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532.

546
.. , ..




,
()
.

, ,
[1,2,3].
,
[4].

:

x x y

H
= H + ,
n

T y
+ QH = f ,

( x, y ) D,

(1)

( x, y ) = D,

(2)

H=H(x,y) ; T=T(x,y) ; Q=Q(x,y)


, ; f=f(x,y)
; = (x,y), = (x,y) ; / n
; D , = D .
(1), (2) D
H(x,y)
n

H ( x, y ) H n ( x, y ) = H i N i ( x, y ).

(3)

i =1

Hi=H(xi,yi), Ni(x,y) , n D,
.
, .
1 [1].


() 6 (.1)

6

H (e ) = H s N s ( x, y ),

(4)

s =1

r
i

lk

N 1 = l i ( 2l i 1), N 2 = 4l i l j , N 3 = l j (2l j 1),

q
li

N 4 = 4l j l k ,

ls =

N 5 = l k ( 2l k 1),

1
( a s + bs x + c s y ),
e

N 6 = 4l i l k ;

s = i, j , k ,

p
l i + l j + l k = 1; l s
.1.
, ;
1

xi

yi

e = 1
1

xj
xk

yj .
yk

(1), (2) H(x,y)


Hn(x,y) (3),

H n H n
H n

T
+ QH n f dxdy + N i T
H n ds = 0,

x y y
n

N i x T
D

i=1,2,...,n..
(3) Hn
()
n

a ij H j
j =1

= bi ,

i =1,2,..., n,

(5)

N i N j N i N j
aij = T
x x + y y
dxdy + QN i N j dxdy N i N j ds ,

D
D

(6)
bi = fN i dxdy + N i ds .
D

(7)
, l.
.
. l
[1]
x=lixi+ ljxj+ lkxk ,
y=liyi+ ljyj+ lkyk ,
1=li+ lj+ lk ,
(xs , ys) (s=i,j,k) . lk ,
.. li lj ,
x=(xi xk)li+(xjxk)lj+xk ,
y=(yi yk)li+(yjyk)lj+yk .

x y

l i l i xi x k y i y k

, det J = e ,
J=
=
x y x j x k y j y k

l
j
j

J 1 =

1
e

( yi y k )
y j yk

.
( x j xk )
xi x k

[2]

N s
N s
1 N s
=
( y j yk )
( y i y k ) ,

x
e l i
l j

N s
N s
1 N s
=
( x j xk ) +
( xi x k ),

y
e
l j

l i

s = 1,2,..., 6,

(6)

(7)

1 1l j

F ( x, y )dxdy =
e

(l i , l j , l k ) det

J dl i dl

(8)
(8) [1]
1 1l j

(l i , l j , l k ) det J dl i dl
0

= Wr g r (l i , l j , l k ),
r =1

g (l i , l j , l k ) = det J (l i , l j , l k ),

Wr ,
m , .

l i , l j , l k .
(6) ,
.
N

N j N i
N i
.
+

10. F ( x, y ) =T ( x, y )

(7),
g (l i , l j , l k ) =

N i N j
N i N j
1

T (l i , l j , l k )l 2jk
+ l ik2
[( x i x k )( x j x k ) +
e
l i l i
l j l j

N i N j N i N j

+ ( y i x k )( y j y k )]
+
,
l i l j
l j l i

(10)

i,j=1,2,...,6,
ljk lik jk ik .
li , lj lk ,
.
:
1
2

1
2

1) l i = l k = , l j = 0;

2) l i = l j = , l k = 0;

1
2

3) l j = l k = , l i = 0
1
6

Wi = , i = 1,2,3.

1 1l j

(l i , l j , l k ) det J dl i dl

e 1 1
1
1
1 1
g , ,0 + g ,0, + g 0, , .
6
2
2
2
2

2 2

(11)

20. F ( x, y ) =Q( x, y ) N j ( x, y ) N i ( x, y ).

g (l i , l j , l k ) = Q (l i , l j , l k ) N j (l i , l j , l k ) N i (l i , l j , l k ) det J = e l i ( 2l i 1)l j ( 2l j 1)Q (l i , l j , l k )

.

1 1l j

(l i , l j , l k ) det J dl i dl

30.

e 1 1
1
1
1 1
g , ,0 + g ,0, + g 0, , .

6 2 2
2
2
2 2

F ( x, y ) = f ( x, y ) N i ( x, y ).

g (l i , l j , l k ) = f (l i , l j , l k ) N i (l i , l j , l k ) det J = e l i ( 2l i 1) f (l i , l j , l k ).

(12)

l i = l j = l k =

W =
1 1l j

1
3

1
,
2

(l i , l j , l 3 ) det J dl i dl

e
1 1 1
1 1 1
g , , =
f , , .
2 3 3 3
18
3 3 3

(13)
(6) .
2. , (1)

2 H 2 H
T0
+
x 2
y 2

= f0


H1(x)= x2+p1x+q1, H2(y)= y2+p2y+q2
(1), (2).

Ni(x,y)=ai+biH1(x)+ciH2(y),
Nj(x,y)=aj+bjH1(x)+cjH2(y),
Nk(x,y)=ak+bkH1(x)+ckH2(y)

H(x,y) D (3).
, Ni , Nj , Nk
. (1),
(2), (5) (6). ,
1, (6)
[1] .
.
.
1. x 2 + y 2 0.25 (1), (2)
: T(x,y)=1, Q(x,y)=0, f(x,y)=4.
H(x,y)=x2+y2+1.
6 ,
, , 0.5 (..
h=0.5). .1
(.1), i , j k
.
, q , ,
j k.

1

1.000
1.062
1.250 1.187
1.250
1.062

.
.
0.833
0.901
1.083 1.104
1.083
0.901

1.
0.872
0.936
1.128 1.060
1.128
0.936
2.
0.933
0.994
1.183 1.119
1.183
0.994
2. D {1 x 1,1 y 1},
2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 .
, 2 2
0.5.

(1), (2)
: H(x,y)=2(x2+y2)+1, T(x,y)=1, Q(x,y)=0, f(x,y)=8.
.2. D
, ,
.
3. (1), (2) 2
(x2+y2 1), 6, 24 96 .
6 .
, 1 (.. h=1).

r=0.5. 6
( 0.5), 18
.
r=0.25 r=0.75. () 6 ,
18, 30 42 . . 3
, .

(1), (2)
T, Q, f, , .
,
.
,
.
2 ,
1. , 2,
, , ,
.
2 3.
, ,
2 .
1
,
(, ,
).
, ,
(5) . 2
, .. ,

.

1.

. . .: , 1979.

392

. .
. : , 1989. 184 .
3.
.., ., ..
. //
, 4, , 2000. . 104108.
4.
..
. : , 1996. 122 .
2.