, to test your understanding of how the network is operating. Note in particular what Layer 2 encapsulation is used in each step of a packets journey, and how the headers on the Layer 2 PDUs change.

Task 5: Reflection
Consider an ICMP echo request packet sent from PC 1A to Eagle Server and the ICMP echo reply packet that results. Reflect on which addresses stay the same in this situation and which ones change.

CHAPTER 8

OSI Physical Layer

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice, matching, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of the OSI physical layer. The Lab Exercises portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills needed to understand and work with the physical layer. As you work through this chapter, use Chapter 8 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 8 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance.

Study Guide
The Physical Layer: Communication Signals
The role of the OSI physical layer is to encode the binary digits that represent data link layer frames into signals and to transmit and receive these signals across the physical media (copper wires, optical fiber, and wireless) that connect network devices.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks for the following statements.
1. 2.

The purpose of the physical layer is to create the electrical, optical, or microwave signal that represents the bits in each frame. Manchester encoding indicates a 0 by a high-to-low voltage transition in the middle of the bit time. For a 1, there is a low-to-high voltage transition in the middle of the bit time.

Concept Questions
1.

What are the three basic forms of network media on which data is represented? Copper cable, fiber, and wireless

2.

Physical layer standards cover what four areas? Physical and electrical properties of the media Mechanical properties (materials, dimensions, pinouts) of the connectors Bit representation by the signals (encoding) Definition of control information signals

3.

What are the three fundamental functions of the physical layer? The physical components Data encoding Signaling

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Physical Signaling and Encoding: Representing Bits


Eventually, all communication from the human network becomes binary digits, which are transported individually across the physical media.

Concept Questions
1.

Bits are represented on the medium by changing one or more of the following characteristics of a signal: Amplitude Frequency Phase

2.

Different physical media support the transfer of bits at different speeds. Data transfer can be measured in three ways: Bandwidth Throughput Goodput

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks in the following statements.
1.

The capacity of a medium to carry data is described as the raw data bandwidth of the media. Digital bandwidth measures the amount of information that can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time. Throughput is the measure of the transfer of bits across the media over a given period of time. Goodput is the measure of usable data transferred over a given period of time, and is therefore the measure that is of most interest to network users.

2. 3.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


In Table 8-1, match the definition on the right with a term on the left.
Table 8-1 Term Signaling and Encoding Definition

a. NRZ signaling b. Manchester encoding

b. Bit values are represented as voltage transitions. a. Uses bandwidth inefficiently and is susceptible to electromagnetic interference. In addition, the boundaries between individual bits can be lost when long strings of 1s or 0s are transmitted consecutively. c. Each byte to be transmitted is broken into 4-bit pieces or nibbles and encoded as 5-bit values known as symbols. These symbols represent the data to be transmitted and a set of codes that help control transmission on the media.

c. 4B/5B

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Physical Media: Connecting Communication


The physical layer is concerned with network media and signaling. This layer produces the representation and groupings of bits as voltages, radio frequencies, or light pulses. Various standards organizations have contributed to the definition of the physical, electrical, and mechanical properties of the media available for different data communications.

Concept Questions
1.

Standards for copper media are defined by what criteria? Type of copper cabling used Bandwidth of the communication Type of connectors used Pinout and color codes of connections to the media Maximum distance of the media

2.

What can limit the susceptibility of copper cables to electronic noise? Selecting the cable type or category most suited to protect the data signals in a given networking environment Designing a cable infrastructure to avoid known and potential sources of interference in the building structure Using cabling techniques that include the proper handling and termination of the cables

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


In Table 8-2, match a connector on the right with a media (cable) on the left.
Table 8-2 Media and Connectors Connector

Media (Cable)

a. Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling b. Coaxial cable c. Multimode optical fiber d. Single-mode optical fiber

c. Straight-Tip (ST) a. RJ-45 d. Subscriber Connector (SC) b. BNC

In Table 8-3, match the speed on the right with the wireless standard on the left.
Table 8-3 Wireless Media Speed

Wireless Standard

a. Bluetooth 802.15 b. 802.11(a,b,g,n), HiperLAN 2 c. 802, 11, MMDS, LMDS d. GSM, GPRS, CDMA, 2.5-3G

c. 22+ Mbps a. < 1 Mbps d. 10[nd]384 Kbps b. 1[nd]54+ Mbps

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Labs and Activities


Lab 8-1: Media Connectors Lab Activity (Lab 8.4.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
I I I

Test cables using a Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter and a Fluke LinkRunner. Become familiar with the most common functions of a cable tester. Test different cables for type and wiring problems.

Background Category 5 (Cat 5) unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cables are wired according to function. End devices, such as routers and host computers, connect to switches with Cat 5 straight-through cables. When connected together, however, a Cat 5 crossover cable must be used. This is also true of switches. When connecting one switch to another, a Cat 5 crossover cable is used again. Problems related to cables are one of the most common causes of network failure. Basic cable tests can prove helpful in troubleshooting cabling problems with UTP. The quality of cabling components used, the routing and installation of the cable, and the quality of the connector terminations will be the main factors in determining how trouble-free the cabling will be.
Note to instructor: Before starting the lab, the teacher or lab assistant should have several correctly

wired Cat 5 cables that are used by the student to learn cable tester operation. The cables should be both straight-through and crossover. There should also be several Cat 5 cables available with problems. Cables should be numbered to simplify the testing process and to maintain consistency. The following resources are required:
I I

Good Cat 5 straight-through and crossover wired cables of different colors Cat 5 straight-through and crossover wired cables with open wire connections in the middle or one or more conductors shorted at one end that are different colors and different lengths Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter or equivalent (see Figure 8-1) Fluke LinkRunner
Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter

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Figure 8-1

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Scenario First, you will visually determine whether the Cat 5 cable type is crossover or straight-through. Next, you use the cable tester to verify the cable type and common features available with the tester. Finally, you use the cable tester to test for bad cables that cannot be determined with a visual inspection.

Task 1: Become Familiar with the Most Common Functions of a Cable Tester
Figure 8-2 shows the TIA/EIA 568B Cat 5 UTP wire positioning for a straight-through and a crossover cable. When Cat 5 connectors are held together, wire color is a quick way to determine the cable type. TIA/EIA 568B is different from TIA/EIA 568A wiring. TIA/EIA 568A straight-through cables can be identified by the color coding.
Figure 8-2 TIA/EIA 568B Cat 5 UTP
TIA/EIA 568B CAT 5 UTP Straight Through 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TIA/EIA 568B CAT 5 UTP Crossover 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Step 1.

Visually determine cable types.

Note to instructor: Students should be given a functional straight-through and crossover cable. These

cables will be used to learn cable tester features and build confidence in cable tester accuracy. There should be two numbered cables available. Perform a visual inspection of the cables and then fill out the chart in Table 8-4 with the cable color, type, and use.
Table 8-4 Cable Number Cable Types Cable Color Cable Type (StraightThrough or Crossover) Cable Use (Circle correct device)

1 2

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Switch to: host / switch Switch to: host / switch

It is now time to verify the cable type and learn about the common features of the cable tester.

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Step 2.

Perform initial configuration of the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. Turn the rotary switch selector on the tester to the WIRE MAP position. The wire map function displays which pins on one end of the cable are connected to which pins on the other end. Press the Setup button to enter the setup mode, and observe the LCD screen on the tester. The first option should be Cable. Press the up- or down-arrow buttons until the desired cable type of UTP is selected. Press Enter to accept that setting and go to the next one. Continue pressing the up/down-arrow buttons and pressing Enter until the tester is set to the cabling settings in Table 8-5.

Table 8-5 Tester Option

Cable Tester Settings for UTP Desired Setting: UTP

Cable Wiring Category Wire size CAL to Cable? Beeping LCD contrast

UTP 10Base-T or EIA/TIA 4PR Category 5 AWG 24 No On or Off From 1 through 10 (brightest) When satisfied with the correct settings, press the Setup button to exit setup mode.

Step 3.

Verify the cable wire map. Use the following procedure to test each cable with the LAN cable coupler and cable identifier, shown in Figure 8-3. The coupler and the cable identifier are accessories that come with the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter.

Figure 8-3

Cable Coupler and Cable Identifier

cable coupler

cable identifier

Place the near end of the cable into the RJ-45 jack labeled UTP/FTP on the tester. Place the RJ-45 to RJ-45 female coupler on the far end of the cable, and then insert the cable identifier into the other side of the coupler. The wiring of both the near and far end of the cable will be displayed. The top set of numbers displayed on the LCD screen refers to the near end, and the bottom set of numbers refers to the far end.

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Perform a wire map test on each of the cables provided, and fill in Table 8-6 based on the results. For each cable, write down the number and color, and whether the cable is straight-through or crossover.
Table 8-6 Cable Tester Settings for UTP Cable Color Cable Type (Straight-Through or Crossover)

Cable Number

1 2

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Note any problems encountered during this test: Answers will vary
Step 4.

Verify the cable length. Move the rotary switch selector on the tester to the Length position. If power was cycled, repeat the setup steps described in Step 2. The tester Length function displays the length of the cable. Perform a basic cable test on each of the cables, and complete Table 8-7 based on the results. For each cable, write down the number and color, the cable length, the tester screen test results, and what the problem is (if one exists).

Table 8-7

Results of Basic Cable Test Cable Color Cable Length

Cable Number

1 2

Answers will vary Answers will vary Note any problems encountered during this test: Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Repeat these steps until you are comfortable using the cable tester. In the next task, unknown cables are tested.

Task 2: Test Different Cables for Type and Wiring Problems


Obtain at least five different cables from your instructor. Move the rotary switch selector on the tester to the Wire Map position. If power was cycled, repeat the setup steps described in Task 1, Step 2. Using the cable tester Wire Map function, perform a wire map test on each of the cables provided. Then fill in Table 8-8 based on the result for each Cat 5 cable tested. For each cable, write down the number and color, whether the cable is straight-through or crossover, the tester screen test results, and any problem.

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Table 8-8

Results of Wire Map Test Cable Color Cable type (Straight-Through or Crossover) *Test Results Problem Description

Cable Cable Type Number (Visual Inspection)

1 2 3

Answers will vary Answers will vary. Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary. Answers will vary

Straight-through Crossover Crossover

Top: 12364578 Bottom: 12364578 Top: 12364578 Bottom: 36124578 Top: 12oo4578 Bottom: 36124578

None None Pins 3 and 6 are open somewhere in the first half of the cable Pin 5 is shorted in the last half of the cable Miswire

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Straight-through

Top: 12364578 Bottom: 12364s78 Top: 12365478 Bottom: 12364578

Straight-through

*Refer to the Fluke manual for a detailed description of test results for wire map.

Answers are examples only, and will vary. Rows 3, 4, and 5 show examples of cable problems.

Task 3: Perform Initial Configuration of the Fluke LinkRunner


Step 1. Figure 8-4

Turn on the Fluke LinkRunner, which is shown in Figure 8-4.


Fluke LinkRunner

Step 2. Step 3.

Press the green button on the lower right to turn it back off. Place both ends of the cable into the LAN and MAP ports located on top of the LinkRunner, and press the green button on the lower right along with the blue button to the left.

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If it is a correct straight-through cable, two parallel lines (as shown in Figure 8-5) will appear in the upper-left corner of the screen.
Figure 8-5 Fluke LinkRunner: Straight-Through Cable

If it is a correct crossover cable, two intersecting lines (as shown in Figure 8-6) will appear in the upper-left corner of the screen.
Figure 8-6 Fluke LinkRunner: Crossover Cable

If it is a bad cable, the triangle with an exclamation mark in the center will appear and details will display, as shown in Figure 8-7.
Figure 8-7 Fluke LinkRunner: Bad Cable

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Task 4: Verify Cable Length


Note: The instructions to test a cable are the same as determining cable length. Step 1. Step 2. Step 3.

Turn on the Fluke LinkRunner by pressing the green button on the lower right along with the blue button on the right. Press the green button on the lower right to turn it back off. Place both ends of the cable into the LAN and MAP ports located on top of the LinkRunner, and press the green button on the lower right along with the blue button to the left. Locate the length of the cable below the icon indicating the type of cable (as shown in Figure 8-8).
Fluke LinkRunner: Cable Length

Step 4.

Figure 8-8

Task 5: Reflection
Problems related to cables are one of the most common causes of network failure. Network technicians should be able to determine when to use Cat 5 UTP straight-through and crossover cables. A cable tester is used to determine cable type, length, and wire map. In a lab environment, cables are constantly moved and reconnected. A properly functioning cable today may be broken tomorrow. This isnt unusual, and is part of the learning process.

Task 6: Challenge
Look for opportunities to test other cables with the Fluke 620 LAN CableMeter. Skills learned in this lab will enable you to quickly troubleshoot wrong cable types and broken cables.

Task 7: Clean Up
The cable tester is expensive and should never be left unattended. Return the cable tester to the instructor when finished. Ask the instructor where to return used cables. Store the cables neatly for the next class.

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Packet Tracer Challenge

Skills Integration Challenge: Connecting Devices and Exploring the Physical View (8.5.1.3)
Open the file LSG01-PTSkills8.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Upon completion of this activity, you will be able to do the following:
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Connect the devices in the standard lab setup. Connect the devices. Verify connectivity. View the standard lab setup in the physical workspace. Enter and view the physical workspace. View the standard lab setup at the various levels of the physical workspace.

Background When working in Packet Tracer, in a lab environment, or in a corporate setting, it is important to know how to select the proper cable, and how to properly connect devices. This activity examines device configurations in Packet Tracer, selecting the proper cable based on the configuration, and connecting the devices. This activity also explores the physical view of the network in Packet Tracer. Figure 8-9 shows the topology for this skills integration challenge, and Table 8-9 shows the corresponding addressing table.
Figure 8-9 Topology for Challenge
1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server

2960-24TT S1-Central

1841 R2-Central

PC 1A

PC 1B

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Table 8-9 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

192.168.254.253 10.10.10.6 172.16.255.254 10.10.10.5 172.16.254.1 172.16.1.1 172.16.1.2 192.168.254.254

255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0

N/A N/A 10.10.10.6 10.10.10.6 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.168.255.254 192.168.254.253

R2-Central

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

S1-Central PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server

VLAN 1 NIC NIC NIC

Task 1: Connect the Devices in the Standard Lab Setup


Step 1.

Connect the devices. Connect PC 1A to the first port on switch S1-Central and PC 1B to the second port on switch S1-Central using the proper cable. Click router R2-Central and examine the configuration using the Config tab. Connect the proper interface on the router to interface FastEthernet0/24 on switch S1Central using the proper cable. Click both routers and examine the configuration using the Config tab. Connect the routers together using the proper interfaces and the proper cable. Click router R1-ISP and examine the configuration using the Config tab. Connect the proper interface on the router to the proper interface on Eagle Server using the proper cable.

Step 2.

Verify connectivity. From the command prompt on the desktop of both PCs, issue the command ping 192.168.254.254, the IP address of Eagle Server. If the pings fail, check your connections and troubleshoot until the pings succeed. Check your configuration by clicking the Check Results button.

Task 2: View the Standard Lab Setup in the Physical Workspace


Step 1.

Enter and view the physical workspace. Most of our work in Packet Tracer has been done in the logical workspace. In an internetwork, routers may be in different sites, from across the street to across the globe. The serial link between the routers represents a dedicated leased line between two locations consisting of a DTE (data terminal equipment), such as a router, connected to a DCE (data communication equipment), such as a channel/data service unit (CSU/DSU) or modem. The DCE connects to a service providers local loop, and the connections are repeated at the other end of the link. The physical workspace enables you to see these relationships more clearly.

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Enter the physical workspace by clicking the tab in the upper-left corner of the workspace. It shows the connection between Central City and ISP City.
Step 2.

View the standard lab setup at the various levels of the physical workspace. Click Central City. You will see the city and the location of the central office building. Click the central office building. You will see the floor plan of the building and the location of the wiring closet. Click the wiring closet. You will see a physical representation of the equipment installed in the wiring closet and the cabling that connects the equipment. Examine this view of the topology. Click Intercity on the navigation bar. Repeat the steps to view the equipment installed in ISP City.

CHAPTER 9

Ethernet

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching, fill-in-the-blank, multiple-choice, and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of Ethernet. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills needed to work with Ethernet. As you work through this chapter, use Chapter 9 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum, or use the corresponding Chapter 9 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide, for assistance.

Study Guide
Overview of Ethernet
Ethernet is the predominant LAN technology in use today. Ethernet has been so successful because it has evolved over time to incorporate new technologies such as higher speeds and fiber-optic cabling. Ethernets success can also be attributed to the fact that it was adopted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and standardized as IEEE 802.3. Ethernet operates at the OSI physical and data link layers. Using IEEE terminology, Ethernet operates at the physical layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer of the data link layer. The upper sublayer of the data link layer, Logical Link Control (LLC) or IEEE 802.2, can give upper-layer protocols access to Ethernet. In addition, Ethernet (without LLC) is the frame encapsulation method used for the most popular network layer protocol in use today, Internet Protocol (IP).

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


In Table 9-1, match the function on the right with the correct IEEE sublayer of the data link layer.
Table 9-1 Sublayer Data Link Layer Sublayers Function

a. LLC b. MAC

a. Provides an interface to the upper layers b. Controls the placement of a frame on the medium a. Remains relatively independent of the physical equipment b. Adds a frame delimiter b. Provides a unique source and destination address

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Concept Questions
1.

Why has Ethernet been so successful? Ethernet has been so successful because it has evolved with the times to incorporate new technologies. Its original speed of 3 Mbps evolved to 10 Mbps, and then to 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps, and now 10 Gbps. The cabling has also evolved from coaxial to unshielded twisted pair to fiber-optic. Ethernets success also can be attributed to its simplicity, ease of maintenance, reliability, low cost of installation and upgrading, and standardization by the IEEE. In addition, the fact that the Ethernet frame has remained relatively unchanged over the years has allowed applications to keep running over Ethernet even as it evolved.

2.

What functions does data encapsulation provide? Data encapsulation provides frame delimiting, addressing, and error detection.

3.

How does Ethernet handle error detection? The sending node calculates a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) of the bits in the frame. The node places the CRC result in the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field in the trailer part of the Ethernet frame. After receiving a frame, a receiving node calculates its own CRC to compare to the one in the frame. If the two CRC results match, the recipient assumes that the frame arrived without error.

Ethernet: Communication Through the LAN


The term Ethernet first appeared in 1973 when Dr. Robert M. Metcalfe of the Xerox Corporation circulated a memo to his colleagues, proposing the name for their prototype network. The name reflects the goal that Ethernet become ubiquitous, much like the ether substance that scientists in the 1800s believed filled space and matter. In 1980, Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel, and Xerox published the DIX V1.0 standard for Ethernet. DIX V2.0, also known as Ethernet II, was released in 1982. The IEEE published the 802.3 standard for Ethernet in 1985. Since 1985, Ethernet has evolved from a shared coaxial medium, to a shared hub-based network, and finally to a selective-forwarding environment with high-speed switches. Today, Ethernet forms the foundation of most industrial, educational, and government networks. Metcalfes goal that Ethernet become ubiquitous has been achieved.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


In Table 9-2, match the description on the right with the correct Ethernet term on the left.
Table 9-2 Term Ethernet Implementations Description

a. 10BASE5 b. 10BASE2 c. Hub d. Half duplex e. Full duplex f. Switch

d. Only one station at a time can transmit c. Concentrates connections, allowing the network to see a group of nodes as a single unit b. Uses 185 meters of thin coaxial cable f. Isolates each port and sends a frame only to its proper destination (if the destination is known) e. Both ends of a connection can send at the same time a. Uses 500 meters of thick coaxial cable

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Concept Questions
1.

Compare and contrast half duplex and full duplex. Half duplex is used on a medium that can carry only one signal at a time. Transmitting and receiving simultaneously is not allowed. Only one device can send at any time. When Ethernet ran on coaxial cable, it used half-duplex communication. When Ethernet was upgraded to run on hubs with twisted-pair cabling, it still used half-duplex communication. Although the cabling could have supported full duplex, the hub was still a shared medium. Full duplex means that each end of a communications channel can send at the same time. For example, a switch port and the connected device can send at the same time. Switches are capable of full duplex because they consider each connection a separate communication channel, unlike a hub, which is a shared device.

2.

What aspects of Ethernet have remained relatively unchanged over the years, and what aspects have changed? Ethernets simplicity and ease of use and installation have remained unchanged. The Ethernet frame has remained relatively unchanged. Ethernet is still usually connected in a star topology, but the center of the star is a switch rather than a hub these days. The cabling for Ethernet has evolved from coaxial to unshielded twisted pair to fiber-optic. Unshielded twisted pair is still widely used. Fiber-optic is reserved mostly for data centers, links between switches, and high-end devices.

The Ethernet Frame


A fundamental job of the data link layer is to encapsulate a Layer 3 Protocol Data Unit (PDU) into a Layer 2 PDU. The Layer 2 PDU is called a frame. Although different protocols place different fields in a frame, most protocols specify that the frame should have a header, data field, and trailer. Most Layer 2 frames also have addressing fields in the header that identify the sender and receiver. Ethernet follows these conventions.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


Table 9-3 lists the fields that appear in an IEEE 802.3 header and trailer. Match the field on the left with the definition on the right.
Table 9-3 Field Frame Header Fields Definition

a. Preamble b. Start of frame delimiter c. Destination address d. Source address e. Length/type f. Data g. Frame check sequence

g. Used for error detection a. Used for synchronization e. Specifies the number of bytes in the data part of the frame or specifies the type of data (the upper-layer protocol) f. Carries the upper-layer data b. Tells other devices on the network that a frame is coming along the medium d. Specifies the frames sender c. Specifies the frames intended recipient

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Multiple-Choice Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the following questions.
1.

What is the maximum size of an Ethernet frame according to the IEEE 802.3ac standard?

a. 1522 bytes b. 1518 bytes c. 1024 bytes d. 64 bytes 2.

What is the minimum size of an Ethernet frame?

a. 1522 bytes b. 128 bytes c. 72 bytes d. 64 bytes 3.

What does a receiving device do if it receives a frame that is less than the allowed minimum size or greater than the allowed maximum size?

a. The receiving device sends back a negative acknowledgment to the sender. b. The receiving device drops the frame. c. The receiving device reports a collision. d. The receiving device requests a retransmission. 4.

How does a recipient device know if the sender used the Length/Type field to specify a length or a type?

a. If the value is equal to or less than 1536, the field specifies a type. b. If the value is equal to or greater than 0x0600, the field specifies a type. c. The recipient sends a query to the sender to determine how the field should be interpreted. d. The recipient bases the decision on whether its been configured for Ethernet II or IEEE 802.3. 5.

Why is padding sometimes added to the data part of an Ethernet frame?

a. To ensure that the frame is protected from damage. b. To ensure that the frame is at least 64 bytes. c. To provide synchronization. d. To specify the Portable Application Description (PAD) that describes the encapsulated data. 6.

What happens if a frame arrives damaged? frame.

a. The recipient calculates a CRC that differs from the CRC in the FCS field and drops the b. The recipient requests a retransmission. c. The sender backs off and waits a random amount of time before trying again. d. The sender notices the missing acknowledgment and retransmits the frame.

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7.

How long is a MAC address?

a. Six hexadecimal digits b. 32 bits c. 48 bits d. 8 bytes

Concept Questions
1.

Compare and contrast MAC addresses with IP addresses. MAC addresses operate at the OSI data link layer (Layer 2). Layer 2 addresses are used only for local delivery when transporting a frame across a local medium. These addresses use a flat addressing scheme and do not indicate on what network a device is located. If a device is moved to another network, its Layer 2 address does not need to change. IP addresses operate at the OSI network layer (Layer 3). Layer 3 addresses are carried from source to destination host across an internetwork. Layer 3 addresses use a hierarchical addressing scheme and indicate a network number and host identifier.

2.

Compare and contrast unicast, broadcast, and multicast communications at the MAC sublayer. Unicast, broadcast, and multicast are all 48-bit MAC address types. All of them can be destination MAC addresses. Only unicast can be a source address. A unicast address is a unique address used when a frame is sent from a single transmitting device to a single destination device. In the case of a broadcast, the frame is destined for all devices in the broadcast domain and is addressed to a MAC broadcast address of 48 1s (or FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF in hexadecimal). With multicast, a source can send to a group of devices. The low-order bit of the first byte must be a 1 for the address to be a multicast. If the multicast is also an IP multicast, the first 24 bits of the MAC address are 01-00-5E in hexadecimal.

Ethernet Media Access Control


In a shared medium, all devices have guaranteed access to the medium, but they must fairly share the medium and not interfere with each other. If more than one device transmits at the same time, the physical signals collide, and the data is damaged. Both transmitters must recognize that their data has been damaged and resend it. Ethernet uses carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) to detect and handle collisions and regulate use of the shared medium.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks for the following statements that discuss CSMA/CD.
1.

Because devices using coaxial or hub-based Ethernet send their messages on a shared medium, a protocol (or coordination scheme or media access control method) is used to determine if the medium is already in use before a sender transmits. When a device detects that no other computer is sending a frame, the device transmits if it has something to send. All devices that have messages to send must listen before transmitting.

2.

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3. 4.

If a device detects a signal from another device, it waits before attempting to transmit. When no traffic is detected, a device transmits its message. While transmitting, the device continues to listen for traffic from another device. If another device is sending at the same time, a collision has occurred. If a collision happens, the sending devices continue to send for the time it takes to send a jam signal and then stop sending. The devices invoke a backoff algorithm that causes them to wait a random amount of time before trying to send again.

5.

Concept Questions
1.

What is interframe spacing, and why does Ethernet use it? Interframe spacing is the required time between frames on an Ethernet network. After a frame has been sent, all devices are required to wait a minimum of 96 bit times (the time it takes to send 96 bits). This gives the medium time to stabilize after transmitting a frame.

2.

Why is the backoff timing random when an Ethernet collision occurs? The backoff waiting period is intentionally designed to be random so that two stations do not delay for the same amount of time before retransmitting, which would result in more collisions.

Ethernet Physical Layer


The many implementations of Ethernet include Classic Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The differences occur at the physical layer, often called the Ethernet PHY. Four data rates are currently defined for operation over optical-fiber and twisted-pair cables:
I I I I

10 Mbps: 10BASE-T Classic Ethernet 100 Mbps: Fast Ethernet 1000 Mbps: Gigabit Ethernet 10 Gbps: 10 Gigabit Ethernet

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks for the following statements that describe Ethernet physical layer options.
1.

10BASE-T uses two pairs of a four-pair cable and is terminated at each end with an eight-pin RJ-45 connector. The pair connected to pins 1 and 2 is used for transmitting, and the pair connected to pins 3 and 6 is used for receiving. Replacing hubs with switches in 10BASE-T networks has greatly increased the bandwidth available to these networks and has helped Ethernet maintain its dominance in the LAN market. The 10BASE-T links connected to a switch can support either half-duplex or full-duplex operation. The most popular implementations of 100 Mbps Ethernet are 100BASE-TX, which uses Category 5 or later UTP cable, and 100BASE-FX, which uses fiber-optic cable. 1000BASE-T Ethernet provides full-duplex transmission using four pairs of Category 5 or later UTP cable.

2.

3. 4.

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5.

The two fiber versions of Gigabit Ethernet are 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX. Fiber-optic cabling offers better noise immunity than UTP, a smaller physical size, and higher distances and bandwidth. A difference between 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX is the wavelength of the optical signal. The IEEE 802.3ae standard was adapted to include 10-Gbps, full-duplex transmission over fiber-optic cable. 10-Gigabit Ethernet is evolving for use not only in LANs, but also in MANs and WANs. Although Gigabit Ethernet is now widely available and 10-Gigabit products are becoming more available, the IEEE and the 10-Gigabit Ethernet Alliance are working on 40-, 100-, and even 160-Gbps standards.

6. 7.

8.

Hubs and Switches


In the 1970s and 1980s, Ethernet networks were connected in a bus topology using coaxial cable. The coaxial cable provided a shared medium. In the 1990s, administrators started connecting nodes to the shared network in a star topology using twisted-pair cabling and hubs. During the 1990s, to improve performance, administrators upgraded their hubs to switches. Switches divide collision domains into smaller domains, sometimes so small that collisions are no longer an issue. For example, in the common case where a single device is connected to a port on a switch, both ends of the communications channel can send and receive at the same time, and collisions dont occur. Switches forward broadcast and multicast traffic to all members of a LAN but provide selective forwarding for unicast traffic. The selective forwarding greatly reduces collisions and improves performance.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


In Table 9-4, match the characteristic on the right with the correct term on the left.
Table 9-4 Term Characteristics of Hubs and Switches Characteristic

a. Hub b. Switch

b. Divides collision domains a. Forwards received bits out every port b. Supports full-duplex communication a. Simplifies network cabling but doesnt have any performance benefits a. When many nodes that transmit frequently are connected to this device, latency increases, because each node must wait for an opportunity to transmit b. Provides an alternative to contention-based Ethernet b. Maintains a table that maps each MAC address to a port

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks for the following statements that describe the selective forwarding service provided by switches.
1.

A switch selectively forwards a frame that it receives on a port to the port where the destination node is connected.

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2. 3.

Switches use store-and-forward switching, whereby the switch receives an entire frame, checks the FCS field for errors, and forwards the frame to the appropriate port. A switch maintains a table, called the MAC table (also called MAC address table, CAM table, switch table, bridge table, filter table), that matches a MAC address with the port used to connect the node with that address.

Concept Question
List and describe the five basic operations of an Ethernet LAN switch. Learning. A switch populates the MAC table by learning which port it should use to reach each MAC address. As a frame enters the switch, the switch examines the MAC source address. If no entry exists in the table for this address, the switch creates a new entry that pairs the source address with the port on which the frame arrived. The switch can now use this mapping to forward frames to the node with the MAC address in the table entry. Aging. A switch tracks how long an entry has been in the MAC table. If the entry reaches a certain age without being refreshed by a new frame from the same node on the same port, the entry is removed. Flooding. If a switch has not yet learned which port it should use to forward a frame to a destination, the switch sends the frame to all ports, except the port on which the frame arrived. Selective forwarding. A switch examines the destination MAC address in a frame and forwards the frame out the appropriate port. Filtering. After a switch has learned the address or addresses that map to a port, it filters frames from going out that port that include a destination address that is not mapped to the port.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)


To send an IP packet to a recipient, a sender needs to learn the recipients MAC address. ARP provides a means for a sender to broadcast a message to find the MAC address for a known IP address.

Multiple-Choice Questions
Choose the best answer for each of the following questions.
1.

What is a basic job of ARP?

a. Resolve IPv4 addresses to MAC addresses b. Build a table that maps MAC addresses to ports c. Build a loop-free LAN from redundantly connected switches d. Provide a resource protocol for finding applications 2.

If a node has recently sent a frame to another node, where is the mapping of IPv4 address to MAC address stored?

a. MAC table b. ARP cache c. Routing table d. NVRAM

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3.

When a node has not recently sent a frame to another node, how does the node discover the correct MAC address to use for the IPv4 address of the destination node?

a. The sender sends an IPv4 query to the destination node to ask the node for its MAC address. b. The sender broadcasts an ARP request. c. The sender monitors traffic until it discovers the correct MAC address to use. d. The sender transmits a TCP SYN to the destination node. 4.

What type of header does an ARP frame contain?

a. IP b. Ethernet c. TCP d. UDP 5.

When an Ethernet transmitter sends to a destination not on its local network, what MAC destination address does it use, and how does it discover this address? request.

a. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the destination, which it discovers with an ARP b. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the local router interface, which it discovers with an

ARP request.
c. The transmitter uses the MAC address of the destination, which it discovers with a proxy ARP

request.
d. The transmitter doesnt need a MAC address for the destination and relies on the IP destination

address to provide enough information for routers to forward the frame.


6.

What is the destination address in the frame when a node sends an ARP request to find the MAC address associated with a known IP address?

a. 255.255.255.255 b. The address of the local router interface c. The recipients address d. FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF

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Labs and Activities


Lab 9-1: Address Resolution Protocol (9.8.1.1)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
I I

Use the Windows arp command. Use Wireshark to examine ARP exchanges.

Background TCP/IP uses ARP to map a Layer 3 IP address to a Layer 2 MAC address. When a frame is placed on the network, it must have a destination MAC address. To dynamically discover the MAC address of the destination device, an ARP request is broadcast on the LAN. The device that contains the destination IP address responds, and the MAC address is recorded in the ARP cache. Every device on the LAN keeps its own ARP cache, which is a small area in RAM that holds ARP results. An ARP cache timer removes ARP entries that have not been used for a certain period of time. Depending on the device, the times differ. For example, some Windows operating systems store ARP cache entries for 2 minutes. If the entry is used again during that time, the ARP timer for that entry is extended to 10 minutes. ARP is an excellent example of a performance trade-off. With no cache, ARP must continually request address translations each time a frame is placed on the network. This adds latency to the communication and could congest the LAN. Conversely, unlimited hold times could cause errors with devices that leave the network or change the Layer 3 address. A network engineer needs to be aware of ARP but may not interact with the protocol on a regular basis. ARP is a protocol that enables network devices to communicate with the TCP/IP protocol. Without ARP, no efficient method exists to build the datagram Layer 2 destination address. ARP is a potential security risk. ARP spoofing, or ARP poisoning, is a technique used by an attacker to inject the wrong MAC address association into a network. An attacker forges a devices MAC address, and frames are sent to the wrong destination. Manually configuring static ARP associations is one way to prevent ARP spoofing. In addition, an authorized MAC address list may be configured in Cisco devices to restrict network access to only approved devices. Scenario With a pod host computer, use the Windows arp utility command to examine and change ARP cache entries. In Task 2, you will use Wireshark to capture and analyze ARP exchanges between network devices. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer, you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter9/. The file is wireshark-setup-0.99.4.exe. Figure 9-1 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 9-5 is the corresponding addressing table.

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Figure 9-1

Topology for Lab 9-1

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

Table 9-5 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity:
Step 1.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on.

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Step 2.

From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, shown in Table 9-5, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

Task 1: Use the Windows arp Command


Step 1.

Access the Windows terminal. Open a Windows terminal by choosing Start > Run. Enter cmd, and click OK. With no options, the arp command displays useful help information. Issue the arp command on the pod host computer, and examine the output. It should look like Example 9-1.

Example 9-1

Using the arp Command

C:\> arp Displays and modifies the IP-to-Physical address translation tables used by address resolution protocol (ARP). ARP -s inet_addr eth_addr [if_addr] ARP -d inet_addr [if_addr] ARP -a [inet_addr] [-N if_addr] -a Displays current ARP entries by interrogating the current protocol data. If inet_addr is specified, the IP and Physical addresses for only the specified computer are displayed. If more than one network interface uses ARP, entries for each ARP table are displayed. -g Same as -a. Specifies an internet address. inet_addr

-N if_addr Displays the ARP entries for the network interface specified by if_addr. -d Deletes the host specified by inet_addr. inet_addr may be wildcarded with * to delete all hosts. -s Adds the host and associates the Internet address inet_addr with the Physical address eth_addr. The Physical address is given as 6 hexadecimal bytes separated by hyphens. The entry is permanent. eth_addr if_addr interface Specifies a physical address. If present, this specifies the Internet address of the

whose address translation table should be modified. If not present, the first applicable interface will be used.

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Example 9-1

Using the arp Command

continued

Example: > arp -s 157.55.85.212 00-aa-00-62-c6-09 > arp -a table. C:\> .... Adds a static entry. .... Displays the arp

Answer the following questions about the arp command:


I

What command is used to display all entries in the ARP cache? arp -a

What command is used to delete all ARP cache entries (flush the ARP cache)? arp -d *

What command is used to delete the ARP cache entry for 172.16.255.254? arp -d 172.16.255.254

Step 2.

Use the arp command to examine the local ARP cache, as shown in Example 9-2.
Using the arp Command with the -a Option

Example 9-2

C:\> arp -a No ARP Entries Found C:\>

Without any network communication, the ARP cache should be empty. When you issued the command that displays ARP entries, what were the results? The ARP cache should be empty. Any entry indicates communication between the pod host computer and other network devices.
Step 3.

Use the ping command to dynamically add entries to the ARP cache. The ping command can be used to test network connectivity. By accessing other devices, ARP associations are dynamically added to the ARP cache, as shown in Example 9-3.

Example 9-3

Using the ping Command

C:\> ping 172.16.1.2 Pinging 172.16.1.2 with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 172.16.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.16.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.16.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Reply from 172.16.1.2: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128 Ping statistics for 172.16.1.2: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms C:\> C:\> arp -a

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Example 9-3

Using the ping Command

continued

Interface: 172.16.1.1 - 0x60004 Internet Address 172.16.1.2 C:\> Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f Type dynamic

Use the command ipconfig /all to verify another pod host computers Layer 2 and Layer 3 information. Issue the ping command to that pod host computer. How was the ARP entry added to the ARP cache? Hint: Review the Type column. Dynamically What is the IP address of the destination pod host computer? Answers will vary. What is the physical address of the destination pod host computer? Answers will vary. Do not send any traffic to the computer accessed previously. Wait between 2 and 3 minutes, and check the ARP cache again. Was the ARP cache entry cleared? Yes If the entry was not cleared, a couple explanations are possible. First, you did not wait 2 minutes, which is how long the ARP cache stores an initial entry. Or, you accessed the destination device more than once and caused the ARP timeout for the entry to rise to 10 minutes. Issue the ping command to the Gateway, R2-Central. Examine the ARP cache entry. What is the IP address of the Gateway? 172.16.255.254 What is the physical address of the Gateway? Answers will vary. How was the address discovered? Dynamically Issue the ping command to Eagle Server, eagle-server.example.com. Examine the ARP cache entry. What is the physical address of Eagle Server? It cannot be determined. Because Eagle Server is on a different network, only the Gateway MAC address is displayed.
Step 4.

Manually adjust entries in the ARP cache. Verify that the ARP cache contains two entries: one for the Gateway and one for the destination pod host computer. It may be easier to ping both devices more than once, which will retain the cache entry for approximately 10 minutes. Record the two ARP cache entries using Table 9-6.

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Table 9-6 Device

Initial ARP Cache Entries IP Address Physical Address How Is It Discovered?

Pod host computer Gateway

Answers will vary 172.16.255.254

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Dynamically Dynamically

Next, delete the entry for the pod host computer. To delete entries in the ARP cache, issue the arp -d {inet-addr | *} command. You can delete addresses individually by specifying the IP address, or you can delete all entries using the wildcard *. Example 9-4 shows how to manually delete an ARP cache entry.
Example 9-4 Manually Deleting an ARP Cache Entry

C:\> arp -a Interface: 172.16.1.1 - 0x60004 Internet Address 172.16.1.2 172.16.255.254 C:\> C:\> arp -d 172.16.255.254 C:\> arp -a Interface: 172.16.1.1 - 0x60004 Internet Address 172.16.1.2 C:\> Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f Type dynamic Physical Address 00-10-a4-7b-01-5f 00-0c-85-cf-66-40 Type dynamic dynamic

What command deletes the entry for the pod host computer? arp -d inet-addr Record the remaining ARP cache entry in Table 9-7.
Table 9-7 Device Remaining ARP Cache Entry IP Address Physical Address How Is It Discovered?

Gateway

172.16.255.254

Answers will vary.

Dynamically

Simulate removing all entries. What command deletes all entries in the ARP cache? arp -d * Issue the command to remove all entries in the ARP cache on your pod host computer, and examine the ARP cache with the arp -a command. All entries should be removed. Consider a secure environment where the Gateway controls access to a web server that contains top-secret information. What is one layer of security that can be applied to ARP cache entries to help counter ARP spoofing? Add a static ARP entry for the Gateway.

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Simulate adding a static entry for the Gateway. What command adds a static ARP entry for the Gateway to the ARP cache? arp -s 172.16.255.254 MAC-address Issue the command on your pod host computer, and examine the ARP cache again. Now, provide answers to these questions:
I I I

What is the IP address of the Gateway? 172.16.255.254 What is the physical address of the Gateway? Answers will vary. What is the type of the ARP entry? Static

For the next task, Wireshark will be used to capture and examine an ARP exchange. Do not close the Windows terminal; you will use it to view the ARP cache.

Task 2: Use Wireshark to Examine ARP Exchanges


Step 1.

Configure Wireshark for packet captures. Prepare Wireshark for captures. Choose Capture > Options. Select the interface that corresponds to the LAN. Check the box to update the list of packets in real time. Click Start. This begins the packet capture.

Step 2.

Prepare the pod host computer for ARP captures. If you havent already done so, open a Windows terminal window by choosing Start > Run. Enter cmd, and click OK. Flush the ARP cache; this will require ARP to rediscover address maps. What command did you use? arp -d *

Step 3.

Capture and evaluate ARP communication. In this step, one ping request is sent to the Gateway, and one ping request is sent to Eagle Server. Afterward, the Wireshark capture is stopped, and the ARP communication is evaluated. Send one ping request to the Gateway, using the command ping -n 1 172.16.255.254. Send one ping request to Eagle Server, using the command ping -n 1 192.168.254.254. Stop Wireshark and evaluate the communication. You should see a Wireshark screen similar to the one shown in Figure 9-2. The Wireshark Packet List window displays the number of packets captured. The Packet Details window shows ARP protocol contents.

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Figure 9-2

Wireshark Screen

Using your Wireshark capture, answer the following questions:


I I

What is the first ARP packet? A request What is the second ARP packet? A reply

Fill in Table 9-8 with information about the first ARP packet.
Table 9-8 Field First ARP Packet Value

Sender MAC address Sender IP address Target MAC address Target IP address

Answers will vary Answers will vary 00:00:00:00:00:00 172.16.255.254

Fill in Table 9-9 with information about the second ARP packet.
Table 9-9 Field Second ARP Packet Value

Sender MAC address Sender IP address Target MAC address Target IP address

Answers will vary 172.16.255.254 Answers will vary Answers will vary

If the Ethernet II frame for an ARP request is a broadcast, why does the target MAC address contain all 0s? The ARP protocol has no value yet to put in the field.

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Why was there no ARP request for the ping to Eagle Server? The TCP/IP protocol already had the MAC address for the Gateway, which is used to forward the packet outside the LAN. How long should the Gateway mapping be stored in the ARP cache on the pod host computer? Why? 10 minutes, because the cache entry was accessed within the 2-minute cache timeout. This sets the new timeout value to 10 minutes.

Task 3: Reflection
The ARP protocol maps Layer 3 IP addresses to Layer 2 MAC addresses. If a packet must move across networks, the Layer 2 MAC address changes with each hop across a router, but the Layer 3 address never changes. The ARP cache stores ARP address mappings. If the entry was learned dynamically, it will eventually be deleted from cache. If the entry was manually inserted in the ARP cache, it is a static entry and remains until the computer is turned off or the ARP cache is manually flushed.

Task 4: Challenge
Using outside resources, perform a search on ARP spoofing. Discuss several techniques used to counter this type of attack. Most wireless routers support a network administrator manually adding a list of MAC addresses to the router that are permitted access to the wireless network. Using outside resources, discuss the advantages of configuring MAC address restrictions for wireless networks. Discuss ways in which attackers can circumvent this security.

Task 5: Clean Up
Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled, choose Start > Control Panel. Click Add or Remove Programs. Choose Wireshark, and click Remove. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.
Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: Address Resolution Protocol (9.8.1.2)


You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9812.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.

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Packet Tracer Challenge

Lab 9-2: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.8.2.1)


Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
I I

Use the Telnet protocol to log into a Cisco switch. Use the Cisco show mac-address-table command to examine MAC address and port associations.

Background Switches maintain a table of MAC addresses and associated switch ports. When a switch receives a frame, the destination MAC address is checked against the table, and the corresponding port is used to route the frame out the switch. If a switch does not know which port to use to route the frame, or the frame is a broadcast, the frame is routed out all ports except the port where it originated. Access to Cisco devices can be accomplished through several means. A console port can be used if the Cisco router or switch is within proximity of a computer. Using the Windows hyperterm utility, a serial connection can be established. For devices physically distant from the network engineer, network connectivity can be established through two means. If the network is not secure, a modem configured on the AUX port enables telephone access. For secure networks, the Cisco device can be configured for a Telnet session. In this lab, you will connect to the switch via a Telnet session. You will do the following:
I I I

Telnet to S1-Central. Log in with your student account. Use the show mac-address-table command to examine the MAC addresses and association to ports.

Scenario Telnet is a network service that uses a client/server model. Cisco IOS devices provide a default Telnet server, and operating systems such as Windows have built-in Telnet clients. Using Telnet, network engineers can log into network devices from anywhere across a secure network. The Cisco device must be configured for Telnet access; otherwise, it is denied. In this course, limited privileges have been configured for student use. Figure 9-3 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 9-10 is the corresponding addressing table.

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Figure 9-3

Topology for Lab 9-2

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

Table 9-10 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified

before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity:
Step 1. Step 2.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail the ping tests.

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251

Step 3.

If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, shown in Table 9-10, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Task 1: Use the Telnet Protocol to Log in to a Cisco Switch


Step 1.

Access the Windows terminal. Open a Windows terminal by choosing Start > Run. Enter cmd, and click OK.

Step 2.

Use the Windows Telnet client to access S1-Central. S1-Central has been configured with 11 student accounts, ccna1 through ccna11. To provide access to each student, use the user ID corresponding to your pod. For example, for host computers on pod 1, use user ID ccna1. Unless directed otherwise by your instructor, the password is cisco. From the Windows terminal, issue the Telnet command telnet destination-ip-address:
C:/> telnet 172.16.254.1

An access prompt is displayed, similar to the one shown in Example 9-5.


Example 9-5 Switch Access Prompt

******************************************************************* This is Lab switch S1-Central. Authorized access only. ******************************************************************* User Access Verification Username: ccna1 Password: cisco S1-Central# (*hidden*)

Task 2: Use the Cisco IOS show mac-address-table Command to Examine MAC Addresses and Port Associations
Step 1.

Examine the switch MAC address table. Issue the show mac-address-table ? command. This outputs all options for the command. Use Table 9-11 to fill in a description for each command option.

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Table 9-11 Option

Show Mac-Address-Table Command Options Description

address aging-time count dynamic interface multicast notification static vlan | <cr>
Step 2.

Address keyword Aging-time keyword Count keyword Dynamic entry type Interface keyword Multicast information for the selected wildcard MAC notification parameters and history table Static entry type VLAN keyword Output modifiers Carriage return Examine dynamic MAC address table entries. Issue the show mac-address-table command. This command displays static (CPU) and dynamic, or learned, entries. Use Table 9-12 to list the MAC addresses and corresponding switch ports.

Table 9-12

MAC Addresses and Ports Switch Port

MAC Address

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Suppose that a hub with five active hosts is connected to switch port gi0/0. How many MAC addresses are listed for switch port gi0/0? 5

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253

Step 3.

Examine MAC address table aging time. Issue the show mac-address-table aging-time command. This command displays the default amount of time, in seconds, that MAC address entries are stored. What is the default aging time for VLAN 1? 300

Task 3: Challenge
What would be the result if the MAC address table were flushed of dynamic entries? The switch would broadcast frames out each port except the originating port until the switch learned all the MAC addresses connected to the switch.

Task 4: Reflection
Using the Telnet protocol, network engineers can access Cisco devices remotely across secure LANs. This has the benefit of permitting access to remote devices for troubleshooting and monitoring purposes. A switch contains a MAC address table that lists the MAC address connected to each switch port. When a frame enters the switch, the switch performs a lookup of the frame destination MAC address. If a match occurs in the MAC address table, the frame is routed out the corresponding port. Without a MAC address table, the switch would have to flood the frame out each port.

Task 5: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: Cisco Switch MAC Table Examination (9.8.2.2)


You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9822.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.

Lab 9-3: Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.8.3.1)


Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
I I I

Use Wireshark to capture and analyze frames originating from network nodes. Copy and paste data captured by Wireshark into Notepad for further analysis. Examine the origination of frames in a small network.

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Background A switch is used to forward frames between network devices. A switch normally does not originate frames to node devices. Rather, a switch efficiently passes frames from one device to another in a LAN. In this lab, however, you will see the switch originating frames, because you will use Telnet to directly access the switch. Scenario You will use Wireshark to capture and analyze Ethernet frames. If Wireshark has not been loaded on the host pod computer, you can download it from ftp://eagleserver.example.com/pub/eagle_labs/eagle1/chapter9/. The file is wireshark-setup-0.99.4.exe. Figure 9-4 shows the topology for this lab, and Table 9-13 is the corresponding addressing table.
Figure 9-4 Topology for Lab 9-3

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 DCE

Eagle Server

S0/0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/24

S1-Central

R2-Central

1A

1B

11A

11B

Pod#1

Pod#11

Table 9-13 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 10.10.10.5 172.16.255.254 192.168.254.254 172.31.24.254 172.16.Pod#.1 172.16.Pod#.2 172.16.254.1

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.252 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0

10.10.10.6 192.168.254.253 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254 172.16.255.254

R2-Central

S0/0/0 Fa0/0

Eagle Server

Host Pod#A Host Pod#B S1-Central

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255

Note to Instructor: Depending on the classroom situation, the lab topology may have been modified before this class. It is best to use one host to verify infrastructure connectivity. If the default web page cannot be accessed from eagle-server.example.com, troubleshoot end-to-end network connectivity:
Step 1. Step 2.

Verify that all network equipment is powered on and that eagle-server is on. From a known good host computer, ping eagle-server. If the ping test fails, ping S1Central, R2-Central, R1-ISP, and finally eagle-server. Take corrective action on devices that fail ping tests. If an individual host computer cannot connect to eagle-server, check the cable connection between the host and S1-Central. Verify that the host computer has the correct IP address, shown in Table 9-13, and that it can ping R2-Central, 172.16.255.254. Verify that the host computer has the correct Gateway IP address, 172.16.255.254, and that it can ping R1-ISP, 10.10.10.6. Finally, verify that the host has the correct DNS address and that it can ping eagle-server.example.com.

Step 3.

In this lab you will ping a neighbors pod host computer. Write down the IP address and port connection on S1-Central for the neighbors pod host computer:
I I

IP address: Answers will vary S1-Central port number: Answers will vary

Task 1: Use Wireshark to Capture and Analyze Frames Originating from Network Nodes
Step 1.

Configure Wireshark for packet capture. Choose Capture > Options. Select the interface that corresponds to the LAN. Check the box to update the list of packets in real time. Click Start. This begins the packet capture. During this capture there will probably be more than 200 packets, making analysis a bit tedious. The critical Telnet conversation between the pod host computer and S1-Central will be easy to filter, however.

Step 2.

Use the Windows Telnet client to access S1-Central. S1-Central has been configured with 11 student accounts, ccna1 through ccna11. To provide access to each student, use the user ID corresponding to your pod. For example, for host computers on pod 1, use user ID ccna1. Unless directed otherwise by your instructor, the password is cisco. From the Windows terminal, issue the Telnet command telnet 172.16.254.1. Enter the appropriate username and password, cisco. Enter enable to enter privileged mode. The S1-Central prompt, S1-Central#, should be returned.

Step 3.

Examine and clear the MAC address table. Examine the switch MAC address table with the show mac-address-table command. In addition to several static CPU entries, numerous dynamic address table entries should be listed. Use Table 9-14 to list the dynamic MAC address entries.

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Table 9-14

Dynamic MAC Address Entries Switch Port

MAC Address

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

To clear dynamic MAC address table entries, use the clear mac-address-table dynamic command. You can use the show mac-address-table command again to verify that the dynamic entries have been cleared.
Note to Instructor: Fa 0/24, R2-Router, may be read within 10 seconds after flushing the MAC address table. This is normal, because R2-Router sends Ethernet keepalive frames every 10 seconds. To prove this to students, on R2-Router interface Fa 0/0, issue the Cisco IOS interface configuration command no keepalive. This stops the 10-second Ethernet heartbeat.

Open a second terminal window. Ping your neighbors IP address, which was recorded earlier:
C:>\ ping -n 1 ip-address

The MAC address for your neighbors computer should be dynamically added in the S1Central MAC address table. You can use the show mac-address-table command again to verify that the address is added. Use Table 9-15 to list the dynamic MAC address entries.
Table 9-15 Dynamic MAC Address Entries Switch Port

MAC Address

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

What conclusion can you make about how a switch learns MAC addresses connected to switch interfaces? A switch does not learn about connected devices until traffic originates from the device. Stop the Wireshark capture. You will analyze the capture in the next task.

Task 2: Examine the Origination of Frames in a Small Network


Step 1.

In Wireshark, examine the Telnet session to S1-Central. Highlight one of the Telnet session packets. From Wireshark, choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream. A stream content window opens, using ASCII as the default display. If the username and passwords are not visible, switch to HEX Dump.

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Verify the username and password that you entered:


I I

Username: Answers will vary Password: cisco

Close the stream content window. To remove any display filters, click the Filter button at the top-left corner of the screen and remove the filter string.
Step 2.

Examine output of the show mac-address-table command. Open Notepad. You will copy and paste data into Notepad for analysis. In the top Wireshark Packet List pane, scroll down to the captured ICMP request that was generated when you pinged. Figure 9-5 shows partial output of a Wireshark capture.

Figure 9-5

Wireshark Capture of Telnet

Select the last Telnet data packet from S1-Central before the ping command. View the packet in the Packet Details window pane. Right-click telnet and choose Copy Bytes (Printable Text Only). In Notepad, choose Edit > Paste to copy and paste the Telnet data into Notepad. You should see a dynamic mapping for your own computer similar to the output shown in Example 9-6.
Example 9-6 MAC Address Table Before the Ping
Mac Address Table

{_lEMaNL;RPC

Vlan All All All All 1 Mac Address 000f.f79f.6cc0 0100.0ccc.cccc 0100.0ccc.cccd 0100.0cdd.dddd 0010.a47b.015f Type STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC Ports CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/1

Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 5 S1-Central#

In Table 9-16, write down the dynamic MAC address and port number displayed in the output. Does the switch port correspond to your pod host computer? Yes

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Table 9-16

Dynamic MAC Address Entry Type Port

MAC Address

Answers will vary

Dynamic

Answers will vary

Why is your pod host computer mapping still in the MAC address table, despite having been cleared? This is the connection for the pod host computer that is telnetted into S1-Central. Select the last Telnet data packet following the ping reply. Next, view the packet in the Packet Details window pane. Right-click TELNET and choose Copy Bytes (Printable Text Only). In Notepad, choose Edit > Paste to copy and paste the Telnet data into Notepad. The text should be similar to Example 9-7.
Example 9-7 MAC Address Table After the Ping
Mac Address Table

{_lEPaNM;VP

Vlan All All All All 1 1 Mac Address 000f.f79f.6cc0 0100.0ccc.cccc 0100.0ccc.cccd 0100.0cdd.dddd 0010.a47b.015f 0016.76ac.a76a Type STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC Ports CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/1 Fa0/2

Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 6 S1-Central#

In Table 9-17, write down the MAC address and port number for the second dynamic entry displayed in the output. Does the switch port correspond to your neighbors pod host computer? Yes
Table 9-17 Dynamic MAC Address Entry Type Port

MAC Address

Answers will vary

Dynamic

Answers will vary

Task 3: Reflection
The Wireshark capture of a Telnet session between a pod host computer and S1-Central was analyzed to show how a switch dynamically learns about nodes directly connected to it.

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Task 4: Challenge
Use Wireshark to capture and analyze a Telnet session between the pod host computer and the Cisco switch. From Wireshark, choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream to view the login user ID and password. How secure is the Telnet protocol? What can be done to make communication with Cisco devices more secure? The Telnet protocol is very insecure and should never be used outside of secure networks. Student answers will vary on how to secure the communication channel, and lively discussions should be encouraged. For example, one recommendation may be to require passphrasesthat is, passwords of more than nine characters. Point out that because the TCP session may be captured, any clear-text password can be viewed and used by an attacker. SSH is one way to encrypt communications between devices. Emphasize that security should be employed in layers, and no one solution is a guarantee against compromise.

Task 5: Clean Up
Wireshark was installed on the pod host computer. If Wireshark needs to be uninstalled, choose Start > Control Panel. Click Add or Remove Programs. Choose Wireshark, and click Remove. Remove any files created on the pod host computer during the lab. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: An Intermediary Device as an End Device (9.8.3.2)


You can now open the file LSG01-Lab9832.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.

Packet Tracer Challenge

Skills Integration Challenge: Switched Ethernet (9.9.1.3)


Open file LSG01-PTSkills9.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Upon completion of this activity, you will be able to
I I I

Determine IP subnet plans. Repair Ethernet-related network issues. Test the network.

Background You have been asked to repair some problems in the network model related to the Ethernet LAN connected to R2-Central. Figure 9-6 shows the topology for this Skills Integration Challenge, and Table 9-18 is the corresponding addressing table.

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Figure 9-6

Topology for the Challenge


1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server

2960-24TT S1-Central

1841 R2-Central

PC 1A

PC 1B

Table 9-18 Device

Addressing Table Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

192.168.111.134 192.168.111.138 192.168.111.126 192.168.111.137 192.168.111.1 192.168.111.2 192.168.111.133

255.255.255.248 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.248

192.168.111.138 192.168.111.138 192.168.111.126 192.168.111.126 192.168.111.134

R2-Central

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

PC 1A PC 1B Eagle Server

NIC NIC NIC

Task 1: IP Subnet Planning


You have been given an IP address block of 192.168.111.0/24. You must provide for the three existing networks. The subnet assignments are as follows:
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First subnet, existing student LAN, up to 100 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central) Second subnet, existing ISP LAN, up to five hosts (already configured) Third subnet, existing WAN, point-to-point link (already configured)

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Interface IP addresses:
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The server, R1-ISP, and R2-Centrals serial interface have already been configured. For R2-Centrals Fa0/0 interface, use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet. For hosts 1A and 1B, use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet. For hosts 1A and 1B, the DNS server is 192.168.111.133 /29. The next-hop router (to which the default route should point), R1-ISP, has an IP address of 192.168.111.138 /30.

I I

Task 2: Repair Problems with the Ethernet Switched LAN


PC 1B has a wireless card and cannot be connected to the switch. Remove the wireless card from PC 1B. Add the Fast Ethernet Interface card PT-HOST-NM-1CFE to PC 1B. Connect this newly installed Fast Ethernet NIC to the Fa0/2 interface on the switch. Connect PC 1A to the Fa0/1 interface on the switch. Connect the Fa0/24 interface on the switch to the R2-Central Fa0/0 interface. Apparently the Ethernet speed and duplex settings for the R2-Central Fa0/0 interface, the S1-Central switch interfaces (Fa0/1, Fa0/2, and Fa0/24), and the PC 1A interfaces are incorrect. Set all Ethernet interfaces to autonegotiate speed and duplex (which will achieve full-duplex 100-Mbps operation if both ends of the link can support it). For all devices, make sure that the power is on to the device and to the interfaces (make sure that the Ethernet interfaces are not shut down). Add IP addresses to the router Fa0/0 interface and to the two PCs. Assign the highest usable subnet address to the gateway and the two lowest usable addresses to the PCs. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points to R1-ISPs serial interface IP address. These procedures were explained in the Chapter 5 and 6 Skills Integration Challenges.

Task 3: Test the Network


Use ping, trace, web traffic, and the Inspect tool to trace packet flow in simulation mode, with HTTP, DNS, TCP, UDP, ICMP, and ARP viewable, to test your understanding of how the network is operating.

Task 4: Reflection
The two Layer 2 and Layer 1 technologies in this model are a serial connection (between the routers) and the Ethernet LANs (for the ISP server and with the S1-Central switch). Compare and contrast the serial connection with Ethernet. In a future course you will learn much more about switched Ethernet technologies.

CHAPTER 10

Planning and Cabling Networks

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of multiple-choice, matching, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of planning and cabling networks. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs to further reinforce that you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills needed. As you work through this chapter, use Chapter 10 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum or use the corresponding Chapter 10 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide for assistance.

Study Guide
LANs: Making the Physical Connection
A networking professional needs to know how to select and interconnect the proper devices for a network. Routers, hubs, and switches are common network devices. As a networking professional, you need to be familiar with the different device selection factors, including cost, types, and speeds of different ports and interfaces, expandability, and manageability. It is essential that you have knowledge of the different media types and the distinct roles they play with the devices that they connect. In this chapter, you identify the cables needed to make successful LAN and WAN connections and learn how to use device management connections. The design of an IP addressing scheme is presented and then practiced with the help of concept questions and the hands-on labs.

Concept Questions
1.

Compare and contrast the function of hubs and switches. Be as detailed as possible. Explain the advantage of one device over the other. A hub is a Layer 1 device, whereas a switch is a Layer 2 device. Hubs do not filter frames. They flood all the frames they receive on one port out all other ports. Hubs do not segment networks. All of the ports of a hub are part of one collision domain. Hubs are less expensive and less efficient than switches. Hubs should be used in small LANs. Switches are Layer 2 devices. They filter frames. Switches segment networks into multiple collision domains. Each switch port is its own collision domain. Switches are more expensive than hubs but use bandwidth more efficiently. They also allow for the interconnection of segments with different speeds.

2.

Explain how adaptability to new technologies can be taken into consideration when selecting devices for a LAN. How does this affect the cost calculations? When selecting devices for a LAN it is important to allow for future growth. Growth consists of more user devices, more capabilities, more speed, and also new technology. To allow for growth, devices will need to be selected that go beyond the current need of the LAN in terms of number of ports, supported speeds, and capabilities. Devices need to have empty slots that allow the addition of modules that have more capabilities or that support new technologies. That affects the cost calculation because the costs will seem high compared to the current network needs. In the long run, this up-front investment might save money, though.

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Multiple-Choice Questions
Choose the best possible answer for each of the following questions.
1.

How can redundancy be provided in a switched network?

a. By deploying one central switch with a high port density b. By using high-speed fiber-optic media c. By providing multiple interconnections between a number of switches d. By delpoying gigabit switches only 2.

How do switches create collision domains? port.

a. Each switch port creates a point-to-point dedicated connection to the devices connected to that b. Switches regenerate each bit of the frames they receive. c. By using a special cable type to connect to the devices on its ports. d. By allowing the interconnection of segments with different speeds.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks for the following statements.
1. 2. 3.

Even though hubs can be interconnected, they remain in a single collision domain. A swich is used to segment a network into multiple collision domains. A switch provides dedicated bandwidth on each port, which can increase LAN performance.

Device Interconnections
When planning the installation of LAN cabling, there are several physical areas to consider. Each area has its unique requirements and standards. A network administrator needs to be familiar with the different standards that define devices and cabling in these areas.

Concept Questions
1.

Explain what will happen when you use a straight-through cable to connect your computer to the Fast Ethernet interface of a router. The computer and the router both have Medium Dependent Interface (MDI) connections with pins 1 and 2 for transmitting and pins 3 and 6 for receiving. The straight-through cable will connect with its pins 1 and 2 to pins 1 and 2 of the computer. The transmit wires of the cables will be connected to the transmit pins on the router and the computer, and no data transfer will be possible. Pins 3 and 6 of both devices will be connected in the same way.

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2.

Explain how the serial connection to a WAN service provider differs from the way the serial connections are set up for the curriculum labs. The Data Communications Equipment (DCE) is a device that supplies the clocking services to another device. Typically, this device is at the WAN access provider end of the link. Data Circuit-Terminal Equipment (DTE) is a device that receives clocking services from another device and adjusts accordingly. Typically, this device is at the WAN customer or user end of the link. A router is considered a DTE device. In the lab setting, there is no service provider. The routers are connected back to back. Therefore, one router will act as the DCE and uses a DCE cable. This router will provide the clocking that is usually provided by the service providers equipment.

3.

There are four physical areas to consider when planning the installation of LAN cabling. List these four areas and their main components. Answers may vary. Work area: Work areas are dedicated to end devices. This is where the users access the network. Main components are jacks to connect individual devices to the network, patch cables, hubs, and switches. Telecommunications room: hubs, switches, routers, data service units (DSU), patch panels, patch cables, sometimes servers Backbone cabling: Cabling that connects the telecommunications room to the equipment room Distribution/horizontal cabling: Typically, high-bandwidth cabling that connects the telecommunications room with the work area, or connects telecommunications rooms, cabling to access outside resources.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks for the following statements that discuss features and issues related to different types of media.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B standard specifies the maximum cable length in UTP installations. Attenuation is the decrease in signal strength along an electrical or optical cable. Signal attenuation and exposure to possible interference increase with cable length. Interference can be produced by electrical machines, lighting, and other communications devices, including computers and radio equipment. UTP cabling uses RJ-45 connectors.

Developing an Addressing Scheme


Developing an IP addressing scheme is one of the most important tasks that you will have to perform as a network professional. It is extremely important that you understand IP addressing. This knowledge is vital in designing, configuring, and troubleshooting networks.

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Concept Questions
1.

What devices do you need to consider when counting devices in your network that need IP addresses. You need to consider end devices such as user computers, administrator computers, servers, and other end devices such as printers, IP phones, and IP cameras. You also need to consider network devices such as router LAN interfaces and router WAN (serial) interfaces. Network devices requiring an IP address for management purposes are switches and wireless access points.

2.

Why does each connection between routers count as a separate subnet if there are no hosts connected? The router interfaces on the link connecting the two routers need to have IP addresses.

3.

It is good practice to use IP addresses that fit a common pattern across all subnets. What are some common categories that you can use to allocate IP addresses? Explain why you should use address schemes that fit a common pattern across your network. Some common categories are general users, special users, departments, network resources, router LAN and WAN interfaces, management subnets, and server addresses. A systematic allocation of IP addresses makes troubleshooting and the addition of new hosts easier.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks for the following statements dealing with IP addressing and subnetting.
1. 2. 3.

Network devices that require IP addresses for management purposes include switches and wireless access points. Subnets divide broadcast domains into a number of smaller domains. Each subnet requires a router interface as the gateway for that subnet.

Multiple-Choice Questions
Choose the best possible answer(s) for the following questions.
1.

Which addresses cannot be assigned to hosts? Choose all that apply.

a. Management address b. Network address c. Broadcast address d. Gateway address 2.

Which formula is used to calculate the number of hosts per network or subnet? Use n to represent the number of bits.

a. (2^n 1) b. 2^n c. (2^n 2) d. (n 2)

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3.

What are advantages of dividing networks into subnets? Choose all that apply.

a. Decreased costs b. Smaller broadcast domains c. Implementation of different levels of security d. Larger collision domains

Calculating the Subnets


Two different methods can be used for allocating addresses to an Internetwork. Variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) assigns the prefix and host bits to each network based on the number of hosts in that network. The non-VLSM approach uses the same prefix length and the same number of host bits for each subnet.

Concept Questions
1.

If your network uses the address 172.16.0.0 and you need to create 64 subnets, what will be the subnet mask for your network? 255.255.252.0

2.

You have the following network requirements: Network 1 needs to support 32 host addresses. Network 2 needs to support 64 host addresses. Network 3 needs to support 2 host addresses. Network 4 needs to support 52 host addresses. Network 5 needs to support 128 host addresses. Which addressing method will allow you to design an IP addressing scheme without wasting any host addresses? How is the efficiency of this method achieved? The method that allows for the most efficient IP addressing design without wasting any addresses is called variable-length subnet masking (VLSM). VLSM allows different subnet masks within one network. It allows a subnet to be subnetted. This way, a serial link, which requires only two IP addresses, can use a bit mask of 255.255.255.252, and other subnets that require more host addresses can use different bit masks.

Device Interconnections
Cisco devices, routers, and switches have several different types of interfaces associated with them. These interfaces are also referred to as ports. It is important to understand the different types of interfaces and know the types of cable required to connect to the interfaces. LAN and WAN interfaces require different cabling and configuration.

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Concept Question
List the four types of interfaces on Cisco routers and switches. Briefly describe the function of each of these interfaces. Ethernet interface: This is the LAN interface of a router or a switch. It connects to LAN devices such as computers or switches. They can also connect to other routers. Serial interface: This is the WAN interface. WAN interfaces are used for connecting WAN devices to the CSU/DSU. A CSU/DSU is a device used to make the physical connection between data networks and WAN providers circuits. Console interface: This is the primary interface for initial configuration of a Cisco device. It provides physical access to the router for troubleshooting. Auxiliary interface: This interface provides remote management for the router.

Multiple-Choice Questions
Choose the best possible answers(s) for the following questions dealing with interface types.
1.

What can Ethernet interfaces be used for? Choose all that apply.

a. To connect the router to a terminal for configuration purposes b. To connect to LAN devices such as computers and switches c. To connect to other routers d. To connect the router to the DSU/CSU 2.

Which interface is the primary interface for the initial configuration of a Cisco device such as a router or a switch?

a. The Ethernet interface b. The Telnet interface c. The console interface d. The serial interface 3.

What are serial interfaces used for? Choose all that apply.

a. To establish a WAN connection b. To establish communication with a router via a console on a remote WAN c. To make a back-to-back connection between routers in the lab d. To connect to a terminating device such as a switch or a computer

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Labs and Activities


Lab 10-1: How Many Networks? (10.3.2.2)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
I I I I

Determine the number of subnets. Design an appropriate addressing scheme. Assign addresses and subnet mask pairs to device interfaces. Examine the use of the available network address space.

Scenario In this lab, you have been given the network address 192.168.26.0/24 to subnet and provide the IP addressing for the networks shown in the topology diagrams. You must determine the number of networks needed then design an appropriate addressing scheme. Place the correct address and mask in the addressing table. In this example, the number of hosts is not important. You are only required to determine the number of subnets per topology example.

Task 1: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram A


Use the topology in Figure 10-1 to answer the questions that follow.
Figure 10-1 Topology Diagram A
Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/0

B1

B2

How many networks are shown in Figure 10-1? 2 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 1 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 126 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.255.255.1128 How many subnets are available for future use? 0

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Task 2: Record Subnet Information


Fill in Table 10-1 with the subnet information.
Table 10-1 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address

Subnet Number

0 1

192.168.26.0 192.168.26.128

192.168.26.1 192.168.26.129

192.168.26.126 192.168.26.254

192.168.26.127 192.168.26.255

Task 3: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram B


Use the topology in Figure 10-2 to answer the questions that follow.
Figure 10-2 Topology Diagram B

Fa0/0

S0/0/1

HQ

S0/0/0

S0/0/1

S0/0/0

B1

B2

How many networks are there? 4 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 2 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 30 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.255.255.192 How many subnets are available for future use? 0

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Task 4: Record Subnet Information


Fill in Table 10-2 with the subnet information. Use the subnet mask from Step 4.
Table 10-2 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address

Subnet Number

0 1 2 3

192.168.26.0 192.168.26.64 192.168.26.128 192.168.26.192

192.168.26.1 192.168.26.65 192.168.26.129 192.168.26.193

192.168.26.62 192.168.26.126 192.168.26.190 192.168.26.254

192.168.26.63 192.168.26.127 192.168.26.191 192.168.26.255

Task 5: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram C


Use the topology in Figure 10-3 to answer the questions that follow.
Figure 10-3 Topology Diagram C
S0/0/1 S0/0/0

B1
S0/0/0

S0/0/1

HQ
S0/1/0

S0/0/0

B2
S0/0/1

S0/1/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1

B3
Fa0/0

How many networks are there? 6 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 3 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 30 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.255.255.224 How many subnets are available for future use? 2

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Task 6: Record Subnet Information


Fill in the Table 10-3 with the subnet information.
Table 10-3 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address

Subnet Number

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

192.168.26.0 192.168.26.32 192.168.26.64 192.168.26.96 192.168.26.128 192.168.26.160 192.168.26.192 192.168.26.224

192.168.26.1 192.168.26.33 192.168.26.65 192.168.26.97 192.168.26.129 192.168.26.161 192.168.26.193 192.168.26.225

192.168.26.30 192.168.26.62 192.168.26.94 192.168.26.126 192.168.26.158 192.168.26.190 192.168.26.222 192.168.26.254

192.168.26.31 192.168.26.63 192.168.26.95 192.168.26.127 192.168.26.159 192.168.26.191 192.168.26.223 192.168.26.255

Task 7: Determine the Number of Subnets in Topology Diagram D


Use the topology in Figure 10-4 to answer the questions that follow.
Figure 10-4 Topology Diagram D

Fa0/0 Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 S0/0/1 S0/1/1 S0/0/1 Fa0/0

B1
S0/0/1

HQ

B2
S0/0/0

S0/0/1

S0/0/0

S0/0/1

S0/0/0

B3
Fa0/0

B4
Fa0/0

Fa0/0

B5

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How many networks are there? 12 How many bits should you allocate to create the required number of subnets? 4 How many usable host addresses did this give you? 14 What is the new subnet mask in decimal form? 255.255.255.240 How many subnets are available for future use? 4

Task 8: Record Subnet Information


Fill in Table 10-4 with the subnet information.
Table 10-4 Subnet Information Subnet Address First Usable Host Address Last Usable Host Address Broadcast Address

Subnet Number

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

192.168.26.0 192.168.26.16 192.168.26.32 192.168.26.48 192.168.26.64 192.168.26.80 192.168.26.96 192.168.26.112 192.168.26.128 192.168.26.144 192.168.26.160 192.168.26.176 192.168.26.192 192.168.26.208 192.168.26.224 192.168.26.240

192.168.26.1 192.168.26.17 192.168.26.33 192.168.26.49 192.168.26.65 192.168.26.81 192.168.26.97 192.168.26.113 192.168.26.129 192.168.26.145 192.168.26.161 192.168.26.177 192.168.26.193 192.168.26.209 192.168.26.225 192.168.26.241

192.168.26.14 192.168.26.30 192.168.26.46 192.168.26.62 192.168.26.78 192.168.26.94 192.168.26.110 192.168.26.126 192.168.26.142 192.168.26.158 192.168.26.174 192.168.26.190 192.168.26.206 192.168.26.2222 192.168.26.238 192.168.26.254

192.168.26.15 192.168.26.31 192.168.26.47 192.168.26.63 192.168.26.79 192.168.26.95 192.168.26.111 192.168.26.127 192.168.26.143 192.168.26.159 192.168.26.175 192.168.26.191 192.168.26.207 192.168.26.223 192.168.26.239 192.168.26.255

Task 9: Reflection
What information is needed when determining an appropriate addressing scheme for a network? When determining an appropriate addressing scheme for a network, you need the number of networks and hosts.

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Lab 10-2: Creating a Small Lab Topology (10.6.1.1)


Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
I I I I

Design the logical network. Configure the physical lab topology. Configure the logical LAN topology. Verify LAN connectivity.

Background Table 10-5 shows the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab. Gather the necessary equipment and cables.
Table 10-5 Hardware Equipment and Hardware for Lab Quantity Description

Cisco Router Cisco Switch Computer (host) Cat5 better straight-through UTP cable Cat5 crossover UTP cable Scenario

1 1 3 3 1

Part of CCNA Lab bundle Part of CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router 1 and computers Host1 and Host2 to Switch1 Connects computer Host1 to Router1

In this lab, you create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity, as shown in Figure 10-5. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed. Subnet C and Subnet D are anticipated subnets, not yet connected to the network. Subnet zero will be used.
Figure 10-5 Topology for Lab 10-2
Subnet A 1
Fa0/0 Fa0/1

Subnet B
Fa0/1

R1
Fa0/2

S1
Fa0/3

Subnet C Subnet D 2 3

Note: The CD-ROM accompanying this book contains a subnet chart for the last IP address octet.

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Note to instructor: In Chapter 11 labs, students will learn how to configure a router. For this lab, the router should be configured for students. The following example contains a basic configuration for Router 1. If you do not have a router that has two Fast Ethernet interfaces, consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1. Another alternative is to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the Fast Ethernet interfaces from each router.
Example Router 1 Configuration

Router1 configuration

! service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime no service password-encryption ! no ip domain-lookup ! hostname Router1 ! enable secret cisco ! ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to Host1 ip address no shutdown ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection LAN ip address no shutdown ! ip classless ip http server ! banner motd % ******************************************************************* 172.20.0.198 255.255.255.248 172.20.0.202 255.255.255.252

This is Eagle 1 lab router Router1. Authorized access only.

******************************************************************* % !

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line con 0 password cisco ! line con 0 password cisco login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password cisco login ! end

Task 1: Design the Logical Network


Given an IP address and mask of 172.20.0.0/24 (address / mask), design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 10-6.
Table 10-6 Subnet Subnet Requirements Number of Hosts

Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Subnet D

2 6 47 125

Host computers from each subnet will use the first available IP address in the address block. Router interfaces will use the last available IP address in the address block.
Step 1.

Design Subnet D address block. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirement of Subnet D, which requires the largest block of IP addresses. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM, and pick the first address block that will support Subnet D. Fill in Table 10-7 with IP address information for Subnet D.

Table 10-7

Subnet D IP Address Information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

Network Address

172.20.0.0

255.255.255.128 What is the bit mask?

172.20.0.1

172.20.0.1

172.20.0.127

11111111.1111111.11111111.10000000

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Step 2.

Design Subnet D address block. Satisfy the requirement for Subnet C, the next largest address block. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM, and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C.

Fill in Table 10-8 with IP address information for Subnet C.


Table 10-8 Subnet C IP address information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

Network Address

172.20.0.128

255.255.255.192

172.20.0.129

172.20.0.190

172.20.0.191

What is the bit mask? 11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000


Step 3.

Design Subnet B address block. Satisfy the requirement of Subnet B, the next largest IP address block. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM, and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet B.

Fill in Table 10-9 with IP address information for Subnet B.


Table 10-9 Subnet B IP Address Information Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

Network Address

172.20.0.192

255.255.255.248

172.20.0.193

172.20.0.198

172.20.0.199

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111000


Step 4.

Design Subnet A address block. Satisfy the requirement of Subnet A. Refer to the subnet chart on the CD-ROM, and pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A. Fill in Table 10-10 with IP address information for Subnet A.

Table 10-10 Subnet A IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.200

255.255.255.252

172.20.0.201

172.20.0.202

172.20.0.203

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111100

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Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology


Step 1.

Physically connect devices. Cable the network devices as shown in Figure 10-5. What cable type is needed to connect Host 1 to Router 1, and why? Both devices have similar network interfaces, and like devices require a crossover cable. What cable type is needed to connect Host 1, Host 2, and Router 1 to Switch 1, and why? The switch ports are dissimilar to the router and computer network interfaces. Therefore, straight-through cables are required. If not already enabled, turn power on to all devices.

Step 2.

Visually inspect network connections. After cabling the network devices, take a moment to verify the connections. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later. Ensure that all switch connections show green. Any switch connection that does not transition from amber to green should be investigated. Confirm that the power is applied to the connected device, the correct cable is used, and the correct cable is functional. What type of cable connects Router1 interface Fa0/0 to Host 1? Crossover cable What type of cable connects Router 1 interface Fa0/1 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable What type of cable connects Host 2 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable What type of cable connects Host 3 to Switch 1? Straight-through cable Is all equipment turned on? Yes

Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology


Step 1.

Document logical network settings. The host computer gateway IP address is used to send IP packets to other networks. Therefore, the gateway address is the IP address assigned to the router interface for that subnet. From the IP address information recorded in Task 1, write down the IP address information for each computer in the tables that follow. In Table 10-11, enter the information for Host 1.

Table 10-11 Host 1 Address Type Address

IP address IP mask Gateway address

172.20.0.201 255.255.255.252 172.20.0.202

In Table 10-12, enter addressing information for Host 2.

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Table 10-12 Host 2 Address Type Address

IP address IP mask Gateway address

172.20.0.193 255.255.255.248 172.20.0.198

In Table 10-13, enter addressing information for Host 3.


Table 10-13 Host 3 Address Type Address

IP address IP mask Gateway address


Step 2.

172.20.0.194 255.255.255.248 172.20.0.198

Configure the Host 1 computer. On Host 1, click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Right-click the Local Area Connection device icon and choose Properties. On the General tab, select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and then click the Properties button. Figure 10-6 shows Host 1 IP address and gateway settings. Manually enter the following information, recorded in the preceding Step 1:
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IP address: Host1 IP address Subnet mask: Host1 subnet mask Default gateway: Gateway IP address

Figure 10-6 Host 1 IP Addressing and Gateway Settings

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When finished, close the Internet Protocols (TCP/IP) Properties window by clicking OK. Close the Local Area Connection window. Depending on the Windows operating system, the computer might require a reboot for changes to be effective. Try to disable and then reenable the network interface card (NIC) by right-clicking the NIC in the Local Area Connection Properties window.
Step 3.

Configure Host 2 and Host 3 computers. Repeat Step 2 for computers Host 2 and Host 3, using the IP address information for those computers. Remember that the default gateway address on the computers is the IP address of the Fast Ethernet interface of the router that the computers connect to via the switch.

Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity


Verify with your instructor that Router 1 has been configured. Otherwise, connectivity will be broken between LANs. Switch 1 should have a default configuration. Network connectivity can be verified with the Windows ping command. Open a terminal window by clicking Start > Run. Type cmd, and then press Enter. If your computers operating system is Windows XP SP2, disable the firewall (for your ping tests to work). Use Table 10-14 to methodically verify and record connectivity with each network device. Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails.
Table 10-14 Network Connectivity Test Results From To IP Address Ping Results

Host 1 Host 1 Host 1 Host 1 Host 2 Host 2 Host 2 Host 2 Host 3 Host 3 Host 3 Host 3

Gateway (Router 1, Fa0/0) Router 1, Fa0/1 Host 2 Host 3 Host 3 Gateway (Router 1, Fa0/1) Router 1, Fa0/0 Host 1 Host 2 Gateway (Router 1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0 Host 1

172.20.0.202 172.20.0.198 172.20.0.193 172.20.0.194 172.20.0.194 172.20.0.198 172.20.0.202 172.20.0.201 172.20.0.193 172.20.0.198 172.20.0.202 172.20.0.201

Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful

Note any break in connectivity. When troubleshooting connectivity issues, the topology diagram shown in Figure 10-5 can prove extremely helpful. In this scenario, how can you detect a malfunctioning gateway? If Host 2 and Host 3 can successfully ping each other but not Host 1, it might be a gateway issue.

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Task 5: Reflection
Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. Be sure that you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to verify network connectivity. This is a particularly important lab. In addition to practicing IP subnetting, you configured host computers with network addresses and tested them for connectivity. It is best to practice host computer configuration and verification several times. This will reinforce the skills you learned in this lab and make you a better network technician.

Task 6: Challenge
Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you arent looking or are out of the lab room. Problems can be either physical (wrong UTP cable) or logical (wrong IP address or gateway). To fix the problems, follow these steps:
Note to instructors: A simple way to introduce problems is to switch the Fast Ethernet connections. Step 1. Step 2.

Perform a good visual inspection. Look for green link lights on Switch 1. Use the table provided in Task 3 to identify failed connectivity. List the problems. Answers may vary. Hosts cannot ping the router. Hosts 1 and 2 cannot ping Host 3.

Step 3.

Write down your proposed solution(s). Answers may vary. Check cabling. Check the default gateways on the hosts. Check the IP address configuration.

Step 4.

Test your solution. If the solution fixed the problem, document the solution. If the solution did not fix the problem, continue troubleshooting.

Task 7: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, restore host computer network connectivity, and then turn off power to the host computers. Carefully remove cables and return them neatly to their storage. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: Creating a Small Topology (10.6.1.2)


You can now open the file LSG01-Lab10612.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. However, keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the Packet Tracer activity.

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Lab 10-3: Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal (10.6.2.1)


Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
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Connect a router and computer using a console cable. Configure HyperTerminal to establish a console session with a Cisco IOS router. Configure HyperTerminal to establish a console session with a Cisco IOS switch.

Background HyperTerminal is a simple Windows-based terminal emulation program for serial communication that can be used to connect to the console port on Cisco IOS devices. A serial interface on a computer is connected to the Cisco device via a rollover cable. Using HyperTerminal is the most basic way to access a router for checking or changing its configuration. Another popular serial communication utility is TeraTerm Web. Instructions for TeraTerm Web use are contained in the section Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm later in this chapter. Scenario Set up a network similar to the one in Figure 10-7. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. Possible routers include 800, 1600, 1700, 2500, 2600 routers, or a combination.
Figure 10-7 Establishing a Console Session with HyperTerminal

Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable

The following resources are required:


I I I

Computer with a serial interface and HyperTerminal loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router

Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable


Step 1.

Set up the basic physical connection. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port.

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Step 2.

Power on the devices. If not already powered on, enable power to the computer and router.

Task 2: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Router
Step 1.

Start the HyperTerminal application. From the Windows taskbar, start the HyperTerminal program by clicking Start > All Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal.

Step 2.

Configure HyperTerminal. Figure 10-8 shows an example of the opening HyperTerminal configuration window. At the Connection Description window, enter a session name in the Name field. Select an appropriate icon, or leave the default. Click OK. If you are accessing HyperTerminal for the first time, the program prompts for an area code/phone number. You need to fill in a number to be able to continue.

Figure 10-8 HyperTerminal Connection Description Window

In the Connect To window shown in Figure 10-9, enter the appropriate connection type, COM 1, in the Connect using field. Click OK. Note to instructors: On newer systems, you might have to use an USB connection rather than the COM port.
Figure 10-9 HyperTerminal Connection Type

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In the COM 1 Properties box shown in Figure 10-10, change port settings to the values in Table 10-15.
Figure 10-10 HyperTerminal COM 1 Port Settings

Table 10-15 HyperTerminal Port Settings Settings Value

Bits per second Data bits Parity Stop bits Flow control Click OK.

9600 8 None 1 None

When the HyperTerminal session window comes up, press the Enter key. There should be a response from the router; this indicates that connection has been successfully completed. If there is no connection, troubleshoot as necessary. For example, verify that the router has power. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. If there is still no connection, ask the instructor for assistance.
Step 3.

Close HyperTerminal. When finished, close the HyperTerminal session. Click File > Exit. When asked whether to save the session, click Yes. Enter a name for the session.

Step 4.

Reconnect the HyperTerminal session. Reopen the HyperTerminal session as described in Task 2, Step 1. This time, when the Connection Description window opens, click Cancel. Click File > Open. Select the saved session, and then click Open. Use this technique to reconnect the HyperTerminal session to a Cisco device without reconfiguring a new session. When finished, exit HyperTerminal.

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Task 3: Configure HyperTerminal to Establish a Console Session with a Cisco IOS Switch
Serial connections between Cisco IOS routers and switches are similar. In this task, you make a serial connection between the host computer and a Cisco IOS switch.
Step 1.

Set up the basic physical connection. See Figure 10-11. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port.

Figure 10-11 Serial Connection Between a Host Computer and Cisco Switch

S1

Step 2.

Power on the devices. If not already powered on, enable power to the computer and switch.

Step 3.

Start the HyperTerminal application. From the Windows taskbar, start the HyperTerminal program by clicking Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal.

Step 4.

Configure HyperTerminal. Use the procedure described in Task 2, Step 2, to configure HyperTerminal. At the opening HyperTerminal Connection Description window, enter a session name in the Name field. Select an appropriate icon, or leave the default. Click OK. In the Connect To window, enter the appropriate connection type, COM 1, in the Connect using field. Click OK. In the COM 1 Properties window, change port settings to the values shown in Table 10-16.

Table 10-16 Port Settings Settings Value

Bits per second Data bits Parity Stop bits Flow control Click OK.

9600 8 None 1 None

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When the HyperTerminal session window comes up, press the Enter key. There should be a response from the switch; this indicates that connection has been successfully completed. If there is no connection, troubleshoot as necessary. For example, verify that the switch has power. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the switch. If there is still no connection, ask the instructor for assistance.
Step 5.

Close HyperTerminal. When finished, close the HyperTerminal session. Click File > Exit. When asked whether to save the session, click No.

Task 3: Reflection
This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco IOS router and switch. Be sure to remember the correct HyperTerminal port settings. You will only be able to connect to the router if you are using the proper settings.

Task 4: Challenge
Draw the pin connections for the rollover cable and straight-through cable. Compare the differences, and be able to identify the different cable types.

Task 5: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computer and router. Remove the rollover cable. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

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Lab 10-3 (Alternative): Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm


Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
I I

Connect a router and computer using a console cable. Configure TeraTerm to establish a console session with the router.

Note to instructor: TeraTerm is not available on the Eagle Server, but it can be downloaded from the following http://www.ayera.com/teraterm/. Background TeraTerm Web is another simple Windows-based terminal emulation program for serial communication that can be used to connect to the console port on Cisco IOS devices. Scenario Cable a network similar to Figure 10-12. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. Possible routers include 800, 1600, 1700, 2500, 2600 routers, or a combination.
Figure 10-12 Establishing a Console Session with TeraTerm

Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable

The following resources are required:


I I I

Computer with a serial interface and TeraTerm Pro loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router

Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable


Step 1.

Set up the basic physical connection. Ensure that power is turned off on the computer and Cisco router. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. Connect the other cable end to the PC with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port.

Step 2.

Power on the devices. Enable power to the computer and router.

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Task 2: Configure TeraTerm Web to Establish a Console Session with the Router
Step 1.

Start TeraTerm Web application. From the Windows taskbar, start the TeraTerm Web program by opening the TeraTerm Web folder, and starting the TeraTerm Web application, ttermpro.

Step 2.

Configure TeraTerm Web Click File > New Connection. Refer to Figure 10-13. Select the appropriate serial COM port. Click OK.

Figure 10-13 TeraTerm Web Connection Configuration Window

When the TeraTerm Web session window comes up, press the Enter key. There should be a response from the router; this indicates that the connection has been successfully completed. If there is no connection, troubleshoot as necessary. For example, verify that the router has power. Check the connection to the COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router. If there is still no connection, ask the instructor for assistance.
Step 3.

Close TeraTerm Web. When finished, close the TeraTerm Web session. Click File > Exit. When asked whether to save the session, click Yes. Enter a name for the session.

Step 4.

Reconnect the TeraTerm Web session. Reopen the TeraTerm Web session as described in Task 2, Step 1. This time, when the New Description window opens (see Figure 10-13), click Cancel. Click File > Open. Select the saved session, and then click Open. Use this technique to reconnect the TeraTerm Web session to a Cisco device without reconfiguring a new session.

Task 3: Reflection
This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco router. Cisco switches are accessed in the same way. Remember that you must use the correct serial port configurations to connect to the Cisco device via Minicom.

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Task 4: Challenge
Draw the pin connections for the rollover cable and straight-through cable. Compare the differences, and be able to identify the different cable types.

Task 5: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computer and router. Remove the rollover cable. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: Establishing a Console Session with PT Terminal (10.6.2.2)


You can now open the file LSG01-Lab10622.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. However, keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the Packet Tracer activity.

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Lab 10-4: Establishing a Console Session with Minicom (10.6.3.1)


Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
I I I

Connect a router and computer using a console cable. Configure Minicom to establish a console session with the router. Perform basic commands.

Background Minicom is a text-based UNIX terminal emulation program, similar to the Windows HyperTerminal program. Minicom can be used for many purposes, such as controlling a modem or accessing a Cisco router through the serial console connection. The Linux or UNIX operating system is required. Scenario Set up a network similar to the one in Figure 10-14. Any router that meets the interface requirements may be used. Possible routers include 800, 1600, 1700, 2500, 2600 routers, or a combination.
Figure 10-14 Topology for Lab 10-4

Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable

The following resources are required:


I I I

Linux/UNIX computer with a serial interface and Minicom loaded Cisco router Console (rollover) cable for connecting the workstation to the router

Task 1: Connect a Router and Computer with a Console Cable


Step 1.

Set up the basic physical connection. Ensure that power is turned off on the computer and Cisco router. Connect the console (rollover) cable to the console port on the router. Connect the other cable end to the PC with a DB-9 or DB-25 adapter to the COM 1 port.

Step 2.

Power on the devices. Enable power to the computer and router.

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Task 2: Configure Minicom to Establish a Console Session with the Router


Step 1.

Start the Minicom application in configuration mode.

Note: To configure Minicom, root access is required. From the Linux command prompt, to start Minicom, enter the minicom command with the s option. This starts Minicom in configuration mode:
[root]# minicom s <ENTER>

Step 2.

Configure Minicom for serial communications. Figure 10-15 shows the main configuration window. To configure the serial port, scroll down the configuration list and select Serial port setup. Press Enter.

Figure 10-15 Main Configuration Window

Figure 10-16 shows the serial port configuration window. Use the letter by the field to change a setting. Table 10-17 shows the correct values.
Figure 10-16 Serial Port Configuration Window

Table 10-17 Serial Port Settings Option Field Value

Serial Device

Dev/ttyS0 for COM 1 /dev/ttyS1 for COM 2

Bps/Par/Bits

Bps: 9600 Par: None Bits: 8 Stop bits: 1 (or, select option Q)

F G

Hardware Flow Control Software Flow Control

Toggle: No Toggle: No

Return to the Configuration menu by pressing Enter or Esc.

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In the window shown in Figure 10-17, select Save setup as dfl (default file). When Minicom is restarted, the default values will be reloaded.
Figure 10-17 Serial Port Configuration Window

Step 3.

Close Minicom. When finished, close the Minicom session. Select Exit from Minicom.

Step 4.

Restart the Minicom session, as follows:


[root]# minicom <ENTER>

When the session window starts, press the Enter key. There should be a response from the router; this indicates that a connection has been successfully completed. If there is no connection, troubleshoot as necessary. For example, verify that the router has power. Check the connection to the correct COM 1 port on the PC and the console port on the router.

Task 3: Perform Basic Commands


Minicom is a text-based, menu-driven, serial communication utility. Basic commands are not intuitive. For example, users communicate with remote devices within the terminal window. However, to control the utility, use <Ctrl> A. To get help, press <Ctrl> A, followed by Z. Figure 10-18 shows a list of functions and corresponding keys. To quit Minicom, press <Ctrl> A, followed by either Q or X.
Figure 10-18 Minicom Command Summary Screen

Task 4: Reflection
This lab provided information for establishing a console connection to a Cisco router using Minicom. Cisco switches are accessed in the same fashion.

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Task 5: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, turn off power to the host computer and router. Remove the rollover cable. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

Packet Tracer Challenge

Skills and Integration Challenge: Planning and Cabling Networks (10.7.1.3)


You can now open the file LSG01-PTSkills10.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. However, keep in mind that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity. Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to do the following:
I I I I

Build the network topology. Plan the IP addresses. Configure router and PC interfaces. Test the network.

Background Table 10-18 shows the addressing for this lab.


Table 10-18 Addressing Table Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1

Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1

192.168.1.62 192.168.1.129 192.168.1.133 192.168.1.110 192.168.1.94 192.168.1.130 192.168.1.137 192.168.1.126 192.168.1.138 192.168.1.134 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.97 192.168.1.113 192.168.1.93

255.255.255.192 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.240 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.240 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.192 255.255.255.240 255.255.255.240 255.255.255.224

N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 192.168.1.62 192.168.1.110 192.168.1.126 192.168.1.94

R2

Fa0/0 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1

R3

Fa0/0 S0/0/0 S0/0/1

PC1-A PC2-A PC3-A Eagle-Server

NIC NIC NIC NIC

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Practice your network building, planning, and configuration skills. Device names and routing have already been configured.

Task 1: Build the Network Topology


Use the following tables and the devices in the device pool to create the topology. Table 10-19 shows the router information.
Table 10-19 Routers Hostname Interface Connects To Interfaces

R1 R1 R1 R2 R2 R2 R3

Fa0/0 S0/0/0 (DCE) S0/0/1 (DCE) Fa0/0 S0/0/1 (DCE) Fa0/1 Fa0/0

SW-1 R2 R3 SW-2A R3 SW-2B SW-3

Fa0/1 S0/0/0 S0/0/1 Fa0/1 S0/0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1

Table 10-20 shows the switch information.


Table 10-20 Switches Hostname Interface Connects To Interfaces

SW-1 SW-2A SW-2B SW-3

Fa0/2 Fa0/2 Fa0/2) Fa0/2

PC-1A PC-1B Eagle-Server PC-1C

FastEthernet FastEthernet FastEthernet FastEthernet

Task 2: Create and Assign an Addressing Scheme


You are asked to use the 192.168.1.0 /24 address space. Seven total networks are required; assign the networks in decreasing order of number of hosts required for efficient use of address space. Use Table 10-21 and Table 10-22 to create an effective addressing scheme.
Table 10-21 LAN Hostname Interface Number of Hosts

R1 R2

Fa0/0 Fa0/0 Fa0/1

60 10 30 7

R3

Fa0/0

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Table 10-22 WAN Hostname Address to be Assigned Number of Hosts

R1R3 R1R3 R2R3

R1First host address R1First host address R2First host address

2 2 2

Use the following rules to assign IP addresses:


I

PCs will use the first host address in the subnet; the server will use the second to last host address in its subnet. All Fast Ethernet ports on a router will use the last host address of the assigned subnet. The R1R2 link will use the first WAN subnet, the R1R3 link will use the second WAN subnet, and the R2R3 link will use the third WAN subnet. R1 and R2 DCE interfaces should have clock rates of 56000.

I I

Task 3: Interface Configuration


Perform interface configuration of the R1, R2, and R3 routers, the PCs, and the server according to the preceding addressing scheme.

Task 4: Testing Connectivity


Make sure all PCs can ping their gateways, other PCs, and the server.

CHAPTER 11

Configuring and Testing Your Network

The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching, fill-in-the-blank, multiple-choice, and open-ended questions to test your knowledge of configuring and testing networks. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum activities and labs to ensure you have mastered the practical, hands-on skills you need. As you work through this chapter, use Chapter 11 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration online curriculum, or use the corresponding Chapter 11 in the Network Fundamentals CCNA Exploration Companion Guide, for assistance.

Study Guide
Configuring Cisco Devices: IOS Basics
Routers and switches need an operating system to function. The operating system on most Cisco devices is the Cisco IOS. It provides a number of network services, such as routing and switching, security, addressing, and quality of service. Understanding these functions and being able to access them is essential for network administrators and technicians.

Concept Questions
1.

Describe the different access methods for Cisco devices. Discuss when and why you would use a certain method. What security concerns do you need to consider for the different access methods? Answers will vary. The console port provides a low-speed serial connection and is used mainly when network services are unavailable on the deviceduring initial configuration, disaster recovery, troubleshooting, and password recovery. It is important to configure the console port with a password and prevent physical access to the router by keeping it in a locked room. Telnet and SSH provide remote access to the device and require network services. SSH uses more secure password authentication and encrypts the data for transport. For security reasons, SSH is preferred over Telnet. The AUX port can be used to access the device either locally or through a dialup connection. Access through the AUX port does not require network services on the device. Not all devices have an AUX port. When an AUX port is available, it is important to protect it with a password, just like the console port.

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2.

Compare and contrast the two main configuration files on Cisco devices in terms of function, location, and how they relate to each other. Answers may vary. The startup configuration file is stored in nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). Therefore, the startup configuration file stays intact when the device is powered off. Each time a device is started or reloaded, the startup configuration file loads into RAM. After it is loaded into RAM, it becomes the running configuration filethe file that is used to operate the device. Any configuration changes that are made to the device are written to the running configuration file. These changes are active immediately. Because this file is in RAM, these changes are not permanent unless they are written to the startup configuration file in NVRAM. The running configuration file is lost when the device is powered down, because this file is stored in RAM, which is volatile memory. It is important to save changes that need to be permanent.

3.

Describe the advantage of the hierarchical modal structure. Answers may vary. The main advantage is the controlled access or security. For example, the network administrator can grant different personnel different levels of access. Authentication can be configured for different modes. A network technician might be allowed to look at configurations but not change them.

Vocabulary Exercise: Matching


In Table 11-1, match the device prompt on the left with the correct IOS configuration mode on the right.
Table 11-1 Prompt IOS Configuration Modes IOS Configuration Mode

a. Switch> b. Router# c. Router(config)# d. Switch(config-if)#

b. Privileged EXEC mode c. Global configuration mode a. User EXEC mode d. Interface configuration mode

Cisco IOS Command Exercises


Answer these questions based on the following command:
Router#show ip interface brief

1. 2.

What is the name of the command? show Does this command use arguments or keywords? Keywords

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3.

Where do the following commands get the information they display? Name the file if applicable and the storage location of this information. Possible locations are RAM, ROM, NVRAM, and flash. show version: IOS information in RAM show startup-config: Backup configuration file in NVRAM show running-config: Active configuration file in RAM show flash: Operating systems stored in flash

Test Your Knowledge


Use Table 11-2 to test your knowledge of the command-line interface (CLI) shortcuts and hot keys.
Table 11-2 Key IOS Command-Line Help Function

Tab Ctrl-R Ctrl-Z Up arrow Down arrow Ctrl-D Ctrl-C Ctrl-Shift-6 Backspace exit

Autocomplete: completes the remainder of the command or keyword Redisplays a line Exits configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode Scrolls backwards through previously entered commands Scrolls forward through previously entered commands Deletes the character to the right of the cursor Aborts the current command and exits configuration mode Interrupts an IOS process such as ping or traceroute Deletes the character to the left of the cursor A command to move up one level in the configuration mode hierarchy

Applying a Basic Configuration Using Cisco IOS


All networking devices need a basic configuration to be functional. The most important initial configuration parameters include hostnames, passwords, and the IP addresses and descriptions on the interface. Hostnames are important for network documentation and remote access. Passwords establish basic security at the local level, and IP addresses are needed to establish connectivity with other devices on the network. Because configuration files are critical, the network administrator needs to exercise proper file management by saving changes to the configuration and by backing up configuration files.

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Concept Questions
1.

Explain why the hostname is an extremely important feature for networking devices. Be specific in your answer. Answers may vary. Most networking devices, such as routers and switches, are managed remotely. This means that the administrator connects to the networking devices via the network, such as from an office. The administrator does not have the physical devices in front of him or her to make sure they are attached to the correct piece of equipment. Hostnames, together with up-to-date documentation, help the administrator know what device he or she is connected to. Hostnames are a vital part of network management.

2.

Briefly explain the purpose of banners, and explain why they should contain some type of warning message. Answers will vary. Banners provide a method for declaring that only authorized personnel should have access to the devices. They are visible to anyone who logs on to the system, and they need to be worded carefully. It is good practice to advise against unauthorized access with the help of banners. This can prove helpful if somebody breaks into the system and a legal case arises.

3.

Network configuration files are extremely important on a production network. There should always be backup copies of files to aid in disaster recovery. Therefore, proper file management is very important. Explain how good management of configuration files can be implemented. Answers will vary. Backing up configuration files is part of good file management. Filenaming conventions are extremely important. The administrator needs to have fast access to the desired files. Therefore, a logical naming scheme that includes version control is critical. The filename also needs to indicate the hostname of the device it belongs to. The directory structure needs to be logical and should be documented. Including dates in the naming convention can be helpful, because this lets you sort files by date if needed.

Multiple-Choice Questions
Choose the best possible answer(s) for the following questions dealing with interface configuration network testing.
1.

Which of the following interface commands allows you to enter interface configuration mode to configure a routers interface?

a. Router(config)# interface 0/1/0 b. Router# interface s0 c. Router(config)# interface s0/1/0 d. Router(config)> interface s0/1/0 2.

Which of the following steps are required to configure an Ethernet interface? (Choose all that apply.)

a. Enter global configuration mode. b. Enter interface configuration mode. c. Specify the interface address and subnet mask. d. Enable the interface.

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3.

The output of which of the following commands shows the interface description? (Choose all that apply.)

a. show IP interface brief b. show interfaces c. show running-configuration d. show interface description 4.

Why is the ping test also called testing the protocol stack?

a. Because it tests all the layers of the OSI model. b. Because it tests connectivity at Layers 3, 2, and 1 of the OSI model. c. Because it uses a protocol stack to perform connectivity testing. d. Because the ping test tests all the layers of the TCP/IP model.

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion


Fill in the blanks in the following sentences.
1. 2. 3.

Like other hosts, a switch needs a default gateway address defined to communicate with hosts outside the local network. One effective way to test network connectivity is to use the ping command. Time to Live (TTL) defines the number of hops that the ping packet has remaining before it will be dropped.

Verifying Connectivity
A network needs full connectivity to converge. Testing network connectivity is a very important task. A network administrator needs to be familiar with the different testing utilities such as ping and traceroute and the different show commands. The output provided by the utilities and the show commands provides useful information for troubleshooting.

Test Your Knowledge


The ping utility yields useful indicators that can be used for troubleshooting. Describe the following indicators. Exclamation mark (!): The ping completed successfully, and Layer 3 connectivity has been established. Period (.): The ping timed out. A connectivity problem has occurred along the path. It is possible that a router along the path did not have a route to the destination and did not send an ICMP destination unreachable message. It is also possible that the ping was blocked by security measures. The letter U: A router along the path did not have a route to the destination address and responded with an ICMP unreachable message.

Concept Question
Explain how the internal IP configuration on the local host can be tested. Answers may vary. The ping 127.0.0.1 command can be used to test the local host IP configuration. It verifies the proper operation of the protocol stack from the network layer to the physical layer (and back) without putting a signal on the medium.

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Labs and Activities


Lab 11-1: Network Latency Documentation with ping (11.4.3.3)
Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
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Use the ping command to document network latency. Compute various statistics on the output of a ping capture. Measure delay effects from larger datagrams.

Background To obtain realistic network latency statistics, this lab must be performed on a live network. Be sure to check with your instructor for any local security restrictions on using the ping command on the network. The destination server computer must return ICMP echo replies; otherwise, delay cannot be computed. Some computers have this feature disabled through a firewall, and some private networks block transit ICMP echo datagrams. For this experiment to be interesting, a sufficiently distant destination should be chosen. Destinations on the same LAN or within a few hops may return an unrepresentative low latency. If youre patient, you can find a suitable destination. The purpose of this lab is to measure and evaluate network latency over time, and during different periods of the day, to capture a representative sample of typical network activity. You will accomplish this by analyzing the return delay from a distant computer using the ping command. You will perform statistical analysis of throughput delay with the assistance of a spreadsheet application such as Microsoft Excel. You will summarize return delay times, measured in milliseconds, by computing the average latency (mean). You will note the latency value at the center of the ordered range of latency points (median) and identify the most frequently occurring delay (mode). You will also measure delay when the ICMP datagram size increases. Scenario In the topology diagram shown in Figure 11-1, the network cloud represents all the network devices and cabling between the student computer and the destination server computer. Normally these devices are the ones that introduce network latency. Network engineers routinely rely on networks outside of local administration for connectivity to external networks. Monitoring path latency provides some measure of administrative diligence, which may be used in decision-making when evaluating suitable applications for wide-area network (WAN) deployment.
Figure 11-1 Topology for Lab 11-1
Server Computer Network Cloud Student Computer

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This lab requires five days of testing. Three tests will be performed each day. Preferably, one test should be done in the early morning, one around midday, and one in the evening. The idea is to note and document latency differences that occur at different times of the day. When youre done, you will have 15 sets of data. To understand the delay effects from larger datagrams, you will send and analyze increasingly larger ICMP datagrams.

Task 1: Use the ping Command to Document Network Latency


Step 1.

Verify connectivity between the student computer and the destination server computer. Open a terminal window by choosing Start > Run. Enter cmd, and then click OK. Attempt to ping a suitably distant destination, such as www.yahoo.com, as shown in Example 11-1.

Example 11-1

Ping Test

C:\> ping -n 1 www.yahoo.com Pinging www.yahoo-ht3.akadns.net [209.191.93.52] with 32 bytes of data: Reply from 209.191.93.52: bytes=32 time=304ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 209.191.93.5: Packets: Sent = 1, Received = 1, Lost = 0 (0% loss) Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 304ms, Maximum = 304ms , Average = 304 ms

Use the ping /? command to answer the following questions: What is the purpose of the -n option and argument 1? The -n option determines the number of echo requests to send. What option and argument would change the default size to 100 bytes? ping IP Address -l 100 Decide on a destination server computer, and write down the name: Answers will vary. Students might decide to ping google.com or yahoo.com, for example. Use the ping command to verify connectivity with the destination, and write down the results: Packets sent: _____________ Packets received: _________ Packets lost: _____________ Answers will vary. The ping command might fail or succeed, depending on the destination address.
Note to Instructor: Answers will vary, depending on the destination server computer

students choose. If packets were lost, use another destination, and retest.

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Step 2.

Perform a delay test. Write down the command that sends 100 echo requests to the destination: ping -n 100 Use the ping command to send 100 echo requests to your destination. When youre finished, copy the replies into Notepad. Choose Start > Programs > Accessories > Notepad. Save the file using the name format day-sample#.txt, where day is the day the test was performed (1 through 5) and sample# is the sample period (1 through 3). Alternatively, you can redirect output to a file by appending >day-sample#.txt to the end of the ping command. The command syntax is ping [options] >day-sample#.txt.

Note:

The terminal remains blank until the command has finished.

Task 2: Compute Various Statistics on the Output of a ping Capture


Step 1.

Bring the text file into the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application. If it isnt already open, start Microsoft Excel. Choose File > Open. Click Browse to move to the directory that holds the text file. Highlight the filename and click Open. To format a text file for use within Excel, ensure that all numeric values are separated from text characters. In the Text Import wizard, Step 1, choose Fixed Width. In Step 2, shown in Figure 11-2, follow the instructions to separate numeric values from text values.

Figure 11-2

Excel Text Import Wizard

Step 2.

Compute the mean, median, and mode delay values. When the input formatting is satisfactory, click Finish. If the spreadsheet has numbers in different fields, manually fix the numbers. After the spreadsheet has been opened, format the columns so that they are more readable. When youre done, you should have a spreadsheet that looks similar to Figure 11-3.

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Figure 11-3

Partial Spreadsheet

Record the number of dropped packets in the column Dropped Packets. Dropped packets have a consistently large delay value. Finally, the delay values must be ordered (sorted) when computing the median and mode values. You do this by choosing Data > Sort. Highlight all the data fields. Figure 11-4 shows a partial spreadsheet highlighted and the Data dialog box opened. If a header row was highlighted, click the Header row radio button. Select the column that contains the Delay values. In Figure 11-4 it is Column G. When youre finished, click OK.
Figure 11-4 Ordering on the Delay Column

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The formula used to compute the mean, or average, delay is the sum of the delays divided by the number of measurements. For this spreadsheet, this would equate to the formula in cell G102: =average(G2:G101). Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your mean value is approximately the value shown. Record this number in your chart in the Mean column. The formula used to compute the median delay, or the delay value in the center of the ordered range, is similar to the average formula. For the median value, the formula in cell G103 would be =median(G2:G101). Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your median value is similar to what is shown midway in the data range. Record this number in your chart in the Median column. The formula used to compute the modal delay, or the delay value that occurs the most frequently, is also similar. For the mode value, the formula in cell G104 would be =mode(G2:G101). Perform a quick visual inspection to verify that your mode value is the most frequently occurring value in the data range. Record this number in your chart in the Mode column. You may either save or discard the new spreadsheet file, but you should retain the data text file.

Task 3: Measure Delay Effects from Larger Datagrams


To determine if larger datagrams affect delay, you will send increasingly larger ICMP echo requests to the destination. In this analysis, 20 datagrams will be incremented by 100 bytes per ping request. You will create a spreadsheet with the reply results, as well as a chart that plots size versus delay.
Step 1.

Perform a variable-sized delay test. The easiest way to accomplish this task is to use the Windows built-in FOR loop command. The syntax is
FOR /L %variable IN (start,step,end) DO command [command-parameters]

The set is a sequence of numbers from start to end, by step amount. So (1,1,5) would generate the sequence 1 2 3 4 5, and (5,1,1) would generate the sequence (5 4 3 2 1). In the following command, destination is the destination. Issue this command:
FOR /L %i IN (100,100,2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i destination

Copy the output into Notepad, and save the file using the name variablesizedelay.txt. To redirect output to a file, use the redirect append operator, >>, as shown in the following command. The normal redirect operator, >, overwrites the file each time the ping command is executed, and only the last reply is saved.
FOR /L %i IN (100,100,2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i destination >> variablesizedelay.txt

Note:

The terminal remains blank until the command has finished.

The output of one line is shown in Example 11-2. All 20 replies are arranged similarly.

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Example 11-2

Variable-Size Delay Test

C:\> FOR /L %i IN (100,100,2000) DO ping -n 1 -l %i www.yahoo.com >>variablesizedelay.txt C:\> ping -n 1 -l 100 Pinging www.yahoo-ht3.akadns.net [209.191.93.52] with 100 bytes of data: Reply from 209.191.93.52: bytes=100 time=383ms TTL=52 Ping statistics for 209.191.93.52: Packets: Sent = 1, Received = 1, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 383ms, Maximum = 383ms, Average = 383ms

Step 2.

Bring the text file into the Excel spreadsheet application. Open the new text file in Excel, as shown in Figure 11-5.

Figure 11-5

Excel Text Import Wizard

The difference between this file and the previous one is that the variable-size file has much more information than is really needed.
Step 3.

Format the spreadsheet. Clean up and organize the spreadsheet data into two columns, Bytes and Delay. When youre finished, the spreadsheet should look similar to Figure 11-6.

Step 4.

Create a chart of the data. Highlight the Delay column data and choose Insert > Chart. A number of charts can be used to display delay data. A chart should be clear, but there is room for individual creativity. The chart shown in Figure 11-7 is a stacked line chart. When youre finished, save your spreadsheet and chart, and submit them to your instructor with the final delay analysis. Can you make any assumptions about delay when larger datagrams are sent across a network? Answers may vary. When larger datagrams are sent, a delay might occur, depending on available bandwidth and other traffic on the network.

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Figure 11-6

Formatted Spreadsheet

Figure 11-7

Plot of Delay Versus Datagram Size

Task 4: Reflection
The ping command can provide important network latency information. Careful delay analysis over successive days and at different times of the day can alert the network engineer to changes in network performance. For example, network devices may become overwhelmed during certain times of the day, and network delay spikes. In this case, routine data transfers should be scheduled during off-peak times, when delay is less. Also, many users subscribe to peer-to-peer applications such as Kazaa and Napster. When these file-sharing applications are active, valuable bandwidth is diverted from critical business applications. If delays are caused by events within the organization, network analysis tools can be used to determine the source, and corrective action can be taken. When the source originates from external networks not under the control of the organization, try to work out the problem with the ISP first. If that does not work, subscribing with a different or additional Internet service provider (ISP) may prove beneficial.

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Task 5: Challenge
If permitted, download a large file, and perform a separate delay test while the file is downloading. Write a one- or two-paragraph analysis that compares these delay results against a measurement made without the download.

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Lab 11-2: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.5.1.1)


Learning Objectives Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
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Configure Cisco router global configuration settings. Configure Cisco router password access. Configure Cisco router interfaces. Save the router configuration file. Configure a Cisco switch.

Background Figure 11-8 shows the topology for this lab.


Figure 11-8 Topology for Lab 11-2
1
Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1

R1
Fa0/2

S1
Fa0/3

Gather the necessary equipment and cables. To configure the lab, make sure that the equipment listed in Table 11-3 is available.
Table 11-3 Hardware Equipment and Hardware Requirements Quantity Description

Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Console (rollover) cable Crossover cable Straight-through cable

1 1 3 3 1 3

Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computer Host1 to the router console port Connects the computer to the router LAN interface FA0/0 Connects computer hosts to the switch and the switch to the router

Note to Instructor: If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces, consider configur-

ing a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router. Common configuration tasks include setting the hostname, access passwords, and message-of-the-day (MOTD) banner.

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Interface configuration is extremely important. In addition to assigning a Layer 3 IP address, entering a description that describes the destination connection decreases troubleshooting time. Configuration changes take effect immediately. The changes must be saved in NVRAM to be persistent across reboot. Configuration changes may also be saved offline in a text file for auditing or device replacement. Cisco IOS switch configuration is similar to Cisco IOS router configuration. Scenario In this lab, you will configure common settings on a Cisco router and Cisco switch. Given an IP address of 198.133.219.0/24, with 4 bits borrowed for subnets, fill in Table 11-4. (Hint: fill in the subnet number and then the host address. Address information is easy to compute with the subnet number filled in first.)
Note to Instructor: To reinforce student cable identification, have several different types of cables

available for the students. Mix crossover, straight-through, and rollover cables. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection. Maximum number of usable subnets (including the 0th subnet): 16 Number of usable hosts per subnet: 14
Table 11-4 Subnet Address Table Subnet mask: 255.255.255.240 First host address Last Host Address Broadcast

IP address: 192.133.219.0 # Subnet

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

192.133.219.0 192.133.219.16 192.133.219.32 192.133.219.48 192.133.219.64 192.133.219.80 192.133.219.96 192.133.219.112 192.133.219.128 192.133.219.144 192.133.219.160 192.133.219.176 192.133.219.192 192.133.219.208 192.133.219.224 192.133.219.240

192.133.219.1 192.133.219.17 192.133.219.33 192.133.219 192.133.219.65 192.133.219.81 192.133.219.97 192.133.219.113 192.133.219.129 192.133.219.145 192.133.219.161 192.133.219.177 192.133.219.193 192.133.219.209 192.133.219.225 192.133.219.241

192.133.219.14 192.133.219.30 192.133.219.46 192.133.219.62 192.133.219.78 192.133.219.95 192.133.219.110 192.133.219.126 192.133.219.142 192.133.219.158 192.133.219.174 192.133.219.190 192.133.219.207 192.133.219.222 192.133.219.238 192.133.219.254

192.133.219.15 192.133.219.31 192.133.219.47 192.133.219.63 192.133.219.79 192.133.219.95 192.133.219.111 192.133.219.127 192.133.219.143 192.133.219.159 192.133.219.175 192.133.219.191 192.133.219.207 192.133.219.223 192.133.219.239 192.133.219.255

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Before proceeding, verify your addresses with the instructor. The instructor will assign subnetworks. Give each team of students a subnetwork number.

Task 1: Configure Cisco Router Global Configuration Settings


Step 1.

Physically connect the devices. Figure 11-9 shows the cabling for this lab. Connect the console or rollover cable to the console port on the router. Connect the other end of the cable to the host computer using a DB-9 adapter to the COM 1 port. Connect the crossover cable between the host computers network interface card (NIC) and Router interface Fa0/0. Connect a straight-through cable between the Router interface Fa0/1 and any of the switchs interfaces (1 through 24). Ensure that power has been applied to the host computer, switch, and router.

Figure 11-9

Lab Cabling

Fa0/0

Fa0/1

R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable

Step 2.

Connect host computer through HyperTerminal. From the Widows taskbar, start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Configure HyperTerminal with the proper settings:
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Name the connection description: Lab 11_5_1 Connect using: COM1 (or an appropriate COM port)

Configure the COM1 properties:


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Bits per second: 9600 Data bits: 8 Parity: None Stop bits: 1 Flow control: None

When the HyperTerminal session window comes up, press the Enter key until the router responds.

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If the router terminal is in configuration mode, exit by entering no:


Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]: no

Press RETURN to get started! Router>

In privileged EXEC command mode, the router attempts to translate any misspelled or unrecognized commands as a domain name. Because no domain server is configured, a delay occurs while the request times out. This can take from several seconds to several minutes. To terminate the domain name lookup process, press Ctrl-Shift-6, release, and then press X. The following shows a user mistyping a command and the router attempting a domain name lookup:
Router>enabel Translating enabel...domain server (255.255.255.255) %

Press Ctrl-Shift-6, release, and then press X. This results in the following:
Name lookup aborted Router>

To disable name translation attempts, apply the global configuration command no ip domain-lookup. From user EXEC mode, enter privileged EXEC mode:
Router> enable Router#

Verify a clean configuration file using the privileged EXEC command show runningconfig. If a configuration file was previously saved, it must be removed. Depending on the routers model and the IOS version, your configuration may look slightly different from a typical default routers configuration. However, it should have no configured passwords or IP addresses. If your router does not have a default configuration, ask the instructor to remove the configuration.
Step 3.

Configure global configuration hostname settings. What two commands may be used to leave privileged EXEC mode? exit or end What shortcut command can you use to enter privileged EXEC mode? en Examine the different configuration modes that can be entered with the command configure?. Write down the list of configuration modes, and describe them: confirm: Confirms replacement of running-config with a new config file memory: Configures from nonvolatile memory network: Configures from a TFTP network host overwrite-network: Overwrites nonvolatile memory from the TFTP network host replace: Replaces the running-config with a new config file terminal: Configures from the terminal <cr>

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From privileged EXEC mode, enter global configuration mode:


Router# configuration terminal Router(config)#

What three methods may be used to leave global configuration mode and return to privileged EXEC mode? The exit command, the end command, and Ctrl-Z What shortcut command can be used to enter global configuration mode? config t Set the device hostname to Router1:
router(config)# hostname Router1 Router1(config)#

How can the hostname be removed? no hostname Router1


Step 4.

Configure the MOTD banner. In production networks, banner content may have a significant legal impact on the organization. For example, a court might interpret a friendly Welcome message as permission for an attacker to hack into the router. A banner should include information about authorization, penalties for unauthorized access, connection logging, and applicable local laws. The corporate security policy should cover all banner messages. Create a suitable MOTD banner. Only system administrators of the ABC Company are authorized users. Unauthorized access will be prosecuted, and all connection information will be logged. For example, suppose you are connected to an ABC network device. Access is granted to only current ABC system administrators with prior written approval. Unauthorized access is prohibited and will be prosecuted. All connections are continuously logged.
Router1(config)# banner ? LINE: c banner-text c, where c is a delimiting character

Examine the different banner modes that can be entered. Write down the list of banner modes, and describe them. exec: Sets the EXEC process creation banner incoming: Sets the incoming terminal line banner login: Sets the login banner motd: Sets the message-of-the-day banner prompt-timeout: Sets the message for the login authentication timeout slip-ppp: Sets the message for SLIP/PPP

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Choose a terminating character that will not be used in the message text, such as % (percent). Configure the MOTD banner. The MOTD banner is displayed on all connections before the login prompt. Use the terminating character on a blank line to end the MOTD entry, as shown in Example 11-3.
Example 11-3 banner motd Output
End with the character %

Router1(config)# banner motd % Enter TEXT message. ***You are connected to an ABC network device. Access is granted to only current ABC company system administrators with prior written approval. *** *** Unauthorized access is prohibited, and will be prosecuted. *** All connections are continuously logged. *** % Router1(config)#

What is the global configuration command to remove the MOTD banner? no banner motd Personal banners on nonproduction devices can be entertaining. The following is a banner made from ASCII art that can be copied into the router:
( o o ) +------------------.oooO--(_)--Oooo.------------------+ | | | .oooO ( ) Oooo. )--------------------+ ) / (_/ | | |

+---------------------\ (----( \_)

Task 2: Configure Cisco Router Password Access


Access passwords are set for privileged EXEC mode and the user entry point such as console, aux, and virtual lines. The privileged EXEC mode password is the most critical password, because it controls access to configuration mode.
Step 1.

Configure the privileged EXEC password. Cisco IOS supports two commands that set access to privileged EXEC mode. One command, enable password, contains no encryption or weak cryptography and should never be used if the enable secret command is available. The enable secret command uses a very secure MD5 cryptographic hash algorithm. Cisco says As far as anyone at Cisco knows, it is impossible to recover an enable secret based on the contents of a configuration file (other than by obvious dictionary attacks). Password security relies on the password

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algorithm and the password. In production environments, strong passwords should be used at all times. A strong password consists of at least nine characters of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols. In a lab environment, we will use weak passwords. Set the privileged EXEC password to class:
Router1(config)# enable secret class Router1(config)#

Step 2.

Configure the console password. Set the console access password to cisco. The console password controls console access to the router.
Router1(config)# line console 0 Router1(config-line)# password cisco Router1(config-line)# login

What is the command to remove the console password? no password cisco


Step 3.

Configure the virtual line password. Set the virtual line access password to cisco. The virtual line password controls Telnet access to the router. In early Cisco IOS versions, only five virtual lines could be set0 through 4. In newer Cisco IOS versions, the number has been expanded. Unless a Telnet password is set, access on that virtual line is blocked.
Router1(config-line)# line vty 0 4 Router1(config-line)# password cisco Router1(config-line)# login

There are three ways to exit line configuration mode. Fill in Table 11-5 with the correct answers.
Table 11-5 Command Ways to Exit Line Configuration Mode Effect

exit end Ctrl-Z

Returns to global configuration mode. Exits the configuration and returns to privileged EXEC mode.

Issue the command exit. What is the router prompt? What is the mode?
Router1(config-line)# exit

Router1(config)# Global configuration mode Issue the command end. What is the router prompt? What is the mode? Router1# Privileged EXEC mode

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Task 3: Configure Cisco Router Interfaces


All cabled interfaces should contain documentation about the connection. On newer Cisco IOS versions, the maximum description length is 240 characters. Figure 11-10 shows a network topology in which a host computer is connected to Router 1, interface Fa0/0.
Figure 11-10 Network Topology

Fa0/0

Fa0/1

R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable

Write down your subnet number and mask: Answers will vary, depending on which subnet students choose from Table 11-4. 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.240 The first IP address will be used to configure the host computer LAN. Write down the first IP address: Answers will vary. 192.168.1.1 The last IP address will be used to configure the router fa0/0 interface. Write down the last IP address: Answers will vary. 192.168.1.14
Step 1.

Configure the router interface Fa0/0. Write a short description for the connections on Router1: Fa0/0 -> Connection to Host1 with crossover cable. Apply the description on the router interface with the interface configuration command description, as shown in Example 11-4.

Example 11-4

Interface Configuration

Router1(config)# interface fa0/0 Router1(config-if)# description Connection to Host1 with crossover cable Router1(config-if)# ip address address mask Router1(config-if)# no shutdown Router1(config-if)# end Router1#

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Look for the interface to become active:


*Mar 24 19:58:59.602: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up

Step 2.

Configure the router interface Fa0/1. Write a short description for the connections on Router1: Fa0/1 -> Apply the description on the router interface with the interface configuration command description, as shown in Example 11-5.

Example 11-5

Interface Configuration

Router1(config)# interface fa0/1 Router1(config-if)# description Connection to switch with straightthrough cable Router1(config-if)# ip address address mask Router1(config-if)# no shutdown Router1(config-if)# end Router1#

Look for the interface to become active:


*Mar 24 19:58:59.602: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/1, changed state to up

Step 3. Configure the host computer.

Configure the host computer for LAN connectivity. Recall that you access the LAN configuration window by choosing Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Rightclick the LAN icon, and choose Properties. Highlight the Internet Protocol field, and choose Properties. Fill in the following fields:
I I I

IP Address: The first host address Subnet Mask: The subnet mask Default Gateway: The routers IP address

Click OK, and then click Close. Open a Windows command window, and verify network settings with the ipconfig command.
Step 4.

Verify network connectivity. Use the ping command to verify network connectivity with the router. If ping replies are not successful, troubleshoot the connection. What Cisco IOS command can you use to verify the interface status? show interface fa0/0 and show interface fa0/1 What Windows command can you use to verify host computer configuration? ipconfig What is the correct LAN cable between Host1 and Router1? Crossover

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Task 4: Save the Router Configuration Files


Cisco IOS calls RAM configuration storage the running configuration, and it calls nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) configuration storage the startup configuration. For configurations to survive rebooting or power restarts, the RAM configuration must be copied into NVRAM. This does not occur automatically. NVRAM must be manually updated after any changes are made.
Step 1.

Compare router RAM and NVRAM configurations. Use the Cisco IOS show command to view RAM and NVRAM configurations. The configuration is displayed one screen at a time. A line containing more indicates that there is additional information to display. Table 11-6 describes acceptable key responses.

Table 11-6 Key

Key Responses Description

Spacebar Enter Q Ctrl-C

Displays the next page Displays the next line Quits Quits Write down one possible shortcut command that displays the contents of NVRAM: show start Use this command to show the contents of NVRAM. If the output of NVRAM is missing, it is because there is no saved configuration, as shown in Example 11-6.

Example 11-6

Missing NVRAM

Router1# show startup-config startup-config is not present Router1# Display the contents of RAM. Router1# show running-config

Use the output to answer the following questions: How large is the configuration file? The current configuration is 935 bytes. (Answers will vary, but they will be close to 1000 bytes.) What is the enable secret password? enable secret 5 $1$Sg/E$JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0 Ask students to compare their passwords. If all students used cisco as the enable secret password, someone is bound to ask why the cryptotext is different. The answer is beyond the scope of this curriculum, but a short answer to intrigue students may lead to independent research. The cryptotext $1$Sg/E$JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0 is actually composed of three fields, separated by $. The first field, 1, contains the hash algorithm typein this case, MD5. The second field, Sg/E, is called the salt, or random value, that is used with the password, cisco, to compute the MD5 hash, JnEnON09QjpibV33dJXBI0. Because the salts are different, the resulting hash is different.

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I I I

Does your MOTD banner contain the information you entered earlier? Yes Do your interface descriptions contain the information you entered earlier? Yes Write down one possible shortcut command that will display the contents of RAM. sh run, write terminal

Step 2.

Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. For a configuration to be used the next time the router is powered on or reloaded, it must be manually saved in NVRAM. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM, as shown in Example 11-7.

Example 11-7

Saving the RAM Configuration

Router1# copy running-config startup-config Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Building configuration... [OK] Router1#

Write down one possible shortcut command that will copy the RAM configuration to NVRAM. copy run start, write mem, wr mem, wr Review the contents of NVRAM, and verify that the configuration is the same as the configuration in RAM. The contents should be the same.

Task 5: Configure a Cisco Switch


Cisco IOS switch configuration is similar to configuring a Cisco IOS router. The benefit of learning IOS commands is that they are similar to many different devices and IOS versions.
Step 1.

Connect the host to the switch. Move the console, or rollover, cable to the console port on the switch. Ensure that power has been applied to the switch. In HyperTerminal, press Enter until the switch responds.

Step 2.

Configure the global configuration hostname setting. Depending on the switch model and IOS version, your configuration may look slightly different from the typical default switch configuration. However, there should be no configured passwords. If your switch does not have a default configuration, ask the instructor to remove the configuration. From user EXEC mode, enter global configuration mode:
Switch> en Switch# config t Switch(config)#

Set the device hostname to Switch1:


Switch(config)# hostname Switch1 Switch1(config)#

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Step 3.

Configure the MOTD banner. Create a suitable MOTD banner. Only system administrators of the ABC company are authorized users. Unauthorized access will be prosecuted, and all connection information will be logged. Configure the MOTD banner:
Switch1(config)# banner motd %

The MOTD banner is displayed on all connections before the login prompt. Use the terminating character on a blank line to end the MOTD entry. For assistance, review the similar step for configuring a switch MOTD banner.
Switch1(config)# banner motd % You are connected to an ABC network device. Access is granted to only current ABC system administrators with prior written approval. Unauthorized access is prohibited, and will be prosecuted. All connections are continuously logged.%

Step 4.

Configure the privileged EXEC password. Set the privileged EXEC password to cisco:
Switch1(config)# enable secret cisco Switch1(config)#

Step 5.

Configure the console password. Set the console access password to class:
Switch1(config)# line console 0 Switch1(config-line)# password class Switch1(config-line)# login

Step 6.

Configure the virtual line password. Set the virtual line access password to class. Sixteen virtual lines can be configured on a Cisco IOS switch, 0 through 15:
Switch1(config-line)# line vty 0 15 Switch1(config-line)# password class Switch1(config-line)# login

Step 7.

Configure the interface description. Figure 11-11 shows a network topology in which Router1 is connected to Switch1, interface Fa0/1. Switch1 interface Fa0/2 is connected to host computer 2, and interface Fa0/3 is connected to host computer 3.

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Figure 11-11 Network Topology


1
Fa0/0 Fa0/1 Fa0/1

R1
Fa0/2

S1
Fa0/3

In Table 11-7, write a short description for the connections on Switch1.


Table 11-7 Interface Description Description

Switch1 Interface

Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3

Connection to Router 1 Connection to host computer 2 Connection to host computer 3 Apply the descriptions on the switch interface using the interface configuration command description, as shown in Example 11-8.

Example 11-8

Interface Description

Switch1(config)# interface fa0/1 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to Router1 Switch1(config)# interface fa0/2 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to host computer 2 Switch1(config)# interface fa0/3 Switch1(config-if)# description Connection to host computer 3 Switch1(config-if)# end Switch1#

Step 8.

Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM. For a configuration to be used the next time the switch is powered on or reloaded, it must be manually saved in NVRAM. Save the RAM configuration to NVRAM as shown in Example 11-9.

Example 11-9

Saving the Configuration

Switch1# copy run start Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Building configuration... [OK] Switch1#

Review the contents of NVRAM, and verify that the configuration is the same as the configuration in RAM. The contents should be the same.

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Task 6: Reflection
The more you practice the commands, the faster you will become at configuring a Cisco IOS router and switch. It is perfectly acceptable to use notes at first to help configure a device, but an experienced network engineer does not need a cheat sheet to perform common configuration tasks. Table 118 lists the commands covered in this lab.
Table 11-8 Action Commands Covered in This Lab Command

Enter global configuration mode.

configure terminal Example: Router> enable Router# configure terminal Router(config)#

Specify the routers name.

hostname name Example: Router(config)# hostname Router1 Router1(config)#

Specify an encrypted password to prevent unauthorized access to privileged EXEC mode. Specify a password to prevent unauthorized access to the console.

enable secret password Example: Router(config)# enable secret cisco Router(config)# password password login Example: Router(config)# line con 0 Router(config-line)# password class Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)# Specify a password to prevent unauthorized Telnet access.

Router vty lines: 0 4

password password login Example: Router(config)# line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)# password class Router(config-line)# login Router(config-line)#
continues

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Table 11-8 Action

Commands Covered in This Lab

continued

Command

Configure the MOTD banner.

banner motd % Example: Router(config)# banner motd % banner text % Router(config)# Configure an interface. Router: Interface is off by default

Switch: Interface is on by default

interface type/port Example: Router(config)# interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)# description description Router(config-if)# ip address address mask Router(config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)#

Save the configuration to NVRAM.

copy running-config startup-config Example: Router# copy running-config startup-config Router#

Task 7: Challenge
It is often necessary, and always handy, to save the configuration file to an offline text file. One way to do so is to choose Transfer > Capture Text from HyperTerminal, as shown in Figure 11-12.
Figure 11-12 HyperTerminal Capture Menu

All communication between the host computer and router is saved to a file. The file can be edited and saved. It also can be copied and pasted into a router.
Step 1.

To start a capture, from HyperTerminal choose Transfer > Capture Text. Enter a path and filename, and click Start.

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Step 2. Step 3. Step 4.

Issue the privileged EXEC command show running-config, and press Spacebar until all the configuration has been displayed. Stop the capture. Choose Transfer > Capture Text > Stop. Open the text file and review the contents. Remove any lines that are not configuration commands, such as the more prompt. Manually correct any lines that were scrambled or places where several lines occupy the same line. After checking the configuration file, highlight the lines and choose Edit > Copy from Notepad. This places the configuration in host computer memory. To load the configuration file, it is always a best practice to begin with a clean RAM configuration. Otherwise, stale configuration commands may survive a paste action and have unintended consequences. Highlighting the HyperTerminal text and copying may also bring the configuration into memory. The important point is to closely examine the configuration for any errors before reloading. Erase the NVRAM configuration file:
Router1# erase start Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue? [confirm] <ENTER> [OK] Erase of nvram: complete

Reload the router:


Router1# reload Proceed with reload? [confirm] <ENTER>

When the router reboots, enter global configuration mode:


Router> en Router# config t Router(config)#

Right-click inside the HyperTerminal window and choose Paste To Host. The configuration is quickly loaded to the router. Watch closely for error messages. Each message must be investigated and corrected. After the reload is complete, manually enable the interfaces by issuing the no shutdown command in interface configuration mode. Verify the configuration, and save to NVRAM.

Task 8: Clean Up
Before turning off power to the router and switch, remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device using the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Delete any configuration files saved on the host computers. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, restore host computer network connectivity, and then turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

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Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: Basic Cisco Device Configuration (11.5.1.2)


You can now open the file LSG1-Lab11512.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.

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Lab 11-3: Managing Device Configuration (11.5.2.1)


Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
I I

Configure network connectivity. Use TFTP to save and restore a Cisco IOS configuration.

Background Figure 11-13 shows the topology for this lab.


Figure 11-13 Topology for Lab 11-3

Fa0/0

R1 Straight-Through Cable Serial Cable Console (Rollover) Crossover Cable

Table 11-9 lists the lab equipment and hardware requirements for this lab.
Table 11-9 Hardware Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Quantity Description

Cisco router Computer (host) Console (rollover) cable Crossover cable

1 1 1 1

Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computer Host1 to the router console port Connects the Host1 NIC to Router1 Fa0/0

The host computer will be used as a TFTP server. This lab requires the use of SolarWinds TFTP server software. SolarWinds is a free TFTP application for Windows. You may download a free copy of the SolarWinds TFTP server software from www.solarwinds.com/products/freetools/free_tftp_server.aspx or from any freeware or shareware website. Scenario In this lab, you will configure common settings on a Cisco router, save the configuration to a TFTP server, and then restore the configuration from a TFTP server. You are given an IP address of 10.250.250.0/24 and additional 6 bits for subnets. Use the last valid subnet. Host1 should use the first valid host address, and Router1 should use the last valid host address.

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Use Table 11-10 to record your addressing.


Table 11-10 IP Addressing IP address: 10.250.250.0 Subnet Subnet mask: 255.255.255.252 Last Host Address Broadcast

First Host Address

10.250.250.248

10.250.250.249

10.250.250.250

10.250.250.251

To reinforce student cable identification, have several different types of cables available for the students. Mix crossover, straight-through, and rollover cables. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.

Task 1: Configure Network Connectivity


Step 1.

Physically connect the devices. Refer to Figure 11-13. Connect the console, or rollover, cable to the console port on the router. Connect the other cable end to the host computer with a DB-9 adapter to the COM 1 port. Ensure that power has been applied to both the host computer and the router.

Step 2.

Logically connect the devices. Using the IP address information from the scenario, configure the Host1 computer with an IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway.

Step 3.

Connect the host computer to the router through HyperTerminal. From the Widows taskbar, start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. When the HyperTerminal session window opens, press the Enter key until the router responds.

Step 4.

Configure Router1. The configuration tasks for Router1 are as follows:


I I I I I I

Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Configure the Router1 interface Fa0/0:
I I I

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Caution: Do not save the configuration in NVRAM. In this lab you practice transferring a configura-

tion file to a router that does not have a configuration file in NVRAM.

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Step 5.

Verify connectivity. Verify connectivity between Host1 and Router1, as shown in Example 11-10.

Example 11-10 Verify Connectivity


Router1# ping 10.250.250.249 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.250.250.249, timeout is 2 seconds: .!!!! Success rate is 80 percent (4/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1 ms Router1#

Task 2: Use TFTP to Save and Restore a Cisco IOS Configuration


Step 1.

Install the SolarWinds TFTP application. Double-click the SolarWinds TFTP application to begin the installation. Click Next. Agree to the license agreement, and accept the default settings. After SolarWinds has finished the installation, click Finish.

Step 2.

Start the TFTP server. Figure 11-14 shows an active TFTP server window.

Figure 11-14 TFTP Server Window

Start the TFTP server by choosing Start > Programs > SolarWinds Free Tools > TFTP Server.
Step 3.

Configure the TFTP server. To configure the TFTP server, as shown in Figure 11-15, choose File > Configure. Verify the settings, as shown in Table 11-11.

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Figure 11-15 Active TFTP Server Window

Table 11-11 TFTP Server Settings Setting Value

TFTP Root Directory Security Advanced Security Auto-Close Log

TFTP-Root Transmit and Receive Files 10.250.250.250 To 10.250.250.250 Never Enable Log Requests to the Following File. Leave the default file.

When youre finished, click OK.


Step 4.

Save the Router1 configuration to the TFTP server. From HyperTerminal, begin a TFTP upload to the TFTP server, as shown in Example 11-11.

Example 11-11 Saving the Router Configuration to the TFTP Server


Router1#copy running-config tftp: Address or name of remote host []? 10.250.250.249 Destination filename [router1-confg]? <ENTER> !! 1081 bytes copied in 2.008 secs (538 bytes/sec) Router1#

Verify a successful upload transfer. Open Log file c:\Program Files\SolarWinds\Free Tools\TFTP-Server.txt. The contents should be similar to the following: 3/25/2007 12:29 :Receiving router1-confg from (10.250.250.250) 3/25/2007 12:29 :Received router1-confg from (10.250.250.250), 1081 bytes Verify the transferred file. Use Microsoft Word or WordPad to examine the contents of the file c:\TFTP-Root\router1-confg. The contents should be similar to the configuration shown in Example 11-12.

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Example 11-12 Configuration File


! version 12.4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname Router1 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! enable secret 5 $1$D02B$AuX05n0HPT239yYRoQ0oE. ! no aaa new-model ip cef ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to host1 ip address 10.250.250.250 255.255.255.252 duplex auto speed auto ! interface FastEthernet0/1 no ip address shutdown duplex auto speed auto ! interface Serial0/1/0 no ip address shutdown no fair-queue ! interface Serial0/1/1 no ip address shutdown clock rate 2000000 ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ! control-plane ! banner motd *** ABC COMPANY NETWORK DEVICE **** *** Authorized access only ***** *** Logging is enabled ****

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Example 11-12 Configuration File


! line con 0 password class login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password class login !

continued

scheduler allocate 20000 1000 End

Step 5.

Restore the Router1 configuration from the TFTP server. Verify that NVRAM is clear, and then reboot Router1, as shown in Example 11-13.

Example 11-13 Verify Empty NVRAM


Router1# show startup-config startup-config is not present Router1# reload Proceed with reload? [confirm] <ENTER>

Connectivity must be established with the TFTP server. Router1 fa0/0 must be configured with an IP address, and the interface must be enabled, as shown in Example 11-14.
Example 11-14 Interface Configuration
Router> enable Router# conf t Enter configuration commands, one per line. Router(config)# interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)# ip address 10.250.250.250 255.255.255.252 Router(config-if)# no shutdown Router(config-if)# exit *Mar 25 16:43:03.095: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console *Mar 25 16:43:04.967: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0, changed state to up End with CNTL/Z.

Configure the hostname of the router to TEST, as shown in Example 11-15.


Example 11-15 Hostname Configuration
Router(config-if)# exit Router(config)# hostname TEST Test(config-if)# end TEST#

Verify connectivity using the ping command, as shown in Example 11-16.

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Example 11-16 Ping Test


Test# ping 10.250.250.249 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.250.250.249, timeout is 2 seconds: .!!!! Success rate is 80 percent(4/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/1/1ms Router#

Download the Router1 configuration file from the TFTP server, as shown in Example 11-17.
Example 11-17 File Transfer from the TFTP Server
Test# copy tftp startup-config Address or name of remote host []? 10.250.250.249 Source filename []? router1-confg Destination filename [startup-config]? <ENTER> Accessing tftp://10.250.250.249/router1-confg... Loading router1-confg from 10.250.250.249 (via FastEthernet0/0): ! [OK - 1081 bytes] 1081 bytes copied in 9.364 secs (115 bytes/sec) Router1# *Mar 25 16:55:26.375: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from tftp://10.250.250.249/router1-confg by console Router1#

View the configuration in NVRAM to verify an accurate transfer. The configuration should be the same as what was configured in Task 1, Step 4. Reload the router. Select no at the prompt that says Configuration has been modified. The previous configuration should be restored, and the routers hostname should now be Router1.

Task 3: Reflection
TFTP is a fast, efficient way to save and load Cisco IOS configuration files.

Task 4: Challenge
Similar to uploading a configuration file, the IOS can also be stored offline for future use. To discover the IOS filename, issue the Cisco IOS command show version. The filename is highlighted in Example 11-18.
Example 11-18 IOS Filename in Flash
Router1# show version Cisco IOS Software, 1841 Software (C1841-ADVIPSERVICESK9-M), Version 12.4(10b), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc3) Technical Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport Copyright (c) 1986-2007 by Cisco Systems, Inc. Compiled Fri 19-Jan-07 15:15 by prod_rel_team

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Example 11-18 IOS Filename in Flash

continued

ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 12.4(13r)T, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Router1 uptime is 17 minutes System returned to ROM by reload at 16:47:54 UTC Sun Mar 25 2007 System image file is flash:c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-10b.bin This product contains cryptographic features and is subject to United States and local country laws governing import, export, transfer and use. Delivery of Cisco cryptographic products does not imply third-party authority to import, export, distribute or use encryption. Importers, exporters, distributors and users are responsible for compliance with U.S. and local country laws. By using this product you agree to comply with applicable laws and regulations. If you are unable to comply with U.S. and local laws, return this product immediately. A summary of U.S. laws governing Cisco cryptographic products may be found at: http://www.cisco.com/wwl/export/crypto/tool/stqrg.html If you require further assistance, contact Cisco by sending email to export@cisco.com. Cisco 1841 (revision 6.0) with 174080K/22528K bytes of memory. Processor board ID FHK110918KJ 2 Serial(sync/async) interfaces DRAM configuration is 64 bits wide with parity disabled. 191K bytes of NVRAM. 62720K bytes of ATA CompactFlash (Read/Write) Configuration register is 0x2102 Router1#

The commands to upload the IOS are similar to uploading the configuration file, as shown in Example 11-19.
Example 11-19 File Transfer to TFTP Server
Router1# copy flash tftp Source filename []? c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-10b.bin Address or name of remote host []? 10.250.250.249 Destination filename [c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-10b.bin]? !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!! 22063220 bytes copied in 59.564 secs (370412 bytes/sec) Router1#

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Task 5: Clean Up
Before turning off power to the router, remove the NVRAM configuration file if it was loaded. Use the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Delete any configuration files saved on the host computers. Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, restore host computer network connectivity, and then turn off power to the host computers. Remove the SolarWinds TFTP server from the host computer. Choose Start > Control Panel. Click Add or Remove Applications. Choose SolarWinds and click Remove. Accept the defaults. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.
Packet Tracer Companion

Packet Tracer Companion: Managing Device Configuration (11.5.2.2)


You can now open the file LSG1-Lab11522.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to repeat this hands-on lab using Packet Tracer. Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. A summary of the instructions is provided within the activity.

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Lab 11-4: Configure Host Computers for IP Networking (11.5.3.1)


Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
I I I I

Design the logical lab topology. Configure the physical lab topology. Configure the logical LAN topology. Verify LAN connectivity.

Background Figure 11-16 shows the topology diagram for this lab.
Figure 11-16 Topology for Lab 11-4

S1
Fa0/1 Fa0/2

Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Table 11-12 lists the lab equipment and hardware requirements.
Table 11-12 Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description

Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables

1 1 2 2

Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects computers Host1 and Host2 to Switch1

Scenario In this lab you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. To reinforce student cable identification, have several different types of cables available for the students. Mix crossover, straight-through, and rollover cables. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.

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Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology


Given an IP address of 192.168.254.0/24, and 5 bits used for subnets, fill in the following information: Maximum number of usable subnets (including the 0th subnet): 31 Number of usable hosts per subnet: 6 Use Table 11-13 to record the addressing scheme.
Table 11-13 Addressing Table IP address: 192.168.254.0 Subnet First Host Address Subnet mask: 255.255.255.248 Last Host Address Broadcast

192.168.254.0 192.168.254.8 192.168.254.16 192.168.254.24 192.168.254.32 192.168.254.40 192.168.254.48 192.168.254.56 192.168.254.64 192.168.254.72 192.168.254.80 192.168.254.88 192.168.254.96 192.168.254.104 192.168.254.112 192.168.254.120 192.168.254.128 192.168.254.136 192.168.254.144 192.168.254.152 192.168.254.160 192.168.254.168 192.168.254.176

192.168.254.1 192.168.254.9 192.168.254.17 192.168.254.25 192.168.254.33 192.168.254.41 192.168.254.49 192.168.254.57 192.168.254.65 192.168.254.73 192.168.254.81 192.168.254.89 192.168.254.97 192.168.254.105 192.168.254.113 192.168.254.121 192.168.254.129 192.168.254.137 192.168.254.145 192.168.254.153 192.168.254.161 192.168.254.169 192.168.254.177

192.168.254.6 192.168.254.14 192.168.254.22 192.168.254.30 192.168.254.38 192.168.254.46 192.168.254.54 192.168.254.62 192.168.254.70 192.168.254.78 192.168.254.86 192.168.254.94 192.168.254.102 192.168.254.110 192.168.254.118 192.168.254.126 192.168.254.134 192.168.254.142 192.168.254.150 192.168.254.158 192.168.254.166 192.168.254.174 192.168.254.182

192.168.254.7 192.168.254.15 192.168.254.23 192.168.254.31 192.168.254.39 192.168.254.47 192.168.254.55 192.168.254.63 192.168.254.71 192.168.254.79 192.168.254.87 192.168.254.95 192.168.254.103 192.168.254.111 192.168.254.119 192.168.254.127 192.168.254.135 192.168.254.143 192.168.254.151 192.168.254.159 192.168.254.167 192.168.254.175 192.168.254.183
continues

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Table 11-13 Addressing Table IP address: 192.168.254.0 Subnet

continued Subnet mask: 255.255.255.248 Last Host Address Broadcast

First Host Address

192.168.254.184 192.168.254.192 192.168.254.200 192.168.254.208 192.168.254.216 192.168.254.224 192.168.254.232 192.168.254.240 192.168.254.248

192.168.254.185 192.168.254.193 192.168.254.201 192.168.254.209 192.168.254.217 192.168.254.225 192.168.254.233 192.168.254.241 192.168.254.249

192.168.254.190 192.168.254.198 192.168.254.206 192.168.254.214 192.168.254.222 192.168.254.230 192.168.254.238 192.168.254.246 192.168.254.254

192.168.254.191 192.168.254.199 192.168.254.207 192.168.254.215 192.168.254.223 192.168.254.231 192.168.254.239 192.168.254.247 192.168.254.255

Before proceeding, verify your addresses with the instructor. The instructor will assign one subnetwork per student or team.

Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology


Step 1.

Physically connect the devices. Cable the network devices as shown earlier in Figure 11-16. Is a crossover cable needed to connect host computers to the switch? Why or why not? No. Because computers and the switch are not wired the same for networking, straightthrough cables are used. If its not already enabled, turn on power to all devices.

Step 2.

Visually inspect network connections. After cabling the network devices, take a moment to verify the connections. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later.

Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology


Step 1.

Document logical network settings. Host computers will use the first two IP addresses in the subnetwork. Write down the IP address information for each device in Table 11-14.

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Table 11-14 Logical Topology Device Subnetwork IP Address Mask

Host1 Host2

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary

255.255.255.248 255.255.255.248

From the information given in Table 11-15, write down the IP network addressing for each computer.
Table 11-15 Host Addressing Table Host1

IP address IP mask Host2 IP address IP mask


Step 2.

Answers will vary 255.255.255.248

Answers will vary 255.255.255.248 Configure the Host1 computer. On Computer1, choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Right-click the LAN icon, and choose Properties. On the General tab, choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and then click the Properties button. Refer to Figure 11-17 for Host1 IP address and gateway settings.

Figure 11-17 Host IP Address and Gateway Settings

When youre finished, click OK, and then click Close. The computer may require a reboot for changes to be effective. Verify proper configuration of Host1 with the ipconfig /all command. Record the output in Table 11-16.

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Table 11-16 ipconfig Output Setting Value

Ethernet device Physical address IP address Subnet mask Default gateway


Step 3.

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255.255.255.248 Unassigned

Configure Host2. Repeat Step 2 for Host2 using IP address information from Table 11-15, which you filled out in Step 1. Verify proper configuration. Record the output in Table 11-17.

Table 11-17 Host ipconfig Output Setting Value

Ethernet device Physical address IP address Subnet mask Default gateway

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary 255.255.255.248 Unassigned

Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity


Network connectivity can be verified with the Windows ping command. Use Table 11-18 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device.
Table 11-18 Ping Results From To IP Address Ping Result

Host1 Host2

Host2 Host1

Answers will vary Answers will vary

Should be successful Should be successful

Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails.


Note: If pings to host computers fail, temporarily disable the computer firewall, and retest. To disable a Windows firewall, choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall, click Off, and then click OK.

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Task 5: Reflection
Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. Make sure you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to configure a Windows host computer.

Task 6: Challenge
Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you arent looking or are out of the lab room. Problems can be either physical (the wrong UTP cable) or logical (the wrong IP address). To fix the problems, perform a good visual inspection. Look for green link lights on Switch1. Use Table 11-18 to identify failed connectivity. List the problems. Possible problems: IP addresses on different subnets Incorrect or faulty cable Faulty NIC Write down your proposed solution(s). Correct the IP address configuration. Replace the cable. Replace the computer with the faulty NIC, and configure the IP address on the replacement computer. Test your solution. If the solution fixed the problem, document the solution. If the solution did not fix the problem, continue troubleshooting.

Task 7: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, restore the host computer network connectivity, and then turn off power to the host computers. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

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Lab 11-5: Network Testing (11.5.4.1)


Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
I I I I

Design the logical lab topology. Configure the physical lab topology. Configure the logical LAN topology. Verify LAN connectivity.

Background Figure 11-18 shows the topology for this lab.


Figure 11-18 Topology for Lab 11-5

Subnet A 1
Fa0/0 Fa0/1

Subnet B
Fa0/1

R1
Fa0/2

S1
Fa0/3

Subnet C Subnet D Subnet E Subnet F 2 3

Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Table 11-19 lists the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab.
Table 11-19 Lab Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description

Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables Category 5 crossover UTP cable Console (rollover) cable

1 1 3 3 1 1

Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router1, Host2, and Host3 to Switch1 Connects Host1 to Router1 Connects Host1 to the Router1 console

If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces, consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to the FastEthernet 0/1. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router.

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Scenario In this lab, you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed. Subnet C, Subnet D, Subnet E, and Subnet F are anticipated subnets, not yet connected to the network. The 0th subnet will be used. To reinforce student cable identification, have several different types of cables available for the students. Mix crossover, straight-through, and rollover cables. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.

Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology


Given an IP address and mask of 172.20.0.0/24 (address/mask), design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 11-20.
Table 11-20 Addressing Requirements Subnet Number of Hosts

Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C Subnet D Subnet E Subnet F

As shown in the topology diagram Between 80 and 100 Between 40 and 52 Between 20 and 29 12 5

Note: Always start with the subnet that has the largest number of hosts, and work your way down. Therefore, you should start with Subnet B and finish with Subnet A. Step 1.

Design the Subnet B address block. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirements of Subnet B, which requires the largest block of IP addresses. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart, pick the first address block that will support Subnet B. Fill in Table 11-21 with the IP address information for Subnet B.

Table 11-21 Subnet B IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.0
Step 2.

255.255.255.128

172.20.0.1

172.20.0.126

172.20.0.127

Design the Subnet C address block. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet C, the next-largest IP address block. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart, pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C. Fill in Table 11-22 with the IP address information for Subnet C.

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Table 11-22 Subnet C IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Last Host Broadcast

172.20.0.128

255.255.255.192

172.20.0.129

172.20.0.190

172.20.0.191

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11000000


Step 3.

Design the Subnet D address block. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet D, the next-largest IP address block. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart, pick the next available address block that will support Subnet D. Fill in Table 11-23 with the Subnet D IP address information.

Table 11-23 Subnet D IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.192

255.255.255.224

172.20.0.193

172.20.0.222

172.20.0.223

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11100000


Step 4.

Design the Subnet E address block. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet E, the next-largest IP address block. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart, pick the next available address block that will support Subnet E. Fill in Table 11-24 with the Subnet E IP address information.

Table 11-24 Subnet E IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.224

255.255.255.240

172.20.0.225

172.20.0.238

172.20.0.239

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11110000


Step 5.

Design the Subnet F address block. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet F, the next-largest IP address block. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart, pick the next available address block that will support Subnet F. Fill in Table 11-25 with the Subnet F IP address information.

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Table 11-25 Subnet F IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.240

255.255.255.248

172.20.0.241

172.20.0.246

172.20.0.24

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111000


Step 6.

Design the Subnet A address block. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet A, the smallest IP address block. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart, pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A. Fill in Table 11-26 with the Subnet A IP addressing table.

Table 11-26 Subnet A IP Addressing Table Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

172.20.0.248

255.255.255.252

172.20.0.249

172.20.0.250

172.20.0.251

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111100

Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology


Step 1.

Physically connect the lab devices. Cable the network devices as shown earlier, in Figure 11-18. Pay special attention to the crossover cable required between Host1 and Router1. If its not already enabled, turn on power to all devices.

Step 2.

Visually inspect the network connections. After cabling the network devices, take a moment to verify the connections. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot Layer 1 connectivity issues later.

Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology


Step 1.

Document logical network settings. On Subnet A, Host1 uses the first IP address in the subnet. Router1, interface Fa0/0, uses the last host address. On Subnet B, host computers use the first and second IP addresses in the subnet, respectively. Router1, interface Fa0/1, uses the last network host address. To properly route Layer 2 frames between LAN devices, Switch1 does not require Layer 3 configuration. The IP address assigned to Switch1, interface VLAN 1, is used to establish Layer 3 connectivity between external devices and the switch. Without an IP address, upper-layer protocols such as Telnet and HTTP will not work. The default gateway address

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permits the switch to respond to protocol requests from devices on distant networks. For example, the IP gateway address extends Layer 3 connectivity beyond Subnet B. Switch1 uses the next-to-last host address. Write down the IP address information for each device listed in Table 11-27.
Table 11-27 IP Address Information Device Subnet IP Address Mask Gateway

Host1 Router1-Fa0/0 Host2 Host3 Switch1 Router1-Fa0/1


Step 2.

172.20.0.248 172.20.0.248 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0 172.20.0.0

172.20.0.249 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128

172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126

Configure host computers. On each computer, in turn, choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Right-click the LAN icon, and choose Properties. On the General tab, choose Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and then click the Properties button. Verify that the Host1 Layer 3 IP address is on a different subnet than Host2 and Host3. Configure each host computer using the IP address information recorded in Step 1. Verify proper configuration of each host computer with the ipconfig command, and fill in Table 11-28.

Table 11-28 Host Configuration Device IP Address Mask Default Gateway

Host1 Host2 Host3


Step 3.

172.20.0.249 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 Configure Router1.

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.128 255.255.255.128

172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.126

From the Windows taskbar, start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Configure HyperTerminal for access to Router1. Configuration for Router1 includes the following tasks:
I I I I I

Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner.

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Configure Router1 interface Fa0/0:


I I I

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Configure Router1 interface Fa0/1:


I I I

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Save the configuration in NVRAM. What command do you use to display the contents of RAM? show running-config Record the configuration specifications:
I I I I I

Hostname: Router1 Enable secret password: cisco Console access password: class Telnet access password: class MOTD banner: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface Fa0/0? show interface Fa0/0 Record the configuration specifications:
I I I

FastEthernet 0/0 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up MAC address: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface Fa0/1? show interface Fa0/1 Record the configuration specifications:
I I I

FastEthernet 0/0 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up MAC address: Answers will vary

What command do you use to display brief IP address information about each interface? show ip interface brief Record the configuration specifications:
Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 IP-Address 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 OK? Method Status YES manual up YES manual up Protocol up up

Take corrective action with any problems, and retest.

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Step 4.

Configure Switch1. Move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Press Enter until you receive a response. Configuration for Switch1 includes the following:
I I I I I I

Specify a switch name: Switch1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/1:
I

Set the description.

Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/2:


I

Set the description.

Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/3:


I

Set the description.

Configure the management VLAN1 IP address:


I I I

Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Configure the default IP gateway address.

What command do you use to display the contents of RAM? show running-config Write the configuration specifications:
I I I I I I I

Hostname: Switch1 Enable secret password: cisco Console access password: class Telnet access password: class MOTD banner: Answers will vary Interface VLAN 1: 172.20.0.125 Default IP gateway address: 172.20.0.126

What command do you use to display configuration information for interface VLAN 1? show interface vlan1
I I

VLAN 1 status (up/down): Should be up Line protocol: Should be up

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Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity


Step 1.

Use the ping command to verify network connectivity. You can verify network connectivity using the ping command. It is very important that connectivity exist throughout the network. Corrective action must be taken if a failure occurs. Use Table 11-29 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device.

Table 11-29 Connectivity Testing From To IP Address Ping Result

Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3

LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Gateway (Router1, Fa0/0 Router1, Fa0/1 Switch1 Host2 Host3 LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Host3 Switch1 Gateway (Router1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0 Host1 LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Host2 Switch1 Gateway (Router1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0

127.0.0.1 172.20.0.249 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 127.0.0.1 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.250 172.20.0.249 127.0.0.1 172.20.0.2 172.20.0.1 172.20.0.125 172.20.0.126 172.20.0.250

Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful

Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails.


Note: If pings to host computers fail, temporarily disable the computer firewall, and retest. To disable a Windows firewall, choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall, click Off, and then click OK.

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Step 2.

Use the tracert command to verify local connectivity. From Host1, issue the tracert command to Host2 and Host3. Record the results:
I I

From Host1 to Host2: Answers should show success From Host1 to Host3: Answers should show success

Step 3.

Verify Layer 2 connectivity. If its not already connected, move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Press the Enter key until Switch1 responds. Issue the command show mac-address-table. This command displays static (CPU) and dynamic, or learned, entries. List the dynamic MAC addresses and their corresponding switch ports in Table 11-30.

Table 11-30 MAC Address Table MAC Address Switch Port

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary

Verify that there are three dynamically learned MAC addressesone each from Fa0/1, Fa0/2, and Fa0/3.

Task 5: Reflection
Review any physical or logical configuration problems encountered during this lab. Make sure you have a thorough understanding of the procedures used to verify network connectivity.

Task 6: Challenge
Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you arent looking or are out of the lab room. Problems can be either physical (the wrong UTP cable) or logical (the wrong IP address or gateway). To fix the problems, perform a good visual inspection. Look for green link lights on Switch1. Use Table 11-18 to identify failed connectivity. List the problems. Possible answers include incorrect IP addressing and incorrect cabling. Write down your proposed solution(s). Possible solutions include correcting the IP address configuration and replacing the cable. Test your solution. If the solution fixed the problem, document the solution. If the solution did not fix the problem, continue troubleshooting.

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Task 7: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, restore host computer network connectivity, and then turn off power to the host computers. Before turning off power to the router and switch, remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device with the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Carefully remove the cables, and return them neatly to their storage. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class.

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Lab 11-6: Network Documentation with Utility Commands (11.5.5.1)


Upon completion of this lab, you will be able to
I I I I I

Design the logical lab topology. Configure the physical lab topology. Design and configure the logical LAN topology. Verify LAN connectivity. Document the network.

Background Figure 11-19 shows the topology for this lab.


Figure 11-19 Topology for Lab 11-6
Subnet A 1
Fa0/0 Fa0/1

Subnet B
Fa0/1

R1
Fa0/2

S1
Fa0/3

Subnet C

Gather the necessary equipment and cables. Table 11-31 lists the equipment and hardware requirements for this lab.
Table 11-31 Equipment and Hardware Requirements Hardware Quantity Description

Cisco router Cisco switch Computer (host) Category 5 or better straight-through UTP cables Category 5 crossover UTP cable Console (rollover) cable

1 1 3 3 1 1

Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Part of the CCNA Lab bundle Lab computer Connects Router1, Host1, and Host2 to Switch1 Connects Host1 to Router1 Connects Host1 to the Router1 console

If you do not have a router that has two FastEthernet interfaces, consider configuring a loopback interface as an alternative to FastEthernet 0/1. Another alternative would be to use two routers connected through a serial connection and use the FastEthernet interfaces from each router.

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In this lab, router and host output will be copied from the devices and into Notepad for use in network documentation. Scenario Network documentation is a very important tool for the organization. A well-documented network enables network engineers to save significant time in troubleshooting and planning future growth. In this lab you will create a small network that requires connecting network devices and configuring host computers for basic network connectivity. Subnet A and Subnet B are subnets that are currently needed. Subnet C is an anticipated subnet, not yet connected to the network. The 0th subnet will be used. To reinforce student cable identification, have several different types of cables available for the students. Mix crossover, straight-through, and rollover cables. Students should be able to identify the proper cable type based on a visual inspection.

Task 1: Design the Logical Lab Topology


Given an IP address of 209.165.200.224/27 (address/mask), design an IP addressing scheme that satisfies the requirements listed in Table 11-32.
Table 11-32 IP Addressing Requirements Subnet Number of Hosts

Subnet A Subnet B Subnet C


Step 1.

2 Between 2 and 6 Between 10 and 12 Design the Subnet C address block. Begin the logical network design by satisfying the requirements of Subnet C, the largest IP address block. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart, pick the next available address block that will support Subnet C. Fill in Table 11-33 with the IP address information for Subnet C.

Table 11-33 Subnet C IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

209.165.200.224

255.255.255.240 209.165.200.225

209.165.200.238

209.165.200.239

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11110000


Step 2.

Design the Subnet B address block. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet B, the next-largest block of IP addresses. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart, pick the first address block that will support Subnet B.

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Fill in Table 11-34 with the IP address information for Subnet B.


Table 11-34 Subnet B IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

209.165.200.240

255.255.255.248 209.165.200.240

209.165.200.246

209.165.200.247

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.111111000___


Step 3.

Design the Subnet A address block. Satisfy the requirements of Subnet A, the smallest IP address block. Using binary numbers to create your subnet chart, pick the next available address block that will support Subnet A. Fill in Table 11-35 with the IP address information for Subnet A.

Table 11-35 Subnet A IP Address Information Network Address Mask First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast

209.165.200.248

255.255.255.252 209.165.200.249

209.165.200.250

209.165.200.251

What is the bit mask? 11111111.1111111.11111111.11111100

Task 2: Configure the Physical Lab Topology


Step 1.

Physically connect lab devices. Cable the network devices as shown in Figure 11-19. Pay special attention to the crossover cable required between Host1 and Router1. If its not already enabled, turn on power to all devices.

Step 2.

Visually inspect the network connections. After cabling the network devices, take a moment to verify the connections. Attention to detail now will minimize the time required to troubleshoot network connectivity issues later.

Task 3: Configure the Logical Topology


Step 1.

Document the logical network settings. Host computers use the first two IP addresses in the subnetwork. The network router uses the last network host address. Write down the IP address information for each device in Table 11-36.

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Table 11-36 IP Address Information Device Subnet IP Address Mask Gateway

Router1 -FA0/0 Host1 Router1 -FA0/1 Host2 Host2 Switch


Step 2.

209.165.200.248 209.165.200.248 209.165.200.240 209.165.200.240 209.165.200.240

209.165.200.250 209.165.200.249 209.165.200.246 209.165.200.241 209.165.200.242

255.255.255.252 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.248 255.255.255.248 255.255.255.248

209.165.200.250 209.165.200.246 209.165.200.246

Configure the host computers. On each computer in turn, choose Start > Control Panel > Network Connections. Highlight the Local Area Connection device icon, right-click, and choose Properties. Highlight Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and choose Properties. Verify that the Host1 Layer 3 IP address is on a different subnetwork than Host2 and Host3. Configure each host computer using the IP address information recorded in Step 1. Verify proper configuration of each host computer using the ipconfig /all command. Record your information in a separate document, and name it Documentation_Lab11-6.

Step 3.

Configure Router1. From the Windows taskbar, start the HyperTerminal program by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Communications > HyperTerminal. Configure HyperTerminal for access to Router1. These are the configuration tasks for Router1:
I I I I I I

Specify the router name: Router1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Configure Router1 interface Fa0/0:
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Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

Configure Router1 interface Fa0/1:


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Set the description. Set the Layer 3 address. Issue the no shutdown command.

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Specify the command you use to save the configuration in NVRAM: copy run start Specify the command you use to display the contents of RAM: show running-configuration Save the output of the configuration to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Copy the output of the show interface fa0/0 and show interface fa0/1 commands into your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Copy the output of the show ip interface brief command to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6.
Step 4.

Configure Switch1. Move the console cable from Router1 to Switch1. Press Enter until you receive a response. Configuration tasks for Switch1 are as follows:
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Specify the switch name: Switch1 Specify an encrypted privileged EXEC password: cisco Specify a console access password: class Specify a Telnet access password: class Configure the MOTD banner. Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/1:
I

Set the description.

Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/2:


I

Set the description.

Configure Switch1 interface Fa0/3:


I

Set the description.

Specify the command you use to display the contents of RAM: show running-configuration Copy the output of the configuration to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. Copy the output of the show mac address-table command to your document named Documentation_Lab11-6.

Task 4: Verify Network Connectivity


Step 1.

Use the ping command to verify network connectivity. Network connectivity can be verified with the ping command. It is very important that connectivity exist throughout the network. Corrective action must be taken if a failure occurs.
Note: If pings to host computers fail, temporarily disable the computer firewall, and retest. To disable a Windows firewall, choose Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall, click OFF, and click OK.

Use Table 11-37 to methodically verify connectivity with each network device. Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails.

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Table 11-37 Connectivity Testing From To IP Address Ping Result

Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host1 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host2 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3 Host3
Step 2.

LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP Address Gateway (Router1, Fa0/0 Router1, Fa0/1 Host2 Host3 LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP Address Host3 Gateway (Router1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0 Host1 LocalHost (127.0.0.1) NIC IP address Host2 Gateway (Router1, Fa0/1) Router1, Fa0/0 Host1

127.0.0.1 209.165.200.249 209.165.200.250 209.165.200.246 209.265.200.241 209.265.200.242 127.0.0.1 209.265.200.241 209.265.200.242 209.265.200.246 209.265.200.250 209.265.200.249 127.0.0.1 209.265.200.243 209.265.200.241 209.265.200.246126 209.265.200.250 209.265.200.249

Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful Should be successful

Use the tracert command to verify local connectivity. In addition to connectivity testing, the tracert command may be used as a crude throughput tester for network baselining. That is, with minimal traffic, tracert results can be compared against periods of high traffic. Results can be used to justify equipment upgrades or new purchases. From Host1, issue the tracert command to Router1, Host2, and Host3. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. From Host2, issue the tracert command to Host3, Router1, and Host1. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6. From Host3, issue the tracert command to Host2, Router1, and Host1. Record the results in your document named Documentation_Lab11-6.

Task 5: Document the Network


With all the work performed so far, it would seem that there is nothing left to do. The network was physically and logically configured and verified, and command output was copied into tables.

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The last step in network documentation is to organize your output. As you organize, think about what might be needed six months or a year from now. For example, answer the following questions in the documentation, perhaps in a cover letter:
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When was the network created? When was the network documented? Were any significant challenges overcome? Who performed the configuration? (Talent like this needs to be tracked.) Who wrote the documentation? (Talent like this needs to be tracked.)

Be sure to include the following information:


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A copy of the physical topology A copy of the logical topology

Prepare your documentation in a professional format, and submit it to your instructor.

Task 6: Reflection
Review any physical or logical configuration problems you encountered during this lab. Ensure that you understand the procedures used to verify network connectivity.

Task 7: Challenge
Ask your instructor or another student to introduce one or two problems in your network when you arent looking or are out of the lab room. Problems can be either physical (cables moved on the switch) or logical (the wrong IP address or gateway).
Note to Instructor: You could introduce problems into the network by changing IP addresses, default

gateways, subnet masks, or cables. Use your network documentation to troubleshoot and remedy the problems. Perform a good visual inspection. Look for green link lights on Switch1. Use your network documentation to make sure your configurations are correct: Answers will vary Write down your proposed solution(s): Answers will vary Test your solution. If the solution fixed the problem, document the solution. If the solution did not fix the problem, continue troubleshooting. Answers will vary

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Task 8: Clean Up
Unless directed otherwise by the instructor, restore host computer network connectivity, then turn off power to the host computers. Before turning off power to the router and switch, remove the NVRAM configuration file from each device using the privileged EXEC command erase startup-config. Carefully remove the cables, and return them neatly to their storage. Reconnect cables that were disconnected for this lab. Remove anything that was brought into the lab, and leave the room ready for the next class. Instructors may find the following configuration examples helpful.
Example Router 1 Configuration

Router1 Configuration Current configuration : 1138 bytes ! version 12.4 service timestamps debug datetime msec service timestamps log datetime msec no service password-encryption ! hostname Router1 ! boot-start-marker boot-end-marker ! enable secret 5 $1$sqIx$iKGfkjNa6IlaBVnPnGrVR0 ! no aaa new-model ip cef ! interface FastEthernet0/0 description connection to Host1 ip address 209.165.200.250 255.255.255.252 duplex auto speed auto ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection to Switch1 ip address 209.165.200.246 255.255.255.248

duplex auto speed auto

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Example
!

Router 1 Configuration

continued

interface Serial0/1/0 no ip address shutdown no fair-queue ! interface Serial0/1/1 no ip address shutdown clock rate 2000000 ! interface Vlan1 no ip address ! ip http server no ip http secure-server ! control-plane ! banner motd ^C **** ABC network device **** **** Authorized access only **** **** Logging is enabled ***** ^C ! line con 0 password class login line aux 0 line vty 0 4 password class login ! scheduler allocate 20000 1000 end

Example

Router 1 Interface Fa0/0 Configuration

Router1# show interface fa0/0 Router1#sh int fa0/0 FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is Gt96k FE, address is 001b.530c.cdee (bia 001b.530c.cdee) Description: connection to Host1

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Example

Router 1 Interface Fa0/0 Configuration

continued

Internet address is 209.165.200.250/30 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec, reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set Keepalive set (10 sec) Full-duplex, 100Mb/s, 100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input 00:01:27, output 00:00:02, output hang never Last clearing of show interface counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec 54 packets input, 8915 bytes Received 44 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles 0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored 0 watchdog 0 input packets with dribble condition detected 277 packets output, 88733 bytes, 0 underruns 0 output errors, 0 collisions, 4 interface resets 0 babbles, 0 late collision, 0 deferred 0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier 0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

Example

Router 1 Interface Fa0/1 Configuration

Router1# show interface fa0/1 FastEthernet0/1 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is Gt96k FE, address is 001b.530c.cdef (bia 001b.530c.cdef) Description: connection to Switch1 Internet address is 209.165.200.246/29 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec, reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255 Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set Keepalive not set Auto-duplex, Auto Speed, 100BaseTX/FX ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00 Last input never, output never, output hang never Last clearing of show interface counters never Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0 Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue: 0/40 (size/max) 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec

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Example

Router 1 Interface Fa0/1 Configuration

continued

0 packets input, 0 bytes Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles 0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored 0 watchdog 0 input packets with dribble condition detected 91 packets output, 14481 bytes, 0 underruns 0 output errors, 0 collisions, 1 interface resets 0 babbles, 0 late collision, 0 deferred 0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier 0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

Example

Router 1 IP Address Configuration

Router1# sh ip int brief Interface FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1 Serial0/1/0 Serial0/1/1 IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol up up

209.165.200.250 YES manual up 209.165.200.246 YES manual up unassigned unassigned YES unset YES unset

administratively down down administratively down down

Example

Switch 1 Configuration

Building configuration...

Current configuration : 1862 bytesad 1/255 ! version 12.1

no service padARPA, loopback service timestamps debug uptime service timestamps log uptime no service password-encryption ! hostname Switch1 ! enable secret 5 $1$X9tO$93NSNcI66s8ESanQ/o3A60 ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description connection to Router1 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/2 description connection to Host2 no ip address

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Example
!

Switch 1 Configuration

continued

interface FastEthernet0/3 description connection to Host3 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/4 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/5 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/6 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/7 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/8 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/9 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/10 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/11 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/12 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/13 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/14 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/15 no ip address !

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Example

Switch 1 Configuration

continued

interface FastEthernet0/16 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/17 no ip address

! interface FastEthernet0/18 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/19 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/20 no ip address ! Interface FastEthernet0/21 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/22 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/23 no ip address ! interface FastEthernet0/24 no ip address ! interface GigabitEthernet0/1 no ip address !s interface GigabitEthernet0/2 no ip address ! ip http server ! banner motd ^C **** ABC network device ****

**** Authorized access only ****

**** Logging is enabled *****

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Example

Switch 1 MAC Address Table

Mac Address Table ------------------------------------------Vlan ---All All All All 1 1 1 Mac Address ----------000f.f79f.6cc0 0100.0ccc.cccc 0100.0ccc.cccd 0100.0cdd.dddd 0016.76ac.a76a 0018.8bb4.3c3a 001b.530c.cdef Type -------STATIC STATIC STATIC STATIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC Ports ----CPU CPU CPU CPU Fa0/3 Fa0/2 Fa0/1

Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 7 Switch1#

Example

Traceroute Results Host1

C:\> tracert 209.165.200.250 Tracing route to 209.165.200.250 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.165.200.250

Trace complete.

C:\> tracert 209.165.200.241 Tracing route to 209.165.200.241 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 <1 ms 1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.165.200.250 209.165.200.241

Trace complete.

C:\> tracert 209.165.200.242 Tracing route to 209.165.200.242 over a maximum of 30 hops 1 2 <1 ms 1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 209.165.200.250 209.165.200.242

Trace complete. C:\>

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Lab 11-7: Case Study: Datagram Analysis with Wireshark (11.5.6.1)


Upon completion of this exercise, you will be able to demonstrate
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How a TCP segment is constructed, and explain the segment fields. How an IP packet is constructed, and explain the packet fields. How an Ethernet II frame is constructed, and explain the frame fields. The contents of an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Request and ARP Reply.

Background This lab requires two captured packet files and Wireshark, a network protocol analyzer. Download the following files from Eagle Server, and install Wireshark on your computer if it is not already installed:
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eagle1_web_client.pcap (discussed) eagle1_web_server.pcap (reference only) wireshark.exe

Scenario This exercise details the sequence of datagrams that are created and sent across a network between a web client, PC_Client, and a web server, eagle1.example.com. Understanding the process involved in sequentially placing packets on the network will help you logically troubleshoot network failures when connectivity breaks. For brevity and clarity, network packet noise has been omitted from the captures. Before executing a network protocol analyzer on a network that belongs to someone else, be sure to get permission in writing. Figure 11-20 shows the topology for this lab.
Figure 11-20 Topology for Lab 11-7
Client
LAN: MAC Address: 00:02:3f:7e:37:da IP Address: 10.1.1.1/24

LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:41 IP Address: 10.2.2.255/24

Server S1
LAN: MAC Address: 00:0f:f7:9f:6c:c9 IP Address: 10.2.2.251/24

R1
LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:85:cf:66:40 IP Address: 10.1.1.254/24 LAN: MAC Address: 00:0c:29:63:17:a5 IP Address: 10.1.1.250/24

DNS Server

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Using Microsoft command-line tools, you can display IP configuration information and the contents of the ARP cache. Refer to Example 11-20.
Example 11-20 PC Client Initial Network State
C: > ipconfig / all Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :

Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Intel(R) PRO/1000 MT Network Connection Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 00:02:3f:7e:37:da Dhcp Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : No IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 10.1.1.1 Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 10.1.1.254 DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : 10.1.1.250 C: > arp -a No ARP Entries Found C: >

A web client is started, and the URL eagle1.example.com is entered, as shown in Figure 11-21. This begins the communication process to the web server, and its where the captured packets start.
Figure 11-21 PC Client with Web Browser

Task 1: Prepare the Lab


Step 1.

Start Wireshark on your computer. Refer to Figure 11-22 for changes to the default output. Uncheck Main Toolbar, Filter Toolbar, and Packet Bytes. Verify that Packet List and Packet Details are checked. To ensure that there is no automatic translation in MAC addresses, uncheck Name Resolution for MAC Layer and Transport Layer.

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Figure 11-22 Wireshark Default View Changes

Step 2.

Load the web client capture, eagle1_web_client.pcap. A screen similar to Figure 11-23 appears. Various pull-down menus and submenus are available. There are also two separate data windows. The top Wireshark window lists all captured packets. The bottom window contains packet details. In the bottom window, each line that contains a plus sign next to it indicates that additional information is available.

Figure 11-23 Wireshark with eagle1_web_client.pcap

Task 2: Review the Process of Data Flowing Through the Network


Step 1.

Review transport layer operation. When PC_Client builds the datagram for a connection with eagle1.example.com, the datagram travels down the various network layers. At each layer, important header information is added. Because this communication is from a web client, the transport layer protocol is TCP. Consider the TCP segment shown in Figure 11-24. PC_Client generates an internal TCP port addressin this conversation, 1085and knows the well-known web server port address, 80. Likewise, a sequence number has been internally generated. Data is included, provided by the application layer. Some information is unknown to PC_Client, so it must be discovered using other network protocols.

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Figure 11-24 TCP Segment Field


TCP Segment 0 4 7 Source Port Sequence Number Acknowledgment Number Data Offset Reserved ECN Checksum Options and Padding Data Control Bits Window Urgent Pointer 10 16 Destination Port 31

There is no acknowledgment number. Before this segment can move to the network layer, the TCP three-way handshake must be performed.
Step 2.

Review network layer operation. At the network layer, the IPv4 (IP) packet has several fields ready with information, as shown in Figure 11-25. For example, the packet version (IPv4) is known, as well as the source IP address.

Figure 11-25 IP Packet Fields


IP Packet 0 Version TTL 4 IHL Identification Protocol Source IP Address Destination IP Address Data 8 10 TOS Flags 16 Total Length Fragment Offset Header Checksum 31

The destination for this packet is eagle1.example.com. The corresponding IP address must be discovered through Domain Name System (DNS). Until the upper-layer datagram is received, fields related to the upper-layer protocols are empty.
Step 3.

Review data link layer operation. Before the datagram is placed on the physical medium, it must be encapsulated inside a frame, as shown in Figure 11-26. PC_Client knows the source MAC address, but it must discover the destination MAC address.

Figure 11-26 Ethernet II Frame Fields


Ethernet II Frame Format Source Frame Address Type 2 Octets

Preamble

Destination Address

Data

CRC

8 Octets

6 Octets

6 Octets

461500 Octets

4 Octets

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Task 3: Analyze Captured Packets


Step 1.

Review the data flow sequence. A review of missing information will be helpful in following the captured packet sequence:
I

The TCP segment cannot be constructed because the acknowledgment field is blank. A TCP three-way handshake with eagle1.example.com must first be completed. The TCP three-way handshake cannot occur, because PC_Client does not know the IP address for eagle1.example.com. This is resolved with a DNS request from PC_Client to the DNS server. The DNS server cannot be queried, because the MAC address for the DNS server is unknown. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to discover the MAC address for the DNS server. The MAC address for eagle1.example.com is unknown. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to learn the destination MAC address for eagle1.example.com.

Step 2.

Examine the ARP request. Refer to Wiresharks Packet List window, No. 1. The captured frame is an ARP Request. You can view the contents of the Ethernet II frame by clicking the checkbox in the second line of the Packet Details window. You can view the contents of the ARP Request by clicking the ARP Request line in the Packet Details window. What is the source MAC address for the ARP Request? 00:02:31:7e:73:da What is the destination MAC address for the ARP Request? ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff What is the unknown IP address in the ARP Request? 10.1.1.250 What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0806 (ARP)

Step 3.

Examine the ARP reply. Refer to Wiresharks Packet List window, No. 2. The DNS server sent an ARP Reply. What is the source MAC address for the ARP Reply? 00:0c:29:63:17:a5 What is the destination MAC address for the ARP Request? 00:02:31:7e:73:da What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0806 (ARP) What is the destination IP address in the ARP Reply? 10.1.1.1 Based on the observation of the ARP protocol, what can you infer about an ARP Request destination address and an ARP Reply destination address? The destination address for an ARP Request is a broadcast address, and the destination address for an ARP Reply is a unicast address. Why didnt the DNS server have to send an ARP Request for the PC_Client MAC address? When an ARP Request is received, the source MAC address of the request is stored in the receivers ARP cache.

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Step 4.

Examine the DNS query. Refer to Wiresharks Packet List window, No. 3. PC_Client sent a DNS query to the DNS server. Using the Packet Details window, answer the following questions: What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0800 (IP) What is the transport layer protocol, and what is the destination port number? UDP, port 53

Step 5.

Examine the DNS query response. Refer to Wiresharks Packet List window, No. 4. The DNS server sent a DNS query response to PC_Client. Using the Packet Details window, answer the following questions: What is the Ethernet II frame type? 0x0800 (IP) What is the transport layer protocol, and what is the destination port number? UDP, port 1043 What is the IP address for eagle1.example.com? 10.2.2.251 One of your colleagues, a firewall administrator, asks you if you can think of any reason why all UDP packets should not be blocked from entering the internal network. What is your response? DNS uses UDP for name translation. If all UDP packets were dropped at the firewall, employees could not translate names to IP addresses. A better approach would be to employ a stateful packet filter and create rules that permit established and related traffic through the firewall.

Step 6.

Examine the ARP Request. Refer to Wiresharks Packet List window, No. 5 and No. 6. PC_Client sent an ARP Request to IP address 10.1.1.254. Is this IP address different from the IP address for eagle1.example.com? Explain. Yes. Because 10.2.2.251 is on a different network than 10.1.1.0/24, PC_Client must have the ARP address to the Gateway. The ARP Reply was from the Gateway.

Step 7.

Examine the TCP three-way handshake. Refer to Wiresharks Packet List window, No. 7, 8, and 9. These captures contain the TCP three-way handshake between PC_Client and eagle1.example.com. Initially, only the TCP SYN flag is set on the datagram sent from PC_Client, sequence number 0. eagle1.example.com responds with the TCP ACK and SYN flags set, along with an acknowledgment of 1 and a sequence of 0. In the Packet List window is an unexplained value, MSS=1460. MSS stands for maximum segment size. When a TCP segment is transported over IPv4, MSS is computed to be the maximum size of an IPv4 datagram minus 40 bytes. This value is sent during connection startup. This is also when TCP sliding windows are negotiated. If the initial TCP sequence value from PC_Client is 0, why did eagle1.example respond with an acknowledgment of 1? TCP employs expectational acknowledgments. This means that the TCP acknowledgment number sent is for the expected sequence number of the next packet.

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In eagle1.example.com, No. 8, what does the IP flag value of 0x04 mean? IP flag values: 8421 0 . . . Reserved (not set) 1 . . Dont fragment (set) 0 . More fragments (not set) When PC_Client completes the TCP three-way handshake, Wiresharks Packet List, No. 9, what TCP flag states are returned to eagle1.example.com? Table 11-38 shows the TCP flag states.
Table 11-38 TCP Flag States Bit Position Flag

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0. . . . . . .0. . . . . . .0. . . . . . .1. . . . . . .0. . . . . . .0. . . . . . .0

Congestion Window Reduced ECN Echo Urgent ACK PSH SYN FIN

Task 4: Complete the Final Analysis


Step 1.

Match the Wireshark output to the process. It has taken a total of nine datagrams sent between PC_Client, DNS server, Gateway, and eagle1.example.com before PC_Client has sufficient information to send the original web client request to eagle1.example.com. This is shown in Wiresharks Packet List, No. 10, where PC_Client sent a web protocol GET request. Fill in the correct Wireshark Packet List window number that satisfies each of the following missing entries:
I

The TCP segment cannot be constructed because the acknowledgment field is blank. A TCP three-way handshake with eagle1.example.com must first be completed. No. 9, the TCP ACK response to eagle1.example.com The TCP three-way handshake cannot occur because PC_Client does not know the IP address for eagle1.example.com. This is resolved with a DNS request from PC_Client to the DNS server. No. 4, the DNS query response The DNS server cannot be queried because the MAC address for the DNS server is unknown. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to discover the MAC address for the DNS server. No. 2, the ARP response from the DNS server

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The MAC address for the gateway to reach eagle1.example.com is unknown. The ARP protocol is broadcast on the LAN to learn the destination MAC address for the gateway. No. 6, the ARP response from the Gateway

Wireshark Packet List No. 11 is an acknowledgment from eagle1.example.com to the PC_Client GET request, Wireshark Packet List No. 10. Wireshark Packet List No. 12, 13, and 15 are TCP segments from eagle1.example.com. Wireshark Packet List No. 14 and 16 are ACK datagrams from PC_Client. To verify the ACK, highlight Wireshark Packet List No. 14. Next, scroll down to the bottom of the Detail List window, and expand the [SEQ/ACK analysis] frame. The ACK datagram for Wireshark Packet List No. 14 is a response to which datagram from eagle1.example.com? No. 13 The Wireshark Packet List No. 17 datagram is sent from PC_Client to eagle1.example.com. Review the information in the [SEQ/ACK analysis] frame. What is the purpose of this datagram? This datagram is a TCP window update to expand the window size. When PC_Client is finished, TCP ACK and FIN flags are sent, as shown in Wireshark Packet List No. 18. eagle1.example.com responds with a TCP ACK, and the TCP session is closed.
Step 2.

Use the Wireshark TCP stream. Analyzing packet contents can be a daunting experiencetime-consuming and errorprone. Wireshark includes an option that constructs the TCP stream in a separate window. To use this feature, first select a TCP datagram from the Wireshark Packet List. Next, from Wireshark, choose Analyze > Follow TCP Stream. A window similar to the one shown in Figure 11-27 appears.

Figure 11-27 Output of TCP Stream

Task 5: Conclusion
Using a network protocol analyzer can be an effective learning tool for understanding critical elements of network communication. As soon as the network administrator is familiar with communication protocols, the same protocol analyzer can become an effective troubleshooting tool when the network fails. For example, if a web browser could not connect to a web server, there could be multiple causes. A protocol analyzer shows unsuccessful ARP requests, unsuccessful DNS queries, and unacknowledged packets.

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Task 6: Summary
In this exercise you have learned how a web client and web server communicate. Behind-the-scenes protocols such as DNS and ARP are used to fill in missing parts of IP packets and Ethernet frames, respectively. Before a TCP session can begin, the TCP three-way handshake must build a reliable path and supply both communicating ends with initial TCP header information. Finally, the TCP session is destroyed in an orderly manner, with the client issuing a TCP FIN flag.
Packet Tracer Challenge

Skills Integration Challenge: Configuring and Analyzing Networks (11.6.1.3)


Open file LSG01-PTSkills11.pka on the CD-ROM that accompanies this book to perform this exercise using Packet Tracer. Upon completion of this activity, you will be able to
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Build, test, and configure the entire lab network. Integrate skills from throughout the course. Analyze the events involved in
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Requesting a web page (DNS, ARP, HTTP, TCP, IP, Ethernet, HDLC) Tracing the route to the web server (DNS, UDP, ARP, ICMP, IP, Ethernet, HDLC)

Background Throughout this course, you have been developing network planning, building, configuring, and testing skills. You have also developed a conceptual understanding of networking protocols and device algorithms. Here is an opportunity to test yourself. See if you can complete this entire challenge (approximately 100 configurable components, although some are quite easy) in less than 30 minutes. Figure 11-28 shows the topology for this lab.
Figure 11-28 Skills Integration Lab Topology
1841 R1-ISP Server-PT Eagle_Server

2960-24TT S1-Central

1841 R2-Central

PC-PT 1A

PC-PT 1B

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Task 1: Plan
Use the standard Exploration lab topology as you plan your IP addressing scheme:
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Two 1841 routers with WIC-2T interface cards, installed in the slot on the rightone named R1-ISP, which has a serial DCE WAN connection to R2-Central and an Fa0/0 LAN connection to Eagle_Server, and one named R2-Central, which has a serial DCE WAN connection to R1ISP and an Fa0/0 LAN connection to S1-Central One 2960TT switch (S1-Central) Two PCs named 1A and 1B A server named Eagle_Server

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Note that both the display names and hostnames for all devices must be configured exactly. In general, all strings (names, passwords, banners) should be entered exactly as specified in these instructions for the grading to work properly. You have been given an IP address block of 192.168.3.0 /24. You must provide for existing networks as well as future growth. Subnet assignments:
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First subnet, existing student LAN, up to 28 hosts (Fa0/0 on R2-Central, connected to Fa0/24 on S1-Central) Second subnet, future student LAN, up to 28 hosts (not yet implemented) Third subnet, existing ISP LAN, up to 14 hosts (Fa0/0 on R1-ISP) Fourth subnet, future ISP LAN, up to seven hosts (not yet implemented) Fifth subnet, existing WAN, point-to-point link (S0/0/0 on R1-ISP and S0/0/0 on R2-Central)

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IP address assignments:
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For the server, configure the second-highest usable IP address on the ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISPs Fa0/0 interface, configure the highest usable IP address on the ISP LAN subnet. For R1-ISPs S0/0/0 interface, configure the highest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Centrals S0/0/0 interface, use the lowest usable address on the existing WAN subnet. For R2-Centrals Fa0/0 interface, use the highest usable address on the existing student LAN subnet, and connect it to the Fa0/24 interface on S1-Central. For hosts 1A and 1B, use the first two IP addresses (the two lowest usable addresses) on the existing student LAN subnet, and connect them to the Fa0/1 and Fa0/2 interfaces on S1Central. For the switch management interface, use the second-highest usable address on the student subnet.

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Use Table 11-39 to record your address information.

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Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion Guide

Table 11-39 Addressing Table Device Interface IP Address Subnet Mask Default Gateway

R1-ISP

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

192.168.3.78 192.168.3.98 192.168.3.30 192.168.3.97 192.168.3.1 192.168.3.2 192.168.3.77

255.255.255.240 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.252 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.240

192.168.3.98 192.168.3.98 192.168.3.30 192.168.3.30 192.168.3.78

R2-Central

Fa0/0 S0/0/0

PC-1A PC-1B Eagle-Server

NIC NIC NIC

Task 2: Build and Configure the Network


Build the network, taking care to make connections as specified. Configure both routers, the switch, the server, and the two PCs. Configure the routers using the CLI to practice your skills. The router configuration must include housekeeping (display name, hostname, passwords, banner), interfaces (FastEthernet and serial), and routing (static route on R1-ISP, default route on R2-Central). The following login passwords should all be set to cisco: enable, console, and Telnet. The banners should say **This is lab router R1ISP. Authorized access only.** and **This is lab router R2-Central. Authorized access only.** The interfaces should be configured as specified in Table 11-39; use a clock rate of 64000 on the R1ISP S0/0/0 interface. The static route on R1-ISP should point to the existing Student LAN subnet via R2-Centrals serial interface IP address. The static route on R2-Central should be a default static route that points via R1-ISPs serial interface IP address. Whenever you configure a Cisco IOS device, be sure to save your configuration. Hint: To configure static routes, use ip route global configuration mode. You can use the CLI help function to determine the command syntax.
Note to Instructor: You might want to introduce students to the concepts of static routes and discuss

the command syntax and default routes. Students need to understand these concepts to successfully complete this lab. On the switch, configure the display name, hostname, banner (**This is lab switch S1-Central. Authorized access only.**), login passwords for access (enable, console, and Telnet passwords all set to cisco), and management interface (int vlan1). Whenever you configure a Cisco IOS device, be sure to save your configuration. For Hosts 1A and 1B, in addition to IP configuration, configure them to use DNS services. For the server, enable DNS services, use the domain name eagle-server.example.com, and enable HTTP services. As you work, use Check Results to see what components still need to be configured. If you want more practice, use Reset Activity and retime yourself doing the entire configuration again.

Chapter 11: Configuring and Testing Your Network

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Task 3: Test and Analyze


It is good practice to test connectivity through ping and Telnet, and to examine routing tables. As soon as you are convinced that your network is working, make sure you have saved your configurations on the Cisco IOS devices. Then power-cycle the devices and reset the network. In simulation mode, request a web page while making the following protocols visible in the event list: DNS, HTTP, Telnet, TCP, UDP, ICMP, ARP. Examine the packets as they are processed by the devices to study protocol behavior, especially how IP is involved in everything. Also note the algorithms used by hosts, switches, and routers. Explain the entire process to a peer. Power-cycle the devices to clear the network again and, also in simulation mode, issue a traceroute to the server from one of the PCs. Examine how the trace is built from ICMP echo requests. Again explain the entire process to a peer.

Task 4: Reflection
Relate the processes observed in Task 3 to the TCP/IP Protocol Graph. Your skills at modeling networks in Packet Tracer will serve you well in subsequent courses.