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Advantages and Disadvantages of Cast Iron Pipe Fittings There are many reasons why cast iron pipe

fittings are still popular today however there are also disadvantages associated with them. Cast iron pipe fittings are most commonly used for sewage and waste drainage, therefore it is necessary that they are highly resistant to abrasion. The main advantage of cast iron pipe fittings are that they are indeed highly resistant to abrasion making them the ideal choice for anyone wanting to drain materials such as sand, dishwasher water and garbage disposal. Another benefit is that they are highly durable and practically indestructible. They do not react with most chemicals and wont melt or burn even in extreme conditions. They have a long lifespan which minimizes the need for replacements and repairs. Cast iron pipe fittings are very well constructed and as such have fantastic sound-proofing qualities when compared to other materials. There is minimal noise and vibration between the fittings and the pipes which can be a great benefit as no one likes noisy pipes! Their versatility is another great advantage of choosing cast iron pipe fittings. There is a wide range of joining methods available for the fittings and that also allows for simple and efficient installation in all situations. The final advantage to choosing cast iron pipe fittings is that they are cheap to install in comparison to other materials. They are cheaper to buy than many other pipe fittings and they are also one of the easiest types to use and install with minimal fuss.

Cast Iron Weight

Cast iron is very heavy, and consequently is mush harder to install than regular PVC/ABS sewer pipe. Due to its weight, it mush be braced well to stop it falling out of position during earthquakes or when construction is nearby. Special attention is also needed when cutting into/moving the pipe, as bodily damage may occur if the pipes fall out of position. Brittleness

Cast iron pipe is extremely strong and durable, but is quite brittle and if accidentally knocked will easily break. Consequently, it should not be installed in buildup/cellar areas where household/construction activity will be the norm. Expense

Cast iron, being a metal, is much more expensive than traditional PVC or ABS sewer/vent pipe, so the higher cost must be taken into account when budgeting for the house's sewer/vent system. Cutting

Though possible to cut cast iron to length with a reciprocating saw or hammer and cold chisel, a straight clean cut through the pipe is best achieved using a snap cutter. This device has two long handles with a chain attached to the end of one of the handles. The chain is wrapped around the pipe and squeezed to cleanly break the pipe. Where a handsaw or circular saw is used to cut PVC/ABS pipe, this non-traditional tool is expensive, or has to be rented from a tool rental house to carry out the cast iron pipe installation process.

Polyethylene

Polyethylene is a hydrocarbon product that is considered to be environmentally friendly and does not easily swell or dissolve in most common solvents, according to Manufacturers Monthly. These characteristics make polyethylene an ideal material to use in the construction of piping.

Advantages

Polyethylene pipes offer such desirable features as low weight, abrasion resistance, corrosion resistance, high impact resistance and superior flexibility.

Several advantages of hdpe pipe are listed below:


Light in Weight More Flexible than other metal based pipe, such as - Galvanized, Stainless Steel, Black Iron, and Copper etc. Besides having a plastic based component, it is quite formidable like steel or iron. Coating of the hdpe pipe is quite smooth. Capable to resist from environmental threat or Crack It can defy pipeline Corrosion Can protect form Frost & Rodent. Hygienically Safe Easy to install and handle. There is a least chance to conduct heat. Abrasion free

Disadvantages

Despite the many benefits associated with polyethylene pipes, this type of pipe is not resistant to oxidizing acids, ketones and chlorinated hydrocarbons, according to Manufacturers Monthly.

Ultraviolet Light

According to Plumbing Networks, polyethylene pipes should not be used in situations where they will be exposed to direct sunlight, as they can degrade in the presence of ultraviolet light

Advantages of Steel Plumbing Pipes

Among the different types of metal, steel is recognized as the most durable of all. When installed, steel piping can last for a lifetime. With that in mind, they will surely offer homeowner with a worthwhile piping investment. Steel pipes are very much capable of repelling rust and corrosion. In addition to that, they can also withstand extreme temperature changes. Even the water flowing inside the steel pipes freezes, you are assured that this wont cause any forms of damage. The unique characteristics of steel pipes greatly adds value to their sturdy construction. Apart from that, they are the best choice when installing water lines in homes located in marine environments. Since they are rust and corrosion resistant, even if they drenched under salt water, it will not wear and tear to the pipe fittings. Disadvantages Since they have a tough construction, it is quite difficult to work around them when making plumbing installations. Unlike copper pipes, they are not flexible and may require cutting in order to fit in tight spaces. This makes the installation process more daunting and timeconsuming. To protect them from rust and corrosion, steel pipes are usually galvanized.

However, there is a big possibility that galvanized steel pipes may introduce small quantities of lead into the water over time. That being said, this can pose a great health hazard. Although steel plumbing pipes are very durable and rust resistant, you also have consider the possibility of lead contamination since they are often galvanized. That being said, you really have to stringently assess whether the use of steel pipes is a viable option for you!

Asbestos cement

Durability

The mineral fibers of asbestos mixed into cement add longevity to the product. For example, asbestos cement roof shingles last on average 50 to 60 years. Other construction materials, such as wood and plastic, are not expected to last nearly as long. When adding asbestos to cement, the fibers are technically a type of stone.

Inexpensive

Cement is a fairly inexpensive construction material, as it is just the binder. The real cost comes in the additive material known to increase the strength of the concrete, called the "pozzolan." Asbestos minerals are naturally occurring and less expensive in comparison to other cement additives. This leads to a cheaper construction piece, like a wall sheet or pipe, but with the same durability.

Fireproofing

Fire is a serious threat to any building, residential or commercial. Asbestos fibers are mineral, resistant to fire and even chemical damage. Asbestos doesn't burn, so using

asbestos cement in areas prone to fire exposure, such as around electrical components or in commercial buildings with high heat sources, is ideal.

Health Concerns

While asbestos cement should not allow asbestos fibers to become airborne, it can occur with careless construction methods and without proper maintenance. Long-term exposure to asbestos fibers is linked to causing lung cancer and mesothelioma. Asbestos fibers are microscopic, so someone may not even be aware the fibers are in the air. Any asbestos cement showing signs of wear needs immediate attention.

High Repair Costs

While the durability is good, eventually even asbestos cement must be repaired or replaced. While not impossible, great care and special equipment is needed to work on asbestos-containing materials to prevent the fibers from releasing. For example, asbestos materials should remain wet or removed intact. Workers should use masks or other breathing filters while working. Therefore, the savings on asbestos cement at construction could easily become negated down the road from repair and replacement costs.

Ductile iron pipe Ductile iron pipe is a pipe commonly used for potable water distribution.[1] The predominant wall material is ductile iron, a spheroidized graphite cast iron, although an internal cement mortar lining usually serves to inhibit corrosion from the fluid being distributed, and various types of external coating are used to inhibit corrosion from the environment. Ductile iron pipe is a direct development of earlier cast iron pipe which it has superseded.[1] Ductile iron has proven to be a better pipe material, being stronger and more fracture resistant; however, like most ferrous materials, it is susceptible to corrosion and retains some brittle characteristics.[1] Relatively recent developments such as polyethylene sleeving and/or zinc and polymer coatings have done much to mitigate corrosion concerns, and a typical life expectancy is in excess of 75 years.

Advantages of Steel Plumbing Pipes

Among the different types of metal, steel is recognized as the most durable of all. When installed, steel piping can last for a lifetime. With that in mind, they will surely offer homeowner with a worthwhile piping investment. Steel pipes are very much capable of repelling rust and corrosion. In addition to that, they can also withstand extreme temperature changes. Even the water flowing inside the steel pipes freezes, you are assured that this wont cause any forms of damage. The unique characteristics of steel pipes greatly adds value to their sturdy construction. Apart from that, they are the best choice when installing water lines in homes located in marine environments. Since they are rust and corrosion resistant, even if they drenched under salt water, it will not wear and tear to the pipe fittings. Disadvantages Since they have a tough construction, it is quite difficult to work around them when making plumbing installations. Unlike copper pipes, they are not flexible and may require cutting in order to fit in tight spaces. This makes the installation process more daunting and timeconsuming. To protect them from rust and corrosion, steel pipes are usually galvanized. However, there is a big possibility that galvanized steel pipes may introduce small quantities of lead into the water over time. That being said, this can pose a great health hazard. Although steel plumbing pipes are very durable and rust resistant, you also have consider the possibility of lead contamination since they are often galvanized. That being said, you really have to stringently assess whether the use of steel pipes It is produce in golden brown color and to be installed underground. This fittings ranges available generally with or without inspection opening, with spigot or socket ends. UPVC SWV Fittings can be employed in applications such as laboratory chemical lines, overflow and waste discharge systems in chemical plants or waste lines in food processing industry, and effluent removal in dairy industry plants.

UPVC Pipes have a number of technical advantages over the systems: IT IS NOT CORRODED PVC Pipe do not corrode and are totally unaffected by Acids, Alkalies and electrolytic corrosion from any source. In this respect they out class any other pipes material including stainless steel. Infact PVC is virtually unaffected by water. IT IS LIGHT IN WEIGHT EASY AND QUICK TO INSTALL: Pipes mode from PVC are only about 1/5 the weight of an equivalent cast iron pipe and from 1/3 to the weight for an equivalent cement pipe. Thus, the cost of transportation and installation is cut down enormously. IT HAS AN EXCELLENT HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTIC: PVC Pipes have extremely smooth bore due to which frictional losses are at minimum and flow rates are at the highest possible from any other pipe materials. IT IS NON FLAMMABLE: PVC Pipe is self extinguishing and it does not support combustion. IT IS FLEXIBLE AND RESISTANCE TO BREAKAGE: The flexible nature of PVC Pipes means that asbestos, cement or cast iron pipes. They are not liable to beam failure and can thus more readily accommodate axial detraction due to the solid movement or due to settlement of structures to which the pipe is connected. IT IS RESISTANCE TO BIOLOGICAL GROWTH UPVC Pipes have a number of technical advantages over the systems: IT IS NOT CORRODED

Size

PVC pipes are only available in a small number of sizes. PVC pipes for plumbing can typically be purchased in sizes only ranging from to 2 inches. PVC pipe joints can be very bulky, which restricts them from use in tight places.

Weight

According to Builder's Websource, PVC pipes are very lightweight which can be both an advantage and a disadvantage. Because they are so lightweight, PVC pipes are more prone to cracking when they are dropped or stepped on. Compared with other types of plumbing pipes, such as copper, PVC pipes are more susceptible to cracking during an earthquake.

Environmental Effects

According to Savvy Cafe, PVC pipes contain traces of compounds that are harmful to the environment. Solvents used to join PVC pipes and fittings together contain VOCs (volatile organic compounds).

Facts

Some people claim that water drawn through PVC pipes can come out with a slight plastic taste. PVC pipes require a curing period of 24 hours before they can be pressurized with water. Because it is so easy to install, some contractors employ unskilled labor to install PVC piping. This can lead to improper or careless installation.

Lightweight - Lower transportation and installation costs compared to materials such as steel as concrete Durable - Survives harsh conditions with lower replacement needs than steel, ductile iron and concrete Anti-corrosive - Leakage from corrosion is significantly less than other materials meaning a longer life than other more corrosive materials Efficient carrier - Better hydraulic performance than steel, ductile iron and concrete Versatile material - Works in a multitude of applications and end-markets

TYPES OF PIPE FOR MAIN PIPE INSTALLATION PIPE-PIPE ASBESTOS CEMENT (AC Pipes) All pap-main pipes for plumbing services either, pipe, or the delivery pipe to the pump should be used either Asbestos Cement Pipe (AC pipe) or forged malleable iron pipe (Ductile cast iron-CI). Both of these pipes are classified into two types, 'Class B' and 'Class C'. Class B is for low pressure (200 feet) and class C can bear the pressure when the use of higher (300 feet). AC pipes are made of a mixture of three types of raw materials, namely cement, asbestos, and silica. The pipes can be obtained dakam 3 sizes 3-inch-diameter 75mm up to 24inci (600mm). AC pipes are produced in standard sizes (seoanjang 1 meter of each stem). The advantages of AC pipes compared to CI pipes are: i) It is not easy dikakis and rust ii) cheaper. iii) More light dam is easy to install iv) hollowing Easy to connect to homes. The disadvantage is it is: i) Not suitable for certain pnggunaan, such as plumbing to homes, pump, pipe installed through the walls and pipes under the road surface because the air pipe has a low strength to bend. ii) Brittle and easy to crack / break if not carefully lift and lower. iii) Not suitable for installation on the ground. Cast Iron Pipe, Pipe (Cast Iron Or CI) Pipes are available in three types of classes B, C and D. This type of pipe sizes up to 48 inches. The pipe length can be obtained is 9'0 ", 12'0" and 18'0 " CI pipes should be covered next in and out with paints, bitumen to protect pipes from pengkakisan. AC pipes should also be applied to the same action if the usage is just off the beach. The advantages of pipe i) does not rust like steel pipe. ii) more rigid than the pipe AC The disadvantage of the pipe i) Brittle (even stronger than AC) and can crack during lifting and unloading. ii) Weight. iii) more difficult to connect. iv) more expensive. v) in tap berbonjol after long use. vi) more difficult to repair when broken, especially for large size. Other types of pipe PVC pipe (Unplasticised polyvinly chloride) from Class C and D can also be used for the installation of the main pipes. PVC Pipe, Class C can bear pressure up to 300 feet and the Class D up to 400 feet.

NOTE: In all cases, the JBA will apply pressure until half times during the test on the pipe.

Use of Internal Plumbing Since the pressure during use of the internal pipe is much less than the main pipe, the more options for internal pipe materials. Types of pipe commonly used are as follows: i) PVC - plastic pipe ii)-GRP Glass reinforced plastic iii) HDPE-High Density Polyethylene Pipe iv) Ductile Iron Pipe, Iron Pipe Easy Form. v) Steel Pipe, Steel Pipe Pipe HDPE (High Density Polyethylene Pipe) HDPE pipe is flexible and easy to bend and is commonly used in the soil. Its use is for cold water supply systems, particularly under the soil, as non-perishable disebabka acid in the soil. Advantages is that it is strong, lightweight, easily transported and installed does not conduct electricity. U PVC pipe (plastic pipe) These pipes are widely used because it is not easily rust, light dam cheap. As such, the installation is easy. Easy to operate and to make connections. Furthermore, in terms of cost, it is cheap compared to the pipes to other materials. It also has good resistance of many types of chemical attack, but its use in the heat above 70 C should be avoided. PVC pipes are available in small sizes 3 / 8 "to the smallest size for use as the main pipe. PVC pipes are removed during the 20-foot stick. Advantages and disadvantages of this type of pipes are: Benefits: i) long sesebatangnya Lightweight, easy to be lifted, transported and installed. ii) Hold regular chemicals attack iii) ridak attacks rust and salt resistant. Disadvantages: i) It is soft and can be dented if pressed heavily ii) the hot sun can make changes to the pipe diameter slightly oval and can cause leaks in the connector when installed. iii) fragile and sensitive, if not installed properly. iv) ultra-violet light rays can also damage

Steel pipes soft The pipes of this type can be divided into three subgroups, namely: i) iron pipe berpatri ii) seamless steel pipe iii) galvanized steel pipe Pipe type (i) and (ii) are available in sizes up to size 96 ". Pipe type (iii) are often made in the size is not large. To protect the pipes of the type (i) and (ii) of the rust, the inside of pipes are usually coated with concrete and the exterior is covered with a sheath of bitumen reinforced with glass fiber support. The pipes of the type (i) and (ii) is issued in length up to 30 " Benefits: i) Light from the CI pipe and easily transported and lifted. ii) high strength-is not easily cracked when hit or bumped iii) more readily available in the country compared to CI pipes. iv) Specials can be composed of sections of pipe stems to match. Weaknesses: i) is easily corroded and in need of control measures from rusting. ii) more complex maintenance iii) shall not give punch to connect to homes. In the cold water supply installations in buildings the use of soft galvanized steel pipe is widely due to cheap, strong water pressure or damage. Specification standard is BS 1387. In the use of the internal pipe, Grade B is the most suitable and appropriate for Grade A ventilation pipe dam overflow pipe.

2.4 Advantages in G.R.P. Application


Glass reinforced plastic pipes represent the ideal solution for the adduction of any kind of water, chemicals, effluent and sewers, because they combine the advantage of corrosion resistance, typical of plastics, with a mechanical strength which can be compared with the steel one. Typical properties that result in advantages in G.R.P. pipes application can be summarized as follows: Low weight of pipes lengths that allows for the use of light laying and transport means. Possibility of nesting of different diameters of pipe thus allowing additional saving in transport operations. Length of sections larger than other materials ones. Easy installation procedures due to the kind of mechanical bell and spigot joint.

Corrosion resistance, both of the external wall in contact with the conveyed fluid. No protections such as coating, painting or cathodic are then necessary. Smoothness of the internal wall that minimizes the head losses and avoids the formation of deposits. High mechanical resistance due to the glass reinforcement. Absolute impermeability of pipes and joints both from external to internal and vice-versa. Very long life of the material virtually infinite, which does not need maintaining. Workability of the material in site employing simple equipment.