Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 46

Optical Networks (3-4)

-Network Survivability
Instructor: Xiaohong Jiang
School of Information Science

大学院情報科学研究科
姜 暁鴻 助教授
Lecture 3: Network Survivability
Survivability
Protection 3
Optical Networks Evolution
Protection for Point-to-Point Links
Protection for Ring Networks
4
Protection for Mesh Networks
Outline
Survivability
Protection
Optical Networks Evolution
Protection for Point-to-Point Links
Protection for Ring Networks
Protection for Mesh Networks
Survivability
Definition
Why Survivable Optical Networks
Survivability Definition
Survivability of a network can be defined
as its ability to continue providing service
in the presence of failure(s). A network
is survivable if it has a certain degree of
survivability.

A survivable network A non-survivable network


Why Survivable Optical Networks
A
IP
Router

Link failure
Switch
OLT (fiber cut)
failure
Lightpath λ1

OXC

λ2 λ2 λ1
C D E
OADM SONET IP SONET IP λ2 IP
B F
Terminal Router Terminal Router Router
λ1

Potential bandwidth of one optical fiber exceeds several tens Tbps (note that
the bandwidth of copper cable is only a few Mbps). A single failure can disrupt
millions of users and result in millions of dollars of lost revenue to users and
operators of a network.
Note: The most likely failure event is fiber cut (link failure) and the
protection is the key technique used to ensure survivability.
Outline
Survivability
Protection
Optical Networks Evolution
Protection for Point-to-Point Links
Protection for Ring Networks
Protection for Mesh Networks
Protection
Protection Definition
Working and Protection Paths
Dedicated and Shared Protection
Revertive and Nonrevertive Protection
Unidirectional and Bidirectional
Protection Switching
Path Switching, Span Switching, and
Ring Switching
Protection Definition
Protection is to provide some redundant
capacity within a network and
automatically reroute traffic around the
failure using this redundant capacity.
Protection
Protection Definition
Working and Protection Paths
Dedicated and Shared Protection
Revertive and Nonrevertive Protection
Unidirectional and Bidirectional
Protection Switching
Path Switching, Span Switching, and
Ring Switching
Working and Protection Paths
Working paths carry traffic under normal
operation;
Protection paths provide alternate paths to carry
the traffic in case of failure.

Protect path

Working path

Working and protection paths are usually diversely


routed (link-disjoint) so that both path are not lost
in the case of a single failure.
Protection
Protection Definition
Working and Protection Paths
Dedicated and Shared Protection
Revertive and Nonrevertive Protection
Unidirectional and Bidirectional
Protection Switching
Path Switching, Span Switching, and
Ring Switching
Dedicated and Shared Protection
Dedicated protection provides each working path its own
dedicated protection path;
Shared protection allows bandwidth sharing among the
protection paths of connections if the working paths of
these connections will not fail simultaneously (usually link-
disjoint).
Working path Working path

Protect path Protect path

Protect path
Protect path

Working path Working path

Dedicated protection Shared protection


Protection
Protection Definition
Working and Protection Paths
Dedicated and Shared Protection
Revertive and Nonrevertive Protection
Unidirectional and Bidirectional
Protection Switching
Path Switching, Span Switching, and
Ring Switching
Revertive and Nonrevertive
Protection
Revertive protection automatically switch the traffic back
from protection path onto the working path once the
working path is repaired.
Nonrevertive protection allows the traffic remains on the
the protection path after the working path is repaired.

Working path Working path

Protect path Protect path

Protect path
Protect path

Working path Working path


Dedicated protection Shared protection
(revertive or non revertive) (revertive )
Protection
Protection Definition
Working and Protection Paths
Dedicated and Shared Protection
Revertive and Nonrevertive Protection
Unidirectional and Bidirectional
Protection Switching
Path Switching, Span Switching, and
Ring Switching
Unidirectional and Bidirectional
Protection Switching
Protection switching can be unidirectional or bidirectional.
Unidirectional protection switching: In the event of a single
fiber cut, only one direction of traffic is switched over to
the protection fiber and the other direction remains on the
original working fiber. (Suitable for dedicated protection
schemes)
Bidirectional protection switching: In the event of a single
fiber cut, both directions are switched over to the
protection fibers(Suitable for shared protection schemes)

Protection Working Working


× ×

Working Protection Protection

(b) Unidirectional protection (c) Bidirectional protection


(a) Normal operation
switching switching
Protection
Protection Definition
Working and Protection Paths
Dedicated and Shared Protection
Revertive and Nonrevertive Protection
Unidirectional and Bidirectional
Protection Switching
Path Switching, Span Switching, and
Ring Switching
Path Switching, Span Switching,
and Ring Switching
Path Switching, Span Switching, and Ring Switching
involve how and where the traffic is rerouted in the event
of a failure.
Path switching: connection is rerouted end to end from its
source to its destination along an alternate path.
Span switching: connection is rerouted on a spare link
between the nodes adjacent to the failure.
Ring switching: connection is rerouted on a ring between
the nodes adjacent to the failure.

Working path
(a) Normal operation (b) Path switching (c) Span switching (d) Ring switching
Outline
Survivability
Protection
Optical Networks Evolution
Protection for Point-to-Point Links
Protection for Ring Networks
Protection for Mesh Networks
Optical Networks Evolution
Dynamic Control λ3 λ1 λ3
Fast Optical Burst Data
Switching Network
Optical Path Controllability

λ1 λ2 λ2

Network Autonomously
Controlled by Individual
Photonic MPLS Routers

Photonic MPLS Routers


OXC-based
WDM Mesh Network

OXC
Static Control

OADM-based
OADM WDM Ring Network

MPLS: Multi-Protocol Label Switching


Point-to-point OADM:Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer
: :
WDM transmission OXC: Optical Cross-connect

1990’s Time 2010’s


Outline
Survivability
Protection
Optical Networks Evolution
Protection for Point-to-Point Links
Protection for Ring Networks
Protection for Mesh Networks
Protection for Point-to-Point Links
(Automatic Protection Switching )
1+1 protection
1:1 protection
1:N protection
1+1 Protection
In 1+1 protection, traffic is transmitted simultaneously
on two separate fibers (usually over disjoint routes) from
source to the destination, and the destination simply
selects one of the two fibers for reception. If that fiber is
cut, the destination simply switches over to the other
fiber and continues to receive data.
1+1 protection is fast but requires high bandwidth
redundancy.

Splitter Switch

Source Destination
1:1 Protection
In 1:1 protection, there are still two fibers from source to
the destination. However, traffic is transmitted over only
one fiber at a time (working fiber). If that fiber is cut, the
source and the destination both switch over to the other
protection fiber.
1:1 protection is not as quick as 1+1 protection in
restoring traffic, but results in a better bandwidth
utilization.

Switch
Working fiber Switch

Source Destination
Protection fiber
1:N Protection
1:N protection is a generalization of 1:1 protection, in
which N working fibers share s single protection fiber. This
scheme can handle the failure of any single working fiber.
1:N protection is very efficient in terms of bandwidth
utilization.
1 Switch Switch

2 Switch Switch
:
Source : Destination
N Switch
Switch

Switch Switch

Low-priority data
Protection fiber
Outline
Survivability
Protection
Optical Networks Evolution
Protection for Point-to-Point Links
Protection for Ring Networks
Protection for Mesh Networks
Protection for Ring Networks
(Self-Healing Rings)
Ring networks
Unidirectional Path-Switched Ring
Bidirectional Line-Switched Ring (BLSR)
BLSR-Span Switching
BLSR-Ring Switching
Ring Interconnection-a simple way
Ring Interconnection-dual homing
Ring Networks
A ring is the simplest topology that is 2-
connected, that is, provide two separate
paths between any pair of nodes.
Ring networks are popular for carrier as
well as enterprise networks.
1

fiber
2 4

3
Protection for Ring Networks
Ring networks
Unidirectional Path-Switched Ring
Bidirectional Line-Switched Ring (BLSR)
BLSR-Span Switching
BLSR-Ring Switching
Ring Interconnection-a simple way
Ring Interconnection-dual homing
Unidirectional Path-Switched
Ring (UPSR)
In a UPSR, one fiber (a path) is used as working fiber and the
other as the protection fiber. Traffic is transmitted
simultaneously on the working fiber in the clockwise direction
and on the protection fiber in the counterclockwise direction.
A UPSR is essentially 1+1 protection.
Protection for Ring Networks
Ring networks
Unidirectional Path-Switched Ring
Bidirectional Line-Switched Ring (BLSR)
BLSR-Span Switching
BLSR-Ring Switching
Ring Interconnection-a simple way
Ring Interconnection-dual homing
Bidirectional Line-Switched Rings
(BLSR)
In a four-fiber BLSR, two fibers (a line) are used as working
fibers and, two are used for protection. Unlike a UPSR,
working traffic in a BLSR can be carried on both directions
along the ring (usually along shortest path between two
nodes). A BLSR is essentially 1:1 protection. The BLSR
employs two protection mechanisms: span switching and ring
Switching.
Protection for Ring Networks
Ring networks
Unidirectional Path-Switched Ring
Bidirectional Line-Switched Ring (BLSR)
BLSR-Span Switching
BLSR-Ring Switching
Ring Interconnection-a simple way
Ring Interconnection-dual homing
BLSR-Span Switching
In span switching, if a transmitter or receiver on a working
fiber fails, the traffic is routed onto the protection fiber in the
same span (Span switching can also be used to restore traffic
in the event of fiber cut,provided the protection fibers on that
span are routed separately from the working fibers. However,
this is usually not the case. So ring switching is usually used
to restore traffic in case of fiber or cable cut.)

Span switching
Protection for Ring Networks
Ring networks
Unidirectional Path-Switched Ring
Bidirectional Line-Switched Ring (BLSR)
BLSR-Span Switching
BLSR-Ring Switching
Ring Interconnection-a simple way
Ring Interconnection-dual homing
BLSR-Ring Switching
In the ring switching, the traffic on the failed link is rerouted
around the ring on the protection fibers between the nodes
adjacent to the failure.
Note: BLSRs (1:1 protection) are more efficient than UPSRs
(1+1 protection), because BLSRs provide spatial reuse
capabilities by allowing protection bandwidth to be shared
between spatially separated connections.

Ring switching
Protection for Ring Networks
Ring networks
Unidirectional Path-Switched Ring
Bidirectional Line-Switched Ring (BLSR)
BLSR-Span Switching
BLSR-Ring Switching
Ring Interconnection-a simple way
Ring Interconnection-dual homing
Ring Interconnection-a simple way
The entire network typically consists of multiple rings
interconnected with each other, and a connection may have
to be routed through multiple rings to get t its destination.

The simplest way for rings interconnection is to connect the


drop sides of two AMDs on different rings back to back. Note
this interconnection is broken if one of the AMDs fails or
there is a problem with the cabling between the two ADMs.
Protection for Ring Networks
Ring networks
Unidirectional Path-Switched Ring
Bidirectional Line-Switched Ring (BLSR)
BLSR-Span Switching
BLSR-Ring Switching
Ring Interconnection-a simple way
Ring Interconnection-dual homing
Ring Interconnection-Dual homing
Dual homing makes use of two hub nodes to perform the
interconnection.

In dual homing, each end node is connected to two hub nodes


so as to be able to recover from the failure of a hub node or
the failure of any interconnection between the hub nodes.
Outline
Survivability
Protection
Optical Networks Evolution
Protection for Point-to-Point Links
Protection for Ring Networks
Protection for Mesh Networks
Protection for Mesh Networks
There are two main pre-designed protection
techniques against single-link failure in WDM
Mesh networks:
•Link-based protection
•Path-based protection
1 3 5 Working path

Link-based protection

Path-based protection
2 4 6
Link-based Protection for
Mesh Networks
In link-based protection, a protection path is reserved for each link
based on ring switching.
1 3 5
Dedicated link protection:A protection
lightpath is dedicated to a particular link.
If the protection paths of two links are
overlapped, then different wavelengths λ1 λ2
must be used in the overlapped links.
2 4 6
Shared link protection : It allows 1 3 5
different backup paths to share a
wavelength on the overlapping links,
if the corresponding working λ1
channels are on different links. It
utilizes capacity more efficient than
dedicated link protection 2 4 6
Path-based Protection for
Mesh Networks
In path-based protection, a protection path is reserved for each
working path. Working path

Dedicated path protection: Protect path


It provides each working
path its own dedicated Protect path

protection path;
Working path

Shared path protection: It Working path


allows bandwidth sharing
among the protection paths Protect path

of connections if the working


paths of these connections Protect path
will not fail simultaneously
(usually link-disjoint). Working path