Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 512

Sequence

-
-
2002

681.3.06
32.973.26
65
. .
65 BIOS.

.: 2002.

400 : .

ISBN 5-94157-170-4

BIOS
, , ).
, , :
- .
,
.
.
.

32.9"
:

.
.




.
02429 24.07.00. 07.05.02.
. . . . 32,25.
4000 .
"-",
-, ., 29.
,
13.03.2002 . .

""
199034, -, 9 , 12.

9
?
?
?
12

? 13

15
?
16
I. BIOS
19
1. BIOS
21
BIOS?
21
BIOS
23
BIOS
25
2. ,
28
?
28
POST-
31
POST-
32
POST- AWARD BIOS
33
3. BIOS
37


37

39

42

45
AWARD BIOS
46
AMI BIOS
47
BIOS
47
. BIOS
49
4.
51

51

52


5.
57
6.
69

69

73
-
80


104
""
7.
116
VLB
116
ISA
116
PCI
120
AGP
131
134
8. /
135
9.
140
10.
147
11. -
151

12.
153
13.
156
14. SCSI-
160
15.
163
16.
168
/
168

175
17.
186
18.
190

190

193
19. BIOS
196
20.
201
85
USB


III.
203
21.
205
AWARD BIOS
205
AMI BIOS
207
Phoenix BIOS
208
22.
212

212

233
23. "" BIOS
238
"" BIOS?
238

239

241
IV. BIOS
245
24.
247
BIOS?

247
, ?
248
BIOS?
249
?
251
25.
252
BIOS
252

254
Award Flash
255
AMI Flash
258
, BIOS
262
26. BIOS
264
BIOS?
265
BIOS
266
V.
269
27.
271
28.

276

276
BIOS
277

278

279

282

283



284

285

285

286

288

289

289
29.
291
Intel
291
Pentium II
292
Pentium III
293
Celeron
294
AMD
296
Athlon/Duron
296
XP/MP
299

299
30. ""
301
31.

304

304

304

305

307

308

308

VI.
313
32. ?
315
33. /
317

317

318
-
319
IDE
321
SCSI
324

327
Socket 370/423/A
328
311
Slot
Socket

330
SIMM
331
DIMM
332



333
ISA
333
EISA
334

335
VLB
335
PCI
336
AGP
336
.
337
... ?
337

339
""
339

340

346

347


347

366

367

368

370

370

371

371

373
SCSI
374

375

376

377
CD-ROM
379

381


?
, : (,
) (,

. .). ,
"" (
, , ).
.
,
,
( ) (,
).
, ,
.

,
,
.
. ,
,
.
, ,
, :

;
, ,
;


,
DOS Windows ;
(, . upgrade)
;
,
;

.
: "
BIOS,
?" . , ,

. ""
72 , 48. . ,

Microsoft
Office. ?

BIOS

,
, . .
,
. ,
,
, .
. ,
,
, . .
. , ""
. - /
,
.
BIOS?
:
;
;
.
"" , ,

. , ,
,


( ).
/
.
,
/.
.

.
,
, , - ,
.
, ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
, ,
,
.
,
(,
).
,
/.
?
. , : "
, ?" ,


.
, (
) .
? ?
,
.
.
. ,
, ,
.
.
, ,
"" Windows


,
, ,
.
, ,
, . Windows,
,
"" .
. : "-",
. , 40 , .
, , , , : "
?"
, .
.
, :
;
;
;
;
;
.
.
,


.
. ,
, , ,
: " ?"
?
,
.
IBM.
,
. IBM
PC
. .
,


, .
- IBM PC

" ". IBM
, . . ,
( IBM), IBM PC .
" " .
,
. , ,
.

, .

.
" "
IBM- .
IBM PC (EC1840, "" . .),
.
"" ,

"".

.
, - ,
, -
.
(
). ,
.
"" ,
""
( , ).
,

. .

.
,
.


,

,
.
:
;
;
;
;
.

. ,
,
( )? . .
,

"".
: ,
, . ,
, . .
.
,
.
,
, , . , ,
,
.

. :
, , ,
, , ,
. .


. ,
.
, .
. ""
.


, .
, . . .



. ,
.
.
,

.
,
.

. ,
.
,
. ,
,
. , , ,
, . ,
.
? : /.

, .
,
. , /
.
, , . .
"" ,
, ,
, .


, . ,
. ,

.
, .
, ,
.
, , ,
,
.
,
, ,


. ,
,
, ,
. ,
, , , ,
.
"
", , ,
.

. , ,
,
- " ".

, , ,

. ,
,
. , ,
"" 50 70 ,
, . ""

.
, -
-
, .
" - ?"
.
( ) .

.
?
.
, ,
,
.
.
BIOS,
,
, .
, ,
.


.
? .
I. BIOS. ,
, ,
BIOS ,
CMOS Setup.
:
BIOS, ;
, ;
;
CMOS Setup;
;
,
;
BIOS.
. BIOS.
,
.
,
. , ,
:
;
;
;
.
III. .
, ,
. ,
,
. ,
.
,

"", .
IV. BIOS. ,
, .
BIOS /
, DOS,
.
V. .
,



"".

, .

.
.
VI. .
,
.


, ,
. .
,
.
, ,
, ,
. .
. .
,
, ,
. . ,
""? .
,
,
,
, .

1. BIOS
2. ,

3. BIOS


BIOS
BIOS?
,
(BIOS)
.
""
, .
"" , ,
, .
, -
MS-DOS (
, ).

.
Windows.
/ :
, ,
.
/ (BIOS)
,
( , , ,
, ). ,

BIOS. :

.

BIOS
,

I. BIOS

. BIOS ,
30%.
BIOS?
:
1. .
, ,
, .
,
. "" ""
.
2. .

"",
. ,
,
.
,
.
, ,
.
3. . ,
, ,
- . Plug and
Play ( ), ,
, ,
. : , ,
, USB,
.
,
.
4. .
BIOS
, . . .
,
BIOS,

. ,
? ,
. , ,
,
.

' 1. BIOS 23
-
- .

, ,

.
.
BIOS ,
""
' .
" ".
""
(

,
. .).
BIOS
( . Basic Input/Output System, /)
,

BIOS: , -BIOS
,
, BIOS SCSI

- . . BIOS,
:
1
;
BIOS,
;
.
/
.
, BIOS ,
Windows , . BIOS
,
.
BIOS ,
-, ()

. DOS
BIOS.

I. BIOS
( Windows)

BIOS.
, ,
BIOS.
CMOS ( . Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor,
)

.
.

.
.
BIOS CMOS. BIOS ,
, a CMOS
,
BIOS.
CMOS- , :
, , , ,
, . .
ESCD ( . Extended System Configuration Data,
)
Plug and Play.


"Updating ESCD... Success",
ESCD. BIOS
.
NVRAM ( . Non Volatile, )
.
.
.
( . Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory)

,
. BIOS
, .
( . Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory)
,
.
. Flash ROM.
, ,
.
BIOS (Plug and Play BIOS) BIOS,
Plug and Play. Flash
ROM.

1. BIOS
RTC (Real Time Clock) . ,
CMOS (
).
BIOS
.
(, IBM, Intel)
BIOS.
:
Award Software

AWARD BIOS;
Phoenix Technologies Ltd.
Phoenix BIOS;
American Megatrends Inc.

http://www.ptltd.com/,

AMI BIOS;
Microid Research

MR BIOS.

BIOS .

AWARD BIOS AMI BIOS Phoenix BIOS
.
BIOS
BIOS
(ROM, Read
Only Memory
), .
ROM BIOS.
, (28 32 )
: -,
BIOS (, AWARD).
("") , CMOS.
( 1
1
128 256 ). . 1.1

, .
. 1.1. ROM BIOS

BIOS -

I. BIOS
, .
:

.
Flash-
(
BIOS Flash-
),
BIOS.

Flash BIOS.
BIOS,
.
Flash BIOS
.
. 28 29,
, Flash-.
Flash.
1.2. , BIOS


CMOS- - ,
CMOS (. 1.2).
.
10 . ,
( , ) ,
.
CMOS
.
. Dallas (. .

f 1. BIOS
Dallas Nov-RAM) ODIN. ,
,
.

( ),
. :
,
(. 1.3).
.
,
CMOS
, BIOS,
CMOS Setup Utility, ,
CMOS, .

,

?
: " ,
".
. ?
.
, , .
Power .
,
0,1 0,5 Power Good (" "),
Reset
("").
.

. , ,

,
1 ( ).
,
.

( ), BIOS.

BIOS.
, .
, .

2. ,
?
.

/
.
, POST
. Power-On Self Test, ).
, BIOS-.


:
.
,
BIOS .
,
, .
,
, -,

MOS-,

.

.
(
, . .)
BIOS.
, , SCSI-
. BIOS
(, SCSI-
, ,

ID-ROM).

BIOS .
3 BIOS
:, ,

( ,
, . .).
. BIOS

.
- ,
,

I. BIOS
( ),

, .

,
( ) (
),
BIOS
. BIOS
.

BIOS
. ,
. (IRQ), DMA /
(I/O).
, , :
,
;
;
;
,
(, . .);
;
;
.
, ,
, :

IDE;
;
;
;
;
.
,
PCI, , .
<Pause>
,

2. , 31_

.

, ,
(NBR, Non-System Bootstrap),
,
(MBR,
Boot Record).
FDISK.
NBR (SB,
System Bootstrap),
(Boot Record).
,
,
BIOS.
,
,
.
POST-
86

.

Manufacturing Test Port (

BIOS ,
, ,
, ().
BIOS
0080 .
.
, BIOS ,
. ,
POST-, ,
.

.
"" .

POST-.

.

I. BIOS
,
,
(
).

ISA PCI.

ISA ,
,
PCI POST- (. 2.1).
. 2.1 . IC80+ PCI

ISA, PCI.
, ,
.
,
,
.
, ,
.
POST-
POST-,
,
:
3,3 , 5 , +12 , -12 ;
;
;

2. ,
D
;
- , ;
;
BIOS ;
;
, , DMA-;
ISA PCI;
CMOS, DMA, , ;
;

, POST-
,
.
BIOS. ,
.
POST- AWARD BIOS
:
-,
-;
,
BIOS
BIOS;
DMA, ,
. RTC
. CMOS
,
.
1 /
.
.
.
256 ,
BIOS.
5
.
2

I. BIOS
6
, .
8 BIOS.

BIOS,
.
CF , CMOS.
- ,
, . .
.
01 BIOS
. , . .

POST.
02 .
80386 ,
01.
03
EISA-
, NMI.

04

.
05

, .
06
, BIOS.
07

CMOS-

. ,
, BIOS .
/ CMOS-
07.

08 256
.
09 Cyrix.
BE

0
,
.
0
CMOS-. BIOS
Plug and Play,
ISA
.

2. , 35

BIOS.
0D/0E . BIOS,
.
.
, ,
.
OF
.

"" PS/2.
20/2F EISA-.
.
30/31
,

.
3D
41
42

, PS/2.
.
.

,
IDE, CMOS-.
45

4 USB-.
.
4F ,
. Energy Star .
52 BIOS.
53 DOS
.
60 Boot Sector,
.
62
,

.
63 PnP-
ESCD, .
, ,
.
, BIOS .

I. BIOS
,
.
BF

BIOS.
FF .

,
-.
BIOS
, , ,
.


BIOS
BIOS ,

, ,
. . BIOS
,


.
CMOS Setup Utility ( ,
CMOS-).
BIOS.
. ,
, . ,

.
, " " ,

.
, ,
- .
BIOS (AWARD AMI)
, (Phoenix)
.

CMOS Setup Utility
. ,
"" ,
, . ,

I. BIOS
, ,
, . , ,
- .
"-", .
,
(,
.), "" Windows
, .
,
"" BIOS?
.
BIOS
. , ,
833 336 !
,
(, ).
-, ,
""
CMOS-. -,
, ,

"" .

(
<Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Del> Reset)
.
,
,
"Press Del to enter Setup". <Delete> (<Del> ,
)
CMOS Setup Utility,
. <Del>

. ,
<NumLock>.
, ,
? .
1. BIOS ,

(,

).
<Delete>
(
600 700

3. BIOS
). ,
,
.
. ,
, (
.
, Compaq
CMOS Setup
<Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Del> .
, . . .
: <Ctrl>+<Esc>,
<Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Esc>, <Ctrl>+<Alt>+<S>, <Esc>.

, <F1>, <F2> <F10>.
,
, "".
- ,
<>, .
, ,
(
, ). ,
-
( ).
BIOS

( ).
,
-,
( ,
).

CMOS Setup Utility
:- , , . 3.1 3.2.
. ,
, .

, .
,
. ,

I. BIOS
-
BIOS.
.1. AWARD BIOS 4.5
. 3.2. AWARD BIOS 6.0,
Pentium III/IV
AWARD BIOS :
<t>
;
D <Enter> ;
<Page Up> <Page Down>
, ,
;
<Esc>
;

" 3. BIOS
<F10>

;
<F2>
,
.
AWARD BIOS 6.0 ,
.
:
<> <d> .
,

<> <> (

<Enter>
, .
-
<Enter> .
<>


<Enter>;
<Esc> Exit ();

<F1> <Alt>+<H>
;
< > ( )
;

<+> ( )
;
<Page Up>
;
<Page Down>

;
<F5> ,
;
<F10> .
AMI BIOS :

<t>

;
<Enter>
;
<Page Up> <Page Down>
, ,
;
<Esc>

;

I. BIOS
<F10>

<F2> <F3>

\
;
<F1>

, .

-
, .


BIOS, ,
.
, .
,

, , .

, .
BIOS

AWARD BIOS

,
,
.

Standard CMOS Setup
.

( , ),
.
, .
BIOS ,
, , .
, CMOS-,
, ,
.
.
.
Main . ,

.

3. BIOS
BIOS Features Setup
.
: ,
( ),
"", -
. Boot.
Chipset Features Setup

. ,
.

(
).
Advanced Chipset Setup Advanced.
Power Management Setup
,
.
"" .
Power.
Configuration
,
(,
DMA, /).
Load BIOS Defaults
" BIOS ".

BIOS
. ,
, .

. , ""

. " "
BIOS -
,
. ,
,
. . , : Restore BIOS Defaults,
Load Fail Safe.
Load Setup Defaults
BIOS -
.

I. BIOS
<Enter>.
BIOS ,
.

. : Original, Auto
Configuration With Power-On Default, Load Defaults.
Load Turbo Defaults

BIOS.
. ,
,

. .
Integrated Peripherals
,
. BIOS ,
-
.
Password Setting
,
. : User Password,
Supervisor Password, Change Password.
Hard Disk Utility
,
. ,
, SCSI.
BIOS HDD Low Format. ,
.
10
BIOS - ,
, - ,
.
HDD Auto Detection

IDE.

500 , . . .
(
-
).

3. BIOS
Save And Exit Setup
<Enter>
.
.
Write
CMOS And Exit.
Exit Without Saving
.
,
.

<Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Del>.
Do Not Write
CMOS And Exit.
Save EEPROM Defaults
CMOS .
,
.
Load EEPROM Defaults
CMOS .
Save, .
II ,
.

BIOS
CMOS Setup Utility.
. ,

, .
: ,
... , (
). ?
: " !
, !
". , ,
-?
. ?
,
,
, -

I. BIOS
. BIOS ( AWARD BIOS 4.5 )
""
.
<Ins>.
. ,
(
Load BIOS Defaults ).
""
, .
? ,
, BIOS
.
BIOS,
.
BIOS .
.

BIOS ( ).
AWARD BIOS
2.50:
AWARD_SW, j262, TTPTHA, 01322222, KDD, ZBAAACA, aPAf,
t0ch88, t0ch20x, h6BB,
TzqF.
2.51:
AWARD_WG, j256, BIOSTAR,
ZAAADA, Syxz, ?award,
SWITCHES_SW, Sxyz, SZYX, t0ch20x.
2.51G:
g6PJ, j322, ZJAAADC, Wodj, bios*, biosstar, h6BB, HELGA-S, HEWITT
RAND, HLT, tOch.88,
2.51U:
condo, biostar, CONDO, CONCAT, djonet, efmukl, g6PJ,
j64,
zbaaaca.
4.5 ( ):
AWARD_SW, AWARD_PW, 589589, PASSWORD,
AWARD SW,
award.sw,

award_?,
ZAAADA.
6.0:
AWARD_SW, lkwpeter, Wodj, aPAf, j262, Syxz, ZJAADC, j322, ?award,
TTPTHA, KDD, HLT, , , 01322222,
ZAAADA.

3. BIOS
, 4.51PG
, ,
23.
AMI BIOS
SER, A.M.I.,
BIOSPASS,
AMI.KEY,
HEWITT RAND, ami',
AMISETUP,
KILLCMOS,
AMI~, ,
"" BIOS ,
<Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Del>+<Ins>
<Ins> (

BIOS
AWARD AMI BIOS,
/ .
BIOS ,
. .
:
AMPTON BIOS - Polity;
AST BIOS - SnuFG5;
BIOSTAR BIOS
Biostar, Q54arwms;
COMPAQ BIOS- Compaq;
CONCORD BIOS - last;
CTX International BIOS
CTX_123;
CyberMax BIOS
Congress;
Daewoo BIOS Daewuu, Daewoo;
Daytec BIOS Daytec;
DELL BIOS - Dell;
Digital Equipment BIOS
Epox BIOS
Central;
Freetech BIOS
Posterie;
HP Vectra BIOS
hewlpack;
IBM BIOS - IBM,
BIOS

I. BIOS
JetWay BIOS
spooml;
Joss Technology BIOS 57gbz6, technology;
M Technology BIOS
MachSpeed BIOS
sp99dd;
Magic-Pro BIOS prost;
Megastar BIOS star,
xyzall;
Micronics BIOS
dn_04rjc;

Nimble BIOS - xdfk9874t3;


Packard Bell BIOS - bell9;
BIOS

Quantex BIOS xljlbj;


Research BIOS - Col2ogro2;
Shuttle BIOS
Col2ogro2;
Siemens Nixdorf BIOS
SpeedEasy BIOS lesarotl;
SuperMicro BIOS - ksdjfg934t;
Tinys BIOS
tiny, tinys;
TMC BIOS
Toshiba BIOS Toshiba, 24Banc81, toshy99;
Vextrec Technology BIOS
Vextrex;
Vobis BIOS
merlin;
WIMBIOS v2.10 BIOS
Zenith BIOS
3098z, Zenith;
ZEOS BIOS - zeosx.

II
BIOS

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.


13.
14. SCSI-
15.
16.
17.
18.
19. BIOS
20.


,
( , ),
.
,
.
, ,
,

(RTC, Real Time Clock).
, RTC, log
( ),
-
. . , ,
BIOS.

Date (mm:dd:yy) and Time
, Standard CMOS Setup,
,

. , BIOS
.
, BIOS ,
.
,
CMOS Setup Utility. (
) BIOS.

II. BIOS
BIOS
System Time System Date (
).
Daylight Saving
BIOS
.
:
Enabled . MS-DOS;
Disabled
. , . .
(, Windows
98) .


Floppy 3 Mode Support
.
, .


1 /.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled . .
BIOS Floppy 3 Mode.
Floppy Disk Drive

(Drive A, Drive ).
:
None
;
360 KB 5.25"
5,25
360 ;
1.2 MB 5.25"
5,25
1,2 ;
720
3.5" 3,5
720 ;
1.44 MB 3.5" 3,5
1,44 ;

-: 4.
2.88
3.5" 3,5
2,88 .
, , ,
(Drive ) 5,25", (Drive )
3,5". "".
3,5". BIOS
, .
. ,
Windows 95,
. ,
CMOS-.
,
""
.
,
.
,
.
BIOS
Legacy Diskette ()
,
.
Hard Disks

IDE ( EIDE). ,
SCSI-,
(SCSI-)
BIOS.
IDE
,
IDE ( ).
( ) Primary, , ,
"" Secondary.
IDE-
(Master) (Slave).
, ,
( ).
TYPE.
( ).
:
Auto
BIOS
.

II. BIOS
.

, .
( 500 )
, . .
.
,
,
;
None
- ,
IDE.
SCSI-

;
User (0-46)
. 0 45

. ,
. 46
.
,
.
HDD Auto Detection
CMOS Setup Utility
;
CD-ROM BIOS, IDE
-.
BIOS
ATAPI, CD-ROM.
,
;


Iomega ZIP;

,
;
Other ATAPI Device
,
,
.
CYLN. ,
IDE.

4.
HEAD. ,
IDE,
.
,
IDE
,
, , .
,
.
65 535.
,
"", ,
.
, "".
SECT. ,
.
SIZE.
.
, ,
.

.
MODE.

,
. :
Auto

.
,
.
;
Normal .
BIOS 63,
1024,
504 ;
LBA ,
1 .
,
.


, . . .
BIOS
8 ;

II. BIOS

Large

IDE,

1 ,
LBA.
32,
.
1 , Large
( -

). UNIX
;
,
IDE
.
,
;
None SCSI-.
Maximum LBA Capacity

, LBA- .
.
Set Device As...
,
.
:
Auto
;
Floppy
-;
Hard Disk




: (,
)
. ,
,
, , ,
.
CD-ROM

CD-ROM .
:
Enabled .
CD-ROM.
<Enter>
CD-ROM,
;
Disabled
.
Above
Mb Memory Test
.
:
Enabled
1 ( XMS);
Disabled .
,

II. BIOS
- HIMEM.SYS
.
.
Boot From LAN First
().
:
Enabled
- ,
.
;
Disabled
.
. .
Boot Sequence

.
-.
, LS-120 Iomega
ZIP. , , D, F,
(:
, D:
. .),
. ,
, D:
" ".
:
,
.

:. - ,
( )
.
, , .
,
;
, , SCSI , ,
,
SCSI- ( , CD-ROM);
only
:.

.
;

' 5.
,

;
, A, : IDE, , SCSI. ,
SCSI,
IDE
;
, CD-ROM, A
: ,
CD-ROM, -;
CD-ROM, ,
-.
,
. -
,
;
D, A, SCSI

IDE.
(, , slave-);
, A, SCSI
,
IDE ;
F, A, SCSI
IDE;

,
Iomega ZIP;
SCSI, ,

, SCSI;
SCSI, ,
,
SCSI-
IDE.
BIOS Boot Sequence

. :
First Boot Device, Second Boot Device, Third Boot Device Boot Other
Device.
:
Floppy
HDD-0
HDD-]


IDE (Primary Master);
IDE (Primary Slave);

II. BIOS
HDD-2
IDE (Secondary Master);
HDD-3
IDE (Secondary Slave);
LAN ;
SCSI SCSI;
LS/ZIP

Iomega ZIP;
CD-ROM
-;
Enabled , (
,
);
Disabled
.
AMI BIOS , :
Floppy, Floptical (LS-120), CD-ROM, SCSI Device, Network,
Try Other Boot Device Yes
,
.
System Boot Sequence.
Boot Up Floppy Seek
.
,
-.
80 40 (
).
, , 1993 40
.
:
Enabled
;
Disabled
. .
BIOS
Floppy Drive Seek
At Boot.
Boot Up System Speed

.
:
High
(
). ;
Low
- (

BIOS
Boot Up CPU Speed.

System

Boot Warning

, ,
.
, ,
.

.
, , ,
- .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
,
boot-. Windows 9x
, ,
, . . BIOS
.
boot-
( , . .


boot-).
Boot Warning :
;
/MBR;
;
OS/2 (OS/2
Boot Manager);
,
boot- "
". SCSI-,
BIOS .

II. BIOS
BIOS

, Enabled,

.
"ChipAway Virus
Enabled".
.
: Virus Warning, Virus Protection, Anti-Virus
Protection BootSector Virus Protection.
Boot Virus Protection
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Boot Warning.
BIOS
- .
boot-
. ,
.

, .
BIOS
Detection.

BootSector Virus

Delay On Option ROMs



BIOS,

.
:
Enabled . .|
, ]
;
]
Disabled
.
.
Deturbo Mode

Pro (, Pentium ).
( ]
).

5.
:
Enabled -
;
Disabled
(
-). .
AMI BIOS , :
Turbo ( ). : Turbo
Switch, Turbo Switch Function, Turbo/Deturbo Switch,
/ Turbo
.
Display Mode at Add-On ROM
,
BIOS .
:
Force BIOS

;
Keep Current

.
Fast Decode
,

. BIOS Intel 286.
386
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
HDD Sequence SCSI/IDE First
, (SCSI IDE)
.
, .
:
IDE IDE-;
SCSI
SCSI-.
, SCSI- ,

II. BIOS
IDE-,
SCSI IDE-,
.

On

. ,
.
:

Errors
.
,
,
;
No Errors
,
. .
, -
;
All But Keyboard

, .
,
, ;

But Disk
,
.
, -
, ;
All But Disk/Keyboard

,
.
BIOS Error
Halt, POST Error Halt POST Errors. ,
:
Halt On All Errors

;
No Halt All Errors

.
Hard Disk 47 RAM Area
,
,
.

5. 65
:
DOS BIOS ,

.
DOS-,
, -
.
Hit <Del> Message Display
,
(
<Del>).
.
.
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled
.
BIOS
Setup
Prompt.
LAN Remote Boot
,
.
:
BootP
BootP;
LSA LSA;
Disabled .
.
Memory Test Tick Sound

.

.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
.

II. BIOS
Option ROM
BIOS,
. BIOS
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
, , SCSI-
BIOS, SCSI-.
, BIOS
.
Overclock Warning Message

, .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
, . .
BIOS
.
Quick Power On Self Test

. BIOS ,

( ).

,
. , - IDE
.


.
:
Enabled (
).
;
Disabled
.
,
.

5.
BIOS ( AMI BIOS)
: Quick Boot, Quick Boot Mode.
RTC Y2K
Roll Over
2000 .
1998

, BIOS
.
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Removable Device
,
.
:
Legacy Floppy
;
CD-ROM
- IDE;
LS-120;
ZIP-100 Iomega ZIP;
ATAPI
,
IDE;
Disabled
.
Scan User Flash Area
, BIOS
Flash-,
POST-
OEM-, .

, ,
.

, .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
. .
Speech POST Reporter

POST. , ,
.

II. BIOS
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled
. .
Summary Screen

.
BIOS.
.
:
Enabled
;
Disabled

.
BIOS Boottime Diagnosis
Screen.
System Performance
,
.
:
Standard

. ;
Fast

BIOS, .
.
Any Error

.
:
Enabled

<F1>.
Yes;
Disabled

.
,
. No.


.
, (, _
, -, ) BIOS
,
-:
. (
10%) .
,
,
. , ,

: ,
,
, . .


.
,
.
Auto Configuration

.
,
(,
).

.

II. BIOS
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Burst Copy-Back Option
, ,
-
"", ( Burst-).
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
CPU: System Frequency Multiple
,
.
BIOS.
Chipset Wait States

/.
,
.
:
2WS ( 27)
;
4WS (4)
;
5WS (5)
;
6WS (6)
.
Chipset Special Features
,
430 Intel
VX ) FX.
430FX.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Drive NA# Before BRDY
NA#
BRDY# /,
ADS#
BRDY# .

6.
BRDY# (Bus-Ready) "" ,
,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Extra AT Cycle WS

.
,

.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Decode Select
,
.
:
Subtractive ;
Positive
.
LOCK Function

Bus-Master.
LOCK, ,
master- /.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
MD Drive Strength
""
.
:
Hi
.
;
Low .
.

II. BIOS
NA# Enable
/ NA#.
:
Enabled ,


, ,
. ,

;
Disabled
.
.
BIOS NA# Pin Assertion.
Prefetch
BIOS ,

,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
. .
PIIX4
BIOS
System Error.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled .
Pipelined Function
, ,

,
.
.
, , . .
.

.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.

6.
BIOS : CPU
Pipeline Function, CPU
Pipelining.
Single ALE# Enable
/ ALE#.
ALE#
- (
/
).


.
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled
.
.
BIOS ALE During Bus
Conversion :
Single
;
Multiple
.
ISA- (. . /).
,
ALE#
.
Extended ALE : Enabled
Disabled
.
"" BIOS
Quick Mode.

/
"" .
. ,
.
( )
3,3 .
BIOS
Voltage.

, ,
.

, ,

II. BIOS

.

.
BIOS Update
6 (Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Celeron)
, " ",
,
/ .
BIOS
POST. BIOS

.
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled
. .
BIOS :
CPU Microcode Updation, Pentium II Microcode CPU Update
Data.
CPU FSB Clock
,
.

BIOS. , : 66,
75, 83 . .
, ,
66, 100 133 , .
CPU Fast String

Pentium Pro (, Pentium II),
, .
,
.
:

;
Disabled
.
.

6.
CPU Mstr Fast Interface

, Back-to-Back.

Bus-Master.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
CPU
Post WR Buffer

Bus-Master.
:
N/A

;
2

;
4
.
.
CPU Mstr Post WR Burst Mode

Bus-Master,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
CPU Operating Frequency
.
:
Auto

;
User Define
.
CPU Priority

master-.
:
Always Last
;

II. BIOS|

CPU 2nd
master-;
CPU 3rd
;
CPU 4th
.
, ,
,
.
Enabled
Disabled

PCI Masters

;
.
BIOS
Priopity, :

Rotating
;
Fixed
.
CPU Ratio
|
.

.
, ,
, j
. , I
, BIOS ( J
).
CPU Speed
.
:
Auto

;
Manual
|

Instruction
, . .
, (OEM-, Overdrive.
Dual), , , (
).
-

6.

.
,
(
). ,
Cyrix.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Command Per Cycle

, .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Cyrix 6x86/MII CPU ID
Cyrix
:
Enabled .
Cyrix;
Disabled .
.

.
Recovery Time

/.
:
Enabled . ,
;
Disabled
.
.
Master Retry Timer
,
,
.

II. BIOS
:
10 PCIClks ( ), 18 PCIClks, 34 - ,

.
Multiplier Factor
,
.


BIOS.
Numeric Processor Test

. . ,
486DX, ,
( ,
).
:
.
,
;
Disabled . 386SX,
386DX, 486SX, 486SLC, 486DLC
.
, ,
.
Processor Number Feature
Pentium III
.
BIOS , Pentium III.
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled
. ,
, .
: Processor S/N, CPU Serial Number (Phoenix
BIOS) Processor Serial Number (AMI BIOS).
Stop CPU at PCI Master

,

6.

:
Enabled ;
Disabled
. .
,
BIOS.
Stop CPU when PCI Flush
,
FLUSH,
, PCI .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
System Processor Type
,
. BIOS ,
.
System
, .
BIOS ,
.
:
UP

DP
Vcore

. ,
;
.
Voltage

.
,
.

(
).
,
Auto ,
.
BIOS : CPU Core Voltage,
CPU Voltage.

II. BIOS
Weitek Coprocessor

Weitek. Weitek
,
.
, 2 3
Intel.
:
Enabled .
Weitek ,

;
Disabled .
.
-
- , ,
,
-.
Burst SRAM Burst Cycle
/ -
Burst-. ,
.
:
4-1-1-1 . ,
;
3-1-1-1 ,
.
Burst Write
Burst
- .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
CPU Internal Cache, External Cache
, , -,
, -,

6.
. - ,

.
.
:
Disabled
-
;
Internal -, ;
External
-,
;
Both
-. .
Cache Memory.
: External Cache Memory Internal
Cache Memory ( Enabled , Disabled ).
-

.
CPU Level
Cache/CPU Level 2 Cache
/
- . ,
, ,
.
:
Enabled - .
;
Disabled
- .
CPU Level 2 Checking
-
. , Pentium
II 333 . -
,
.
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled
.
,
,
.

II. BIOS
: CPU Level 2 Cache
Check, CPU L2
Cache ECC Checking.
Cache Early Rising
-
.
:
Enabled ,
;
Disabled
.
.
Cache RD+CPU Wt Pipeline

- .
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Cache Read Timing

Wait-States.
:

WS
.
;
1 WS
.
- Wait-States.
Cache Read Wait States.
Cache Timing Control
/ -
.
:
Fast (Turbo)
.
-;
Medium
.
, -
;
Normal /.
.

6.
Cache Write Cycle

- .
:
2
;

.
Cache Write Timing
-
Wait-States.
:
WS
.
;

WS
.
- Wait-States.
: Cache Write Wait States Cache Tag Hit Wait
States.
Cacheable Burst Read
,
-
Burst.
:

(1CCLK) - 1 ;
2 (2CCLK) - 2 .
Cache Burst Read Cycle.
Cacheable Range
BIOS BIOS
.
0 8 0 128
BIOS.
Display Cache Window Size
,
.
:
32
32 ;
64 MB
64 .

II. BIOS \
L1/L2 Cache Update Mode
-
.

:
WriteBack
- -|
;
-
. -|
, .
: Cache Update Policy Cache Write Policy.
BIOS Cache
Scheme W/B/ with dirty -[
WriteBack tag- dirty-.
L2 (WB) Tag Bit Length
L1/L2 Cache Update Mode, -j
- .
:
7 bit ( 7+7)
;
8 bit ( 8+0)
.
Alt Bit In Tag RAM.
L2 Cache Banks
, -]
.
:
1 Banks - ;
2 Banks - .
SRAM Back-to-Back
-
]
.

:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
SYNC SRAM Support
-, .

6.
:
Standard
-;
Pipelined
-.
Sustained 3T Write
-,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.


,
, , . ,

133
100 , ,
.

, .
Auto Configuration


""
.
:
Auto

. . ,
, ;
60 ns

60
(70
;
70 ns

70
60
,
.
BIOS : DRAM Auto
Configuration Auto Configure EDO DRAM Tim.

II. BIOS
Bank 0/.../5 DRAM Timing
.
(,

).
CAS# Latency

CAS (,
)
.
( 1 2%),
.
:
2 ( 2
.
SDRAM 10
;
3 Clks)
. .
BIOS CAS# Latency Clocks.
SDRAM :
SDRAM CAS# Latency, SDRAM CAS# Latency Time.
CAS# Pulse Width
CAS#
:

;
2
.
BIOS : Write
CAS# Pulse Width Read CAS# Pulse Width .
CPU-to-DRAM Page Mode
,

.
,
.
:
Use Paging No Paging, Always Open Closes, Page Closes, Stays Open
Closes If Idle, Normal Disabled
BIOS.

6.
BIOS : DRAM Page
Mode, DRAM Paging, DRAM Paging Mode, SDRAM Page Control (
SDRAM).
, ,
CPU-to-DRAM Page Mode.

,
.
: DRAM Enhanced Paging, Enhanced Page Mode, Enhanced
Paging.
CPU/Memory Frequency Ratio

. BIOS
,
.
:
Auto
;
1:1 ;

100
133 .
DRAM Clock
.
:
Host CLK

.
;
66 MHz
.
BIOS DRAM Speed.
DRAM Data Integrity Mode

.
, . .
,

:
.
, , .

88 II. BIOS
,
, . . |
. ;
Non-ECC . , |
, .
BIOS ,
, : Parity ( ) |
( ).

DRAM ECC/Parity Select


/ .
BIOS ,
440HX/FX/LX),
.
DRAM Data Integrity Mode (PAR/ECC)]
.
:
Parity

, -|
. ;

.

.

I
DRAM Interleave Mode
"" .
. ,
.
.

-!
.
:
Banks 0+1
0 1;
Banks 2+3
2 3;
Both
;
No Interleave
.

6.

SDRAM Bank Interleave : Disabled, 2 Banks 4 Banks.
DRAM Page Idle Timer

.
FPM- .
:


;
2

;
4

;
8

.
,
.
.
BIOS : Paging Delay
DRAM Idle Timer.
DRAM
Timing

. ,

.
:
8/7 ;
7/5 .
BIOS :
5

EDO DRAM
50
( SDRAM
10
6 EDO DRAM
60 .
DRAM Read Burst Timing
.

, 4 8 .

II. BIOS
, . . ,
,
. --- Normal
Burst, x-y-y-y-z-y-y-y Back-to-Back Burst.

.
.
, ,
.
:
222
444

222

EDO DRAM;
FPM DRAM;

SDRAM.


, . ,
Triton
"" , Triton FX. ,
, FX. . 6.1
Intel.


Intel

FPM EDO SDRAM430FX 7-3-3-3 7-2-2-2
430VX 6-3-3-3 6-2-2-2 7-1-1-1
430 5-3-3-3 5-2-2-2
430 5-3-3-3 5-2-2-25-1-1-1
440
440
440GX -1-1-1
, .
DRAM Read Timing.
DRAM Read Latch Delay

.
, .

6. 91
:
0.0 ns
;
0.5 ns
0,5
1.0 ns
1
1.5 ns
1,5
1 DRAM Speed Selection
.
:
50 ns
50
60 ns
60
70 ns
70
,
, ,
.
DRAM Timing
/
. ,
.
:
Auto

;
70 ns
70
60 ns
60
50 ns
50
DRAM Write Burst Timing
DRAM Read Burst Timing,
.
Data Integrity (PAR/ECC)
/ .
DRAM ECC/Parity Select.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.

II. BIOS
EDO CAS#
Wait State

CAS# EDO.
:
1
.
;
2
.
.
EDO RAS# Wait State

RAS# EDO.
:
/
.
;
2
.
.
EMS

EMS (Expanded Memory Specification).
286.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
. .
EMS Page Reg
Base
/,
EMS.

BIOS.
FSB/SDRAM/PCI Freq. (MHz)
,
PCI, ,
FSB: SDRAM: PCI.
.
FSB: SDRAM: PCI
Ratio
,
PCI. BIOS
,
(, Intel i815e).

6.
:
66:100:33, 100:100:33, 133:133:33, 133:100:33 -
, PCI.

, 100 , ,
133 .
Fast EDO Path Select

EDO DRAM ,
.
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled
.
, . .
.
Fast
to RAS# Delay
RAS#
(Memory Address).
:
Enabled
;
Disabled
.
BIOS
Fast
to RAS# Delay CLK / CCLK

2
.
Gate A20 Option
20,
,
1 .
. , MS-DOS,
, VDISK.SYS, ,
HIMEM.SYS, ,
, .
:
Fast
,
OS/2 Windows;
Normal
.

II. BIOS
Fast Gate A20 Option
Enabled Disabled. BIOS
Select ( ,
20

).

Wait State

.
:
Slow
.
EDO DRAM;
Fast
.
SDRAM.
BIOS
Additional Wait State
: Enabled Disabled

Memory Hole At 15-16M


,
ISA, .

.
"" ,
, /
,
.

, BIOS
:
Disabled
ISA-,
.
;
14-15
"" -]
14 15 ( 15 16) .
: .
- i
(, ).
, BIOS - [
.

6.
BIOS Memory
Hole :
None
;
At 512 KB
""
512 639 ;
At 15 MB
""
15 .
: Local Memory 15-16M, Memory Hole at 15M
Addr.
Memory Parity Error Check

.
"Parity Error at
: System Halted" (" :,
").
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled
.
. - ,
,
"".
Gravis Ultra
Sound, ,
Sound Blaster.
Memory Parity/ECC Check
,
.
.
:
Auto
,

.
- ;
Disabled
.
Memory Read Wait State

. ,

II. BIOS
. ,
.

. , ,
,
.
:
0, 1, 2 3 ,
Memory Write Wait State
, Memory Read Wait State,
. BIOS
DRAM Wait State.
, .
RAMW# Timing

.
:
Fast
, ,
;
Normal
, , .
.
,
.
BIOS :
FPM/EDO RAMW# Timing, RAMW# Assertion Timing.
RAS# Pulse Width
RAS#
:

;
2
.
BIOS : Write
RAS# Pulse Width Read RAS# Pulse Width .
RDRAM Pool B State
"" !
Rambus.

6.
:
Nap
"";
Standby
"".
Read Around Write
.
,

.
, .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
. .
BIOS : DRAM Read
Around Write Extended Read Around Write.
SDRAM Bank Interleave
""
SDRAM. ""
, .
:
2 Bank
.
32 ;
4 Bank
.
64 ;
Disabled
. .
SDRAM Banks Close Policy
.
440LX - ,
,
.
430 , . .
.
:
Pare Miss
;
Arbitration .

.
.

98 II. BIOS
SDRAM Capability
.
.
.
:
100

133

,
100 ;
,
133 .
.

SDRAM Configuration


.
Auto Configuration.
:
Auto

;
7 BIOS,
7
8 ns
BIOS,
8

.
, .
SDRAM Cycle Length

SDRAM.
:

.
;
2
.
.
SDRAM Cycle Time



(Precharge),
() RAS.

6.
:
5, 7 6, 8
,
,
.
SDRAM Operating Mode
. .
, BIOS, . .
(, )
.
:
100 , ,
100 ;

133
, ,
133 .
.
SDRAM
Control
,
SDRAM

:
Enabled .
;
Disabled .
.
Speculative
,
, ,
.
. ,
,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
. .
SDRAM Speculative Read.
J Super Bypass Function
DDR
SDRAM.

II. BIOS
:
Enabled
- ,
DDR-;
Disabled
. .
Super Bypass Wait State

Super Bypass.
:
Enabled
133 ;
Disabled

100 .
.
Turbo Read (TRL)

, , ,
.
:
Enabled .
,
;
Disabled
.
.
Turbo Read Pipelining

, ,
.

:
Enabled .
,
;
Disabled
.
.
Turn-Around Insertion

,
/ ( ).

6. 101_
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
,
DIMM.

BIOS.

3,5 V.

, , , ,

.
640KB to 1MB
384
.
:
Enabled :
Disabled
.
Cache Read Option
-.
,
.
BIOS SRAM Read Wait State.
Cache Write Option
, Cache Read Option,
-.
BIOS SRAM Write Wait State.
Cacheable RAM Address Range
.
,
, . . .
Initialize Display Cache Memory
-,
,
.

II.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Non Cacheable Base

.
/.
""
, ""
.
, 0.
Non Cacheable Size
.)
, ]
-]
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
BIOS Memory
able Yes

No

Non Cacheable Base


Non Cacheable Base,
.
, 0.
Non Cacheable Block-2 Size
Non Cacheable Size,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
BIOS Block-2 Memory
able Yes () No ().
G System BIOS Cacheable
BIOS, . .

BIOS -

6.
. , . .
,
Celeron, Duron). , BIOS ,
, ,
, ,
,
.
:
Enabled . .
MS-DOS.
- . -
,
BIOS,
;
Disabled
. .

.
System ROM Cacheable.
Video BIOS Cacheable
BIOS , . .
BIOS -
.
MS-DOS.
.
,
,
.
:
Enabled . .
- ,
BIOS,
;
Disabled
. .
Video BIOS Area Cacheable.
Video Memory Cache Mode
.
Pentium Pro (,
Pentium II). Pentium Pro

,
Memory Type Range Registers
MTRR.

II. BIOS
:
UC
.
-
;

.
PCI ( 90 /
8 /).
,
A0000H
(128 ) .

, ,
.

.
Burst Refresh


. 15
4 60 .
:
Enabled

Disabled

.
;
.
.
DRAM Burst at 4 Refresh.

CAS Before RAS Refresh


,
CAS RAS.
,
. ,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
.

6.
CAS-to-RAS Refresh Delay

.
, CAS Before RAS Refresh.
:

;
2
.
.
,
. ,
. . , .
.
CPU Cycle Cache Hit WS
- .
:
Normal

-;
Fast
.

.
Concurrent Refresh
,
.
, .
,

.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
DRAM Ahead Refresh
,

. ,

.
:
Enabled

;
Disabled

. .

II. BIOS
DRAM RAS# Only Refresh

CAS-before-RAS. BIOS
, , . .
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
DRAM RAS# Time
( ),
RAS
(
RAS).
.
, ,
, .
:
,
2, , 4, 5 6
,
, RAS.

4 . .)
(3 Clocks).
: DRAM RAS# Precharge Period,
RAS# Precharge Time, RAS# Precharge Period, FPM DRAM RAS# Precharge,
FPM RAS# Precharge, RAS# Precharge, EDO RAS# Precharge,
EDO RAS# Precharge Time, EDO RAS# Precharge Time.

SDRAM
BEDO RAS# Precharge, SDRAM
RAS# Precharge, SDRAM RAS# Precharge Time. ,
3 Clocks BIOS
: Same As FPM FPM-1T, Fast Normal,
Fast Slow. , Slow
, .
Fast
.
DRAM Refresh Method
.
, ,
- .
:

CAS Before RAS, RAS Only, RAS Before CAS, Normal, Hidden
.

6.
: Refresh Type, DRAM Refresh Type, Refresh
Type Select.
DRAM Refresh Period
,
.
, .
BIOS .
BIOS, ,
. :
For 50 MHz Bus, For 60 MHz Bus, For 66 MHz Bus, Disabled;
50/66 MHz, 60/60 MHz, 66/66 MHz;
us, 31.2 us, 62.4 us, 124.8 us, 249.6 us, Disabled;
15.6 us, 31.2 us, 62.4 us, 125 us, 250 us;
15.6 us,
us, 124.8 us, 187.2 us;
1040 Clocks, 1300 Clocks;
Disabled, Normal;
Fast, Slow.
, ,
.
,
.
: Refresh Cycle Time (us), DRAM
Refresh Cycle Time, Memory Refresh Rate, DRAM Refresh Rate.
DRAM Refresh Queue
,
4 .
,

:
Enabled .
(
);
Disabled
.
BIOS
DRAM
Refresh Queuing.
DRAM Refresh Queue Depth
""
. ,
.

108 II. BIOS


:
, 4, 8, 12 ( , ) .
BIOS -
Refresh Queue Depth.
Decoupled Refresh

ISA. -
ISA-,
-
.
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
.
Extended Refresh
EDO.

125
15,6 , .
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Fast RAS-to-CAS Delay
RAS CAS (
).
, ,

.
:
2
;
3
. .
DRAM RAS-to-CAS Delay.
Hi-Speed Refresh

, .

6.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
. .
,
, .
Hidden Refresh
.

IBM AT ,
.
,
.
.
:
,

, ,
(IRQ0),
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.

,
,

Suspend.
,
. .
,
.
Optimization Method
.

,
.
:
Normal
;
Turbo 1
;
Turbo 2
.
.

II. BIOS
RAS Precharge Control

.
, .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
BIOS Precharge Closing
Policy.
RAS Precharge Time

.
, ,
"".
Ref/Act Command Delay

.
:
5 ;
6
.
;
7 ;
8 .
Refresh During PCI Cycles
,
/ PCI.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Refresh RAS Assertion
RAS
.
:

2, , 4,
), 6, 7, 8,

.

6.
,
.
: Refresh Assertion, Refresh RAS Active Time.
Refresh Value
,
.
, ,
.
BIOS Refresh Divider.
Refresh When CPU Hold
,
"" .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
SDRAM (CAS Lat/RAS-to-CAS)
CAS
RAS CAS .
,
, .
, . .
.
:
2/2, 3/3
,
CAS RAS CAS.
SDRAM CAS-to-RAS Delay
RAS
CAS .
, .
,
.
:
3
.
;
2

Slow Refresh

4 , .

II. BIOS

, .


. .

.
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
: DRAM Slow Refresh, Slow Refresh.
Memory Refresh Divider, Slow Refresh Enable.
:
Yes ;
No
.
""
"" , ,
MS-DOS.
Windows .
Base Memory Address
,
- .

Extended ROM RAM Area
,
: , 639- ,
, BIOS.
AMI BIOS.
:
RAM
;
BIOS BIOS.
,
. . .

" ~ 6.
""
BIOS, ""
.
BIOS

RAM

PCI Master Accesses Shadow RAM


PCI
.
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
. .
C800H
(16 )
BIOS .

.
CC00H

.
D000H
.
Shadow D400H
.
D800H
.
DC00H
.
E000H
EMS,
.
E400H
.
E800H

II. BIOS
Shadow ECOOH
SCSI,
.
System BIOS Shadow
BIOS
(
).
MS-DOS,
BIOS, . .
.
:
Enabled . -
""
;
Cached
,
, .
;
Disabled
.
, .
VGA
"" .
:
Standard
""
;
PCI "" ,
ISA/EISA
, ISA EISA-.
Video ROM BIOS Shadow
-BIOS
.
MS-DOS.
.
Flash ROM, "" , . .
,
.

6.
:
Enabled .
. -
, BIOS,
.
EGA VGA;
Cached
,
,
. ;
Disabled
.
.
BIOS "".
, ,
- . , ,
SCSI-, ,
BIOS, .


, ,
.
(, ),
, ( Bus-Master).

, .
: ,

,
.
VLB

Local Bus Ready Delay



VLB. VLB-
.
:
72
;

;
Disabled
. .
ISA
Bit
Command

.

' 7.
, ,
.
, -
, /
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
,
,
.
, ISA.
BIOS ISA 16 Bit
Wait States.
: 0,1,2,3.
16 Bit
Recovery Time
(
) / 8-
. ,
/ / ,
.
1 4.
1,
- 16- .
1 16 Bit ISA Mem Command WS

16 Bit
Command WS,
,
ISA- /
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
8 Bit
Recovery Time
(
) / 8-
. ,

/ /

, . ,

( ) , ,
16-.

II. BIOS
1 8.
1,
- 8- .
AT Cycle Wait State

ISA.
,
ISA-
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Back-to-Back
Delay

/.
ISA-
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
CPU Dynamic Fast Cycle
""
ISA-, .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Extended
Decode
16
/ 10-, ISA.


ISA-, .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
ISA Bus Clock
ISA.
ISA- 8,33 .


(
( )
"
". ,
,
PCI-. ,
ISA- , ,
. ,

).
.
PCI-
, : 25, 30,
. .
:
PCI/4, PCI/5, PCI/6, PCI/8,
PCI/10, PCI/12
,
PCI. ,
4.
: ISA Clock, ISA Clock
Frequency, ISA Bus Clock Frequency. ISA Bus Clock Option, ISA Bus Speed,
ISA Clock Select, ISA Clock Divisor. AT Bus Clock, AT Bus Clock Frequency,
AT Bus Clock Selection.
ISA Clock Select Enable,
,
ISA : Enabled Disabled
.
ISA Mem Block Base
,
ISA.
:
.

ISA Configuration Utility,
MS-DOS
;
800, , D000H, D800H, ,
, .

ISA Mem Block Size,

: 8 Kb, 16 Kb, 32 Kb, 64 Kb.

II. BIOS j
ISA-, - ]
.
Onboard ISA Bridge
ISA
.
, ISA. , |
, .
:
Enabled ISA- ;
Disabled
ISA .
PCI
Bus Mastering
,
PCI, master-. ,
,

.
:
Enabled . ,
- (
);
Disabled
. .
BIOS ISA , ,
Master
.
Byte Merge Support

PCI.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
BIOS : Byte
PCI Write-bite-Merge, Byte Merge.
CPU-to-PCI 6 DW FIFO
,
6-

7.
. "
".
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled
. .
Bridge Retry
,
PCI ,
"" .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
CPU-to-PCI Burst Memory Write

PCI.
,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
BIOS : CPU-to-PCI
Write Bursting, PCI Burst Write Combine. PCI Write Burst, PCI Burst Write
Combining, CPU Burst Write.
CPU-to-PCI IDE Posting

PCI/IDE .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
CPU-to-PCI Read Buffer
,
PCI 4- ,
.
,
.

II. BIOS
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled
. ,
, PCI
.
Write Buffer
CPU-to-PCI Read Buffer, . .
4 PCI

:
Enabled .
;
Disabled .
,
.
BIOS CPU-toPCI Buffer Enabled ( ) Disabled ( ).
CPU-to-PCI Write Latency

( ).
,
.
.
:

;
2
;

.
Latency For CPU-to-PCI Write.
Delayed Transaction
BIOS ,
32-
PCI.
:
Enabled PCI 8-
ISA.

' 7.
, . . ISA
50 60 PCI.
PCI 2.1;
Disabled
,
PCI
: PCI Delayed Transaction,
Delayed Transaction Optimization Delayed Transaction Timer.
High Priority PCI Mode
PCI
. , ,
IEEE 1394


:
Enabled ;
Disabled
. .
Host Bus Fast Data Ready
,
.
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Master Enabled
, PCI

:
Enabled . BIOS

Bus-Master;
Disabled
. Bus-Master .
Master Prefetch And Posting

master-.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.

II. BIOS
Master Priority Rotation

:
1 PCI
PCI

,

2 PCI
PCI
PCI-;
3 PCI
PCI-.
.
2/2 Concurrency
,
PCI
, .
:
Enabled .
, ;
Disabled
. .
PCI 2.1 Support
2.1 PCI.
2.0

66 PCI-PCI.
,
4- .
:
Enabled 2.1 PCI.
;
Disabled

.

BIOS PCI 2.1 Compliance.
PCI Bus Arbitration

PCI .

' 7.
:
Favor CPU
.
;
Favor PCI
,
PCI.
BIOS : Rotation
Fixed. Arbitration Priority.
""
:
PCI First
master-
ISA/DMA First
master- ISA-.
DMA/ISA Master Before PCI:
Enabled master- ISA;
Disabled
master- PCI.

: PCI Arbiter Mode. PCI Arbitration Mode, PCI Arbit. Rotate
Priority.
PCI Bus Parking
PCI.
""
Bus-Master.
"" PCI-
,
.
, , ,
.
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
PCI Clock Frequency
PCI.
BIOS Pentium,
486-
AMD PCI.
.
:

1,5. ;

II. BIOS
CPUCLK/2

2;
CPUCLK/3

3;
14 MHz
PCI.
(
).
PCI Clock/CPU FSB Clock
,

:
2/3, 1/3 1/4
PCI 33 .
, ,
.

(. .
).
PCI Dynamic Bursting

PCI. ,
.
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled
.
PCI Dynamic Decoding
, PCI,
.
,

:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
PCI Latency Timer
, ( )
Bus-Master
PCI, PCI-. ,
,

7.

.
16 128 , 8.
,

, .
,

Bus-Master
(, SCSI ). , ,
Bus-Master. ,
, SCSI- ,

.
,
. ,
,
PCI-, BIOS,
. ,
- .
BIOS :
PCI Bus Time-Out, PCI Master Latency, Latency Timer, PCI Clocks,
PCI Initial Latency Timer.
: Disabled, 16 Clocks, 24 Clocks 32 Clocks.
PCI Latency Timer ( )
PCI ISA-. ISA
master-. , , .
PCI master.
,
,
master-
ISA. -
ISA,
, . . . ,
AMI BIOS 0 255
. 66 ,
.
PCI Master WS Write
master- PCI

.
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled
. .

II. BIOS
PCI Mstr Burst Mode

PCI master
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
PCI Preempt Timer
( ),

Bus-Master,
, .

, master-
"". , PCI Latency
Timer.
:
No Preemption ( Disabled)
.
, ,
Bus-Master;
5, 12, 20, 36, 68, 132 260
,
. {5LCLKs
).
BIOS PCI Preemption
Timer.
PCI#2 Access #1 Retry
,
,
, .
, ""
.
:
Enabled

;
Disabled
.

Write Buffer
, ,
,

7.
.
PCI
ISA.
(, ) , ISA PCI
, PCI
, ISA- .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Passive Release
,
PCI, , ISA,

PCI. , PCI ISA.
ISA.
BIOS
Intel Triton VX/HX
master- -
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
ISA,
DMA (, ,

ISA- .
BIOS PCI Passive
Release.
Peer Concurrency
,

/.
,
.
.
PCI ISA.
, PCI
ISA-,
DMA- Bus-Master.
3.1K.

II. BIOS
:
Enabled . ,
;
Disabled
. ,

.
BIOS : PCI Concurrency,
Bus Concurrency, Peer Concurrency & Chipset NA# Asserted.
"" IDE.
PCI/IDE Concurrency
Concurrency.
Preempt PCI Master Option
, /,
master- (
), ,
, , .

.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
. .
Snoop Ahead

.
.
- .
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled
. .
System/PCI Frequency (MHz)
(
PCI).

,

.
BIOS.

' 7.
AGP
AGP.
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled .
AGP.
AGP 2X Mode

AGP.
75 .
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled
AGP
Mode.
.
AGP Aperture Size MB
,
.
.
:
4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 256
. AGP-
, 16 .
AGP Capability
AGP-.
, .
:

Mode
AGP-.
, , ;
2 Mode
AGP ( ,
).
, .
;

II. BIOS
4 Mode ( )
AGP-.
AGP Drive Strength P
(When AGP 4X Drive Strength Set to Manual)
AGP,
.
Manual
AGP Signal Driving.
0 F.
,
,
.
AGP Drive Strength N
Ctrl (When AGP 4X Drive Strength Set to Manual).
,
AGP Data Strobe P Ctrl (When AGP 4X Drive Strength Set to Manual)
, AGP Drive Strength P Ctrl,
.
AGP Data Strobe Strength N Ctrl
(When AGP 4X Drive Strength Set to Manual),
N-.
AGP Driving Value
AGP.
, .

AGP .
.
, . .
AGP-.
00 FF ( ).
DA.
nVidia GeForce 2 ,
, .
AGP Master 1WS Read

AGP.
:
Enabled 1.
AGP-,
;

' 7.
Disabled 2.
AGP, .
AGP Master 1WS Write

AGP.
:
Enabled 1.
AGP-,
;
Disabled
2.
AGP, .
AGP Parity Error Response
AGP.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
AGP SERR#
, -
AGP
SERR#,
.
:
Enabled :
Disabled
.
AGP Signal Driving

AGP. AGP 4.
,
AGP Driving Value.
:
Auto
AGP ;
Manual

AGP.
BIOS AGP Driving
Control.

II. BIOS
AGPCLK/CPUCLK
AGP
.
:
1/1 100 ;
2/3 100 .
Vagp
AGP-.

BIOS.
:
3,5 V

, 2;

V , 4.
USB Controller

USB.
:
Enabled , ,
USB. ;
Disabled . ,
USB.

USB-.
, ,
.
, USB (,
, ).
: USB Interface, Integrated
USB Controller, USB Function, USB Controller Resume.
USB Speed
USB.
:
24 MHz 48 MHz
.

/
) ,

, , ).

(, ).
1/2 MIDI
1

COM2
MIDI.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
BIOS
1/2 MIDI.
ECP DMA Select

Serial Port

DMA,
+.
:
1
DMA1;
3
DMA3.
BIOS
Mode Use DMA Channel 1 Channel 3.
EPP Mode Select

LPT.

II. BIOS
:
1.7 1.7;
1.9 1.9.
, Parallel Port
Mode +.
Duplex
.
:
Full
.
, . .
;
Half .
- .
, UART2
Mode Select HPSIR.
BIOS :
UR2 Duplex Mode, UART 1/2 Duplex Mode, Duplex Select, InfraRed Duplex
Type, IR Function Duplex IR Transfer Mode.

Half-Duplex Full-Duplex.
Disabled,
.
Onboard Parallel Port
/ ,
LPT.
Disabled ,
.
Onboard Serial Port 1
/

,
.
:

3E8/IRQ4
/

Disabled
,
.
IRQ4 ;
Auto
BIOS /.

8. /
Onboard Serial Port 2
/
COM2.
,
.
:
2F8/IRQ3
/
COM2;
Disabled ,
.
IRQ3 ;
Auto
BIOS /.
BIOS :
Onboard Serial Port /, Onboard Serial 1/2, Onboard
UART 1/2.
Parallel Port Mode
Parallel Port Mode (ECP+EPP),
.
:
SPP . ,
;
.
DMA;
;
EPP+SPP BIOS
;
1.9
1.9 .
,

IEEE 1284. ,
,
;
1.7
1.7 .
Parallel Port Mode

IEEE 1284.

II. BIOS
(,
Iomega ZIP Drive LPT).
:
Normal
;
, .
DMA (
DMA3). ,
/ (
2,5 /);
.
, DMA.
, . .
/;
+
.
UART 2 Mode Select
( ).

RxD, TxD Active, Transmission Delay.
:
Normal
COM2;
Standard
;
IrDA 1.0
,
1.0;
IrDA SIR SIR
IrDA MIR MIR

1 /;
MIR 0.57M

0,57 /;
MIR 1.15M

1,15 /;
IrDA FIR FIR
IrDA- *
Sharp IR

1 /;
HPSIR
,
Hewlett-Packard;
Disabled
.

' 8.
BIOS :
Mode, Onboard Mode, Infra Red Function,
Mode Select,
UR2 Mode, Onboard IR Function IR Function.
1 x IR Transmission Delay

,
.
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled
.
. .
RxD, TxD Active
/
(RxD
, a TxD ).
,
.
:
Hi,Lo,

.
BIOS Use
IR Pins, : IR-RX2TX2 ( )
1R-RXTX.


,
. ,
, ,

DMA Clock
DMA.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled

.
BIOS : DMA Clock Select,
DMA Clock Speed.
DMA Line Buffer Mode
,
PCI.
:
Standard
.
;
Enhanced 8- ,
. ;
Disabled
.
DMA.

9.
DMA Wait States

DMA.
, .
:

2,
4

BIOS ,
8- 16- .
8-bit DMA Cycle Wait States 16-bit
Cycle Wait States .
DMA n Assigned
, DMA

.
:
Legacy ISA
ISA,
Plug and Play (,
). , , DMA
, ,
, ;
PCI/ISA
Plug and Play.
.
.
DMA n Used By ISA
DMA n Assigned
:

.
, MS-DOS
ISA Configuration
Utility. Intel
, BIOS;
Yes DMA
ISA, Plug and Play.
ISA-,
BIOS DMA
.
Extended DMA Registers
DMA

16 .

II. BIOS
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
ISA- .
IRQ n Assigned
, IRQ

.
:
Legacy ISA
ISA,
Plug and Play (,
). , ,
, ,
, .

;
PCI/ISA
Plug and Play.
.
.
IRQ n Used By ISA
IRQ n Assigned
:

.
, MS-DOS
ISA Configuration
Utility. Intel
, BIOS;
Yes
ISA, Plug and Play.
ISA-,
BIOS
.
Interrupt Mode

, 24
16 . ,
( Windows
2000 )

9.
, .
, , .
:
APIC
.
;
PIC .
Use IRQ
, .
, ""
.
N/A.
PCI IDE IRQ Map
,
IDE PCI ( )
,
ISA. IDE-

14

15
.
:
PCI IDE IRQ Mapping IDE.
IDE,
. ;
PC (ISA)
ISA.
- IDE.
PCI IRQ Activated By
,

PCI. ""
.
:

Level
.
. ,
;
Edge
.
PCI IDE 2nd Channel
,
IDE, , .
.

II. BIOS
:
Enabled IDE.
;
Disabled IRQ15
.
PIRQ_0 Use IRQ No. ... PIRQ_3 Use IRQ No

PCI AGP-. , , ,
,
.

, .
:
Auto ( ), 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15
, .
Auto
BIOS.
PS/2 Mouse Function Control

12
, PS/2.
:
Enabled . .
,
;
Auto
PS/2.
, ,
-.

OS Installed
(IRQ, DMA)
, Plug and Play,
BIOS.
:
Yes .
Windows 9x, Windows 2000;
No
BIOS.
Windows NT,
Linux, OS/2.

9.

,

.
Reset Configuration
"" ,
.
.
:
Enabled
.
- ;
.
.
.

Force
Update ESCD.
Resource Controlled By

( IRQ DMA).
:
Auto
.
;
Manual
.

- .
BIOS
Slot
IRQ, Slot 2 IRQ, Slot 3 IRQ, Slot 4/5 IRQ (4- 5-
,
).
OS Installed ,
,
Plug and Play.
Trigger Method
IRQ
:
Auto

Plug and Play.

II, BIOS
,
. ;
Force

. , SCSI-
NRC- ,
15 ( ).
USB IRQ

USB.
:
Enabled
.
. ,
.
USB
Aureal;
Disabled
USB .
, .
BIOS :
Assign IRQ For USB, Use An IRQ For USB (
: Yes No

).



, ,
. ,
, ,
.

- .
.

Assign IRQ For VGA


(IRQ9)
.
:
Enabled IRQ9.

, ;
Disabled
. ,
, ,
.



,
,
, .
, , MPEG-
( DVD-).
Bus-Master,
.

II. BIOS
BIOS
IRQ to PCI VGA.
Graphics Aperture Size

AGP.
:
4MB, 8MB, 16MB, 32MB, 64MB ( ), 128MB 256MB
,
, .
50 25%
(
).
.

AGP Display First


, AGP-,
.
, ,
PCI ISA-.
:
Enabled AGP;
Disabled

ISA-.
BIOS
Display, -,
:
AGP , AGP-;
PCI ,
"" ]
Graphics Adapter : VL Bus

VESA
Bus


. ,
,
. ,
.

Pipeline

. , ,

10.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
BIOS PCI
Pipelining.
PCI/VGA Palette Snoop
, VGA.
, MPEG (
).
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
.
USWC Write Posting
,
. ,

. ,
. BIOS
, ,
Pentium Pro (, Pentium II).
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
, . .
,
.
VGA 128K Range Attribute
,
,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
VGA.
: VGA Performance
Mode, Turbo VGA (OWS at
VGA Frame Buffer.

150 II. BIOS


VGA BIOS Sequence
, BIOS

AGP PCI. ,

.
:
AGP (

AGP. ,
BIOS .
;

( PCI/AGP)
PCI. ,
BIOS .
.
Video
Standard CMOS Setup
() .
,
, BIOS .
:
Mono
(-) ;
MDA - , ;

80 ,
80 ;

40
,
40 ;
EGA/VGA ,
EGA, VGA SVGA. .
VGA/PGA/EGA.
Primary Display : VGA/EGA,
CGA40x25,
Mono, Absent.

(, )
LCD&CRT :

LCD
;
CRT - ;
Auto
;
LCD&CRT .



-
(FDD)
FDD

.
Onboard FDC (FDD) Controller

-.
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled
.
- .
Report No
Win 95
Windows 9x (ME)
-.
Onboard FDC Controller Windows IRQ6,
-,
.
:
Yes .
- (, )
Windows;
No
.
IRQ6
.
.

II. BIOS
Swap Floppy Drive
. ,
, (3,5").
,
-
.
,
:
Enabled ,
,
;
Disabled
(
).
: Floppy Drive Swap, Onboard FDC
Swap A&B.



, ,
.

.
Boot Up Numlock Status
,
.

<NumLock>.
:

.

(
Disabled
<Ins>,
<Del> . .
: System Boot Up Numlock
Status, Boot Up ( AMI BIOS) Numlock.
Input Clock
. ,
,
. ,

.
:
8 MHz
. ,
;

II. BIOS
12 MHz
. ;
16 MHz
.
, .
: Input Clock Select,
Keyboard Controller Clock.
Keyboard
,
-, ,
.
:
Installed

,

. ;
Not Installed

. .
AMI BIOS System Keyboard
Present ( ) Absent
.
Keyboard Reset Control

<Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Del>.
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled .
Typematic Rate Setting

.
:
Enabled "" ,
;
Disabled - .
Typematic Rate (Chars/Sec)
.

,
6 30 , . .

12.
.
, ,
MS-DOS. Windows
.
:
6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 20, 24, 30
, ,
,
.
Keyboard Auto-Repeat Rate.
Typematic (Rate) Delay (Msec)

,
0,25 1 .
:
250, 500, 750 1000

.
Keyboard Auto-Repeat Delay.
USB Keyboard Support Via
, USB,


.

OS USB-
(, Windows 98);
BIOS
USB- BIOS (,
MS-DOS UNIX).
Phoenix BIOS
. USB BIOS Legacy Support
Enabled () Disabled ()
USB- () BIOS.
USB Legacy Support (

.
I Port 64/60 Emulation
USB-.
:
Enabled Windows
NT;
Disabled
Windows

9.

13




. ,
, ,
. , , ,

( ).
Audio Controller
,
.
:
Enabled .
. ;
Disabled
. , ,
.
.
BIOS : Audio, Audio Device,
Onboard Audio, Onboard Audio Chip.
Graphics Mode Select
,
.
:
UMA 1MB 1 ;
UMA 512KB
512 .

[ 13.
Display First
,
.
:
Onboard ;
PCI Slot
, ,

Local Memory Freq
,
.

BIOS.
Multiple Monitor Support
,
.
:
Motherboard Primary ,
, ;
Motherboard Disabled
,
, ;
Adapter Monitor ,
, .
On-Chip Video Windows Size
,
.
:
64
64 ;
32
32 ;
Disabled

.
Onboard AC97 Audio Controller


97.
:
Auto

;

158 II. BIOS


Disabled

.
Onboard AC97 Modem Controller


97.
:
Auto

;
Disabled
.
Onboard Display Cache Setting
-,
,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
16-bit DMA Channel
16- DMA,

.
:
DMA5, DMA6, DMA7 DMA5.
Audio DMA Select.
8-bit DMA Channel
8- DMA, -|
.
:
DMAO, DMA1, DMA3
Base

DMA3.

Address
/, -|
.
, ,
, , 220.
: Audio
Base

Onboard Audio Address.

13.
Interrupt
,
.
:
IRQ2,
IRQ7, IRQ10

IRQ5.

BIOS

Audio IRQ Select.

MPU
Address
/,
,
(MIDI Processing Unit).

.
:
300-301 330-331
330.
BIOS : MPU-401
Configuration, MPU-401
Base Address.

14

SCSI-
SCSI
, ,
, .
SCSI ,

SCSI, .
Embedded SCSI BIOS
BIOS SCSI- ,
BIOS. BIOS SCSI-
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
ONB AHA BIOS First
BIOS
Adaptec SCSI- (
).
:
Yes . SCSI-
, BIOS
;
No
. BIOS SCSI.

14. SCSI-
ONB SCSI LVD Term

SCSI- LVD- .
:
Enabled . .
SCSI-;
Disabled
. .
ONB SCSI SE Term

SCSI- SE- .
:
Enabled .
SCSI-;
Disabled
. .
Onboard AHA BIOS

SCSI- Adaptec , ,
BIOS- ( ,
. .).
:
Auto
SCSI- Adaptec BIOS
;
Disabled
SCSI-.
SCSI- Adaptec
BIOS (,

BIOS .
Onboard PCI/SCSI BIOS
SCSI,


SCSI.
:
Enabled ,
SCSI-;
Disabled
.
IDE- .

II. BIOS

BIOS SCSI
<Ctrl>+<A>.
Onboard SCSI
SCSI-
, .
:
Enabled .
SCSI;
Disabled
.
SCSI Parity Checking

SCSI-. .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
SCSI BIOS
SCSI
NCR 810, (, ,
ASUS SC-200).
:
Auto
.
, BIOS;
Disabled
SCSI- .
NCR SCSI BIOS.

15



IDE, ,
. 2 ,
""
.
32-Bit Disk Access
IDE-
16- .
PCI.
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled

Windows NT 4.0, . .
32- .
Delay IDE Initial
( ),
IDE BIOS
.
,

. AMI BIOS
,
.
:
Disabled .
;

II. BIOS
0-15, 0-30, 1-15 , .

. ,

Western Digital 430 .
: Hard Disk
Delay
HDD
SCSI- Delay For
SCSI/HDD
0 60 .
HDD S.M.A.R.T. Capability
,
.
.
:
Enabled .
,
66 ;
Disabled
. .
IDE Buffer for DOS & Windows
IDE-
.
IDE,
.
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled
.
IDE.
IDE Burst Mode
,
IDE.
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
BIOS IDE Bursting.
IDE DMA Transfer Mode
DMA- IDE.

/5,
:
Standard
;
Disabled
.
IDE Data Post Write
,
, .

IDE.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
BIOS : IDE Data
Port Post Write IDE Fast Post Write.
IDE HDD Block Mode Sectors

IDE.
.
IDE-.
:
HDD

;


.
Multi-Sector Transfers.
On-Chip PCI IDE Primary

IDE, .
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled
.
SCSI IDE.
BIOS : On-Chip IDE
Channel 0 Onboard
Controller.
On-Chip PCI IDE Secondary

IDE, .

II. BIOS
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled
.
SCSI,
IDE, .
BIOS : On-Chip IDE
Channel 1 Onboard
Controller.
Onboard PCI IDE Enable
,
IDE .
:
Primary ;
Secondary
;
Both
;
Disabled
.
PCI IDE IRQ Map to
IRQ14 IRQ15
IDE, ISA.
:
PCI Auto
IDE,
;
ISA IDE,
ISA.
Primary Master , Primary Slave
Secondary Master
Secondary Slave PIO


IDE.
:
Mode 0

Mode 1

Mode 2

Mode 3

/;
Mode 4

Auto
BIOS
.

3,3 /;
5,2 /;
8,3 /;
16,6 /;

.


BIOS : Mode
Master/Slave Drive
Mode.
Primary Master UDMA, Primary Slave UDMA, Secondary Master
Secondary Slave UDMA
Ultra DMA
IDE.
:
Enabled
Disabled

.

. ;
.
IDE, . .
BIOS :

UltraDMA
Mode, Master/Slave Drive UltraDMA.
IDE Controller
IDE,
Ultra DMA 66/100.
BIOS ,
.
:
Enabled .

;
Disabled
.
.

16


,
, , ,
,
(,
"").

/
PWR Loss Restart
,
.
,

Power .
:
Enabled . ,
220 ;
Disabled
.
ACPI Function

ACPI BIOS.
:
Enabled .
, (,
Windows 98);
Disabled
. .

'


Suspend Mode, HDD Power Down ,

.
ACPI
Device Mode

ACPI .
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled
. .
After G3 Enabled
,
"" .
:
Yes ;
No
.
Automatic Power Up

.
:
Everyday

. Time (hh:mm:ss) Alarm :
, , ;
By Date .
,
( , Everyday)
(Date On Month Alarm);
Disabled
.
1 IRQ 8 Resume By Suspend
,
Alarm Time.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Control By
( )
(
).

II. BIOS
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
PWR Button < 4
Power
.
:
Soft Off . Power
,

Windows;
Suspend . Power
4 Suspend;
No Function . Power
/ .
BIOS By
PWR Lost Resume State

220 .
:
Keep Off
,
Power ;
Turn On
;
Last State

, .
BIOS PWR On After
:
On

;
Off
;

. Power

'
16.
,
.
PWR Up On External Modem Act
,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
PWR Up On Modem Act
,
, . ,
.

,
"" .
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
BIOS : Resume
By Ring, Ring Resume From Soft Off. Power Up by Modem, Modem Ring On.
Power Button Function
,
Power .
:
Power
. /
;
Suspend ,
Power Suspend.
( 4 ) .
Power Button Over Ride
.
:
Enabled ,
Power,
Power
4 . ;

II. BIOS
Disabled

Power .
Power Management
.
:
User Define ,
;
Min Saving
(
, . .)
40 120 BIOS;
Max Saving
(
, . .)
30 60
BIOS;
Disabled

.
Power Management Mode


ACPI.
:

. ,
Windows 95;
ACPI
ACPI. ,
Windows 98;
Disabled
.
Power Supply Type
,
.
:
AT
AT;
ATX
Power Up By Keyboard
.
.




( ). ,
+5 Standby
300 .
:
Power Key ( Disabled)

.
Power . ;
<Ctrl>+<Esc>

. , . .
;
<Space Bar>
<>;
RTC Alarm Resume (From Soft)
,
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
:
RTC Alarm Date

;
RTC Alarm

;
RTC Alarm Minute

;
RTC Alarm Second

.

,
.
BIOS
RTC Wake Up Timer.
Soft Power Off
(,
Windows).

II. BIOS
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
State After Power Failure
,
220 .
:
Off
;
On

( );
Auto

, .
.
Wake On LAN or PCI Modem
,

:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Wake On PS/2 KB/Mouse
<>
, PS/2,
PS/2-.

+5 Standby
300 . , ,
220 , . .

(, Windows).
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
, ,
Mouse Wake-Up
Function.

ACPI Suspend Type


"" .
:
Power On Suspend;
S3 (STR)
Suspend
RAM.
""
Suspend
RAM.
Windows 98 (
) ,
, .

Auto Suspend Timeout



Suspend.
BIOS. ,
, ,
"" , .
CPU Sleep Pin Enable
,

.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
CPUFAN Off in Suspend
,
,
Suspend.
ACPI.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.

II. BIOS
Doze Mode
,

(Doze),
33 .
:

4 Min, 8 Min, 20 Min, 30 Min, 40 Min,


"" (,
.
Min
, Hour
);
Disabled
.
Doze Speed

"".
BIOS.
Green Switch

Green Switch
.
(
).
:
Yes ;
No
. .
Hard Disk Power Down Mode

"" .
:
Standby ""
Standby;
Suspend ""
Suspend;
Disabled "" .

.
BIOS HDD Off After.
Hard Disk Timeout
, ,
,


.
IDE.

BIOS. ( Disabled), . .
.
BIOS : Hard Disk
Time Out (Minute) HDD Power Down.
IRQ8 Break Suspend
, ,
IRQ8 ( ),
Suspend.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Keyboard Wake-Up Function
""
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Keyboard/Mouse Power On
,
.
:
Disabled
. ;
Password KB Power On
Password, ,
;
Hot Key KB Power On Hot
Key, ""
;
Mouse Left

;
Mouse Right
;
Any Key
;

II. BIOS
Keyboard 98
<Wake Up> ( Windows).
, (
Windows ).

, , ,
Take Wake-On-Keyboard/Mouse (
).
,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Events
,
, "" .
- ( Enabled)

. ( Disabled)
""
.
:
IRQ 3
, , ,
COM2 (,
);
IRQ 4
,

(,
);
IRQ 5
""
, LPT2 (,
);
IRQ 6
"" -
(, ,
);
IRQ 7
"" ,
LPT1 ( , );

'

IRQ 8

. ,

, ""
;
IRQ 12
"",
PS/2;
IRQ 14
"",
, IDE;
IRQ 15
"",
CD-ROM ,
IDE;
Serial Port
.
PCI Bus ""
, PCI.
IRQ .
.
, ,
.
IRQ 3
, -
, COM2;
IRQ 4
, -
,
IRQ 5
, -
, LPT2;
IRQ 6

IRQ 7
, -
, LPT1;
IRQ 8
,
. ,
"" ,
;
IRQ 9
,
IRQ9;
IRQ 10

, IRQ10;

II. BIOS
IRQ 11

,
IRQ 12
, PS/2,
"";
IRQ 13

;
IRQ 14

, IDE;
IRQ 15

CD-ROM ,
IDE.
Event Wake-Up
,
"" .
:
Enabled . ;
Disabled
.
.
, ,
Events, Wake-Up Events Reload Global
Timer Events. BIOS
,
IRQ DMA.
Power LED in Suspend

LED
Suspend Standby.
:
Blinking
""
;
On
;
Off/Dual
.
BIOS : 98 Power
LED, PC98 LED. :
Enabled Disabled.
Power Saving Type
.

Suspend;
Sleep

;
Stop Clock
;
Deep Sleep
"".
, ,
.
Resume on PCI Event
"" -
( ).

Wake-Up
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Save
Disk

Suspend
. ""
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Standby CPU Speed

"" .
:
Max ;
High
1/4
;
Medium

1/8 . ;
Low 1/16
.

II. BIOS
Standby Mode
,

(Standby), .
:

Min,
4 8 20 Min, 30 Min, 40 1 Hour
(,
,
Min
, Hour
);
Disabled
.
Stby Speed

Standby.
BIOS.
Suspend Mode
,

(Suspend), .
:

Min, 2 Min, 4 Min, 8 Min, 20 Min, 30 Min, 40 Min, 1 Hour


"" (,
,
Min
, Hour
);
Disabled
.
Suspend Power Saving Type
""
Suspend.
:
S1

, -

(
"");
S2

,
""
.
Suspend Switch

(Suspend) .


SMI
Sleep.
Turbo
Suspend "".
.
:
Enabled .
Suspend Sleep;
Disabled
.
Suspend
.
Capability
,
""
, .
( STR)
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Throttle
Cycle

"" Doze.
BIOS.
VGA Active Monitor
""
- .
:
Monitor ;
Ignore
.
BIOS :
Display Activity, Video Detection.
Video Off Method
""
.
:
Black Screen
,
.
, ;

II. BIOS
V/H ,
.
;
DPMS Supported
DPMS,
;
DPMS Off ;
DPMS Reduce ON
;
DPMS Standby

;
DPMS Suspend

.
Video Off Option
,
.
:
Always
,
;

Suspend;
Susp, Stby-Off
Suspend Standby;
All Modes

.
BIOS Video Off After.
Wake On LAN
""
.
, ,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Resume On LAN.
Phoenix BIOS LAN Remote
Boot, :
BootP
BIOS,

BootP;



LSA BIOS,

LSA;
Disabled
.
Wake On USB
STR State
""
- , USB (,
).

( ).
, 2 +5
Standby.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
ZZ Active In Suspend

Suspend (
ISA).
,
"" .

ZZ,


ISA,

:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.

.
KB Power On Hot Key
""
.
<Ctrl>+<Fl>
<Ctrl>+<F12>.
KB Power On Password

.
Keyboard/Mouse Power On Password.
<Enter> ,
"" .
, . .
.

17


Auto Detect DIMM/PCI
BIOS

PCI ,


.
.
, .
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
. .
D Clock For Spread Spectrum

.
:
Disabled
. ;
0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 3%
,
.
Flash BIOS Protection
Flash BIOS
.
BIOS ( ).

CMOS Setup Utility, ,
.

17.
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled
. .
Floppy Disk Access Control

. ,
, .
, .
:
Read Only
, ;
/.
Hard Disk Access Control
Floppy Disk Access Control (R/W)
,
IDE.
:
Read Only
,
;
R/W /.
Hardware Reset Protection
.
,
(, ).
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.
Language Support
.
:
English (US)
. ;
Francais
;
Italiano
;
;
Espanol .

II. BIOS


,

,
.
, .
.

MPS 1.4 Support


BIOS ,
. ,
, .
:
Enabled MPS 1.4,
,

(Windows NT,- 2000, Novell Netware);
Disabled

MPS

MPS 1.1.
Windows .
Version Control For OS.
:

1.4 MPS 1.4;


1.1 MPS 1.1.
BIOS :
MPS Revision, MP Version, MPS Version, Use Multiprocessor Specifications.
OS/2 Onboard Memory > 64 MB


64
OS/2. .
:
Enabled 64
OS/2;
<-
Disabled .
.
Security Option

. , ,
AWARD BIOS.
:
System

CMOS Setup Utility; .

Setup

17.
AMI BIOS Password Checking
Option :
Disabled
;
Setup
CMOS Setup
Utility;
Always
,
.
Smart Clock
AGP, PCI SDRAM
, (,
"").
. .. . ,
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
. .
Spread Spectrum Modulated


( 6%).
,

, ,
:
Enabled .
.
Disabled
.
. .
Spread Spectrum.
Supervisor Password
()
CMOS Setup
Utility.
<Enter> - .
User Password

CMOS Setup Utility.
<Enter>
.




, ,
-
.

,
. .

CPU Critical Temperature

,
, Thermal Slow
Clock Ratio.
:
75

, ,
(
, ,

Disabled
, . .
.
CPU Warning Temperature :
53C/127F, 66C/151F
,
;
Disabled

" 18.
CPU Fan On Temp High
,
. ,
,

().
CPU Temperature
.
.
:
Monitor


;
Ignore
.
Hardware Monitor

()
:
Enabled .
;
Disabled
.
MB Temperature
.
.
:
Monitor (Enabled)


;

.
Shutdown Temperature
,
- .
System Thermal

.
:

Monitor .

II. BIOS
, CPU Critical
Temperature.
,
Thermal Slow Clock Ratio (, 50 62,5%);
Ignore

. , . . ,

.
Temperature Monitoring

.
:
,
Enabled ;
.
Thermal Sensor State
. ,

,
. ,
.
,
:

;
None

Fail
.
Thermal Slow Clock Ratio

( ) .
:
0-12,5%, 12,5-25%, 25-37,5%, 37,5-50, 50-62,5%, 62,5-75%
,
,
CPU Critical Temperature;
Disabled

' 18.

CPU Fan Speed
,
.
,
.
: .

, . .,

Enabled .
BIOS

; .
Ignore
.

.
.
Chassis Fan Speed (xxxxRPM)

.
,
.
:
Enabled .
BIOS

;
Ignore
.


.
.
Fan Control
,

.
:
Enhanced Cooling

;
Auto

;
"

II. BIOS
Silent

,
, .
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
( ).
Fan OFF at Suspend
, ,
Suspend.
:
Enabled Suspend ,
, ;
Disabled
Suspend ,
, .

CPUFAN Off In Suspend.

Fan Speed

Fan Control.
:
Auto
;
Full

. .
Fan State
. ,

,
. ,
.
, :

,.
V""
;
None
BIOS.
,
( );
Fail
.

18.
Power Fan Speed
.
,
.
:
Enabled .
BIOS

;
Ignore
.

.


BIOS

BIOS ,
, .
Port

, , ,
. ,
. ,
MS-DOS .
:

1;
2F8 COM2;
Disabled
.
Clear Event Log
.
:
Keep
.
;
On Next Boot

,
Keep.
Critical Events in Log
,
.

19.
:
Single Bit ECC Events .
,
;
? Multiple Bit
Events

. ,
;
Parity Error Events
;
Events ,
.
EMP Access Mode
,
.
(Emergency Management Port)
,

, .
:
Pre-Boot Only

. POST
;
Always Active

.

;
Disabled . .
Direct
Mode
,
.
:
Direct Connect

-
;
. Mode

.
Escape Sequence
,

II. BIOS
,
. EMP Direct
Mode Modem Mode.
EMP Password


.
:
Enabled .
,
. A...Z
0-9;
Disabled
.
BIOS
Password Switch.

Restricted Mode Access


/
.
:
Enabled
;
Disabled

.
Event Count Granularity
,
, ,
.
, 0.
BIOS

Event Log Count Granularity.


Event Log Capacity

, .
:
Full

;
Not Full
.

19. BIOS 199


N
Event Log
.
System Event Logging.
:
All Events
;
Events
.
Event Time
,
.
,
.
, 0.
Flow Control
.
:
CTS/RTS ;
;

( ).
No Flow
.
3/4
,

Port Address.
:
3
IRQ3;
4 IRQ4.
Existing Events as Read

" ". ,

.
:
Mark

" ".
;
Do Not Mark .

II. BIOS
System Event Logging
,
.
:
Enabled ;
Disabled
.



BIOS
, ,
, , .

Unerase Undelete.

,
, ,
- . ,

,
(,
). ,
MS-DOS, Windows.
Auto Detect
Disk
IDE
( , . .).
BIOS CMOS
Setup Utility. ( , 500 )
,
.
.
Auto Interleave

MFM RLL. IDE SCSI
, -
,
.

II. BIOS
Hard Disk Format

(Low Level Format).
IDE
.

EIDE.

RLL.
Disk Utility Low
Level Format
.

.
FDISK
.
Low Level Format

IDE ( EIDE).
IDE-. , ,
, ,
.
Media Analysis
.
/ -
FAT, .
,
, - .
MFM RLL.
IDE SCSI ,

.

III


22.
23. "" BIOS

21


BIOS
.

. , ,
, , ,
.
.
BIOS.

,

.
POST
- ,
( ),
. .

( 30) .
.
AWARD BIOS

.

. .

206

1 . .,
.
. :
2
- . ,
,
CMOS Setup Utility .
BIOS ,
.
3
?
.

.
, .
1 + 1
.
. , .

1 + 2 ,
. ,
. , (
).
,
.
1 + 3
.

.
1 + 9
.
Reset
. , ,
"" ( )
.
G 1
.

. ,
.
1
. ,
.

21.
AMI BIOS
1
. .
2

.
Reset .
. ,
.

3

( 64 ).
Reset .
.
, ,
.
4
.
Reset . ,
, .
5
.
Reset .
. ,
.
Reset . ,
,
. .
,
.
7
.
Reset .
.
8
.

III.
9

BIOS.

. ,
,
( Flash-).
10
CMOS-.
Reset
.
CMOS
11
- (
). Reset
. -.
G 1 + 2
.
Reset . ,
. ,
.
1 + 3
.
Reset . ,
. ,
.
1 + 8
, .
.


' " ,

.
Phoenix BIOS

/ CMOS.
Reset
/.
, CMOS-
, ,




.
CMOS-.

21.
BIOS.
, BIOS ""
( Flash-).
. .
,
. :
1-2-2
DMA.
Reset . ,
.
1-2-3
/ DMA.
Reset .
, .
1-3-1

Reset . ,
.
1-3-3
64 .
Reset .
, .
1-3-4 : ...
64 .
Reset .
, .
.
. .
,
.
1-4-2
.
. ,
.

III.
1-4-3
.
Reset . ,
.
1-4-4
/.
, .
3-1-1
DMA.
Reset . ,
. >
3-1-2
,,...:
'.
DMA.
Reset . ,
.
3-1-4
. .
,
.
3-2-4"
..
.
Reset . ,
,
. , .
.
4-2-1
.
Reset . ,
.
. .
3-3-4
4-2-3
""

20. .
.
4-2-4
. ,
.

21.
4-3-1
.
. ,
.
4-3-4
.
Reset . ,
.
4-4-1
.
, .
4-4-2

. ,
.
4-4-3
.
Reset .
, .

22

.
. ,
.
.

,
, , , .

, .
. .
. .
,
.. .
.

,
, ,
10 , , ,
,
. ,

. . . V'
' '

,
CMOS-
, .


, ,
. .

22. 213
, , BIOS ,
, ,
.
.
8042 Gate A20 Error
( 8042
, ).
.
, , .
Address Line Short
.
. , ,
.
BIOS ROM Checksum Error
System
BIOS ,
.
Flash-, (
BIOS).
.
BIOS Update For Installed CPU Failed

. - BIOS
. BIOS
( BIOS Update
) .
Bad
ID Checksum

Plug and Play.
. .
, , ,
.
Boot Error
Press <F1>
Retry
.

. CMOS Setup Utility
, .
Bus Time-Out At Slot X
, X,
.

III.
Reset .
EISA.
-2 Timer Error
.
,
" . .
.
CMOS Battery Failed
, CMOS- ( ,
-
). . ,
.
CMOS Battery Has Failed
, CMOS- ( ,
-
). . ,
.
CMOS Battery State Low
, CMOS- ( ,
-
). . ,
.
CMOS Checksum Bad
CMOS-.
, - ,
CMOS-. ,
CMOS Setup Utility .
,
BIOS ( Flash-).
CMOS Checksum Error
CMOS-.
, - ,
CMOS-. ,
CMOS Setup Utility .
,
BIOS ( Flash-).
CMOS Checksum Failure
CMOS-.
, - ,
.

' 22.
CMOS-. ,
CMOS Setup Utility .
,
BIOS ( Flash-).
CMOS Date/Time Not Set
/ .
CMOS Setup Utility /
.
CMOS Display Type
BIOS .
CMOS Setup Utility
.
CMOS Display Type Mismatch
BIOS .
CMOS Setup Utility
(
).
CMOS Memory Size Mismatch

. CMOS Setup Utility
,
, , .
CMOS System Options Not Set
CMOS- . ,
- , CMOS.
, CMOS
Setup Utility .
, BIOS (
Flash-).
- .
CMOS Time And Date Not Set
/ .
CMOS Setup Utility /
.
Cache Memory Bad, Do Not Enable Cache
-,
.
Reset .
- ( -).

216
|
Checking NVRAM
. ,

,

BIOS .
DMA #1 Error
DMA . ,
,
(, ).
DMA #2 Error
DMA . ,
,
(, ).
DMA Bus Time-Out
- ( )
DMA .

.
DMA Error
DMA .
.
, , .
Disk Boot Failure, Insert System Disk And Press Enter
. CMOS
Setup Utility (

).
-
.
Diskette Boot Failure
(
). .

, BIOS
.
Diskette Drive / Error
.
CMOS Setup Utility

22.
.
. ,
, .
Diskette Drivers Or Types Mismatch Error
Run Setup
, , ,
BIOS. CMOS Setup Utility
.
Display Switch Is Set Incorrectly
BIOS .
CMOS Setup Utility
(
).
Display Switch Not Proper
BIOS ( ).
CMOS Setup Utility
(
).
Display Type Has Changed Since Last Boot

. CMOS Setup Utility
.
Drive X: Error
.


. , CMOS Setup
Utility (
HDD Auto Detection).
.
.
Drive X: Failure
,
. ,
. .
EIDE ( IDE
, . .
). SCSI-
, BIOS SCSI.

Error
,
.

III.

( ).
.
, ,
.
EISA CMOS Inoperational
/ CMOS- EISA.
, ,
CMOS-. , EISA Configuration
Utility .
EISA Configuration Checksum Error
BIOS EISA.
EISA Configuration Utility .
EISA Configuration Is Not Complete
BIOS
EISA. EISA Configuration Utility
.
Error Encountered Initializing Hard Drive
IDE.
,
BIOS (master,
slave).
. ,
, ( ).

Error Initializing Hard


Controller
IDE.
Power .

(master, slave).
Expansion Board Not Ready At Slot X
X.
.
, , (

).
Extended RAM Failed At Offset:
.

22.
.
, , .
FDD Controller Failure
-.
.
, ,
(
).
Timer
Inoperational
.
.
, , .
Floppy Disk Controller Resource Conflict
,
.
,
(. . )
. , ,
. ,
,
.
Floppy Disk(s)
-

. Reset
.
.
Floppy Disk(s) Fail (40)
-.

(
-).
CMOS Setup Utility
.
Floppy Drive Cntrlr Error Or No
Present
.

CMOS Setup Utility ,


FDD.

.

III.
HDD Controller Failure
IDE.
Power .

(master, slave).
Disk Install Failure
.
.
CMOS Setup Utility
( HDD Auto
Detection).
Hard Disk(s) Diagnosis
( ).

- . CMOS Setup Utility
.
HDD Auto Detection.
Hard Disk(s) Fail (20)
.
.
, ,
.
Hard Disk(s) Fail (40)
IDE ,
.
Reset .

Card Parity Error at


( ) ,
.
.
.
INTR #1 Error
.
.
, IRQ0

, ,
.
INTR #2 Error
.
.

22.
, IRQ8
IRQ15. , ,
.
Incorrect Drive /
Run Setup
.
CMOS Setup Utility
.
. ,
, .
Invalid Boot Diskette
, , (
).
Invalid Drive Specification
.
.
, , .

Invalid Media In
X:
,
.
-. FDISK
.
Invalid System Configuration Data
CMOS-,
Plug and Play. CMOS
Setup Utility Reset Configuration Data ( )
Yes.
.
Invalid System Configuration Data Run Configuration Utility
Press <F1> to Resume, <F2> to Setup
CMOS-,
Plug and Play.
<F1> , <F2>
CMOS Setup Utility ESCD.
/ Interface Error
. ,
.

. <

III.
Keyboard Error
. ,
,
.
, .

XT. , .
Keyboard Error Or No Keyboard Present
, .

,
All, But
Keyboard Halt On . ,
, , -
.
.
Keyboard Failure, Press Continue
.
"" - (, <> <Enter>),
,
. ,
.
,
(
)
(
Typematic Rate
Delay).
Keyboard Is Locked Out
Unlock The Key
"" - .
<> <Enter>. ,
- (,
,
. .).
Keyboard Is Locked... Unlock It
"" - .
<> <Enter>. ,
- (,
,
. .).
,

22. 223
Memory Address Error at

.
.
.
Memory Parity Error at

.
, .
.
3 Memory Size Decreased ,

. CMOS Setup Utility
,
, , .
3 Memory Size Has Changed Since Last Boot

. CMOS Setup Utility
,
, , .
3 Memory Size Increased

. CMOS Setup Utility
,
, , .
Memory Test Fail
.
. CMOS Setup
Utility .
, , .
3 Memory Verify Error at

. .
, ,
.
D Missing Operation System
.
.

III.
FDISK
( , ,
).
-
.
G Monitor Type Does Not Match CMOS

Run Setup

BIOS .
CMOS Setup Utility
(
).
NVRAM Checksum Error

(NVRAM),
Plug and Play (ESCD).
.
,
BIOS.
NVRAM Cleared
- - ,
Plug and Play,
.

, .
NVRAM Data Invalid
(NVRAM),
Plug and Play (ESCD).
.

, BIOS.
No ROM Basic
.
-
.
Not Boot Device Available
. , ,
,

. CMOS Setup Utility
.

22 225
3 Off Board Parity Error
,

, ( -)
.

3 Offending Address Not Found
(

/).
, Plug and Play,

OS Installed . ,
,
BIOS.
3 Offending Segment
(

/).
, Plug and Play,
PnP OS Installed . ,
,
BIOS.
3 On Board Parity Error
,
. IDE, PCI . .
. , ,

3 Onboard PCI VGA Not Configured For Bus Master
, , ""
PCI. CMOS Setup Utility
Bus-Master (
, ).
Onboard Parity Error
, ,
,
. ,
,
BIOS .
J Operating System Not Found

. CMOS Setup
Utility ( , ,

III.

). -
.
- .
FDISK.
Enabled

Default Loaded

,
BIOS.
( ), , , Load BIOS
Defaults.
PCI
Port Conflict
PCI

/.
CMOS Setup Utility
. , ,
,
.
PCI IRQ Conflict
PCI
IRQ. CMOS Setup Utility
.
, , ,
.
PCI Memory Conflict
PCI
.
CMOS Setup Utility .
, ,
,
.
Parallel Port Resource Conflict
, ,
, .
CMOS Setup Utility
. , ,
,
(, DMA
/).

22.
Parity Error
.
.
.
, CMOS Setup
Utility , .
,
.
, .
Press A Key
Reboot
, .
.
, ,
, .
Press ESC
Skip Memory Test
,
Quick Power On
Test .
<Esc>
.
Press
Disable
F2
Reboot
. ,
,
.
NMI ( <F1>)
, ( <F2>).
Primary Boot Device Not Found
.
BIOS,
. ,
,
.
CMOS Setup Utility .
Primary Master Hard Disk Fail
,
IDE (primary) master.

Reset
. ,
.
.

III.
Primary Slave Hard Disk Fail
,
IDE (primary) slave.
Reset
. ,
.
.
Primary/Secondary IDE Controller Resource Conflict
IDE .


. CMOS Setup Utility
.
, , IDE,
.
RAM Parity Error
Checking For Segment

. ,
. , CMOS Setup Utility
, .
,
Reset .
, ,
.
Real Time Clock Error "
.
CMOS Setup Utility
. , ,
.
Time Clock Failure

CMOS Setup
.

.
Utility
, ,
,

Secondary Master Hard Disk Fail


,
IDE (secondary)
master-.
Reset . ,

. .

22.
D Secondary Slave Hard Disk Fail
,
IDE (secondary)
slave-.
Reset . ,

. .
Port
Resource Conflict


(, /).
CMOS Setup Utility
. , ,
,
.
Serial Port 2 Resource Conflict
COM2
(, /).
CMOS Setup Utility
. , ,
,

.
Should Be Empty But EISA Board Found
EISA
, BIOS, .
EISA Configuration Utility .
1 Should Have EISA Board But Not Found
EISA .
EISA Configuration Utility .
, ,
.
Not Empty
EISA.
EISA Configuration Utility .

Software Port
NMI.
.
, , .

III.
State Battery CMOS Low , ,
, CMOS- ( ,
-
). . ,
.
Static Device Resource Conflict
ISA,
Plug and Play, , .

- .
System Battery Is Dead
, CMOS- ( ,
-
). . ,
.
System Battery Is Dead
Replace And Run Setup
, CMOS- ( ,
-
). . ,
.
System CMOS Checksum Bad
CMOS-.
, - ,
CMOS-. ,
CMOS Setup Utility .
,
BIOS ( Flash-).
System Device Resource Conflict
ISA, Plug and
Play, , .

- .
System Halted, (Ctrl-Alt-Del)
Reboot
.
<Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Del> ("
").
, .
,
.

22. 231
System RAM Failed At Offset:
.

.
, , .
Type Display CMOS Mismatch
BIOS .
CMOS Setup Utility
(
).
DRAM Error
DRAM ,


(
). .
, ,
.
Unknown PCI Error
PCI.
.

. ,
, .
Update Failed
Plug and Play
. ,
. . ,
.
Update OK!
Plug and Play
. .
Wrong Board In Slot
EISA .
EISA Configuration Utility
. ,

232

BIOS
:
Error at [code], code


. 22.1.



01 '
02
1
2
3
4 Hercules)
5
6 -
7
9 LPT1
LPT2
1
12 COM2
13 (,
)
14
17
18 -
30
74 VGA
85 EMS

.

22. 233

,
,
. , ,
BIOS.
, ,

.
- ,
.
,
:
1. - .
2 - .
, ,
,
.

:
1. Defaults CMOS Setup
CMOS Setup Utility. ,
-
.
2. ,
(
).
3.
, .
,
.
4. " " (,
- - ),

.
.
.
5.
SiSoft Sandra Pro, . .
. ,

illllllllllllllllllllllliinilHHIIIIIHHIIIIIIIIIIilllllllll

22.


().
,
: ,
, ,
. .

.


.
, ,
, (
). ,
Power Good, ,
. ,
Flash-,
BIOS.
POST-, ISA PCI
.

,
.
, /
.
, , .

.
, CMOS-
.
( 286 486). ,

3 .
2,7 2,8 .
,
CMOS
"".
-
.
,

236

.
]


.
LPT-

Windows, MS-DOS
-
. (
) ,
. ""
. , ]
.

,
( ), .
,
180. . ,
(
). /
. '
IDE-
IDE
.

IDE ,
- .

.
, , /
, . .

( ). /
,


(100-200 ).

(. 22.2),
.

22.
22.2.



,

,



,


,
,





"Keyboard Failure"
"Keyboard Error"



"Non-System Disk Or Disk
Error"



"Boot Failure", "Insert the
System Diskette and Press
Any Key"


,

-
,


,




-

BIOS,




220 .





.

,




.
,
-

,

.

,
.








23

"" BIOS
"" BIOS?
BIOS
.
, , ,

BIOS. .
( "") ,
, ,
.
,
, Power
( ). ,
. ?
, .
"" BIOS
,
- .
:
1.

AT (,

BIOS).
2. , -
(,
,
. .).
3. , . ,
(,

23. "" BIOS


,
).
4. BIOS (,
,
. .).
5. , CMOS Setup
Utility .
6. ,
.
, ,
, .
BIOS ""
, :
. ,
.

"" BIOS
. , ,
, CMOS-
. 100%
.
,
. ,
.
, , BIOS
, :
, ,
.
.
.
,
CMOS-,
BIOS.
Load Defaults BIOS CMOS Setup Utility.

.
,
Dallas Odin ( CMOS-

III.
)
.
: ,
(,
), , ,
(
). 24 ,
. , BIOS
"" .
, .
, CMOS
, . , ,
,
CMOS ,
. ,
, . .
.
,
BIOS.

, .
82206 Chip
, .
AT: DMA-, ,
, CMOS RAM. CMOS-
12 32 74 75 (,
). 1
(
). .
Chip
.

DMA-, , ,
CMOS RAM. CMOS-
3 26 (
).
Dallas DS1287A, DS12887A,
bq3287AMT
. CMOS,
10 .
.
CMOS- 12 21 (
, ),

' 23. "" BIOS


Dallas DS1287, DS12887,
bq3287MT
. CMOS,
10 .
.
CMOS- "" ,
.
Motorolla MC126818AP, Hitachi HD146818AP, Samsung
.
CMOS-
12 24 (
).
CMOS (

Dallas DS12885S, Benchmarq bq3258S


. CMOS-
12 20 12 24 (
)

"" CMOS-
.
, , MSDOS.
,
CMOS Setup
Utility , , BIOS.

, ( ,
). , ,
BIOS.
CMOS- ,
, "".
.
, .
1
(Pascal, Assembler . .)
70 2FH, 71
, . ,

III.
Borland Pascal 7.0, ,
, :
$FF

CMOS-. , BIOS
, -
. ,
CMOS Setup Utility
,
BIOS.
Turbo Pascal,
:
Begin
end
2

DEBUG,
.
CMOS-.
BIOS: AWARD AMI
:

DEBUG
- 70 17
- 71 17
Q
3
,
CMOS Setup Utility ,
.
-
NC, DN, VC FAR, , ,

23. "" BIOS


- <Alt>
_ (
, <Alt> . .):
112, 50, 246, 176, 46, 238,
50, 192, 238, 205, 32
.
4
-
BIOS.
.

IV

BIOS
24.
25.
26. BIOS

24


BIOS?
,

BIOS.


,




(

BIOS


.
Pentium II,
.
BIOS.
,

, BIOS. ,
,

BIOS (,
S ), CD-ROM,


.
I
,

Windows 95, Hi"

IV. BfOS
Play.

BfOS.

, 2000 BfOS


ACPI.

BIOS -


,

,
BIOS
(,
.

Intel (

Celeron, Pentium III).


,
BIOS

,
.
BIOS Intel

.
,
?
, ,
, ,
.

.

1997 ,

24.
. ,
, .
,
Flash-BIOS,
. BIOS
, .
, ,
BIOS.
,
.

,
.
BIOS ,
27,
Flash-.
,
. BIOS
.

. 28 29 , ,
, Flash-.

BIOS?
BIOS,
, .
?
;
1. BIOS,
BIOS .
, ,
BIOS.
2. .
BIOS,
,
.
3. BIOS ,
, .

IV. BIOS

/.
(, BIOS ""), . .
"" BIOS.
4. BIOS.
BIOS (
,
BIOS).

. ,
.
<Pause>
.

BIOS ,
, , ,
.
AMI BIOS :
BIOS.
, BIOS
( 15 1995 ). 440 ,
.
AWARD BIOS
:
02/15/2000-i440BX-ITE867-2A59CQlCC-00
9 (2A59CQ1CC).
( 259) ,
(QI) ,
() .

BIOS (,

( ,
PCI). , , BIOS
, ,

.

24
?
Flash-,
,
BIOS .

,
/. , ,
Windows,
BIOS .

BIOS.
?
Flash-
MS-DOS,
. ,
BIOS,
. , ,
, , ,
, .
,
BIOS
MS-DOS. ,
BIOS .
100- .
Flash- .
MS-DOS (
BIOS
).
. .
(
).

25



BIOS
BIOS
,
. ,
,
BIOS
.
,
.

.
DOS-
/s.
DOS.
ScanDisk
Bad-.
BIOS,
(, award.exe) .
, BIOS
(,
,
BIOS, , , ,
old.bin.

. ( auto

25.
exist
off
goto old
/py /sy /cc /cp /cd /sb /r
goto end
: old ,
award.exe /py /sn /cc /cp /cd /sb /r
:end
off
exist goto old
/b /c /d /e /g /i /1 /n /r /v
goto end
:old
/b /c /d /e /g /i /1 /n /r /v
:end
, ,
BIOS

(

BIOS old.bin, (
) .
,
. (
)
BIOS. ,
.

MS-DOS,
( ,
. .).
<F8> .
, ,
autoexec.bat (

Safe Mode Command Prompt


.
BIOS,

,

. ,
, ,
. Flash BIOS Protection.
| Disabled,

IV.
BIOS
BIOS.
/
Flash-BIOS (
). ,
,
BIOS.

( System BIOS Cacheable), BIOS ( Video BIOS Cacheable) , ""


(Shadow).
( Power Management Setup).
BIOS ,
, ,
(, , . .). ,
, ,
.
BIOS , . .
MS-DOS.
BIOS
.

,

.
.
, . ,
.
Flash-
.
BIOS (Award AMI BIOS) MSDOS
BIOS.
""
, BIOS
.
Flash- Windows.
.

"" MS-DOS.
Windows NT (2000),
Windows 9x (ME).
.

25
, . . , Windows
,
- ( , Windows 9x)

BIOS
. ,
BIOS.
DOS- FlashBIOS Award AMI BIOS.
Award BIOS 6.0
Rash-, ""
BIOS.
"Press Del to enter Setup"
<Alt>+<F2>.

BIOS, .
Award Flash
AWARD BIOS, Award Flash,


, . .
BIOS
,
.
,
BIOS , . ,

.
Award Flash
:
[/key]

, BIOS
( );
,
BIOS ( );
/key

, .

DOS-, Award Flash


,

IV.
BIOS
.
.
/?
.
.
.

,
.
/ /

, " BIOS ?". /
.
/ ,
BIOS (,
), .
,
.
/sy /sn
BIOS.
( ). /sn
"" BIOS ,

(
autoexec.bat).
"" CMOS-.

BIOS.
"" ,
.
ESCD,
, Plug and
(
Reset Configuration Data).
/cd "" DMI,
( ,
. .). BIOS
(, "" )
.

Boot Block. ,
,
. ,

25.
BIOS.
,
Boot Block,
.
ft
DMI
.
BIOS, .

""
( Reset
). ,
. ,
,
. "
.
/tiny
. BIOS
. ,
(
).
MS-DOS .
, . .
, BIOS .
/f ,
BIOS ( BIOS
Flash-).
, AwardFIash

"" BIOS.
"" CMOS-.

BIOS.
"" ,
.
,
"" "Press
to continue or Del to
Setup".
/cks

/,
Flash-.

, .
BIOS
.

IV. BIOS
"The Program
File's Fart Number Does Not Match With
System!".
,
BIOS, ,
.
Boot Block
, BIOS
(
,
BIOS).
/count

Flash
.
/device
Flash ROM.
, .
AMI Flash
AMI Flash , , AMI
BIOS, BIOS . ,

Flash-. BIOS

Award Flash . ,
, - ,
AMI Flash .
-,


:

( "" MS-DOS
640 );

;

(, ), BIOS.
, 32-

25
/,
.
Flash-BIOS
/ .
AMI Flash
BIOS .
, .

Flash-.

,
BIOS .
,
500

BIOS (
1,44 ).
AMI Flash
:
[/key] [/Key]...]
< >
. AMI Flash
,
.
AMI Flash, ,
, .
,
( Award Flash).

.
:
Main
;
Go Ahead
, ,
Information

Flash-, . Unknown
,
BIOS ,

;

IV. BIOS
Help/Message

.


.
,
. :
Go Ahead .
,
BIOS, , , ,
.


, BIOS,
, , ,
.
Switch
,
Flash-BIOS.
.
Part List
Flash-. ,
,
, .
Chipset
.
,
,
.
Auto Detect

.
Module

: ,

.
, MS-DOS, AMI Flash
,
.
/
Boot Block.
,
BIOS .
, . . Boot
Block BIOS .
Boot Block Programming
.

25.
/
ESCD,

and Play. ,
.
NVRAM Programming .
/ ,
- .
Defaults CMOS Setup
CMOS Setup Utility. Load CMOS
Defaults .
/d CMOS Setup
Utility (. . -).
/. Clear
Passwords During Loading CMOS Defaults .

""
( Reset
). ,
. ,
, .
" BIOS" .
Re-Boot After Programming Done ,
/v

BiOS.
"The BIOS ROM File Checksum Is Bad".
BIOS File Checksum Verify .
/i , BIOS,
.
, DMI ,
BIOS.
BIOS, .
BIOS File Tag Check .
/ "" CMOS-.

BIOS. ""
,
. Clear CMOS
After Programming
.
/g ,
.

( ).

GPNV Data
Reserving .

IV.
/1

USB.
BIOS.
Disable USB .
/ [+]
BIOS
.
Flash- . +
,
.
,
BIOS ( ).

.
/t[nj
BIOS , .
/.
0 65 535.
/q
BIOS
.
/
Flash
.
/ (
), ,
.

file name.
,
BIOS
Flash-BIOS
,
, , BIOS.
, .

. .
BIOS
MS-DOS, . . .

, .


25.
Fiash-
:

Insufficient Memory
.
-BIOS, ""
. (autoexec.bat
, . . ,
,

( ).
/tiny.
The Program File's Part Number Does Not Match With Your System
, BIOS, ,
.
/ (, ),
.
,
BIOS,
.
Unknown Type Flash
Award Flash
Flash-.
,
.
BIOS .
Program Chip Failed
Boot Block,
.
(
),
, Boot Block.

26

BIOS
,
Flash-, , ,
.

- ,
(,
. .).
,
. ,
, . ,
.
,
,
.
? BIOS . -

,
.
. ,
, , .
BIOS:
1. Boot Block .
(,
).
: :
Award BootBlock BIOS
Copyright 1998, Award Software, Inc.
BIOS ROM Checksum Error
Detecting Floppy Drive A media...

26

,
PCI ISA- (. . BIOS
BIOS ).

( . "
BIOS" 25).
,
( ) ,
, BIOS,
.
Boot Block , .
BIOS .
.
BIOS?

, :
BIOS.
,
BIOS .

( , ).
, .
220 (


BIOS
(, , , . .), .

.
(UPS),

.
. ,
Intel
, Flash Recovery.
BIOS.
, BIOS (
Flash-). BIOS
.

IV. BIOS
BIOS
,
BIOS ,
. "" BIOS

,
1
, ( ,
Intel) , BIOS.
,
, :
1. Flash Recovery Jumper Recovery Mode (
). .
2. ,
.
3. .
4. BIOS ,
Boot Block
.
, .
, ,
.
5. .
6. Flash Recovery Jumper .
7. .
, ,
Boot Block.
, .
2
, Boot
Block ,
. Award BIOS.
.
1.
AGP).
.

26. BIOS 267


2. ISA- ISA
. ISA-,
, .
3. ,
BIOS
( ,
. " BIOS" 25).
4. , Boot Block,
.
5. BIOS
BIOS ( , ).
6. .
7.
PCI AGP-.
3
, Boot Block ,
BIOS, ,
.
BIOS
BIOS . ,
-, (
, BIOS "" , ).
1 BIOS (
) .
,

2. , . 26.1
,

3.
( "" BIOS) ,

268 IV BIOS
,
. ,
.
4. .
, . ,
( )
.
5. BIOS
Flash-. ,

) .

.
6 BIOS

.
7.
(
).
, ,
,
BIOS.
, BIOS ,
, .
.
4

, "" Flash-.
- .
,
.
, Flash-,

Flash-BIOS .

V


27.
28.
29.

30. ""
31.

27



Intel 386. IBM PC

286-),
.
,
(,
Intel 386 20 Intel 386 33 ).
.
,


,

. , -
, .
,

(
) .

,
(
Intel 486).
,
,
( ), . .

V.

PCI
VLB (
).
(
, Intel

, .
-
, ,
. ,



). ,
,
.

.


.
20 30, 50%.
,
.
.
. , ,
.
,
.
,

. ,
,
. . ,

.
,
.
1


.
,


.

10 15 .
5 10 .
, .
- , ,
,
.
,
.
,
-
. ,
.

2
, ,
,
( , ).
.

. ,
500 , 466 ,
466 400 . .

""
. ,
,
.
3
,
.
.
, .
,
. ;
- ,
,
BIOS.
. , ,
, .

(,
) (
).

V.
, :

;
,
. .;

(
);
"" (,
).
, :
;

(, );

;
, ;

;
.
,
, .
.

,
.
,
.
,
. ,
.

.

33 .
,
. 66 99
PCI 2, 100
132
3, 133 4.


27
AGP

66 , 2 133 , 4
266
. 66 100
AGP ,
100 132 2/3, 132
2.

.

28



,

/
. BIOS,
.
:
1. :
"" CMOS- , ,
,
, PCI AGP,
, AGP, .
,
- .
BIOS.
.
.
2. (
, ,
). ,
.
.

.
3. (, . .),
,

28. 277
( , SCSI
IDE-, .).
4. BIOS, -
.
, ,
IDE . ,

BIOS .
.
5. ( )
,
. ,

, . .).
6
, , ,
AGP. 0,1 0,2
.
BIOS

/. ,
BIOS, ,

, .
, :

: ,
, - (
"" )
, .
:
, (,
).


. ,
,
""
BIOS.
,

V.
.
,
(
, ).
,
BIOS, ,
, , .
,
. .
.
, ,
.

.

,
, . ,
.
, ,
"" 3D Studio

, ,
(
).
, ,

.
( 533 )
128 .

( ,
).
IDE.
,
.
HDD
Detection
.

. -
, .

,
. BIOS ""

CD-ROM.

28.
- - ,
,
.
, .
,
BIOS, ,


.

.
,
.
.
:
Intel Pentium III 700 , 128 ,
32 . .

, , "" .

.
BIOS.
? " "
. , ,
, . ,


, ,
.
.
:

,
, . .
.
.
" ",
, .


( ,
- ).

V.
,
.
,
.
. , ,
, .

,
,
.
.
,
-.
-, , , -

. -
:


, ;

-

;

/
. -
,
.

.

. -
:


;


, ;


, ;

28.



,

.
,
.
.

,
.

.
.
( )
. /

( ).
Bus-Master,
, ,
.
,
, . Bus-Master
:
Intel 430FX, 430VX, 430, 430;
Intel 440FX,
SiS
5596/5513, 5571,
5582, 5597, 5598, 5591/5595;
AL1 Aladdin III, IV, IV+, V;

VXPro.
Bus-Master
,
. Bus-Master:
,
DMA;
, IDE, ,
IDE-,

282 V.


,

, ( )
.


,
, .

F$B,


FSB 66
PCI 33
AGP 66

AGP,
75 100 103 1 0 1 2 1 5 133 140
37.5 41,6 33 34,3 35 36,7 37,3 38,3 40 33 35
75 83 103 1 0 1 2 1 5 133



, , .

.
SCSI-, ,
.

,
, FCI
,
66 83 PCI 33
41 , AGP

66 S3 (.


,
.
,
.

PCI/AGP.
,
.
,

28.
"" ,

BIOS. AGP, ,
: 1/1
FSB 66
83 , 2/3 100 133 , 1/3 133
. (
), ,
.

-

100
.
:
,
, 66 .

;
100 ,
"" ,
66 . 100
125


,
, .
-
.
,
-
.


, .
,
. .
(
Pentium II) ,
.
:

V,
.
.
, , ,

.
,
.

, .
.
,
, .
, ""

.

.


( ),
.
.
,
. ,
,
.


,
: PCI, AGP, , .

.

,
.
,
. ,
,
, .
, , 1,75 1,85 ,
. ,

28
, ,
- ,


,
.
- .
,
,
.
AGP

.
AGP
, .

,
,
.

,
. , ,
"".
;
;
.

;
-;
;
;
SCSI.

V.

:
OEM
. ( )
;
Retail ( Boxed)

( , ,
-).
,
, ,

.
,
, ,
, .
,

. , ,
:
,
( ).
,
.
.
.
,
.
,
, .
"".
,

. ,
, .
,
.


.

Abit . . Intel,
.

28.
440 .

, - .

, ,
(. 28.2):

BIOS
;

;

;
( ,
).
28.2.


100
AX64 Via
133A

0,05
2,1

Asus Cusl2

+0,3
0,05

Asus i820

,

+0,4

0,05

Asus P3V4XVia
133A
+0,3
0,05

tech
6ATA4
Via
133A
+0,2
0,1

i815

V.
28.2 ()

-7

+0,3
0,05

EP-6VBA2
Via
133A

Gigabyte
+10%

Gigabyte
GA-6VX7-4X
Via
133A
+40%

MSI


i815
Soyo Via



10%




, , , 100 (. .

). 66
83 , ,
.


. 8
,
, 125 , 7,5

, 133 . :
, ,

28.
,
(. 28.3).
28.3. SDRAM

, ,
12 83
10 100
125
7 133


.
.
(
)
. - ,
.

, .



,
:
,

.
.
( 500 700 ) .
,
, , Program
Files.
-,

V.
.

(, Arc).
,
.

.
(
, ).

29



.
,

,
,
, , IBM-

.
Intel
Intel
,

.
FSB
(. 29.1).
,
66 . , Intel
,
66
, Celeron
Pentium II/1II.

Intel
66
133
*
Pentium II
Pentium II

292 V.
29.1 ()
() 66 100
Celeron
*
Celeron *
Celeron (Coppermine 128) * *
Pentium
* *
Pentium
(Coppermine) * *
Pentium IV (Willamette) *
Pentium II
Pentium II

66 100 .
233, 266, 300 333 , - 350, 400 450 .
, ,
440 Intel.
Pentium II (

,
( 333 )
Intel .
Pentium II .

- .
, , , ,
-, ,
. ,
,
,
-.

Pentium II Klamath,
.
. 29.2
II Klamath,
. ,
,

29.
Pentium II Klamath

, .

4.0 75 300
233 . 100 300
112 336
4.0 75 300
266 . 100 300
. 112 336
4.5 75 338
300 3.5 350
3.5112
100 400
,
112 .
, , .
Pentium
300
,
,
.
Pentium III
Pentium III:
100 . Coppermine

, Coppermine 133 .
.
Intel Pentium 600 ,
Katmai 100 , Intel
600
Coppermine 100 , Intel Pentium
600 Coppermine 133 . Katmai
600 ,
Cop
100 133
.

V.
, .



, PCI AGP
Pentium III Coppermine
133 ,

.
Celeron

Celeron
- (266 300 )
66 , -
333, 366, 400, 433, 466
500 ) 66 100
( 800 ).
Celeron
Pentium II - .
. -,
,
-,
,
.
Celeron 800,
100 ,
"" III, , ,
.
Pentium II,
Celeron ,
.
29.3. Celeron

Celeron 266 300 333 400
Celeron 300A 333 374 450
Celeron 333 375 415
Celeron 366 413 457 550

29.
29.3 ()

400 450
Celeron
Celeron
Celeron

600
433 488 541
466 525 581
500 563623

, ,


. 29.3 ,
300 366 .

100 , , ,
. (. 29.4),
Celeron
.
29.4.
Celeron
75
Celeron 300 XXX
Celeron 333 XXX
Celeron 366 XXX
Celeron 400 X X
Celeron 433 X X
i

83 100 103 Celeron 266 X X XX X


X X XX X
XXX XX X
X X XX X
XX XX X
XX XX XCeleron 466 X X XX X


XXX .
XX ,
X (
).

V.

,
. , ,
Celeron 366 :
#L9180597
:
L ,
( ),

( );
9 1999;
18 .
,
.
FC-PGA PPGA-.
Slot I,
.


Slot 1,
1, , ,
.
AMD

Intel AMD
,

, .
Athlon/Duron
Athlon/Duron .
AMD (
L1), .
Athlon Slot ,
Pentium II. ,
,

Athlon.

. ,
.
,

29.
(, ATHLON
,
,
37 . ,
10 ,
.
,
, .
,
,
,

. ,
.
,
, ( ,
) .
.


,
.
FC-PGA
.
,
Athlon.
. ,
L1 (. 29.1).

. ,
,
. ,
"" ,
, -
, .
,
. .
29.1. Athlon

V.
( Duron 600/650),
. ,
AMD , .
, Duron
800 .
Athlon
. 29.5.
29.5. Athlon

500 1,6 700 1,6-1,8


550 1,6 750 906
600 1,6 750 1,6-1,8
650 1,6 750 1,6-1,8
700 1,6 800 1,6-1,8
750 1,6 850 1,6-1,8
800 900 960 1,8-2,0

920 1,8-2,0
1025 1,8-2,0
1060
1080 1,8-2,0
900 1,8-2,0


. , ,
Athlon/Duron,
.

AMD, . .
.
29.6.
,

, ,
Athlon 650-850 1,8 1,7 1,8
1,65 1,75
Duron 550-700 1,4 1,5 1,6

29,

XP/MP
, ,
AMD .
( Athlon/Duron)
,
L1 . ,
Athlon
""
L1
1 (
Athlon, ).
, ,

.

,
, L1
(, ).
- .

,


. ,
, .

.

,
Direct X Open GL,
.
.
nVidia
Riva 128/128ZX , , ,
Matrox Mistique.
,
.
, ,
.

""
, .

V.

, .

Unreal.
, .

.
. True Color (24- 32- )
,
.
High Color .
''
.
, ,
, , , .
,
PCI. ,
, .

.
.
,
(
).

30


""

, ,
.
.
,
,

.
, ,
,
.

.

, :
,
, . ,
.
.
BIOS,
"" CMOS-. ,
. ,
. , ,

,

,
. , ,

(

V.
). ( )
.
83 , , , .
100 , PCI
(
)
, . ,

( )

.
,
.
PCI AGP.
.
,
,
, ,
- .
Mode IDE

,
, . SCSI
PCI.
, BIOS ,
,
" " ,
. ,
.

, ,
,
.
100
133.
, .
,
Norton Disk Doctor
,
,
PCI,
IDE-, "".

.


""

. -
:
.
, Celeron
2,5 2,6 .
,
. ,
, .

,

.
(, Duron)
,
.

31


, IBM PC,
,
.
,
.
,



.
Intel,
.
.
,


(.

.

,
.

,

31.
. 31.1.
. ( , ,
), .

(,
).
. .
:
;
;
.
.
,
. . ...
.
. , ,
,
. .

( . cooler, ) ,
.
,
.
, .
.
, ,
.

306 V.

,
. :
.

,
.
, ,
.
.
.
(
, CD-ROM . .) ,
.
.

.
.
,
( ) ( ).


,
.
: , ,
;
;
. '
.
.

.
- , ;
,
.

. ,
, . .


,
.

31.
- ,
.


.

,
. .

,

. , ( )
.
:



Socket 7 Super 7
,
.
+ 12 .

:


.
(
6 ). (250
)
.
, ,
,
.

,
.
.

V
""
,

, .



, ,
,
.
,
. ,

, .

.

, ,
.
( ,
Pentium).

,
,

. ,
, . .
. "" ,
-
,
.
, , , , ,
, .



. ,
.

31.
, , ,
20
Pentium II
, -
, .

Athlon/Duron (. 31.1,
31.2).
31.1.Athlon
, , ,

750
1000
'
46,7
48,7
38,3
40,4
44,8
49,7
52,0
31.2. Duron
, , ,

18,9 21,1
60020,4 22,7
.. ,.. 650 ,
,!
.
700 '22,9

.

,
, . .)
.

, ,

V

.

.
,
. .
,

,
. ,
.
,
.

"" ,
, "
" -:
)
.
1,5 .
,
,
.

.
,
, ,
220
,
.
,
,
,
.
, .


.

31


Intel
, Pentium III
,

,
Pentium IV

, ,


AMD ,
,
400 ,
, ,
AMD



,

,
,




CPUIdle
Halt (
)
MotherBoard Monitor
Suspend Mode



,
,
, (

V.
)
.

.
,


10
MotherBoard Monitor

:
;
;
,
.
.

VI

32. ?
33.
/

32

?
-
,
, .
,
( ).
, ,
, ,
, .
:
,

. ,
,
-.
( )
. ,
BIOS (
).
, :
,
;
;

(, ,
, , ,
- );

VI,
.
, ,
;
.
,

, BIOS
( "" CMOS)
. .;

-).
'


. ,

, .
,

( , . .);
, ;

( . .)

. BIOS

"" .
upgrade , ,
,
,
. ,
, , ?
. ,
,

,


, .

.

( ).

33


/


.
,
.

. : , ,
, . ,
.
,

.
BIOS. ,
. ,
,
.
.
, .
:

, .
:
, .
. ,
, , .
,
.

VI,
-
( )
,


, .
- , (, ),
, , ,


, ,
,
, 3 12 .
,


( )
,
.
, ,

,

,

.


,


,

(
)



:

33. /
,
,
, .
,
.
, ,

.
( ).
(
),


.
,

.
, ,
,
,
, .
.

-


34- . ,
.
,
3,5".
, ,
5,25.
, .
,
( , ),
,
, . ,
( ),
. ,
BIOS.

320 VI.

:
1. . -,

(

- ).
2. .

,
.
3. (

5,25" 3,5").
, ,
.
4. ,
. ,
. ,
.
4 .
.
5. .
. ,
. , ,,
6.
(
, ).
. ,
,

,
( ,
).
( 180),
.
.
7. ,

.
8.
.

33. /
9. .
10 -
.
IDE
IDE 40-
60 ,
/33 /66,
45 . ,

, .
IDE :
1. . -,

(

- ).
2 .

,
.
3. (

, CD-ROM, Iomega ZIP).



(
AT).
4. .
IDE ( , ),
master-, slave.

. IDE. ,
(

, ,
master



BIOS,
, D:. ,
BIOS.
slave- master-
.

322 VI
IDE-
Cable Select.
master- slave- ,

.

Cable Select;
28
;
28
( ).
28
master-,

5. ,
.

4
,
CD-ROM
.
6 . ,

, , ,
.
7.
(
)
,
,

,
( ,
).
8.
,
.
9. IDE

10. .
11
HDD Auto Detection
CMOS Setup ( BIOS
, CD-ROM).

33 /

master-,
CD-ROM slave-
, . .
. ,
IDE
. ,
master-
( )
IDE BIOS
BIOS,
BIOS.

ATA

ATA/33, ATA/66,

- IDE (
, )


/33 /66 .
(
). , ,

.
,
, ,
- ,
( ,
).
/66 (
UltraDMA Mode 4) IDE
,
IDE, (


"",


60 40- IDE
,
/33 ,

,
/66.
IDE :
180;
,
.

VI.
,
,
. .


. ,
(, ).

,

, ,
.
,
( ,
).
.


,
.

,
. ,
, 180.
IDE ,

. .

. master/slave
, "" ,
,
BIOS.
IDE
.
SCSI


12 ( , IDE).
SCSI
SCSI, ISA,
PCI.
16 ( SCSI

33 /
).
,
33.1
SCSI-.
(
,
) SCSI .
( CD-ROM, )
, ( )


SCSI-

Single-Ended

SCSI-1
Fast SCSI
Fast SCSI
Ultra SCSI
Ultra SCSI
Ultra SCSI
Wide Ultra SCSI
SCSI
Wide Ultra2
8
8
16
8
8
16
16
16
8
16
6
3
3
1,5
3
1,5
3
12
12
25

25
25
25
25
25
25
12
12
8
8
16
8
4
16
8
4
8
16




.

. ,

VI

(Single-Ended).
,
(, ),
SCSI, .
SCSI (
7 15). , ,
( )
( ). ,
, ,
.
SCSI , :
SCSI
ID7;
, ,
, ,
, ;
SCSI ,

;
,
,
. .
.
SCSI :
1. . -,

(

- ).
2. .

,
.
3. ,
, ,
.
4. ,
SCSI-. ,
,


/
.
.
5.
4 .
6. ,
, .
SCSI " "

( )
.
7.
,
.
8. SCSI
.
9. .

,
,
.
,
,
, ,
(. 33.2).
33.2.


,
Pentium II 2,8 2,9-3,0 Slot 1
Pentium II 2,0 Slot 1
Celeron ton 2,0 2,1-2,2 Slot 1Celeron 2,0 2,1-2,3 370
Celeron Coppermine 1,5 1,51-1,55 Socket 370
Pentium 2,0 2,1-2,3

328 VI
- ()

,

Pentium Coppermine1,65 1,66-1,75 Socket 370
IV 1,7 1.71-1,85 Socket 423/478
Athlon 1,6 1,7-2,0 Slot A
Duron 1,4 1,5-1.6 Socket A
Athlon XP 1,75 1,76-1,8 Socket A
. 33 2
(,
III
2,1 ).
BIOS
Socket 370/423/
:
1 -,

(
1
- )
2

,
.
3 ,
.
,

4. ,
, ,
,
.
.

33. /
5.
(
). ,
"" . ,
, .
6. .
7. , .
8. .
9.
.
.
.
Slot 1/A
:
1. . -,

(

- ).
2. .

,
.
3. .
,
.
4. ,
. ,

.
5. , ,
, ()
Slot 1.
.
.
7.
.

VI.
8. .
9. .
Socket 370-Slot 1
:
1. . -,

(

- ).
2.
.
,
.
3. ,
.
4.
( ).
5. .
6. ,
.
7. .
,
.
8. , ,
, ()
Slot 1.
.
9. .
10.
.
.
12. .

,

64 )
, .

33. /
, .
(
) , ( ),
.
. , .
SIMM
30- 72- SIMM 1- ,
,
.
72- SIMM, ,
72 . ?

. ,
.
72- SIMM
30- . 30-
. ,
SIMM ,
, .

.
, 30- SIMM
72- .
72-
30- .
: , ,
SIMM ,
486- .
,
-

SIMM :
1. .


(

- ).
2. .

,
.

VI.
3. SIMM .
,
.

4. , 45
. , (
) .
(
). 1.
5. .
6. .
DIMM
DIMM SIMM, ,
, ( 84
),
. , DIMM "
" , SIMM.
,
,
, DIMM1 (,
DIMM1 - 66 , DIMM2 - 100
DIMM
:
1. . -,

(

- ).
2. .

,
.
3. DIMM .
,
.
4. , ,
.
.
5. .
6. .

33 /


( )


1 . -,

(

- )
2

,
.
3
,

.
4 ,
.

.
AGP,

, .
5.
AGP
, PCI ISA

.
6. .
7
ISA
ISA ( )
. 8 16 20 24 .
: 8- 62

16- 36 ).
8 ,
10 13 , 16 25 (,
).

VI.
8- 6
IRQ, 16-

ISA,
.

8- DMA ( 16-
16- ). 16-
,
Bus-Master.
, ISA,
.
-
Plug and Play, . .
.
8-
8- . 16-

,
8-, .
8-, 16- .
ISA
: +5 , -5 , +12 , -12 , (, , ground).
8- , +5
"" .
ISA . ,
,
.
, ,
-
Plug and Play.
EISA
EISA ISA.

ISA-. .

, ,
, . EISA
ISA ,
ISA, , ,
. , ISA 8 .
ISA
EISA (NVRAM),

33 /
EISA .

ECU (EISA Configuration Utility).

.
( Plug and Play)
.
,
.

PS/2 IBM
32- Bus-Master,
.
: (8- 90 ),
(16- 22 ) (32- 52 )

.
ISA/EISA
. PS/2
,
.
VLB
VLB
486, .
486- ,
-
VLB
VLB 16- ,

EISA ,
( 116 ).
VLB
. ,

. ,
66
.
50 40 ,
.
VLB

VI.

PCI
.
Pentium
(
)

,
. PCI
, .
/ ISA/EISA

33 66
PCI

124 .
5 3,3 ( ,
). ,
PCI .
(/ )
(
) ISA-.
,
/ PCI
ISA
PCI ( ISA) .


Plug and Play.
AGP
AGP ,
PCI 3,3 .
AGP ,
32
AGP- .
AGP

66 , 2

133 , 4 - 266 .


...
?
IBM PC
:

, ,
IBM
, ,
.
IBM
, 286-

,
. ,
,
, ,

, , ,
,
. ,
,
, . ,
, ,
, .

,
. , .

IDE
,
.


:

IBM

(Baby-AT,

.
:
, , ,
,
.

.
.

.


.

AT :
.
,
.
,
.

.
,
.

, . , ,
, .


.
,
.


,
(
. .).

,
.

,
.
IBM PC
, ,
.

""
.
, 286


(

. .
IBM

,
, PS/2.
.
, ,
.
USB ,
.
, . .
.

.


.
.
.
,

.
""

340
( ,
"").


PS/2.
. ,

,
.

( )
,
, ,
. "" ,
,
.
?
.
, , ,
.

.
, , ,
. IBM PC
- ,

ISA. (,
) .
, ,
,

. :
ISA 8- 16-. ,
. ,
. ,

,
, ,
ISA.
EISA
ISA.
4 . -
,

.
ISA-.


, , , EISA
ISA .
Intel 386
IBM PS/2
ISA. ISA/EISA .

PS/2.
VLB

.



486, . . .
D PCI ,
. ,

and Play.
.
ISA

,
(PCI 2.0 PCI 2.1).
AGP .

.


(AGP
4).
USB .
127

Compaq, DEC, IBM, Intel,
Microsoft NEC. Plug and Play,



.
1394


, , , ,

.
, ""
(
, .).
( . Chip Set, ),
: ,

-, ,
.
,
.

SiS471 .
: , SiS471
Triton,
Mercury,
.

South

("" )
, /
, North Bridge
("" ) , ,
PCI AGP . .
"" (, PIIX4/PHX4E) "" ,
"" .
, ,
.
Intel Via. -
, .


.
:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Pentium IV.
Pentium

Pentium

,
, .
:
, ;
;
,
;
,
.



.
:
Intel

Pentium IV. ,
RDRAM.

Athlon
DDR SDRAM.
DDR 266

Pentium III. Pentium IV ,
Athlon
Pentium IV.
Via Apollo 26 Pentium Ill/Celeron
DDR SDRAM.
Pentium III
DDR-,
Intel . ,
Pentium III.
, ,
.
:
Intel i81S
, Pentium III.
Celeron, , .
.
440.
Intel
, ,
Pentium II, Celeron.
100 ,
Ultra ATA66 .
.
Via Apollo KT133A
Athlon
SDRAM.
AMD-760 .

5 :
Pentium Ill/Celeron,
Athlon/Duron.
: SDRAM
DDR SDRAM.
.


:
Intel i440ZX
""
, ,
-
256 .
AMD-750 Athlon/Duron.
, Athlon
ThunderBird,
.
Via Apollo KT133
Via
Athlon/Duron.
, .
SiS 630S/730S

: Pentium
Athlon/Duron.
Via.
:
Intel i810x
. ,
, ,
.
Intel
.
66 ,
"" Celeron.
Via Apollo PLE133

.

.
,
.
:
-,
,
IDE, USB,
.

.
AMD (Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.)
(Acer Inc.)


Intel
OPTi

http://www.intel.com/;

SiS (Silicon Integrated System Corporation)


VIA

http://www.sis.com.tw/;

http://www.via.com.tw/.

,
.


. ,

, , ,
. .
, ,


.
ASUSTeK

.
. http://www.asuscom.ru/.

,



,
.
, ,
. ,
.

Chaintech
,

346
,


,
.
Gigabyte

.
Intel AMD

Intel
,
.
.
, . .

, ""
, ,
/


, ,
;
, ,
, BIOS,
, ;
,
"" BIOS, ,
.
,



, ,
Intel AMD.
Via Transmeta,
,
, ,
,
,
Cyrix, Centaur Rise

Intel,
, ""
. Intel Celeron,
- ,
66

Intel
AMD Athlon Duron

Intel Intel

RDRAM,
. AMD
Intel
" ".
Pentium
1,13
-

AMD

Via
Cyrix
Centaur, ,
Crusoe (Transmeta) <

Intel AMD



,
IBM PC,
, -
, , ,

348

.

.
,
. ,
.

Pentium III/IV,
Athlon, Duron, Celeron. .
( ) ,

Coppermine,
Mendocino.
,
. , ,
,
. ,
(
).
,
.
Intel
1968 .


4004 108 .
.
. " " Intel
IBM

, Intel, -
IBM- .
, .
?
Intel
IBM

. IBM-
,

Intel. ,

.
,
.
Intel.
(AMD, Cyrix . .)



. ,

. , ,
Intel .
, ,

.
Intel, . . ""
.
, ,

Intel.
IBM
PC Intel .
-

. , ,
, Intel.
, ,

. Intel
.
( AMD)
.
Intel IBM PC

. Intel
,
.
8086,

(
86).
, . .
.

Intel 286. ,
80286, 80 .
,

. , ,
.
IBM . ,
Intel
IBM PC,

350
.

386-
. 386-


.

Intel- , , 486-
.
Intel
( ).
: Intel 386SX Intel
386DX. SX "", a DX
. ? SX
16- ,
, ,
DX. ,
"".
,
386DX
-.
32-, , ,
32-
(, Windows
SX DX.
Intel 386
, ,
.
Intel 486 ( 1989 )
-,
.

.
.
486- SX DX
. SX ,
DX . SX
DX ( ,
DX

)- SX
, .
SX
DX,
.




SX2, DX2 DX4 (,
). ,
- .
.

. DX2-66
DX-33 -
. 486-
Windows,
, .
1993
Pentium. , Intel 586,
Intel
.
Pentium.
486 ( 1994
Intel 486DX4),
Pentium.
Pentium ?

(
).

.
Pentium 64- ,
-
.
32- . , 16-
,
32-.
Pentium
: 75, 100, 120, 133, 150, 166 200 .
.
,
(, ).


( Windows 3.x, Windows 95 NT Win
dows 98, ME, 2000
,

352
Pentium,

:



-


API

, .

. , Pentium
.

Pentium 166 ,
66
,
,
,

eXtention). Pentium
1997
Pentium 166,
200 233 ,
, .
233
- :
, ,

:

Pentium ( 10 20% 60% ,
).


Pentium


,
Pentium, Intel 486 Intel 386

,
,

. ,
,
Intel
Pentium
,

133 266 .
Pentium MMX.
1997 .
Intel ()


.
: 150, 166, 180
200 .
,

Pentium
:
( )

(,
), ,
. ,
.
,

. .
32- ,
32-

, , ,
,
, , ,
. Intel

.
-

354
4
.
:
(), .
256 512
1995 , , 1997 ,
, !
-, .

Pentium II.

. , Pentium Pro
,
16-
,
Pentium II
. .
233 266
, 300
. Pentium II

Windows 95 Windows NT, .
:

Pentium
.
Pentium II 266 ,
, 1,6 2

32-
.
- .
64
.
-
.
,
.
Pentium II, .

Pentium II
. Pentium II



,


100 (
,
Pentium 11
, .
Tonga
233 300
66

,


100 ,

Katmai 450 600 .


133 533 600 .
Intel
.
Pentium II
Pentium II
Deschutes.
-
400
450 100 .

. ,

Pentium,
"" Intel 486. , ,
,
,
".
Intel Celeron,

, Covington
( , Intel
). , Celeron
Deschutes - , .
Pentium II -.
266 300 66
Celeron 1998 .

Celeron Intel

356
. -, ,
,
. -,
Coppermine,
Intel .
, ,
-

Celeron Covington.
- .
Celeron
-

, .
300 533 ,
66 . Celeron
1998 . , 300
,
(
Mendocino).
, .
Celeron .
300 500 .
Dixon.
,

Celeron

Coppermine 128
SDRAM.
.
Celeron:

Pentium Pentium II, -
. Celeron
Pentium II ,
Pentium
.
SSE, -
,
.
Coppermine
Celeron, ,
AMD.



IBM-
,
. ,
66 ,

100 .

Pentium .

450 600
100 133 . 256 - ,
. 600
Katmai, Coppermine.

( 500 1

) -,
.
,
, ,
. SSE
(Streaming
Enhancements

SIMD).

Coppermine ,
,
Celeron.
Coppermine 128. ,

Pentium III. Celeron Coppermine 128 ,
533 .
533

A (Celeron 533A Celeron Coppermine).
SSE.
Intel
Celeron 100 133 ,
Pentium III. , -
, ,
, ,
""
,
. , 66
Celeron,
Intel


.
Celeron 800
. Intel
2 .
, - Celeron Coppermine 128
, - Pentium III. ,

358
Pentium III,
- .
.
Pentium III, Intel
, .
Tualatin 256 (
- ).
Pentium III.
1,13,
1,3 1,26

133 .

Tualatin 512.
,
Pentium IV.
, Intel
Pentium III Pentium III

Tanner ( Katmai -
) 500 550


Cascades (, Coppermine)
600 (
1 ).
. .
IBM-
Intel ,
.
Pentium. ,
IV ,
2000 .
1,4 1,5 . , ,
Intel Pentium Pro.
,
400 .

,
Pentium IV
Willamette. 2 .

Pentium IV
.
(, - , ),
, ,
Athlon .


,
.
Intel
. ,
,

AMD.
AMD
AMD (Advanced Micro Device) 1969 .
http://www.amd.com.
AMD
Intel


. , AMD
Intel ,
1999 AMD :
" 25% Intel".
, AMD Intel,
386- . , "" .
AMD , 486SX, ,
, , Intel.
.


AMD ,
586. AMD.
Krypton-5 , , 5.
.
-5 Intel,
. " "
.

.
.
5x86 SSA/5 , 75, 90 100 ,
5 -
(
AMD
AMD K5-PR90 AMD K5-PR100, ).

5 90,

120 133 .
5
. Divide

360
overflow ( 0). ,
, AMD, " ".
" "
, . ,
, "" 5 ,
, .
, ,
, 0, -
, ,
, .
,
.

( ,
Intel,

).
,
Pentium
.
5 100
Pentium 133
D AMD

, Intel,
AMD.
Pentium
.
AMD

.
166 233 .
266 300
66 . Intel, ,
5
Pentium .
:
,
, Pentium Pro,

Pentium II Intel.
D - , ,
.


- AMD Intel
,
,

.
Pentium Pro, AMD
16-
32- ,
, -
Windows DOS.
, Pentium II,

Intel.
AMD
6-2 200 550

100 -

AMD 3D Now!

.
Intel
AMD - .
6- (
-
.
350 475 100 ,

Intel.

6-+.

- ,
450 100 .


-
Athlon
AMD

,


Argon (K7)

362

. Athlon
-
, 400 .
Athlon Duron (
) ( ). Intel,
AMD ,
,
.
Duron Athlon .
550
100 . Spitfire.
, , , Duron
Morgan.
SSE,
Intel.
3D Now! Professional.
.
:
,
Intel.
, Celeron,
Duron -
.
AMD Intel
.

- 3D Now!
ThunderBird
Athlon . ,
Duron, - 750
( 2 ).
:
Athlon,
- , .
2 ,
, .
Athlon, SIMD
3D Now!
AMD Athlon

Palomino. Athlon 4.
1,5 .


:

,

Intel.
-,
.
3D Now! Professional,
SSE.
PowerNow!,
,
, . . .
Athlon
,

.
, . Athlon
Duron .
Cyrix
Cyrix 1988 .
www.cyrix.com. ,
.
. 1999 Cyrix
,

VIA.
AMD
.
,
Intel. Cyrix ,
,
, , .
Cyrix 6x86
Ml. 80 150
50 75 . -
. ,
.
AMD K5, ,
""
Divide Overflow . 6x86,
Cyrix

364
.
6x86L , (
25%) .
Cyrix
Pentium,
.
. ,
Cyrix ,


Media GX.
PCI,
180 233 .
6x86 MX,
2 -
,
133 250 , 60 75 .
, ,
, , , Cyrix .
Via

. http://www.via.com.tw. 2000
.
1999 Cyrix

.
.
, ,
Via
Cyrix III Cyrix

Samuel,
Centaur,
Cyrix .
Cyrix III Joshua
Cyrix,
500, 650 667 100 133
-

, , .
( )
, , ,
. Cyrix


AMD 3D
Intel

Intel (SSE/SSE2) .
Centaur
Centaur
IDT
(Integrated Device Technology). http://www.wincbip.com.
, 1999
IDT

WinChip


240
66 75 .
.

WinChip
WinChip 2.
. 200 300

-
.
3D Now! 1998 .
WinChip 2A
3D Now!
Centaur Via.
Cyrix III.

Rise Technologies
1993 . ,
,


233
.
, , . .
.
Transmeta
,
Crusoe.
Crusoe
, -
( ).



, ,
,
Crusoe .

366
333
450 , 500 700 .
-
- . 5600
-
. 3200

: - ,
,
333 400 .

IBM
, ( ,
.)

. ,
. ,
IBM
.
.
.
. , -,
,
, . ,
. . , , ,
,
. , , ,
.
,
. .

Socket
Input Force, , )


,
.
Socket 7
ZIF 296 .
5- : Intel Pentium,
AMD K5,


Cyrix Ml
WinChip
Socket 8
ZIF. 387
Socket 7. Pentium Pro.


Socket 370 ZIF ( Socket 7,
Socket 8) 370 , Socket 7.
Celeron, ,
Coppermine.
Socket FC-PGA (Flip Chip Pin
Array)
Socket 370, , , .
,
Coppermine (Intel Pentium III, Celeron).
Socket 423
Pentium
IV Socket 478.
Slot
,
. , ,


- ,

Slot 1
Pentium II
Celeron.
Slot 2
,
Pentium II
Slot Slot

Athlon AMD.


,

,
, , ,

""
"".

,
( , -
. ) ,

( ,
, )
, , ,
,

.

368
,
,
.
? ,
,
, ,
.
IBM PC
. ,

, , .
,



, ,
(,
).
IBM-
.

,
,
.

Page Mode DRAM.


. ,
, .

.
, .
,
, Fast Page Mode DRAM
(FPM DRAM).
.
.
Intel 486 .
, ,
, Pentium
II .


EDO
DRAM (Extended Data Out DRAM). , FPM
DRAM. 1995
Pentium
90 ,
10 15%,
FPM ,
EDO DRAM
66 .
,
, 100 133
.


SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic
RAM). , SDRAM
.



100 .
, SDRAM
EDO DRAM,


, SDRAM
Intel, Via Acer
,
100 133 . SDRAM
66 .
SDRAM
BEDO DRAM (Burst Data Output DRAM).
(
)
BEDO DRAM
66 ,
SDRAM, ,
BEDO

VRAM (Video RAM)
,
.
WRAM (Windows RAM),

Windows.
25%.
'I'

370
SDRAM DDR
SDRAM (Double Data Rate SDRAM) , , SDRAM II
SDRAM
, . ,
,
. , ,
nVIDIA GeForce 256.
AMD Athlon
Direct RDRAM (Direct Rambus
DRAM). ,
. Intel
1999
Direct RDRAM RDRAM
,
, DDR SDRAM.
Direct RDRAM ,
. ,
Pentium IV,
. , , , ,
,
Direct RDRAM Pentium IV
.

,
: Micron, Texas Instruments, NEC,
Samsung, Motorola Toshiba.
.
.
-
.


:
SIMM (Single In-line Memory Module) ,

SIMM
30- 72-.
Pentium .
FPM, EDO,
DIMM (Dual In-line Memory Module) ,
SIMM, .


.
SDRAM, BEDO, EDO FPM.


,

. ,
,
.
() .
,
. - ,
IDE SCSI, ,
- . . ,
( ,
).
. (,
PCI

POST- PCI).



.
- ,
, ,
Plug and Play.

. ,
SCSI-
(CD-ROM,
). ,
.
.
BIOS .
,
SCSI,
. ,
- .
. . ..
. , .

,
,
.
. IBM PC,

372

. , ,

,
.
.
ISA,
IBM PC, .
.
,

.
, ,
BIOS.
ISA ,
PCI AGP.
.
,
.
"",
. .
,
,
,
, .
, ,
,
.
, ""
"" .
.
- ,
.
-.
ATI

, Rage 128 .

Voodoo 3 TNT2.
http://www.ati.com.
S3

PCI. ,
Savage,
. http://www.s3.com.

,
.
nVIDIA,


Voodoo Velocity,

.


.
Riva,
.

,
- , , .
.
,
.
,
.
.
,
.
Sound Blaster. ,
.

.
,
.

ISA PCI.
(
, - ),

.
.
.

Creative Labs

Sound Blaster.
.

374
Yamaha

ESS
ISA,
,
http://www.esstech.com.
SCSI
SCSI-
ISA PCI,
,
SCSI ( , CD-ROM, CD-RW ).
BIOS,
BIOS.
SCSI- , , ,
IDE-.
SCSI, ,
BIOS,

.

-,
,
;
.
,
-.
Adaptec SCSI-. http://
www.adaptec.com/;
Terkatn SCSI- SCSI.

http://www.iwill.com.tw/;
SCSI- SCSI.

Seagate SCSI. http://www.seagate.com/,


Western Digital
SCSI http://
www.wdc.com/,


IBM SCSI. http://www.storage.ibm.com/;
Quantum

SCSI.


,
,
.
:

, ,
. BIOS,
CMOS-;
, (,
Iomega ZIP . .) .
,
.
,
;

-,
.

-,
;
,
.
,
,

.
:
IDE
,
CD-ROM, Iomega Zip .
, , ,
. IDE,
,
CMOS Setup Utility.

IDE:
IDE ( IBM
PC 504 ;

376
IDE EIDE ( ATA 2).
504
;

(ATA Package Interface,

CD-ROM;
Ultra
(-33, -66,

. , .
SCSI
, IDE- ( , -
). ,
CD-ROM . ,

IDE-.
, , ,
BIOS .
SCSI.
BIOS.

:
SCSI-1;
. SCSI-2 ( Fast SCSI);
Wide SCSI;
.
Ultra SCSI/Ultr a Wide SCS I (
. . . .
USB .
(
CD-RW). , , ,
. .
.
. , .....

: -,

- CD-ROM, Iomega ZIP.


.

-


. IBM PC
5,25 3,5 .



. -

. ,
. .
.
Iomega ZIP

.
( 250 ).
IDE, SCSI USB, ,
.
- .

()
.
,
. .
, ,
, : , ,
,
.
: IDE SCSI.

.
SCSI ,
. , ,
, .
IDE USB
.
, ,
.
, , .
: 5400 7200 /.
,
, , ,
.
(10 000 15 000 /),
(, ).

378
IDE.
:

3,3 /; DMA MW-2 - 16,6 /;


1 5,2 /;
UDMA0 - 16,6 /;

8,3 /;
- 25 /;
- 11,1 /;
UDMA3 - 44,4 /;

- 33,3 /;

- 16,6 /;

- 33,3 /; - 66,6 /;
DMA

/;
- 100 /.
,
.
, .

.
UltraATA)
, , ,
. ,
Ultra
Pentium II 440
, . .
Ultra ATA-66.
(.

1. Intel
ATA-66

,
Intel
2
i815
i815EP
i810E2
VIA Apollo Pro Apollo Pro
VIA 686A
Apollo Pro

VIA 686133
VIA 686A

VIA 686B
SiS 630
All Aladdin
Aladdin TNT2


2. AMD
-66
AMD AMD 760 AMD 750VIA 266
133
VIA 686A
VIA 686B 133
133VIA 686A
133
VIA 686B
SiS 730
MAGiK 1
, ,
,
, .
,
.
.

Western Digital
Seagate Technology
Quantum
Samsung
Fujitsu
IBM
Maxtor
Hitachi
Toshiba
CD-ROM

http://www.seagate.com;

CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory)


.
, .


(CD-R)
(CD-RW) -.
CD-ROM
IDE SCSI.
, ,
- (
, ).
.
CD-ROM
Acer

http://www.acer.ru/;

ASUS
http://www.asus.ru/;
Creative http://www.creative.ru/;
HP

Mitsumi
NEC

Panasonic
Ricoh
'
Samsung
http://www.teac.ru/;
Yamaha
http://www.yamaha.com.


(Alternating Current) .
220 .
ACPI (Advanced and Power Interface,

)


. ,
"" , ,
. . Windows
9S, .
,
.
(Advanced DMA, DMA)

DMA.
AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port, )
,
, ,
"" .
. AGP

( ).
.
Power Management, )

.
Windows 95.
ACPI.
(Advanced RLL,
~
. ,

382
RLL. 34
. .
(Advanced SCSI Programming Interface,
SCSI)

SCSI- SCSI-.
SCSI.
AT (Advanced Technology, )
IBM PC ( XT).
ATA (AT Attachment, AT)
IBM AT.

-2 IDE,
IDE/ATA. :
MW1 DMA, MW2
DMA, LBA
.
(ATA Packet


IDE, -2.
, (CD-ROM, ).
BIOS -2 ( 4
MW2 DMA).
ATX (AT Extension, AT)
, .
Slim (

305x244).
.

(
. .).
(BW) (Black and White, )
-, .
.
BEDO (Burst EDO, EDO ) EDO
DRAM, , /
.
( , 1 ).
,
.

BIOS (Basic Input/Output System, /)

,

.

383
Block Mode ( ) ~
( IDE). ,
, ,
.

,
.
Burst Mode
.
,
.
.
Bus-Mastering ,
, ( ,
. .).
, (
).

DMA. DMA-
, Bus-Master,
.
CAS Access Strobe)
.
,
.
CAS Before RAS Refresh
, CAS
RAS.
,
.
CAS Latency
( CAS)
.

CD-ROM (Compact Disk Memory, )
,
.
CGA (Color Graphics Adapter)
,
.
640x200 320x200,
640x200 320x200 (16 ).
EGA.
CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor)

,
.

384
:
, .
COM port (Communication port)
. i 15 /.
01, COM2, COM3, COM4
/.
CPU

CPU Burst Write


/
PCI.
,
,
CPU Frequency ( )
.

CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) - . CRT-


- ().

Cache ()
. -

( ).
Chip ()

Chipset ( ) ,
"" .
, , ,
,

( )
:
, -,
. .
DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate SDRAM, SDRAM )
SDRAM .
Direct RDRAM Intel.
DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module, )
.
SIMM , .
DMA (Direct Memory Access, )
1 ,

385
, / .
2. ,
.
DMA SW (Single Word, )
MW ).
: SWO DMA ( ), SW1 DMA, SW2 DMA,
DMA, MW1 DMA, MW2 DMA, MW3 DMA ( ).
(Desktop Management Interface,
) BIOS,
,
(, ).

DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory,


)
,
,
.
.
Default ( ) , ,
.
- .
Direct RDRAM
Rambus DRAM)
. ,

,
,
.
Doze Mode ( )
.

(Error Checking and Correcting, )


,
. .
,
Capability Port, )

, DMA
RLE. ,
.
EDO (Extended Data Output, )


,

15%.
.
(Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM,
)
,

.
, Flash,

.
EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter, )
,
16 /
640x350 640x200, 320x200,
640x350 320x350 (16 ).
VGA SVGA.
(Enhanced IDE, IDE)
IDE,
-2 ATAPI.
EISA (Extended ISA, ISA)
32- ISA.

,

. .
EMS (Expanded Memory Specification)
,
32 .
. , .
32 .
EPP (Enhanced Parallel Port, )

,
.
FIFO-.
EPROM (Erasable Programmable ROM, )
,


ESDI (Extended Small Device Interface, )

(, ).


34- 20-
.

387
Expansion Bus ( )

,
, ,
,
.
FAT (File Allocation Table, )
,
.
FC-PGA (Flip Chip Pin Grid Array)

Intel.

FDD (Floppy Disk Drive)


FIFO (First Input First Output,

,
. ,
/ .
FPM (Fast Page Mode, )


, ,
.
. ,
.
FSB (Front Side Bus) ,
"" .
Fast SCSI ( SCSI)

SCSI (SCSI-1).
5 10

,
10 / (SCSI-2).
Green Motherboard
. BIOS , ,
,

. .
HDD (Hard Disk Drive)
, .
,
, . .
Hidden Refresh ( )

,

(,
, ).


Host Bridge
, PCI
( ).
(Input/Output,
/ /
.
IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics, )
,

.
IDE Prefetch Buffer ( IDE)

- ,
.
IDE/ATA IDE
IBM AT.
: ,
SWO DMA, SW1 DMA, SW2 DMA, MWO DMA
528 .
INT13 (Interrupt 13) ,
DOS BIOS
IDE BIOS SCSI- SCSI.
Connector /
(
COM2),
, /.
,
.
IRQ (Interrupt ReQuest, ) ,

. /, .
ISA (Industry Standard Architecture, )

PC AT (

XT-Bus (
XT).
ISA Clock Frequency

ISA.


. 8 ,
.
Interleave ()
,
, .
(Infrared Data Association, )
,

389
Jumper
,

.
(Level 1) -
.
(Level 2)
-
, .
LBA (Logical Addressing, )
,

528 .
LED (Light Emitting Diode, ) ,
.
,
. .
LPT (Line PrinTer, )
.

LVD (Low Voltage Differential, )

SCSI,
( SE).

12 . SCSI.
Large ,
1 ,
LBA.
32, .
MCA (MicroChannel Architecture, )

, PS/2 IBM. -

MDA (Monochrome Display Adapter, )
, 720x350.
(Modified Frequency Modulation, )
,
17 512 .
IBM XT,
.
MHz (MegaHertz, )

390
extension, )

Intel
Pentium ( ).
Memory Hole at MB , ""
15 16 .
(, ).
.
Memory Relocation
.
IBM PC, ( )
.
640
"" (Shadow).
Shadow ,
384
( ,
).
Motherboard ( )
.
,
,
. .
NVRAM (Non-Volatile Random Access Memory,
) ( ),

.
Narrow ()

8-

Non-System Disk ( ) ,
, .
("" )
, ,
, AGP PCI, -.
, , .
OEM (Original Equipment Manufactured,
) ,

.
()
.
PC (Personal Computer)
".

, "

391
, Intel
100 .
, Intel
,
100
100

, 100, SDRAM,
133 .
266 DDR SDRAM 266 .
, 100
,
66
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect, )
,
Pentium.

PCI Latency Timer , ,
Bus-Master, PCI
( )

.
Burst

PCI
PCI.
,
,
/
(Programmed Input/Output, /)
/,

( ),
(
). , . .
.
POST (Power-On Self Test)

Parity ()

Passive Release
,
Bus-Master,
.

392
,

PCI.
Pipeline () ,
.
(Plug and Play, )
,
.
BIOS
,
,
IRQ, DMA, ,
,
, .
/
RAM (Random Access Memory, )
,
.
IBM PC (DRAM),

RAS (Row Access Strobe)
.
,
.
RAS
SDRAM,
.
Refresh

, ,
.
RAS-to-CAS Delay SDRAM,
.
(Rambus dual Inline Memory Module,
Rambus)
,
Direct RDRAM


RLE (Run-Length Encoding, )
, .

RLL (Run Length Limited, )



27 512 .

MFM

393
RTC (Real Time Clock, )
.

Refresh Rate ( )

,
.
S.M.A.R.T. (Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology,
)


.
.
Number, )
(,
).
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface,
) ,
, CD-ROM,
, ,
. .
SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic RAM, )
,
(FPM/EDO/BEDO).
SE (Single Ended, )
SCSI, .
SCSI-.
SECC (Single Edge Contact Cartridge) "" ,
Slot
SECC 2

, SECC, .

SIMM (Single In line Memory Module, )


, .
, (, ).
SIMM ,
, .
SPD (Serial Presence Detect)
,
, ,
.
SPP (Standard Parallel Port, )

IBM

8- .
SRAM ( )
(
).

394
.
-.
Shadow Memory .
640 1 ,
, BIOS.
,
, - .

, BIOS
,
(, BIOS Update ,
Intel).
Single-Ended SCSI ( SCSI)

SCSI,
""
SCSI. LVD SCSI SCSI
( ,
).
Sleep Mode

. Mode.

Slim , "" Slim


Desktop Baby,
, .

. , ,
PS/2 IBM.
Slot ()
,
. .
, . .
Socket () .
, .
("" )
, EIDE, ,
,

.
Standby Mode ( )
,
( 30%).
: ,
, ,
, - . .
Super 7
Socket 7, 100

395
AGP. Socket 7
66 .
Suspend Mode )

,

:
,
. .
System Disk ( )

.
USB (Universal Serial Bus, )
.
127 USB.
.

UltraATA- Ultra DMA, Ultra DMA/33, ATA/33,


MW3 DMA.
VESA (Video Electronics Standards Association,

) VESA.
VGA (Video Graphics Array, )

VLB (VESA Local Bus, VESA)

32-

ISA,
Intel 486,
.
Wait State ( ) ,
.

.
Wide () 16-
SCSI.
WriteBack - .
,
.

"". ,
,
.
. ,

. ,

.

396
- .
, -
(. .
-)


, ,

XGA Graphics Array, )

, IBM 1990 .
XGA-2 800x600
16 .
Memory Specification) ,
. EMS,
. '
Y2K (Year 2000, 2000 )
2000 .
,
. .

,
.
,


( .
,
.

(,
, . ) ,
.
,
, ,

.
, 8 ,
(, ) .
,
,
~

*
397
, ,
0 1, .

,
,
0 1.

, .




.
.
.
,
.
,
, .

1024 .
1024 .

,

().

,

.

. ,
, interleave,
.
,
. ,

, .

. , ,
,

, ,
( , 8 ),

,
, . .

398
,

. ,
.
/
, ,
.
1024 .

1024

, 1

( ISA) ().
, ,
,
,
, , .
( )


,

.
,
, ,
.

,

.


,
-

(,

399

.

, .

/,
.
.

,
.