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THE EYES OF THE SKIN

Juhani Pallasmaa

THE EYES OF THE SKIN


Arch itecture and the Senses

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CONTENTS

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TOI>Clling lhe Wo,ld .....-- _ _

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nxk ..... sli)chlly in tllC p;>nwty r,o:tclt h"rbo",~,

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~i .. l:.IHI. 10., .... y "I>aI fed. the: .... 00 and .. nell o ,hex
IIIacn, ~ cq<W "l:ogIu to ,he "'3)' thi"SI IonL p~n.a.a .. ''''' ju!A a
d"""",ic",,; he is. loriOi,.." ~n:hi,..." uf I'hel~ insight. II~
I'r:.o:' iccltl\(o ""'''I:lI)"",bk aKhi,ecoure uf the..,."", " ........
properIln CQ...c"" .... hOI "rilu'S" '(O'>o'll,,10 ~ l>hilceopl'rj' of :udrio...""..,.
I.. 19')3, lOUo..-i,'lI an ;'M""io" from Tc.hio 1'Oabn....... "l:".,.w
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,\+U. d-.oor ,0 "'1'..1>1 ..... , h i. !~, Ic book. finding 'i> aogumcm. 1""'''.1

PREfACE

....It<Io-rfulll"'.... m a<klitionl~' Ra.'lIlticm.

""''''fit

THIN ICE
Sleven HoII

pile,,,,,,,,,,,,",

imporu.n,
When 1 ... , do..., 10 " ',ilt \I>etc ' IOIQ in .... iny New Vorl C i,y, thinking of

an:hllrt; ....

Jllhaui 1'.. IIa .. ,I3;.oJ TN

f;,u of IN sn., ",hich IP"'" 01.11 of ~ of

ItrcrplWt. i. ~ Iij(h ' cr. durtr a ' g"It"'nt It.. d", fnlf'iall'l",,,o""'tlological

itt, I ''''''~ml)f....,d IIQI"ies of .-",laOld', cold " 'i"le" ... he..., "'""ry year
0'0a,1o; aro: in 'I"",i......1 acrou ,he IhidJy f"""," OIonh lak ....
Months )a.er :u ,he itt bcgi,u 10 Ihill, I' N''''')I''' ",ill ,ak" , h" !r.o.mllk '0
drive ~cn ... Ihc I,,~~ ~"d cr,u h \h ...... ,~h . 1 i",~!!i I K' Ihe I"", look ou, "'.."
"'hi,e icc cr"".... '1' ......<1 hY"okl bl.ock "'lI'e. m ing "I' i".ide ,hoe , inki"g
,,:or. inLl.l1d. io a ,..~ic alKI "'p!<'.i.." . 11('~'J1 )\
Juhani 1':..11;...""", ,,,,,I I fi,... t..,gan ,0 ,ha"" tl .... ,~Io" a........ ' Ihe phe,.... ,"'noIogr uf aKhi,cc",,,' ,1m inK Ill) Ii.... ,-i.., '0 r in land lOr Ihe

di"'...... io". of hllll"'" ""1" ''';''''''' i .. ald,i,,"" .."'. N.... ,i,,,,,, ,... DanM
an-hil ..... S'c,' .. Eik. R",,,,,,,..,n, f.:..pn-,no"", A,d,W/II1r (1959) ha, ,I",,,,
bun 1,..;10 a """ 'i''''1 alHI " ~'~ r I,,,,, "hid, ''Qllid """'''' ..",k'll, and :orchi.
I,..'" a l I hi. " ri,;"ol li,,~' in II", ,k\d(~ .. '",n. of '1 1"...,el\l"I)' an;h""" " ",:.
~ l erk",, l \:H")'1 Till l'is,u,..1Mf IN Iwne.,u,.. 1111' hook I", ".,,, ,,"';,ing
..1... " h. d,,-~ 1. m",~i" j " " ~.iH>lI"hill!l: ch~l}t er: T ho: I m~n"';ning ' n ",
eh ....... . (10 ...... in (''''' , , he KI"",e of d", nanl<' I !rd'... my 199'2 ron'P'"
,i,ion eno l)' lOt ,h., ~ I u ..." m of ( ~ ~lI .. ml"""dl)' ,\'1 in IId,inki - Ch ia,m
" ll> d,an!l"l ", Ki:.o .. "". 11"',,. I.... inK no 'C' in FUll""".) I" Ihe d ,al'.er',
'u' 011 . he '11"";,,0" of n tlltgs" .\I~rt.'''J. I'oIl,) ",Q1t'. 'No ",on: d",,,
ao .. tI", >k) uo' tlw t'~n" .. ..... ho'-;,.." a .... ~Jn-,;".-, of ,hinl('l "'kl '~'her.
;or a d~.. ''''" .... , 00' a Ioc{ical ~ibll"y of n .n.... IM"}t'. or a ,)" ,('''' ,,(
" pote n""h", of (."'''-w"''nn.~; " .. a ,..... ' )1'" .,( 1"-"'1(, " t.... i,,~ bj'

.hon...,,,,

"oil

AI''lIr ,\ >0.110
In

"""'1""'''''' m J )'\'isk)il in '\"1(1''''

Dc.""".

1991,

19'1'2 . .... Ill.. ' "Ie"in in !let-inki wl\(on [ "'lI1 ""'''-' to wort
0" II", rOl1l[I(";no" fOr d lC ~l "..,,,,,, of (:.H' .."'I"....d' ) An. [..."nc",h,,.
a COI" .,,,,,,,iol) ;ohol .\k,kan!\>"'Y' ..,rltinjtll :os tlH') mighl h.: 0""'I......... Or dil" ",td '(O'>o ~nl """",1 ""' I'''''H'', I. ",U..." ",,,,criaI ""d Ii.:hl.
.. "p" .... ,H...I in :on Inl ... -''' .... . I """"II II". r""' ''''''''~''' """,, ~ "'.,.-

to ()tI'~r

.,..uty ,h,n

'he frnh " 'hi,c ........ ,,-hi.:h had j".1 fall"" in I kkinlti "",ti ,h"

""",II-

.,

In 1M r.... ~I<- '0 ,I", 2111 ""mm)' thNo: ,hoo'ghr. go 11<')'OI"I ,hr;
horil"" a,,,1 'll<:I\Ca,h II", oki,,' I1,"".p.otll ,~" ..urId romWTlCI"" ,llQ<><k

"''''''''...ng

P"I.d1ut by 1I)1>nbolic
te(lmiqu"" ......" 10 ""I'I>WI' (JUI" COli'
IC""""'" and diIfu.., "ur ...1Ien"" "'~I_il)' In ar(hi.""""" ,I", al'l~ica

,........ ''''''''' diftM:.&IIy "'IIM:~ """''''''I'''' "",,,,,,dy ju'" ,,'" h)l"'rboic.


\\"Ioh this "";'y it;o<"kgruo....1 ,hr; "un .. 1'.dLunwo n'Okts rd","""" .... o.
" .... and '"'"""" ,,"'" hr; hao ""(~ .....II("d -11", ,\n:lulecl"'" .. SiIo:ntt.
J ,,;u "'R" my "''''''''11 to ",ad dlls won: and rdln.1 "n t..d ground nooist.
Io.by ,he .dtpIh <;I 00', I,..in!! ."""~ <)I, 'hin itt.

INTRODUCTION

TOUCHING THE WORLD


Juhan! Paliasmaa

I.. I!I'X. ,it,. ("di,,,,", al ,\r;u~.",y ~~IIli<~JO.. 1.0, ..1011 ;,,,; ,,,d ,,'" ,,, ,..n,r. a
,'I>I,"n" of ,heir '1'010:"",,,' Krits. ,n ,he form of all
y ci32
I);IK''>
."b)<."<:. ',",IIer I h~1 I ti ~ md 1""i",111 in II"" an:hil""""..J d i:<
n'>11''''' of Ih" 'ime. The 1'<:1,,,1,
"'y link book Tht ..,.. ~ tht Slm:
..1mI-,/rI'/W". aM W ......... , " ... 1'"),I;'),"d in Ihr ti~ k)\, illg year.
n,.. .. ,,-m,d 1 ~II'1 " I' my "':O"""" 'ipl ,,,,,k ito ha,it' ~k"" fmlll a " ,.~,.. }'
cm itlt<l 'A n Archiltc:"' .... ci th" Sn..", Se" ..... p"I~;.hcd ill A"hilNl~"' ';
I lrlHvw,.,. Qw~I_' 'if I h "fib- (SF',,;"I 1""M. J ll ly I !I'.H ), a pll l~ ;''''I~''' 0"
SIM.... " I I" U', ard""."("IIII, .1 ",,,rk, ",h;"h "I", i"clud.d ....... Y' t... SIn""
11011 hilll!N'lf iI ,,,1 1\1I~' l'to Nrc,A ;6!,w,. ,\ ""'~'\\'I"" I~ ... r ~ ...""e gi,,'"
in ~ <.. ",i ,,~ r 0" an IIII...-wr.<1 1,1... """M"oi<'RY ~, ,,~. R",..:t I),mi""
,\cadell ci ~i"e M S UI COJl,,,,ha<\,,,, UI .I"'''' I!l'JS . .... hel" ,,'" 'hm:
.... ,,".,~ "r c.!!o',-' of Ihr.f'I_ 1........ 111 ....1 ~..-' tI P'"'' khl ,h,. 1",,;.,
.,')(''''...,,'' ~,,,I ,dt'rt".10'$ fUr ~he ti~ p;on.
~ .. ,... ,.'h~l ,,, "" .,,'1.... ,.... 01,, 1","'1... luol ..". ,... ,",,,1 ''-"f") I"""
" ",I,. alM I II I.....tII ... ' ''I''''.. I ... .. di,,~ ,lit ,m hi, ...-turdl ' I.... '" "''''"''"' '"

,II' ;'

'""'''''dffi ......

....

"'''''''' 01'' schoo" of a", h i1e~Uln: arolllld ,Ioe wo,ld. A! ~ con":'I "" 'I<;~,
II", ~d i1 ion " ",l$ . . .Id Our " " I,,,r '1u id J y a ..d , " ' 1\", ,,,1""'1''''''' )'l:" ..... ,I",
10>1<. lo a, ("i n:ula,~d ill .he fonn of co" ntl".. phorOCOVi<-l.
'n", polen 'ic.tJ """")' w... i"i, i:.IlI}' h..."d or, l"'I"lIOI",1 ""pcric,rca, "il",..
alld "",""uL~'ioru. I had bt-ron", i",,~a,ingly con<:<:n>ed al""" ,I ... h"",
"i,io" , aml 1t.c , IIl'l'r",oioll of odlrr "-~"""'. ill d oc: w"y a n;i>i'e<:lu",
" .IS concr;"cd , 'augh' and 0 1"q u"d .....d "I.oou , ,I", co""-~I,,,,m d .... Pl'ear"'''x of " ,II,O<y ",Id "" .."a! 'luali.ics from tl'" arts alld archil""I~.
l)uri"l< II", \0 l'l:a rJ ,loa , ha,,, 1""","~I .i,,,-.., I " 'role Ihe hook. imc"'01
ill ,)", .igniflCaJ..,., of Ihe """~ - both ph ilosoph ically 'l1ld in I~TTII' of
expe ricnci"g, m .. king ,,,,d Icachillg "",hil<:<:"'''' loa> g",,,,n "'I!"iflCantly.
:\[y as.umption, uf Ihe ruk or ,I", hody ... ,I", loc ,,, ur 11C"'''Plioll,
' hollgln ,,, ,d ron'l(ioll\IIe$\', "", I of .he ' ;gn iflCance of Ihe ..,n..,. in artic-

,,,,,.,,,1,

ula.illg, .wri"g ,,, ,d P""-" " '''8 """,'ory n",po""'' ' "nd ,houghls, h"""
btt" m"ngthened and conf,rmed.
\\'i, h ,lie lille T h. E)-'l:' of rlw Skin' I ",;..t",d to C.~ l'ff " 'he ';g,,;lica'l<;(

of II .. , '"c.ile scn..: 1(..- '"" ""l w'rir:r"-" "H<III,lticrsla"di llg of 'h" ...ond . IMII
I :olIO illl r,,,~~ 1 1" <n:ate a w ncq,."a! 0110<1 Ciccu;1 bd"""" lhe dominant

:1,'" of \"ision a,,,! 'he SUPI"'l:_~1 """ '" n""lolil}' of '00<:11. Sill'" writing
tl,~

Ofiginal ,,,,,I [ ha,,, learned Ihal our.!Un is actlla!1y cap.~bk of d io1in

~tlish ing: a n .. ",lrer of colo" ... ; "C ,~) ind.",.! >C" l>y 'M" ok i" .'

T he primacy of , h~ l:o" iw' ... no<: h:u lre(omc ,,"---n:<r<;ngly "" idenl. ' n ,e
.-ole of l..-ril'l,..ml ,,,,d ""f''''"'I<:<1 "i,irm in our Ii,"'" v;pe~'lCe of Ihe

E,,,,,

. .. '[hueh i, 'he 1"""'''' "I "''' <')'OJ. urs, ''''''', H,,,I momh. It ;, ,he ..,,'"
" i,ich l>eaunc ditfCTC",ia,ro ;",,, the OIhcrs, . f"" ,ha, ""'".. to be I"<OJ!!"ioed i" ' he .-oId ",.,.)uatio" of touch "" "'tI.. """her ,,( ,I-.c .. " ......1

I<,,'r.h ;,. 'he " ""'01")" UIOtIe ,hal ;"'egra,,," " .. r ""pc';"nr:c of ,he world
"'; Ih ,hal of o,,",,1va. " ,,,n "';",,,1 por=pl ;"n. "'" fuSC<! and ;nlr:grMe<1
inlo I"" hapt>c con ,in"" ", of ' he "" If; my 1r,,,1y ",,,,,,,, ,1,,, ... who I am a",1
wire", I am iocaled ill ' he world . My l o ly;" tl1'ly the na,,,1at my world,
nol in Ihe """"" of . he ,;"...;ng poi", of Ihr. rc nlrall"'l"JI>ecl i"", wI a . ,tre
.-cfcre,ree, u", nrory, imagi"~ ,;.,,, aod ""~!("Itio" .
It ;. ""ide m ,ha, ' lifc-cn" '''lCing'' =hil<:elurc h ... ' 0 "'~!n::.s all Ihe
"""... ,imuliall""'-'!i)' and f"", o ur image o f ""If ... i, h o ur ex)",,.;",,,,, of
(t..: "'-odd, The L,"",,,,i,,1 ",em al ,:uk 'rf a",hil<:<:tu'" is accommodal;"n
'Illd in legration. Archi l""lu", an", .. la,,," ' he upcricnca of be;n~-'n l l u'

'''I")" I""", of

......-1<1 a nd " .-c" f:1I",n " .. ..,,"" of n:alily ""d sclf; i, doc. nOl make lIS
inllalr', "",Ido of men! fabric,,, ;"n and fa",,,,),

tI'

confron .. '" ,,;11, Ihe world ... here'" l'f"riph"ml .." ."" " "", lop ' ," in II",
n,,,, h of Ih, wond . A)""gsirlr, ' he cri' MI"" of 'he ]"'JI:""",n} of Ii.io". "..,

'1''''' ,,"" of ",If. "ffllgl hr',,-~I Iry ,,,., ami a",h ite,-1un:, ,,11ov...
'0
cuga"" f.. lly ;n ,h~ " ",n,a! di"",n, i',1I1' of d.-ca m. imagina,;"n alld desire .
n "iklingJ and cilo.. provide .he I""i-on for dre "",krJ1 a,,,ling ",,01 <"01"
f...;""i"g of II" , huma n uisrclllial COI,ditioll. In$lcad of c.-caling n",,,,
objn:,. of ,;1\",1 ""d,"'t;"I) . a rch ileclu.-c ~la,es, n",.-lia" " and I'mjo."C1S
meanings. ' nrc ,,\runa1C me"n ing of any IM,;ldi,,!, is I",}",", I a",hi ' cc:" ,n:;

""cd '0 rcmmRk', the "'1")" "''''",,, of , i~IH i.."lf.


All Ihe ",n..,.. including "ision. arc extension. of Ihe I,,,,tile ""' ''''"; ,h,'
,,'n,,', an' ' 1" "' ia li""li"", "f , kin I;" "C, ,,, ,01 all "'n"'1) " x l ~" ~'''c", a n:
mode, of 1O\lChillR ,,,,01 'h", ,..t urd to ,,, ... ili ,y. (lu ..
"i ,1l lI,e

il . Iirre" , ,",. "''''''''0..""", h.",k '0 ,he .."Odd and low~rd, our own "",,,,
of "" If a nd being. Sign iflCam arrhi" ..."",- ",:ok", '" rXl'c ri,""'" """" I"",
'" '"""'pl" le " ' nl""I~'d and <pi,;, " .II",i "I('. I" fa... , Ihi, i, 'he greal fllne
,ion of ,,1\ "'I"anin.;-"I "",

.... "rlrl a. well'" in our ,c~I" '';''''c" of i"terior;I}' in It.c "' ........,. '''' inhabit .
h... also ""cl:cd my ;mernl. The '''I")" .,...,""~ of lhe I;'''''' CXI",ricncr.
",.."kled I,., hap~ icili "" d 1~'r il'l ... ,..~ 1 \Jl)fOf .....~1 ,i,io" . I-i.oc:";',.-I ,;,ion

)"',,.-,

"

'mrid l:tkcs pl;u:c a' ,10", bo;" " la ry line of Ihe ""If ,hn'"gh spcc~~liscd
I"'rur of our r.lrvc~ ~)ing mcmbr~ lle.
Tne ,,;"w of Ash lt:y M ..","I':", lhe ,, ",hr0l'0I"8;'I. ~d on ",edical
",Klene.:. c"nlirr". d re primacy of Ihr. haplic .-ca lm '
pn. .I;;n l is 'he oIdnt and tbe ,,_ ..,n,;.i,,, of "ur o"g""" "u' Ii",
n>cd;,,'" of ""n"mm"",ion, ",od our moot cfIi<icn' prol,.... ,
, I-.c '1"Hl'f'UC'" COf ...... of , I", eye;' ",,,d.>io by a la,.." o( ,,,, ~! ified .1;; "

"

~" , ~

l><!Cul.,,' """h~nge'aUt

I~;

I J",nd my
.moI;O". and .......,;...ioo" to It", 'I"""" and II", ",""'" ~"Kis "''' its au",-.
which "mica ~tKI """"oe..,..,,,, my I"'rteption. and ' hough'$. An an:h"
t~u",-I "'........ i. uo. UI",rie.lC'Ctl ~u ...ria of ioolatcd n:lLn.>J piI:'W'<:S, rut
in in r..u) ;nlt8ra1Cd '''''!erial, "mbodi"d :ttld "lKrilu:.oJ "'""''''''- It oIT<'n
1""""' ..... hJ", ""'I"'" ~nd .urfllCft " "".1<10.<1 for the touch of the "'"' and
Olhtr ~ rut it also inroq ....A
''''' a,,,1 inlCKral"" ,,1l)'Iical a nd """"..J
.. rucI ........ g"""K our oiuenlial ""P"'rit':ncc a S1~hencd conen:"""
and signif.oo:a ..:<:.
When ~ both the anisl and cr.afuman "'" t1irtttly ""PlPI ",ith
their bodies ",,,I, I,,,ir aist~,,,,,,lal"'"'=nc"" "",her than 1iK...."J Of! an
txt"""'" and ~;foed problm,. ,\ """ an hi."". wooh ..ith h;whetenl"" bo.Iy and..,...., of od( \\'10"" ..-orkin/!: Of! a ruild;ng or an ~t ,
,ho: "",hit, it """d,,,,,,,,,,,.. y "''!rAged in ""''''IX 1"'.... ><:<:tnT. hlSlh"r
odfil1ut1" or'~ prcclK'ly, u;"."ntialal'"rier"",. I" C."aln"
I"""",rful ;'J",milk" I;...n "'''l l'r'',;'''.1..... ' t;ok" I'I~.; the enti." bodily and
" ",mal con"it"tion of II,~ makrr .....,.",,.,. 'h" """ ,,( ,I", work. loo ...;g
\\"lnge n...in, " 'I..,... 1""ilOiooj.nr nds '0 be detaChed fmon 1..00<1)' UII"II"ry,
~ckr"",-Icd~ .he i' H.""':';'", 'M I~K I , 1~,i~"",~,ic;oJ "nd archi'<:<:lural
"",-k ,,-i,h II ... i"'''ge of K if; .\\'.... ~ "" phU.... ..." ." lik<c .... rt In orch i, ."",
in m."Y
ally ,,~ .... a ",,.k , . , ,~..,..If. O n ,,.,,,', "", int<rprn~
,iun, On how "' I< ><On 'hin~ ."
"1'1", "'1111""'" i, ". "" lly "." '" a >()J",I) iJ<" ",focial i",,,,,.ioo,. ",h;';h
libe ....
1011111'" ' f;rn,aoy and f~("ili.~,,,,, dl;"irn, ,bill" ..-ort. I wnl' 10
c~pn,.. In) !W:'.)u, WlItt. '" ,II \10 .. re.pecl. ~. k"" <"...;'krillll ,11< curIn , h. ""I,uien",,- of

won.. "

""I""''' " ...

,n

n '''' n>lt . M 'he "'M'~M .. cr '" ' he ''''-''1(11 1'1IXe'Io. C"'"I'"t",r ;magUl@:,.fKh

'0 nall"n our

"""1)3(";1;'" uI

m~~,iflttn'.

i"'ag'''~l1''"

"'"h ...." .. ,,)'. ,;",,,ha,,.,.,,,,

I.... ",mu'll 'h" 0011(1'

~,,,I

J)'n"hrollic

in.o a !,,",no:
,..,,,,1 man;p"Ia,ion. a ... , illal )O',r,,,"). 1'1,, ..... "1""1'" rrC~'<"$ a di"anc"
I"''",...." ,I", ,,"'kr and the oo,ea. "he",a. d r."1nIl I., I",,,d;os ".,JI "-'
n""I<I.",,,lu'III"" ,I.... ~,t:,~., ,,",," I"" .... ft,"'.... t ",,10 the OOJ<:<:I or
'! );OCt'. In our i'''~iI;U1atioo' . , Io~ '~'i1 ,...,,"'ha'...... '_<i)' hckl '" 11,, Io""d

"

THE

("In ( ' .. sr.,

pr<XnI

"nd in..1t- ,t.. I.. ad. a,,,I,I .. in~lgincd and project<:<l I' h)'.i.cal in l3g<: i,
" ,odo:ll<:<l t.y O"r hodia W. a ... in"l< " ,,,I o"bitk of II", objccI at 11",
""" '" t;n .... <-:n:,,';,"<, work ",,11 . ..... " bod ily " lid "",,,tal o.ntifoca.tioo .
a nd ~",ioo,.
,\ , e",,,,kahk fOO(to, ill ,I", ""'I"''''''''''' of e'''''Iof>inf!; '!.... ialil); ;ntenori(y
h;oplicity is the delibera.e ... pprnsion cl sIw-p. ~ ,-ioioo,.
T h" 1m", has ha ..1ly enl~ ...d 01 ... 11""""",,...1 dioroo.IX of "rchMCClurc as
IIn:hi'n:t uraJ tI""";'iul': collli",... 10 he internt"" in r..c...<:d ,-ision,
COlI":"", inten.ionaIi.y and
...,..."..,.,tatiooo.
1'lOlogr. I",,,,,t an:h~"" u,,,,1 "''''lC'''' ,,'" ",,"nl ...oJdnI ;rn:ogef ofl"ocu.."J
~It; }'" ,ht fluality of an "",hllce'ura! ",a1ity Ottn,. to dql<:nd
fuU(br.",,,,at/y 01' lhe "~111n: of I"'.-it'"""'" ,;'ioo .. ...him ",t/Okk .ht
. ulJjn:1 in ,ht "I>IOtt. 1\ ro.nt ""n'(:)I', and riehl)' moulded archilCCluraJ
spaa, pn7oiOc a",pIe 101;",,,10 lOr ""ripllCt"AI ,-ioioo" a.,,1 ,hex """ i"IP
~ml~'I')'

.,,,1

""""""",,,;oJ

""Ill'" ,..

in ,h. '''ry If)iK"r_ l"he I"'-'COI''''';O", P"'_'CI"u:.oJ ",;oJm, ..-hich "


""1,.."';"""",1 0""0. ,I", .. Ihc", of foe" ..... ,;'ioo" Ott" .. '0 be jll>l as

""I)Or"" " e>;b,,,,mally

a.

.... "!..,l<.,, ,h,., l... r~ ,I"'t"d1

' h~ foc,*"I

"'WK".

I" r""t. ,he", " ,....,.Ii"",1

.."ioo, tta.! ~ higher 1"';"";'y in our !,,"retptual

;",,1 "" ""all)"''''''')


T he.., ,lI_,~,;"~"" III!QC'"Sl ,ha' one of 01", n:a"""1 why the archi,,,,,

'0 ""''''' "'

", ...~I ~ ",I ",ban !<I:tl i,,1CI of o ur lim~ 'e,,,1


kt:lli kc ou",,,k ~
i.. <"r)IIlI~~r ;" ", ,,;,10 01 ... "",:~rlll rn"".,ual ""~~K""'C"l of nalural ~lIoi
",,,,,rio'al ","inK". ;,. ti",ir 1""'1;")' i" the fieki of !""ripJ,,,raJ ,"'ion.
UtKQIlloClou' I"'rI"he ..t 1" """1";"" l ...d'....,.,II. ..tinal gc.<lah illlo ", .. t;~1
and hutlil) ""I"r~ ,,,",,,. Ihil'h"rdl ";.ioo, ill!~lIra,,,, "' ,,~,h "P"C~. "ttik
liM"l>rd .. i.ioo' I'" .J>et US 0...

1'1....

of lhe~. IIIakiug ..... ,,"'''' """-,'a,,,...

kfi",,,,, ", ,,I " .. r,,,"..~1 ga.... 'M our ti".... huru."""I I1) ..,,,'tOry
"I"'''

'''' '11<",,1. ""')' ..... "'''"U)'


"I' nrw rcaluu of 'M" and Ihough,.
f"",d of II .. unpiJ('u oonr 01 II,.. ~ Ii.. r"".n~ a lldl ......"r. TI", lou of
/00'''' .... " lit,..,,,,,, ,I... <')<' fn "" II> h iOlofio-dJ I""ri;oorhal domina'ion.

"

PART 1
.., .

ItWlt 110 _ . !lit .,... uWltIlo r_JJ.. '

.I""""" W"lf8"''3 """

TM...,,. .... .h, _

(,.. ",,1M: '

........... '

Vision and Knowledge

'If

IN tMIy 11M ...... _


110 .""JMU ......, .....IJ ......
~I IA/Il n /wJ ,... '

In Wt$l~r" ("h",~. 'lI(hl I..... h .. ," .......oII) Ix-t-n rrg-~rdcd as I.... noI ..... of
01 .. r l O!iD, .. ,,01 d,ink"'lI: ,,..,If Ihool1;101 of in IcnIlS of Ottin~ Alrudj in
d~ .. ical G=k 'houlch entail") "'" 1.....,.1 u" , ... ...., :u..1,";I';I!I}o TI",

"i,,"'....

"M"'~ .,,,,,,'1
110 .. " .1>.. ra,''': "TOle Hemet;I ,,' in "'.. of
h" f.-.tI(l,.. mL ~ I'~IO n:Jf..rocd ,isoon at I",manlly'. 8.... a l<:ll gift,' and h,..

'")'M .. " .

'!f IN <Jf>PII ... btl .. "" (",,1<111 '!f "" J'NIl It.,. !lit
""tall, ""';" INjrw'/ 't>1f: "'" ,imilm u", ..."",try /it., III /Itt _1''I(~ pomI aM tmdtt. O<JI '" tJu /"", of ~ I"'''W", /he ~s

",,,,,.d thou ~d'IC..1 "''''''0.,11 ",",, I. ",-o..,.,i".., 10 ',10,' ",i"d', ~"Y" ""
An.",,~, lik<>.,lY. ,un,ilk,.,d 'iKhl ,.. .he ,nos' ,>ObI!: of It.. .........
btt~ lL'" " "p,)ow< ,nl;Ud d IIl1e1leel ,,,,.., ~~"",I) loy ,i"'M" of Ihr ... Lo
Ow """~'h'rial i') , ~. it) k ,~""' il11(' "

if ~ W. 11"401" t./.HtIl",1 .. IN IVJtNw 11(1. IN ,.,,11. IN 4Utum

Sin,.., d .. Grc<:k$. pl,ilotoj)l"eaJ ",,.i l;"1(> of all I",,,,, h",'. al .... ,,,,kd

~/. 14>/1

f!/r1'IL'" """""" """

(fm'J '/., ,.

fO(A

rrwiuw.
J."lC'" l .. i, II<,.."..,. '

f>n"''''

//ow """,/J III<


l"tIt IN u"O<U.'

",,,,_In

..

<II

fr'Jff

,~". ..,

M./Jwot

oJIvr tJomo

~IJ

","h 'K'tt l,,, ttW I"I'I~),.. 10 lIw I. ,i", .h,,, ktt""J,o,llCr 10"" hcwmc """l0W"'" .. ill, 0'1,"'" ,i,i"" '''M I It~1t1 i, ,,,!,:,,,,IN I '" 'he m'''~phof for 'ru.h.
A'!u;tta. n-.:n appl .... Ih.. "'''Mil' ,,, ,i~I" '" "')1("r ","...,r)' r~"I!", '" ....11
", lu ,,,.dk'I,,"I" ' 'K,,i l ~''' .
Th.. ""!"'" of ,I.. .5<:"'" of , .. ion On ph.Jo.rvhy is ,,"ll "tun"",,1 "I' I".
Jhn ~~",d 'Jl:" J h.. ")'~ .,n ,I~' O'l(""'" P"~'~ll'" of "h ik""l,hr n ..ir
,IIi)...." .. i, ,ha' 'II'") 'H~ ,"11)' '"" " ...... ho' "'" al,., ,,10k 10....,
"",""g. TI"$ J(i''C'$ tlll'"!l1 a J>I'OIlltt..." ,.,.. anKK'l'I 'hr I...J) " ("( 'IC"i' i", '>I"JI:~ ''''
,\ J!O'~I 1''''' ,,( ph,I,,,, ~,hK ,tl 1'""l",1C '" .... , ....11) .",1) (")<" ... I\o:x . n..,
,h.,~,-,;, ....... ",It"'-'''..,.. lf.'I(1:" .. 'u I '''n'' ~ III. ft.,,,,,,,.,,,,..,, tI ... rn-......"....
" ..... tJ",k" ".~II" ~'''n a h.,." " I0"-.. 1 ~<Ict" f""tt tiM' 1ti1I<'<' .... 1\>0(" of

,,,,,,,,,,,1\,,,,

"

,ioj.." ,k ... " ' " I<.,,,d., T he Rcnat;.aro ')'$t<:m of III<: terucs ..... ",1;,,,,<1
.."h . ... illl..!" of III<: """"ie bod)~ ,;.ior, ...............1;,,1'..1 ' OJ Ii", llnd ligtll.

",td nolou.Al I"""';"'" an: Itcctlli:.uly ....."1>l~ 1It:: '0 do< dlll,ogttlg 01"""''''-''
of op;ot<:-c a nd.im<: " .,o.dy htca, .... k)' ","a~ ,1M: <:On>IruNion of " ....i.ioI

""""W'~ '0 all. ", ..n 10 ' 4J>O"r. 1:0"" '0 " ' lIcr, ll.KI ' OII.. h 10 unh. "
In,. ;,,,..,,,ior. of 1"'"1"""j,.-..1 "1~",al"" "''''''' II", ~.., ohor a lltl"<:
poUlI of 11M: pt'rp"...1 ...urId as ....,U '" of I.... 1'''"'-'1" of II", ..If.
1\.........,,,-..1 "'1",",,1lI"''''' iuclf ,unlCd illlo a 1Y",bohc IOrm. one ..-hieh
'1(11 only ducn b ... I"" ... '" condi,ions pO:"'''I'. i..II.
i. '''' do"l~ .1"" our .tchnologic'" enh"n: h", I)nkn:d and "'I'"
" ...... <1 Ih.. """" ... ~... ,,,. 11101<: dis.illcll). \~."'" a'KI hUl'ing an: !lOW
pri,'il~grd !IOC~,bk ..,11 ..... ",he ... ", , I~' och ... I h n~' an' ... )",ic k,,~ 1 as
an' I",,,'
",,,,",,"1.' ,,'i, h a ",..,d ) I',i,,,,<: f,"lClioll . and .k)' lOn::

n:I"""''''''''''IO, and and"ICIS ",II of .IM: flow of I"",w. CXf>" ir:,lC': lOn,..
,n.-KI 11" ....'<')" ) Atd,iI"",UJ<: is ",or pr1r''''''1 jnllrumcIII ir, """,jllg'" ,,-KI,

n"" "

m.

,..,,"'try

"'1-'1"'''''''''.1

""oatl)'
~. Iht: code of cullun , U ,,1y .... ,,""""...",;h "-$ 'he
oIr"",1<II)' "'>ju)'n"'''' of a n...... fragra,o of f1c...,'Cf'I ""KI "'"I""""" .0
1,..,.... ," ... "'''' a ll"",,,d 'od", ... coIltctj,...,
II. "''' ",'ub.ttntric and
oIlICIIti"..,1y h,PI'"ic codo. of culm",.
'n", d,,.,,~wn<T of 'v., "'.,,- ,.... ",1..,.- '""""" and !1M: ron""""",, bi.u

"";0"" "'"'

'''flI-

in "'-'!t";'IOI' .... 1>tt11 ot...:,-..,d 1>1' "''',IIy I'hil"."l'h...... " wIIo:o:ti"" of


I'holo.",,,hl<'.01 ~~ cnloi1td .Il""'"'!r_ IN
U-'. "'l!"'" oha.
l or!(in" .'jI:,,"h II .. ",mn Gift .... \...".."." ( ult"", I.... t.,."" dl)",iolalnl b-,
an o.-.,Lunmnc ~. a ,ision!I:"1.. r;ut'tl, ,..... ,~ "'''''. illl~"1"".a. ioo ,
,,( kl""'kd~ .. Inllh. "'KI " a1ily. 'J T h is 11.... ,ghl I"''''*U.1t 10001< ana~....
h'uori.c-'.... COrlnCClioo .. het".,.-" ";;;'.) ,,,,,I 1o " ....'~, Ij(o .. ,;'il " , a ,,,1 ,.", >lug):

"""_H/

";'. ~'

a' KI I.....''; "No" ami Mi,ia', "


,\ . ttl<' 0.."1""",,,",,,, 1........ i!C'" of ,~"

,-,.1." j"" I" III<' "u,kl "n" o( our

" ' ~" "' I~ "f k'lO"' ''''I~


Ih~ "pis.~",ololl;ic.,II"",jl'~ IIIt <of , i,;"'.
ha,
I"..." ......." ....1 I" I'hi~""'I""'''''' i, is:oJoo i",I"'''-!''''' '0'''''<:) criticaJ~' II",
""'" of,~ in ",Lni""" ,0 ,h~ "d on- ..." .... ill 0'" "'K~,,,,,,,,,I,,,!! alKI
I" ..... or.. 0( d ... ~ " of an:hllcelUJ<:. ArchllcelUn:, a ....;,h all an. is
.nor", .. II) ... ",rn "" .~1 wi. h ' 1"""';'-"" "f h""",,,, ...... 'r'" .. '" "f>:K~ and
1<"".. It "~I"'"''''' alld ",Lllo " ...,,'. ix;"1i:' '" III<' ",,,kt A"'I",,,, '"'" ;"
,1n'1~' .nI(A~ ... 1,n ,I,,' nl<'."pl"'\or~1 '1''''''' .'''' ,of ,h.. ~II ~,,,I .~ world .
,m~ ...or"\ alld n'cn(>Ti,y. ,i" ... An.! d",,, ,.,,,. hr. .",<1 .~,"h. \, ... tI,,t or

fi",,"

"

It""''' ""td Ii...". and p.;ng ..... dimcouions a human .....aMII'<:. It domorstin,.,. li",i."", '!);Oct "'K' "'Ko.:. .;"'.: 10 I", uolo:t;o.o,,<1. in""bi,... "'KI
,uM:ientood by humankind. '" a COI'''''l''''nn: of this ~"eniq:oc'''Ir:''''~ of
."' ....., ",,, Iii,,,.,
d j;.Icc.D of nlcn ml a'KI ;'IICt"aI It"'''',pit)'SicaI and

,I."

",';"',,,aI,

"""n'iaI "nd Il..-,II"d. ""'~K'''.'''' a'I<1 collKioo.. priori.;.;.

~~",i,'lI'Io" """ .., '" " 'ell ;os!IM:ir

CUI. '

",ta.i,., roIeJ and im"rnctiom. ha,.., " "

."",,,t.,1 i"'I'".:I 0/, Ih" ""lIOn: of ,1M:,,, .. a,..1"";Ioil",,',,.-.:.

Oavid M ichac' Ln';" 'TlOIi>""cs Ih" phi""",>I,;.,...1eri'''I'''' ,of Ihe '~'Ul


""'''1" u( ,I.,. C).., ...;.h 'ho: followinll words: ' " hjnk it is '"-l'l'ropna'<: 10
ch.,I"'"K'" ' he ~rnony of ,;.;.,.. , h" ocuwrco:llln..n of OIl. "" hu.-...
A, .. I ,hu,k "''' " ad .0 u:un .... ''Cry ollically .IM:
of ,,.100,
Ih,,, ",,,domina.,,, today in ollr "",ItL We urg-c.ul) n<:nl a d ;;.gr-is of
!1M: IIS)':~J pathology of "''n)~lty """jng aud a cn,ica] ",,,lcr.. ,,,,,t,,,!! 01' "",,IXI'a. as "isiona ry I",;n", ".
I."'~II 1".. "1> 0111 ,I.. au,,,no,,,)'_d";'..
agg""'j,.."loCM of ,';'iun. a ' KI
'. ht: '1-"'<le.-. of ltoalriat(hal rul/::' 'ha, haun, 011' ocubrcrmric cuhun::

""""""eT

'''K'

P''''''' it ,~. lI"ong i" ,w' on. 1........ ;. ~ ,~ry " ".18 'e,,,"'....,
"' ";""') '0 ~rA'" .,Kl rc,.'c, '0 ",iry ",Kl ,O/"Ii,<, '"n,Ic, ... y'" .IotH''''''.
I..... \\,11 ' 0

.0. "' ...

",\, ..

.....,..... ~' "I ''''''n~.


10 ~n"''' "]I. I. '-AU"" it ....
"n,i"d} l)l'~
""""'~ a unw-d <en"", ,,, ....... \l ,Nt ~m<>ny '~"r "'" n ,I, ,,,,, ",Kl II>

I'J,ik .... 1>i'''-''" d ....."'..... hI;d.oli.hi"JI.

~, lo.l""~

"itl, th< ;n>lru"""".1

...,."",)..,. of o"r ('UI.",.. .. ,~I ,I .. '....-h,,,')"I1...-..1.... ' .... I<r , of '."

.. , ",ubn:cnu-ic m<t>.pI,,-.K. of

.>W."...,I

<o ... ;". )>

I hrl"' .. ,11<11 "Ill'" "''1",ct> of I.... lo;Ul~~ of "'.. ,~ ....) ",du,ce,,,,,, ,Ot:b)
..... lil:.n...... 10.. lllKko-,;t, ...1 ,ho KOI(i. "n .,~01)....... of tI ... 'I>tSIcntolu!r; of ,1M'
,,',,'>0. .IlId d n i. ;.!"" of II... "'....... b",s 01' OUt (ullur.. ~. k.~, and of
.n ""....11" ill pan"",.I.". 11.. jnh"", . ",,) . >1 .-.."r"'I. ""~ ""'10,,,, !I",.
d,td .-01 .., (.'" k undersoood.tJ tllC ((II'''''I'''' 'K', of ,h. "'1:lil("I)1''' of ,h.

"

hOlly ;UK' ,he""oon, ~"d an jmt...la,...-.: in UII' """....." "Y"crn. Th" growi"~ r-",Jrnr-.w-e. of llIim:u ion,
Ill'" ooIi.udr: ill the '''<:hrlOlog_
io:al world 1OO:by; lOr inslarlCl'. may be ..,bled with a cnuin pathology of
th.. ..,,, ..... It ;" .h""gl"p",..,lUn8 ,hld III .. .,,_ of esI",ng<''''''''' ",..d
.lru.clun."II ;" oft"n nookd by the uxhJlOlosia.lI) mosI """.. nad oetting.,
. lIch as I>oojm ..... and ai'l'ol1.1. The durn;"",..:.: of the qo; and d"" IUJ'I""""
sio", of .he ... hr.r ......... ,ends 10 puY... jlllo ~" iooblion ,."d
~ Tbe an of ,he ~ ..... ttrUinIy prodoad ir~ and
1""-'8t~1"""'*il'l! " ,.,IOUf'a, h", ;. ,_ IlOl laciIitau,d h .. """, ......,.....
In the ..ur\d.. 1'ht act .hat !he ",ode,,,;,. idiom h;u IlOl ~netaIlY ",""n
",hie to ~"'trAI" ,n.: illrf,..,. of p'.",11r llOMc and .-"1"",, K<:fRJ 10 be d ...,
to itt ~I imdllnal and ........ , cOlI,lhui&; ",oder,,;" dr:oign at \arg<:

".,;oct",,,,,,.

h.:u ~ Ihe mlclll and !he ~. but it has Irft !he body and u.. olh....
.......,., ... w.,u as our n"",""';"" im;ag~"" and dreams, hOllld.:II.

Critics of Ocl,llarcentfism

,.

-""'---_ ....... --_....... .. _........


__
....
.. ,-""""'
"-., _
...
....
_. . . ......- ,

_ . - " " ' ..... ""'" _

d ""

.".

..... d ... .,..

1,._""' ... _ ..... _

01

_ _ _ _ C.................

,_

.....

_,'~

..... -...""" _ _ .... 0 - .

_ _ ...... CJo9'

...... .,.....

.....

"

'tt Ht' ' .. .,. ...

"19

r...

-''''

(I("L~rccntric

Irad;l;on and lhe ro.....qu.,1I! sptctalor !heory of


kll".. k.!!!" ;" W""~rtI Ihin ki,,!! h:r... "I.. , had Ih,,;r en tia """'''11 ph;~ ....
opI>cr. alre;ody bclOrc IOCl.:o.y'. concern .. R" n~ o.,,,,,an.,.., tor insla,..,."
"-'IFUlkd ,';'ioll a he: " ...... "";,,,,o;oJ a,,,1 nohk ,M .he sell" :' alld his
,~ ,joT'if)'irlK l'h;w..,.,hy ;, C<)II'1' ''I""m l), g",u'I<led in thr. l"';vi\eginlC o f
vi,;on, 1 1 ~<er. he alilO e(lumed "isio" Wilh louch, a ... me ... hieh h" ~on
' ;'~'n~ 1 '" he '",,,rr ""n a ;" . ,..11cso ""h"',dhk 10 e l'ror 111<", v;,ioI,'. '8
Ih . d rich Nitluck " " ."'pted 10 ." tr...,n Ihe "IlI hor;I), of ocular
d, i"k",~ in Ittm;nM ~o".m(h.:ti"" " "11r ,Il(" !{'"'l(",..j Ii,,,, of hi, IIJoo' glu .
Ur ~ril"i ...d <I... ' '1'" """ide of Ii" ", "nd hi"'>1)"" 1"",,,,,,,,,111)' man)'
I~'~'htn. l ie """" accuocd IMl'Iooop/"''' of " 'u e achcro". and I~illd
h". ,oJi,y It""..,,!. I"," ...1"... ', .10 :\I.x s.-h .. l", I~unlly ""It. till' " ni" Klt ,I",
'h,,, rtd of Ill(" hod...'.1'
T I... IOn...t(,II)- r n'tI-..J ""' ...... u~ .. r ..11"",. ,...... flf W",.lrm OC" li..O'". ....
l.en-rlM ' "lid oI"" l mIC, " 'hid. ,In""~ lnl ,n ,I... 20th ......"'" ... F....... h
The

"

imdlt"'"Hlal ,,di,ion , .. thoruugl~y

",,,",)<:.1

hy "laniu .J~)' ill hi, hook

.. ma 'M y perc~ption is 1""'",f""'1 ItO! a ,um of ';"'''), I""tile and ""d i-

Dou'f,a"r Ep - TN Dn~1Iooo 0/ 1m...;" 'lit-mtittJo -CmJu.ry I'mtIt TItotv:Jr!.'l l


The '<Tilo 11-...,.,. the dc...dO:'IM tlCnt of t/", mode", " .. iot,..".,,,,,,,d cull ..",

I>lc gi" "'S: 11",,,,rivc ;n a lotal way " 'it ll my " 'hoIe bcillg: I gr""l' a IIIlKI"e

'hrough ,../;11 dive..., r",1ds as the i"""mion of It>. printing pm!. artifICial
illwn;"a,jon , I'h, ~og"'dj,j'Y. ',"",011'0<:''1' ,."d Ihe ,.......' experience of ,imc.

"",i. .

On Ih" OIhc r h" "d, I", allal)"".,. th"


"",Jar p.)5ilions of ""my of the
""fl1 in ..1 F",,,,,h ...
,ueh as H....n llersoon, ('><X>tgCS Ilalailk.jl:a" . I'~\I1

ri,,,...

all my

Man ;" Hcidcgget, f. 1ichd fuoc",,11 ~"d.la<:(ltlC\ l).:rrid~ h~,,, all "'"b~1e(1
thaI 1M Ihoughl and cuiture of modernity hOI,'" ItO! only continued 1M hi,_

Saf1n:, Maurice ~krlca,, l't"'l)\ Jac<1'~ I...""" l..<lu" Allh"""",., Guy


Debord, Roland lluthcs, Jacq uo. [krTicb, J..u,c" lrigaral' En"nan uet

11\';'''''' ",, ,dJc",H t'rar..,,.,;s I .~ard.

";'ioo.,

co",.. in c.oma.:1 .... i\ II .2. In h", ";""'. "I>ac~ h"" la ke n "'.... r Ii"" , in

>Cp""".

I"" ~n ... i" fon:cd in our li",e Ii)' a mullilude of Iccll nologK'al
i",,,m;on, aJ>d , he endk:<s multiplKation and production of imagn - 'an
Illo<,,,]i ng " , inlal l of ;mag.:, '. as halo Cah i,.., ,II, it.)' "The r,""L,,"r"~~

",,,,Ill of lhe mod"m


lk id<:ggr.r.l:I

'n",

age

is (I", cor"I'I<.">1 of II", world ... pict" ...; wril

pl'il<w>pl",r'$ '1x:o:ula\;orl I"" ccrtai,~y mal~riali:Ioed in

of I h~ rdal i' ", .igniflCaJK~ acrorn.d 10 the IIot;"'n ...r ' pare and lime
h", impo""nt rqlC rcu .. ionJ O il our Ulidcrslanding of ph)",ical and hi.lorical 1'rt><:r.II.. .,.. Thr. pre" a iling concepts of .p~ and lin.. and their

age "f ItM' fa bricated, "',.....prod,IC<~1 and rnatlil",I~I<~1 imag.:.


'l"h" ,,,,,h nologicaUy ""p.~ndnl and . Irenglhenffi '1" ,oday penet"" cs
d~",1' illlo ltl~Ucr a,>d ,!"ocr, a nd en,oJ>Ics
to c;ut a . illl "lta1l<O'" ~1Ok
on the opposi ,,, , illes ,,( 1Ioc gil,!",. ' n ", CXI",riell"'" of '1,"",0 a nd I;n",
I"" " 1><:<;<>110< f,,'O<:{1 "ltO ca.;h other 1 ' '1><1 (David Il aJ"\~ ""'" II",

imerrda IK"" f"Tln an cs.o:rrli,,1 p",..."digm fOf ard li\~"CI U"'. as Siegfried
Gic<llon colahli .!led;n II ", o<:",i,ml i'kological h istory of moOtrn a", bi-

llOt;"" .,( ' Ii"", ' 1M"" cornpn.... iotl''j, ~"d "" a <'Ot\""'ltI<:IOCO ''', a n, willIc<>ing a d;"UKI
of the Iwo duncn, ions a I~mpornl isalion of

h ll"'~ ll

"" ""'ioo.,,,....... a corl<C'l'''''1tt of "C::\lbrttrrtri;rn .l~ This """,,,r..,1

"n"" mod AlrlIilNllrlt.""

INl ure Spa" .

M,,"rict: M"rk~ll- Pullly Ia"'KJI<.~1 ~ ",,,,,10.. crili'lrre of tlo< 'Ca",,,~,,,


1 .~,"In.""lisl

'"'''Pic "1(i"",' and 'ilS pri,iJ"I!;ing of an a.h;'IOficaJ. d ;';',

,~ "

,II,,"

"".,r:!a.l

' 1'''<''' aJl(1 a ' palialiINu lotl of .i " oc. Th" oll ly ...,,''"' 11"" is f~" " ""ugh '"
keep p."lCC " i th 11", " Sloondinll in .. n:.... or ..... ,"<1 in Ih,' t ~d"'()logit aJ
world C
ight. II", ,hr wodd ,;.I" thr '1'" i$ ca",illg

U$ ' "

Ii,,, uoc,,,,,, ingiy

'''''' ",ed. di><:l1Ih"di<:<1 , rrl!i<:<"1 CII,i rd) ouu id,' of Ih" ,,,,,kI".17 Hi, ""Ii,."
l.hi~'""I)h ical "'tort ft,,,, ... ,, "" 1_'TO:I M;OIl ill !(C"n. ,I. and ,;, ion in Ih,ni<--

in 3 1"''11<:luall 'n:S<:'''. Ibn e'I<."(1 hI' '1",,,d ""d si"' Ll I '~Il~il )".
V....aJ images
Jx.:om~ commodilies. ,.. H aJ"\~ poit1l, out: '"

ular. BUI inslead of \l", Cane<iou , '1" "f tl", ,,""~Ie ' 1I<;""" or, .\ Io-"':all
1\)II Iy", ",' n,," of , ighl i, ~ ll e", I>OlIi..~1 " is;'" .n Ihal " a rr irrcarr\:\\, pan " f tiM'

" ISh " f iltlall'-"' lrom din~ u' ''1 'I'ac"< a l",ost . i", ,,II ,,,,",,,,<I)'. mll"l'. i"g
,he world', '1",cn in\(l a ",rico of irnag<" on a trl'''''i,~", ." !lrn ... Tho
il1l"g" of ), I;.e,,, and ......,,' I>IT""'''' a , <'''''' ", 1'I",.I"" lio,, a",1 "phelll'

'fle''" or Ihr wond?t 'O nr body i. bolh an objecI amo"ll objects and II~'I

M'"

"

10

loricall'""ik-ging of oig!lI. hUI f"nhered ill ncga';"" Icn<lcrocin ~".acl" ;11


lheir own
""")"s' has r.:gar<I<:d II", , igill-<l(Jn llrla,OCOof IIIC ...odcrn
.;rd ,.. di'lt;n<;lly d ilfr;n:1I1 fro.... hat of earl;"'" I;'nes. 'n", 1","nlOt' y of

Sa ... ", was oul<poken ly ho" ilc '" 'he 1ICn3<: of ,-is00n 10 ,h. point of
ocnlarphobia; hi. otm'''' has bttn tslirnat.d to e<nn a in 7000 rd. ""c~,,
10 'II", Iook' ,2l l ie ..... concerned ",i,h ',l ot: objeclit)' ing look of ' he
", he r, a nd 11", " m"d " " . glance" [... hich 1 "petrir",, ' ",.,ry, hing Ihat il

,'

.,"ocl"", of 11". IlIill& " "";"1'0< ",ay of being, whicb "peak.


.... ,""" a l o'oc,,: ho wri'<:$.](1

ha,,,

wll id , S<"<"s arr d 1.... "1,,.. \1I, m ."~' .\ icrlcau I'um)


at! "",I04M: ,d."~J"
1",1",,,,,, ,I". ",If a",I,I ... "",Id II ,,")" i1l\np"nclr;oIC ,md 'n"wally define

"ral II,," a. "")" otll" r 1coll1l11odi ll l .....


T he dramalic .hall~,in~ of Ih~ illhNilffl comlruetloll of realil}" in

~ach

CO ,','m ,kra'~" has utll~ ", I ~, dl) ,.,,,,1,,,01 ill a " ri,i, " r 1" 1It'...""" ion. \\".

OIM'

and he ~mph."i,,,d tiM' , illll, ila"" il ) al<lll1"r;w,i,," "I 11,,

"

r~"

.......-" w ~ " ,;f) ~ rena ,u


of our ,i"....

I~", icketl

h)'Stcn.. of rq>rcKmation,n ,t.. am

The Na rcissistic a nd Nihilist ic Eye


..........Jt'" "'ony of ';11:111 Ii!"), h roull:h , forlh II:Io. io" . ' UlOfU. III
I '''odt:ggrr'. ' ......... I"" II h;u lurned ,,,(,,,,,,",,;1) n,h,I",,,, '" n"",,,"m
H";d''AA"'r, ..........
of ~
iol'anin.l.:trl) ,hoI'p,,'

""1n.
.,.,;0"
u,h",..."")'"
......."""'nll: ,Q<by; 11U11) of ,t.. an:hlltt' ''r;o' pro,.,.,u of Ih'" ,-. zo )"~I"$..
cdd""'rd by d ... ""....,,,,, .. ,,,;;0.1 ,,,,h',, ... m''''I>Ina. "'''1'''''" hool, " .....,;..
.;.'" a." l n, hil;"'"
... ,.", hegt:1, ..... , ... ...,,, .........
;;o.I1 ,wlob of rulou ....01 pro
dun;'", . ,",,,I " ..,....,. ", "..a .... " ..." ..... pow:ity lOr ""'1""11); <;<lmTMUion
aoo "" n icipa,ion w',t.
woOd. ,1M: n,~n: ....,"., '1'" ,"JeWS arth i"""un:

duo,,,,,,,,,..,,, ",. ",

,h"

."kl) ... '" " """ .. o{ ...If....... I''''"" >o'. ~."I as an 'm,II""",,,1 .... ",ic J(a"",
:'lId 50Cic iai ton...,."ion .. ,.. ......,as ,...
, Ir,,,,,h ... l f"-",, " .... nlial
nihil"l;" '1" .k-lih," ...~,d) ;oI.h~n."'.
and rn.:",:.1 rI.tad", w", ,,,,,I

""'"!:,,

""""'.ry

al;'"a';"'" 1",,,,,,1 " f rr'''r. ..... i,,~ ,,,,.', I""I).-""'''' r"d "ml i",'"W'""d
~Xl"'';''''C'' of Ih" world, "' h.lislK" a.~h"":llIf" w..,"gagn a nd ;,.~a'M ,J",
I.olly. amI ",,,,.d I!f al"''''I'' '''1I; II!
,,"hl,..~1 ",,10" ' ;' ",a k~ a
r1":ld'''1( of roll "cI"" ,ill:,, ;focalioll 'mposs'bi<'. Th~ ,,"Orld """"',.... a J~ko
",.<1'1' bu, "". "",,~~ ... ,,,".oIjo.~ , r' ... y. lr '" rk'" ' hal 11111) ol ,, ","all";"!:
" lid , k'l"d",,~ ... "",. " f ,.""", ,. r" I~,l ~,' "f a "'h'li",, ~"i",d,, ; ;, ;,
''''I"",,, blo: 10 ,h,n l d a ",h ;h>l'" "'"'" "f 1<1l1("h. "n' i"'ta ' M~. h," a ,,><" "f
,I,, "".,,,,~I.,IoI, ,... ~roK'" ""'",.kY. " ..... ,.,') ,,,,d i<~'III,f~'a""" ,h., ,IK"
..."..... ~. ,,,,,.11 " .. "ir. A \.,.1'110.: "S ,,'~ll ~j ~ Tl""""hi,,1C '1" also ~x',u..

",",,.If,",

,.

,',

,1I1d ,h,'" ",,,nil' ...,,,, '" ,I... '.~b , ~ ,""''''!.,''',,''' arb all" a,<,h;,,,,",,,
,." . 1." I.

;'kn, 'I;.~t

T ~ ~ ur",,,,

, ..
............

........

....,. ....

uKI""nal ,,~,~ ",,,,I'k 'oM' uI ' .... ~,I "n"K<""'

,,".,,t.

to

_ _ _ ",. ........ 01 _ '" "'"

'rr~'~......

"""., ,,,... ,,... ,;.;,,~ IJ..:,... ..'11 ......, focus or p;miCl""",,n. ~ I ochd de

u-nr.Il'

l""It ..",", II. "'I"''''""''~ ,h. ,. "L" ,...01",

'. . _._'-.1<,0"9'_

'.

"

.It" "'.;11.1,<> ,"rn

"'~'I\" t. ""k',~L

............,... "'''"'''_
,,~

~
"""" -,.., ""'""

II",

'" ..,. ..

' .... ""'" 0 """ '''' ........., '"


Nl_ ,~_.

,- ..

..... '" "'" ..... ' ''''''" d ........

--'
.
-...., ,... ._. _ tt. ,...

...., . .t ..... . "" .. " " ' - " ' _

.,1. ,,,,,,,, , ""., '""" ,.,,~ .".'aJ ;"" ,I, ,.,,".,,' .1,,<1 .kll' ";.

"

_
,
'. . . _.v.. . . __ . . .

Hi E POWER "'-NO THE WEAKNESS Of THE EYE

- .
r ....._

rr.. nc.._"

01 ' -

-...
0,,,,,,,,, _ _ _
',",,"

"'~-

-~

...."

..--..
""

.. ,

' From "'\.."i;.i"" tu '''''''"1'''1'''' 3, f",,,, ~'''''"i!.inK 10 ,oJl lOIU of "",rcan-

'I,inki,,~

1M "I'ipha,,~ '~If .oc;"ty i, d ... rac.c ....1 by " ( ""Un"" I{f',wl h of


""'",,,ril111 n",)1hiUK by ,to abili. y ' 0 show .w b" <I.. ",~" " ,,01
t<a",,,,mi" l: co",,,,,,,n01ion ;n10 a ,iwal journoq:'" 'I'll<: can<clUU$

w";,,'r:

""",,,I of ' ''prrfl<:"",, .. rchi.",-~u ..'" ;" .... gny tOl\;o)'. devoid \If t"".OI'ic

......-....,.. a "'""" of "hal Ill<: ,,-om ito 10 pu~l)" 0.-;0] poopIe.'"

,"i,,",

~nd ~ ... " ... of u"'lrriality ~"d

""'f'"lhy, is dc:;uiy pan of th "

procnL

It... I. ..., "'I>I:u . .. II I) al .. ' ......, d,illki" g. T hi, lill"bmClltaI rh"",go'

i" lh, I""rcq>tion and "",\enla,,,li"Jl: of 'he ""rid _ n .. """""",ib!e '" 01",
"n",,'lI" w"nh art gnound",-] in or..! '1lttCh, writin g t)'rannicaU)'
k",l. 01 ...", illi o a >",",,,,1 f".10.1 """,'C . . . a

litcr~' r

In ran, ,I ... ,,,,,1...u.."I:"<I I""lI"""'")' of II... '1"

I"'""'" ("..""." 1i,lIy

' 11:1)

he a fain) ..,.... n,

I""'roomo:non "1r~.-dlca of iu urigi'" ill Gn:d:. 'ho" gh' and Optics. In


I ~IC;"" ...,,,,...,'. ,.""'" '
oixtcctllil ''<1''m)" dill not :Itt
i, lM:ard alld

n...

Orill versus Visual Space


11m "",n 10", nOl

~",.. ).. I~OI

do",i' llOt"d I.Jy ""00. In

f.....,. a ['ri,nonl;"1

'Ioon,m........ "I' l",ariOll': h:u only gr..d,,""I, been ~ b,'1h;u uf ,iUon.


,>u,t/,ropoIqj:o<:aJ li.rr~l"'" , nub.,. nun",,,,,,, ( uh",,,,, ,n " 'h",h our
1"';""'''1' ...,...... ui ..,... U. lJUI" ~nd touch comi"", ." h;n" ru!koi-." mlllO<'
I~na on bth",-.:>u' and communicalion.

ul il",ulOn "I'

'n..

ruin uf

u.. ""'''''" in

, 10"

coIlrt:."., ~"d 1",,,,,,,,,1 If""''' i" . -..rio"" ....Itu"-~ "a. ,he

II""',

"hj.... ' IIL'"n uf I:'h.-~nl T


"'min .... boooI; 7'" II""'" ~.
"hich. "'8""tal~ ... _" .. 10 I""" I"",,, f<JfKV"~1I hy ~nltil""'''' ''' Iblr.
I""""",ie "' ''"... <II' I"'.... "~,I "1"'(1' oIT~. i",,,..na,u " "i!{lm ill'o i'I$';II,,'_
",II a, ..1 ulloon ...iotl. "'1)1t of our ~Ialion lO "I""'" and our un ..".... ioo ..
,,,.' ,'f ' l};In' ill 1~h~,';'~,,.,,.1 cum"""';'''1 .",. 11aU". ,,,.illh, r~" """''' .... he
1.,-, .. foc d,,' ,~',i!(t, of ;tI!in~.t~. bi<K:.' h" ..~lIy f"nC:lio'l.~1 ~
WaltnJ ( Jill( " ".(1)',,-,> oJ", u-~",i! " ," r",,,, II,.a l t <) ",rin." eo, l, to'"~ a lld i"
i,nl "'''' "" 11111""" ,',",,,-.,,,,11.',.. a",1 'h,' "."". ,,( ,I,, .."lin,;,.,. III hi, 1,00"
Omlott & I~"'IJO. " I I.. POIIU j ,lOll Ihal 'oJ,.. , Inn li"," or..! ", "'nUCII "I _....-h
,,-., "..,."",,11) a , loin f" ~ ,, ",,"wl ,,, ";"II~I '1""-"'.'" "ml lit... p,.i",
"ltL, .. ,,1 II,.. h"J("''''''Jl: 1",:"'i nJl:""<lotn;,,a ll~" in th~ ,,"Of'kl of .hou~ht and

..
'

""1'''''''"''' ,,"I> tltt' ".~hl-<k~" ",."Mt' "h. 10 h"

11_' I. Wn " " ,\( '" """tI~.~'

In O " Jl:"' vii .... '1 ' 1"'" ;. all i'''''I""' ""rid o( ... 01<1, t,, ~II>II"~'" f...... '"
Otl~ atl.~l\~ ,I... (ha"lt~ Ilw II". .h.n f,,,,n ' ]'" pnn.,,""11 u,.al rult"rr

'" III<' n,h",., 'If ,10., ,..""." ,,,,.I .""\.,,,,,-,U,

11~ ' I".;,,,, ..1 """I

h. ('""" .. J

"" 1"" ...111 .... ,"-;',,,,,"" .. " .....I<\t\ "'lid ,,,.k-manrunll. of """'.:. I I.: ~
,Iw,.." 1""""'1("10.,,,,,,.,,,,,., I." ) . -klo..1 ,., '11(101-<10..111141, ...... ""~.I""'.oJ

"

"

r"""

.".,Ikol." ... iff"d ,.... air and c;o"lIl.. _",d.. II " "" ... ,1) Lun

' ' '1 it....,...

oujJy a"d af.i>"ly hc-carne enl!i in JI"Oml"''1' fOcUWll{ an....""" on .....


w"rid ul Ii"...,. ..';,11 ",",,,,,. (1!i7 1 1630) ~,,,t t.'ba'W',.,. of L)'OI'
(1::093 1(67). II """S\ ...... ,hal ,;.;".. "",,, .."k-:..shnl in ,lI<: ........1of ric"""
a. II " .,.. '" It ... "",10.1 or l>loysicaJ ..,,.,..ioo,S. alld <I ... "ur\d. or iltau,y ...
".,.U:.'2 1(.>1.,,, ~ ta,,,m,,. on"",," a l",r.dId argt"''''''1: ~Il", hier.,...d!) [uI'
,.... ~".... I ,,-,os ,,.... Ill" ""',," ['" Ul the
""lIIu')"1b.-ca...., ,lI<: '1".
... h ... h n lln "M b ). h",,1 .....If in 'hird I~. lo"hi 1 huring and " Koch .
a,,,1 r:or after Won . 'n ... '1" ,hal '''lf~n;''''' d"-" if.... and ""Ie,.. ..... n'"
II ... (~,"O<, ..... I
01 a I,,,,,, ,hal I'rer" ....... l l"'...-ing. .. '
TIo" !(T".du;.11y ~""'i"ll: 1"'Jl:""IOI'Y or ,h., ' 'Y'' .."''''' ,,, 10" p"r~lkl with th"
d"....... Iot''' ... nl of W",.",." <"~O"'Cio"'IK" and th'l\radually i"c~a,inll:
"'1 .;01':".'" o( 01... ""I f ~,~ l llw " m id; >i m "I",mlt. ,I< fro,,, 01 ", "'orl"
",I",,..,,,, 'h" (lthef ~tI!o<:S ""i'e H' wi,h ii.
,\ ";,,,;'. ,'x!'.. '"",,, ;" ,,"~"~"'-I II'''h p",,,,rI.1I ",.,a";"K' 0( 'he wotki.

._n""th

"'lI:""

1I.,u,j"Je' Ih",
"all)"

~.,. ;nm'1~""I"d

,,!..i<-rnood .

a,,,1

Ii","

.-~" ... C

,h""

"i"'pl)' i"tdl,'C1 '

I" "'y ,... w. po"" y h", Ill<: capaci.y of

brin~n~

u.

1I."'I<'",,,rily h",'k ", , h. ,. ,,1 a ,,,1... 'wk ~",,~ "orI<l. T hr ... -oraI"'~J .. ord
of 110'"'1)" brinjl:$ \1$ b:u:k 'u II", ,:.-nl ... . ... an i" ."noc ....neld_ '1'1... p"""

"",,,i,.,. "" d ... 'h. ....Io"I<I ,... 1"''''1\0' ..,. (; ,~,.. ,,' 11..d.d" ,,1 "0""."

hU l

abo
,,,,,,",, pL.,,, a' IIw' ,h .. "".,ld .... I~"J("'alC' . '1,",11)'. ,1M' t'"'~ , ... ~" a"d a"'h i,,.,-""'. III K<',... r;>l 1$ '0 f'<"('Onitruct II... nl""r"'fI(~ of an U!odiff.. ,..,nt~l(cd
j,

illlo' '';''' ",..101. '" " h . '1t ...... ~ .... '". II ...... '1 ..... ,~ "'- htll 10 "hieh " ..

"' .. p.~r.,~ I.>do"l:0 In "ni$, ... "".b. ~ ".",,,i.1

1I",k-""a"di,,~

"no.-.

"

I,,,,,, ,~or ".,.}' ,"""'~",,cr ...i,h ,he ",o.kl ~"d ,,," I..... "~,,' '1....-" ....101
is

'10'

~O"..,.IM,J.lh"'~1 (If

i,

""dh . ""h",~l.

Re tin al Architec:ture a nd th e loss o f Plast icity


I, '" ....... ~. '" .. ,.,' ..... .. ,d",,u~ 0( . ~dn ...... w ruilUln .. "[,,, ."...","'11)
cor ....... ",d ",'"h Il,~ '~n' ",,,k.,,, "f ,I", I ~.t\.. """"",1 of I.i,,~ ,';"11,,11),
,....1 c"'~~ I"",.LI ) .LIIIII.w ..d (:0' '''''1C'1(H1 III lr~dnlOl' al ruhul'C'l ;"

)(I."kd 1'10 lilt bod) III ,h.. "'"'" .. ~)' Ih:" ~ I"nl ,ha l"" 11, .~"" I' "'0......
"...,,'" "r 11 ' I..-~I).. J,IIligo" " d~) a t ""M I.",hi'n~ II"'" in '';)now 1"''''
of ...... ",,",1 ... ~'" '0 be born of II.... ",,,..-ul~r ~IKI halM IC ......... n .......
han ..... .... t". \\ ~ r~ II ,"' 11 .h""I) ,10.. ' ..~",i'IU" . ~ "Mh~enou. ( n " ..

' ItI .. .~." f,..", ,h~ lui...... n~ I '" "n" ,he (0' ''.-01 of ,'""". '" ~ k"" of
pt.:..llci,) and 'nt i"",,").... ,,1 " f ,h~ ... " ,.. .of "~al ru." ~' r h"''''"'''ri"ic in
,h. "''''''0.:> ,of ,"<IiR"""''' n ,h (l"O.
n .... k~III, ... ,"~ of ,h.. ~IU( 0( ''U ...... .
,1 .K.' "' ph 'k ... ~",ir~1
'houl(h' .. r'l"aU) ,.... kll, '" ,I ... ,h" '~ 1'''K'''' "I \\""",,1''' :",-hi'rl"l"","
( :"., . ~ ,,,d' ''' ~' 'un.
II.' d . I~" ... "
of ol',ical eo"""lio"" ,,""
,,1,-,.,,(1), IIlmud, .. I) rd i nl"(! I'll" 'hr plr ..,,, ... "I ,I". ")1'_ 11."' ....'r. II,.. I,ri, ..

1'.",,,..

"i,.,

,)'''r''''

iL"!(1Il11 "I <lg III ' ~ II'" "," ",,',"""",I}' It"!~) .. "'j.c,i"" of ,he '-" her "" IU(!.
",,1,, I"' IM"' ",,,il,ih,). "':"rr~, I ,,) :",<1 "" ,hllri"",,, ' \\' ... ~hl (of ( ;".,.~
ardlJ ' ~' ""'. pn'''", , h,' ")-"
,,,,<1 . ,i"",I"",. " ,,, ,,-,,I.or
",iJ..

i",,,,,,

,,,,<I ,..

"""''' '''''' '. I I,, ",'11,,' ,,' <I~ I II ''''') i" ro"porOi C. .1",1 e,,,,, r~II,Ii)("(-.,
" ,I'Cf "'"'" morlah,,..j; ,10, 1111",,,,,,;,,,,, 1.", il, "'K". I ~'II' ill ,i<;' ,,, i,
p.,eI" ,,1.,, 1) ""I"""" " ...,,1 " r"" ~I) 1'''''''''' ill )""",.;",,1,'IThilrC(\'''. bol
1... (11) ""I(I,-,-"d ill d ... .'n:h llt~ .........)1 (.o"r w, ...
I\~"ntl .. n 10",, ,,,, .1, 1,..,"1' "'" " I .~ '" 11,11 , '''~ All . ,,,, II~, I.Tn p" i",.,,-il\ , ,,~~ ~,'d ""h'I"'""""" "I " i'u.II)O:r<q >llOn. h"moll' a n,t pmIH.... ltl, Alberti ', "a'rnwlI ' d,." '1~"tl1"'~ " 'Hll h"'1( I." tI .. 1111.'".. ,. " ' M'
of 01,, "",. I I') ,.II "iol I"II'~" "I( " It'''''' , I", ...." . ,, Ii~r<t fenU... :!ltd a
"." . ", 1"'' ''''''1(' ",,, 1"1("1 , II(" 11("''''''' ", ;oJ .., ~,h>:," " h " II al.. , 1. .... lIk
,h.. "" "u" ~,,, "f ,'" lou-.,,,, .t,I,,,,l ," Il,." \~."" " h." '" I. ""'ph..

.'

"

'."

. i,,<1 ,h",

tI,,. ,.,,,.... ;,""

f,-",,, ,It,~

"" ,I,, ""...h .. ,,;..-> ,of "ision did no<.

du",,"a,icall) ~$"It ' n , he d"''''i,.. ".HI ,k'li)"'f"d'~ ":i<-~'t '''tI of'MI ... ,
..." .... I"f, ,,r ,"" ,...." ef"A IIr ,lie o",,,ip""""'" ,istu.i ima!(,,". T .... <"}"
(Oltq""n i,. h~):'"",o"ic rnIr ill ud,i,rt: '''f'dl 1" "'-';';'" I~ ., h cn" ..-io<."I)'
~"d ",,,,,~,,, "K'.t); onl) g.-aduaU) " ';Ih ,he cm<:TJ!"ocr of 01, .. idr" of a
I H~tik" . ~""ri.Tr T I,.. '~"""" .. r I...... M,"" ,k,"':I><:<.I fro... an ioca.'"al~
... Lt'JOII ... ,, 11 ,h~ "R\~O"Qnmc'" d ' lVIlgIt lhe " ' l'!..-no"''' of ,h~ 'Mlw.
... " ...... '" I~IIli<... I..,.tl)l "..,.~ '" <Jf ,,,,I,,,,,logical u ...""""" of the ~". and
.he proIif~'-~'inr, of ',,\lIP '" .... ~.,. W W;IIlofol) "'X"'"1. "(ill" I""",,,,

""'M' ,,"....If~" a",f~(," IIJoducM 1'10' OIhe. a"j{~u. na " ..I), pic"'..... 16
'''''''K!)

T hr ,~.mi"~,,, -,,".,... or "i.io" lijtt".,.


in , lor ,,-n'in~ of 01",
,noder lll''',
I')' I .. c:..,"IK"II"' . ,.--h ...:1 ..~i" i ..
01,1 )
1 un ..... ';'1 1 ",,' ","I I ",mAIII a" i'''I''''''lent ,.. u.~1 "'''1')1h i n~;,; ill
,10.. ,""",,1";1& '0, ... nred.1O ""r c~'~rl) in ,..-de . 10 "'''~''''''''Hr; '' ._._ 1

:::',a,,,,,,,,,,,.

Iofe

'f

"r~ .. )' ''' '" of>tt< .,..., '1t'. [)o you optn }'lJu' q ....? Arr )'" ' ' .... inr.1 '"
"1''''' ), mr <")r.! n" )"" k"".. h",,' '" .~",n )"'" '1'..,.. 1~) )'<1<.1 opt"
,h~", of,,,n , ~l""').,. "'dL~";'" . ~",,, look. ~, ,I... n"",i"" u f ""-h,,e, ,,,,,.
" ill, hi. ,.).... " I..d, a,,, ... f"" 6 tlK"". from Ihe I(ro\l ..,I";" a " d .
i \ n:II'I""'''' ' " ~ 1'1.,,;, Ih i,,)to I "'.... " 11)1 "pi,,,, .. "ha' i. "~' n .",d
"":,,, .....11') ,h .. r)...
ma kr ,hr pri"ik!(i,,~ of l h.. "j'" ill ..:orl), ",,"1 "rlli" th ," 'rr ,.....)' ,-I,a , . ..-"'" h... ,kd," a,i"", h) \\"alt,., ( ;n '1''''' '11..

,.'l

I' hr d",i~ne ' l ha.1O ad"1" k",-,wl" " II" or ' he .... i,,"d;. I.,-{< " f "1"''-'
:"" 1 ,1" ,, " I"" " , ,, ,1 ... ",,,i. 1 ~"" J1,, 1
",II It'-',rl,, Ihe o""d !(i,;,,~
. h:o pe . ." ,d ",.",.. an "Iojr." ''''' Io:"i. 'I> ami h) I ""'_~' M..llo l) ,N" II)
'I"h,' 10)'1(" '"'' " I Il ... ' ~ >I ..."l. , h.. health of ,..., ,;, ihl.. i, ,1""'1), .il1,rill!':
tllnou~II'" ("" Ii... " , I... "".,,1 ... ,1, "f ,-"",,, III III'H"',."i,1 ,1o"u~ll1 .
I ", Corbu.;"r". f~"""'$ ~"tk,, ~\ ... IIi",,., ..,, " 'he tn~,,, .-I) . c"n,.-,

,loa,

I:",li...", I~ ") "f '"''',..' I ~'''''l\I'' ' .....' her '" h~hl. " ""'1,,.,.,,10,, ..
tk fill'" '"
"r ,.... .',,". I. C' MI.,,,.. ""''''''r, ".L' a
I("'~( ." " " M '~ Ir, .. " " II ~ mouldlnl( h~nd ..,nd " 'rrm"", L,,,, ",,,,,".of
""", -no.lll'. I~''''''''') ." Hll(""-'''' ~II "f "I..d . l" r ... ,",~ 1 10" ... d"' .... ',,,..,
f"~,, ,u''''''1( .ntO 10<""10" .....-10 ..'1\ ,,,,, 1tt"l(.. "I~",,' "f I., ( ~ ,.-I~ ,,~',',
... ," 1II

~I>I,

.,r.-l""",,,,,

"

('.ar1",i~1I

,,,,,,b .., ,, ,,,.;.: r.><rb" """"", ,I", h:U1d had a . imjlM f~l"hiuic
role in II;' work 1\$ (he c:yf. A \'igon.>l" de,,",ent of ,acrilily ",",,",,'" in I...,
CtNi . ,,;"r'I",cd..s "'KII);I;"';'>gI. a tld th .. haptic .. n';bilily is ;"oor,,<).
",un! illto hi, "'IrAIl. for an:hi,.,..IU ..... 11"",..,..",r. 11><: ""It""n" i>;;"
l..-comrs <k'\'....alln' in hi> "rIn~ic pmtecu.
In ~ ' ia. ' -dtl dtr Ruh.. ', an:hi, ,urc a r"",t:d "ersl",eu\'al ptl'ttpbon
,Of'fldon ,i..;ucs. bu. his unique..,..,., af.....rr, otrtJCfn,..,. ,,;,,;w.I. drta~ and

rn.ll ,tn,"""i)' cmie""" the ...... oaI ,>ar.odagm. )' ICftOln; an arciJi"xt ....oI
wort ;, gtnl ..... Iy
of II", "Ilf,..i<i<.oaI "tid OOflu.lio:lO<)'

iI.,.,...

lorGo,..,

I.... and alhlSlOlli it JlOCC~ in fu.ing I~. A tcn<ion ""'~, roll........ in',.IIIioo .. ""d "...:0,,11(;...... ,Iri-."", io ~ b a work in 0Idrr 10
"!)tIt up 11'1( t;lnoIion:>l ,,,,rtq,,"lIotl of tho. ..........u . ' In "'''''1 ......, """
, .........,t,....." a ....mlla ..""... """,UOII of ",,,,..no: ...
""Ito
Tht ,<trb;ol ll:olrn"'''~ of an"" and an:hilo:u
,......uy be t:llrn
a, Ihc;r r..... ,dod,,",, ~ II,*",' ofte" ",rcl), rq>raI:Tll a ( II ..oo... ....-fatt f"Mio10000;""ino" o. drl;""'I", II""
"d] he ill 1,l Ia'l' """,Itadictio", ";Ih ,''''
,lttpcr ull(oo",io'" ''''em;"". p;r.';'If( ,I", """'" it:! '''rr life /Cn.".
\\"otlo C<I'o>.I d~rit ), II .. ,;"',,1 !....-..dig", " ,'''' p~... iling ("'Kli,ino, in
eily 1'I,,,,,,i,,1(. f.."", II", iclralitnL " ,,"'Il pl.". uF ,"" Rcn"i .... >tt 10 ' h"
FunCllOImlil>l prtnc' l'lel of w nin/{ a nd pl"nnin /{ Ih", ", Ilcet the 'hygic,,,,

AJo,,..
""",.ld,....

,,_._lolI

""'r

"f

.'

" .' '__

..... .....,

"_"_ ~"""'_
~.

_S_<-. __
_

- . " " " - ' ltn _

-_
....... _... _'"
_---- .... '.

"'....

19U 0....0

"",_

II,, 01""'''1'. I" I"''';''''''''''

till" c, ~" c n'I~'''~rr ( il)' i$ ,ncreas ,ngly the

~i ' y <I the t)-e. demched f ...... n 'he IM"I~' I')' ro' I',,1 """.,.; ,,1 nlO\""wn,.
or thnHIKh ,h, '''''mll a.... i,,1 g""1' from an airpb ..... , T he I"'O':e",""" ,of
1'lannin~ h",,, f~"'''IT'' ,I", i<~'"Ii,inll a nd </i,.",hod ....1 ('..ar,,,,,;an <:)C of
<"O,tI"~ and d"mrh .. ICm: clly pla nJ arc hi):hly ,,1o:..Ji. cd "'KI ""h"' n~ , i,,,d
visio" , ....... ,I", KI~h j, "!!,rti ",,'fJI-olNuol (11M" foul,: froon a boo.-e). as defi~
hI' .lea" ~tarobo"\k,,)l <X thl\ltl~h ' ,h,' ",i'KI'. ,,),,' .... Platu.
I '",il n~,"' I ). arrl"'~"'I " ....1 thror, "nd cruic .. m hn-e ...... n aLm""
.-xci... ,,-el)
,,;,it 01 ... " ... ,-f",,,,...,, of ,..ion and ";,ual ""I><n.~,.,.
1"''''''1>11011 a nd u"". ;"nee of 'n e h i,rnu..-Al form h ... ,,\OSl

n,,.

""K.''''',I

f""I''''''' I,

I. ..." anal)' .. ~1 ,h"mKh ,I,.. Jt:<""ah ....... of ,",ual ""n:cJMion .


1.t1''''OI.,OOal pllilotoph, hs hk~ ...;... ,,,,,1.-..........1 .. "bi"~,,,,, p r im''''l}

"

"

in I~"I\I of ,1Ai,o". emphasisi"l1 tl'" co.,.tr,,<'.i<~. uf tl""" ..ditt .. n.ion:.oJ


";"" "! im"!!,,, in '4)a1;C,

An Archit e<ture of Visua l Images


1'ho. orubr bi<o.s tw. ' K:Vn' bttIl IIIore "111);0((1)' in lite an of ardti,,,,,,,,,,,
11"", itt II .. !,aOl 30 )nl'J. au I)l'" of a",hi!('CIull:. aimed al a wiking and

abk ,iw:ol ~, tw. pn.dooninatni tnlolc.t of all ""iolemialty


groundnt I......... and ",ww ""11<:rio:ntt, archil"",,,", ..... adoj"w ,he pI)~
~ ........ q;y of """,",ism and imlam penuuion; wilding> Jg.."
rumtd Ulto .., . PfOduc:II ~t.c.:1 founl cx;..mlw dq>l.lI alld .~tttri'J<
I)~"id It"",,)' ,d:tI'" ',1", k..o of 1~ltIl'o..lIIity and tM ~arcll for
' .... a n'anrouo im~ ' in cootemf!Or.U)' H I""""'" 10 tM to.. of ""I"";"
entia] 0"1)111.11 h "'lricj;unoon UKI 1111: nocion of 'co",rnnl delMItIaoo ..
..... '0 d,:""";I,,, ,I", corno:mponory cultural condlUOlI a nd 'n. f...ation
" ';111 '"Wanrto:n., !.i"facn a')l1 "'.."''' ;"'I';oCI> that ha,,, no ..... aill,,,1t
"......'cr ",,,r til"'" ,:>9
Ao " COII""'lkK","" of Ih~ curren! ddul!" of i"''''gn, "",hi,,,,,,,,,,, of
ou,' 'ime ofkn apl", .. n '" "leI'" n:li" .. t "n of llle ~. Ih ..., compleli ng
all ~ pi"",,"'k'!(ic~ 1 rye'" Ih:ll began '" Greek thought and a,,,hiIIXlUre,
But the change got". I",)und nle"C ,,;' u,,1 ,IoI",n"IIC"; i".. "",d of being a
,ituati<",al "'Klil y ' '''''KlI1 hf. "",hi lcclure h:as beco~ an an of ,he
p, i"',,,1 i",,,l!" fi~ed 1.1)' Ihe hurril:d '1" of Ihe U "'el"~. I" 0'" ( "II "'" of
pic .." ..... 'he g~'" it."lf 11"''''''' j i",o a 1';"''''0: alld 1.JSt!0 ito 1'1"""icily.
I",.~~d of np,", ;"neinK oll r kinK '" ~ he ,,'o.k!. we )",1101<1 i, frolll 0\11_
,ilk a. ' pttlalOO of i"'~g". pw)Ct:,,:d "" ,I", ourf... ~ of Ihc ,e,i"a.
Jh"i<1 " l icl.~rI Ir.;n " ..... Ihc I~r'" 'fn"",,1 ontolo!o.' to describe the
1" ......,,;lilll( front~l, fiu'ed and focu .. d ,"",u.""
S"",,, Som~K h", 11 ....10-1"" .....1"".. ",,,,arl, on Ih.. n:tJ,o, "r , lte
g"'p""1 irna ):";n our
' lII: ..orId Sh~ Wrlln, fOr u",I ...." re.
of a '"""",ahly "ltorh ........ ~t 'he: " ...&! ,.. a "" of I~~e:""al 1"""">g ...... ph,-..~I _UK! a'W ..... ,1...1 tI .........I.. y h..., <"0lIl<: '0 ..,em mo", and 1110""
It ... " ....

.'

l"'I'CC'f"""" or

n*f'I'H'

' ! .... ~ ,

,,1""'0-

wI"" w. an: UM""" by (M""' .... .~ a",l, It~, tlle ",,,n ip' >:$CIl(C of I'hOlograph. h,.. ~n i'lCakul.bk d lt "" <KIT dhical Ot:n.ibilil~, ~y fu,nishi nlC
,It .. :.oJ ......d ) ,,,,,,-.lnl worid ",ith a dUI"icate 0I1e of images. phoo~pt,)'
",,,...,. us f"...1 , hal ,I... worid;" tilOf<' ~,-. it..Ll<- II",,, il ..,1II1 io..'"
iu buikhngs 10M: their )lIMlicKY; and lheir (O"ucc,;"" ..; , h oJle La,,_
!II;'''Ig<: a,)l1 .. i.tlorn of oIle I.KJ<Iy; Ihq bcco""" i$oblW in 'he cool a oo
d"'~nt ..,aln, of ,ision. \\i ,1I oJ", 10m of l""lilil)\ """""urn and de,,,il.
.,.."linl 100' tI", h u"un body and 1W'licuLa,ly for 1hc hand "",h'ln"....-,,1 Ilrunu,..,. IM'InIC "'IKoI."" ly Ib, ... harJH"lgcd .. i",malena! a nd
um""l. "n", dc:uoch,nelll of COtUln.oction from lhe ..,ali,ica of ,"",neT
a')l1 " .....Ii fun"", 'u ..... a .... hi,.,...I III ~ i",o ""l!" OCU for lhe """. ;"'0 a
sce' lOj{I".. ph)' do::\'Oid of ,he auth~nticity of "",tie r a'MI comlructioo,.
The ~."'" of au ...... '. the ,"",hooily of ""'""nee. thaI WlII,n- fIoenp",;n
"'If.. ,d. "" a nrcno;ory q"alilY lOr "" authentic """'" of "". 10..., I"",,,

ho,. Tb"tc llrod u(u of irulrumen,a liscd IcchllOlogy C(>I'ICC;o1 .lII:ir


1>n>l'dON of ''K'~tr"Cl io". al'l>carin8 "" Jl:h<os.like a pl""i,;"".. TI,e
Increa.,.,1Z; IISC of rdkel"'" gl"" in an:h itIXlurc reinfon:o tI", d..,,,,,,, ..
I,kr .... " .... of IInrral.. y a')l1 al;""", ion .. The colltr.td ic,ory opaqlK ""n ...
1"'''''''''y of 'hr... IK,iklin~ ,"'1...... th.,
hack u,u,!l<xu:d and
II,II1"},.. ,,,I: "'r "'~ una~ 105 or im~,ttirIC life behind 'he ......-... no. Till:
~r'l'hi.rr."r~ 1 ", i. ,.ur. IIt~, " .. ,,,,,,, ""' gue ~ "d d"uhl,.. 'he world. i. ""
~nigm'"ic ,,".1 f";lZ;htc" illg dcvk" ,

If"'"

Mate riality and Time

n .. 11."..... ,,1' "xL.) j "~ 'H I.tnl'')I"'I'I""'~ ~'" .","gtl",,,,,,,III)- a ",cake ned ~"'" of ,m'crUli lJ< N",,,r...1 "'," eria l, "01.... hrick a1KI " .....1

1...'....

.,I~,,, our \ ""''' '"


lr... '" th" " .."f...en and c""l* u' to b<Xon", con ..
';.lfrd of ot,, , ........... i'y (Or ",.lIrr ,... .11 11 .......1 "1.I1,rw" eXI"""" II.... " llIl'. "'KI

1.. ,,01). a. ,,'.U as Ill(' IIOf)' of IlII: it OOl(lru and ,I..." h;"or,- " I" I"",,,,,,
........ All "'.." .... ..~;.,J '" ,I... " 'U"""'" "f ",n.: til<' l"'I)lL' of " ..a.- "'kk
' h" "nnchl"~ npo:r;"1I('('
,I ... ",a... ,.;...I. ,,( """'rlIfli<"I. ~'" 'I ....

or ""'" .(.

"

ma<:h;,~mado:

mmerQb of today

"......... lItld.) "Il"" ic pbu ic.

1r, ~I

lCald"...1""", or gl..... ~1~"nd lC'd


.o I,,,,,,elll ,I",;. ,,,,y>':klin\!; ....f""", to

,he <).. "~Ihom coon",,)i"/( ,heir "'.. ' e .....1cs..fltt or ag<'o ll"ildiJlg:< of

tI,"

' td,nological:tg<' " ""'lIy dd~"'r~lcly aun lit a~ p"rfoo iou , and lilt')'
,10 ''''' i,orurl'()'-"'~ ,hI' d i""',,.... 01" .;...., or . he "runuidabk and """".
rally I;';,,,f.nrn procosel of agu,!!- n tis rear uf . h.: Ir.ottJ of "'CiI' and
age .. ,d",,,,I ,o 0 '" rur of , .....,h.

",,, ,,iont d

Tran:lj.a",,"-"Y "'KI

""(:igh~ and

fIot.alior, an: (Cfltral

,.... " ",hi;"ilIfI':"Y "'" ~n~, .. hid, e".pIoys ",/kaion. ,;r;>dalioos of

,Jon",es '" IlIode", lin ""d arch.l<:'(h.n::. In "",,"", .~b. ~

,,,,,,,,.-.01

..an~ (I\>trla) and ,UJ<C;opI>JIIIOI. to ""':Me" "'."" of >J>o>""I ,hick,~ as .... U ....,,1,011,: .. nd d mgiIlJt ... " ... ' ;"'11 of tllO'Ietnnn and light .
This ' W;w ..." . ibillly pn:>r";,e. lin = h i,ecIun:: .hal can lurn lhe n:Lo'nt:
irrun:ltcn;dity ""d ..,,;gin"""'..,.. of n:ttrll I<:<:h"o"'~ ~"OrulnlClion
illlo " p"oi,;"., Uj ........ ,"'.. of iflItO', 1>Loa ""d rneOlJ1~
The ",u.k"nin/!: of .he e~peric'Ke of lin", in I.... L..) " em,irolll,.em. h,..
,""'. .. allng n",m:.o.l d lj"'ll. I" ,h~ ..,,,,10 ,01' Ihc A"",rio".I" ' hcr'dpi ..
GOllhan.t Hoot h. ' _";ng !(i\'a n'i'n fuller AliMaction Ih"n 1);Ii.c il>~ 'IOl\ in ]' AX""'" Ihi" ' "l'''nr~''' lhe "'~II I',r iIKI;"';d,,~ llif~.'" W" have
~ ",,,,,,al '1Cn.1,,, g'-d,p lha, "" a ", """cd in II", cOII,i"uity of lime. " nd
in Ihe man-made ",,, Id II ;. thr I;&., k 01' ",rhilO""""" 1<> r, ... ilit"'e ,hi.
~~p',n""",'. ,'''hi,e...''' ... d",,,... i,,,,,, limi ,k .. ",~,re ~",t ell "I.~cs w to
inh" hi, it, hIl i i, . ho"ld likewise (1on1'llic~IC cnd)e .. Ii"", alld ellahlc II,
to i"h ab i' 01 ... f """,,uum of Ii",,.
'I'll<' ,."rn", ,,,,,.r!)lp h,,,j, 01' ,I ... i",elk-c ,,,,,1a ll<1 oon.ccpluaJ di"",,,,io", of an:hllc.:" ,n: colllr;I"'I'" 10 II,, ,li""I'I""" "'l("r of ... ph)~i<".. L
"'",ua) a ,,,' ~lllI M,,'in! ,....." ,.,.. ( ~"ll rlllpo .... ') an-hilcc,un; P'''';''!l' '" the
a,.,.,,'.!{alr, j, mu,-" ofien en~"~d "'Ih ,he ard",,,,,' ur..J doc ....."" ;""If
a"d ""'1'1'1118 lh~ p....",.... '''~'lt'''~ 1 " -' ''''''-"'' ,01' oIM' an ,loan "'"1I0Il(1<11K '" h"",~ " r";"~"' LI! 'I' ...... ""' ... T h is 1'1:.,1"<1;'" IOCw )(1\'" ri.. 10 ~
... n... of an:h""",ur:tl) a"".m. ~ " "'lrrn.Io'IN1~I "I ~"""MM'M'''' ,h,..'MII""
,"~, .. ' .... I(H"" ... ~I", ' "" '''~ I ,.. I t'''''I ~II! ., 1 "Ah.) _

"

TIiE errr Of THE EYE

THE HAI'TlC ( ITY

"" '''''

-(-,_
"'.... ..... -...- .. _......

' ... ' - . . . . .... '.,

.-.....

. . . . . ~ '" .... IM _

-~

"" "'1' ......

, ..... ,

.......

-.-- '"
O It (~

,"'" .... c" '" -......_

-......

.... _N'<' . -

I\r)u"d ~rrhil""-' U"'" <'O" ,r.ml'0..... ry n.hun: ~1 1.1")(" drif,. u".-~rds a


kind 0{ chilli.ng do:~rl$UOl.li1:ali.uo, alld .l.o<ruI;n.'d lOll of ,hoc
h""" on nb,;,., 10 ...,~Iir)' !".tinting ,,,,d .euJIMun: abo ..... m It> hr ~";nf{
, todr II(IUu:a.li,)~ ;Mltad of imiting a JOroOOJ}' imil1~ (OIl.n"ponl)
,to'>l~I"''''g. ~

" ',..-u of ~" f ....I''''...I) oignal a ru..anci" s ....j.ioo. til' ..." ........ cmio.il) ~"d pl<-a." .... 'llKY woRs of an $j>eak to doc i",dl. and to . k
(01)1'''1,,,,,,10''''11 raj_i,ia instead of :&<klrQO;uS ,h...,",.... ""d ,II"
"", liff,." ,,, i,,,,,,1 e mhodied ""f'O""'" T IM: ~,""kM "0"'1. .1 ",.. ", ..I'
un rd"l ed im"~r~' kad. only to a IJ",dual "mlM)';ng of lma~ of Ih,,;,.
r ' ''U' M)II. 1

","""1':0"",,,-<1

)n'''Kc, ,or" "0""""",1 ;I1 IIL , " d l.. ", .... "',,,( ~ I i l i.. ,
,n J~ ." I""" 1"",,<10011: I",,,,,, ,,, in lUm;ln: cOIllnlOclif",d,

W lli em.

""'''''1{''

(<)11""""'8 ,h ..",... h", "" "chaJ" ntl) ",i. l.u,, 1 h ... i,,~ 110..
or n"'"
,10.. 1" ""ih;I;.) of ...."frunting lhe ir ""y u.iO!~1Itial ...,al ily_ \\'r "n' llIade
10 Ir... in " fabrir;"ffl dr.am .." . Id.

I ,10.> "'" ....11 In nprrss a ron ..""" .." ";.-... of '.."'rn'I .......d'1 drl in
,h .. 101... 0( II" ... SNllmayr. , hoooglu-p""''''''inll bu, d .. , u'*'l11l( boo/r; .~"
1M (:"' ... ~, I " ... ,rl) Mlggc>' ,"", a d",i,":1 d ."",!\" h", ",-.-u"...1 "' 'M,r

,........ JI) a ' KI I''"''''"I'",al ul"'''-;''''''"' of I"" "'<HId, or... Ihal i< ....11o..-' ..d Uy
art ,,"d u c ll;,<'C,u..,. If .....,
nr hr "hlll( ...... , ",.."",I 0(

arch i,<'C ",.., 10 h~,'rt ~n c",~",<il';u in~


,~inforcing llor r n .. ir KIlJf "x","'''I;,,1 nl<'an'

inl(, ..... " .. ,,' I<,n" cl Of1,h~ ",ulti ,ude of ...".." .....).. in "hieh the an of
."d,i'r("''' .. 1"",1 to II ... "" 1,,,,....1 a lIt! "",,,,,,1 ' ea lll) "I' '"
IV..
, h" " leI " I". I,, "",'ar. of II,, ...."y. in "hirh Ih,' fr",ih ;lily ,.f arch il .. n " ....
;, br ;n!: ,h"'~lC"cd or mar~i.nall .. d Uy cur..,'" I",lll iea l. ~"lt ll, al. rCO__

""I<'.

"

of 11ir:IOrl}'IIlU' lloJcb and I'it,.... 11.-''''8'"1. &..- in"",l<,.. 31"''''1)-

"'''''l!.

,,"';Ir " l~lnicil"'lLl<") ~.., '0 Ir.... ,,1 ",'n"" ,........ 'ID of mull ;l'l.
17oh-nollll) Dutc h pamlinJl!; of bou~ Iif<, prnt'" """""..,.......
a"d oOJr<:lS 0( ...... I).b) ........ h ..... nj",,,tll..,'MKI II ... 1.,.,.......-;." of II ...

'n..

,,i,....... _R;oro<l""

100000in,i".II' "'..." "I' ,;.;.." " ;Ih ha7.) rdotn..


K>f\ 1Oo:u< ~ntl ,nulliplc f>C"I"""''''''- ... ....,"'1111; a d ...i" .." t;oCtik ;",-il
~1i<~1 ~n,1 " " lir;" 'I, I", 1""'1)- 1" ",,,.. l lhn,"I(I, , I... ;11",nr)" .. """'.
An .,... ",i.lll;~ in 1M ...'OIU" Oll of n>Clder,, ;,y h"" I"",,, II", ~berauon
,~ ,1,,")-," hot" tI", c""".i.m 1... ~ k..-, i".J 'I...... II ..... 'K). "1"1... 1",;m;".II' of
) ""'1''' Malk..-cl \\-oIl;alll T"r"",. rOil';"'", II", d;",;",,, ;,,11 of II,,
fraul<" a"" ,10.. ,-a ntagoo po;,,, b"K"" III ,I ... U''''~III'' "r~; , I~' 1" '1"'''';'''' ''''
~I . .. "k<o, ,h.' IIOIIII, Ial) IiI .... h"laIH.. 1 f"... " i ILI( ~, .. I l"'~""""'''l ''''p,h:
I~,ul ~l;"''''' a'(Mrn "0 malt.
heM' u.. world 'oocM' u .. ;...., C"btoI..
"1",, .. It~, II .. .inKIo- Iix;oJ poinl ........., .....11" 1"' ''I~"" .01 ,....,.. "nd ""111~"""
'"'I~" '""I,..';",l<e. ,,1......... Ihe nIl"", r",kll';oimrn "']<"C' al ... ory depth
tol
10 , ~;"fOrtt ,,,,, I""""l<~ 0( II", I"''''u,,,! to..,lr
,tIl "'OI,it ,."i
,\It".,. i.",

]I"'''' . .

,""it*

_Ir.

a.,

I...' '''KI "" ."'''~''~IIOI'' ",,,In). I .antl a ....... liu,1" II... ...-.oJilY of ,I... wo, l
"'i,1I II", ",alii}' of llor I",Td "..nd. a nd fioW!). a... isu ""'h '" Richard Serr..
II"'~- II) ",kIn.,., II,.. IJO<i) '" "dl "-. ""r r"<1"' ..... I...... ,,( IHMf/.Onl"lit ) al MI
""" i,-,,lil)', rr~" .. ';"l;I); gr~";I)" anti " ..;";1"
11,<, "'''1<' <', "",II'rrum:,,1 .o.g~" '" 11 ... h'1l"n,,-,,') "I' tilt P'n.I"'li,,,)
'")" h~, la~,'" 1.lar<' ill "K.dem an-h;"(, ,,,, .... ~;,,'dl, .. of , I... <,,, 11 ,, ...,1),
I'ri,,;lrl(cd 1'05;lio" of \,;"ion, Tlor k; ,,"'thfllr and Ie,",,"" archi'<'CIU "" of
Foa,,~ 1... .., <1 \\'r;~ln. Ih .. "",,,..,,1,,, "", I , .,,',,1.' 1~ ,i~Ii"K" III' "".. r :\"h ...
~, .. I I ~)I' ;' Kahn', a",h i"~~,,, .. of J('"'~'''''I). ~,,,I ~"";,,,. ;l,r 1~"1ie"l .. rly

"," ,,;r. ""K"tI;"" ., ,,d 1"'''CI"" .d .1'>"1'1"1" ''''''''' Arr hittn",,' 1.


1.. ,", ..... n ,1111."'1('"1<01 a" Ii... m .

,'It",fl<a",

The Rejection of Alberti's Window

A New Vision and Sensory BalalKe

,It

"

P.lonU~

"''''''''1'1... 0( ,h i...

P"""'.

'1 1M' "1" " ... Ir h~, '''~. or rOl'....,. , .. n~"I,,~ 1


II. ""JI"" "L.r. rl~~1 <'0">InK ' oK' .\rIi,,,, I I.. it.-nd; ''''''''-<' Ih......... , of l"'I'$j",,"""' T h.. 1o""-",",,IOIl'"

1'>-.h"I'<. f...,,1 of II ... iml~iril ,1r, i' l" Ill' II ......... Ii,, H""roI and
il
.. I.... ' i ... l) ,10 .. "nr.)('"",~1 ,.,"'''' "I' ,,,II I" ' 11' tI, . , " "Kalil ,-al"' lo~' of

,-. .. hd'" ""I'K'n~1 ,,,"" Kn "" " I Ii..- , ",.. ,II"" "IM. "' .11 ,,1"'I''''''k)ll n .-

"I"''''n~ "I'

lin, n'.,I", "r \ I,,,,,, .",,1 ,I "'''~''I II,, I.~, " I' .;"'''' I "'" ,~I"

"

from ;ts ..... ' ;;,rd..1.l

"Id '" II, 1" ,tI ;"'I)ll,ory ",)"~'iq"". III f05' crin ~ of "om",u" ,,1 "" " "', il>

tlolI """ ,i,,/\ .... . l W'-" ...... .n ~ I ""' .~ "' !< ")
~"'I ",. I Mt ... gilH', 'I1M' 1... 10
'ooIoc:W':~ ""I"".MM" of ,he ...,," I"" .. ''''I~ "' ...... ..,;,,' ........1 II ... pn"~ ...y of
,~ ~,. I~Jt I.... '. '" Imtnologio .. ""')' ,tobo I"'~} 'tl", 10 1)' 1... 1 '" ....."ro"..
Ih.. ,lisi" ... n ..",1 KA"- h( tI ... <t;""""A " ", ~1 ( :a n ...;"" '1""'~lor'"'1
.\lanut J ") rem:....,,: ' In OppO'UIOrI 101M lucod. li ~a,. ooIod. flXM.
1~~tltnH'lt'ie ..........1 It".",
II ... 1"",,'1"" " ....
1"""I ..rl); ..........ion "l . JOI\IOn...,.I, ",,,lt il'k , ~,," Oft'"n .... II ......... a."....

..,,, ,....,, ,,, .. ;, '" " " 11"' 1...."''" " ",,,,,.,,, .... ,1l
' W" in Ute \\n.em ",orld :ore l~ntlinK 10 d i.ro...,.. oILr ' ''1:h 1Cd ""''''''
Tt,;, Je""'" "'II ""
"'I_ nit """ ..dllng of an ",,,rd,,,, i"ru~nc.,.
."~""'" II", 1~,i"fo,1 tk-I}f;";o.ion of "'''\01') "~I"'r;" llC(" ...,. hat< ...!ferro itt
"ur t ....-I,,"""ogi...d ,,-orl<I.' ,,-mol'S tilt anlhropologio. ,.......,' .\ Io,, "'.o:u_"
T hi< ,,,""', ~ ... ~t'1'",~ .. ;. ~trrrfi ..1y 1"";"-''''' I,,' ",,""'n)t.. archilC<"t<
around tI ... worid 'odo.y "tto are "lt~"'IIl,"g '" no-te"'u~li>c " ",h'l n-IlI't"
,ltruu!\h a " ,'.. ng, t",1ICt1 .." ,,., of I"",ni.alll~ and hapucitJ-, ,um", and
" " il(llI , dc" Mly of .. _ .. a llli " ,;oleriah""d ligh.

abou, t,., ,1lt ...-nJ" of un."\I!C' Ill:<}

C"I':"'lC.~lle . IM: ~

'UK.

or ,.... IU-,"';_ ,..... ...

,,,,,,iIr-

'I .... II... 'Ito;U'O(l'''' ''''''''' ""'....,..., ." h... a >I.'~ogI)


Of hal" . ' ., ....... ",.
" hielo pI'T.... " .. i, fn,,,,
j"lo d ... "I>OOI"I{" Of" I~"-"'IlI"",' of ilS

"""'",ll:

.' r

.,"',I0.Il

e:,n"""" P"nptt'." ........ m........


T I. hap'ic .."I....." .... ..~." .. ,,, h.. 1""''''''''''''1t lit.. oH,l:ir tq(t"'"
al/;~ '" I h>l'~ ,""
I~'tc<: oF " ........ n' ,-;'ual i","ll'"tv_ In .. m,m.:-

."".ik

,'. In" liM' "'"." . ........ d",I.,).".... '''''''''''''''''''"''} url~", 11"''''.''..''',......, .....
.-~""(..

halt ,I., 1)(",' , of

;"'~f('''

r. ... ~".tl)',ie 01 ..." ., Iiool: i""utl ...~ It..,,,

'0"l"P"""i:lI" " '" an r "haJl('w 1t000l! lC scm..l''''''. ""Ilt, hl.. " ... inu"...
,,'1"''' ,h,' n,'" "I' " a l..r "K"i"' 1l,i,II./' .l u,.

.ttl"

I" his d ...... ,<.:h


'h .."~hlI',......,,,,j"lt h..,,): n, Of"";"" 4 Ii,;",, __
, \ JIlI"", ~"" IN I b,Im<iif,,~ ~/oal' ....
kl ~ 1;' It.wl IA,...;n d;rr~r~"' i:.,,,"
I ~'"''~'''

I" ',,

"](. ~"'

,of

, ;,~ >,, :

0,,,
tt,, '.....n' ...;, 0:."-'

" tlt! '110" " I.."wi.-

~a", .'" I" hi, , 'M'" , 'h~ a~,,"!! "r.' ga,.., " nar ........ (~"'a"c. ~'loIe "'m .

"W

"rt" ''''''"M'''.

'ig;'!. lix .. !. i"n,_,ilol,". "x,'It"" ",,,,)


"It.,,,,-,
al"lIwi<11:" " '. ,,,,,'(,,, i""'ti \\,;11, Ill .. It..... ncn""t;" ' h("o .... of In" h . 1""'1s '" ".,. fmm
., ",,,It il' I;" it) of ,t .'" til ~ ,"'.. " ut! I.'~I M"t ",... "
I " "''' h;" k-. I~ u noli, t ir.
{~"" ... ra , i..... """~,, ,al . i'''' I",;, ~\.,.). loori,,~,t .,1 a 1, .. jn~ II A, "J"~~"'!t'd
tJt L"\'in. d wt'1'" arr ,,~'" Ih~l a IW" lI\.x k <tf lool"n ~" "n"' l)I:j,,~
.\lt lt""1\1o tl ... ",." It"th,,,,I,'!o\;''' It." ,' '''''''Kl I",,,,",l It,.. I"'g,",""") "f
''';'''tI, ,h," It'""~ 1", "dp to ,.. h"I."" ,. Ih,' ,.."1",, or II ... ... ,,""' [ It
\\"" 1..,, t )"g'. '"'\to. '\\"1 h Itk-ph",,,,. , .lth". I ~I.", ,,~ . ,
'.on"", ~m'"
, of "."''' .'1.... ("k-,'tn,"" "~ h ". ,~-=, h ... h",,,~t ll .l' i",,, ,It, .,~'<' of
.......""d.1.... oral" , " 11,,; "~,, (Kal" , h~, 'lr1l ll1~ ."...
",!O t ....

"ttl

.ut"

""I>I",...

"

PART 2

,... .tIC' Jlf <'d"'l1 br"'( "''''1')' ..oggau.. oJ", ..n'ilcgi''I! of , ... ..,,,"" of
'iI:I" ....... oJ... od ..... "'''Oft IS an i"ar~"."..., therne in """'crn 'hO"I~hl ,
,..nd" .. aho an t:\'idem hias In 1M archltI"", of ow- Ctntuty. Th.: ~
all\",
~"",,,,,,t ,n "11'''i!''''l1''~ ... of '"01'''''. ~fully "'lJP01""d t,
mn aIM' ""It~rn. of 11'I:"'''lI'=mo:nl. "'P" io;o' ion and produclion as ....,U
"" 101' II", "h"o-oK''''1I ""d ""n<o:""',,,,'11 U II!';..,' of 1<,< 1,,~>IotP<-..J .-.uioo,aJ-

,
,
':
,,

.'

t..,.,...

il) ;,!;o:I[ T I... ' ... If.I ;.... dc....

Iof"''''''.. in II", " "dm , of ,h., IOC n..,. ca m .....,

cit ... r, bt d ,no:o:dy auriOOlcd lO d", h"loricaJ I" "-ilcginll of ,10< s<:n>e of
,(>o-If. Th." "'""'<'1" ;'''' ,,( "10(111 ". ,,,,, ItIOM i", p"" "'" ".",.., i...,.11
1{roO""lrd in 1,I'Y'ioI.'I(io:~J , 1)(011"",1 and 1,.),,~1 rMU.1' T h.

,i."",

I"ohk''''' :or,,,' f",,,, Ih,' '"~''I''''' of Ih~ eyl' '><"' 1(1r II> "m'mti '''I<'roocl;''''
" illo " Ilorr ..." ... " .. ,d.,li'~1, ""d f""n Ih~ d i",inal;"n and "'I'Prnoion of
mhu
"'hK' h i<l~'''aI'''l.Cly ""I"e," " nd r~"ricl . hc '''' I><: '''''><'C "I'
II. .. ,weld i"", Ih!' '1'h.... , "r "i,iun. ' I hi, sc'I",I,lIio" ""d n"luc, io" fra~
",r "b 11,,, i,,,,,,,,, compk:<ity. cmnp"'hc" . " """.. and pl~"ic;,y of the
P" n-q~ u~1 ')'>1""'. n;"ti "t'i,,~ ....,.... ,,( . ic-l ad",K''' ' a"d "l ie":II i"",
In ,h i. "" r ""rt I'"M. J "ill """')' , h,' "11"";0("1;",,. of ' he ...11.... " lid
j(",e .... ,~ p!',.,on,,1
of thr ,.~al",.
Ih" "",,"'. '" Il~
. ~I '" .. ~''' ~ nd u p",i!"><'''
"Rh i"'~"'''' I" this
~ I I,rocbirn "
'mor )' :"d,i,,,,,,...,, in oppo.itio" 10 , he pr ...';\;lin~ """"I ur><knland
"'K "f ,10.. 0 .. uf I,Ul~h "K-

""<1""\

_- ....... ....
-"----_
...... _...- .....
----

ARCHlI[CT1.JM ANO Ttj[ ffUMAN

.
-.-.,
..........
-.
.... ........
..........,..."
--_._"'...... .......
......""'"....
..._...."'" _
__
.tt""',

""' .......
......
c ..._

fIG U~E

"""'_
_,.&1'......001.1(
1

.. ""

..........

""'

"""

....... _'IO
~
....

""I""""""
eM

eM

e....

~_

,...

......- .............. ,""'"


'''''''''-..-

"

The Body in the Centre


I <la .f",,,, ,I... t';'~ ,,;Ii. Ill) hod~~ ",,' Iqt! ""',..."" ,I.. '-'''It'll .... ,I... "'lOltk
.. nd tI .........1010 of ,hor Jq~; my p'" U'>OOI"'::;oo." I>ro:t" nn bocf)
01110 II ... f;oad.:, 0( ,I.. ..-,u h",dnol. "he", ;, "Wilt ",,"" oIw " ...d. t'''!:> a"d
ronl .... ' ......." oi,,!! thor au.: of l~_$ :and lJnJjection~ on.,. bod)' ""iIth!
............ the 111;1.;$ of 'he ntI><:dra1 d..or. and "') hand gr"'l" ,h.. door I'"U
'" I ,'mf< .hr ,l " k ""'I I",hi,,d. 1':-''1 '''"'''''''' nl)..df in ,h.. (it), and ,I.. cily
c~iot. Ih'Ql,~h mr "mbodioed aperim<T. 'n ", CM) al,d ml' " ;.1) sllPI*"",", al ltl .kf"", " 'lCh oll.. r. I d "",U ill It", cit}' ~"d tI,.. " ill <1", -1" in " 'I",
.\ 1,'d r "" I\ ",, y'. l' h il,,~ ~ ,h)' 11I ak", .he h"",,,n lxxI)' Ihe Cem ", of Ihe
c~""rio:n1LaJ world. l ie CO"., ,,, .. ,,,!) a rg" co l. ,.. I{ ~ h .....1 K"al'1~') " ,m"" "''''':>' Ih~1 'I'It Ii I I ,m,,~h om ' Lodit:J a, 1;" JUI( ,.." nIT. of in'"," ;'j"" li,)'

... ,10.. , "'''' dl()OW

Mcrkau- I'uIllY' .,.. n """"k 'O ur ",,"'n bot!) .. ill 11,, ""rid ... ,h... hean

0tI1

worid and lhal OUr ,,'Orlcl rho OOloMo u'. '.1 In

"'n.... "

;. '" tiM' OI')fdll''''': it kcr]J6 ,ho: ,.;,i1)1o: ' l>tOOek COII",,,,,tl)'


Ix~,,'hes bf~ ullO '\ ""d W>tailll it ;'I\.-:on ll), ,"rid " 'i,h " .... ,"''' ,)~ ... ",'; '~
alld '1_1'"''''''')' u,,,,,;",,,,,,, ;. u, ....... t.k "'KI alim '0 "al" ...~J ,.......,.,ion.

':
':

" h;..h ...... ""h;"'" ,,~'h 0.... " 'hoi.: t..d). all ", on.::.... a'KI " hOrb "' )["" ,
a ,,,,,,.. 1(~ IOu",," ' II"1I ""' ,,,,,'."
Sto"",,) "'~ I )['rinw'<-s l><-oo,)[' ' nlq(T1ucd Ihroo!{f1 ,ho: body, or "'dlher. Ul
III" ,....1) "0" . ,;,." ;,,,, of ,h.. 1",,1) "",I ,I.. I" ""a" "~,, ... " I I,,""~
1\ )d .. ",,, .II) I;' Ih'''O I) ltd' i",,,,d ,,,,,,d II", no,,,,,, ol lootl)'
or lJoo:l)'
.".h""", '" II ,,,
of "u<"l( ra'io". U " l' I""tI", m,d " ",,,. ,, ~. ,,, , " .... III
",,,,,.11' ""I' .Id" ." ";Ito th,' " t"" h~II' k''' ' ; II,, "mM . ,,,1 ,I", ,,If ,,,1,,,,,,
a"d n-t~'li ",' ud, ot hn '"'-"'''ani ... ' T he ''''''':<"P' of ,h" 1"'(1) arid Ihe

''''''K' "

c"",,,,

.'

,n"'lt" of Ihr " ....kl lur" Ul'" ""r "" ~k "" " ""~",, ,.,,",."';.,' " ~I"";'"
''K,; I.... n ....,, 1.,.1\ "",....-...,... flU" , ,I< d"",;'-il.- II' .......... ""d , he"' ......
'1~"''' ,,,,,,,t,,ffi 1Q ,he U' I<OI'..,iou;
of II .. ,,,,,,.. ,,mll ""I(
. I I,.. bo," "' . ~.... .... ",foruM'''
I"~,, h"ptic' .." .. I uri
"",;ng "~I ""'''''''''''' ...... 1> in lir" o..,e ,.."" al ,,'UIIt'> a", dtl.......""" lalcr 011.
and dc-I)['"d r..e eI ... " ""'d'""o; , ~, 1"'"",,1 ''I"r,,,,, ,... Ih., 1 ",',,' ...... I"i,. ..1
1"'1"".,11).' .... , ,,' ( I\h~ ''''r a'KI ( :It"rk" \\ ~ I , . .... ,'11.,"'" '" tI ... " bool

"''''lI:''
fll"oI"''''''",,,'I)

..

"nd AIl;hiu:"",,,,. one of ,he fll"Sl"uodits ' 0 suJ'\~ ,I",


role of ,he I",," ......1of,h" i(,~<e!t "' "n:hil""UII-:oJ ~K ..tl;"1""'. n T I"')' lC"
'w. 'n ~~,>l;r ",: '\ \1..., ;. ,,, ...in!! froln our d " 'd;" o:- lod",:>oK the ~" ..
li:lll ...... n...ctioru """"'."." lood). i.....,.... nol1. ",.. I r l".....,.lJ1 ... "';~ ... ~I o
~I ... ~ """'" ",,,",,,,, "''''1 1>1.:00 a" I,.. . r " ,..,,,I... :<1. I"'nl) 1"""'lIi( ;' ;.
"""I' .... h". I"'nly hcca"", it hu aff Icd our bodin and gt:""'-~I ... I
~.""'gh a;;<.o<: .. I;""S '0 holel " III ot" 1"'....",,,1 .....-IeI.. -IOt
11<.1).

~ l r" MK'}.

Multi -Sensory Experience


a fo .....,,' ;. i'''';l!Of""~ti ''K ",,,I hf ali " K <I ,lt '" the ('m,, ;om
j"w""" ~ '" of all Kns<: mo,b lil;"': B"ehc:la rd il",a~ of 'd l< p'~Who" y "r
Ihe !ot;n)('l,' T h" <:)" rnllaJ " or.".., " .. h ,1,.. 1""1)' ,,,,.1 'ht other "'". .....
0 ,,,'" oc ,.... "f rcal,,) ;. " "'''IC'I''''1t<1 and " .. ic"laln! !:.t. !hio comIant
''''t.-'''''I;O''. A .elm"",UI"<" io 050/;"1,,,11) an n oc",ioo. oi
inlO II ...
",.",. "~,,k: r...~ltn. 1', ....idi"S II", ground Ii... . ""'"1'I;"n ",... ,loco l"xU;on
of n l... , ;"."';nK ,,0<1 undcntanding ,he ,,"OOd It io noo .... , i$nI:o,,,,1 :&1 ..1

,\

II.,I ~ I h n_"'~ h

,,,,,,.t

..:11'.."11;"",,,, dnif" ",; il eli.....: .. on ' " U( nl ioo. ",,,I U;'I" " , iaI c.'C1"'tM"""" lu
w"Ie" ho...,.... ". ,\rch ~crl "'" ,,1.0 gi\.... " ..........,lluaJ and ma.trial "ruelU'" 10 ooc;",,,1 ",.. i,u, KlCl!. ". ""n a. 10 II,.. ""' .... UKIC" oi d,' I) lifo,. II
n ....,,U,,", 11M' qdc of II", )'t:ar. " '" .... "Inor fI( . 10.. "Ill 'IIlri eI,,' I~..sinl( of

II... ton"", of tl><- day.


1:"'1)' l "I ~It '''g "xI'C';" ' lCO' "f "1" 'hj""'1,,,,. i, , .. "Ii i""'m"I)'; q "a li. i,, uf
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~AHUC "ATION

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m[ CITY or AlJENAHON

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.... ~ ... ""_ 01 ...... .....

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.......,r'" ",,,IIo<bed n><><k of thoughl thaI takco pUo:c .Ioroup. , .... O<:f1or:s
",,,d I..... 100.1). ~nd 'hrough . he .. on:ifoc nororuon of archi.ttlure.
,\ rd\neclU!'le dabor... cs and conunun;'--... ~ .hot.,!thu of n",,,', incan oa,c
~OI,f"..""t...., with doc .......1 d,...."gh 1......., ,.'notlon'.'" In m) ''IC'O;
, ..... t;uk of "nhi,,,,,,,,,.,;, "0 "oak ,;'il"" ...",. doc ..".kl .......... '" "......
.\l rrkau I'unt y.,.id of the pa intings of Channc. ,00

abKntm' " dnl g-.uc


fur-II"' .. in infinil).

pc,,,,'r.o''''' .h.: JOIn""" J

,I", pIr},,;.,a1 ;mag<c and

In his book I. I+- of 5)

..junicll i.., 'I"'"i",,~; 1'0;"" OUt . hal ""'"


JaI);[It<::X: nx.... ir"! ..,.."d" " 1I0Il ~Iows, and ,hal" is u""l);[r~hlr from
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""" 01,1", room ..,,'" n"'hing 011)0<" ""'p.',o" noc: ..Tiler.....ru...k ~
,loa'. ill ,>k~'11 .i",,,,,, .Ioc I~""knc:d
of tI", gcisl," ~Ild ..... g''''''''
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II" dark",,,,, a.KI , hac\oy,~ of ,hr 0'00....

.co:",

,i,.,

The Significance of the Shadow

01)["" of ,Ii""",,, ""d !l<'1J.lrd""u, ... 1.......... " ..,rio i, ,t...


.,"'''' of ,,,,ar,,,,,,,, 'nl lll1.aC)' .."d afT""I""'. T ire eye ",n,:,)-.. <'()n. n,>h ~,,,I
'1'10,' '1'" i. III"

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,,

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dim ,he ot"" 'I""" 01 ,.;",,". make dcpIh and d;"~,, ~"'I~K"I$. "",I
i",'i,. m ... ' ~,,..io,,, 1"'",>1",,,,1 ,-;,ioll ... ,<1 to .. Ilk f~n .....).
II ",, mIlCh rI",,", m)~'~l$ a"d i,,,i,;nlt;, ,II<' II"",. ,,r a" "kl ,.,.."
wid, ,t< ~ I"'r"~ ';"g " ';r,l" .. of .~,"', ..... ", '" l lighl ,ha n "" e,I", br'f(htly and
<.....,,,1) Ii . .. n ..... of ' o<la) ~ '1"" i",a~",a, . ,<\ "",I ,1a)'rI""",,il~ a ... "i",,,.
I".,,. I') <11111 IIgll. ~,,,I .hadow, In order .o Ihillk dearl). ,It,. 11''''1''''''1 or
";';" " Ita.
I ...."p, ......."-~t. for . ho,,~hb H"A,..,I ""It an al"",""rni" d",1
~nd uufoclIl('d Ita. Ilom(~"oll' bri<:lu lighl 1~1I,,1).... ,h., in"'/(i'"'' ior,
in .1... """.....-a~ ,h~, 1~"T~~"""".\l1 of .."",r ..."ilin. ,he u.",r;'ncr of
1"''''11:. ",,,d "'"'1""' ~"") ,I... """ ... of Iiia- n ... I"",,,,,, 1')" ;" II .... I"''''
r.~- ,h '"11",11<" ''''~''Ih' ,,,,,,,,, .han bnjehl da)h~ht.

,0

..

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uJl('if;or ~nd ambtguou" a Cit,,, ...... pa' IO""<': ,of ~ r,"t~ """"".. '" I~, .. I
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, ,.

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""',k... ill "h~'h I"" I"n,"!."",,,, is ~mbed(\rd h.... a pot...;,,,,,
,or' a
,lot ,,,,II.., background ,1"'1 ~t..ri .. ;olIligh 'I",. Ii"',..... gh<:S ohal'" and
life .0 ,h.. uI>jn:1 i" Ligh . It :.J;o 1""..idc:I, hc .ul m from which fom......,.
.. ,~I <I..... "" ~rn.-. n,., an of ehiaroM:uH> .. :I.till of , ..... "",;Ocr ~",hil"'"
'Q(). III g~at ~rrh"cnll,aJ ......,." tI ......... a roo""'''t, deep ~:lthing of
...... 1<- ~'"I Iil:h, ; 01"",\00., inhalo and illum,.... I"'" n h:.b lig....
In 0I1t
lip.1 has .unl1
' I '",,,, it ~. ;..,, ""'"cr " nd .Ire
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ill ,;gnif.....~n." aa ~ """I;"Ior .....,'''ee'' 'wo ",,,'klo,
I~ ' .......,n .,,,,kM<1" nd open. ;"te,iomy
~K'r.rior iI Y. I,,;,",,'e ",,,11,,,1>lic. ~hado... " ,,01 ligh" 11 '''';111<:' 10.1 '" o",,,IoKi,,;,,1 n",~" i n~. the w'"do ..
h." w rlwol ill,,, ~ Ill" ", " I;.... ''''e of the wall. ~11, ke [... [ ' he "", or "11' ,r'
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~n; ..., " f ,h~,~.w a'KI ",,, ......1,.. ,,. '\l<"hilcCIS all """,. he world I"" ...
I. ... " mi,,"k"n ill . 1re propor.io", ",h ... h .1lI')' II.",' "~'iO:II",1 '" I~I)..'" I~~'r
...,Jlc\or... or
"'''''''''11: ,,, .t". ,,,,,,,;'k I .[ W,. It",,,, Io.r our ...,,'" ....
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"""f from hom~: wn.".. I~, .. 1I~" dO:~" . ,h. ' n'" ""'v;io"i,,,, of ;n.i""" "
..........,. ""... 'r,} a, ..1 , h"' ...... ill CI>"' .. "'I""..~.l a...:hllC'C'u",. ,ar 1.;......-.....
II .... ' .... lIrn'I~>r.on public <pu... "01,101 1"" '01,,,' "oun' c'!io-"'I~ ..
Ihro,,~h .. kowr. ligh. iUI"Il' " Y ,"KI II< ""....... " d;'"ib",ion. The dark
h,,\ ~."n,,,_,;rlll I;".... Hall
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A"hlllrlll" .. "K"if..,... 1ll1y ",,"tled ' 1 1~umg Archit"",,,,", '.'0 'Ilw: ,,'riter
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do "" . ...,,, .........,,"1. a,,,1 in ,I", intcrion of .odaY$ louildinRl w-s:orr
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Silence, Time and Solitude


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from 1M cmbrv-r <Jf I t..: Jl"'"C'I' ~ .... ~I""'", " . 10 (~I><"rio:n("r ,he ~
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SpiKes of Scent
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in " II<T'T ,,"d;nt!. a nd "-': call de' eel IIIOf"t
10,00) differen' odours.

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my early ehdt.lhood , bu, I do ",m..",I",r It", , ......;u"'.. of ilS ...... ;gb. and

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rc""''''~r, '~ k",ory atld imagina,ion ",m:, i" ~;' IW: a, I.I.w hdard

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I..-ud .hol' I'rop" ,nt~.trS o f hullh . 'U>l~M'1tt and 1'1""iea! ot"'''\(Ih.
"I,,'''''''' rill' IMrf"",, "f ~ I~" " ) .Iw~, ",~ l .... "'... ,Itttt l "f h'~'I}:l~';'
" 'Iw';" 1,,J,,nlC "",'n, ~ ... '."l ~., i.Il> In~ln",.... I~~ I.....-dtt .... .If ,h~ Ii,.;,~, ,If

""I'

,,,,..I!

OIloour of f~n"" ~.I/ l h. and frullj Iha . ""udo: II", ""'ttl (ragrJlcc: of . ""
""d '''''''' .,url/.,,, air. n ... " ",nil' d i'pl",.,.. <H.uidt """~,,,...u'l< n",t<., ...
fan,;,,;lot d", compkle cou,.". of a dintoer.
",ad .,.. ' M ~'n '"rn

'w" .' .....

" '" " ..... '0 .....~n i,... 'an oldfa.h io"",1
houoe
b=ooUlot ;1 h;u $('\-.:ra.t Ie>-.:b 01 odou .... "lib] a ~ion of f .. m ilon. of

."tI

,iw "'. "' .. ,of )" """


,10.. ,...... , II"" I,,,,,", '." ",,,h . """~" >o"j
' ''~ .... ,100 1..... I"' ....." .,,,1 ,I ..... . 1< b a ,h .of ., """ I,., a, .. 1 ,I... 1;,,,, 1"",""

, ... . ",10 ... " '~ 1\,".

n..,, ,,, ". 1'he ,.,,~ ,of u,i",' ."tI ,I.. 1.10' '' ,of .. d

.. ~I

,"n" .....

,'" K"'> IY, l ' ...


",~I ,I ... "'"'1', ,"~ .~h ........ h 01 aj{<;n~ ~" ......
II. ''''. j,,, ... , i,,~ U,.,U ,,)" ,......h'",] ",f~ "1> .... , ,I",",. ",>II ,he
f,-" ... .,HII .,f , .. iklt .. "

" I., II" ", .. In ~ .,~I ,I. ", I'n ,... " ' . " , ... ,I ... 1..~1t

, ~ ""I",," 1",,,1 ... 11 ,

1"1". " '11".,1 II,,,,~, .. I "''''''''''1''" ''' ) .ut I" ' ..... "' .. ,~r1d;"I ) .'I'p.... r "I"rik
.",dhr.I..", "I",, ,' " 1... ",1 ... "h 110. "n"~"lI1;, 1 .",,1 a"",..-i;"i ... ]>'-""'r of
,hr l"""'" olf;l(l",", H"~I(("1), n .... !IOC' ....."'" ,].., ",,,m a nd ,..",,, con-

.... ~I III ,,,,,.k

11o ... ~,~1o I", ,,, .. , I. , ~ ..."' ... ,,,,',' " .,1',,1"'" .... m il'
11 ,I... '"''K''' ,If lif... 11,., ,;";',ir. -,,,,, ...

"nlft m~ .m . ""..... '" ,,~,j,

..

.d.

"I ~"-h i!< .... , ,,,~ ~J." ,.....,;. .... , f,, 11 i",~K'" ,,( lili.
,~k-"

,.

'n'"eI .

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i'H~~'

of iolt~ 1 lue cQ"('~altod ill ,,>aen :'IId 'h~,>rt. J"""


{.:ori .. ,,~r'. >1.,. II of ,10.. '"'I~" Klr<lllianlo'lI I,,,. ~ hb-~ ,,( If., ... "iol, 'he
wil<: h .... ,i,'III ~ rUI( 0\f1 ,I,.. "l'p..T l>akon), ""d ,I... h" ......"d hilllnll:" bcoc
i" lI: ball: I:Jdow, "" " 'dl a. ,10..
,,,,d ,I,.. ..1nII'ir ra" "n , .... L"dwn ,,,hie
,,( Ilw \ i ll.. ~"i,, lr :\ Io"'~;'. ~ " ..."'''HI.... ,,( .. ,..." ........ " ... ,,( li(.. in " ...1
of an:h,,~tll~. 1"ho..,.,r.ltMi. of ,10" :\1.b"L"" J h,mo<. on ,i..-

""' ''''''II"

fi",

..

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d;',a, ,,~

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n"'t~l'l,)"""1 !('eO""

,,( 'hr ir, ,,,ir I...,.... d,,,I,ho< In.dnion:<lly pros;;o.ioc ..,.. lol io of 10k

The Shape of Touch


.111J..,.. b :..... ~ (l)"'pllC"al .... I ..' )I:II " ..". '" ,.,10" III "I"d, fi~' f" .. " II", most
!Ii""", ...,...... llor",,, I<'IC"lhrr ' '''10<''' 111'0 ' h" """at cu"",n1 of action .
Han. . ha,,, 1",,0"''''': ' II<") ""'n h...... Ih"i, ,,,",'n ,ult" ... ~'Ml 01 ... " ' '''n
1 ~"'. IIL" I. a"". \\0' ~'-d'" . 1",,, 01 ... ~h ' 10 hd,," ,h.. i.

''''" , 1o"\ .. lor;Jf>

"'1'1''''

..... n' , ,h" ir "" " "'''lin. fI"'~ .. n\CllXb .. ,1(1 occul),~'IOI""
R"in...
.\fa".. R ,I ~~ III 10" ,"'... ). on ,\".11:""" R" di ... ' II 11... 10:",.1" ~ ... II ... ..-,,11"

",r',

~ ....: I. " 'II<") an' " I.. ,

"I)r.""

ti,t oIK~ 'Kl". 'IS Il c"irlll.iC<1" "''t~MS:

I.htl ha"d ', '''!Ir"r~ "'''' 'M"'r, I,,' '~' I '" ""'M~I. or r~l'b ",o~l . I ') II' I~''''~

"" '"w''' .. h i. 10 ("'Ill Ji:!'a"l' I.. 1E,,..,

,,~" ;. ~ ,

"r ,h .. hall,! i"

0"" of
il< ,,"orb c" rr;", it",tr .lInlU.II:h th .... k ",,nt or 'h",~i,,~. '"''"'l 1"'Mi,,~ " I
,I... 10:.. ,<1 I,,':"', 11",11 '" ,h.,
1... j.II,)
I"\"CI)'

,I,".n'
T t... , ki" """d, ,I... tn ,,,,... ""i~hl. (k-",i" :. " d lc'''I''''''''''' of maltef.

The , ,,rfart'''( "" .~d '~\J'.". l'''I ''h, ~1 ,,, 1" ', 1.."",,, I')' ,I ... " . ~ ,,( tI~
CI .,li ... "~,, ." ,,1 II .....";'10",,,, 10.",,1, "f It.' ,,,,,.,~. ",d,",, ,I ... ,,,,01<;"1( of
th. h ...!d. It ;, !>ka",rabl ... o !"o"", (h " h ... ,dk .I "","~ InN" .IM IIH .,,
h.,,,. !. , h ., 1o.lIt "' '' ''''',1 ,1M" ,~ . ... I,,r.,n' ",' tF ... .-lor,,., ,hi"", ".

",,,,t, ,of

"f "I('-~'" \"'~r I.... ' ''n,,~1 ,m" .n ,,,,,.\(': 0,( " .. koo"'" and hasp" " h".
'J he d""r 10.",,11.. " , I,.. h.""I<\"'t... " I , I,,' 1 ""~t,,,1(. nil' ' :H uk ... " .....

"-;"Ii,,. ,"

,,,"" ,, ,- "' " " .. ""M" .,..1


'h"'''~h ;"'1' .... ,,;,.,, "f " . ,..1> ""
,h.,k .. ,h.., hand, ot ('(Hu"k" 1('"'1("' .11" "' .... \ I,,l~~ .. !"~,,,I,..d I " "~".,

. .

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""'".,"'
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...,

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i. plu.,,,ral~r '0 .1", h~II<1, ",~ "" I) t.... ~ """ (O( it< !,o nthi,,>:: ,1"'1"" 00,
h. .. -." ,,,, i, r~I>n .... 1", -"ow 1m:>'" of 'IS .or" IlI!i",,; a 1'.rfn1 I'd~*' OIl

)oln1lls n ' for " ... ,han " hell loeC;ng ~

<I ... I~,h" m.'leri.:oJQa d urali"". II .. " " '" I" ... ~~I im" ,h"' ....

riooo' II"ml) " ",,mi" l{ 'Il)' fO'l)il.CII li",l... I-I ... ,,~ a'ltl ,II. I.............. of ,1M' .kill

WI ..." rlll nilOll 01 ... "'''gu if"",,,

"""ioor 51-': of I...... "

K ahn', Salk

IHMJ'" in ~

!~Iu

;n ,he ";,,.J.o,.' .,( m)' d, iJdho(.1

" ~ ",,,' '''''~l la, .. ",,al''' '" ,]". k. ,I",

""'''101) of ' h" ......", ~" ....

" " II ;11'0 " ""'JI;" lu """ "', .... ,.

h..,i" n<" in I ., joIb. Californi.\. 1 rd. ~II '''''''''Iil* "' '''I ~'''ic~, '" .,..alk
d;"""ll) to ,I,.. (o,..-.cl~ .... II ~"cI 'o".-h .1... ,,,h,,,), .........1"...... a nd I"m-

,...,,,,,, ..... of il> ""in. 0" in .r.oca '(~I ure 51_"C> ,,-nl> u''''mnl:

The Taste of Stone

1......Non; ,I>t (001 and "" igor.u" g Wi:o'k .... " ,..Ir. a " ..,... .... 'hr r-'..,......
"'l! ............ of .. ~ntwh ." ~ 51101 {If ."n. 'u.n in,o C<I~OC" of ..-" and
1""<"<"_ In "I} d .iklhood UlIllI[(1l 0( ,I>t ~jn";.J. <:UOII'lJ)UIr. J , an "n'NU)
....-all " .. Ib al:~"'" .he ""gIr of ,hf. .n" ...,,110 ... hieh " " ,hiJ"onI ,he Ma,
,-,f , ~,Ii.., i"" ",I<I " ... I,r,] .11.. "1(00\; ano..lJ\~ .he ftr>l , ,,,<"II o( I"'-go"'''' ....il
til<" appro;oo:h of .."'''' ..... 11,..,... .."rl,' Jlock.... ,or ",.-j,,>::
" ..... NIr,,,,f..d II\' ,I", .Li" a"d ,l", ''''''''' :I, much;o, bj ' M.,..,
( .,..",;" i, " ...."'...,d bj .he bOil ..." of ,I", '-"'t: .. r ' r",-, tI~ ,\.n,i'~
:",<1 ' UUn .. ,or , h~
1 ,I "\ ~'KI' 'M'f <OIo~ Sla'ltli"lI 1~lTcfOOl. 01. a
, .. ",,~h ~I:" ~,I " . k II\" tI ....... ~ '" I" """' . ""d "'''''''8,1 ... ,,,,,'111,1> or till"
" ".h..",ro ..or", tltr<>ugi' 0/"'" oolo", ;., lin ntr:",. dill.uilj Iwa li,,)!: 'X1".
rit ", ". '"a k lll~ ,., ... pa n "I' ,I... ~.r."a1 q' k- of " a""'. U ne """ "'"' , I,,'
,h...... :" h i ,,~ of ,I", un".
' In "Ill' h,~,,,,, " '.' h.", ,,, k. a...1,' ... ',.... ;n "hiel, " , . hk~ to curl "p
... ""10 ,,,;0.1"). '];, co, d III' hd<>ll~j '0 ,he 111",,,,,,,,,.,,,,1,'11) "f II,, w , h ,..

In I", ...... ""~. ,\dn:..n St<>k:o ...... I''''" ie" brly " .<il;'" '0 .1", ",aim. of
'1" ""'tiki) Ulg ,,'>OOth and roul(h a. !I:"'....rir
' .. rm. of a ..... hot...-lUrAI d..-""'",,,) I ~m It''fI ~f altk '0 ''''0<"'''' Itod hr
..---..1~nd .hc 1M",," ...... ions , ~, "n<krlw: ."" ,';'",,1. 1-...".. io ~ hun~r of
,II.. '1~ and ,kM,I~1r<. ,h.. , .. 10;0> I..... " .." ,... I'"n,,~a,iooo. of "'" ,....al
... n....... 0( 'ouch . bj' ,I", on.. r all...,,,,t.rAc;f1~ 0.--. .1 i",pul ...: ll1 Stol ...
".il," aJ .. , al~"" ,10.. 'on! ;' ''IIa' .... ' of
m:..hIe., 1I and ""
'1'000'"
or John ~II,kill" ' 1 . I",,,kllik<" (a, "I' , h .. V('mna ,,~ ..-I>
I ,..",-10: " "

,....".IOtJ....,.,

g,,,,,, ..

inh.,h il. a",1 onl) .110;0' \l'h,. h.I\ ,. 10,,,,,,,'<1 ", ,~, '" ,'" " ;"1,, ,],;, ,,'i,1o in"'" .
,i,).' ".,.u,', ]I", 10.-1....<1. " ' ""d .1".,)'" ill ."or .~,)d ..calH" tilt' I"",,, i. a
I M)..~ ...,,,11. .. I.... "QlH, lll ... " '"

I h..,, '" a .. n'n~ "~II"' ) I."","n "., l ...1 , kill .",<1 ,I,,' ",,, ..11,,,,, of
I".,,~ , 11M' nl _'.. .~ . "I h''' '''' ;j cUt'" ...,lI) a" '"I.r.,,,, .. f III ,m':l1,

'acll~ ",,,d or~1 "'''''''101.0::

''"rot""""

a"",,,..

11,.,,

't)

,, :0. ."I"~

,r..",r, r",,, .. h.. , ,,~... ,, ' '''( Iil<: ",,,d ,a"e np"rW:t>C~ .

\';'ion 1......... '>0: r:ll1lfc.""I ,o , .. !iI~ a ....ell; co'"";" colOUr<

~ ,ltl

,lr lie",.

01,,.,,1, .. ,., , ~, . .. ,,,I "'"""it",,," " t1d ica,dy coIou...,.j poli.h-rd "0'>0: "".

'"'''''''

f.co i. ",loti",").]] ) "',u",I I' ,I".


0 ", "'''''>0') .~I"'.~.w-( " f 'he
wutJt1 "n~"',"'" in ,h" ;t1I.I'IO' ~,uo1lion of .h" """'l h , a nd , I,,' ,,, ,,Id
' .... ,1; tn " . ...-" t" i" ,,01.1 "r;!(i ,,,, T hr
" ",hai,' .. rigi" .. f an:hllC<C
,u,.... l Sj",{"r i. ill ,lte ( a,,;,y " f ,ll.. ,,,,,,,,h.

"It."

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DLJ.""''

Ke,id"nc~ in C a rme l,

r.., Iifon"" . ,I, "~"" d I" (: h., rI., " nd 11,', ll')' ( : 1" ',. II" . I f;.lt e"," I~ II.~I '"
~ll',.] ,11101 , .. ," h

.h.. ,ltl ..." ,,]' ;I\t,, ' n~ ... hi" "" 1'101, th.-...h"loI of II,..

" .Inn ,h T"" <I""~ 1 ..." ,,,,10 ... ,~",<1 a li,,"~''' ''''' ,I... "' ''' .... of ,,!ti.

flO ,," oI,~,, ",, " '''} ''''' K


'''' 11,,' "."',,.,," ",all"n.,I, am i . ltlf"lI} eral'
",I ,k-,a t\; of Catio :-"-a'1"" , ...d,i,,~ H... ~, \\'<"11 ;" ,10 .. ".""~",, nolo .....

.......' """".,n

"I I.""

.11 ,<1

,-, ."'fo ..., M.,,,,,.11',, .. ,,,

.",.1> ~ li""ltk ",~,cr.


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"""

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:1.$

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"'HoI ,",-f.",, . 1", 1"""'11' , h..",,,,,,.... 10 ,h( "l"l'nn." ~,,, , or ,h,'
""'~"

"

J LI" ic-hir., T~"i,.;o k i .~'..,rioo irnll~"".l' ,I", ..,." i.,1 'lual" ;',, "f ,h..

""""" of ,.... ,~. and ,I ... ,,,l.Jtk


" f UlICUI..,ri"lI ~ 1"... 1nf

"""I'lI"';"" ,,/, ,1M' ... " ..... in ,I", ' impk

"''''I''

\\,11,

t.<""",,,,,,,~ " ",,~

:oc,

.. a 1. -.",)' i" ,h..o "u ,,,',,' '''''"...." ".,,~~-i"!':

,I", lid a"d lill,,,!! " ... 1.... ' '" d ... """"h .. hrn """ ~~ ao " ..... ill. ""'n'
'''luod ,,, .hr tL>.,l 'Irvo l.. <If " """",1. ," .... our h..!d} lIilknnlll 1'"." "...
00..1~...tf \\'1 .... I.... ,,"hu. ,I ... tL>.,l , ...... ",,.. ."" ",,. ,m''''11'' ...... "'" ' hr
l...tm ...... ~ .hr II"nlir mtJ<I~""'n" ,,f ,, ... 1"1"1<1. ,;>J .... ""'" f",no .. ""in

100 ",,,.. ~ ""

,ho' '~ ". ",oJ.


In..:. 3 dtl,,__ ,",,',"!"'n,
.... <'1IIto<1.

r"'p;oo ..... BrOom "I"" ,.... ,~.._

"'("n.,,".;01 ,.-.........._'."

A r..l t arch"<'n ...... ' "I_~ "I""1f "I' ~ ,,,I I""""''''' "",11' '" j,h II", ,:" n.. tt.U,,,,... or ....,...rio...... :1.< " ..,i/_,ki, h.... ' uf OOO'I~ 1\ ,-,:h"N," nl ~~
hri'W' , .... world "" " a ,,"'"' .. 11",... ,... " )1":0<"1 .. " h ,I,,' 1....1).

Images of Muscle and Bone

">:.,, "",~I hi, '",,'ll 1""1)' ~I ' he .Ii"",,,!iomn ~ " " d prop" """ '"
"'''''''Ill of hi. comu .. r " on.l. 1'h .. .,,,,.,,, ,~I ,l,lb nf "",kinl( .. 1i"inK in
" ... huo" .1 ," Illmo a .. ' 1 ~'''''rI " " ,h., "i... ~~" .r , h~ h.)(ly . ,orl in , h~
h"p'ic- ((1.-mo'1'. Th" ...,.,,,,, ,,1 ~,>O\\' '''d~r ;",<1 ' l ,ll " I , h .. ~''''irn' I"",.,.,..
I~' i", i, i""

i,,~

Ii,t""""", ... ,<1 I,"""",.;" ,... 11 '" "I' ,I,,' "'."",, "",I "",,,. '-"' ... r...... ;",

"" i,;"",,, "r ;'" r",I ~ . li.tl 'ro((li.;.;." ,>f ,I", ,,;O(k . ",ored

III

,he """ " .. Ia,

~"d ,,,clll,, """~ .. :-,lill ,,~, I,..... ,...! ' .... III~ .. ;nc"'-l" ".11 ill!! ,h.' "" ' I' '''IIn'

"I" "~,,

,"w, ," ...Ii, ...,. I') " ..,Ii."'n . ".~ I",, " ').I"h "' ,,,I. o r lhrory.

'1'1... 1",(1)" k.. ",,~ ."d ,-,:" "",,1>('..,. ,\11 1",,"C, u.-.. l "K"a"",~ ,I.'""" In ""
... d.a,, r<";J""'"'' .",tl n'.~ , ~,, " ",,",,,I.,,~I I ') ,I., 1 1) ","I ,I ... ,.." ,.....
.-\ "-Io i",~,,n I"" '" " ''1 "" ,,1
,ro,;t$ uf 1>""'Ofd",1 h"I0,,',our I"""",,,nl
....d pas ..... ,10\\" I.. ,I ... ~,n' ''. An h" ... , ,, ,,. ,~ . .. ''' ~ ""II ""i 1 '" 'h"
lim... """,1 .... 1 n .... ."" "",11,...,,,,,1 ....,1 .. ,,-;',1 ,....d. uf
cit)'
d"" I~'r, "
11 r~n ... ml,.., 111<' 1"",,,,,,lod' 10"" ... , d,,,1 tamk'f I"(~'_
(,...s.~ I '" ,I,, I~..... ( 1,1< ",." ,," ",,,. "I ... ,,,,I. ,n I'" ~ " 1u, ....,1 I" ~ll~ .u,.

'I)

II,,,,, .

,<XI;,,',

VlS!ON AKJ HAPIIOTY

--."""----""..- ... -,.. . _.... ---_.,


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,..........
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~

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-,,'

' ''' _ _ _ _

""'<

.......""'"'-

n ,,~('d ;n

,I ... prin ..... I;" J n l~,.ir'K<:1 of cou n,less g<',,,,,a' lUn . 11..-1...1",.1
....11 10.",,, ' "n.,,~ ,loa, I" ';ng 0111 ,10" I'l'i",;,;,,.,,.... ,n m ' , "r 'p.. ill ~LI
il1lotg<,',111 '['1"]JI<' 1. >1,'" ,..". " ..... Lorn ;n h;u (nll"",,,d .. ,.hm u' ,I",
h ;',." ",11) " f ,h~ ,cM;O'" fll tlCtOonl of uI~bi' i"g. We ~, .. ,Iw ,I",~",,,, of
. h" f"""u" n. "r ,nh .. bi" "11 . hal 1"" ";"111<0. hou"",, a nd a ll ' h" Ol .... r
I." " .... a'r I.... uri.:o ,io" . 0" a fUlI(b ,ncmaJ ,...." ... '1'1.., ,""....1 halo" "
"IU ...,.n a ...ord ' 0 u p ".".. 'h" p;o";''' IlI1< I;.. ...", of "", hod ;.... "hid,
, n,~ M g." . ...,, ], an ""f"'ll'"l1ahlr I"",..,: I.., ...... of ,.... 'Ir" n~. h of

'n

,h.. h" dil) "",,,,,,,),. ' H

:>'1 0<1<" , ...... h"" ." ,,"" loa. h",1 iu .... " T"" "'''''''''' in <T>!C";''''1l a
I".,. " ... anb ,10.. " n,,~1 nail''''' of oo~s. :.\"'h"ffh.... of ,lor n,"no'

""",..,.,(-(1 h" ....-..

,.. .. m. ,o h.w<
an
of ,1M- a'''''' Il~nJr ... ,he "~I"'''''' of
dR'h"""",.. or . IM" i"'eno . ,\. if a 10o" ......."n: ,0 t.. co"",,;,...:1 fot ' he:
I~";u,,n- ,,( ,h" "Y'" r ... he h"" for II", " " ULoc ing of ,II" ,,,ha b, ,;,,,, >:
.. "'... I:ik, " I ;, a) 1' ,, 1..- '\o-"K" "1'IlI":O.-l.
It. gn,.. fronl a
"'hl} ,,( d .. "',,m,.. " ,".ll io". of Ib ,J), lifr ml ..... ,li" n ,;'", :01 all,1 , on ,.
1" .. " ;.,nal l.....,OllCtpt;.,us.
,\ nIII"" """ ,." "M>!. I"" ...,...... I..... , ~,'" a n in$,runw:nt of ".,,"" lim'"
. ;' ~.ali'); lu lil} "on,fQr, "lid 50:11.00") Jlk.... ,,,,, ... ill "~,, ~""',\ '" "~"""II'
11.'11 ) !I... di."".~
d"";,,," ....",... of d"' ."le~, 'Os''''''''' "lid ",,,,ion
),,,, 10 I. ",..."'.m,," '" n 'lal io .. 10 progr..m" ",. f,n ..-,i"" ;",d ,oml; "1, t\
I';" C~ of are lll ' .... ' " .... IJ",,,I,I 'l<JI I"..-(H'N' '''''''I",,,'n, ,n ,t< ",il;,,, ri;,, . ;I11d
..... ," ...;.1'"" "'<". " h,lO ,,, ",.,imA'" ,I< ' ml",,,,,,... tk ""'''''' :o "d m)'.,, I')
ill , ,,,, ~.,. '0 '~~ " I" Qm ;m"I{iIl"I ~ '" a",1 ,. " " " ~ " ,,,
r",L" , 1\ lId" h... "xl "" ~"'d " ' ~"' I'" fi ,r ., ,,''''">11 0' or'IlO'J 'tlOn
I. ,t " ".,." fll '" ,,,,,,,, Ii, ) ",," """k"nns III hi, W\), ~ , 'I [",1.,,,,, UI n' II K "I11 ~
" '.-)nl .... ' ''''' fro", hili""" .,1,,', ~"",n"l\ , h,' , ~ , ... '''.' '''~, ,d' li"" I;'",.,1
b,.." In ,~."., ... '
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'"m .IIKI ,I,,n, .. ti,'r .h~ f)l' .... '" ' h... [. '""
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Images of Action
S'q"'''1l ,.'>ow..... '" tI,, '1"'""."" of a lla n~' 11 a", ,mal/''' ~ , .. I ""l""'" of
1"''' Slq >S. As " ....... Ie" a door. ,I)" bodj' ..... i" '''''''.. ,1M- "";W" ,,( ,I...
d"ur; II,,

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, hnM'll h """".
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of .'fI;'~' 1Il ;IIIag<'> of a,dll ....'"n-. ,10..
" !(X'I<"II' ,,,. ""',n~ ( ,lCoumn. ot ~ 'profll ;'" of fu"",ion" z; ,,,,d PUll")Of"
' n,, I.,...... " h. 'h .. u" ..",d III)' 1",(1) rd\o:t-, i .. l,.,..;t.ok " ";011 "p"n
oM"',' "TM~ 11""ri Ik'l(W',.I:!~ It i< , h;'I~""bili.y of """ion ,hal oq ....
"A'M An I" ...,:,,,,,. f",,,, U.."'. JUr" ", of ~". ," ~ COI"""l""""" of th",
;mpl;"'1
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"'.,... 1M "" ;,,:oJ i" ",I1'''' ' 11,, 'rlc "'CIIl-\' of an-Ioi":e:lun: art" lIu l , ... u;J Ulli ..
or ~"".. ;.....,..n- "''''OIm,." I"onf",...." .."", ,Iia, i...~ ......... " "II "ICII ~"1' In ,,~ 10
I~'" ;, " ,,[,ud . -d "' ac,io" .. katl",. tt. ... t..;n~ '-"'>fl.
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,\" h',,, ,''"', ;II "i, ...... d il'," " ,,, ,, I "'~~Ili ,.", I.h",'",u, alld "" ~",,,,,,"1.
,\ 1".dd'"1( i, " '" '''' ,'lid ;" i'''''[f: i. Ib llN'. ~n i.-. ,[ ,,, ....
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of ""r "'lh. " u hr. Ih.m II", fin:I'I:oct ~I ~" 00.1'""1 of ,';"" ,d ,hig",
Arcrul"",,,,,,1 '1"'1'" '" h"d '1""'~ r~I IM'" \I " I'lr)".i<-~ 1 ' I"""'. " 11<1 I;,,:ti
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' Fron, III<' IJoonh'I' '" 01 ... Co,m11"" Rno",' (I~26\. J\I\'~r ,,..It,, '"'011:'
" i .... I"" ..., ...J......-~ 0( .. rcl"'' " .....1r~pn"na II) ,,,<,,,,kin!! 0( 01 ... ac' of
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.....'ler ,... . hr ..",Io;"' u,.. 1 rx!",, ;",tn', l'ruf~ r...... Tho",JlIOfl ......

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Bodily Ide nt ificat ion

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''' ~! ~'MI ~ "w'"L'IL ~ 1 an ""wl 'lw ,",.""". ,f lit. I. wh.. Our , k""icik;' 110"
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and >(10-""", II . .11,' '" ,'."""." " ,lialo.'I(I,,
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l"UniM' (; ..AI .. m S... h"rt..nd "" I~ ,h.. ,in. .... , ,I", :;on",,'. w..,t; ' h ' a

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or e"ooti"" . :'lId feeli,,!!, 01'
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"".... IN: ..... 1*"'lLr;ol ~y ~ni""'lro Ilow of a IJittc of mOl'" is ... bron
...;"'"Jy ' r.ln!JOrmed illlO bodil} OI:m."iot,1. ' he rur"I""';'iot, of all
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an ;o l'(h," ,,. l .otl;' K~ "" s.~ id, and Ihi. n"'''~''''lrpl'''''i. ,.. k$ pl~~r

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Mimesis of the Body


A

,<:"......,

" 'lOOMCiou;lr 'h"'''gh II"" lIooJy ...


iL, 'he ""...." IM ~c'" and i"
II", I.....,io" ,( , ....
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,.... bucI)' of d", 00ten.tt. the
",i.ron II", bodi,, OI:~ "''' of
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U k",,.,.linl'l ~o:hi'r<:' ur.l' ...-. . Ie implies ,t... ullCOlLlCioo.n ""'...." i"l':

'1'''''

"',,r'tO

,.. ....I ..... r""c.. i,,~' w ikling: " ",,'CIlI';I'!, h.~"'""" ~nd ..,...., "'" f,,11

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,h,' L" .. b.r ..I .... , I~' ~,, " .... . ""'~~" ~,,, I ,I... r",,([..-..,al '<'<1,,,,,,,,,,,, ..1> ... "..II

,I,,' .~I~ r~ , ...r nf lhr \t"IK:Hl oIi""." , it", of ,he world . At , h"

"" "'r Ii"", '" "'''ki,,~ LIS a"';o,e of , h~ <iel" h "r tI,, ':I"h. ;, III" k", '"
,lt r,u" uf Jro,'''"u"" ~ ,,<l IIi~I" ,

Spaces o f M emory and Imagina t ion


II,' 10,,,,,, "" "'"'" ( "ap;r.c;" for ...."",,,,I,,,ri" g ." KI """,(ini n'l I~a~ ....
Ih'''I''.'", ""''''''') " lid ",~,~i", , "," H.... in r", ,,,,,,,, i" ..,.....,'iort; tI ...
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cit"'" " 'r 10",.. \'" ilO<t! arc I',,r"'n. ;n Iloi , "",I ,.,~ooI" of Ih., 11I ind_
I "" ,....1"... ~". I ri ..m~1 woukl be <k-'Oio:1of ll~'r ,,,,,,",u of .:nd"Ullrn.: nl
1t';'''''''1 our COlf"""" I" ",In a ,c"",,,, I ."~1 of im,,!{i,.. ~1 I"""". n ...
lIJ"IC'"" and p......... f" .. ' .... ~II') a" ", ... ,,{ a n ~rt" rcal i .. ,t", fuU 'len,," of 'he
nl"'';'''''-~. 'Ii "'....,,,(> did ,\01 dlOo)Jle Ih~, ~rl"'" nli in 11 ... My at.o.",
~I ... 10 "l9 l1f} alll(,lI"h . ... ,n 11r'....>Ar il. II is "n):um' " " d )dkM .q
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bcn>n ... !h",f!. an~I>h "tlld, 10"" turnnl "" " }rI ...... rili of M': .. ri,..,.
S;on",,"" :s",,;~. tI ... an-h " .... ' " .... of ~ 1 "'ho:l'mt[do don no! P""""'"
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U'8 ~ ..on. of .. n ... " ....-j.., .. """ hanl('" ,,,lc .. I~"" r; 1M .." .k I~" ru
a' ..... " ,.. I .. " Ion ';"'" 011. 010'11 e,no'Oona anti p.""el'" 011 Ihr ......... _ In"
n ..."'""hoI) '" ~ I O(h..I;",It""''' .. nh" ....."m .. flllK I."'''-~Hall) . he ,;.,...."r".
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t: nil(1,u,ic"II), ..", e'lCO\>n,c. "',.....,,"" u' 111<" .....n..
~ 1.,,1Of} t"lc" I.. I~ ... ~ ,,, .t.,,"nl ,-" ;..., alltl ,10\" 1, 1... .

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1Nrom,
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hou..,. Aud ,h" h"",.. " 'hieh ,h Il i "1'I".".n I"..,.., ....n aU 'M ~ lIIbi",.i').,(

'u ll"'"" .... ' wrt,r' &tn"" '"


11...... a .... r i, iM. ,h~1 n:'''~ ;11 " "''''' di>'3'" ,ional i",,,!(,:, "h.c" n:" ....."'I... n~t and cHits ,ha, a", rn",.ml....... I .n :tIl ,hc ir ,."....:;, ), T h" n""IllOf)'
n--<"\'OkN; <lw' dd,~htf,,1 cily ",ilh all ilS 10111"1, and . " ".It. ar,,1 ,;o";"t;"",

of ~hl and sh",lt-. 1 "''' t"\Tn ri""...: "' hc ol"" \O ....t.k <H1 'M .... nll)" <ide:
... ,I... ..,...........It- of the
;n ,h" ","'''''''-Able eM) of 111) " ,,,,e"'"""n<:<". n .......:ol ,,"'''''.n: of ,b. '1"alll""" of a eil}" is ...hrihe r "'''' """
mugu ... r~ in Io>.T in i,

"=,

I"''' or ~ 1M..... "". cI~; I) h"hi ' ~1 ",K~, loI ""t ,'"""" ~xc",.i,, KI"n: frolll
liglu rd h ,ioll' d;IIO, i, .hOl,1d not .,., dl.mh"iltt!a~, i" 'er"" or

...."'d ......,,,1 ,,1Or1";"'" c... ,\ 1'><:<:" ,I"" n il'"", ,ttlO d,~ 111000 ;no ;no~, ..
<,<",'act .. ';11, " "'-" . a." rh~tr do.... . ho.. kl,,, br CO"",.,c'cd of """c ....
ial. , ...., a rt a<~""''' !(OOd co,,,h,,,,on of h"a,.""" A" lto " .... ckarl)
tiM ..... ",,~, .... ,."tI ;1I 'hr ''M-' "'",,,, ,,( ,I... uI'.it'< , "" d tI", budyof ,ho:
,Iw, i" tI .... ' "
1a".,Mu"..

II" ,

,i,,,..

,,",,It o'. ard"lrc' ", ~ ""I" h" .

nJW("IIt... a'MI h"I"i<- " .....",...,. I, iocor-

1>Or.I.'t$ d"~""-AI~.'" ok", ('()"r",,"~,iotll. ;rrt:kULari, ia and polrrh)1.hms


,n ordo:r ' 0 aroulC bodd). ",,,..-,,b , " ,,,I hal""- ""1""""""-<1 II .. cI;ilio..
'-A'~
'u'''.... a,wl '~I~jl .. rr~f'cd for II", h..
;,,,~, ,he: "',," of
' .....-h a,,,1 r"'~'~ . 11 ~'''IOSI.n.:n; 01 'n" macy arod "a.mlh. 1""ea<1of .he
dil.rrnhooh~d ean,",,~ 11 " ...... "'''' of ,I", an-hll"'-""" of ,h. '1'(. '....100.
'''... ;''~1.'' n .. 1,....,1 ' ~l
:tI;.,n. I I" buildin", an.- not bard 01\
. ",l{k doonll'a'" eOl..-rl" or I(">'ah ; ..", hr . Ii"')' arr ~'I.OUI) aggloo'k'r-

.",f"""

An Art:hitecture of the Senses

\'''''0''' ...... hi'....,'",..,. .,.,,11 I"" ,Ii"'nl"~ on lhot b;uis ,,( 'he .... n""
" .... Wit) tI"') ,,,.Id '0 " n'l>it;uiot:. " .... ,g"'itl.- ,he I.....-Ailmg an:IIlu<:lulT of
II", "1". d""e ;" " "alltic "...:h',":I,,", of ,he: nlll~k a.,,1 tl ... , k'n. 11"",,,
i. arch"...,,,,n.- ,hal :tl..:> .......<l!C" Ow:i , I", n;ahlll of I",a,m(l. .. ,,,,, II a,,,I ,,,,",,_
' 11", '''''In''''-' ''reI of 1...0: Corl>o"icr ",wi ~ ;d,a,,1 ~11")"'. G.. ,, "'!al ICe.
cI... rI) r,,,, KI' ';KI" , ..i, he. '" a f'om al "'lCounter. Of ,ho: k;"." hdic ~"),. of
'h,~' dn~'lirtom~ (...... " if ,I", la'" " .K""" of I.e Cm\Ju,icr Incor-IU """ .tn'" ~ ...ml. ''''I",,;'n,c. 'II 'he forcef,,1 pn:'IC ' M'" "f "'. ,,... Ii'y
.lIId wc;~hll. 011 'he .,.1"" 11,,, ,,1 , ,I... " ,,hi''''-IIrn " f 'he r'''I,n:s.oto:>I",;" on-.
""'a'" ,". I K'!(;""" '~ wid , I:rich ,\ I~ ' wk:""lrn ~ "d I'la" , ,,,-I,,,,,,,,,,. r,,,,,,,rs
.""... ,,1,.. "nd It:,\w;" 1'1.... ;" ;' ) " "')II""-I"~ '>C~ of tI ... S"pl' ... ";o" "f
,. -u l:,. Ik"'I'...-,;,..1 do",i"."I<"~, Inll k jJ'I)d \\'nl(l,, ', "",! Ah.,r A.,ho,
~"'I ,i' '''h'''''' an' I",,'d ,," " ti,!! l"<"l!I"i' iun of ,I,, ~",Ik .. litd I",,,,",,
CO"dllioll "tid (Ii tI,, lII"lrll"' ~' ", """. .. '"al " ....-' '''" . hi.cklr .. in ,I,,'

1""" ,11\ "",,,,,,, .,,,,,. In

,ooa)', ...,""i'e"'''''. ,I,, "H,I",,,,k .,f """"''''

~Xl"'ri<-, ... ,.... IMi):I"'n.~1 "' tiM" "''''~ ,,( tac.. 11 ~ 1 "n:"" . :-'''''' U H ,~I

.. ,,,1 1\ , ... Zunuhor. fc,r ;" ".Uk'

,\I' M \ .,1",

".1<

,,,,, ,,,,,,, ,,1)

~, ,,}(".. r,,r<I

wi,h .,11 'he ... " .... ;" I",

archll"""''-'- , II " CO""" ...... , "" ,I,,' ... " ....... ""''''10'1<
'~"il(lI rk".h ....... ab ,h .. ,o,"-~'"
\ I"" " ,,(

11\

It" f"m;"' ....

f""",,,,,, dl~' r.."", ..

"

,,,!.

..

",,,.,ry ....

I""''' ~pp.. ~r d"",,)

.lIId u" .......t,""I .... dr-..".


i"K" I~ I' II" .... a,.. "01\('(;.",1 '0 be "PP''''' ~'''''' In thc;r "",,,a/ ph)",irai
and >t)".I ,a l ~' M "'lit ...,. ' i" ,It .. t1r,h ' IIr ,h .. 11\"<'<1 .. ,,,1.1. "," '" COII>"",
,i, ,'" "I' ;.k.. I,,,,d ,;,;,,,,.
." . ...... ri M"}' " ", M"tIllM'"

The Task of Architecture


n ... "" ...1..... la,k III " " IlIt,,-, " " . " ", ,',,,11,' .. ,,,I .,, I~~I ,, "01

I, ,,~I ,,;.re ll

,;"1 """ '''p lll'no ,h.. , r .II " -...,;.. ,,,,,I $"" ~.' '' .... o" e kinl': ;n the ,,"orid.

:\ n:h lll'C,uf( .... n.-r ... "'.'h'.... It",... ""d ." .... ,h,..,, "~'''-' ",,01 '''~~~ "f
"~'" I

Itli. 11",101;,,1." ,,",1 """" ,"11,,1. , ", ,,, " n".''' ... . ""'\.... '''"d ,,,,,I

'" ""',,,1.'" . h. . h.fM'ky; fI"" of ..... hl} ,,,Id. "1' "lI.,,d ). h' ,rt-ngr,;.., a,~1
' " UK''' 1M" .... 1" , ".' . u, .\" III" " "".' . " .. I ",., ." ,,, I'" ..... i,, MMI "'''~'r" .IIMI ,I" di.lk~ , . ', , ... 1".,.,11.11"""" ~'KI e"~ ".t:'. '0 .... tlk ... " ...1-.,. in
" 01"" arod III pla(" ."u... h,." '" ,h.. , ,," ' U'uuu' , ,( '- lIhlll(' a'KI ,;" ....
III " , ,, ~, "I

th~

"'1''''''.''''''1( .",,1 ><n.""I11 ~ ~. , iI", ~1It11 .. ,,,... r. ,.J("w11

... ,d "1,,, ,1 " ... k r. ,,"nauiun

~ 11d

""poor.H'OIl. ilI.-Il';" .. ,,0.1 "",,,,on.

"

~ n,Io;",u,,,
~"I"'""''''''

I>

" ,,)(a~"d

..,,10

f", ..L" '''''' ' ~ 1 ",,,,,,.,,, 1 '1"'"'101'''

All

;"'I'lioo ,I... ~~" "f , ....,lk<e,;nIC, "" ...,,,1...;,,,( ... ,,J n""I"";"/(.

.... " ~",I)Q(h,,,,1 """",,,.. ) h... a " ...... nI.~1 ,.:>k as II... b,.... of ",n ",mix';1l\(
a .<JI"l"~ or " I........ W,'
.r~r all , IK" " i,irJ alld '''''''' , loa' ".~ h~,,' ,.,,-

NOTES

Pre/x.
M . ...;,."

''''d..

ned. all ,,'" Iliac.,. ,loa, ,,'( h:,,~ n:>j(I,...:d . illl" Ih~ i,......m""~ II ... ' ........ of
Out h... ~. 0 ", ,10. .."",,,,, I..,.....,...,. .,,""11........1 ",,10 'K" '''Ifidt'' "I)~ 1t
Ix>mn pan of "u, ","'n h." ... a, " I I...",c.
I" n"-"IOIO,I.... "XI""""""-,,, d' anh"<'C'",e. ,....ce. " ........ and ,,"'" r, ....
into onr . illl(UI;o, <Ii,,,.. ,,,;.,,, .,,,,, ' h~ I........ ~ ""~ ...... IIf h"'"R- I .....' 1"""""rat"" our co",,,,iou!ol1tU. W( idc-""f)' .... ""Iw~ ,,'i,h ' his $I........ , hi;
I'l.... ~. Ih" " ,,,,,,,''''. d,,,1 ' I....... .I",,,'''''''"'' I.......,... m.o;rnilCIIH d' Ot.Ir

,.,,' ""il.I",...." ,\.-.:1."...-""" .. II... an ,-.( , ..........;1,"-". I"',,,...,, ,,,.,,,,1,,,..


a"d tI,, ,,-,.n.I. a,,,-I II,,, ""... h"IIO)"
I..

195~ .

'''~''~''

~"" ,,,I .....d

I:L"" d' "",h"..." " "" III ,ho: fol .....;"1( wonb:
WI,. ............ \",1
~h i<...-" ..... , t., .. .1", ......

,Ilt'" '" ..

II... ".,.n.a!

"'a,," <oj> ,,,

nw ....) n~''''' . ,h. ' '')' I.... ,,( ,,, .. ,\,."" . -... .. ,.~-i.-')
i"'r~"')' ;" )"'" I.... 'kl",~ .".1 j'JU ... ".I ~ .. "" ~~r") ,~"

.ml) ,n ,,,,. hf~ ,. , 10".. ,

",.",,1.1 '11< I . ,i)' l il1I1I,,,~. ;"It) ., ",-il"'.-"] ,d..

on I~_~,,,...

'......,.M .........

'no

,--.,',/0,11_

'i

f_' .... 'bo. 1I.. rp<T& Row

\""' ~ 19IIto. P J .

I ,\ ""'''''' , ....".."., \\~ . . ,,,,, ~ ...... ""_ .. ..-lm-ro '" '" Dd. p 308_

1_.,

"''II! \\ .'11""""'"

I ....
\I~ I I ~ 4(,. I I 10 I'IJ I ion
_ , ...., td "II ,,-,,, \' ....,. _ b ... 1'uI ~,"u.'II !

II .......... (:....
P 2, r

),Ji ,.-d'. ~.

\ ....... "' ~"" l:h"n""ill. 'f /0, /\. . - , , , , <I ., ...... 1, _ _

<1 , ....." ..., I 'to<.,.... ....... ~ k"' 1_

11_, ...

I . .... ~ '"

>

19H

The (po of In. n ln

"", "0.:' '. AtHI ,hi ,

,~."

. no.. II f~rub

,I" .1....."'1", \,.. _ I ~""" """

JIoI/~__
II .... ..." ...1 II,,,,*," I I." ...... 11.".. ,<1
11 "", ,,11, 1'1')tI. ~ 1:10

2 1, .. ,1" '1, ;.;",,. 1...


,,71 1,

,_

I~

e,,""<.,.;,) ( ;,,,,1...,, s.:",. ~ ,,( ]:>'-' 'K''

1".' ."if>ah .;:.......,.... ';kH'~ I....."

'In- Y' ''''I. Iq',';.

.... 10.",1 k, ',,)', 1~,I0..,.. "" "" 1/" ... 0{ 1_ . I"'''H'C'' ~' , n","it) l'n ....
N,'" .h ..-) ). IC'JQ. I' 23"

, 11 , I",

.~ 'K" I .. .., 110>1\;" '" "'''''1<11 1-. I'll 19/.1. 1'l-1L!I",n lin. ... 11,.000..). !~,
'1, ,,1 '" .."",'" 1'1, ,,,.-11, " ",~, ,, ! I~ '1"':;'-' (_?I_
I .. .;... "'". ~ IH . , ,I , ,, 10"."" ,,". f I., II..~.I In'''''''' , J I-"-hn<oingy

a 1i,1I L""k""'''nd ",~ " I 'he hut'''''' (""dilt" n .

~,,,

U. ' "" I 'oM. I' 2,

\ , ' 1,...,,1 '" 11. . h.nl Iv ........, M ."""," \lc.-\o-.,~ I ~.", _ '" II. .-t...rd " ,.,,"'),

,,""'"' 1/- " . fA,.".. 1

,l l.,. I, .~'., .,.1 , ....


"

IJtIth' .... h.,-.

.n"w)b. 2003. 1' " 1

'''''''!''I'" ",,","_" ",It'

:~ I )"

.... ,

_,_<'-'" ...... _. I'd MillQ 1I<"ikkm<-n. '1" ,to.-" """" s,~

'1hi, '' ''plt.Il ;.- .~d.,r.Il ;' " ' "r "" h",.,."",, """ 101' ;. e'~" llIore " ')(,,111
".Loy , 10 :111 ,.. , I., . i",, "f ,', "ri, i,,~

..... ,... ,tMt. l'<onI,,",,,,,,,n, U a;"""";')

' I.... ;, " .....

,...-.lr-tI III I,r~ I,,,..,......, Jo'''''' ~ .. ,,' ~ 10""..., 1",,%w, ""'')til') .. ,I...
,~ .. ,., " ,,~Ii,) ill a 1~,ilo l i"K ,. If " ,. "",",1. lOr ,,JI 1=-.: ""'''' ~ ~,.~,
.... "if .. ,,, "'"

.J;tn .... '1......1. '1"""", {:a...

10 _ _ ... '/-'
th" ,~

I/o, 1iJoI4r _

Introduction

, hl'OUj(h .......mn.

a. , h.. al('" , -.( 115, ~ ...."l l .l<')<1 \\'I)I;h.

M~ , ...... -I\o.,,,

1_ 1:, .. ,...,... 11.1, 1_. '" 116

',~ ko.

..,.... M . .........

',,! 'n""f>II) I _

1"11, I' H':

I k , .. !,IU~ 1 ~.O(I ... nt Im . ~, ' r . " ,,1 on I/.... """_ ... II~ of 1"-. ....1
11,,, .1 \1 . 1 .--1 I '"'tn. I II.......... nI 1..1,~ .. n .. 1_ <11<-........... ~nd I ....

-I"

''b,... """"

tJl~ "'l.. . ,..j '" M;"'''\J;o~ 1 _." f;1"


I~_"
J' - .. / . _ 1 ....,.." fW.d, I .... t ""~ ....'}' ,... (:;O I~" .. I _

II~ . ,wl ' ", A"II:" ..... ~ ("'''. P 1J


~ ~,ol;u.- ...

8 ( """ It" 1\;ornLr

"""n . ,w( ......( (:'"OC",,,' in .....''"' ( I ~l\. P 2117

9 I ........ II. I~,~~ 1""' .........I oht ~.. I .......... , -.......... I ....... , 1<l9l~ ., D I

.0

p", ..

J:t\
II

SIuo.-ru.j/I..

c.....,.." (..... ~. ""'" Mid ",... f.klr<d. ... """,C'd in

il 9'J-I ~ p21

'n on s..--n 1'....1.. '.)",,~rn.,. m u.,...tol ,I>< !>ark I ,,~ '"


'li...m.II_ _ n-.C........ ,....lfl'Jl 1'J9'. M ,G~"'hooI"'"

.\0, ..............

,\t<'b"""' .....

M"'~,nll.

19') \

17 Ma n ", Jay. '1><,. "," Iliw...... ,,( M, . \cmK)'. '" 1'-0 ... I"""""". "" 1101
I.".. (Sno'\cl. 1'.111. I' 10,

""'''.Ib)'

211 ." .....a ".I\~ ") do-ot,;I,.. ,t .... ~ " ~ ,t..1Ic.t. u. hil ..... ) ' 110.: In"""',n"",
TM ( ;" ...... ' ,,' '/,/" ' ''''''' _ ... 1."oM<. ,..j CI.o",\c I .. ron. No" """""",",,
I 'n"~"")' ........ )"'>n"",,, ""'''h ' ' ' ' '111< 1Q9'1, ' M ) 00dy .. ,,,",,,, of ,t..
&&m<' ~ ... ,t.. onoid
,h .. ....... , ... In) bod) .. oharffi ~' ,I.. onoid [ [" if'
!.o~ aNI, ' .", IIr'" (of ,t.. onoid to' ,",' ' ... n Ii [
J. "'j"~'" <hal ,..,ur", to
H... 1f and ...". "" '" ..... ' (p I-Ito\ I"" ""'''''' .... mn from .l I mo:. .... ~'.
........ ,.-..1
,t..
,t.. onoid _ ,t.. wi: II. oho
1J"'alr.. of ,/or
<I oht n..... ... ,t.. , _.
d".", of ... inioi.al
plornon""""'c..... ........1..... 'n.. '",,~. wnpt;n
boorh

,hW
.'" . . .
on.......,

1:-'-' ,"

Ih,d. P 1.

It

lbid.p].

I}

I b. . 1 11. .. '1'0 I., 1___ 1} ,'"

16 )l;n' ot!

19 '"

~ I ,,"""

J(,.;oo~,,,, , ... .....

I .... on. '1'" I..... ar.'

ll"', '" , ~

''''!), 1Ibo" ~ .....

r. u

l~

~'''.I'''''''''''' g ,

( -......l. 1"'1. I' Tn

16 IhJ ...Ju<iu'."' .., ....... Il<-J~ .....,,,.....,. ,,,1 I"'I .. "-""!o


Jr.." 19')l\, .. 7 1

,.. Un....." "... on

:1<1

'n...'....h r-. ..,......... .,'" 1f ,II .. I....., 110 . .. U. " .o... W...., "."r,,,,,,,,.

"'.~ ."

I',ul

j>\'I I ' ~ ' t \

"",~-.

on ",. , ,...... II....

P I I"

.!to 'i<I(f,;...H;,,-.liuo.

1'1\>1. P Xl1

1:;0" "'" ,... .11__1-'"


1911/1, I' ~7

\'" .II,~ \ "u'''''I''" "," ol, ,N", \ '"rk\,

I ",~,

12

.\1." ." It'"~'' "11.. <\'I"" ,... ,... 11".......1 I'\o:,~ .... in ~t.run II"io:\o:-w" n"
1:,.,,-.... "11

'/~""""",-, t.- f;'"," .

l~

,' , 'I''''''') i" it';'l. I' 2'l'j

:J/j

IAl ....

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W,I'...-J' )"K, '_II (11-,

,,' "l t Ial i. IItt IIIdMtt , _ _ I

" ,.~\o~ ,

\ . ......... ,. " I g, 11 .-1",,,1 ....A"W'). ) ' , ,,, 1'.,,1


II..-..f.....-I ....... , 1', ,\

'+"'.., _ _ I ........... /1.,( ___

, ......-.1 ...... <,d..t-o:o-d ,..... ,""', 11." . ,,1 l " .. ...... '

THElY

~.'''''''' ... ..

nn ......, ' _

Il d' j'" '" It.,... IN.... , ...... .

3-1 1.... 1. I> 2'13

H 11.,,,,, .1')' \ ........ 1hu'...>to '"'>r(In "' 1...., .. ' I'. Jf. I'I IQ

"

Ilr<}fuo, 'l",mbron'

.......... ..... JOorw.

11 ll . n>")'I'I,:!til .101

11.. ,,,".,, II",...... INc' \ \. \, 1'lt.Il. , .~,. "' I . I' 2.;1,


.\1 1>< .... " " I ... 1 ."tao,:" It ;.,.. : . I_~'" "'oif~. '" '1, ,,1 '"

J.>\ ' 1'1)1

"'11;. ~n<l I...""" An.."

II

1991).., 4

11.....1 M.- I... ,I I .... , ,, , ., '" IWI \ R,..o.,._1} I!.wt. I!i"" .... ~"
11 ~~w . "'. 110 .. " . Mdt . ",,, .. . ,. I I Ic"i<}. 1'183.1' 'H.

l}

I. '

~ I """",, ~ I ......... ","""

1'111,1' I'll

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!.

'l""''''' .. H uI .."

I"m><loco"",\ ..

~ ..... ,

19

I ... '1' a 90,

S<o<

m""1' .II.... "'_ .

" ... ""MI .... " ., lIul,lCII"".

I...., ,I'"'j' "

17 lb<U,p211

11

ro..
,ha, """''''''''_

oponMIAl_"'"'"""

...t,....,,,..

" ....... .ond ..... """"


_tMI ohy<,,,".
k iorhard Kr~","", '~ I""""" M..,t.-_"",ty-. '"

12 1...... I ..... ].
IJ

""""""''''111'''

'I, ....

I~""

1.-.-., '~h
COl"''';'''''' . 1'1";
A,\",

" .1 N"",' ,, ";' 1. ">11

lhod.p 117_

<-

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n..I.I'

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\ " I",,,,,I.,j>,

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~ .' hl... l.o)

,\ <w y,";'I. 1' ';9.

J.... " ',.,<f'" 1l 00U. Il00,,...,,,,,

It~

lLid,plt
,~ ,

Pl '

"

.>11 11>0<1. I' Iii

13 A. , ..... ...1 HI ~ ..J , I'P )-, )

... n ..., 1I,,,1.... L,.nL

f'"

I...,., """",.

1-..11....., "

r.,.. . II.... ,.,

,\.II.'" " <,......1~, I......,

, ...... I~ ~' "

' ' ,'I, P X I I

.,4 Ih.d . r 11

I II

L9'))1, I' 6 '

II, A. qu< . .... IIIJ.o)" 1")1\" \


17 . .. ( ~ .. t."..,.

~9

(~~11 ~12

1981~

P 115.

"""'<'< ,...... I.....

W........ I . , , _ ............... ...... .... , Ihmkf... and II ........ OJt, 1<l!>6. I.> IS 1S

.t.ru.,.. ..,..................

'>J "" .JOO'<'<I .'10 .... , " ...." f .. / ' 'p",l>, I\-not> .. , IJ.....b \ ... l ..n\ ...... I' ",

n "'""" .....

~,

I.. C.wl ....... ,1 """ " 1' 1 1

Ib M..,,,..,. \I m.--.u- ,I.,n.

!)l,

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I.. U. ........I,

1;1..... m .... n' .,(


(In

h"' .. ...-...J "".... ,,( . ."'..... and


tIun ,.,....,.
" ....... " . .... moI.r . 1 ...aoIr , .... ~, ..........."" ..,.... ,~ h. ..... ,han , .... mil
.................... _,,( ......... .);0) 19'>1.1'6.

1<)1

'wi .. , I ~.Ir,. " l .. "U... - [ I,., .,,,. 1 ..1''''''" '11''1. io, 11lw'ISL.,...... I, fflo \ /\-.or A.I,,, .,..1 ( ........ " S.1o"~. O ...... ll lm.nLi ,

"""" .. ~ oJ-. .. ,.... .-........

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'..-po" F...-h ...... ".,w... IX! mob., ".t. ~h.h .. ~;"..,."..._

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51 ,I , 4...... 1

III ""w. '''' .....

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I ~""'J""''''

L.s...-.

I' XIII

''''" .. ,,( , ......... t ....

.12

1'f12.I,1I1

~I.","'<U.

7' WM"., 8OI1.00U fibrt.. and

, ... C .,l"",",- ',",," ....... ,1_ _.


r..........k ,\ ....._ . ~ 1....1. , I'I},' . P 1101

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