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BALTS AND ARYANS

IN THEIR INDO-EUROPEAN BACKGROUND by Suniti Kumar Chatterji

ry ca Bhan ca vitti prti ca vardhatm: ryasas sdhanrthya viva-jana-hitya ca.

DedicatedwithGratitudeandAffectiontomySistersandBrothersintheBalticStatesofLithuaniaand Latvia: Dr.AntanasPoka(SanskritistandIndologist,whomIfirstmetinCalcuttain1934);Dr.RiardasMironas (ProfessorofLinguisticsandSanskritintheUniversityofVilnius);Dr.VytautasMaiulis(Professorof LithuanianandLinguisticsintheUniversityofVilnius);Mr.AntanasVenclova,WriterandHistorian;Mr. VacysReimeris,Poet;Dr.AmbraziejusJonynasandotherMembersoftheInstituteofLanguageand LiteratureintheLithuanianAcademyofSciences; Mme.Mirdzaempe,NationalPoetessofLatvia;Mr.LinardsNaikovskis;Dr.KrlisEgle,Directorofthe LibraryofLinguistic,LiteraryandHumanitarianSectionoftheLatvianAcademyofSciences,and TranslatorintoLatvianofRabindranathTagoresWritings;Dr.JnisKalni,DirectoroftheHumanities SectionoftheAcademy;Dr.PtersKlavi,ProfessorofSanskrit,RigaUniversity;Dr.MissRasmaGrisle, oftheLinguisticsandSanskritDepartmentoftheUniversityofRiga;ProfessorHermanisBendiks,Deputy DirectoroftheLinguisticsSectionoftheAcademy;Dr.JkabsVtoli,FolkMusicSectionofthe Academy;Dr.JzepsRudztisoftheAcademyofSciences;Mr.AdolfsA.Talcis,FormerSecretary,Latvian WritersUnion;MissSigridPlksandMme.AliceEks,Writers;andtoothers;whothroughpersonal contactandcorrespondencehelpedmetoappreciatetheGreatnessoftheBalticPeopleintheirMental andSpiritualCharacterandQualitiesandintheirAchievementintheArtsandLettersandinScienceand Technology.

FOREWORD

OneoftheitemsinouracademicprogrammeistoinvitewellknownscholarstocometotheInstituteas VisitingProfessorsforagivenperiodtoholddiscussionswithourFellowsanddelivercoursesoflectures onsubjectsoftheirchoiceintheirrespectivefieldsofspecialization. InfulfilmentofthisrequirementwehadinvitedDr.SunitiKumarChatterji,NationalProfessorof Humanities.India,tocometotheInstituteasaVisitingProfessorfortheyear1966.Dr.Chatterjiwas graciousenoughtoacceptourinvitation.DuringhisstaywithusinOctober1966,hedelivered,besides holdingdiscussiongroups,aseriesoflecturesontheBaltsandtheAryans.Theselectureshavegoneinto themakingofthisbook. TheInstitutefeelsverythankfultoDr.Chatterjiforhishavingacceptedourinvitationanddeliveringa veryinterestingseriesoflecturesonasubjectwhichisnotveryfamiliareventoexpertsinthefield.

IndianInstituteofAdvancedStudy RashtrapatiNivas,Simla 25thJuly1967

NIHARRANJANRAY Director

INTRODUCTION
WhenIwasjustoutofschool,in1907,andwastakinganinterestatcollegeinlanguagesandlinguistics, particularlyinthelanguagesrelatedtoSanskrit,Iwasquiteintriguedtoreadindifferentbooksand articlesthatLithuanianwasalanguagewhich,ofallthelanguagesofEurope,resembledSanskritmost, andtofindevenastatementlikethisthataLithuanianspeakinghisownlanguagewouldbeeasily understoodbyaSanskritknowingperson.LateronIcametoknowmoreabouttherelationshipand classificationoflanguages,andtheplaceofLithuanianintheIndoEuropeanfamily.ItookmyB.A. degreefromtheUniversityofCalcuttawithHonoursinEnglish,andatthattimeIgotmyregular initiationintoEnglish,GermanicaswellasIndoEuropeanlinguistics.AndformyM.A.examinationIhad selectedthelinguisticgroupofEnglish,withagoodamountofOldandMiddleEnglishtextsaswellas EnglishandGermanicLinguisticsasmyspecialsubjects.MyreadinginancientGermanicliteratureasin OldEnglishandOldNorse,aswellasmystudyofGothic,inspiredmewithadesiretoknowmoreabout theearlierliteraturesinalltheIndoEuropeanlanguages,andfromGermanicIpassedontoCeltic(Old andMiddleIrish,andEarlyWelsh),andwhatlittleIcouldfindofOldSlav(asinaworkliketheEarly Russianepic,theSlovoOPlkuIgorev,andtheepicandlyricalfragmentsasintheCzechKraloveDvor andtheZelenyehoraMSS.,andinotherworks,besidestheSerbianepicofKossovo). ThemythsandlegendsandheroictalesofallIndoEuropeanpeoplesalsobecamemypassion.The IndianWorld,withitsincomparablyvastmassoflegendsandtalesasintheVedasandancillaryworks, intheepicsoftheMahbhrataandtheRmyaa,inthePuras,inthevaststorehouseofBuddhist talesasintheJtakasandtheAvadnas,inJainaliterature,inOldTamil,andinotherformsofIndian literatureinthedifferentlanguages;theepicandromanticloreofIranasintheAvesta,theShhnmah andotherworks;thedeathlessbeautyofthemythsandlegendsofGreece,beginningwithHomerand theHomerica,Hesiod,theTragicPoetsandothergreatwritersofGreece;thesewerethere,easily accessibleintheoriginalandintranslations.TheGermanicandCelticworldsintheirextentand availabilityinbothoriginaltextsandEnglishtranslationscouldbeeasilystudiedandappreciatedandput touse.WhatlittlehassurvivedoftheheroicandromanticworldofArmeniawaslateronlaidunder requisitionwiththehelpofArmenianfriendsandfellowcitizensinCalcutta(inmyArmenianHero legendsandtheEpicofDavidofSasun,JournaloftheAsiaticSocietyofCalcutta,Letters,Vol.I,No.3, 1959,pp.199220,publishedin1961).AlittleliteratureavailableinEnglishandFrenchandtoavery littleextentinGermanwaslaidunderrequisitionforaknowledgeoftheSlavmythsandherotales,and aslightamateurishwork,ratherbold,becauseitwasattemptedwithoutaknowledgeofRussianorany otherSlavlanguage,wasmyhomageattheshrineoftheOldSlavEpos(TheWordaboutIgorsFolk SlovoOPlkuIgorevasaSpecimenofOldSlavandIndoEuropeanHeroicPoetry,Journalofthe AsiaticSocietyofCalcutta,Letters,Vol.XXIV,No.2,1958,pp.116,publishedin1959).Asfortheearly literatureoftheBalts,IcametoknowabouttheLithuanianDainasnearly50yearsago,anditwaswith thehelpofGermanandEnglishtranslationsIcouldreadsomeofthem.ButunfortunatelyIcouldnotlay myhandsonanyappreciableamountofmaterialinEnglishorFrenchontheantiquityandliterature, andonthemythsandlegendsoftheBalticbranchoftheIndoEuropeans.Nevertheless,afew LithuanianDainasformedallmystockintradeinthisline,andIwaseagertoreadandknow;andIwas

waitingforanopportunitytovisitLithuaniaandLatviatoseethepeopleandthelandwithmyowneyes, andbewithintheatmosphereofitsculture. In1964duringmythirdvisittotheSovietUnion(myfirstandsecondvisitswerein1958and1960),I wasenabledtodowhatIhadbeenlookingforwardtoformanyyearsIcouldcometoLithuaniaand Latviaforthefirsttime.In1964IwasinvitedasadelegatefromIndiatoparticipateinthe150thBirth AnniversaryofTarasShevchenko,theNationalPoetofUkraina,whichwasheldatKievinMayJune 1964,andthroughthekindnessoftheUnionofSovietWritersinMoscow,andtheUnionsofLithuanian andLatvianWritersinVilniusandRiga,IwasenabledtovisitLithuaniaandLatvia.Thentwoyearslater, in1966,Icouldgotothesecountriesonceagain.Mytwovisitswerealltooshortasojournofthree daysonlyinLithuaniaandoffourdaysinLatviaduringJune1964,andoneoffourdaysinLithuaniaand ofthreedaysinLatviainApril1966barelyastayofaweekineachcountry.But,shortthoughthese visitswere,theywerefraughtwithimmensebenefitformeinmyunderstandingandappreciationofthe BalticpeoplesofLithuaniaandLatvia.Duringmyvisitsin1964,Iformedsomevaluablefirstcontacts withscholars,writersandothers,andthesewerestrengthenedbycorrespondenceandexchangeof booksandpublications.Thesecondvisitswerefurtherhelpfuldrawingclosermybondsoffriendship withmyBalticfriends.Whenin1964IwasfirstatVilniusandthenatRiga,Iwasreceivedwithopen armsasalonglostbrotherbymyLithuanianandLatvianfriendsandcolleagues.AsaProfessorfrom India,withtheatmosphereofSanskritinmymind,andwithafewlinesandtagsfromtheLithuanian dainaswhichIcouldrepeat,Ihadimmediateaccesstotheheartsofmyfriends,totheirloveandesteem andtotheirunstintedhelpinenablingmetostudyandunderstand,inhowsoeverasmallway,the cultureandideologyoftheBalticworld.Iwasenabledtoknowmuchmoreoftheliteratureandartas wellasthespiritandaspirationsofthepeopleduringthefortnightIcouldspendinthetwocountries thanitwaspossibleformetodoforyearswiththelimitedresourcesofreading.Icametoknowabout theliterarytrendsintheBalticlanguagesatthepresentday,andoneofmydiscoverieswasthe personalityandliteraryachievementaswellastheuniversalappealofJnisRainis(18651929), acknowledgedtobetheNationalPoetofLatvia.Mme.MirdzaempeofLatvia,oneoftheforemost figuresinthedomainofpoetryandotherliteratureintheBalticworldandtheSovietUnion(shehas recentlybeenmadetheNationalPoetessofLatvia),Dr.KrlisEgle,InterpreterofRabindranathTagore fortheLatvianpeople,ProfessorJ.RudztisoftheLatvianInstituteofLanguageandLiteratureandother personalitieshelpedmetocomeclosetotheliteraryatmosphereandthementalityandspiritualquality ofRainisthroughamassoftranslationsintoEnglish,abstractsandinterpretationsofhiswritings(made speciallyformeandsentinMS.),besidespresentingmewithvaluabledeluxeeditionsofRainiss dramasandotherworks;andallthiswasaGodsendforme,sincesolittlewasavailableinEnglishand French.QuiteacollectionofLithuanianandLatvianbooksthegreatcollectionsoftheLithuanian Dainas,historicalandotherancillaryworks,intheBalticlanguagesandinGerman,FrenchandEnglish, besidesbooksontheartoftheBalticlands,inthiswayhascometoformaninvaluableadditiontomy library,asgiftsfromfriendsandfrominstitutionsinSovietLithuaniaandLatvialiketheAcademiesof SciencesintheirLanguage,Literature,MusicandFolkartSections.MyBalticfriendswereequally interestedinIndianthoughtandartandmodernprogressivedevelopmentasinthewritingsof RabindranathTagoreandSwamiVivekananda,ofMohandasKaramchandGandhiandJawaharlalNehru. TheywerealsoeagertoknowabouttheVedas,theUpanishadsandtheEpicsofAncientIndia,about

YogaandotherexpressionsofIndianspiritualculture,andmanifestedaprofoundrespectandlovefor Sanskrit,alovewhichcameoutinvariousways. ThepresentStudyisintendedtobescientificaswellaspopular,andaimsparticularlyatbringingsome knowledgeoftheBalticworldtoEnglishreadingpeopleingeneralandtoIndiansinparticularwhohave somebackgroundofIndoAryanandIndoEuropeanphilologyandculture;andalsoatpresentingsome aspectsoftheAryanworldinIndiatoBalticpersons.Myvariouspreoccupationsdidnotpermitmeto takeupitswritingbeforetheendoftheyear1966,andfromaftermyfirstvisittotheBalticlandsin June1964,Iwascollectingmymaterials,andhadwrittenasmallmonographonJnisRainisforthe occasionoftheBirthCentenaryofRainisinSeptember1965(towhichIwasinvitedinRigabutwas preventedfromgoingatthelastmomentwhentheaggressivewarbyPakistanuponIndiastarted).In writingthispaperonRainis,whichisnowawaitingrevision,IwasmateriallyhelpedbyMme.empeand ProfessorRudztis. MyvisitstoLithuaniaandLatviaandmylovefortheBalticpeoplesweregivensomepublicityinthese countries,andLithuanianandLatvianpapers,particularlythelatter,broughtoutappreciativenoteson myviewsaboutBalticculture.ThesewerereadwithinterestalsobysomeBalticpersonslivingoutside oftheSovietUnion,particularlyinAmericaandinSweden,andIreceivedfromthembooksandjournals whichformedvaluablecontributionstomysubjectofstudies.Icouldnothavepersonalcontactswith them,butIwasenabledtoputtousesomeoftheirsignificantstudiesofoldBalticliterature,culture andreligion,whichIhavetakenthelibertyofquotingfreelyandextensively.ProfessorDr.Haralds BiezaisofUppsalaUniversityinSweden,withwhomIhavehadtheprivilegetocorrespond,sentmehis valuablepapersinGermanonBalticandLatvianreligion.Dr.MarijaGimbutas,nowintheDepartment ofAnthropologyinHarvardUniversity,U.S.A.,haswrittenaveryfineandamostinformativebookon theBalts(ThamesandHudson,London,1963),andIhavereceivedconsiderablehelpfromthiswork,as wellasfromherIntroductiontotheGreenLinden,givingEnglishtranslationsofselectedLithuanian FolksongsbyAlgirdasLandsbergisandClarkMills(NewYork,theVoyagesPress,1964).Iwishtoexpress mygratefulthankstoher,aswellastoProfessorOjarsKratins,alsoofHarvardUniversity,forhisarticle inWesternFolklore:UniversityofCalifornia,October1961AnUnsungHero:KrijnisBaronsandHis LifeworkonLatvianFolkSongs,givingsuchanilluminatingsurveyoftheLatvianDainas.Otherscholars fromAmericalikeRolfEkmanisfromtheUniversityofArizonahavehelpedmewithpapersand booklets,andwithmuchinformationthroughletters;andmysincerethanksgotothem. Tomakethematterinteresting,Ihaveventuredtogivesomeillustrationsrelatingtothecultureand religionoftheBalts,particularlyofsomefiguresandpaintingsbymodernartistsofthetwocountries noteasilyavailableeveninLithuaniaandLatvia.ThesearepublishedforthefirsttimeinIndia,through thisbook,andinallprobabilitythesewerenottakennoteofoutsidetheBalticlands.Iamspecially indebtedtoDr.AntanasPokaofVilniusandtoMme.MirdzaempeofRigaforthesepictures,which certainlyhavetheirnoveltybesidesartisticqualityinillustratingtheBaltidealoftheirnationalgods. IgaveacourseoflecturesontheBalticPeopleandtheirCulturebeforeagatheringofscholarsand literarymenfromalloverIndiaduringtheAutumnSessionoftheIndianInstituteofAdvancedStudyat SimlainOctober1966,andmypresentationoftheplaceoftheBaltsintheIndoEuropeanFamily

createdaverygreatinterest.TheselecturesofminereallyformedthefirstdraftofthepresentStudy, muchelaboratedandexpandedlateron. IhavetothanktheDirectoroftheInstitute,ProfessorDr.NiharranjanRay,forarrangingtheprintingand publishingofmypaperasaMonographfromtheInstitute. IamalsogreatlyobligedtoMr.GeorgeA.Nullis,SuperintendentoftheBaptistMissionPressinCalcutta, andtohisassistants,SriGangadharBanerjiandSriBishwauathMitra,fortheirgreatinterestinthework andtheirunfailingkindness,courtesyandpromptattention.Thecompositors,proofreadersandothers alsodeserveunstintedpraiseforthehighqualityoftheirworkdoneinaspiritofcheerfulcooperation andservice. Ionlyhopethattheworkasofferedwillserveoneofitspurposes,atleasttosomeextent,namelyto bringthescionsofthetwoBranchesoftheIndoEuropeanFamily,theEuropeanBaltsandtheIndian Aryans,whohadneverknowneachotherbefore,tocomecloserthroughknowledgeand understanding,andsympathyandbrotherlyfeeling. SUDHARM 16HindusthanPark Calcutta29 MAHLAYDAY 3October1967 SUNITIKUMARCHATTERJI

COMPOSITECHARACTEROFTHEPEOPLEANDCULTUREOFINDIA
TheIndianpeopletogetherwiththeIndianreligionandcultureformsacomplex,beingmadeupof variousracesandcultureswhichmetonthesoilofIndia,andwhichbytheprocessofmiscegenation andmutualborrowingbecameweldedtogetherintoonepeoplewithasenseofbelongingtoasingle culturalunit.InIndiawehavepeoplesofdifferentraces,eachwithitsownlanguageanditsownwayof thoughtandwayoflife,whocametothecountryatdifferenttimes,mostlyfrombeyondthenorth westernfrontiersofthecountry.Theyfoundafteraninitialperiodofhostilecontactthattheywereto livetogether,andtheygraduallybecamefamiliarwitheachother;andasaresultamostremarkable synthesisevolvedthroughtheintermixtureofthevariousracialandculturalelements. Sofarweknowoffourmainraceswiththeirspecialtypesofculturewhichsuppliedcontributing elementstothepeopleandcultureofIndia,whichhavebeennamed,inabroadway,astheHindu peopleandHinduculture.Thesefourracialelementswerethefollowing: (1)TheAustrics,orAustroAsiatics,whoareintheirprimitiveformrepresentedbytheKolorMunda peoplesofIndiaaswellasbytheKhasisandtheNicobarese; (2)TheMongoloidpeoplesspeakingdialectsoftheSinoTibetanspeechfamily,whoarefoundlargely alongthesubHimalayanregionsandalsoinNorthBiharandNorthandEastBengal,andaboveallin Assam; (3)TheDravidianspeakerswhoarefoundincontinuousblocsparticularlyinSouthIndia,andremnants ofthemarefoundinNorthIndiaaswell.IntheplainsofNorthIndiatheDravidians,togetherwiththe AustricsandtoalesserextentwiththeMongoloids,havemergedintoonepeopleaftertheAryanscame tothecountrythegeneralmassofAryanspeakingHindus(withMuslims)ofNorthIndia;and (4)WehavetheAryans.TheAryanpeoplearebelievedtobethelasttohavearrivedonthesoilofIndia. AryansettlementsinIndiaaresupposedtohavestartedfromroundaboutthemiddleofthesecond millenniumB.C.,andAryanexpansioninNorthIndiabeganfromafter1500B.C.,accordingtoasober andquiteareasonableestimate. ThuswehavethesefourpeoplesorraceswhohavecontributedtotheformationoftheHinduorIndian people:Austric,Mongoloid,DravidianandAryan.TheirnamesintheancientlanguageoftheAryans,the Sanskrit,wouldappeartohavebeenrespectively(1)Nishdas(andlateronsomegroupscametobe knownasabarasaswellasBhillasandKollas),(2)Kirtas,(3)DsasandDasyusaswellasdras(and lateronalsoasDramiasorDrvias),and(4)ryas(theAryans,initsrestrictedscientificsense). ThevariouselementsintheancientcivilizationofIndiawhichtookadistinctshapefromabout1000 B.C.,roughly,werecontributedbyallofthesevariouspeoples.Butthetoneandorganizationofthis newcompositeculturewhichwasdevelopinginIndiasomethreethousandyearsagoweresuppliedby theAryans.TheseAryanscametoIndiaasagroupofseminomadandsemiagriculturalpeople,who

hadbeenonthetrekforseveralhundredyears,fromtheiroriginalhomelandinthevaststeppesof EurasiatothesouthoftheUralMountains,beforetheyfinallyarrivedinIranandIndia.Intheiroriginal homeintheplainsofEurasiatheywerelivingasaprimitivepeople,withacultureandavery characterizedlanguageoftheirown,some5,000yearsfromnow.

THEARYANSASABRANCHOFTHEPRIMITIVEINDOEUROPEANS(INDO HITTITES)ININDIA
TheAryansformedasectionoftheIndoEuropeanspeakingseminomadswhohadbuiltuptheir specializedcultureatleast3,000yearsbeforeChrist.Owingtoreasonswhicharenotcleartous,the originalIndoEuropeanspeakingtribessplitupintovariousdialectgroups,andtheylefttheirfatherland insearchofnewhomes,totheWest,SouthandEast.Already,before2000B.C.,onegrouphadspread outandhadcome,evidentlybywayoftheCaucasus,toAsiaMinor,andtherethisgroupbecamethe ancientNesianorHittitepeopleofabout1500B.C.TheirpathwaytoAsiaMinor,foraughtweknow, mightequallyhavebeenthroughwhatarenowMoldavia,WallachiaandRumania,andBulgariaand Thracia,ratherthantheCaucasusRange.TheseHittiteshadpreservedsomeveryancientcharacteristics oftheoriginallanguagewhichwerenotretainedintheotherbranchesofthesamespeechfamily,so muchsothatithasbeenfoundnecessarytopresenttherelationshipbetweenthevariousIndo EuropeanlanguagesandHittitebymeansofagenealogicaltablelikethefollowing:

Primitive Indo-Hittite (Proto-Indo-European?) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (A) Hittite (Nesian) (Now extinct) (Albanian) (B) Indo-European (1) Aryan (2) Baltic (3) Slavic (4) Thraco-Armenic (5) Illyric

(6) Hellenic (7) Italic (8) Celtic (9) Germanic (10) Tokharic

Alltheselanguagesasintheabovetablehavemanycommonfamilyfeatures,andtheyexplaineach other.Throughacomparisonofthesoundsandinflexions,rootsandwordsoftheselanguagesintheir ancientforms,wecanarriveatareconstructionofaPrimitiveIndoEuropeanandtheearlierPrimitive IndoHittitestagesoftheirhistory.Wecanalsoformsomeidea,throughthehelpofbothLinguistic PalaeontologyaswellasPrehistoricArchaeology,oftheiroriginalhomelandaswellascontiguous

countries,ofthenatureoftheirmaterial,intellectualandspiritualculture.Oftheabovetenbranchesof thePrimitiveIndoEuropeans,viz.theAryan(IndoIranian),theBaltic,theSlavic,theArmenian,the Albanian,theHellenicorGreek,theItalic,theCeltic,theGermanicandtheTokharic,weareinthe presentcontextconcernedinthefirstinstancewiththeAryanandtheBaltic. TheoriginalAryancultureandmentalityasamodificationofthePrimitiveIndoEuropeanmindand culturetookshapeinMesopotamiaandIran,afterithadcomeinveryintimatecontactwiththeAssyrio BabylonianstheAkkadiansandeventheSumeriansandwiththeElamiticandUrartianpeoplesof MesopotamiaandtheCaucasiantracts.Inallthedepartmentsoflifeandthought,thehighlyadvanced AkkadoSumeriansBabyloniansandAssyriansmadeaprofoundimpressionontheratherprimitive seminomadIndoEuropeans,aftertheyhadarrivedinNorthernMesopotamiafromthesteppelandsof Russia.Intheirreligiousnotions,theirritualsandtheirwayoflife,weseestrongMesopotamian influenceontheAryans.ThePrimitiveIndoEuropeancultureandmentalitythusreceivedtheirfirst transformationinsomevitalmatters,bothinmaterialcivilizationandinreligiousandspiritualoutlook, fromthesecomparativelyadvancedMesopotamians.AftertheAryanshadcometoIndia,theywere furtherprofoundlymodifiedintheirthoughtandreligionandwaysoflifethroughtheirveryclose admixturewiththepeoplesofpreAryancivilizationswiththeirdistinctlanguagesandcultureworlds theDravidians,theAustricsandtheMongoloids. Hinducivilization,whichisthefinaldevelopment,aftercenturiesofadmixturewiththepreAryan worlds,deviatedgraduallyinsomestrikingwaysfromtheoriginalAryannorm.But,nevertheless, becausetheAryansandtheirintellectualandpoliticalleaders,theBrahmansandtheKshatriyas,ina wayformedtheleadersandorganizersintheevolutionofanewculture,andbecausetherewere certaingreatqualitiesintheAryanmentalityandAryanwayoflife,thecontributionoftheAryansinthe evolutionofIndianorHinduculturehadaspecialvalueandimportance;anditeasilyobtained predominanceandcompelledacceptance.ThisAryanculture,whichwasbasicallyrepresentativeofthe PrimitiveIndoEuropeanworldandwhichwasthuscloselyconnectedwiththementalandmaterial culturalworldofalltheotherancientIndoEuropeanpeoples,isbestrepresentedinIndiabytheworld oftheVedas,whichformsasortofbackgroundforIndianorHinducultureasawhole.

DIVERSERACESANDLANGUAGESOFTHEPEOPLESOFANCIENT CIVILIZATION
TounderstandproperlytheconnexionbetweentheAryansofIndiaandtheBalts,itwouldbenecessary todiveintotheprehistoryandearlyhistoryoftheoriginalpeopleamongwhomthePrimitiveIndo Europeanlanguagetookshapeandwhowerethelinguisticandcultural(ifnotwhollytheracial) forbearsoftheIndoEuropeanspeakingpeoplesofthepresentday.Amongtheancientraceswho,with theirdefiniteculturalbackground,werethecreatorsorpropagatorsofcivilizationintheoldworldof Asia,AfricaandEuropefromthemostancienttimes,whomwecandefinitelyidentifyinthecontextof theirlanguageandrace,werethefollowing: (1)TheSumeriansoflowerMesopotamia; (2)TheSemiticpeoples(theAkkadians,theBabyloniansandtheAssyrians)whoseoriginal homelandwasintheplateauofArabiaandalsothecontiguousareasinwhathasbeendescribedasthe FertileCrescent; (3)TheancientEgyptians,whoasHamiteswerecloselyconnectedwiththeSemiticpeoples,but theyhadaverystrongAfricanorNegroleaven; (4)TheprimitiveAsianicpeoplesofAsiaMinor,withwhomwereconnectedtheLydians,the LyciansandothernationsofancientAsiaMinortogetherwiththepreHellenicpeopleofGreeceandthe IslandsthepeopleknowntotheancientGreeksasthePelasgians,whomatthepresentdaywe generallydescribeastheAegeans.(WeshallhavetoconnectwiththemthehighlycivilizedpreAryan DravidiansofIndia,whoinalllikelihoodbuiltuptheoldestcivilizationofIndia); (5)TheprotoChineseMongoloidswhobuiltupagreatsystemofculturetheChineseculturein thevalleyoftheHoangHoortheYellowRiverinNorthernChina;and,finally (6)WehavetheIndoEuropeans(orifwepushtheirhistoryfurtherbehind,theIndoHittites). ThevariousancientculturesofAsiawerethecreationoftheabovementionedbasicpeoples,andwith otherelements,whichwerenotsoveryvital,elementswhichweresuppliedbyotherlessimportant peoples,wehavethevariousintermediateormixedtypesofculturewhichoriginatedinlatertimesbut werewithintheorbitofoneortheotherofthesebasiccivilizations,whichcanbeenumeratedasthe Sumerian,thePrimitiveSemitic(Akkadian),theEgyptian,theAsianicandtheAegean,theprotoChinese, andthePrimitiveIndoEuropean. ThepreAryancitycivilizationofIndiaasintheruinsofHarappaandMohenjoDaroandotherancient citiesofWesternandNorthernIndiaappearstohavebeenoneoftheseintermediateormixed typesofcivilizations,ratherthanabasicororiginalone. Weneednotdiscussthedevelopmentofthesevariousbasicandmixedtypesofancientcivilization. Eachoriginatedwithinitsownracialandlinguisticniveau,buttheyhadallofthemconnexionsamong

themselves.Asamatteroffact,nonationcanprogressinisolation;andthesumtotalofcivilization, withitsobjectsofmaterialcultureaswellasitsideas,thethoughtcontentaswellasthematerialside ofcivilization,isinterdependentandisalwaysonthemove.

THEBACKGROUNDOFTHEANCIENTINDOEUROPEAN(ORINDO HITTITE)LIFEANDCULTURE
TheprimitiveculturesofMesopotamiaandEgyptandofpreAryanIndiaaswellasofNorthernChina were,tostartwith,riverinecivilizationsbasedonagricultureonthecultivationofbarley,wheatand riceandofsomeothercereals.ThecivilizationwhichdevelopedamongthePrimitiveIndoEuropeans wasnotariverineone,and,althoughfromveryearlytimesitwasatleastpartlybasedonagriculture,it appearstohavebeenestablishedmoreonanimalhusbandry,whenanimportantsourceoffoodsupply wastheflocksofsheepaswellasherdsofcattleandofgoats,besidesswine,andalsotosomeextent thehorse.Thespeakersofthe,PrimitiveIndoEuropeanspeechintheirmostancientstate,accordingto theviewofW.Brandenstein(1936),developedthebasesoftheirculturewiththeirlanguageinthedry steppelandsofEurasiatothesouthoftheUralMountains.Hereoneimportantaspectoftheirmaterial culturewasthesettingupofkurgansorbarrowsmoundsofearthlikesmallhillsovergravesoftheir princesandnotabilities.Insidethegraveshavebeenfoundinterredtheirmostpreciousmaterial possessionsintheshapeofarmsandaccoutrementsaswellasornamentsanddresses,besidestheir horseswithfullequipage,andsometimestheirwivesandservants,whowerekilledandburiedinthe samegraves.Wedonotknowmuchabouttheotherpeopleslivinginthesurroundingtractsofthe steppes,besidesthesekurganpeoples.TheseotherswerenodoubtpeoplesofUralAltaicspeechthe ancestorsofthepresentdayAltaicandUralspeakingpeoplesofAsiaandEurope.TheseUralAltaics wereinamostprimitivestateoffoodgathererswholivedbyhuntingandfishinganddidnotasyet buildupanynoteworthycultureoftheirown,althoughthesheepandthehorse,aswellasthetwo humpedcamelinthecaseoftheAltaics,alsocametoformimportantitemsintheireconomiclife.In EuropeinCentralandWesternEuropeandSouthernEuropelivedtheIberianpeoples,witha languageandawayoflifewhichwereentirelytheirown,andlaterontheywerealloverwhelmedbythe IndoEuropeanspeakersliketheCeltsandItalians,andalsopartlybythePhoenicianswhowereSemitic. WehavenowtheBasquesintheborderlandbetweenSpainandFrancepresentingthelastremnantsof theseIberians,whohavestillkeptuptheirlanguage.InAfricathereweretheHamitictribestothenorth oftheSaharawhowererelatedtotheEgyptiansinlanguage,butinculturetheywerestillveryprimitive. TherestofAfricatothesouthoftheSaharawasinhabitedbytheBlackAfricansorNegroesintheir twomaindivisionsofSudanieNegroesandBantuNegroes,andtheselivedtheirownlifeanddidnotas yetproduceanygreatculture.SouthoftheseNegroesSudaneseandBantuslivedtheancestorsof thePygmies,anditseemstheywerealsotobefoundfurthertothenorth.Finally,inSouthAfricathere weretheancestorsoftheBushmenandHottentots,whoseplaceintheculturaldomainwasexceedingly low. InAsia,apartfromtheMongoloidswhobuiltupthecultureofChina,werethegreatAustricpeople whichatonetimespread,fromIranthroughIndiaandFartherIndia,aswellasMalaya,intothegreat IslandAreastotheSoutheastofAsia.Intheirprimitivelifetheywerenotinanyhighstateofcivilization. WehavealsotomentiontheDravidiansofIndiawho,accordingtoastrongbodyofopinion,werejusta ramificationoftheAegeanpeople,whocametoIndiainprehistorictimes,andinalllikelihood developedtheIndusValleyCivilization(Harappa,MohenjoDaro,etc.).

Thiswasprobablythesituationroundabout2000B.C.Thekurganbuilders,whoinalllikelihoodwere thePrimitiveIndoEuropeansintheiroriginalhomelandtotheSouthoftheUralMountains,werenot yetinpossessionofanyhightypeofmaterialculture.Butwithalltheelementsofaprimitiveculture whichtheycouldmusteraculturebasedonalittleagricultureandsomestockraising,whichseemsto havealsobeencharacterizedbysomedecorativeartsandcraftstheywereincreasinginnumbersand werespreadingparticularlyintheNorthandtheWest.Theywereprogressingattheexpenseofthe UralAltaicpeoplesinNorthEurope,andlateronoftheIberiansinCentralandWesternEurope.From themoreadvancedandbetterorganizedSumerianandSemiticpeoplestotheirsouth,withintheNear Easternorbit,withwhomtheyhadaccessthroughtheCaucasusregionandpossiblyalsothroughthe Balkans,theywereborrowingsomeelementsoftheirmaterialandintellectualandspiritualculture. Veryearly,itisbelieved,theygottheircattletheoxandthecowfromtheSumerianpeopleof Babylon,andpossiblyalsothegoatfromAsiaMinorarea.Theanimalswhichseemedtohavebeenreally nativetotheirownareaofcharacterizationwerethehorse,thesheepandtheswine,whichformed importantelementsintheireconomiclife.Thehorse,itisbelieved,wasfirstdomesticatedinthe steppesbythekurganbuildingIndoEuropeans,andthehorsewastheirfirstgreatcontributionto humancivilization.Itisquitelikelythattheapproachtotheirgodsbytheritualofthefirealtar,inwhich foodanddrinkandothergiftswerebroughttotheirgodsasburntofferings,originatedfromthe Semitesalthoughtheoriginofthiscultritualfromthedomestichearthinsidethedwellingsofthe kurganIndoEuropeanscannotbewhollybarredout.Intheiroriginalprimitivestate,theseIndo Europeans,assaidbefore,didnotpossessanyhightypeofmaterialcivilization.Asfaraswecangather fromthecharacterandmentalbackgroundoftheirlinguisticdescendants,wecanimaginethese PrimitiveIndoEuropeanstohavebeenquiteawellorganizedpeoplewithagreatimaginationaswellas practicalsense,andtheyhadadaptabilityofararetype;andtheywereabletogetthebestoutofany peopletheycameintouchwith.Abouttheareaoverwhichtheywerespreadintheirundividedstate, therecanonlybealittleguesswork.

THEGREATDIALECTALDIVIDEAMONGTHEPRIMITIVEINDO EUROPEANS
AnthropologistsandarchaeologistshavesoughttoindicatethemovementsoftheIndoEuropean peoples.Itwouldappearthatquiteearly,whenthePrimitiveIndoEuropeansweremoreorlessone peoplespeakingasinglelanguage,theybecamesplitupintotribeswhichdevelopedspecialdialectal habits.By2000B.C.,itmaybesurmised,alreadysomemainornoteworthydialectaldiversitieshad comeintoexistence.VeryearlywehaveabroadsplitamongthePrimitiveIndoEuropeansdividing theminto(1)theEasternIndoEuropeans,inwhosespeechcertainoriginalgutturalsoundswere transformedintopalatals,andthenthesepalatalsinsomecasesbecamesibilants;and(2)theWestern IndoEuropeans,amongwhomtheoriginalgutturalsoundsremainedasgutturalsorinsomecases underwentsomeotheranddifferenttypesofchanges.Thesetwobroaddialectalgroupslaterconsisted of(1)thelanguagesofthepalatalizinggroupknownastheSatemspeeches,and(2)thelanguagesofthe groupinwhichthegutturalsremainedgutturals,andthiswasknownastheCentumgroup.Theoriginal IndoEuropeanwordfor100,whichhasbeenreconstructedas*ktm,becameatam,satam,satm, imtas,sto,etc.,inthefirstgroup;andintheothergroup,thiswordoccurredascentum,hekaton, cant,ct,kant,etc.Inotherwords,alreadyintheirundividedstate,accordingtotheviewsofsome linguisticscholars,thePrimitiveIndoEuropeanlanguage(asevolvedoutoftheearlierIndoHittite)split upintodialects,andfromthesedialectsoriginatedthevariousbranchesofPrimitiveIndoEuropean thelanguagesoftheSatemBranchliketheIndoIranicorAryan(VedicSanskrit,Avestan,OldPersian), theBaltic,theSlavic,theArmenianandtheAlbanian;andthelanguagesoftheCentumBranch,like Hellenic(Greek),Italic(Latin,etc.),Celtic,GermanicandTokharian. WemaypresumethatthesinglePrimitiveIndoEuropeanlanguagebecamesplitupinthedialectsofthe veryoldtribesorbranchesofitasearlyas2500B.C.,ifnotearlier.Thuswecouldverywellassumethat theancestorsoftheIndoIraniansortheAryans,oftheSlavsandtheBalts,oftheThracoIllyriansonthe onehand,andoftheHellenes,oftheItalicpeoples,oftheGermanicpeoplesandoftheCeltsaswellas oftheTokhariansontheother,werealreadynoteworthyseparateentities,ifnotdistinctbranches.

THEEASTERNINDOEUROPEANS
OfthevarioussectionsorbranchesortribesofthePrimitiveIndoEuropeans,therewas,particularlyby virtueoftheirgeographicalproximity,agreateragreementamongtheancestorsoftheAryansorIndo Iranians,theBalts,theSlavsandtheThracoIllyrians(whosedialectissupposedtoberepresentedby theArmenianandtheAlbanianatthepresentday),justastherewasacloserlinguisticagreement amongtheancestorsoftheHellenes,oftheItalictribes,oftheCeltsandoftheGermans.Inthe undividedIndoEuropeanworldofthekurganbuilders,astheybegantospreadfrombefore2500B.C. orevenearlier,theBaltsappeartohavebeenthenorthernmostgroupandtheSlavswerelivingtotheir south,andtheAryanstotheirsoutheast;whereastheGermans,thePrimitiveHellenesandtherest werelivingtotheirwestandsouthwest.Archaeologistshavebeenabletofindoutthegenerallinesof theexpansionoftheIndoEuropeans.Intheiroldestperiod,theydidnothaveanyknowledgeofmetals exceptingcopper,andtheirimplementsweremadeeitherofstoneorofcopper.Thiscontinuedright downtothemiddleofthesecondmillenniumB.C.Aboutthattime,theyinventedbycombiningtinand copperthevaluablealloyknownasbronze,andthePrimitiveIndoEuropeansintheiroriginalhomeland enteredintotheBronzeStageoftheirhistory.TheBalticsectionoftheIndoEuropeanswasalsoequally intheBronzeAge.IronwasdiscoveredandputtouselateramongtheIndoEuropeanpeoplesof NorthernandEasternEurope.Inthemeanwhile,shortlybefore2000B.C.,theancestorsoftheIndo IranianshadcomedownsouthintoNorthernMesopotamia,andtheyhadpickeduptheuseofiron.This irontheydifferentiatedfromcopper;andinIndia,by1000B.C.,copperwasknownastheredmetal, lhitamayas,andironastheblackmetal,kamayas.TheSanskritwordayas,inLatinaes,wasalso usedtosignifybronzewhichwasanalloyofcopperandtinandwhich(asnotedabove)cameintouse beforeiron.Inanycase,wehavefromthekurgansorbarrowsorgravemoundsofCentralandNorthern RussiaremnantsofthecultureoftheBalticsectionoftheancientIndoEuropeansinNorthernEurope fromprehistorictimes(about1150B.C.)rightdowntotheModernorlateMedievalAge,toA.D.1200. TheAryanorIndoIranianbranchoftheSatemspeakinggroupofIndoEuropeansseparatedfromthe mainbodyfairlyearly,andtheyfirstcametoNorthernMesopotamiaandfromtheretheypassedonto Persia(Iran)andAfghanistan,andthenfinallytheycametoIndia.ThislongwanderingoftheAryans whocametoIndiatookabout700years,fromapproximately2200B.C.to1500B.C.Duringthistime theyhadcomeintouchwiththehighlycivilizedpeoplesofMesopotamiaandAsiaMinor,andhad developedtheircultureinmanyofitsnewermaterialintellectualandspiritualaspects.Theculture whichtheybuiltupcanbedescribedaspreVedic,orpreAvestan,orasprotoAryan;andagreat manyelementsofwhatweseeintheworldoftheVedasandoftheAvestawerealreadyinfull developmentinthisprotoAryanorearlyformofIndoIranianculture.AlreadythisprotoAryanculture hadcomeundertheinfluenceoftheearlierculturesoftheCaucasianarea,ofMesopotamiaandofIran. AftertheAryanscametoIndia,theywereperpetuallyextendingthehorizonoftheircivilizationby contactwithotherpeoples,andtheytookupanewwayoflifeinadifferentclimateanddeveloped theiroutlookuponlifealongsomenewlines;andincollaborationwiththeearlierpeoples,theAryansin

Indiabuiltupagreatsystemofreligionandphilosophy,andsomesignificanttypesofsocial organization.Thisenabledthemby1000B.C.toadvancequiteagreatdealalongthepathofcivilization, soastoberecognizedasoneoftheearlierhighlycivilizedpeoplesofantiquity.Particularlyinthe domainofthought,theymadecertainspeculationsandobservationswhichhadagreatvalueinthe intellectualandspiritualaswellassocialadvancementofman. TheHellenicIndoEuropeansalsowereinasimilarstatetheirearlyhistory,andtheformationofthe GreekpeoplepresentaparalleltowhathappenedtotheIndoAryans.TheycamedowntoGreeceand settledamongthepreIndoEuropeanAegeanpeople,andtakingupagreatmanyelementsofthe cultureofthelatter,theydevelopedthehistoricalcivilizationofGreeceby1000B.C.fromwhichperiod roughlywecantracethebeginningsofclassicalHelleniccivilization.TheGreeks,too,becamethe leadersinearlycivilizationinEasternandSouthernEuropeandinWesternAsia.Inthecaseoftheother branchesoftheIndoEuropeans,however,suchearlyadvancementisnotnoticed.Whatthesedidin historictimestheirownheroicandclassicalagesfromtheclosingcenturiesofthefirstmillenniumB.C. tothecloseofthefirstmillenniumA.D.wastoalargeextentinspiredbytheGreeksandtheItalic peoplesfromtheSouthasweseeinthecaseoftheCelticandGermanicpeoples.Comparedwith themtheothers,theSlavsandtheBalts,remainedinisolationwithintheirprehistoricIndoEuropean milieuforalongerperiod.OnebranchoftheAryansorIndoIranianswastheIranianpeopleknownas theSakasorScythianswhocametosettleinCentralAsiaaswellasinthesouthernpartofRussia,and theretheysharedmoreorlessacommontypeofculturewiththeirSlavandBaltkinsmentheydidnot participateinthesameadvancedlifeandthoughtoftheirownbrotherstotheSouth,namelythe IraniansandtheIndians;andtheseScythiansinRussiaandinCentralAsia,cutofffromtheotherAryans, werealsoverymuchinfluencedintheirmaterialculturebytheGreeksontheonehandandtheAltaic nomadsfromCentralAsiaontheother. SofarastheSlavswereconcerned,beingincloserproximitytothemoreadvancedpeoplesofthesouth liketheGreeksandtheRomans,andlateronthePersiansandtheArabs,andtheAltaicspeaking Mongoloids(insofarastheMongoloidshadadvancedinculturethroughtheircontactwiththe Chinese),theyshowed,fromthemiddleofthefirstmillenniumA.D.,agreatercosmopolitanismthanthe Balts.TheBaltsontheotherhandremainedisolatedtoalargerextentrightdowntotheearlycenturies oftheChristianera.Duringthesedarkcenturies,ofwhichwehavenohistory,theBaltscarriedonthe traditionallifeofthePrimitiveIndoEuropeans,withasocialorganizationandareligiousatmosphere whichtheyinheritedfromtheirPrimitiveIndoEuropeanancestors.Thelifewasthatofanagricultural andanimalbreedingcommunity,andtheBaltshadalsodevelopedquiteagooddealinthislineas primitiveagriculturists.Theyhaddeveloped,evidentlythroughsomeearlyimpetusreceivedfromthe morecivilizedpeoplesoftheSouth,agreatartofworkinginmetals.Particularlyduringthefirstfew centuriesoftheChristianera,whichhasbeendescribedastheGoldenAgeoftheBalts,theywerethe mostdistinguishedmetalworkersinNorthernandEasternEurope,andtheydevelopedastyleof decorativeartinmetalwhichwasquiteuniqueandwhichinfluencedalargenumberofcontiguous peoples.Theirpersonalornamentsinsilverandgold,andinbronzeandironandlead,hadaremarkable characterinbothdesignandexecution,withcolouredenamelinlay,andthisinfluencednotonlythe veryprimitiveFinnsandEsthsintheNorth,butalsothemoreadvancedkinsmenoftheBaltslikethe

SlavsandtheGermans,andtheCeltsintheSouthandWest.Here,ofcourse,theimpetuswasoriginally fromtheMediterraneanworldofGreeceandRome.But,nevertheless,theirhammeredmetalworkand theirbeautifulornamentsforwomenandmen,withenamelworkinredandblackandblueandyellow, theirvessels,theirhorsetrappingsandalsotheirironweaponsandimplementstestifytotheveryhigh degreeofmetallurgicaladvancementamongtheBalts.AtonetimetheBattswerespreadoverthe wholeofNorthernandCentralRussiafromtheUralriverandthevalleyoftheVolgarightuptothe riverswhichfallintotheBaltictheDaugavaortheDvina,theNemunasortheNiemen,andtheVistula. ThehomeofthisBalticsectionofthePrimitiveIndoEuropeans,aftertheyhadspreadalloverthevast tractofCentralandNorthernRussiawiththeirkurgansandwiththeirexquisiteachievementsintheart ofmetallurgy,fromitsextentandfromtheculturewhichdevelopedinthispartofEurope,becameone ofthemostprominentareasoftheancientIndoEuropeandomain,particularlynearaboutitsoriginal homeland. HistoryhasnotprovedkindtotheBalts.Similarly,anotherbranchoftheIndoEuropeans,theCelts,who becamecharacterizedintheirspeechinCentralEuropeandhadspreadfromtheretoWesternEurope andtheBritishIslands(GreatBritainandIreland),wereatonetimeoneofthemostpowerfulgroupsof theIndoEuropeansinEurope,andhadprogressedinthelineofcivilizationeventoagreaterextent thantheirkinsmenandneighbours,theGermanictribes.ButnowtheCeltshavefinallybeenbroughtto theirpresentstatethatofthedwindlingCelticpeoplesofFranceandtheBritishIslands,beingreduced toonlyafewmillionsoftheminBritanny(inNorthwesternFrance)andinWalesandtheHighlandsof ScotlandinGreatBritainandamongonlyafewthousandsofIrishspeakersintheWestandNorthof Ireland.Throughtheoperationofforcesinrecenthistory,theBalticpeoples,asaveryextensiveand powerfulbranchofIndoEuropeansduringthefirstmillenniumB.C.rightdowntothemiddleofthe secondmillenniumA.D.,havenowbeenbroughtdowntonearaboutnotmorethanfivemillionsof them,thetwomillionsofLatviansandtwoandahalfmillionsofLithuanians.Whenwethinkofover 150millionsofSlavspeakersandabiggernumberofGermanicandRomanic(neoLatin)speakers,the downfallatleastinnumbersoftheBalts(likethatoftheCelts)iscertainlytheinstanceofagreat tragedyforanobleandhighlyadvancedandatonetimeanumerousandpowerfulpeople.

THEBALTSAMONGTHEINDOEUROPEANPEOPLES
Incertainways,however,theBaltshavebeeninstrumentalinpreservingsomeoftheitemsofthe PrimitiveIndoEuropeanlifeandculture,whichhasnotbeenpossibleinthecaseofmostoftheother branchesoftheIndoEuropeans,andhereinisthespecialpointofinterestfortheIndians,whose religionandcultureandlanguages(intheNorthandpartlyalsointheSouth)areinawayacontinuation ofthesamePrimitiveIndoEuropeantradition.ToappreciatethebasicIndoAryanelementsina compositeIndianculture,astudyoftheworldoftheBaltsbecomesoneoftheutmostsignificancefor theAryanbasedcultureofIndia.Inasimilarway,theprimitiveculturesoftheGreeks,theItalics,the CeltsandtheGermanshaveanequallygreatimportance.AllthesedifferentramificationsofIndo Europeanmutuallyexplaineachotherinmanyoftheirsalientpoints;andwhenstudiedona comparativebasis,theycangiveusanideaofthePrimitiveIndoEuropeansituationandatmospherein thematerialworldaswellasintheworldofthought,ideasandideals. Itmaybementionedinpassingthatduringthenineteenthcentury,whentheBalticpeoples,the LatviansandtheLithuanians,begantostudytheirnationalliteratureoftheDainasandbecame consciousoftheirIndoEuropeanheritage,throughtheirstudyofitfromtheGermanSanskritistswho tookaleadingpartinestablishingtheAryanorIndoGermanicorIndoEuropeanbasesoftheculture oftheEuropeanpeoples,theydevelopedanuncriticalandaratheremotionalideathattheBaltic peoplescamefromtheEastfromAsiaandastheythought,fromIndiatoo.Itwasasemi sophisticatedhomagepaidtotheancientcultureofIndiawithherVedasandherprimevalwisdom, aboutwhichmanyoftheBalticscholarsandwritersacquiredromanticnotionsfrommidnineteenth centuryGermanIndology,whenLatvianandLithuanianscholarshadnotyetestablishedtheirpositionin IndoEuropeanlinguisticsandIndoEuropeanarchaeologyandculture.Balticwritersandpoetslike AndrejsPumpurs,theLatvianpoetwhocomposedtheLatviannationalepicofLaplsis(basedonold Latvianballadsandmythsandlegends)in1888,andJnisRainis(18651929),thenationalpoetof Latvia,andwritersalsofromLithuania,describedinglowingtermshowthecultureandwisdomand eventheoriginoftheBaltswasfromfarawayAsiaintheEast,fromIndiaitself.TheLatvianwriter,Fr. Malbergis,actuallywrotein1856thattheLatviansliketheRussiansandGermanscamefromthebanks oftheGanga.AnotherLatvianwriterin1859putforwardthesameview.Awisepeople,theBurtnieks, accordingtotheLatviantradition,broughtallscienceandknowledgetoLatviafromIndia.InLatvian tradition,Videvudswasateacherofthisprofoundwisdom.TheoldLithuanianpriestesses,the Vaidiluts,usedtotendthesacredfireaspartoftheoldIndoEuropeanBaltreligiousrite,andthisfire, asamodernLithuanianpoetsuggested,arrivedinLithuaniafromthebanksofInd.Allthisyearning amongasectionofthecultivatedBattsinthenineteenthtwentiethcenturiescanbeeasilyunderstood asakindofnostalgiaforthegoldenlandoftheirancestorsinfarawaymysticIndia,thehomeof SanskritandtheVedaswhichechoedtheBalticspeechesandtheDainasanostalgiawhichwaspartly theresultofasenseofanationalfrustrationfromwhichtheBattshadtosufferfromthefourteenth centuryonwardsthroughtheaggressionoftheGermans,thePolesandtheTsaristicRussians.

Butmodernsciencelinguistics,andcomparativeliteratureaswellascomparativereligion,and archaeologyandsociologyisnowestablishingittheotherway.ItisthelandoftheBaltsandtheSlavs ofthepresentdaywhichwastheUrheimatoftheIndoEuropeans,andtheVedicAryanswenttoIndia ultimatelyfromtheBaltoSlavareas. ThenameBalt,nowusedforthissectionofIndoEuropeanspeakers,hasaninterestinghistory.The wordwasemployedinGrecoRomantimesinconnexionwiththeseawhichfringesupontheBalt homelandandisstillknownastheBalticSea(inLatinMareBalticum).About1845Nesselmanfirstused ittomeanapeopletheBalticpeopleasabranchoftheIndoEuropeans.Theexactmeaningofthe wordBaltisnotyetsatisfactorilyestablished(unlikethatofthewordCelt,asusedforanother distinctivebranchoftheIndoEuropeans.Celtisevidentlyfromanoldwordmeaningawandering fighter,awarrior,anditsGermanicequivalentisfoundasHeldinGermanandhleinOldEnglish). ThewordbaltoccursinLithuanianasbaltas,balaswhite,alsobalawasteland,marsh,whichis foundalsoinSlavicasinOldSlavbelyiji=white,WhiteRussianbyelo,etc.,andalsoinOldSlavblato moorland,Russianbalta,withwhichisconnectedAlbanianbalte.Possiblythemarshlandswhich werecloakedwhitewithsnowgotanextensionofthewordbalt,balinaspecializedsense.TheBaltic Seasimilarlygotitsnamebecauseofthesnowandice.Thenamethereforecouldbeconstruedtomean whitemarshlands,andinmodernusage,thepeoplewhowereconnectedwiththeselands.The primitiveIndoEuropeanrootwhichisthesourceofthiswordwas*bhor*bhtoshine,whichwe haveinSanskritinanextendedformwithanaffixlandl+t;cf.Greekphs=light,Sanskritbhs; cf.alsoSanskritbhalaglint,ray,brightness,and*bhals>bh,*bhn>bhatomakeclear,to speak,etc. APrimitiveIndoEuropeanwordforwhite,ifitexistedatall,wouldbe*bhalto,*bhto,asthesource ofLithuanianandLatvianbalt,anditsSanskritequivalentwouldbe*bhaa.Thereisaseriesoflate wordsinSanskrit,bhaaspaidservant,mercenarysoldier,fighter,bhaasmaster,scholar,bharas holyone,god,thesun(alsobharaka),butthesehaveadifferentoriginfromrootbhtobear,to support+suffixesta,t,etc.,theoriginalandproperSanskritsourcesoftheabovelatewordsbeing bhta,bhart.ButtheexistenceofapossibleSanskritword*bhaa,differentinoriginfromtheabove, fromIndoEuropean*bhaltoor*bhtomeaningwhiteorbright,andtheirinfluencingsemantically thewordbharakatomeanagod,orthesuncannotaltogetherbewhollydismissed. Theuseofthename,however,appearsnottohavebeensoancient.OneoldnamefortheBatts,given inLatinclassicalandmonastictextsasAesti,appearstohavebeenextendedlaterontothenorthern FinnoUgriantribeoftheEsthoniansorEstonians.TheexactsignificanceofthisAestAestisnotknown. TheBalticpeoplehavebeenuntilrecentlyoneofthemostconservativeintheworld.Thechiefreason forthishasbeenthattheywereestablishedatafarawaypartoftheworldwherethemainstreamsof civilizationcouldnotreachorpassthrough.InthevirginforestlandsandmarshesofNorthernRussia andthecountriestotheeastandsouthoftheBalticSea,theBaltsfollowedtheiroldlifewithoutmuch deviationinthepatternoftheirancientculturalworldfromgenerationtogenerationandcenturyto century.Ofcourse,ashasbeenmentionedabove,theircivilizationwentondeveloping,andtheirIron

Agestartedcontemporaneouslywiththatoftheirkinsmen,theGermansandtheCeltsinCentral Europe. TheoriginalIndoEuropeanpeopledisposedoftheirdeadbyburialinsideraisedkurgansormounds,and accordingtotheirideologyofhumansurvival,theywouldalsobury,sometimesburyafterslaughterand sometimesburyalive,thehorsesandalsoinsomecasesthewifeandthepersonalattendantsofabig chief,sothathemightcontinuetoliveinthehighstateofhismundanelifeinthenextworldalso.The horsewasthemostimportantanimalamongthePrimitiveIndoEuropeans,andtheirtamingthehorse andputtinghimintouseforridingaswellasfordrawingcartsandchariotswastheirgreatest contributiontomaterialculture.TheIndoEuropeanpeoplewereaHorsePeople,consideringthe numberofpersonalnamesamongdifferentbranchesofIndoEuropeansinwhichthewordforhorse featured. Butitwouldappearthatcremationasthebasicfuneralriteinplaceofburial,simpleorelaborate,came tobepractisedintheIndoEuropeanworldfairlyearly.TheancientGreekIndoEuropeansknewboth cremationandburial,andthatwasby1000B.C.InIndia,too,boththemethodsofdisposalofthedead wereknownamongtheIndoAryans,butfromtheVedictimescremationbecameestablishedasthe normalcustom.TheIraniansquiteearlydevelopedthepracticeofexposingthedeadtobedevouredby vulturesandcarnivorousanimals.AmongtheBaltsthepracticeofburialwasgenerallyabandonedin favourofcremationduringthefirsthalfofthefirstmillenniumA.D.,andmostoftheBaltictribes practisedcremation.RightdownbeyondChristiantimes,untilthefifteenthcentury,thiswasthe commonwayamongtheLatviansandLithuanians.Butsomeofthealliedtribescontinuedthepractice ofburialandnotburning.Inthismatterwecannotthusformanysureopinion,sothatwemight reconstructthesituationamongthePrimitiveIndoEuropeans.Butaclosecomparisonofthefuneral ritesoftheVedicAryansandtheancientIraniansaswellasoftheotherancientIndoEuropeanpeoples liketheGreeksandtheItalians,withwhatwascurrentamongthelaterBaltsandtheSlavsaswellasthe earlierGermansandtheCelts,wouldgiveussomepositivenotionsastotheextentofboththerites amonglaterIndoEuropeans. OursourcesforthestudyofancientBalticculturearetwofold:(1)Archaeological,andbyastudyoftheir waysoflifeonthematerialplane(andalsoinsomecasesinitsreligiousside)fromtheobjectswhich havebeenfoundoutfromexcavationsoftheiroldburialplaces,dwellinghouses,fortressesandvillage andtownsites;and(2)theothergreatsourceislinguisticandliterary.Intheabsenceofarchaeological remainsconnectedwithaparticularpeople,thelinguisticandliteraryevidencetakesupaverygreat importance.InancientIndiaamongtheAryans,itwasatfirstmainlythelinguisticandtheliterary remainsoftheIndoAryanpeoplethatenabledustoknowsomethingabouttheirculture.Lateron archaeologyhasalsocomeintooperation.WithregardtotheBalts,ithasbeenliterarytoalargeextent, too,onthemodelofthestudyofotherancientIndoEuropeanlanguagesandliteratures.But archaeologyhasbeenthemainstayforthestudyoftheactualmaterialcultureofthisbranchofthe IndoEuropeans,fromaboutthemiddleofthesecondmillenniumB.C.rightdowntoaboutthemiddle ofthesecondmillenniumA.D.

TheBalticlanguagesofthepresentdayareonlythesetwotheLithuanianandtheLatvianeachwith itsdialects.Theyappeartohavebeenjustonelanguage1,200to1,500yearsfromnow,andtheyhave preservedtheiroldIndoEuropeancharacterremarkablywellrightdowntoourtimes.Therewasathird languageofthesamefamily,currentinwhatisnowGermanandPolishspeakingPrussia,which,asa resultoftheGermanonslaught,becameextinctbytheseventeenthcentury,beingpushedoutbythe encroachingGerman.ThisBalticspeechisknownasOldPrussian,anditwasveryclosetoLithuanian. OldPrussianhasonlysomeinsignificantsurvivals,andithasleftnoliterature,likeLithuanianand Latvian.AlthoughtheextantBalticlanguagesareveryarchaicintheircharacterparticularlyLithuanian whichineverywayseemstopresentanearlierstageoflinguisticdevelopmentthantheLatvianthe oldestspecimensoftheselanguagesdateonlyfromthemiddleofthesixteenthcenturywhentheywere firsttakendowninwriting.ThatwasthetimewhenthefirstLithuanianandLatvianbookswerestarted tobewrittenandprintedbookswhichwereChristianinthemeandspirit.ButanativeBalticandpre ChristianliterarytraditionwascurrentamongallthevarioustribesofthissectionoftheIndoEuropeans fromveryancienttimes.Itwillbequitepermissibletopresumethatthistraditioninitsbeginningsharks backtothedaysofthePrimitiveIndoEuropeans.ApartfromtheBalts,acontinuationofthistradition wehaveamongmostoftheIndoEuropeanpeoples,insomewayorother,asintheworldoftheAryans bothofIndiaandIran,amongtheGreeks,aswellasamongtheItalicpeoples,theCeltsandthe Germans,andalsoamongtheSlavs,andpossiblytheArmeniansaswell. ThisoraltraditionofliterarycompositionintheBalticlanguagesconsistedofshortpoemsorsongs whichrelatedtoalltheaspectsoftheircorporateaswellasindividuallife.Theywerecontinuedfrom generationtogeneration,beingrememberedbythepeopleandbeinghandedoverfromonegeneration tothenext,likeotherelementsintheirtraditionalfolkcultur.Onthereligiousside,thisoraltradition intheirliteraturecelebratedthedivinitieswhomtheyheldinhonour,andreferredtosomeoftheideas whichhadcontinuedasaninheritancefromthePrimitiveIndoEuropeanpeople.Thereisaremarkable similarityinthereligiousbackgroundandideologyofalltheancientIndoEuropeanpeoples.This ideologywasthatofawellestablishedandorganizedsocietyofvillagedwellers,whowerealsonot entirelyrootedtothesoil,buthad,inconnexionwiththeircattlefarmingandstockraising,some nomadicpropensities.ButintheBalticworld,asinIndia,itbecamemoreorlessalifeoffarmersrooted inthesoil.TheaverageBalticpersons,asmuchastheotherIndoEuropeansinfavouredsituations, becameagriculturists.TheyworshippedtheforcesofNaturewhichregulatedtheirlifeastheirgodsand goddesses,andtheyconnectedtheoperationsinNaturewithhumanwellbeing,whetherderivedfrom NatureororiginatedbyMan.TheyworshippeddivinitieswhoweremoreorlesspersonifiedForcesof NaturetheSky,theEarth,theSun,theMoon,theStars,Dawn,Evening,Fire,WaterSpringsand StreamsandRivers,theLakesandtheOceanaswellastheUnseenForcesofGoodandEvil,andthe SpiritorForcewhichworkedinthelivingcreaturesandwhichbroughtgoodtomanordidhimharm. Besidesthese,social,moralandotherconditionswhichwerethoughtdesirablebymanorwere inevitableinlife,likeTruth,Friendship,Happiness,StrengthandotherVirtueswhichweassociatewith humanwellbeingandprosperityandgoodorbadluck,andDeath,weredeified.Theseformthegerms ofIndoEuropeanfaithandcultseverywhere.InthehighlyadvancedliteratureoftheIndoIranians,asin

theVedasandtheAvesta,whichbecamequitewellestablishedby1000B.C.,andinthatoftheGreeks asintheirartisticepicsandhymnsfromafter1000B.C.,theworksofHomer,ofHesiod,andofthe tragicpoetsAeschylus,SophoclesandEuripideswehavequiteagreatdealofadvancementinideas, andagoodamountofthoughtandsophisticationwhichenteredintotheirworldofspeculationabout NatureandMan.Withtheexceptionofthebasichumanneedsandofthefundamentalhumanvirtues, theworldofthelessadvancedIndoEuropeanpeoplesincludingtheBaltsdidnotshowmuchprogress oradvancementinthelineofthoughtorspeculation.ThenotionsoftheBalticpeoplesabouttheirgods conceivedasForcesofNature,orabouthumanlifeandendeavour,werecontinuedinanthropomorphic termsrightdowntotheChristiancenturies,thefourteenth,fifteenthandsixteenthcenturies.Before theadventofChristianity,therewasnothingtobringaboutarevolutionintheirwayoflifeandthought. Sincetheylivedincomparativeisolationandwerequitehappyintheirprimitivevillageexistence,they didnotfindanurgeforanyspeculationastotheproblemsofmanandtheworldoutside.Soitwasa kindofsimpleandprimitivementalitywhichpersistedfromancientIndoEuropeantimesrightdownto thebroaddaylightofmoderncivilizationamongtheBalts.Wehavethusastreamwhichcarriedonthe watersofaprimitivelifeandfaith,unspoiledbyexternalaccretionsordevelopments.TheRigvedaand portionsoftheAvestaaswellasoftheancientGreekepicsandhymns,andspecimensoftheprimitive religiousandfolkpoetryoftheGermanicpeoplesaspreservedinthetwoOldNorseEddabooksandthe VolsungaSaga,andtheOldEnglishepiclayofBowulfandsimilarworks,andinOldCelticliteratureas intheheroicsagasoftheancientIrish,e.g.theMythological,theUladh(Ulster)orCuchulainnandthe Finncycles,andtheromantictalesoftheOldWelshasintheMabinogionandotherworks,represent theoldIndoEuropeanworldinitslaterandmoreadvancedsettings.TheancientSlavs,closeneighbours andrelationsoftheBalts,havebeenenabledtopreserveonlysomeverysmallthoughpreciousrelicsof theirPrimitiveIndoEuropeaninheritance.AllthatwehaveintheSlavworldareafewfaint reminiscencesoftheirpantheon,andcertaintracesoftheirpreChristianandIndoEuropean atmosphereinapoemliketheOldRussianepicWordaboutIgorsFolk(SlovoOPlkuIgorev),and possiblysomepreChristianelementsembeddedintheancientCzechlegendsoftheirheroicrulersand romanticheroineslikePemyslandLibue.Thisisquiteremarkable,whenweconsiderthecaseofthe Balts,theremainsofwhosepreChristianandIndoEuropeanheritagearecomparativelyfairlycopious. ButweshouldrememberthattheSlavsweremoreintouchwithoutsidepeoplesthantheBalts,and theyformedasortofabuffer,protectingtheinnerBalticpeoplesfromtheoutsideworld. ThusitwasthattheSlavshadtosacrificeagreatdealoftheirancientheritagethroughculturalmixture orinterferencefromthecontactwithpeopleswhowerecontiguoustothemandwithwhomtheycame incloseculturalandpoliticalrelationship.

THEBALTCHARACTER
TheancientIndoEuropeanismoftheBaltsprojecteditselfintotheHeroicAgeoftheirStrugglewiththe GermansasagaofBaltpatriotismandsacrifice,withmartyrsandheroeslikeTalvaldis,Virsaitis, Mindaugas,Traidenis,Vytenis,GediminasandVytautas. Itwouldbedifficulttodescribecategoricallythecharacterofapeopleinitshistoricevolutionthrough manycenturies.Attempts,moreorlesssuccessfulsometimestentative,sometimesfinalhavebeen madetoindicatethesalientcharactersofmanyofthemostoutstandingpeoplesofhistory.These peopleswerebothofIndoEuropeanandnonIndoEuropeanorigin.Theirwayofthoughtandwayof lifehavehadsomesignificanceformankindasawhole.ThustheancientGreekcharacterhasbeen labelledasHellenism,andonemightsayithasbeensuccessfullyformulatedbythemostoutstanding classicalscholarsofEuropeandAmerica.WehavesimilarlyRomanism,Hebraism,Arabism,Sinism, Europeanism,Africanism,etc.,definedanddescribed.InIndia,wehavebeentryingtogiveafactual appraisementoftheIndianCharacterasawhole,andalsoinitscomponentelements,thatoftheAryans andthenonAryans(theDravidians,theKlsorAustrics,andtheTibetoBurmansorMongoloids).There hasbeenacertainamountofidealisminourformulationoftheAryanandIndoEuropeancharacter, bothamongIndianandEuropeanstudentsorenquirersinthesubject.Sometimesthecharacteroftwo connectedpeopleshasbeensoughttobebroughtintoclearlightbyposinganoppositionbetweentwo typese.g.RomanandTeuton,orGreekandRoman,orTeutonandSlav,orCeltic(asamongtheGauls, theIrishandtheWelsh)andLatinorGermanic(asamongtheRomans,andtheEnglish),orBaltandSlav, etc. WehavetriedelsewheretodiscusstheBlackAfricanandtheIndiancharacter.1Ihavenotseena statementabouttheBalticcharacteranywhere.Butasitstrikesme,afterreadingalittleaboutthe variousBalticpeoplesofantiquity,andafterhavingseensomethingofthelifeofthepresentdayBalts, ingeneral,inLatviaandLithuania,itmaybesaidoftheBaltsasanancientbranchoftheIndoEuropeans thattheallroundimpressionthatisleftonourmind,aftersomestudyoftheirpastcultureandhistory andtheirpresentlifeandways,isthattheyarepreeminentlyafineandalovableandamostcultured andhighmindedpeople,devotedtothewaysofpeaceinlivingtheirsimpleagriculturallife,fondof songanddanceandmusicandflowers,andsimpleinmindandinreligiousfaith.Theylovedinancient times,andstilllovedecorationthroughornamentsandjewelleryandbeautifulandcolourfulclothes, showingatthepresentdayanuncommongoodtasteintheirfolkcostume.Theywerenotbellicose,and werenotintheleastinclinedtoharmothersortodomineeroverthem.Buttheyhavebeenquite valiantandcourageousinfightingfortheirfreedomandtheirrights. 1 SeemyAfricanism,theAfricanPersonality:withaForewordbySarvepalliRadhakrishnan(former PresidentofIndia),Calcutta,BengalPublishersPte.Ltd.,14BankimChatterjiStreet,1960,pp.220, with24plates;andmyIndianismandtheIndianSynthesis,beingtheKamalaLecturesfor1947(1959) undertheauspicesoftheUniversityofCalcutta,CalcuttaUniversityPress,1962,pp.208.

TheBaltswerenoteagerformoneyorpower,butwerequietlybringingtheirowncontributionto humancivilizationbytheirskillincrafts,andbylivingalifeofpeaceandjoyamidstNaturewhichthey hadevolvedintheirenvironment.Theirintensepatriotismisanoteworthytraitthroughthecenturies. Notparticularlyprofoundordistinctiveintheirphilosophy,theyhavealwaysmanifestedasimpleold worldfaithintheexistenceofadivinitywhoisgoodandkindandhelpfultomaninthelatters endeavourtolivethegoodlife:andthisisasgoodarecordofapeopleasany. InordertounderstandsomeofthefinesttraitsintheBaltcharacterinboththeirmindandspirit,itwill benecessarytoknowsomethingoftheGermanBaltandPolishBaltstruggledowntothefifteenth century,whentheheroicaswellasthehumanequalitiesoftheBalticpeoplecameoutmost conspicuously. Withregardtootherpeopleswiththeirdifferentwaysoflife,theBaltspreservedtothelast,particularly duringtheirlifeanddeathstrugglewiththeGermanaggressors,theoldIndoEuropeanwayofliveand letliveoftoleranceandevenacceptance,whichwefindconspicuouslydevelopedamongtheHindus, andamongtheancientGreeks.Thisancientinheritance,fromtheirIndoEuropeanpast,ofmentaland spiritualinclusivenessandaninstinctivewilltocomprehendandharmonize,whichwefindmosthighly developedamongthekinsmenoftheBaltsinIndiaandGreece,wasretainedintheBalticwayof thoughtandactionintheirheroismandtheirgentlemanliness,anditmaybesaidtohavebeen projectedfromtheirhighantiquityintotheirhistorytheirdealingswithotherpeoplesrightdownto themiddleofthemedievalage.Theirenlightenedprincesandleaders,kingsandrulers,bothamongthe LithuaniansandLatviansandtheOldPrussians,formedagreatrollofhonournotonlyintheIndo Europeanworld,butalsointheentireworldofhumanity. TheBaltscertainlyderivedagreatsustenancefromtheirancestralIndoEuropeanreligion,andfor centuriestheypreferredtoundergosorrowandsufferingandmartyrdomintheirownfaithratherthan acceptthesocalledreligionofChristfromtheirGermaninvadersandoppressors.Theexamplemaybe mentionedoftheLatvianmartyredchief,Talivaldis,whowascapturedinbattlebytheChristian Germansandthenslowlyburnttodeath,buthedidnotyieldhisfaith;andthatoftheVirsaitis,orPrince Imanta,wholedhispeopleagainsttheinvadingGermanhosts,butfinallydiedinamortalcombatwith hisbrother,Kaupo,whohadgoneovertotheGermansKaupowaswoundedtodeath,butImantawas struckbyaswordwhichwaspoisonedbytheGermanswithoutKauposknowledge(twelfthcentury). TherewerehundredsofcasesofsimilarmartyrdomandsufferingamongbothLatviansandLithuanians. ThewesternmostBalticStateofPrussiawasfirstsubjugatedbyGermancrusadersbelongingtothe TeutonicorderoftheHolyVirginMary,withtheblessingsofPopeGregoryIV,in1231.Theresultwas disastrousfortheBalts.TheBalticPrussianlanguagewasbannedbytheGermans,andthemasseswere madeintoserfs,andeventhosePrussianswhowerebaptizedwerenotgiventhebasicrightsof Christians.ThetortureofawholepeoplewhostoodinthewayofthisearlyGermanDrangnachOsten, orExpansiontotheEast,wassocruelandheartlessthatseveralPopesbetween1245and1256 remonstratedwiththeGermanconquerorsandadmonishedthemtobemorehumane.TheBaltic

Prussiansdidnottakethisconquestlyingdown.Wheneveranopportunitypresenteditself,withtheir Lithuanianbrothers,duringthedecadesafter1231,succeedingingivingadefeattotheGerman oppressorstheevilgueststhePrussianswouldriseasawholepeopleinrebellion.Theserisingsthe Germanssuppressedwiththegreatestferocity,andbyoccupyingthelandandsettlingitwithGerman andPolishcolonists,andforcingout,asrefugeesintoLithuaniaintheeast,thosePrussianswhodidnot wanttoliveasslaves.InLithuaniatheywerewelcomedbytheirkinsmen,andresettled.These sanguinarylifeanddeathstrugglesduringtheyears12431249and12601274practicallysealedthe fateofBalticPrussians,whobecamevirtuallylosttotheBalticworldfrom1274onwards. Inthisfinalstruggle,thePrussianleaders,thePrincesMonte,Glappes,Auktums,Divaneandotherswho foughttothelast,amidstterribleatrocitiesperpetratedagainstthepeoplebymassmassacres,hanging ofhostages,andtorturesofrefinedcruelty,werethegreatheroesandmartyrs.PrinceMontewastied toatreeandthenspearedthroughtheheart. ThefateofLatviacamenext,whichwasbroughtundertheswayoftheGermansin1290,afterequally heroicresistancefromtheLatvians.TheLatvianfightagainsttheGermanshasputironintothesoulsof thepeopleaswiththeLithuanians,anditwasequallyaHeroicAgewiththem.Thememoryofallthis hasbeenkeptgreenallthroughthecenturies,andrevivedbythegreatwritersofLatviasliterary renaissanceduringthenineteenthtwentiethcenturies,bynationalpoetsanddramatistslikeA. PumpursandJ.Rainis.Theprimitivemythologicalstoryofacultureheroofsuperhumanorigin, Laplsis,whowasbornofashebearandhadbearsears,whofreedthecountryfrombearsandother wildanimals,whohadadventureswithsagesandsorceresses,mythicalanimalsandspiritsofevil,and whocannotbepinneddowntoanyperiodoftime,wasinterwovenwiththeageofthestruggle betweentheLatviansandtheGermancrusadersintheelevenththirteenthcenturies.Thisstorywas thusgivenanationalandaheroicsetting,andmadeintoanepicpoemofaspecialcharacter.Thisepic, theLaplsisofPumpurs,ashortworkof4,800lines,publishedin1888,becameasortofanational poemfortheLatvians,embodyingtheiraspirationsforfreedomandagoldenworldandtheirfightswith theGermansfortheirhomelandandtheirnationalreligion.Thegreatpoetanddramatist,JanisRainis (18651929),utilizedthethemeofPumpurssepicandmadeitintoapowerfuldramawithanallegorical character,UgunsenNakts(FireandNight,1908),thesublimationoffolkmythsandofmemoriesof thelongfightforliberationwiththeGermans.Finally,RainissromantichistoricaldramaofIndulisun Arija(1911)gaveapsychologicaltreatmentofaheroicthemewhichhasbeenfoundinLatviantradition aspreservedintheworkofamedievalGermanwritertheconflictbetweenloveandpatriotism,when theLatvianprince,Indulis,fightingtheGermansforthefreedomofhispeople,andArija,thedaughter oftheGermanarmyleader,fellinlovewitheachother,thestoryendinginatragedywiththedeathof thelovers. StrugglesofLithuaniawiththeGermansstartedfromthesecondhalfofthetwelfthcentury.Unityofthe LithuanianswasbroughtaboutbyGermanraids,underthethenking,Mindaugas,about1236.There wasanimmediateattackbytheGermancrusadersafteracrusadewasproclaimedbythePopein1235. TherewasatfirstagreatdefeatoftheGermansbytheLithuanianswhowereprobablyledbyVykinas,a SamagitanPrince,andaclosecollaboratorofMindaugas.ThisencouragedrebellionagainstGermansby theBalticpeoplesinPrussiaandLivonia.TheGermanswerenowdeterminedtocrushtheLithuanians.

TheLithuanianshadtofightwiththeMongolinvadersfromtheEast,andunderPrinceErdivilasthey inflictedacrushingdefeatontheMongolsinthebattleofSeibeklaukisin1242,butPrinceErdivilas soonafterwaskilledinaskirmishwiththeretreatingTatars. TherewasaspellofLithuanianexpansionintheEastafterthis,andRussianSlavswereconquered.The RutheniansandotherswelcomedtheLithuaniansasliberatorsfromtheTatars,andtheLithuanians followingtheiroldreligiondidnotinterferewiththeirChristianRutheniansubjectsintheirreligionand language,andgavethemefficientadministration,strictjusticeandpersonalsafety. ButMindaugaswasnotpermittedtoconsolidateanationalnonChristianLithuanianState.Hewas constantlyattackedbytheCatholicLivonianbranchoftheGermanOrderofCrusaders,byorthodoxSlav ChristianprincesfromtheEast,andbysomemostintenselypaganLithuanians.Thepaganismofthe LithuanianswasmadethesolereasonforGermanandWestEuropeanaggression,andpagan Lithuanianswerelookeduponassubhumanbeings,fitonlytobekilledorenslaved.Mindaugaswas forcedbycircumstancestobecomebaptizedasaCatholicChristian,with600ofhisnobles,in1250,asa definitemeasuretosavehisownpeoplefromnearannihilation.Theresultwasthatsomerespitewas giventohisnationtoliveoninsomesortoffreedom,andthePopegavehisrecognitionin1251to MindaugasaskingofLithuania. Thisstavedoffthedangerforsometime,butinternalfightsforpoweramongvariousgroupsof ChristiansGermans.PolesandsomeLithuanians,andthepaganLithuanianprincesdidnotallowany timetoMindaugastoorganizehisState.Hiswife,QueenMartha,becameanardentCatholic,andtwoof hissons,PrincesRuklysandRupeikis,werebothRomanCatholics,andoneson,Vaigvilkas,becamea GreekorthodoxmonkinGreece. TheGermanswerepushingintotheheartofLithuaniaalthoughMindaugashadbecomeChristian.The SamagitebranchoftheLithuanianBalts,intenselypagan(orIndoEuropean),defeatedthecombined armiesofalltheTeutoniccrusadersandotherforeignChristiansatapitchedbattlein1260.Thisledto animmediateinsurrectionamongthePrussianbranchoftheBaltsagainsttheGermans,andthiswas savagelysuppressedby1274.ThewantofcohesionamongthepaganBalts,combinedwiththe persistentattacksfromtheGermans(reinforcedthroughtheinfluenceofthePopeinRomebyChristian adventurersfromWesternEuropeliketheFrenchandtheEnglish)madethestatesmanshipandbravery oftheBaltickingsandtheirtroopsfailinthelongrun.KingMindaugassattempttounitealltheBaltsas asinglenationalentityagainsttheGermanmaraudersdidnotsucceed.AnableleaderafterMindaugas washissistersson,Treniota(orTrainaitis),whohadledtheSamagiticLithuanianstoagreatvictory againsttheGermans.Mindaugashadsomegrandiloquentschemesfortheexpansionofhiskingdom intoanempire,andin1263hesentanexpeditionagainsttheSlavsdeepintotheheartofRussia.He failed(asaChristianandaCatholicruler)tosupporthisBalticPrussiankinsmenwhentheyroseagainst theGermans,andthiswasopenlydeclaredtobetreasonagainsthisownpeople.Therewasaplot againsthim,andconspiratorsheadedbyTreniotamurderedkingMindaugastheCatholicandhistwo sons,RuklysandRupeikis,in1263.OneoftheconspiratorswasPrinceDaumantas,abrotherinlawof kingMindaugas.

Afterthistherewasstruggleforpoweramongthechiefs,butTreniota,whowasstronginhisfaithinthe nationalBalticreligionandanardentnationalist,succeededinbecomingking.HetriedtorevivePrussia byhelpingtheinsurgents,wantedtoreestablishastrongpaganLithuanianState,andtreatedharshly hisChristianrelativesandhisuncleMindaugassChristiancollaborators.Butonlyaftertwoyearsreign hewaskilledin1265. ThethirdsonofMindaugas,namelyVavilkas,whohadretiredtoaGreekorthodoxmonastery,now carneout,andruledtill1268whenheabdicatedinfavourofvarnas,hisbrotherinlaw.ButVaivilkas wasmurderedbyKnyazLevofVolodomir,aRussianchief,andvarnasdiedayearafter,in1269.The houseofMindaugasthusbecameextinct. Againtherewasfightforpower,andoutofthisemergedPrinceTraidenisastheparamountpersonin Lithuaniain1270,andheruleduntil1282.TraideniswasagreatLithuanian,king,apurelynational monarchandapaganLithuanian.HisstrongpolicyoffightingtheGermancrusadersandhisaimtounite alltheBalticpeoplesintoonestatelargelysucceeded.Herefusedtohaveanyalliancewiththe Germans,theswornenemiesoftheBalts.ButtheTeutonicordercouldnotbecrushed,asitwas constantlysupportedbytherestofWesternEurope.Thismadehisvictoriesfutileintheend.Hehadno troublewiththeRussiansintheEast,whowerechafingundertheheeloftheMongolsandpreferred themildLithuanianrule.TraidenisalsofoughtthePoleswhomheconsideredtobethealliesofthe GermansinbringingabouttheruinofBalticPrussia.Hewassuccessful,however,inlargelyconsolidating Lithuania.TheLithuaniansfinallyhaltedtheGermandrivethroughtheircountry. ThehistoryoftheLithuanianpeopleafterthedeathofTraidenisin1282isnotclear.KingVytenisruled between1295and1316,andafterthis,Gediminas,saidtobehisbrother,becamekingandruledfrom 1316to1341.Vytenishadsucceeded,eventhoughapagan,inhavinganalliancewiththeGerman ChristiansatRigaandelsewhere,andthisgavehispeoplesomebreathingtime.Thisalliancehadgreat politicalvalueitgaverecognitiontotheheathenLithuaniansthattheyhadarighttolivetheirownway oflife.ItshowedalsosomeweakeningamongtheTeutonicorder.SubsequentpaganrulersofLithuania appreciatedtheimportanceofthisalliance,asitenabledthemtocomeintouchwithChristianWestern EuropeandwithRomeasthecentreofChristendom,andtotelltheworldthetruthabouttheatrocities andinjusticesoftheGermaninvasionscarriedoninthenameofChrist.TheLithuaniansfromnowhad theuseoftheportofRigaasanoutletforcommerceandasaplaceforimportofarms. Baltv.Teutonthisstruggle,however,continuedunabatedforahundredyears,untilthegreatbattleof Tannenberg,15thJuly,1410,whentheLithuanianleader,theGrandDukeVytautas,withhisPolishallies crushedforeverthepoweroftheGermanknights.KingGediminaswasoneofthemostremarkable figuresinBalthistory.Bywarsandbydiplomacy,heextendedhisruleamongtheRuthenians (MalorusskyorLittleRussians)andtheVelikorussky(ortheGreatRussians).Hehadanablegeneralin Daujotas,saidtobeasonofPrinceDaumantas,abrotherinlawofkingMindaugasmentionedbefore. DaujotaswasnicknamedtheDeathoftheChristians,asheissaidtohavedestroyed140Christian

churchhamlets.Butthisgreatfighterwhohadneverlostabattle,andwasagreatchampionofBalt paganism,wasshottodeathin1326byaPoleforaprivategrievance. KingGediminas,kingoftheLithuaniansandoftheRutheniansandotherpeoples,wasastaunch followerofthefaithofhisancestors,andhewasinadditionquiteanenlighteneddiplomat.He corresponded(inLatin)withthePope,andplacedthepointofviewofthefollowersoftheBaltic nationalreligionbeforetheChristianworld.HerefusedtoacceptthesuggestionofthePopetobe baptized,andrecountedhowtheLithuanianrulers,Mindaugasandothers,oncebecameChristian,but thewrongsinflictedbytheChristianGermanscontinuedunabated,andMindaugashimselfissaidto havefinallyrenouncedChristianity.TheinternalfeudsamongthevarioussectionsoftheGerman Christians,andtheillsuppressedfanaticalhatredoftheGermansforallBalts,whetherpaganor Christian,confirmedGediminastoremainfirminhisIndoEuropeanfaith.Gediminasslettersand representations,however,wereeffectivetosomeextentinmakingthePopecommandtheTeutonic ordertostopallincursionsagainstLithuaniaandtoholdtothepeacepactmadewiththeLithuanians. SomelettersofGediminas,particularlythosewrittenin1323,formedastirringappealtotheconscience oftheChristianworldforjusticeandtoleranceandfairplayinthedomainofreligion: InNovember,1323,GedminastoldtheenvoysofthePapalNunziosthathehadnotpromisedto receivebaptism:hehadmerelypromisedtopreservepeacewithChristendom.IhadstatedverilythatI willpermittheChristianstoworshipGodaccordingtothemanneroftheirfaith,theRuthenesaccording totheirs,thePolesaccordingtotheirs,whileweourselveswillworshipGodaccordingtoourcustoms. WeallworshiponeGod.... TheNunziosemissaries,accompaniedbyaLithuaniannoble,aresaidtohaverepeatedtherulers messagetotheNunziosinRiga:IdonotknowyourPope,nordoIcravetoknowhim.Ishallremainin thefaithinheritedbypaternaltradition,andIshalldefenditwithblooduntomydeath(Papamvestram necnovi,necnossecupio;fidemacreligionem,quampaternatraditioneaccepi,ineapermanebo, certansproillasanguineusqueadmortem)2. Thequietdignityandthemanlystandforhisancestralfaithasmanifestedintheseprotestsbyletters fromGediminasagainstChristiansavagery,andhisvindicationoftheheathenLithuanians,following ahumaneandliberalpolicytowardstheChristiansofthevarioussectslivingwithinhisdomains,are indeedremarkable,whenweconsiderthebarbarianmentalityandmethodsofthosewhocameto plunderanddestroyinthenameofChrist.Onecannotbutadmireprofoundlythecivilizedand enlightenedattitudeofanonChristianBalticKingofthefourteenthcentury,inspiredbythenational inheritanceofhisancientIndoEuropeanreligion,visvistheutterbarbarismandthegreedyfanaticism aswellasspiritualbankruptcyoftheChristendomoftheGermancrusadersandtheirItalianteachers, whoweretryingbymeansfairorfoul(anticipatingthelatersophistryandhypocrisyoftheprincipleof 2 (FromConstantineR.Jurgela,HistoryoftheLithuanianNation,LithuanianCulturalInstitute,Historical ResearchSection,NewYork,1948,p.86.Ihaveinthemainfollowedthisexceedinglyvaluableandwell documentedworkforthenarrativeaboutthePaganChristianstruggleamongtheBaltsinthissection.)

theendjustifyingthemeans)toextendthereligiousempireofthePopeandtoexploitandcrushout ofexistenceanobleandharmlesspeople.TheGermansandItalianswereatthattimenotinaposition toknowthattheywereseekingtodestroyapeoplewhoweretheirownkinsmenwithintheIndo Europeanfamily,andwhoseonlyfaultwasthattheywantedtoliveandletlive,andhadfaithinthe waysofpeaceratherthaninthewaysofviolence. FurthercorrespondencewiththePopefollowed,andthelattergavestrongdirectivestotheTeutonic ordertofollowscrupulouslythepeacepactwiththeLithuanians.ThePopestillhopedforpeaceful conversionofGediminas.Gediminas,however,remainedfirminhisfaith,andheleftastrongandafree Lithuania,theonlyheathenStateinEuropeinthefourteenthcentury.Hewasresponsibleforthe buildingoftwoimportantcitiesinLithuaniaTrakai,withitsstrongcastleinanislandinalakearea,and VilniusorVilnawherehebuiltacastleonthetopofanoverlookinghill,wherethemiracleofawolf indicatingthesiteofastrongandenduringcityiscreditedbyLithuaniantraditiontohavetakenplace. KingGediminasathisdeathdividedhiskingdomamonghiseightsons.Aftersomemutualadjustments, twoofthesesons,AlgirdasandKstutisbecamerulersatVilniusandatTrakairespectively,andthey jointlyruledoverLithuaniafor32years(13451377).Thetwokingsruledinperfectamityandharmony. TheGermansmadeafinalattempttoconquerLithuania,andorganizedagrandcrusadeagainstpagan LithuaniawithhugearmiesfromChristianStatesofSlavBohemiaandMagyarHungaryandwithhostsof WesternEuropeancrusaders,buttheywerenotsuccessfulintheiraim.Theychangedtheirtactics afterthis,andstartedsendingconstantsmallraids(Kleinkrieg)intoLithuanialeadingover100major raids.TheLithuaniansretaliatedbysending42counterraidsintoGermanterritoriesinPrussiaand Latvia.TheGermansnowbegantohaverespectfortheLithuanians,andalthoughthelatterwerestill pagans,theGermanraidscouldnolongerbeofthenatureofmassacresofadisorganizedpeople,but werefightswithtroopsofastablekingdom.KstutiswontherespectoftheGermansasatruly chivalrousknight.TheGermansweredefeatedintwoimportantbattlesin1348and1362,andagainin 1377.Nevertheless,persistentattemptsatChristianizingtheLithuanianscontinuedfromthesideofthe Pope,withthesupportofthePolesandtheMagyars.TheLithuanianrulerswerehesitant.Polish Lithuanianrelationsalsobecameacuteandunfriendly,owingtotheterritorialambitionsofthePolish rulers. AlgirdassoughttoextendhisinfluenceandpoweramongtheRussiansbothofMoscowandKiev, whichwerecontinuallysufferingfromthetyrannyoftheirTatarconquerors.Inspiteofhispagan religion,hebecameinvolvedinOrthodoxGreekandRomanCatholicintriguesandmovesandcounter movesforpoweramonghissubjects.TheGreekChurchwasspeciallyanxioustoenlistthesupportof Algirdas.SomeLithuanianswhohadbecomemembersoftheGreekChurchalsostoodagainsttheirking becauseofhisreligion.ButheissaidtohavereadGreekscriptures,andbothofhiswiveswere OrthodoxRuthenianprincesses;yetheremainedaconvincedheathen.Hemadethisdeclaration formallytotheChristians:TheKingofLithuaniaspake:ThisIunderstandclearlythatthey(the Crucifers,i.e.crusaders)covetmywealth,andnotmyfaith,astheysimulate,andtherefore,Ishall

persevereinthepaganism.3*Butnevertheless,theroyallineofGediminaswasgettingmixedupwith thenewreligionoftheirRussianandofsomeoftheirownBalticsubjects,oftheirPolishallies,andof theirGermanenemieswithbothGreekOrthodoxyandRomanCatholicism.Algirdashadspent25 yearsofhislife,inyouthandlater,amongSlavChristians,beforecomingtoVilnius;andhehadled expeditionsintoGermanyasfarWestasMagdeburgandFrankfurt.HehadmarchedagainstMoscow threetimes,andin1372heandhisbrother,Kstutis,enteredMoscowasconquerors.Boththebrothers weretoleranttowardsotherreligions;buttheChristianatmospherewassopersistentandstrongthat theypermittedbaptismoftheirchildrenandrelations,eitherintoGreekOrthodoxorintoRoman CatholicChristianity.TheyalsofreelyintermarriedwithSlavs(RussiansandPoles),andseveralwell knownfamiliesofRussianandPolishnobilityoriginatedfromscionsofthefamilyofGediminas. AlgirdasssonswhowereborninRussiabecameOrthodoxChristians,andthosewhowerebornin VilniuswerebroughtupintheBalticpaganfaith. Algirdasdiedin1377,naminghisson,Jogaila,ashissuccessor.Hisbrother,Kstutis,loyallyfollowedthis decision,andJogailawasmadesupremerulerofwhatmayjustlybecalledtheLithuanianempire. Kstutissson,Vytautas,andhiscousin,Jogailathenewking,weregreatfriends,andcarriedonjointly theadministrationoftheState.JogailadislikedhisOrthodoxChristianrelations.Hewantedtocometo someunderstandingwiththeGermans.ThepoliciesofJogailaandVytautas,whowerebothyoungmen below30,withregardtotheGermans,seemtobecomplicatedandnotclear,asalsoaretheirfights withtheRussiansandtreatieswiththeTatars.Theyseemtohavecountedupontheneutralityofthe GermansintheirfightwithMoscow,wheretheyultimatelyfailedinspiteofthebootytheycollected.It wouldappearthatasecretpactwasmadewiththeGermansbythecousins,whichwaskepthidden fromVytautassfather,Kstutis.Throughfamilyintriguesforpower,inwhichreligionhadalsoapart (e.g.thestrongOrthodoxChristianityofJogailasmother,Juliana,whichwashatedbyKstutis) ultimatelycameKstutissdeath,eitherbysuicide,orbymurderattheinstanceofhisnephew,Jogaila, oritwasmoreprobablyanaturaldeaththrougholdageandbrokenheart,inanatmosphereoffamily intriguesandstrifeamonghisownpeopleheightenedbyGermaninterference.ThishappenedinAugust 1382. KstutissbodywascrematedwithallceremonialandritualoftheoldBalticreligion,withhishorses, dogsandfalconsandhisweaponsandpersonaleffects.Itwasthelastgreatpaganfuneralceremonial amongtheLithuaniansinVilnius. Kstutissmarriage,aboutA.D.1350,withBirutbeganwitharomance,andthecircumstancesthrow somesidelightuponpreChristianLithuanianreligionandsocietyduringthefourteenthcentury.Birut wasthedaughterofafishermanatthevillageofPalangabytheBalticSea(accordingtoanotherversion, shewasthedaughterofaLithuaniannoblemannamedVidmantas).Theoldestaccountofthemarriage ofKstutisandBirutispreservedinanOldRussianworkofthemiddleofthesixteenthcenturyknown 3 *C.R.Jurgela,op.cit.,p.96,footnote:RexLitaonieaiebat:Inhocluculenterconprehendo,quodnon meamfidem,utsimulant,sedpecuniamappetunt,etideoinpaganismoperseverabo.

astheAnnalsoftheLithuanianandSamogitianGrandDuchy.TheLithuanianpoet,SilvestrasValinas (17871831),composedapoemof60verses,theThoughtsoftheOldSamogitianontheHillofBiruton thisstory,andthispoembecameaverypopularoneasaballadorsongofloveandromance.Itissaid thattheyoungGrandDukeofLithuania,Kstutis,whilevisitingPalangametasimplevillagegirlwhowas bringingtheirdinnertoherbrotherswhowerefishermen.Struckbyherbeauty,Kstutisproposedto marryher.Birutatfirstrefused,becauseshewasaVaidilut,andavotaryofPerknas,theGodof Thunder.TheVaidilutswereliketheVestalVirginsofAncientRome,whousedtolookafterthesacred everburningfire,andtheyhadtotakeavowofchastityallthroughtheirlife.ButKstutiscarriedher awaybyforce,andledherwithgreatpomptohiscapitalcityofTrakai,wherehecelebratedthe marriagewithallfestivity.BirutborethreesonstoKstutis,theeldestofwhomwasVytautas,Grand DukeofLithuaniaandoneofthegreatestofBaltheroesandrulers.InaLatinwork,theScriptores RerumPrussicarm(WritingsonPrussianAffairs),II,620,thedeathoftheagedKstutishasbeen describedashavingbeenduetomurderbystrangulationbyhistwonephews,JogailaandSkirgaila,but thisiscontradictedbyothersources.Accordingtothiswork,anuncleandanephewofBirutwere killedbyJogailaatthetimeofKstutissdeath,andBirutherselfwasdrownedinalakeatthesame time.Thiswasin1382,whenBirutwasabout52yearsofage.Shewascrematedamongthesand dunesofPalanga.Birut,becauseofherbeauty,theromancebehindhermarriage,andherhavingbeen themotherofVytautas,becameapersonofgreatpopularityamongtheLithuanians(girlsinLithuania areevennowfrequentlynamedafterher),andtheplacewhereshewascrematedafterherdeathand wheresheandKstutisfirstmetisknownastheHillofBirut.AmodernisticstatueofBirutinbronze hasbeensetupsomeyearsagoattheplacewherehercremationtookplace,andthestoryofBirut andKstutismeetingeachotherhasbeentreatedinarttheLithuaniansculptor,V.Gyras,hasdonea finegroupinstoneshowingKstutisonhorsebackmeetingBirutV.Gyrashasalsoexecuteda powerfulstatueofVytautasinbronze.(NotesonthestoryofBirutwerekindlysuppliedbymyfriends fromVilnius,Dr.AntanasPokaandProfessorRiardasMironas.) ThePolesatthattimeweremoreorlessunited,andtheir23principalitiesbecameasingleStateunder Casimir,asoninlawoftheLithuaniankingGediminas.Casimirdiedchildlessandhewassucceededby hisnephew,Ludwig,whowaskingofHungary.Ludwigdiedin1382leavingtwodaughters,theyounger ofwhom,HedwigorJadwiga,wasmadequeenofPoland,onconditionthatshewastobemarriedtoa bridegroomtobeselectedbythePolishnobility.ThebridegroomselectedwasJogaila,orJogello,asthe Polescalledhim,andthePoleshadanideaofunitingPolandandLithuaniaintooneState,leading ultimatelytothedominanceofPolandoverLithuania.JogailawastobekingbothofPolandandof Lithuania.ThemarriagewasopposedbyQueenHedwigherself,whowasagirlof14,andshewould havepreferredtomarrytheGermanprincetowhomshewasaffiancedbyherfather.Butfinallyher consentwasobtained,andthemarriagetookplacein1386,afterJogailawasbaptizedintoCatholicism withhisretinue,andhereceivedthenameofLadislas;andaftermarriagehewascrownedkingof Poland. Vytautas,whoaccompaniedhiscousinJogailatoCracowinPolandfortheseevents,hadalreadybeen quietlybaptizedbytheGermanson21stOctober,1383,andhadassumedtheChristiannameofWigand afterhisgodfather.HefounditexpedienttochangehisreligionastheGermansatthattimewere

helpinghimtofightJogailatogetbackhisinheritance.Jogailafinallyrelentedandagreedtorestoreto Vytautashispatrimony,andthisbroughtaboutareunionofthetwocousinsagainsttheGermans.Later VytautasbecameanOrthodoxChristianwiththenameofAlexander,butfinallyherevertedto Catholicism. ThemarriageofJogailawithHedwigandtheunioninhispersonofthekingshipsofLithuaniaandPoland werefraughtwithfarreachingresultsforbothPolandandLithuania.Throughtheexampleofthetwo cousins,theLithuanians,atleastoutwardly,werebroughtwithinChristianityin1387.Polishnoblesand adventurersnowbegantothronginLithuania.RomanCatholicChristianideascametoremovetheold Lithuanianreligionfromthelifeoftheupperclasses,althoughthemassesforcenturieswerenotmuch affectedbythenewreligion.TherightsandprivilegesoftheChristianLithuaniannobleswere establishedinaseriesofcodifiedlawsinLithuaniain1387. Vytautas(knowntotheGermansasWitowt,VitautandVitoldusinaLatinizedform)wasbornabout 1350asthesonofKstutisandhisqueenBirut.Hehadopportunitiesoflearningquitealotinthe cosmopolitancourtatTrakaiandVilnius.HehadsomeeducationfromtheCatholicmonksandcaptive crusaders,andhadseenandmetpeopleofmanynationalities.Henowwantedtobetherulerofthe wholeofLithuania.In1388,heassumedthetitleofMagnusDux(orGrandDuke)ofLithuania,and Jogailadidnotoppose.PolishgarrisonsinVilniusestablishedbyJogailawerebeinglookeduponwith disfavourbythepeople.Aftermanydeviousadventuresandnegotiations,withcontinuedinterference fromtheGermans,andafterJogailafoundthathispositioninPolandwasweakeningandthatthe Teutonicorderwasgettingstrongerandstronger,JogailadecidedtorelinquishtheLithuanianthroneto Vytautas,whoseability,visionandresourcefulnesshehadtoadmit.HegavetheGrandDuchyof LithuaniawithitscapitalatVilniustoVytautas,whoaccepteditoutofdeferencetothesuperiorposition ofJogaila.VytautascalledhimselfGrandDukeofLithuania,andnotKing,andherecognizedJogailaas justKingofPoland,whohadnothingtodowithLithuaniaavirtualassumptionofLithuanian independencefromPoland.ThePolishconnexionandPolishdemandswereharassing,butVytautasand theLithuaniansignoredthem. Vytautasconsolidatedhispowerathome,andthenasaChristiankingheturnedhisattentiontowards conqueringthenonChristian(Muslimandpagan)Tatars;andwiththesupportofPopeBonifaceIX, aftervaryingadventures,hewassuccessfulinobtainingthesubmissionoftheKhanofCrimea,which remainedunderLithuaniauntil1475.CrimeanTatars(Turks)assoldiersintheemployofVytautaswere settledasmercenarycavalrymeninPodolia,inUkrainaandinLithuania,wheretheyhaveremainedloyal tothecountryoftheiradoption. ThecrowningachievementofVytautaswasthecrushingdefeatwhichhewasabletoinflict,withthe assistanceofthePolishtroopsofhiscousin,kingJogailaofPoland,atthefieldofTannenberg(inEast Prussia)on15thJuly,1410.ThiswasoneofthemostdecisivebattlesofEuropeanhistory,andthefinal vindicationoftheBalticLithuaniansaidedbytheirSlavPolishalliesandsomeTatarlevies,againstthe agelongaggressionandoppressionoftheTeutons.Thisgreatvictory,followedupbyafurther victoriouscampaign,finallyputanendtotheGermanDrangnachOstenintotheBalticlandswhichhad startedintheeleventhcenturyandwhichhadledtothedestructionofthePrussianBaltsandhad

inflictedincalculablesufferingsontheLithuanians,theLatviansandotherBalts.Itwasthecloseofthe disastrousTeutonv.BaltchapterofEuropeanhistoryandofinternalIndoEuropeanrelations. Vytautaspersonifiedthevengeanceofhispeopleforthetwocenturiesofhorriblecrimesperpetrated bytheTeutons. ThesubsequentcareerofVytautaswasengagedinconsolidatinghiscountry,ineffectingacomplete unionoftheState,incombatingintriguesoftheGermansandthePoles,andinseekingtoeffectaunion ofchurches,andinhiseffortstofreehiscountryfromthestrangleholdofPoland.Inthemidstofan eventfullife,Vytautas,stillnegotiatingwithhiscousinandthePolesregardingthesatisfactorysolution oftheLithuanianPolishtangle,diedatTrakaion27thOctober,1430,withJogailabyhisbedside. ThebodyofVytautaslayinstateforeightdaysbeforeinterment.TraditionaloldLithuanianraudosor publicdirgesbyweepingLithuaniansweresungthreetimesadayduringthislyinginstate.Hewas interredinthecathedralofVilnius.Athisdeathbed,theBishopMatthew,ofGermanorigin,speaking Lithuanianfluently,askedVytautaswhetherhebelievedinlifeafterdeath.Vytautasansweredthathe hadentertainedsomedoubtsinthepast,butthatpresentlyhebelievedfirmly,evidentlyaccordingto theCatholicfaith.WasitacaseoftheBaltickingsfinalspiritualsurrenderechoingEmperorJulians vicisti,Galile? AndsopassedawayoneofthegreatestoftheBalts,andcertainlyoneofthemostimportantfiguresin Europeanhistory.Hewasalsoacclaimedasthegreatestpersonalityofhisperiod,andasaveritable AlexandertheGreatofLithuaniabysomeofthegreatChristianreligiousleaderslikeFrancisde ComitibusandAeneasSilviusdePiccolomini(laterPopePiusII).Likehisillustriousgrandfather Gediminas,Vytautasleftawonderfulandaconvincingtestimonytothegreatqualities,inpeaceandwar andinreligionandtolerance,oftheBalticcharacter. Fortherest,theBaltshavenotforgottentheirgreatheroeswhosoughttoretaintheirfreedomand protecttheirreligionandtheirculture.ThenamesofTalivaldisandVirsaitis(Imanta)arestillheldin greatrespectamongtheLatvians,andamongtheLithuaniansthenamesofMindaugas,Vykinas, Erdivilas,Gediminas,Algirdas,Kstutis(andhiswifeBirut)andVytautasarequitecommonlygivento childrenevenatthepresentday.Theirmemoriesaresoughttobekeptgreenamongagratefulpeople inthisway.

RECORDSOFTHEANCIENTBALTCULTUREWORLD
TheBalticworld,whenwethinkofthismatter,haspreservedamoreorlesspristineIndoEuropean atmosphere.Butthishasbeenchangedagreatdealintransmission,andithasnotbeenwhollyfree fromoutsideinfluenceseither. TheancientpreChristianorpureIndoEuropeantraditioninBalticlanguageandliteraturehascome downinanunbrokenstreamnodoubt,butwhenitwasfirstrecordedforposterity,itwasinverylate times.ForeignpeoplesliketheGreeksandRomans,whocamefortrade(inthespecialproductsofthe Balticlandslikeamber)andlatertheGermanswhocametodespoilanddestroytheBalts,aswellas travellersfromtheancientormedievalGermanicworldlikeEnglandandScandinavia,haveleftussome preciousbitsofinformationaboutthepreChristianheathendomandpaganwaysoflifeandbelief amongtheBalts.InthecaseoftheGermanwriterswhoweremostlyinspiredbyaveryprimitiveand bigotedChristianmentalityincapableofunderstandingtheatmosphereandideologyofanonChristian culture,theirdescriptionshavenotanyrealscientificvalueexceptinanindirectmanner.TheBalts,like otherIndoEuropeanpeoplesofantiquity,didnothaveanysystemofwritingoftheirown,whilewriting (borrowedfromforeignpeoples)appearstohavebeeninuseamongtheGreeksasearlyasthe fourteenthcenturyB.C.(MyceneanGreeks),andamongtheAryansinMesopotamiaaswellastheIndo HittitesinAsiaMinor(theMitannians,andtheNesiansorHittites).Afullalphabet(orsomethingnear aboutit)towriteSanskritwouldappeartohavecomeintobeinginIndiaasearlyasthetenthcentury B.C.,when(asitseemsexceedinglylikely)aprimitiveformoftheBrahmiscriptwasevolvedinNorthern IndiaonthebasisofthelatestphaseoftheMohenjoDaroscript;andalittlelaterinGreecethe PhoenicianalphabetwastransformedbytheGreeksintoafullalphabetfortheGreeklanguage.Butas inancientIndiabeforethecompilationoftheVedas,andasinotherIndoEuropeanareas,thepriests andthesagesoftheBaltscomposedtheirsongsandpoemsandritualisticnotesandtheirhistorical traditions,andthesewerepassedonorallyfromgenerationtogeneration.Therewereofcourse inevitablechangesinthesubjectmatterandinlanguage,butonthewholetheessentialcharacterof thisoralliteraturewasmaintainedalmostintact. ChristianitycametotheBalticworldinthewakeofthePolesandGermansinLithuaniaandthroughthe missionaryandmilitaryaggressionoftheGermansfirstinPrussia(whichwasoriginallyalandwholly inhabitedbyBalticspeakers),andtheninLatviatothenorthofLithuania.ItwasRomanCatholicismin thecaseoftheLithuanians,andlateron,aftertheimpressoftheReformationinNorthGermany,itwas GermanProtestantismamongtheLatvians.TheancientPrussiansasaBalticpeoplewerecompletely destroyed,orabsorbedamongtheGermans,intheseventeenthcentury.ButbecauseChristianity representedthereligionofthehatedforeignerswhocametodespoilandtyrannizeoverthem,and becausethenativetraditionintheoldreligionandtheoldwayoflifewasgoingverystrongamongthe Balts,ChristianitycouldnotmakemuchimpressionuponthelifeoftheBalticpeople.TheRoman Catholicpriests,whetherfromPolandorfromItalyorfromamongthenativeLithuanians,mightcarry ontheirreligiousritualsandtheirpreachings,andtheGermanpastorsundertheumbrageofthe GermanlordswhohadestablishedthemselvesinLatviamighttakealukewarminterestinthecomplete

ChristianizationoftheLatvians;butthishardlyaffectedthelifeofthemasses,eventhoughagood percentageoftheupperclassesamongtheBaltsformallyacceptedChristianityineitherform,andeven thoughsomeofthemtriedtounderstanditandtopropagateitamongtheirownpeople.Butthe generalrunofpeopleinthevillagescontinuedmoreorlesstheiroldlifeandtheiroldfaith.Theywent onfollowing,althoughinaverymodifiedform,theiroldfeastsandfestivalsinhonourofthegods,and thecourseoflifeofanancientagriculturalcommunitywentonalongitsownlines;andherethesingers andtherecitersoftheoldBaltpoemswentstrong.TheresultwasthattheseancientsongsoftheBalts astheywerecurrentamongthetwosectionsofthelivingBalticpeopleshavecontinuedalmostdownto ourday,althoughuntilrecentlyneglectedbytheintellectualclasseswhosemindbecameoriented towardsChristianityintheWest,andcondemnedandpersecutedbythemoreardentChristianpriests. InspiteofbeingliabletoinnerdisintegrationaswellastointegrationwithChristianideas,allthisBaltic traditionalpoetry,religiousandotherwise,continuedneverthelesstoflourish,boththrough conservationandthroughadditionandtransformation. Thiskindofliteratureinverse,oforalprovenance,isknownbothinLithuanianandLatvianasdaina (Lithuaniandain,Latviandaina).ThisoldBaltwordhasveryinterestingrelationshipwithsimilarwords intheIndoIranianworld.ItcomesfromanIndoEuropeanroot,meaningtothink,toremember,to ponderover,andthisrootisfoundinSanskritasdhanddhy.InVedicSanskritwehavetheword dhn,whichoccursinthegvedainthesenseofspeech,asreflectingoutwardlytheinnerthought ofman;andinAvestanthecognateequivalentisdan,anddanisaverycommonwordinthe Gths,meaningeitherinnerselfofman(=theselfwhichperceives?)aswellasteaching,revelation, faith,religion.TheconnexionetymologicalaswellassemanticbetweentheAryanandtheBalticforms ofthewordisdiscussedingreaterdetaillateron(inSectionX:TheBalticdainaandtheIndoAryan dhnintheVedas). Assaidbefore,theseoldsongswereneglecteduntilveryrecently.Asamatteroffact,theBaltic peoples,astheyfoundthemselvesdeprivedoftheirindependence,werebeingcrushedoutwithinthe millstonesoftheirforeignrulersandaggressorslikethePolesandtheGermans,andlatterlytheTsarist Russians.InbothLatviaandLithuaniaaswellasinthecontiguousEsthonia(whichisinhabitedbythe nonIndoEuropeanEsthonianpeopleofFinnoUgrianorigin,whoarerelatedtotheFinns),themasses werereducedtothepositionofserfsattachedtothesoil,andwerenobetterthanslaves.Educationand cultureandbetterconditionsoflifewereonlyfortheGermanandPolishlandlords,forChristianpriests andclergymen,andlatterlyfortheRussianoverlords.Thesenseofnationalismwasalmostcrushed outonlytherewasaninstinctivefeelorlovefortheirownvillagewaysamongthemassesofthe illiteratevillagerswhostilllovedtheirtraditionalsongsintheirmothertongueandwhowouldtrytoget somejoyandrespitefromtheirsufferingsinlifethroughsonganddanceinthetraditionalwaythe onlywaytheyknew.Fromtheeighteenthcentury,throughcontactwiththeadvancedscholarlymindof theGermans,thePolesandtheRussians,theBalticpeopleoftheupperstrataofsocietybegantofeel attractedtowardsthingsofcultureandspirit.GraduallyaverysmallmiddleclassamongtheBaltic LatviansandLithuanianstookitsrisewiththesmallemployeesandmanagersofestatesandwiththe menofthechurch,schoolmastersandsoforth.Amongthemtheloveoftheirnativeculturebecame

quiteanelevatingandaredeemingfeature,andtheyfeltattractedtothismassoforalliterature,the inherentbeautyandhumanqualityofwhichwouldappearnevertohavelosttheirforcewiththem. Fromthebeginningofthenineteenthcentury,someBalticintellectuals,mainlyundertheinspirationof theeighteenthcenturyhumanismofGermany,startedmakinghaphazardcollectionsoftheseoldsongs andpoemsinLithuanian.LiudvikasRhesa(Rza)madeacollectionof82Lithuaniansongsandpublished themwithaGermantranslationintheyear1825.Thiswasthebeginningofagreatliteraryrevivalistic movement.BeforeRsa(17761840)therewasnothingdoneinthislinewithadeliberatescholarly intentionalthoughoneortwosongsseemtohavebeenwrittendowninahaphazardmannerquite accidentally,onemightsaybyearlierwriters.Theselittlecollectionsassmallrepositoriesbeganto conservethenationalliteratureoftheBalts,theoldestspecimensofwhichsurvivedtheravagesoftime insomelikelihood,during15to20centuries,ifnotmore.Smallcollectionswerethusmadebyother LithuanianenthusiastsaftertheinitialworkofRza.TherewasamongtheBalticpeoplesamovement forfreedomfromtheeconomicandpoliticalcontrolofboththePolishandGermanlandlordsaswell astheRussianrulersoftheimperialTsaristrgime.ItwasonlyaftertheFirstWorldWarthattheBaltic Statesafterabouttwodecadesbecameabsolutelyfree.TheRussiansonthewholegaveabetterdealto theBalticpeoples,ascomparedwiththeGermansandthePoles.TheAbolitionofSerfdominitiatedby theTsarofRussiain1861wasahumanisticmeasurewhichbroughtinaverygreatsocialrevolutionand whichhelpedtorehabilitatetheLatviansandLithuaniansaswellastheEsthonians,inthefaceofthe ruthlessexploitationfromwhichtheyweresuffering.Thisemancipationoflargemassesofpeople,who weremainlyagriculturistsandonlytoasmallextentacityproletariat,amongthetwoBalticnations, broughtinanewatmosphereofhopeandendeavourinimprovingtheirlotandinrediscoveringtheir historyandcultureinfindingtheirverysoul,sotosay. WhiletheLithuanianshadstartedcollectingandpreservingthewealthoftheirnationalliteraturefrom 1825,ananalogousmovementonamuchbiggerscalebeganamongtheLatvians.Thegreatnameinthis veryimportantworknotonlynational,butalsointernationalofcollecting,classifyingandprinting, withvariants,thecurrentfolkliteratureoftheLatvians,wasthatofKrijnisBarons(18351923). Baronswasaschoolmaster,andhealsowasconnectedwithanaristocraticRussianfamilyasoneofits employees.HespentconsiderableamountofhistimeinMoscow.Withthehelpofauniversityfriendof his,KrijnisValdemrs,hestartedcollectingLatvianfolkpoetry.Withsinglemindeddevotionhe carriedonhisworkfrom1869tohisdeathin1923.OneofhisgreatassociatesinthisworkwasHenri Wissendorff,aLatvianscholarandmanofmeanseducatedinSt.PetersburgandParis.Hisworkwas goingonandhewasabletoenlistthesympathyoftheRussianRoyalAcademyofSciencesinSt. Petersburg(Leningrad).Thenetresultofhisworkcompletedwiththehelpofhisassociateswasahuge collectionknownasLatvjuDainasorLatvianSongs(LatvjuDainas:compiledbyKrijnisBaronsand HenriWissendorff:6vols.;Vol.I,Jelgava,1894;Vols.IIVI,St.Petersburg,19061915).Thesecond editionwascompletedin1923,andBaronssawthevolumesadaybeforehisdeathon7thMarch,1923. Thiscollectionhaspresentedbeforetheworldauniquemassoffolkpoetryconsistingof35,789basic songswith182,000variantsofthese.Thiswasaveryremarkableadvancewhenweconsiderthatthe firstselectionfromthesefolkballadsappearedinagrammaroftheLatvianlanguageasexamplesof Latvianusageintheyear1761.AfterthataGermanwriter,JohannHerder,publishedsome11ofthe

Latviansongsinhisbook,AlteVolkslieder,intheyear1778.Thentherewerethethreecollectionsof folksongsbytwoGermanwriters,FriedrichDanielWahrandG.V.Bergmann,whichappearedin1807 and1808,andgave901songs.Twoothercollectionscameoutin1868and1873undertheeditorshipof Buettner,whichgavenearabout3,000songs.SubsequentlythehugecollectionandeditionofBarons wascontinuedbyothercollectors,prominentamongwhomwasP.mits,andthisworkofcollectinghas goneondowntoourtimes.Itisalmoststaggeringtothinkthatthetotalnumberofsongshasnowcome uptoover77,500,withahugeparaphernaliaofvariants.This,ofcourse,ifweconsiderthenumberof songs,goesfaraheadofwhatwasandisevennowavailableinLithuanian. Inotherbranchesoffolkliterature,too,theLatvianBaltsspeciallyshowanastoundinglyextensive corpuswhichhassofarbeencollected.AccordingtoProfessorJzepsRudzitis(asindicatedinaprivate communication),thevariousitemsoffolkliteraturegatheredinthearchivesoftheInstitutefor LanguageandLiteratureofLatviainRigacomeuptosome2,800,000(twomillionandeighthundred thousand).Thesehavebeenclassifiedasfollows:(1)FairyTales,34,000;(2)Legends,55,000;(3) Anecdotes,30,000;(4)Folktales,16,000;(5)Riddles,529,000;(6)Proverbs,290,000;besides(7)Folk songs,1,300,000(onemillionthreehundredthousand),includingsome200,000collectedbyKrijnis Baronsandhiscollaborators.Thisisindeedalmostanunbelievablerecordforapopulationoflessthan 24million,buttherecordisoneformanygenerationsofsongmakingandfolkliteraturewhichhave goneonunabated. Butonematterhastobenoted.TheseLatvianfolksongsaremostlyquiteshortinextent,consisting generallyofnotmorethanasinglestanzaoffourlines,comparableintheirextentandintheirliterary feeltotheJapaneseHaikupoems.Buttherearealsolongerpoemsfrequentlyenough,of6,8,12or20 lines,oreven,inrarecases,of100lines.TheLithuanianpoemsorsongsgenerallyaremuchlonger theyconsistofstanzasoffourlinesandmore,whichrunupto5or8or10stanzasgenerally.Soherein thereisaremarkabledifferencebetweenthefolkpoetryoftheLithuanianBaltsandtheLatvianBalts. TherearepoemswhichareofthenatureofballadsornarrativepoemsinLithuanian.ButinLatvian,itis mostlytheseshorterpoems,which,assaidbefore,comeuptoover77.500,andtheyjustevokea particularsceneornarration,memoryorimpression,sentimentorwish.Thereareofcourseplentiful casesofthesamesituationorsentimentbeingtreatedwithslightvariationsinseveralpoems,andifwe takenoteofthetypesorgenresofthesesongsortheirsubjectmatter,thishugenumbercouldbe reducedconsiderably.ButtheliteraryqualityoftheseLatvian(andLithuanian)poemsisofaveryhigh order.FrequentlytheyremindoneofversesfromthegandAtharvavedas,aswellasofSanskrit Spruchepoetry.ThequietromanceandloveofNatureflowsthroughthem,likebrooksinaforestglade. Nothinggivesabetterideaoftheessentialsimplicityandgoodnessaswellasthepoeticnatureofthe Baltmindthantheseexquisiteexpressionsoftheirfolkspirit. TheLithuanianpeoplehave,evidentlythroughtheinevitableemulationoftheirbrothers,theLatvians, continuedtheworkofgatheringwhateverwasavailableoftheirancientfolkliteraturefromafterthe initiallaboursofRzaandothers.TheInstituteforLanguageandLiteratureinthepresentday LithuanianAcademyofSciencesatVilniussomeyearsagoprojectedafivevolumecompilationofafairly largeselectionofLithuaniansongs,poemsandballads.TheInstituteforLithuanianLanguageand LiteraturehaspublishedanintroductoryvolumeonthefolkliteratureandfolkmusicofLithuania,with

selectionsoftextsandnoticesofallthecompilerswhobroughtoutthefirstcollectionstheLietuvi TautosakosRinktin(Vilnius,1954).OftheprojectedfivevolumesofselectionsofLithuanianfolkpoems (dainas),threehavealreadybeenpublished(1962,1964and1965).Theextent,assaidbefore,ofthe LithuaniancollectionisnotsovastasinthecaseoftheLatvian.ButstilltheLithuaniancorpusof traditionalsongsandpoemsisbyitselfquiteextensive. ThereisquiteamassofhistoricalandcriticalapparatusinLithuanianonthefolkliteratureofthe country,besidescorporaoftextscollectedfromthepeople,asmuchasinLatvian,andvolumesof selectionswhicharebeingbroughtbytheLithuanianInstituteofLanguageandLiteraturementioned above.Thefollowingworksarespeciallytobenoted:(i)thethreevolumesofLietuvikosDainos collectedbyAntanasJuka:ofthesethefirstcameoutfromKazaninRussiaVols.IandIIin1880,and Vol.IIIin1882,withthetitleLietuvikosDainosUraytosparAntanaJukevie(=Juka),reprintedfrom Kaunas,Lithuania,in1954,alsointhreevolumes.Thereprintgivesthetextasprintedinthefirstedition intheoldspelling,withthesametextsinpresentdayorthographyonthepageopposite,with appendicesandmusicalnotationsattheend.Inthiscollectionwehave1,569dainasinall;(ii)thetwo volumesofLithuanianWeddingSongsSvotbinsDainos,alsocollectedbyAntanasJuka(first publishedfromSt.Petersburgin1883,secondeditionfromKaunasinLithuaniain1955,theoriginal collectionof1,100dainasplusnewdainasaddedbyJonasJuka,withappendicesandmusical notations);and(iii)Sutartins,threevolumesofcollectionofdainasandmusicalrecordsofinstrumental music1,820songsandmelodies,mostlyfromNorthernLithuania,madebyZenonasSlavinas,Vilnius, 19581959:theserelatetodailylife,andagriculturemostly.(AntanasJukalivedfrom1819to1880,and JonasJukafrom1815to1888.) Thesearenotall.Itissaidthatsome22,000Lithuaniandainasarealreadyinprint,inbooksaswellasin journals;andtherearesome300,000morequiteahugenumbercollectedandpreservedinrecords,in theAcademyofSciencesofLithuania,SectionforLanguageandLiterature,Vilnius,waitingtobe selected,editedandpublished.AhistoryofLithuanianliteraturefromtheearliesttimesbysomeseven scholarsisbeingpublishedinLithuanianfromtheInstituteofLanguageandLiterature,givingafull surveyoftheentiremassofliteratureinthelanguage.Threeoutoftheprojectedfivevolumesare alreadyout(thethirdvolumeisintwoparts),andLithuanianliteratureduringtheSovietperiodwill comeinthefifthvolume.

THEBALTICDAINAANDTHEINDOARYANDHNINTHEVEDAS:THE DAINOSANDTHEIRPRIMITIVEINDOEUROPEANATMOSPHERE
LithuanianandLatvianliteraturesaretheonlysurvivalsoftheancientBalticformsofIndoEuropean. Althoughthelanguagesappeartohavebeenwrittendownaslateasthesixteenthcentury,theliterary compositionsinthem,ofcourse,gobackmuchearlier.TheBalticIndoEuropeanspeechappearstohave presentedonesinglelanguagerightdowntotheclosingcenturiesofthefirstmillenniumA.D.Itmay, however,beasearlyas1200oreven1500B.C.thatBalticseparatedfromtheotherconnectedbranches ofIndoEuropean,liketheAryanorIndoIranianandtheSlav.Duringtheclosingcenturiesofthefirst millenniumA.D.,theBaltsthemselvesbecamedividedintoanumberoftribes,speakingslightly divergentformsofthesamecommonlanguage;andyet,itseemslikely,theystilllookedupon themselvesasonepeople.RoundaboutA.D.1200wefindthesespecialtribesoftheBaltsalready noticedasbeingmarkedofffromeachotherbydialectalvariations.ThuswehavetotheNorthofthe DaugavaorDunaRivertheLatgalaorLettigallianpeoplewhoformedthecoreofthepresentdayLetts orLatvians.SouthofthemwerethreesmalltribeswhowereknownasKuriaiorCuronians,wholived onthecoastoftheBalticSeatotheSouthoftheGulfofRigaintheareawhichalsocamelaterontobe knownasKurlanyorCourland.TotheirEastweretheSemigalliansoriemgaliai.FurthertotheirEast weretheSliaiorSelonians.SouthofthesethreetribesweretheLithuaniansproperalongthevalleyof theriverNerisandboundedintheSouthbytheriverNemunasorNiemen.TheseLithuanianswerein theNorthoftheriverNerisintwobiggroups,theLowerLithuaniansandtheUpperLithuanians.Thento theSouthandEastoftheLithuanians,extendingfromtheVistulaRiverintheWest(borderingonthe landoftheCeltsandGermansinCentralEurope)totheuppercourseoftheriverNarewintheEast (touchingtheSlavareas),livedthevarioustribesofPrussiansliketheKulmas,thePamed,theLubava, thePagud,theSasna,theGalinda,theVarm,theNotanga,theSemba,theSkalva,theNadruva,the BartaandtheSuduva,knownalsoastheDainavaortheJotva.(SeeMarijaGimbutas,TheBalts,London, 1963,Mapatp.23;alsoMapamongPlatesattheendofthiswork.)ThethreemainsectionsoftheBalts roundwhichthelessertribesgatheredweretheLatvians,theLithuaniansandthePrussians.Thelast haveceasedtoexistasaBalticspeakingpeople,astheyhavebeeneitherdestroyedbytheGermansor mergedamongtheGermanspeakingpeopleofEastPrussia.Buttheirnamestillsurvivesintheword Prussia.Withinthisarea,roughlycomparabletothepresentStatesofLatviaandLithuaniaandalsoEast Prussia,isnowthefinalrepositoryofBalticIndoEuropeans.Butatonetime,asmentionedbefore,they hadspreadoveragreatpartofwhatisnowCentralandNorthernRussia.Thenamesofplacesand naturalfeatureslikeriversshowhowthesetractswereinhabitedbyBalticspeakers.Thenameofthe riverVolga,whichisnowsodistinctlyaRussianriver,isreallyfromtheBaltic,theoriginalBalticnameof theriverwasJilga.ButtheeasternBalticStateshaveforatleastthelast3,500yearsbeentheown homelandoftheBatts. TheBalticlanguage,withitsdifferentdialects,nowhardlycomprisesfivemillionsofpeople.Thisisquite asmallnumber,comparedwiththatspokenbymanyotherpeoplesofthesameIndoEuropeanspeech

family.YettheamountofBalticliteratureandthetenacitywithwhichtheBalticpeopleshave maintainedtheirlanguagearecertainlyastounding. Weareconcernedhereprimarilywiththedainaliteraturepreservingsomeofthetraditionalpre Christianlifeandculture.Thedainasinthefirstinstancearepopularfolkliterature,whichwashanded downfromgenerationtogenerationbywordofmouthandnotbywriting.Inthis,theyareatonewith theVedichymnswhenthesestartedtobecollectedfromthetenthcenturyB.C.byKrishaDvaipyana Vysa,orVdavysa,theCompileroftheVedas.TheVedahymnswerejustfolkpoetrywiththe backgroundofcontemporarylifebehindit,asmuchasthedainasare.ThereareVedahymnswhichdeal withthegodsandtheirdeedsanddealingswithmen,thesameaswehaveinquitealargenumberof dainas.TheVedichymns,atleastalargeproportionofthem,wereconsideredtobecompositionsby inspiredsageswhohadatouchofthedivinespiritandwhopossessedtheprimevalwisdomofthegods andtheancestors.ThereweresimilarbeliefsaboutpoetsagesofdivinewisdomamongallotherIndo Europeanpeoples.ThuswehavetheVatesandFlamenesamongtheLatins;theFile(Filid<IE,*wolyo vid,Sanskritvaryavidhewhoknowsthedesirablethingforman)amongtheCelticOldIrish;the ancientIndianpoet,Kavi,wasaSeer(<*skawi:Germanschauen),andhewasalsoai(Rishi),One whohadavisionofTruth;andtheancientGreekPoitswastheMakerorCreator,whoknewwith theinspirationfromtheMuseshowtouttertruethings.Thiswouldrefertoamoreadvancedage, whenspecializedfunctionsbroughtabouttheestablishmentofspecialclassesofpeople.Inaprimitive society,anyonewhofelttheimpulsewouldcomposeasong,andtherewasnooccasionforaspecial classofpoetstofunction.TheBattsappeartohavekeptupthisprimitivetraditionofhavingpoetswho didnotformagrouporcorporationbythemselves,whopossessedsomespecialtrainingorpractice. Andyet,theirwordforthetraditionalformofpoetry,daina,suggeststhatthistraditionalpoetry, connectedwiththeirdailylifeandavocationsaswellastheworldoftheirgods,hadsomethingwhich wasdeeperthantheordinarywayoflife,andthatsuchpoetrycameoutofdeepthinkingorpondering. TheBalticworddainahadunquestionablyitsAryan(IndoIranian)equivalent,etymologicallyand sementicallywhichisperfectlypermissible.ItisstrangehowmostoftheauthoritiesonIndoEuropean linguisticsandculturehaveignoredthisaffiliationoftheBalticworddaina(Lithuaniandain,Latvian daina)totheVedicdhnandtheAvestandan. AnIndoEuropeanroot*dhi,*dhyei,*dhei,meaningtothink,toponderover,togivethoughtto, appearstobethesourceoftheVedicdhnandAvestandan.AnIndoEuropeanform*dhainasthe sourcewordcanveryeasilyandquitecorrectlybepostulated.Therewerecertaineasilyunderstandable modificationsinsense,inbothAryanandBaltic.ScholarslikeA.WaldeandJ.Pokorny,R.Trautmannand E.FraenkelhaveignoredthisetymologyconnectingBalticdainawithVedicdhn,andotherderivations havebeensuggestedbythem.HelmutArntzisevidentlyinfavourofthisderivation(seep.48ofhis SprachlicheBeziehugenzwischenArischandBaltoSlawisch,Heidelberg,1933).Theequationdhn= dan=dain/dainatomymindhadbeenestablishedindetailinboththeaspectsofphonologyand semasiologyinalltheirbearingsasearlyas1912,inVol.32oftheJournaloftheAmericanOriental Society,pp.393413,bySamuelGrantOliphant.Referencetothispaper,whichmaybeconsideredtobe offundamentalimportance,hasbeenmadebyArntzandothers.ItisnotnecessarytorepeatOliphants thesisandhisarguments.ThemeaningoftheVedicdhnhasbeenfullyestablishedwithawealthof

quotations,interpretationsandreferences;andbothaccordingtotheancientandmedievalIndian traditionandmodernVedicscholarship,itcanonlymean,accordingtothecontext,speech,voice, words,praise,prayer,songsofpraise,song.InAvestan,thecognateequivalentdanhas undergoneafreshsemanticdevelopment,andfromthemeaningoftherootda(y),whichwasthe sourceofit,toperceive,tounderstand,tothinkout,itcametosignify(i)theInnerSelforthe HigherSelfofMan,andthen(ii)Teaching,Faith,Revelation,Religion.TheAvestanorOldIranian danbecameinMiddleIranian(Pahlavi)denreligion,andthiswaslaterborrowedintoArabicasdin, andgavetheIslamicwordforreligion,orfaith,orthetruefaithofIslam. WhatOliphantsaidintheperorationofhispaperbearsbeingquotedinthepresentcontextalso,asa fittingending: Weconsiderdhnagunatedformfromtherootdh,think,andasynonymofdhtianddh,with whichwordswehavefounditassociated.Asthesewordsmaypassinmeaningfrompurethoughttoits expressionbythevoiceinprayerandpsalm,sodhnregularlyintheVedaistheoutwardformin whichtheinwardthoughtisexpressedbythevoice.Inthecaseofhumanbeings,itisasongofjoyous praiseorholyinvocationtothegods.Inthecaseofgods,itistheirgraciouswords,commendingthe worshipperandexpressingtheirappreciationofthestrengthimpartedtothembythesongs,ortheir warcriesandbattleshoutsastheyengageincombatwiththeirfoes.Thestreams,too,singtheirjoyat theirreleaseandroarinpraiseofthegreatdeitythateffectedit. DhnistheexactphoneticequivalenttotheAvestandanandtheLithuaniandaina.Thedanof theAvestais(1)religion,especiallytheAburanreligion,also(2)atheologicalphilosophicalconceptof thetotalityofthepsychicandreligiouspropertiesofman.Itisthespiritualego,theimmortalpartof man,thementallogos.Cf.Bartholomae,W.B.,s.v. TheLithuaniandainisafolksong,butthesefolksongscontainthebestandhighestexpressionsof thenativeheartandmind.Theyarefrequentlythemediaofexpressingtheirreligioussentimentsand theirphilosophicalreflections.Theirwholephilosophyoflifeisenshrinedinthesesongswhich constitutetheirpoeticliterature.HereisexpressedtheirthoughtaboutthegreatanonymousDvas,the moongodandthesunmaiden,themorningandtheeveningstars,Perknas,thegodofthunder,etc., beliefswhichtransportusbacktotheprimaldaysofourrace.LiketheSanskritdhn,theLithuanian dainisavoicedlogos,butunliketheformeritfrequentlydescendsfromthedivineheightsand becomesoftheearth,earthy.Thusdhn,dananddainareallthought,butthoughtinitshigherand spiritualreaches.BothphoneticsandsemanticsproclaimthemownsistersintheOldIndoEuropean familycircle.

THEBEAUTYANDPOWEROFTHEBALTICDAINASASPOETRY:SOME APPRAISEMENTSBYSPECIALISTS
AbouttheliterarycharacterandthehighpoeticqualityoftheBalticDaines,itwouldbebesttogivethe testimony(byquotinginextensofromthem)ofcompetentstudentsandcriticsofthesepoems,both LithuanianandLatvian,whowerebornandbroughtupwithintheirmilieu.Thegeneralatmosphereof theIndoAryanVedichymnsasinboththegvedaandtheAtharvavedaisquitewellknown,thanksto nearly150yearsofintensivestudyofthesehymnsbysomeofthemostadvancedscholarsinthesubject ofSanskritandVedicaswellasEuropeanclassical(GreekandLatin)andmodernstudiesinEuropeand America.ButtheexquisitelyfreshandpoeticalcharacteroftheBalticDainaliteratureisnotsowell known,particularlybecausethisgreatandbeautifulliteratureitselfisnoteasilyaccessibletotheworld outsideofthespecialistsinBalticstudies.Icandonobetterthanquotesomerelevantobservations fromLithuanianandLatvianexponentsoftheirnationalliteratureoftheDainas. IfeelIshouldfirstgivethisverysympatheticappreciationofthesimplicityandbeautyoftheDainas fromanAmericancritic,RobertPayne(inhisForewordtoTheGreenLinden,SelectedLithuanianFolk songs,VoyagesPress,NewYork,1964): ThedainosofLithuaniaarelikethosesnowfields.Theyseemtohavebeensungfromtime immemorial,andtheyarestillbeingsung.Theyowetheirsurvivaltotheirpoeticpower,andalsotothe verynatureofthecountrywhichgavethembirth,acountryhemmedinbyforests,swampsandseas, outsidethemainhighwaysofEuropeancivilization.Theyrepresentaformofpoetryasancientas anythingonthisearth,fortheyareessentiallyspells,incantations,offeringstothegods.Thoughthey aresimpleandimmediatelycomprehensible,theydonotbelongtotheworldweknow.Thereisabout themsomethingsteadyanddirectliketheeyesofanimals.Thesepoemstothegodsshownofear,nor dotheypleadformercy. Thesepoemsareneveroblique;therearenoarrirepenses,noeffortstoembroideroutsidethe nakedlyricalthrust;thesongssingthemselves,andtheyaskonlythattheyshouldbepermittedtosing. Onecomestothemalmostunbelieving,surprisedthatsuchperfectsongsshouldbepermittedto survive.TheyhaveabeautyandpureprimitivesplendouraboveanythingIknowinWesternliterature, excepttheearlysongsoftheGreekislanders.Theyseemtohavebeenwrittenatthemorningofthe world,andthedewisstillonthem. Thepeoplewhowroteandsangthemareamongthemostenviablewhoeverlived.Theyhadadeep instinctivefeelingforthesimplestofallthingsforwoodsandrunningwater,andgirlsfacesandthe coloursofthesky.Theysangartlessly,buthowmuchartthereisintheirartlessness!Theysangwiththe fullvoice,consciousoftheirpowertosummonthegodsattheirbidding,consciousoftheirpride,their moralsplendour.Forthemtheworldiswashedcleanbytheheavenlyrains,andneitherguiltnorregret haveworkedonthem.

Weareaccustomedtobelievethatgreatpoetryspringsoutofgreatandpowerfulcivilizations;and wepointtoHellasandtheSpainoftheConquistadorsandElizabethanEnglandthesecountrieswere sopowerfulthattheyshooktheworld,andsomethingoftheirpowerenteredtheirpoetry.Butpoetry doesnotnecessarily,orevenveryoften,springfromimperialpower...Wedonotknowwhythefirst GreeksongsweresungonanobscureislandoftheAegean,buttheywere;nordoweknowwhythere wassuchaproliferationofsonginLithuania,soobscureacountrythatthehistoriesofEuropepassitby insilenceorwithabriefmentionoftheTeutonicknights.ButLithuania,too,hasitsimperialtradition,as theRussianslearnedtotheircost.Ofthatimperialtraditionthereisnosigninthedainos... TheLithuanianpoemssharethesamecrisp,sensuousquality,buttheyspeakofthesunwithan exquisitefriendlinessandenjoyment,withoutceremony.Thesunandthepoetspeaktooneanotherin termsofintimacy,enchantedwithoneanotherspresence.Therearesexualovertones;inonepoemthe sunismasculine,intheotherfeminine,butessentiallybothpoetsarespeakingofthesamesun, becausethereisnoother,anditisunthinkablethatthereshouldbeanyother.Theyseethesunwhichis createdaneweverymorning,theeverlastingdayeternallyrevivedforthepleasureanddelightofthose whobaskinitssplendour. Inourownagesuchsimplejoysarerare,andweareindangerofforgettingthattherewasatime whenjoyexistedontheearth,whenmencouldsay:Manykinsmenhaveblessedme,andmanyaremy treasures.Oursunisanatomicpilemenacinguswithdeadlyradiations.Theirswasafacewhichpeered downatthemeverymorningandwentawayforalittlewhileeachnight.Soitisthroughoutthedainos: theworldofnatureshineswithkindlyfaceandwithaquietdelightinhumanpreoccupations.Man,far frombeingalienated,farfrombeingmysteriouslycutofffromthesourcesofpower,isthefriendand loverofallcreation. Thisiswhy,inourdesperateage,thedainosacquireasupremeimportance,fortheyspeakofatime whenjoystillwalkedovertheearth. Dr.MarijaGimbutas,aLithuanianscholarnowresidentinAmerica,withherauthoritativeknowledgeof, andhergreatlovefor,thehistory,antiquitiesandcultureaswellasthespiritualqualitiesofherown people(which,inthesincerelylyricallanguageinwhichtheyarefrequentlyoffered,cannotbutattract herreaders)hassaidinherIntroductiontothesamebook: Thewoman,reapingoatswithasickle,sanginfullvoice.Thiswasasacrificetothegods,inthebest meaningofthephraseapersonal,andcollectivelysanctioned,need.Evenbythebestsingersinthe world,thedainacannotbeperformedonastagewithequalfeelingandpower,becauseitcannotbe separatedfromitsenvironment.Asthewomansang,theearthseemedtomoveandbreathehope, togetherwiththedainasthreetonemelodyandsimplerhythm. Inthedaina,melodyandwordswerecreatedatthesamemoment,asasong;takenseparately,the twoelementslosemuchoftheirvalue.Wesearchinvainforafixedprosodyintheverses;thewords wereadjustedtothemelody,tospecialrhythms:toreaping,toplucking,toswinging,toweaving,tothe flightofabird,toaweddingdance,toagame...

Thedainaismanifoldandmanylayered.Somelayersareold,somearerecent,andsomecontain ancientelementsfusedwithothersfromlaterhistoricperiods.Thedainawastransmittedorallyfrom generationtogenerationandwascontinuallyaltered.Thusnotonedainawithafirmlyestablishedtext exists.Eventhesameperson,ondifferentdays,maysingthesamedainainsomewhatdifferentways. Certaindainosinpublishedcollectionshaveseveralvariations.Theelementsmoststronglyfixedin Lithuaniansongsaretheirmythologicalimages,andothersrelatedtoanarchaic,patriarchalfamilylife andtoagriculturalwork. Dainosareclassifiedundertenheadings:mythology,nature,loveandcourtship,singinganddrinking, marriage,familylife,orphans,work,warandlaments.Thecontentsmakeupthepeasantslife,his observationofnature,hisparticipationintherotationoftheseasons,hisdependenceontheblessed lifebringingnaturalforcesandontheconstantlythreateningpowersofevilanddeath.Muchwassung ofloveand,courtship,marriage,andthedestinyofamarriedwoman.Thisinevitablecycleofhumanlife isportrayedintheclaimsasanintensedrama,whichbeginswithayoungmaidenthrivinginherfathers andmothershouse,thewhitelilywhoseyouthandinnocencearecomparedtothegreenrue(the wreathofrueisthesymbolofchastity),continueswithherdreamsandexpectationofmeetingalad, thewhiteclover,comingonabaysteed,culminatesintheweddingceremonyandthepainful departureofthebridefromherbelovedmother,father,sistersandbrothers;andendswithher unhappylifeinanalienhouse,sufferingfromamotherinlawandnotinfrequentlyfromanunkind husband.Atoneofresignationandfatalismreplacesthemoodofjoyfuldaysandthemotherstender love... Echoesofstealingorbuyingabridecanstillbefoundinthefolklore.Anotherancientfeature,going backtotheIndoEuropeancommonhomeland,ishorsemanshipandanunusualloveforhorses.On horsebacktheladcomestovisithismaiden,onhorsebackthefarmersandwarriorsandkingsofearly Lithuanianhistoryrodetotheworldofthedead.Thesteed(irgas)andnottheworkhorse(arklys) appearsinthesongs.Afastbaysteedisthedreamandprideofyouth.Intheclaimsevenasimple villageladridesagoldshodbay,withasilverbridleandgoldembroideredsaddleanindicationofthe importanceofthehorseandareminiscenceofthewellharnessedcompanionofwarriorsindayslong past. Thedainosarepredominantlylyrical;epicelementsarefew,beingfoundinonlyalimitednumberof ballads.ItseemsthattheLithuanianeposslowlydisappearedwiththeendoftheimperialperiodof Lithuania,perhapsinaboutthesixteenthcentury.Wecanonlysurmiseitsexistencefromthemany legendsaboutacropolises,sunkencastles,treasurehoardsandtheirroyalmasters,andfromafew songsthatmentionnamesofkingsandwarriors.Thelegendsarepetrifiedremnantsofaremotepast. TheLithuaniannobilitywaslargelySlavonizedbetweentheseventeenthandnineteenthcenturies.The dainawasabandonedbythecourts,butitlivedoninthevillages,faithfullypreservedbythepoorest peopleofthecountry,guardedbythemotherofthefamily,duringthedarkestperiodofLithuanian history;theoccupationbyTsaristRussiabetween1795and1918.Thehistoryofthepasttwo centuriesmouldedthefinalshapeofthedainos.Muchthatconcernedthelifeoftheupperclasseswas

nodoubtlost,especiallysincethedainoswerenotwrittendownbeforetheeighteenthcentury.Yetthe shelterofthethatchedroofdidpreserveauniquetreasure:thedainasprofoundantiquity,simplicity, andsubtlety,unspoiledbytheworldweknow. MarijaGimbutasalsohasstressedonthecloserelationshipoftheBalticspeecheswithVedicSanskrit, andthisrelationshipisalsofoundintheBalticandAryanmythologiesinalltheirarchaism.Inthis connection,sheobserves: TheancestorsofalltheIndoEuropeanspeakersinEuropecamefromtheEurasianprairiessometime earlierthan2000B.C.(asmanyarchaeologists,ethnologists,andlinguists,aswellasthepresentauthor tendtobelieve).ThustheirperceptionofnatureandtheirconceptofgodshaveOrientalcorrelates. HencethesimilarityofLithuanianmythologytotheancientIndic,Persian,Greek,Thracian,Old Germanic,ItalicandCeltic. Thequestionnaturallyarises,whytheLithuanianlanguage,mythology,anddainearerepletewith elementsbelongingtothemorningoftheworld,whichmanyothernationsoftheIndoEuropean familyhavelongsincelost?TheanswerseemstolieinthegeographicandhistoricdestinyofLithuania. TheBaltssettledintheforestedzoneofnortheasternEurope.IntheBronzeandIronAgestheir territoriescoveredalargeareafromtheBalticSeatopresentdayCentralRussiaasarchaeologicalfinds andBalticnamesforriversindicate... FormillenniatheancestorsoftheLithuanianswereshieldedfromstrongoutsideinfluences.Their homeswerenotonthecrossroadsofmigrationoftheScythians,CeltsandGermanictribes.Thinly settledinthegreatexpansesofaforestedlandwithmanyrivers,lakesandswampsfullofanimals,fish, andbirds,mushrooms,nuts,honeyandberries,theyfeltnoneedtoseekbetterlandorpastures,asdid theGothsandotherGermanictribes,ortheCeltsandtheseminomadicScythians. TheirtieswithMotherEarthwerestrengthenedevenmorewiththegradualprogressofagriculture duringthelasttwomillennia,asrivervalleyregionswereclearedandturnedintoarableland.Therich naturalenvironmentabsorbedtheLithuaniansoul,sustaininginitaprofoundvenerationfortheliving landwithitsdeciduousandconiferoustreesandwildflowers,andanintimaterelationwiththeanimal world.TheLithuaniansandtheirkintribesdidnotlosetheirabilitytoseenatureintensely,theirvision, forallthecreaturesoftheearth,wasasacuteasahawks.Hencethemultitudeofparallelismsof humanlifewiththatofnatureinthedainos.Hence,too,theonomatopoeicsoundswhichimitatethe trillofthenightingale,thecalloftheswallow,thehumofthebee,therustlingofforests,orryefields,or thewind. TheLithuanianswereamongthelastoftheIndoEuropeangroupsofEuropetowhichChristianitywas introduced.AlthoughLithuaniawasofficiallyChristianizedin1387,thevillagersretainedtheoldreligion formanymorecenturies,sinceclergymencouldnotunderstandthenativelanguageandsinceLatinwas meaninglesstotheirruralparishioners.MoresuccessinconvertingtheLithuanianstoChristianitywas achievedduringtheReformationandCounterReformationinthesixteenthcentury,whenthefirst catechismsappearedinLithuanian;yeteventhen,andalmostuntilthetwentiethcentury,ancient beliefsandcustomspersisted.Thepopularreligionslowlydevelopedintoadoublefaith,asLithuanian

folkloremaintaineditspaganfoundationsandremainedfaithfultoitsrootsdeepinprehistory.Hence themanymythologicalelementsinthedainos.LithuanianandLatvianfolklore,aloneinEurope,can boastalivingancientmythologywithanumberofnamesofpagangodsandothermythologicalimages, comparabletopreOlympianGreek,Roman,VedicIndian,PersianandOldScandinavian.Eventhe ancientSlavicgodsarelesswellpreserved;theirnameswerereplacedrelativelyearlybythoseof Christiansaints. WhatDr.MarijaGimbutashassaidabouttheprofoundvenerationforthelivingearthamongtheBalts hasitsparallelamongtheVedicAryans.Aftertheirwanderingsforcenturiesthroughmountainsand steppesandunfertileplainsintheCaucasianregion,NorthernMesopotamiaandIran,whentheAryans cameintoIndiaandsettleddowninitswideriverainplainshedgedinbytemperateandsubtropical woodlandsandforests,theydevelopedasimilarloveofMotherEarth,andthislovefoundamost beautifulandaprofoundexpressioninscatteredversesintheVeda,andparticularlyinthatgreatpoem extollingEarthintheAtharvaveda. WritingaboutthepoeticcharacterandtheuniqueliterarysetupoftheLatvianDainas,ProfessorOjars KratinsofHarvardUniversitysays(inhisinformativearticle,AnUnsungHero:KrijnisBaronsandHis LifeworkinLatvianFolksongs,WesternFolklore,Vol.XX,October1961,No.4,Universityof CaliforniaPress,Berkeley&LosAngeles),withequalconvictionandfervourandwithaloveforthe subjectwhichhasitsappealforall: Theoriginsofthedainasliefarback,butjusthowfarisnoteasytodetermine.Linguisticresearchhas ledtospeculationsthatthemetricalpatternofthesongsmusthavebecomeestablishedbytheeighth century,beforethetwoBalticlanguagesofLatvianandLithuanianhadsignificantlydiverted,butfew songssurvivefromthisperiod.Thoughtherearedainascontainingconcretereferencestoritualistic events(births,weddings,burials)astheywereconductedasfarinthepastasthesixthcentury,an overwhelmingamountofinternalevidencepointstotheperiodbetweenthethirteenthandsixteenth centuriesastheclassicalperiodoffolksongsinLatvia.Therearealsoexternal,historicalreasonsfor supposingthis.IntheCatholiceratherewasnoprintingpressandfewliteratepeople.Theindigenous folkculturewasinterferedwithverylittle,andtheChurchwithitscultoftheVirginandthesaintswas indulgentalsotowardstheancientpaganbeliefsandcustoms,partlytransformingonlytheconceptions ofGodandotherdeities. ThesefavourableconditionschangedwiththeReformation,thecollapseoftheCatholicLivonian Orderandtheadventofthehumanists.Dependinguponwhetherthewriterwasahumanistora Lutheranclergyman,hecondemnedthefolksongsandnativecustomsasbarbarousorheretical.Many inthewitchhuntsoftheseventeenthcenturydidtheirbesttoputanendtothisungodlyandfoolish singing.Wars,pestilencesandserfdomfurtherinhibitedthenativefolkculture.Itisnotsurprisingto findfewspecificallyProtestantfeaturesinthedainas.Rare,too,arementionsoftreesandcropsthat havebecomecommoninthelastthreecenturies,eventhoughsomenewsongswerecomposedduring thistimeandolderonesadaptedtonewconditions.

Themajorityofthesongsspeakofgreatwoodswithbear,elkandbisonallofwhichdisappeared longago.Martensweresoplentifulthatcapsmadefromtheirfurwerecommonamongmen.Wild geeseandswansnestedontheriverbanks.Thefarmsteadswereeithernexttoriversordeepinthe woods,andpeoplelivedinseparatedwellingsistabanot,asinthetimesofserfdom,underoneroof withthedomesticanimals. InpossiblytheoldestsongsextantthreeclassesofnativeLatvianscanbedistinguished:bajrior labiei,thearistocraticclass;saimnieki,theindependentfreedmenfarmers;andkalpiornelaudis,the servants.Insomecasesserfs,thekalpi,appeartohavecomemostlyfromoutsidetherealmofthe legitimatefamily.Astrongpatriarchalorderprevailedandwomenaccordedaratherlowposition.They performedalltheusualhouseholdchoresweaving,sowing,grindinggrain,carryingwaterandtheir positionissymbolizedbysuchactsasopeninggates,unsaddlinghorsesandremovingmensshoesfor them.Achurchweddingisseldommentioned;bycustomthebridewaseitherboughtorstolen. ThelackofapriestlyclassamongtheancientLatviansandtheinterruptionofthedevelopmentof indigenousreligiouspracticesbytheadventofChristianityinthethirteenthcenturyareprobablythe mainreasonsfortheabsenceofclearlydefinablemyths.Thesesamereasonscomplicatethedatingof mythicsongs,noneofwhichcanbeassignedtoaproperreligiouscultwithanycertainty.Etymologically andconceptually,thedeitiesoftheancientLatviansareveryclosetothenaturalphenomenainwhich theyoriginate.AlthoughsuchmythicalfiguresasDievsordebesstvs(God,orFatherofthe Heavens),Prkons(Thunder),Dievadli(SonsofGod),Saulesmeitas(DaughtersoftheSun)and otherscanbeidentifiedwithdeitiesfoundinOldIndoEuropeancultsongs,itisdifficulttoseparate theirobjectivereligiousidentitiesandfunctionsfromthepoetssubjectivelyfreeuseofthemaspoetic concepts.Neverthelessthenativepagantraditionwassufficientlypotent,sothatthenewChristian elementswereoftenonlysuperimposedinadistantlayer.Ontheotherhand,thistraditionassimilated andtransformedsuchfiguresasthesaintsPeter,JohnandMichael. Beyondindicationsofthegeneralconditionoflifeduringthetimesinwhichtheyoriginated,the dainascontainnothingchronologicallyorhistoricallyspecific,butpreserveonlytheethicalcoreof eventsandtheirpoeticreflection,whereastime,placeandnamesofheroeshavefadedfrommemory. Oneofthechiefreasonsforthelackofhistoricalspecificityisthepoeticformofthesongs.They consistusuallyofstrictlyregulartrochaicordactylicquatrainsandarecompleteandselfsufficient withinthesesmallconfines.Therearealsosongsofsomelength,sequencesofthesequatrains,that havebeenpreservedintact,butthoughtheymaycontainthekernelofanarrativeoradramatic situation,theyneverattaintoasustainednarrativeordramaticpointofviewas,forinstance,dothe Scottishborderballads.ThedainasarebasicallylyricalutteranceswiththequalificationthattheI figuringinthemisnotauniquehumanbeing,butauniversalizedpersonarepresentingthecommunity andexpressingtheexperiencescommontoeveryoneinit.Forthisreasonahighlevelofartisticdistance ismaintainedinthedainas;theexperiencedepictedisneverpoignantlyimmediate,thereisnoroomfor sentimentalityorindulgenceinemotions... ALatvianliteraryhistoriancommentsthusonthespecialqualityofthedainas:

Thepictureofcommunitylifegiveninthefolksongisextendedbeyondtheconfinesoftimeand placeintouniversality,asitwere;thusitwaspossibleforsongssungbyLatviansinthethirteenth centurytobehandeddownfromgenerationtogenerationandtobesungonoccasionssimilartothose thatfirstinspiredthemtobesung,infact,byLatviansinanycentury,beittheseventeenth, nineteenth,oranyother. Theoldestsongswhichweresaidorchantedareclearlyritualisticsurvivals[cf.theVedicwordskta =wellsaid,wellspokenwhichmeansafullhymn].Theirwordsareinvariablysinglequatrains[weare tonotethatVedichymnsaresimilarlycomposedofstanzasoffourlinesindifferentmetres]...The other,muchlargergroupofthedainas,musicallyspeaking,isofmorerecentorigin(approximatelyfrom thethirteenthtothesixteenthcentury)andmanifestsamorespontaneous,individualisticnature... Eachseasonoftheyear,eachfestivalandactivityhaditsownkindsofmelodiesandtexts;ofcourse thetextsofsomesongsweresuchastopermitthemtobesungonseveraldiverseoccasions. Gavilana(theclosestliteraltranslationwouldbeshoutingforjoy)imitatedthesongofthelarkand wasusedmostlyduringtheearlyspringbytheboysandgirlstendingtheherds.Duringthecalmand melloweveningsafterthetreeshadputforththeirnewleavesyoungunmarriedwomengatheredto singinawaycalledrotana,awordappliedalsotothesongofthenightingale.Itcalledfortwoleaders, onewithadeep,theotherwithahighvoice,whoembroideredinventivecounterpointuponthebasic melodyhummedbytherestofthechorus.Lgoana,socalledafterthefrequentlyrepeatedwordlgo, wasthefavouritemodeofsingingduringthesummeritselfandistothisdaypractisedonSt.JohnsEve orMidsummersNight.Therewerevariousotherwaysofsingingduringtheharvesttimeandthelong eveningsofwinter.Manyofthemelodiesandwaysofsingingwereassociatedwithritualsindicatedin thedainas.AtspecialoccasionssuchasweddingsandMidsummersNighttherewasalsoaplacefor indecentorflittingsongsthatareaceremonialremnantofthetimesofwifestealing... Ateachgatheringforsongthemainpersonwastheteicjawhoeithercomposedthesongsor,most frequently,saidthemfrommemory...Thoughtherearesongsbymenaboutmensactivities,singing aswellascompositionwaslargelyawomanscraft,andawomanwhocouldsingwellhadnolackof wooers... Thegreatvolumeofpreserveddainas,reachingfarbackintime,presentsauniquelydetailedandrich descriptionofanoldwayoflife.Thepoeticformofthesesongs,withitskinshiptocertainVedicsongs, reachesbackyetfurtherandconstitutesoneofthefewextantexamplesofprimitivequantitativepoetry that,becauseofitsconservativenessandabundanceofexamples,mighthelpsolvequestions concerningtheoriginsofquantitativemetresinotherliteratures. Theremightseemtobeanotherreason,alreadymentioned,fortheneglectofthedainas:thiswealth ofsongsisinalanguagespokenbyonlytwomillionpeopleintheworldTothisendthefollowing words,written30yearsago,welldeserverepetition:

Whereverthenumberofsongsandvariantsisgreater,theretheresearcherwillfindmuchricher material.EveryIndoEuropeannationisamemberofthegreatIndoEuropeanfamily,andtheBaltswith theiroldandconservativelanguage,theirrichmythologyandtheirpeculiarprimitiveculture,shouldbe especiallyinterestingtothephilologist.AthoroughinvestigationofLatvianfolksongsshould,therefore, thrownewlightnotonlyuponthepastoftheLatvians,butalsoupontheirsisternations. MygreatapologyformakingthesesomewhatlongquotationsisthatIfindthefulfilmentofmyown personalappreciationandloveoftheBalticDainas(fromthelittleIhavebeenenabledtoknowabout themfromaverylimitedreading,andthattoowiththehelpofEnglishandFrenchrenderings)inthe viewsandsentimentssofinelyexpressedbythesespecialistscholars.Anotherreasonisthatoutside people,particularlyinIndia,shouldhavesomegeneralideaaboutthenatureandsignificanceaswellas thebeautyandhighpoeticqualityofamassofliteraturewhichissoclosetotheirownVeda. FromtheappraisementsoftheDainasoftheBaltsquotedabove,itwouldbeeasytoappreciatetheir characterandtheirsignificanceinthedomainofIndoEuropeanaswellasworldliterature.The immediatecomparisonwhichwillbeprovokedwillbewiththeliteratureoftheVedichymns,andwith theGermanicElderEdda.TheEddaisafterallaveryshortcollection,althoughquitepreciousinits contentsforthestudyofPrimitiveIndoEuropeancultureandreligion.TheVedicliteratureofhymnsas inthegandAtharvavedasisquiteanextensiveone(leavingasidethestillmoreextensive explanatoryandexegeticallaterliteratureconnectedwiththehymns),butitismuchmorevaried,much moresophisticatedandadvancedthantheearlierDainaliteratureofpreChristiancontent,althoughit retainsagoodnumberofhymnswhichhaveinamarvellouswaypreservedtheirpristineandPrimitive IndoEuropeancharacter,asmuchasthemostcharacteristicDainasinthesameline.Inpassing,wemay justnotethattheoldDainasoftheBaltslacksuchadiversepoeticaldisplayasweseeinthenarrative anddramaticaswellasdescriptiveandmystichymnsoftheVedas(someofwhicharequiteelaborate andextensive)asthefollowing,tomentionafewatrandom:(A)FromthegvedaAgastyaand Lpmudr(I,179);BattleSongandArmsandWargear(VI,75);VivmitraandtheRivers(III,33);ac, theWifeTriumphant(X,159);theWord(Vk)asPower(X,125);theRains(V,83);theFrogs(VII,103); theGambler(X,34);YamaandYam(X,10);SaramandthePais(X,108);BattleofSuds(VII,18);the Rivers(X,75);theSpiritoftheForest(X,146);theLonghairedYg(X,136);PuruaorthePrimeval Being(X,90);UrvaandPurravas(X,95);theAllpervadingDivinity(X,121);theOriginofThings(X, 129);Vkapi(X,86);theFuneralHymns(X,14,16,18);theWeddingHymn(X,85);theAvinsand Gh(X,40);Generosity(X,117);(B)FromtheAtharvavedatheRains(IV,15);theAssembly(VII,1); MotherEarth(XII,1);Time(XIX,53);theStudent(XI,5),etc.,etc.And,prsdtdemgathama,hou klosopotoletaiandthereisthegreatwonderbesides,anditsrenownshallneverperish:these arethewonderfulpassagesofpowerandbeauty,describingthegrandeurandglory,thesweetnessand lovelinessoftheVedicgodsandgoddesses,whicharesocommonlikegemsscatteredthroughoutthe Vedas:celebratinggodsandgoddesseslikeIndraandac,SryaandUas,VaruaandAditi,Agniand Sma,RudraandtheMaruts,ViuandSarasvat,DyauandPthiv,theAvinsandPaand Parjanya,andtherest.Inaddition,scatteredthroughtheVedasarealsoisolatedpassagesofprofound spiritualimport,givingwordsofwisdomwhichhaveauniversalandapermanentapplicationforthe worldlylifeofmanandhisaspirationforrealizingtheUnseenTruthbehindlife,whichstillmakethe

Vedasasourceofinspiration,notonlyforIndiaandtheHindus,butalsoforthewholeworldwherever thereisayearningforthingsthatarenotephemeral.*4Thesearethegreatconceptsofta,theWay, theLaw,theEternalOrder,ofSatyatheTruth,ofDharmatheHolderofAll,leadingtoBrahman theSpirit,theSupremeReality,whichformthebackgroundoftheVedichymns,andliftithighabove allmundanepoetry.Thesourceofallthiswisdomis,insomeofitsfundamentals,thewisdomofthe IndoEuropeanwisemenwhentheyliftedtheirheartsandraisedtheirhandsfortheHighestWisdom.It isalsolargelytheresultoftheexperienceofcenturiesamongtheancestorsoftheIndianAryanswhile theywereontheirtrektoIndiafromtheirprimitivehomelandintheplainsofEurasiaandwhenthey hadcomeincontactwithotherpeoplestheUrartians,theAsianics,theAssyrioBabylonians,the SumeriansofSouthBabylon,theElamitesandtheDravidiansandAustrics(KlsorMus)aswellas theMongoloidsinIndia.Wehavetonotethatthereisadistanceofsome2,000yearsbetweenthe Vedichymns(firstcompiledinthetenthcenturyB.C.)andtheoldestDainasextant(c.tenthcentury A.D.,andlater).But,atthisancientdate,theVedicAryansintheirpassagefromtheEurasianplainsin Russia,throughtheCaucasusintoIranandthenintoIndia,hadinternationalcomminglingwhich enabledthemtodeveloptheircultureonbothmaterialandideologicalsides,andthiswasquitein contrastwiththesimpleandprimitiveworldoftheisolatedandstayathomeBalts.Thesettlementof theAryansinIndiaamongpeoplesofdifferentrace,languageandculturealsobroughtinacomposite andcomplicatedcivilizationofcoursethetempoofadvanceofthisnewcivilizationwentonincreasing aftertheageoftheVedichymnsthelikeofwhichcouldneveroriginateamongtheBaltswhowere fullypreservedfromracialandculturalmiscegenation. Nevertheless,onewouldbequitejustifiedinsayingthattheVedichymns(Sktas=wellspoken verses)andtheBalticDainasaretwomassesofkindredliteraturewhicharecomplementarytoeach other.Vysa,orVdavysa,whowasactuallyapersonwhowasaquadroonorthreefourthsnonAryan (hismother,MatsyagandhSatyavati,andhisfather,PararasmotherAdyant,werebothnon AryanthefirstwasAustricMuorKlandthelatterprobablyDravidian),canalsobedescribed asthefirstgreatsageandthinker,historianandsocialorganizer,amongtheAryanspeakersofAncient India,attheendoftheVedicAge(tenthcenturyB.C.).ItwasauniqueservicethatVysadidforthe IndianandAryan(andforthematterofthat,fortheentireIndoEuropeanworld)threethousandyears ago,bycollectingandcompilinginthefourVedabooksthehymnsandsongs,religiousandotherwise, andritualisticlorefromthepriestsoftheAryanswhichexistedasamassoffloatingoralliterature. AnothergreatserviceofinestimablehistoricalandculturalvaluewhichVyasadidwasbysettingthe 4 *Forstrikinglyilluminating.introductionstotheIndianVedasfromtheaboveaspects,seetheCallof theVedas(BharatiyaVidyaBhavan,Bombay,2ndedition,1961),andHymnsfromtheVedas(Asia PublishingHouse,Bombay,1966),bothbyDr.AbinashChandraBose.AllgreatthinkersofIndiain ancient,medievalandmoderntimeshavestressedupontheVedastheirdeepermessageandspirit, theVdntaortheEndoftheVedas(Vdasyaanta=Witsend)asformingthebasisof BrahmanicalorHinduphilosophyandreligione.g.recentthinkersandwriterslikeSwamiVivekananda, RabindranathTagoreandSarvepalliRadhakrishnan.TheSpiritoftheVedasasintheVedantaisnow actingasapotentleaveninthehigherreligiousthoughtintheworldinallthefivecontinents.

exampleofgatheringincompilations(knownasthePuras)thetraditionalmythologicalandhistorical storieswhichwerecurrentamongtheAryanspeakersofNorthIndia(ofbothpureandmixedorigin)in hisday;andfurther,bycomposingthesagaoftheKauravasandthePavas(whowerehisyounger contemporaries)whichwaselaboratedinthesubsequentcenturiesastheNationalEpicofIndia,the Mahbhrata.SomethinginasimilarwaywasdonefortheBalticworldbythegreatLatvianand Lithuaniancollectorsoffolkpoetryandfolkliteratureinthenineteenthandtwentiethcenturies,by menlikeBarons,andRzaandJuka,andtheircollaboratorsandfollowersinthiswork.Theresultant corpusoftheBalticfolkpoetryparticularlytheDainascanthusbedescribedintheirensembleasa veritableVedafortheBaltsaVedasamhitaBaltica,orBhaikVdasahit.

BALTICLIFEANDCULTURE,VISVISTHATOFTHEVEDICARYANSAND OFINDIA
ThestudywiththehelpofactualremainsofthematerialcultureoftheLatviansandtheLithuanians, andtheircommonBalticandIndoEuropeanancestorsinthoseaspectsofthisculturewheretherehas beenanunbrokencontinuanceoftheancientcharacterofit,wouldbemostinteresting;anditwould easilycallforcomparisonwithwhatwehaveintheVedicworld,asnotedinVedicliterature,andinsuch meagreremainsofmaterialcultureoftheVedicperiodashavebeenmadeavailablebyarchaeology. ThePrimitiveIndoEuropeaneconomywasacombinationofthepastoral(cattleandsheepraising, horsebreedingandherdingpigs)andtheagricultural(growingcropsofbarleyandrye,andalsosome fruitsandvegetables,andplantslikethehemp).ThiswascontinuedbytheAryans(particularlyinIndia), bytheHellenes,andbytheItalians,whoaddedsomenewcerealslikewheatintheNearEastandItaly andriceinIndia.AgricultureappearstohavebeenfullyattendedtobytheBalts.Theearliestreference thatwehavetotheBaltsisintheRomanhistorian,Tacitus,whoseLatinworkGermaniawaswritten towardstheendofthefirstcenturyA.D.TacitushasgivenafullaccountoftheGermanicandother peoplesofCentral,NorthernandEasternEurope,andhehasmentioned(Section45ofhiswork)the Aestiipeople,whocanonlybeBalts.ThiswasthenamebywhichtheBaltswereknownalsotothe GermanicEnglishofthetenthcenturyA.D.,asinWulfstansaccountofhisvisittotheBalticcountry;and thisoldnamefortheBaltswaslateronextendedtotheFinnoUgrianneighboursoftheBaltslivingto theirNorththepeoplenowknownastheEsthsorEsthonians(Estonians).Accordingtotheevidenceof Tacitus,theBaltshadalreadymadeanameasagriculturists.TacitussaysthattheAestii(theBalts)were liketheGermanictribeoftheSuebiintheircustomsanddress,butspokeadifferentlanguage,which TacituserroneouslythoughtwaslikethelanguageofBritain(aCelticspeechinhistime).TheAestiihad agreatfaithintheirgreatdeity,theMotheroftheGods,andtheythoughtthatiftheyhadwiththem thefigureofawildboar,whichwasasymbolsacredtotheGoddess,theywouldobtainprotectionin battle;andthiswouldsettheirmindatresteveninthemidstoffoes.TheAestiiusedswordsrarely,and clubsfrequently.ThenthisobservationofTacitusisnoteworthy:Grainandotherproductsoftheearth theycultivatewithapatienceoutofkeepingwiththelethargycustomarytoGermans:nay,theyransack theseaalso,andaretheonlypeoplewhogatherintheshallowsandontheshoreitselftheamber, whichtheycallintheirtongueglaesum. Theinterestingthingisthat2,000yearsagotheBaltswerecommendeduponascapablefarmersaswell asfishermeninthesea.ThiswasparticularlyincontrastwiththeGermanicpeople.Moreover,theBalts had,throughthatveryspecialproductoftheircountry,amber(whichcametobeknowntooutsidersas BalticGold),comebeforethecivilizedworldofGreeceandRome,althoughasaremoteandbarbarian people.TacitusobservesthattheBaltsusedamberandbartereditwiththemerchantsfromthe Southernlandsasobjectsofvaluelikegemsandsemipreciousstones,buttheydidnothaveanyidea aboutwhatamberreallywas,andTacitushasgiventhecorrectaccountofthenatureofamberasthe fossilresinfromconiferoustrees.TheLatinnamesuccinum(fromsoccusgum)testifiestothis.(The nameforamberintheoldBalticlanguageasgivenbyTacitus,glaesum,isnolongercurrentineither LatvianorLithuanian,andthemodernnamesaregintarasinLithuaniananddzintarsinLatvian.Thislost

Balticword,asnotedinLatin,mayverywellhavecomefromanIndoEuropeanroot*gelor*gtobe bright,tobeclear,tobeyellow,extendedtoabase*glais;andthisrootwefindinanotherextended forminGermanic,*klaini,givingOldEnglishclneopen,clear,pure,OldHighGermankleinior chleinishining,neat,careful,small,ModernEnglishcleanandGermanklein.Incidentally,wemaynote thattheGreekwordforamber,lektron,meansalsoanamalgamofgoldandsilverasanalloy,usedin coinsandinjewellery,andthissuggeststhatthebrightnessandcolourofamberwereconsidered lektron<*eelektronhasbeenconnectedbyLiddellandScottwithSanskritarkasSun,arcis splendour,flame,ray,fromrootarctoshine,topraise,whencealsoSanskritk(c)Vedicverse, arcpraise,etc.,theIndoEuropeansourcebeingaroot*elq:theGreekwordforamber,atypical productofthelandoftheBalts,hasgiventheinternationalwords,electric,electricity,etc.,asamber whenrubbedwasfoundtoproducenegativeelectricity.) TheancientBalticvillageasinLithuaniaandinLatviawasmoreorlessacompactconstruction,the dwellinghousesbeingclosetoeachotherandthearablefieldsoutsidethevillage,awayfromthe dwellingsofmen.Thereusedtobewherevernecessaryalittlestockadedfortwithdwellingsinit,if therewasarulerofanyhighstandingwhowaslivingclosetothevillage.Thehousesgenerallywere rectangularinplanandtheyweremadeofwoodandwattleandhadgabledroofs.Inthecentreofthe housewasthemainhall,whichwasthecommonlivingroom,flankedbylittleroomsorshelvesforthe membersofthefamilytosleep,andtherewasinthishallthefireplaceorhearth.Thispatternwasalso foundamongtheGermanicandCeltictribesaswellasamongthoseofItalyandofGreece.Butthe rectangulartypeofhutoftimberandthatchappearstohavebeenabandonedpartlyinItalyandalsoin India,andnewerkindsofbuildingmaterialinawarmerclimategaverisetothebamboohutofancient IndiawhichwasmoreorlessmodelledonthepreAryanhutsofIndia.Thedwellingsofanimposingsize, whichbelongedtotherichpeople,weremadeofheavytimber,amongtheIndianAryansasmuch amongtheEuropeanBalts.Thesehadprivateroomsforthemasterandtheladyofthehouse,anda separateroomorhallfortheyoungerwomenofthefamilyasadrawingroomorworkingroom(for spinningandweaving,andforsinginganddancing).Therewasgenerallyalsoaseparatehutwhichwas usedasalyinginroom,whenevertherewouldbeabirthinthefamily.Thiscustomalsoobtained amongtheAryansinIndia,andithasbeencarrieddowntoourtimes.(Thelyinginroomwasknownin Sanskritastheantakuorinnerhut,whencewehavetheOldBengalintaui,ModernBengali tu.ItwasalsoknowninSanskritasstikgha.)Attachedtothehousewerethestallsorstablesfor thehorsesandbiersforthecattle,andfoldsforthesheepandstiesforthepigs.InIndiatheplacefor thecows,thesheepandhorseswerealsoattachedtothehouse,andacowshedwithmilchkine,and stableforploughoxenformedaverydistinctiveandanecessaryappurtenancetotheresidenceofarich manorafarmerbothinIndiaandinBalticlands.ButpigkeepingfelloutofuseamongtheAryansin IndiaasmuchasinIran,althoughitcontinuedamongtheGermanicandCelticpeoples,andinGreeceas wellasinItaly.PossiblytheAryansthroughcontactwiththepeoplesoftheNearEastliketheSemites abandonedpigkeeping.Therewasarefuseheapclosetothehouse,andwehavethatcustom continuedrightdowntoourtimesonlyitisregularlycleaned(sakta=sakaa,sakaika,sakaia: NewIndoAryanskai,saki=refuseheap,refuse).Thegenerallayofthevillageandthehouses seemtohavecontinuedinVedicIndia.Butaclosestudyoftheconditionspertainingtohousesand

villagesasgivenintheVedictextsshouldbecomparedwithwhatweseeactuallyamongtheBaltic peoples. ThePrimitiveIndoEuropeansandtheirBalticandotherdescendantsinEuropeusedtokeepbeesfor honeywhichwastheironlyequivalentforsugar.InIndiatheAryansdidnotcontinuetokeepbeesand apiculturewasvirtuallyabandoned,andtheytooktohavingwildhoney.ButtheIndianAryanshad insteadofhoneythesugarcane,whichgavethemsugar,auniqueproductofIndia. Inthematterofwearingapparelanddress,therehasbeenafundamentalchangeamongtheIndo Europeansettlerswhowentdowntothewarmerregionsofthesouthfromthecoldortemperate northernlandswheretheyhaddevelopedtheirmaterialculture.Completecoveringofthebodyforthe greaterpartoftheyearwasimperativelynecessaryinNorthandCentralEuropewithclothesfromsuch materialsaswereavailableskinsofanimals,clothfrombarkoftrees,andwovenclothfromthethread spunfromflaxandwool,andalsofurandfelt.Thefeethadtobefullycoveredforprotectionagainst cold,andformenemployedinactiveworkandinfighting,trousersorbreechesbecameestablished quiteearly,withleggingsofthongs(likethemodernIndianmilitaryputtees,thoughnotsoclosely wrapped)andshoesofsomesort,notmeresandalswhichleaveexposedthetoesandconsiderable partsofthefootbutsomekindofshoesorbootsmadeofleatherorbirchbarkandtiedwithstringsor thongs.Acaporheaddressalsowasthereasaprotectionfromcold.TherearememoriesinIndiaofthis oldstyleofdressinafewwordsinSanskrit(e.g.upnah=shoesorsandals,vadhr=leatherstrap, irastra=headprotection,etc.).Awarmcloakofskinorfurorwoollenclothwasalsoanecessary adjunctintheoldIndoEuropeancostume.Thesecloakswereheldinpositionbymeansofknotsinthe mostprimitivestyle,andthenverywidelybymeansofsafetypinsorclasps(Latinfibulae).Thebasic typeofthisNorthernEuropeandress,asitwasinuseamongthePrimitiveIndoEuropeans,wasfound amongtheAncientCelticandGermanicpeoples,andalsoamongtheSlavsandtheBalts,rightdownto theendofthefirstmillenniumafterChrist.TheBalticversionormodificationofthePrimitiveIndo Europeandressasitwasathousandyearsagohasbeensoughttobereconstructedbyarchaeologists andartistsofLatviaandLithuaniaonthebasisofactualspecimensfromantiquity.Atypical reconstructionofIndoEuropeandressintheMiddleBronzeAge(secondmillenniumB.C.)hasbeen giveninacolouredPlateinVol.IIofJ.A.HammertonsUniversalHistoryoftheWorld,London,opposite page828,whichhasbeenreproducedinthepresentmonographamongthePlatesattheend.Someof theauthoritativerepresentationsofoldBaltiodressofathousandyearsagohavealsobeengiveninthe Plates.InthewarmerclimateofIranandIndia,theoldIndoEuropeandressbecameconsiderably modified.ThesewncoatortunicaswellasbreechesfellintodisuseamongtheAryansinIndia,and althoughlinenwasused,anddeerskinandsomekindofbarkclothwerecommonlywornbythe BrahmanpriestsoftheIndianAryans,thedresswhichbecamequitetheuniversalonewasaverylight one.Clothfromcotton,whichwasoneofthegreatproductsofIndia,wasmostcommonlyinuse. Variouskindsoflinenwerealsoincommonuse,andlateronsilkcametobeadoptedfromthe MongoloidhillpeoplesoftheNorth.Threepiecesofunsewncloth,onetowraproundthewaistdownto theknee(orsometimestotheheels),theprototypeofthepresentdayIndiandhoti,thesecondoneto beusedasacloakorwraproundthebody,andthethirdpiecetobewoundroundtheheadasaturban, formedthebasicdressoftheIndianAryans.Thewomenalsoworeapieceofunsewnclothfromthe

waistdowntheheels(orhigherup)generallywithpleatsinfront,andheldbyagirdle(mkhal)which becameamostimportantitemofawomanscostume,andtherewasanotherpieceofunsewnclothas arobecoveringtheupperpartofthebody.Thehairwaswornlongbothformenandwomen,andwhile therewerevariousstylesofhairdoforwomen,themeneitherlefttheirhairlooseabovetheir shouldersboundupwithafillet,orworeitasatopknot.Underwearofunsewnclothalsowascommon. Theuppergarmentwaswornbywomeninaffectednglig,andthebreastswerecommonlyexposed, asamongthepreAryanpeoplesofIndia,asaconcessiontoclimateandtoacommonlocalorpopular practice.Butinceremonialmatters,andinperformingreligiousritual,thebreastswouldbecovered eitherwiththeuppergarmentorwithanarrowbreastclothwhichwastiedattheback.Theupper garmentalsoformedawimplecoveringtheheadforbridesandmatrons,asamongtheIranianAryans andtheGreeks. Sandalswerealsoinuse.FromtheearliestsculptureofIndiaasinBuddhaGaya,BharhutandSanchi,in Bhuvanesvara,inKarlaandBhaja,inMathuraandinGandhara,andinAmaravatiandNagarjunikonda, andfromdescriptionsinearlyliterature,someideaoftheancientIndoAryandressasitwasinvogue some2,000to2,500yearsago(orevenearlier)canbeformed.Illustrationsofsuchreconstructionsof ancientIndoAryandress(drawnbythesculptorSunilPal)aregiveninthePlates.FortheIranianAryans, wehaveveryfaithfulrepresentationsoftheirdressintheAchaemeniansculpturesandtapestry fragmentsfromthesixthcenturyB.C.ThePersianAryansdevelopedthehabitofwearingloose garmentsresemblingtheIndianones,aswecanseefromtheancientsculpture;buttheMedianAryans, aslivinginthecolderhillyregions,preserved,liketheirkinsmentheScythians,theolderIndoEuropean styleofwearingbreechesandhighboots.CopiesofpicturesofancientIraniandressfromarecent authoritativeworkinPersianaregiveninthePlates(ThePkiBstnirnnorOldCostumesof theIraniansbyJalilZipr,Tehran,PersianYear1343).TheGreekpreferenceforasimpledresswith sheetsofplainclothwithoutsewngarments(e.g.amongtheDorianSpartansandtheAtticAthenians) wastobefoundequallyamongtheIndianAryansintheirtwopiecesofdhtraanduttarya(thelower garmentandthecloak)formenandsimilarlytwopiecesofunsewnclothforthewomenwiththelower garmentwithpleatsinfront.ThisbroughttheancientAryandressinIndiaveryclosetotheclassical GreekdresswiththehimationformenandtheDoricpeplosforwomen. InIndia,owingtotheeconomicprosperityofanagriculturalcommunity,andtotheavailabilitywithin thecountryofgoldandpreciousandsemipreciousstonesofallkinds,besidesbrightshellsofdifferent types,theredevelopedearlyfromVedictimesafondnessforjewelleryofallsortsnecklaces,armlets, bracelets,chains,girdles,andrings,andanklets(sometimesveryheavyones)forwomen.Heavyear ringswerecommon,buttherewasnonosering,unlikeamongsomeSemiticpeoples.Thisuseof jewellerywasanoticeablethinginancientAryanandotherIndiancostume.Besides,therewasavery greattasteamongIndianAryansinfloraldecorationchapletsandgarlandsandotherornamentsof scentedflowerswereusedbybothmenandwomenonallceremonialandfestiveoccasions.

TheBaltsweregreatexpertsinmetalwork,ingoldandsilver,copperandbronze,andtheyalsoknew theartofenamellinginmetal.Theydevelopedanalmostsimilarfondnessfordecoratingthemselves withmetaljewellery,andwithamber,aspecialproductoftheirowncountry. TheIndoEuropeanpracticeofwearingabeardwascontinuedamongtheAryansofIranandIndia,but later,asamongtheGreeksfromthetimeofAlexandertheGreat,andtheRomans,theIndianAryans begantobecleanshavenintheface,andofteninthehead,withatuftofhairatthecrownofthehead. WehaveheretheinfluenceofBuddhistmonasticismaswellaspreAryanusage.Thewarriorsandother classesworemoustaches,withorwithoutbeardsorwhiskers.MeninancientMesopotamiaworelong beardsbutshavedtheirmoustachesorclippedthem,butthispracticewasneverfollowedbythe Aryans.Inlatertimes,amongBaltswehavebeardswithshavingofmoustaches,asinpicturesoftheir Gods,buthowandwhenthiscustomwasadoptedwedonotknow. ThePrimitiveIndoEuropeancultureinawaycanbedescribedasahorseculture,andtheuseofhorses forridingaswellasfordrawingchariotsandcartswasanIndoEuropeaninheritancewhichwas vigorouslycontinuedbytheAryansinIran,aswellasinIndia.Horseracingwasapopularpastimewith theIndianAryansaswiththeBaltsandtheGreeks. ItwouldappearthathorseswerekilledforfoodamongthePrimitiveIndoEuropeansasamongtheir Altaicneighbours,theancestorsoftheMongolsandtheTurks.ButveryearlythevariousIndoEuropean peoplesgaveupeatingthehorse,butamongtheIndianAryansthecustomofkillingthehorseforits meatseemstohavesurvivedintheirreligiouscultofthehorsesacrifice(avamdha),whichwasrarely practised,butneverthelessitwasafeatureofthereligiousceremonialonlyamongtheAryanroyaltyin India. AnothernoteworthymatterinthecultureoftheAryansbothinIranandIndiawastheuseofchariots. Horsescarriedriders,andtheywerealsomadetodrawchariots,whichweretwowheeledlightvehicles towhichtwohorseswereyokedsidebyside,andsometimesfour,alsoabreast.Thebodyofthechariot carriedtwopersonsgenerally,theriderandthedriver,bothstandinginIndiatherewasalsoaseat (gartta)fortherider.WagonswereknowntothePrimitiveIndoEuropeans,butwedonotknowwhat kindofvehiclesthesewere.Probablytheywerefourwheeledcarts,sometimescovered,tocarry domesticarticlesaswellaswomenandchildren.TheuseofawordforthewheelinPrimitiveIndo EuropeanisattestedfromallIndoEuropeanlanguages(e.g.Skt.rathachariot,wheeledvehicle, Iranianratha,Lithuanianratas.Germanicrad,Latinrota,OldIrishruoth),sothatthehorsesweremade todrawawheeledcartorwagon,andnotameresledge.IntheforestlandsoftheBalticarea,andalso inGermanywithitsdeepforests,aswellasinthelandsdweltinbytheSlavs,chariotsdidnothave muchscope,particularlyinwarfare.ButinthelandsoftheSouth,wherefourwheeledheavycartscame intouseveryearly,cartsdrawnbydonkeys,thetwowheeledlightchariotforswiftlocomotioninwar appearstohavecomeintovogueby2000RC.TheywerefoundinEgypt,Syria,MesopotamiaandAsia Minor,andtheuseofthiskindofvehiclealsospreadeastintoIndiathroughIran,andwestintoGreece andRome,andevenfurthertotheNorthwestinFranceandBritainaswellasinfarawayIreland, amongtheCeltictribes.Twoorfourhorsedchariotsofabigsizealsocameinvogueamongtheancient ChinesefromChoutimes.ChariotridingwarriorswerecharacteristicofancientIndiatheMahbhrata

asthenationalepicofancientIndiaisfullofcharioteersandfightersinchariots,asmuchasinancient GreeceandintheCelticworldoftheGauls,theBritishandtheIrish.Hereinwasanoteworthypointof differencebetweentheBaltsandtheAryans.TheGodsoftheBaltsasmuchasthoseoftheAryansrode onhorsesbutalsodroveinwheeledvehicles,butthetypesofthevehiclesweredifferentthetwo wheeledchariotofAncientNeareasternandClassicaltimesdrawnbytwoorfourhorsesyokedabreast probablywasnotmuchinuseintheBalticworld.AnaccountoftheAryanchariot(withadetailed reconstructionoftheVedicIndianchariotshowninausefuldrawing)willbefoundinProfessorStuart PiggottsPrehistoricIndia,PenguinBooks,Harmondsworth,Middlesex,1956,pp.276282. Inadditiontoswiftwarchariotsdrawnbyhorses(andmulesalso),theAryansmadequiteanextensive useoftheoxandoxcartsforvehiculartransport.InfacttheoxwagonbecamequitetheruleinAryan domesticlife.Thebridewenttoherhusbandshomeinawagondrawnbybullockswhichwasdrivenby thebridegroom;andpackoxenwerelargelyusedtocarrygoodsthroughouttheentirecountrywhen therewerenogoodroads.Further,thehorsecontinuedtobeusedtodrawtheploughinthenorthern landsoftheIndoEuropeansamongtheBalts,Slavs,CeltsandTeutons.ButintheSouth,amongthe GreeksandtheAryansofbothIranandIndia,aswellasinItaly,oxenwereemployedforagriculture, possiblyfollowingtheMesopotamianpeoples. TheAryansbecamefamiliarwiththecamelinMesopotamiaandIran,andalsointhedrieranddesert areasofIndia,wherethecameltheonehumpeddromedaryandthedonkeyweremuchinevidence. ThetwohumpedBactrianorCentralAsiancamel(dvikakud)wasknowninIndia,inthenorthwestern regions,butwasratheruncommon.Thewaterbuffalo,whichisnowsocommoninIndiaasamilchas wellasadraughtanimal,appearsnottohavebeensuchanintimatedomesticatedanimalamongthe earlyAryans. Horsesandchariotsandoxenandbullockcartsapart,theAryansinIndiaquiteearlyacquiredfromthe preAryanpeoples,anothermeansoflocomotion,whichbecamethemostcharacteristiconeforIndia forover3,000yearsrightdowntothepresentclay,viz.theElephant.TheAryansatfirstregardedthe elephantwhichwasnewandstrangeforthemwithawe:itwasananimalwiththehand(mgahastin orkarin),awonderfulcreaturetostartwith.ButitwasalreadytamedbypreAryanpeoplesthe AustricswereprobablythefirstpeopletohavedomesticatedtheelephantandthentheDravidians.The commonestSanskritwordfortheanimalwashastin,theanimalwiththehandwhenceNewIndo Aryanhth,ht,etc.,buttherearemanyotherwordswhichareofnonAryanoriginlikegaja,nga, mtaga,airvata,karu,karabha,vraa.Thepeoplewhotrainedandlookedaftertheelephants weremembersofthedespisednonAryantribes.Yetquicklyenoughtheelephantbecameaccepted amongtheAryans,asintheforestcoveredtractsofthecountry,fromtheHimalayastoCapeComorin. Theelephantcarryingevenhalfadozenriderswasaswiftandsuremeansoftransport,bothintowns andvillages;andkingsandrichpeopleaswellasthemiddleclasslargelyemployedelephantsfor carryingbothmenandwomenandmerchandise.Inwar,theElephantbecameanimportantwingofthe armytheFourLimbs(caturaga)ofancientIndianforcesconsistedoffootsoldiers,cavalry,chariots andwarelephants.Boats(nusdhana,nuva)tooktheplaceofchariotslateroninacountryof riverslikeBengal.Inclianelephantswiththeirdriverswereindemandinthewesternlandsfromthe

AchaemeniantimesonwardsinthePersianempire,inGreece(inthearmiesofthesuccessorsof AlexandartheGreatandinthatofPyrrhusofEpirus),andinCarthage(inHannibalsarmyinItaly). Although,asmentionedbefore,thepigorswineasadomesticatedanimalfromIndoEuropeantimes becameabandonedfromthehouseholdeconomyoftheAryansinbothIranandIndia,itwasfully retainedamongtheGreeksandtheItalians,andalsoamongtheBaltsandSlavsaswellasCeltsand Teutons.SheepandgoatswereimportantdomesticanimalsamongAryansinIndia,anditwasmore goatsintheplainsthansheepwhichwerecommononlyintheHimalayanareasandthecolderregions. Pigswere,however,quiteimportantasasourceoffoodamongtheAustrics,andthatwasperhapsa reasonfortheirbeingabandonedbytheAryansinIndia,exceptforthewildboarwhichwouldbekilled andeatenbythewarriorclassesasashikaranimal. PalanquinsandlitterscarriedbymenalsoweresomethingveryspecialtotheInclianAryansaswellasto theIranianstosomeextent,particularlyforwomenandrichpeople.Thismeansoflocomotionseems nottohavedevelopedamongtheBaltsandtheSlavs,andtheTeutonsandtheCelts,throughthe RomansinlatertimesobtaineditfromtheEast,fromSyriaandEgypt. InIndia,amongtheAryans,theredevelopedagreatideaofpersonalcleanlinessandceremonialpurity. Bathingasahygienichabit(particularlyduringthewarmseason)wasquiteinvogueamongtheIndo Europeans,aswecanseefromthecommonIncloEuropeanwordsinthedifferentlanguages.Butin India,bathingbecamederigueur,notonlyforsummer,butalsoforwinter,speciallyamongtheupper andpriestlyclasses,whetherinthecoolorcoldHimalayanregionsorinthetropicalareas.IndianAryans bothmenandwomenpreferredabathinaflowingriverorstream,orinalakeortank,orbyawell,and richpeoplewouldhaveabathindoors,withperfumedwaterorwarmwater.Thispredilectionforthe bathwefindfromVedictimesinIndia.ButIndianeverdevelopedanythingliketheelaboratebathing establishmentsofRomantimes,andtherewasnothingofthetypeoftheFinnishsaunaorsteambath, whichappearstohavebeencommontotheFinnoUgriansandtheBaltsintheNortheastofEurope.In placeofthesteambath,IndianAryanstookupthehabit(fromtheearlierpeoplesevidently)ofrubbing theirbodyandheadwithoilbeforebathitwassesameoilatfirst(thesesameisfoundintheIndus valleycityremains),andthenmustardoil,aswellascoconutoil.Sandaloilaswellasperfumedsesame andcoconutoilwerealsoinvogue.Thecustomofanointingthebodywithsandalpaste,particularly duringthehotweather,wasanothercaseofpreAryansocialorculturalinfluence. Withregardtodomesticfurniture,wedonothavemuchevidencefromtheVedictexts,butweknowof bedsteadsaswellasstoolsofwood,andwoodenboardsandmatsratherthanbenchesandchairstosit upon.Foodwastakeneithersittingonstoolsofwoodorcaneworkfromsmallandseparateraised tables,orbysquattingonthegroundfrommetalorwoodenvesselsorearthenware,orleafplatesand cupsfollowingtheearlierpreAryancustom. BarleyappearstohavebeentheearliestcerealtobecultivatedbytheIndoEuropeans,andamong VedicAryansasamongtheGreeksbarleywasthegrainusedinmakingfoodofferingstotheGodsand theManesoftheAncestors.LateroninMesopotamia,IranandIndiatheAryansobtainedwheatand rice,andinIndiaricewasthecommoneststaplegrain,anditsharedhonourswiththeearlierbarleyas

theAryangrain.WheatwasevidentlyderivedfromMesopotamiaandbecamecommonenoughinIran, butitcametoIndiamuchlater,anditwasprobablyduetoIranianinfluencethatwheatwasgivena growingimportanceinIndianalimentaryeconomy,inthePanjabandNorthIndia.Milkandmilk productshadagreatimportanceinIndoEuropeanfood,andtheSanskritdadhicurds,thicksourmilk (gen.dadhnas)hasitsequivalentintheBaltic(OldPrussian)dadanmilk(cf.alsoAlbaniandjath cheese).Meatwasacommonarticleoffoodmutton,beefandpork,andgame,butnotthedogas amongtheancientChinese. UtensilsindailyuseweremadeofwoodinancientAryanIndia,asmuchasthisuseofwoodhasbeen continueddowntoourtimesamongtheBalticpeoples,andalsoincertainareaswithintheSlav territory.UtensilsofwoodwerereligiouslyenjoinedintheAryan(Vedic)ritualofworshipandsacrifice, astheseevidentlywereinuseamongtheirIndoEuropeanancestors.Potterywascommon,butbronze vessels(ksya)thoughknownwererareinAryanIndia,asmuchasamongtheBalts.Asithasbeen notedabove,ironandcopperwereinuseamongtheAryansinIndia,astheywereamongtheBaltsof latertimes. InoneimportantmatterintheirsocialandculturallifeamongthePrimitiveIndoEuropeanswasthe institutionofthePoetorSingerwhowouldbesingingtotheaccompanimentofastringedinstrument theoldsongsrelatingtothegodsandheroesandalsotothewayoflifeamongthepeople,inall mundanemattersliketillingtheearth,loveandwedding,sports,war,death,theseasonsandNature, etc.,affectingthelifeofman.Thesepoetsingerswereoftenlookeduponasinspiredbeings,with almostsupernaturalpowersofunderstandingandforetellinghappeningstocome;andtheywere supposedtoknowtheTruthbehindLife.Theirsongsandothercompositionstheywouldsingorchantto theaccompanimentofastringedinstrumentwhichwasthelyreorharpinveryancienttimes,andin latertimessomekindofharporlutewithawoodensoundboardwhichwaslaidflatonthelapwhile playing.TheVedicRishisorsageshadthislyreorharp,likethesimilarinstrumentsintheWestamong theGreeks,theRomans,theGermansandtheCelts.Thisoldshapeofthisv,orancientIndianharp (sodifferentfromtheelaboratevofmedievalandmoderntimes,withtwogourdsontwoendsof thewoodenframeactingasresonators),isfoundintheearliestsculptureofIndia.Bothreligiousand secularsongswerechantedinIndiawhileplayingthev.Butinlatertimes,whenheroicorepictales werenarratedinthecourtsbyStasorprofessionalbardswhowerenotBrahmansorseers,therecould hejustchanting,andnomusic.HomerandthelaterlyristsofGreeceusedthelyre.So,too,amongthe CelticbardstheFiliorFilidoftheancientIrish,andamongtheshapersthecreatorsorpoets(= GreekPoits)ScpinOldEnglishandSkldinOldNorseamongtheGermans.Thepeoplesof EasternandNorthernEuropeboththeIndoEuropeanBaltsandSlavsandtheFinnoUgrianFinnsand Esthsdevelopedacommontypeofstringedinstrumentwithaflatwoodensoundboard.Thistypeof whatmaybecalledanearlyformoftheluteorpsalteryisknownastheguslyamongtheRussiansand otherSlavs,andaskanteleamongtheFinnsandkannelamongtheEsths,andtheBaltsknowitas kanklsinLithuanianandkokleinLatvian.SothetraditionofthevplayingpriestsagesoftheVedic Aryansandthekanklsplayingsingersofthedainas(bothmenandwomenasinlatertimes)amongthe BaltsgoesbacktotheIndoEuropeanageasaculturalinheritance.(SeePlatesXIIIandXIVattheend, forpicturesofBalticsingersageswiththekanklsorkokle.)Thepointsofagreement(with,ofcourse,

modificationsinsomecases,whichareeasilyunderstandable)betweenthedomesticsceneintheBaltic landsasrepresentativeofthePrimitiveIndoEuropeanandinVedicIndia.,arewellworthadetailed comparisonforelucidatingtheculturalmilieuinthismatteramongthePrimitiveIndoEuropeans. Linguisticpalaeontologyhasestablishedclearlysomepointsofagreementinsocialstructureandsocial lifeamongthevariousancientIndoEuropeanpeoples,andtheoldconditionsarelargelycarriedon eveninthepresentdayBalticvillagelife,asmuchasinHindulifeasderivedfromtheAryans. Inthematterofpersonalnames,theBaltsandtheAryanshavebothcontinuedtheIndoEuropean usage.ItwouldappearthatamongthePrimitiveIndoEuropeans,thereweresinglewordnames,which couldbethenamesoftheirgodsandgoddesses,orofsomeanimalwithwhichtheyassociatedsome specialqualityorvirtue(likethewordsforHorse,Bear,Fox,Wolf,Otter,Bull,Deer),orwhichcouldbe someadjectiveindicatingsomephysicalormentalqualityorsomeotherassociation:e.g.IndoAryan ArjunasBright,White,RmasPleasing,KasBlack,HrtasGreenorYellow(=OldIranian Zrita,ModernPersianZl),ukrasRed.BhmasTerrible;GreekGlaukosGleaming,Bright, KsanthosBlond;OldIrishFindFair;etc.ButwiththePrimitiveIndoEuropeans,adistinctiveclassof namesweredescriptivecompounds,generallywithtwoelements,eitherbothofthemnounsorthefirst elementaparticle,indicatingsomephysicalormoralqualityorexcellence.Inthiskindofnomenclature wecertainlyseeaveryhighlyculturedandintelligentmentalityamongtheIndoEuropeans,whichwas quiteuncommonamongthepeoplesoftheworld.Anumberofsuchnameswerealreadyiiiuseamong thePrimitiveIndoEuropeans,andinsomecasesthesenameshavebeeninheritedinthedifferent ancientIndoEuropeanspeeches.Igivebelowafewpersonalnamesofthissecondtype,nameswhich arecompounds,whichareofIndoEuropeanorigin,takenatrandomfromSanskrit,Iranian,Greekand Germanic.Thus,IE*Wesumens=SanskritVasumans,OldIranianVahuman.Greek*Wehumens >EumensGoodmind;IE*Seghodeiwos=SanskritSahadvas,PrimitiveGermanic*Sigitwaz,Old NorseSigtrStrengthGod,GodinStrength;IE*Klutweghos=Sanskrit*rutvahas(notactually found),PrimitiveGermanic*Xluwegaz,ModernGermanLudwigFamouschariot;IE*Ghutwenos =Sanskrit*Hutavanas(notactuallyfound),EnglishGodwinLibationFriend,FriendofGod;IE*Pulu rews=VedicPurravsExcessiveShoutingorRenown,cf.GreekPoluphmos;IE*Uruweky= Vedic*Uruva>UrvaWidedesire,SheofwideDesire,orShewhoiswidelydesired(thisinGreek wouldbe*Euruwekia>*Eurekia);soSanskritVivavrAllshielding(cf.GreekHr=VrShe whocoversorprotects);OldIranianSuxrspRedHorse=ModernPersianSuhrb;SanskritBhad avasBigHorse;SanskritAvapatisHorselord;IE*PeriklewsAllroundGlory>GreekPerikls (cf.SanskritUccairavsHighGlory);OldSlavSvyatoslavWhiteorBrightGlory=Sanskritvta ravs<IE*Kwoitoklews;soSanskritSuravs=OldIranianHusrav,ModernPersianXusrau; SanskritHkasUpstandingHair,GukasCurlyHair(thereareothertraditional interpretationsforthesetwowords);SanskritBharadvjasBearingWealth;JamadagnisWalking Fire;DvadattasGodgiven(fromIE*Deiwododtos:cf.GreekTheodotos<IE*Dhwesodotos); YudhihirasFirminBattle;IE*KlewoghostisRenownedVisitororGuest>Germanic(OldNorse) Hlewagastir;SanskritSuktusGoodKnowledge,SujtShewhoiswellborn;AryanArtatamasor tatamasOftheHighestLaw;IE*Akykratusorkartus>GermanicAgyXarduz>HighGerman EkkehardSharpandStrong,StronginSharpnessorinEdgeorCorner;IE*Segheprtus>Germanic *Sigifriuz,HighGermanSiegfriedStrengthLover;IE*Seghewordhos>Germanic*Sigiwardaz>Old

NorseSigurrStrengthincrease;IE*WgoworgosAWolfinhisdeeds>GreekLukourgos(Latinized asLycurgus)=Sanskrit*Vkavargas(notfound);IE*Leksonros>*aleksan(d)ros>GreekAleksandros SavingMen=Sanskrit*Raknaras,cf.Sanskritiknaras;etc. ThestudyofIndoEuropeannametypesandtheirsurvivalintheancientIndoEuropeanlanguagesisa mostfascinatingbranchoftheLinguisticsofIndoEuropeanswithvaluablesidelightintoPrimitiveIndo Europeansocial,religiousandphilosophicalsetup;andthisbranchhasreceivedagooddealof attentionfromspecialistscholars. ThereisquitealargemassofpersonalandothernamesofIndoEuropeanorigininancientSanskritand IranianandinGreek,andtoalesserextentinGermanicandCeltic.OldSlavismuchpoorerinthis respect,andBalticisalmostequallypoor.Notmanyoldnames,otherthanthoseofthegodsand goddesses,havebeenpreservedintheBalticlanguagesatleast,notintheliteratureoftheDainas.The authenticrecordsofBalticdoesnotgobeyondathousandyearsfromnow,andamongtheBaltsinthe heroicperiodoftheirfightwiththeGermansanumberofOldBaltnamesinLithuanian,LatvianandOld Prussianhavebeenpreserved,nameswhichhavebeenmentionedbeforeinnarratingthehistoryofthe strugglewiththeGermans(pp.39ff.).ThesenamesarealmostallspecialfortheBalticformofIndo European,andtheOldIndoEuropeantraditionortypeofdescriptivenameswhicharecompoundswith twoelementshasbeenfullypreserved,anditwasquitealivingtraditionintheIndoEuropean backgroundoftheBalts.Someofthesetypicalnamesmaybeconsideredintheirformandmeaning,to showhowcloselythesenameshavethePrimitiveIndoEuropeanonomasticatmosphereaboutthem. (ThroughthekindnessofProfessorRiardasMironasofVilnius,Ihavebeenabletofindtheetymology aswellasthemeaningofsomeavailableOldBaltnames,inLithuanianaswellasinLatvian.)Thus: LithuanianMindaugas,fromminia=crowd,people+daugasstrong,manly:Strongamongthe People;Vaivilkas=Sanskrit*VaiyavkastheWolfamongAll,amongthePeople(VaiyaorVaiain theoriginalsenseofbelongingtotheViorthepeople);Daumantas=Daugstrong+mantahaving, possession,wealth:StronginWealth;Traidenis:cf.Latviantriadasong+affixenis:theSinger; Gediminas(alsoGedminas),fromrootgedtowish,todesire,toyearn+min(minia,asinMindaugas) =aDesiredPersonorBelovedOne;Algirdas,from*Algsalary,gift+girdas,fame,rumour: CelebratedforhisGifts,orforhisAcquisitions;Kstutis:rootkent(whichwefindinDaukantaswho hassufferedmuch,Viskantawhohassufferedall)whence*kenttas>Kstas+suffixofendearment utis=KstutistheSufferingorPatientLittleOne;Birut,probablyfromaverbbirtitofall,toturn,to flow:possiblyitmeansShewhomakeswordsflow,whospeaksmuch;Vytautas,fromverbvytito chase,tofollow+tautaPeople,Nation=HewhochasesorpursuesPeoples;Jogaila,fromrootjo= Sanskritrootytogo;butinBalt(Lithuanian),jo=yhasdevelopedthesenseofmovingon horseback,andgailaisfromarootwhichprobablyoriginallymeantsuffering,passion,pangof sorrow(fromSlavequivalents):thenamewouldappeartomeanOnewhohasPassionforRiding. TheLatviannameViraitissignifiestheChiefofthetribe:inLithuanianthemeaningistheChiefofthe District.SoTalivaldis=Hewhoserulehasspreadcf.Lithuaniantolifar,distant+*valdytitoreign orrule.

WethushaveinthesurvivingBaltnamesthesameIndoEuropeantraditioncontinued,andthesenames formquiteadistinctivegroupwithintheIndoEuropeanfamily.

ACONSPECTUSOFBALTICRELIGIONWITHINTHEORBITOFINDO EUROPEANRELIGION:MYTHSANDLEGENDS
Inreligion,tospeakwithreferencetotheIndianscene,thepreChristianBalticreligion,asindicatedby thefolksongsandpoemsamongtheLatviansandLithuanians,canbedescribedinasinglephraseasa kindofPrimitiveVedism,asithasbeennotedbefore.BeforetheorganizationofcasteinIndia(andit isbecomingclearthatcasteoriginatedinIndiathroughvarioussocialandotherusageswhichwere growingupthroughthepassingofcenturies,anduntilrecent,evenpostBritish,times,castewasina fluidstateanddidnothavetherigidityitacquiredduringthelastcoupleofcenturies),therewasno hardandfastdivisionofthepeopleintoclasses.Therewere,ofcourse,asageneralIndoEuropean socialordering,thechiefsandfightingmenhavingtheplaceofhonour,andthentherewerethepriests andwisemen(sometimestheselatterhadprecedenceovertheformer),andfinallytherewasthe generalmassoffreemembersofthecommunitywhoseoccupationwasstockraising,agriculture,crafts andtrade.Theywerealwaysexpectedtotaketothecraftsandartswhennecessary,astherewerenot asyetsomethinglikethelaterGuildCastes.OutsideofthiscommunityoffreeIndoEuropeanmen andwomen,therewerepossiblyafourthclassconsistingofslaveswhowerewarcaptivestostartwith, whowererelegatedtomanualwork,andtheyweremostlyfromamongtheconqueredpeoplesofnon IndoEuropeanstockorpurchasedslavesbelongingtootherethnicgroups.Theprofessionofthepriest appearsnottohavebeenhereditary,andindividualswererelegatedtotherespectedpositionofpriests andseersbecauseoftheirknowledgeofthecurrentoralliteratureofsongsandhymnsandofthe nationalloreinreligionandmagic,fortheirexperienceandwisdomandfortheirage. WedonotknowofanyelaboratekindofreligiousritesandceremoniesamongtheBalts,suchaswe havetosaturationincertaintypesofpostVedicliteratureinIndia.Thefireritualbyraisinganaltarof stoneorbrickandkindlingafireonit,andofferingtothegods,throughthefire,burntsacrificesof meatandfat,butter,spirituousdrink,roastedbarleyorbarleybreadwaswellestablishedamongthe PrimitiveIndoEuropeansintheirundividedstate,judgingfromwordslike*ghutm(libationofferedto thefire)whichwehave,e.g.inbothAryanandGermanic(Sanskrithutas,Gothicgus,EnglishGod= thelibationpersonifiedasadivinity),andsimilarlyIE*aidhostwigsorwoodforthefireritual= dhas(Sanskrit)andd(Germanic,inOldEnglish,=funeralpyre).Thepointsofagreementinthe ritualthroughthefirewhichwehaveamongtheancientAryans,Greeks,Italian,CeltsandGermanshave tobeconsidered.Butitisnotunlikelythatherewehavesomeculturalinfluencefromtheancient SemiticworldoftheMiddleEast.Butonethingisclearthattheplacewherethereligiousserviceswere heldtohonourthegodsandtopraytothemforhelporsuccourusedtobeawoodorforestgrove,and hugebigtreesliketheoakformedparticularlytheoutstandingobjectsinaforestsanctuary.Therewere, ofcourse,hutmentsmaderoundabout,buttheceremonywasoutofdoorsintheopen.Thefireritual appearsnottohavebeenthemostancientIndoEuropeancustom.Butthesanctityoftheforestwithits bigtreeswassomethingwhichcontinuedasatraditionamongalltheancientIndoEuropeanpeoples.In ancientIndiaitwasnotsomuchthetemplewithimagesofthegodsasthehermitageinthemidstofthe forestawayfromthedwellingsofmen,whichwastheabodeofthesagesandseerstocarryontheir religiousritesandspeciallytoperformtheirdevotionsandtheirmeditationandtoponderoverthe

questionsofexistence.TheCelticpriests,Druids,performedtheirritualofworshipinoakforests;and oneoftheoldestandmostrespectedshrinesinGreecewastheSanctuaryofZeusintheoakgrovesof DodonainNorthwesternGreece.Inasimilarway,Balticreligionmaybesaidtohaveitsplaceof worshipinagroveofbigforesttrees. ThenatureofPrimitiveIndoEuropeanreligioncanbeestablishedtoalargeextentbylinguistic palaeontology.Inthismatter,almostasmuchastheVedichymns,theLithuanianandLatvianfolk poetryoftheDainasisagreathelp.AntoineMeillet,onthebasisofthewordsusedforsacredand religiousobjects,intheancientIndoEuropeanlanguages,hadattemptedtogiveusaconceptofthe GodheadamongthePrimitiveIndoEuropeans.Itwouldappearthattherewasageneralfaithamong theIndoEuropeansinaGodasortofaSupremeDeityamongwhoseconcernswasthewelfareof man.ThisDivinitywasconnectedwiththeSky,eitherbeingtheSkyitselforlivinginHeavenabove. Hewasgenerallyconceivedasaskydwellingdeity,andhewasbrightandfulloflight,hewasabovethis earth,heusedtogivefoodandhappinessandjoytoman(*bhogos,Sanskritbhagas,Iranianbaga,Slav bog);andhehadalsothefateordestructionofmaninhishand(*dhwesos,Greektheos).Thevarious forcesofNaturewerealsoconceivedasdivinities,butitwouldappearthataSupremeGodwasabove allofthem.InPrimitiveIndoEuropean,thecommonestnameofthisSupremeGodwasawordwhich canbereconstructedas*deiwos,andthisisthesourceoftheSanskritdvas,Lithuaniandievas,Latvian dievs,Latindeus,Germanic*twaz,andOldIrishda,meaning,generally,justGod,ortheSupreme God.ThisoriginalorbasicaspectofthePrimitiveIndoEuropean*Deiwosismadequiteclearfromthe LithuanianandLatvianfolkpoems. Man,visvisGod,wasconceivedamongtheIndoEuropeansasabeingconnectedwiththeearth(Latin homo,OldEnglishguma,Lithuanianmogus)andhewasamortalbeingdestinedtodie(Greekbrotos, Avestanmartiya,etc.);mortal,butabeingwhocouldthinkandusehismind(Sanskritmanus,mnavas, Germanic*manwa=mannfromIndoEuropeanroot*men,mon=tothink),whoalsocombined movementwithpowerofspeaking(Slavlovek=fromIndoEuropean*qwel=tomoveand*weqto speak).ManwasbothaFighter(*nrs=Sanskritn<*nrs,Greekanr,Umbriannerf)anda Producer(*weros,*wros=Sanskritvras,Greekhrs,Latinvr,OldIrishfer,Germanicwer). Woman,amongtheIndoEuropeans,wasprimarilytheChildbearer(*gwnis=Sanskritjnis,Greek gun,CelticOldIrishben,Gothicgns,Slaven),butshewasalsotheMistressoftheHome(Greek potnia,Sanskritpatn);andthereweremanywordsinthedifferentIndoEuropeanlanguagessignifying thebiologicalandsocialfunctionsofthewoman,aswellashergraceandbeauty(whichwassomething theimaginativeandaestheticallyadvancedIndoEuropeansbegantoadmireandlovefromearlytime); andthesewordsweregeneralizedaswordsforwoman(ShewhofeedsherchildLatinfemina;the SoftlimbedOneLatinmulier;theShiningorBeautifulOneSanskritbhmin;Sheinwhomweare pleasedandinwhomwetakeourjoySanskritrm,rama;ShewhoreceivestheseedSanskrit str;andprobablyalsoShewhoweavesGermanic,asinGermanWeib,Englishwife;etc.).

ThePrimitiveIndoEuropeanshadthusquiteanadvancedandathoughtfulconceptionofgodaswellas ofbothmanandwoman. InPrimitiveIndoEuropeanaregularpantheonwithgodsofanettandprecisecharacterappearsnotto havebeenfullyestablished.Godsandgoddesses,asinlaterVedicandPuranicmythology,inancient Greekmythology,inGermanicmythology,andinCelticmythology,eachwithhisorherwellestablished anddistinctivepersonality(althoughthispersonalitywouldmeltawayinageneralvaguenessor comprehensiveness)andeachwithhisorherexclusivelyindividualfunctions,donotseemtohave becomefullyestablishedamongPrimitiveIndoEuropeans.Thereweresomecommonnamesforthe divinitieswhicharefoundthroughoutthegreaterpartoftheIndoEuropeanworld,like,e.g.*Dyeusor theSky,orSkyGod(whichwasgenerallycalledtheSkyFather,IndoEuropean*DyeusPtrs, SanskritDyeuPitar,GreekZeusPatr,etc.);*PthwiyMtrsorMotherEarth,*Wtos(*Wyus)or theWind,*SuweliosortheSun,*OgnisortheFire,*MnsortheMoon,*Ausror*Auss,i.e. Dawn,*Pergunos(*Perkunos?)ortheThunderbearingGod(whowasconnectedinIndiawiththe Rains)theseweresomeofthecommondeitiesforIndoEuropeanpeoples.TheSunwasconceivedof bothasamaledeityandasagoddess.WehaveinSanskritafeminineSrybesidesSryas,andin GermanicandBaltictheSunisalwaysfeminineandtheMoonmasculine. ButtheBaltshavedevelopedsomeconceptionsoftheDivinitywhichwerepeculiarlytheirown.Apart fromthecommonIndoEuropeanelementsfoundeverywhere,wehaveamongtheBaltstheideaofthe SunGoddesswhowasmarriedtotheMoonGod,andthisSunGoddesswasadaughteroftheSupreme God.AcommonBalticmyth,asgiveninsomeofthedainasfrombothLithuanianandLatvian,wasthat oftheMoonGodmarryingtheSunGoddess,buttheMoonGodprovedunfaithfultohiswifeandtook theDawnGoddessortheMorningStarashisbeloved,abandoningtheSunGoddess;atwhichPerknas, theGodofThunder,cuttheMoonGodintopieces.TheSunGoddessalsohadanumberofdaughters, whowerealsohonouredasbeneficentdeities.ButthemostpopularDivinitiesamongtheBaltswere Dievas(LatvianDievs)=SanskritDvas,asortofaSupremeGod,theGod,orGodparexcellence, conceivedasabenignoldmandwellingintheskyandcomingdowntotheearthtodogoodtoman;and LaimaortheGoddessofDestinyandHappinessandWellbeinginLife.Sheisconceivedasayoungand lovelywomanintheoldBalticdresswhoisabeneficentdeitywithamostlovablecharacter;andLaima hadbothanindividualappealaswellasacosmicimportance.ThepresenceofLaimaasadeityfromthe historicpastoftheBalts,nowtransformedintotheplaneofideas,istobenoticedevennowinthe artisticandpoeticaswellasthesentimentalconsciousnessoftheBaltsofbothLatviaandLithuania. Artistshavedrawnherpictureandcarvedherfigureinstoneandwoodandmetal;andtosaytheleast, sheandPerknasandDievasaswellassomeotherBalticdeities(likeMa,andLigo,andTikla,among theLatvians)stillhaveaplaceintheheartsofallBaltsatleastasmuchastheGreekgodsand goddesseshaveintheheartsoftheculturedpersonsofWesternEuropewithaknowledgeofthe classics.LaimaisevennowamostpopularnameforgirlsinbothLatviaandLithuania. WecanformsomedefiniteideasabouttheancientBalticreligionandreligiousconceptsfromwhathas survivedinthedainasofboththeLatviansandLithuanians.Attemptshavebeenmadeinthisfieldof researchbyanumberofBaltistsandIndoEuropeanists.In1929theFrenchscholarMichelJonval broughtoutamostvaluablebookinFrench,givingagoodselectionofLatviandainasintheoriginal,

withFrenchtranslationopposite(LesChansonsMythologiquesLettones,printedinRigaunderthe auspicesofthePeasantUnionandpublishedfromFrance).Inthisbookthereisquiteanilluminating PrefaceontheearlierpreChristianreligionandmythology,andreligiousnotionsoftheLatvianBaltsare embeddedinthesefourlinestanzaswhichhavebeenculledfromthecorpusofthehugeLatvjuDainas ofKrijnisBarons,mentionedabove(seepp.60ff.).Jonvalhasmadeaselectionof1,219dainasinhis work,andtheseoldBaltpoemsofareligiousandmythologicalcharacterhavebeenarrangedbyhim underthefollowingheads: (1)DievsorGod(120stanzas),givingthecharacteroftheprincipalbeneficentdeityresidingintheSky andhavingdealingswithmenonearth,asinthereligiousconsciousnessofboththeLatviansand Lithuanians. (2)TheHeavenlyDivinities(stanzanumbers121463)inwhichthevariousGodsofHeaven,likethe Heavenitself,theSunGoddess,theMoonGod,thedaughtersoftheSun,thesonsofGodandthe daughtersoftheSunGoddess,theMorningStarorDawn,andPerknstheThunderGodofHeaven thesehavebeencelebrated. (3)Next,wehavepoemsnumbering464741relatingtotheGodsoftheEarththeMotherofthe Wind,theMotheroftheSea,theMotheroftheForestandthevariousMothers,andtheDivinities relatingtotheblessingsoftheEarth,theGodsandtheHeroes,andofCattleandSwineaswellasBees. ThesedainasrelatetotheagriculturallifeandsurroundingsoftheBalts.Mawasanimportantanda populardeityoftheEarthMothertypewhobroughthelpandfood. (4)ThefourthsectiondealswiththatgreatconceptoftheVirginGoddessofFateandHappinessand SocialWellbeing,theGoddessLaima,whoisalsoequallyhonouredbytheLithuaniansevenatthe presentday;andsheunquestionablyisaBalticcounterpartofaprotectiveGoddess,whopartakesof thenatureoftheGreatMotherGoddessofMediterraneanandNeareasternreligionsintheSouth,but sheisfreefromtheatmosphereorinhibitionofsex.ThisLaimasectioninJonvalsbooktakesupthe wholeseriesofpoemsnumberingfrom742to1,147. (5)Finally,wehaveasectionconsistingofpoems1,148to1,219,andtheydealwiththeGodsandSpirits ofDeath. Inthiswaywehave,onthebasisofthevastcollectionofBarons,analmostcompleteconspectusofthe mythologicalandreligiousnotionsoftheBalts,asmuchofitashasbeenpreservedintheliterature whichaccumulatedduringthelast2,000years. ThisLatvianmaterialhastobeintegratedandstudiedwithitsLithuaniancounterpart,toenableusto cometosomeconclusionsaboutthecommonoldBaltreligionandmythology,cultsandcustoms.Asin thecaseoftheLatvians,theGodworldoftheancientLithuanianshastobededucedorreconstructed fromtheextantdainas.Theworkoftheresearchersinthissubject(intheBalticaswellasWest Europeanlanguages)hasbeendiscussedandappraisedbytheLatvianscholar,HaraldsBiezais,inhisDie ReligionsquellenderbaltischenVoelkerandDieErgebnissederbisherigenForschungen(Uppsala,1954). BiezaisistheauthorofanumberofvaluablemonographsonLatvian(andBaltic)religion,likeDie

HauptgttinnenderaltenLetten(Uppsala,1955),DieGottesgestaltderLettischenVolksreligion (Stockholm,1961)andDasheiligeErnteopfermahlderLetten(Lund,1964).Dr.Biezais,whoisaLatvian settledinSwedenandisaProfessorinUppsalaUniversity,isadistinguishedauthorityofBaltic antiquitiesandreligion.AnearlierworkonOldLithuanianlifeandantiquitiesisVictorJungfersAlt Litauen(Berlin,1926:SecondPart,pp.71135onReligionandRitual).Otherbookstobementionedare P.Schmidt(mits),DieMythologiederLetten(pp.192214inDieLetten,Riga,1930)andhisearlierwork onthesamesubjectinLatvian,Riga,1926;K.StranbergsLettischeMythologie(Riga,1934),and WilhelmMannhardtsLatvieuPruuMitologiaorLettopreussischeGtterlehre(Riga,1936,pp.674, withfullstudywithreferencetothesourcesoftheOldPrussianformoftheBalticreligion).Quiteamass ofmaterialinbothLithuanianandEnglishistobefoundintheTautosakosDarbai(LithuanianFolklore Studies,Vol.I,1935;Vol.II,1936;andVol.III,1937:Kaunas),undertheeditorshipofJ.Balys,butthisis notasystematicworkonBalticreligion. AbriefsurveyofBaltic(speciallyLithuanianreligion)willbefoundintworecentworks,thatbyProfessor Dr.MarijaGimbutas,TheBalts(ThamesandHudson,London,1963),andtheGreenLinden,an AnthologyofLithuanianFolksongsinEnglish(NewYork,1964mentionedabove:ForewordbyRobert Payne,andIntroductionbyDr.Gimbutas,fromwhichIhavequotedheavily.Mentionmustalsobemade ofherworkinLithuanian,SenojiLietuviReligija(OldLithuanianReligion),M.Gimbutien,Aidai,1953. ThePrimitiveIndoEuropeansworshippedthedifferentforcesofNatureasGodsandGoddesseslikethe Sky,theEarth,theSun,theMoon,theDawn,Fire,Wind,Water,etc.,andtheirworshipwiththeoriginal IndoEuropeannameswascurrentamongallancientIndoEuropeanpeoples.TheIndoEuropeanGods hadtheirabodeintheSkyabove,andtheSkyitselfwaspersonifiedintoadivinity,asortofsuperiorGod whohadsomepreeminenceabovetherest.InSanskrit,LatinandOldIrish,theword*Deiwosbecamea commonnameforagod,butinGermanicandinBaltictherewasspecializationinmeaning.Germanic *Tiwazfrom*DeiwosbecamethegodTiw(asinOldEnglish),andTr(asinOldScandinavian)whoin GermanicmythologyisjustaGodofWar.InBalticDievasDievsbecameoneofthemostcharacteristic divinitiesoftheBalticpantheon,somethingofaSupremeGod,benevolentandhelpful,andnoterratic ortyrannical,andalsoaHelperofMen.SomeofthefeaturesofthevariousgodsintheIndoEuropean worldcametobeattachedtohim.InBalticconception,Dievaslivesinhispalaceintheheavenlyhillof DievasZides,andheeitherridesahorse,ordrivesinhischariotoftwohorses,withgoldentrappings.He isdepictedintheimaginationoftheBaltsasabeardedoldmanofthetypeofamedievalBaltickingor ofaChristianpriest(withhisupperlipshaven),andhedescendsandmovesonearthverygently.Heis attendedbyhistwinsons,theDievoSneliai(=SanskritDvasyaSn)whoalwaysrideontheirdivine horsesandaccompanyDievasschariot.TheyareliketheAvins,thetwoyounghorsemendeitiesofthe Vedas,andtheyalsoagreewiththetwoDioskouroiofGreekmythology,thebrothersofHelenofTroy. IntheLithuanianmythologicaldainas,asinthoseofLatvia,Dievasisalwaysreferredtowithtrustand loveforhisactivekindness.TherearemodernLatvianpicturesshowingDievsaccompaniedbyLaima andbyMa,GoddessofFoodandSustenancewithbreadandjarofdrink,meetingfarming householdersintheirownhome,andbringingthemfoodandwordsofcomfortandencouragement, likeChristvisitingthepoorhouseholderandhisfamilyatdinnerinModernWestEuropeanpietisticart.

TheSunisagoddessinBalticmythology,andtheMoonamalegod.AfamousLithuaniandainagivesthe storyofhowtheMoongodmarriedtheSungoddess,buttheMoongodwasfickle,heabandonedhis wifetheSunandwaswooingthegoddessoftheMorningStar.AtthisPerknas(LatvianPerkns)felt angry,andcutdowntheMoonintopieces.TheSunherselfisdescribedasthebelovedSun,the DaughteroftheSky(mielaSaulyt,Dievodukryt).Thehorse,alwayspresentbyher,ishervehicleand symbol.TheSungoddesshadanumberofdaughtersandtheyalwaysareroundaboutDievas,andtheir Mother,theSun;andtheytypefytheSunintheSkyinhervariousforms.TheBalticSungoddess,like theDawngoddessofIndia,Ups,alwaysmovesinherchariot. TheepithetsandthedescriptionsoftheSungoddessasintheLithuaniandainasfrequentlyremindone oftheVedicDawngoddessUsas.LaimaisagoddesswhoismostcloselyassociatedwithDievas,andher importanceastheArbiterofHumanDestinyandtheGiverofGiftstoManwasverygreat.Shewasalso thegoddessofFate,andshebroughthappinesstomenandwomen.Shewouldalwaysaccompany Dievasinhisvisitsonearthtomeetmenandwomen.ThememoryofLaimaisstillpreservedlovingly amongthepresentdayBalts,andeventoday,asmentionedbefore,Laimaisafavouritenameforgirls amongboththeLithuaniansandLatvians. Perknas(LatvianPerkns,OldPrussianPerkonis),theGodofThunder,wassomethinglikeaMoral Judge.HisnamehasbeenconnectedwiththeVedicParjanya,aGodofRainandThunder,butthereare difficultiesinequatingphoneticallythetwowords.ThenamePerknaswouldappeartobeconnected withanIndoEuropean*perkus,foundinLatinasquercus=oak,andtheoakwasthetreeassociated withPerknas:andSanskritcognateofLatinquercusfromtheIndoEuropean*perkuswouldbeparu, andthisisfoundinSanskrit,butitsoriginalsenseisnotclear,althoughitbecameconnectedwiththe commonSanskritwordfortheaxeparau,orparu=Greekpelekus,thiswordbeinglookedupon ultimatelyasanIndoEuropeanloanwordfromtheSemiticBabylonianpilakku.Perknasinhisaspectas theThundercanbeequatedwiththeIndianIndra,theGreekZeus,theLatinJuppiter.Thename Perknas(withprobablythecultalso)appearstohavepassedontotheCeltsfromtheBaltsinthe closingcenturiesofthefirstmillenniumB.C.,forwefindthenameinthatoftheHercynianForest(from *Herkuna)inCentralEuropewhenitwasthehomeoftheCelts(IndoEuropeanpappearstohavefirst changedtoh,andthenthishdisappearedinlaterCeltic).PerkunaswastheHeroGod,theGodof StrengthandVigour,theGodwho,likeIndra,foughtevilspiritsandbadmen. LikethebhusinancientIndia(=ElvesinGermanicmyth:IndoEuropean*bhu=Sanskritbhu, Germanic*alb),theBaltshadasimilarideaaboutheavenlyartificers.IntheLithuaniandainaswehave referencestoaHeavenlySmith,Kalvaitis,whowieldsagreathammerandmakesthegoldandsilver ornamentsofthegodsandgoddessestheirringsandcrownsandbeltsandstirrups.Hecorrespondsto theGreekHphaistos,theIndianTvaarandtheGermanic(OldEnglish)Wland(=VlundrintheEdda). Amongthevariousnaturalobjects,apartfromtheSunandtheMoonandtheStars,Firewasalso,asin thecaseofotherIndoEuropeanpeoples,worshippedasapowerfuldivinity,andFirewasagoddesslike theSun.ThecultoftheFireasamongtheItalians,theGreeksandtheIndoIraniansparticularlyamong theAryansofIndiawasquitecharacteristicoftheBaltsalso,judgingfromtheLithuaniandainas.The fireinthedomestichearthwasneverextinguished,asinthecaseofthemorereligiousAryans(the

grhapatyaorhouseholdfire).Therewerealsospecialsanctuaries,asmentionedintheLithuanian dainasandastestifiedbythemedievalChristianobservers,onhighhillsandonriverbankswherefire waskeptperpetuallyburning,tendedbypriestsorpriestessesappointedbythekings. CertainanimalsandbirdsalsohadaplaceinBalticreligion,mythandritualaswellasinfolkbelief.The horsehadapreeminentplace.Otheranimalswerethehegoat,theboar,andthestag,besidesthe swan.Therewasasnakecultalsothatofthesacredandbeneficentsnakeasmuchasamongthe HindusandtheancientGreeks.TheharmlessgreensnakealtysinLithuanianwashonouredbythe Baltsintheirdwellingsalso,muchaswehavestillhonourandtrustshowninmanypartsofIndiatothe vstusarpa,thesemidivineserpentattachedtothehome,apartfromthewidelyspreadandstill currentNgaorSnakeCult,ofmixedAryanandpreAryanorigin.Sidebysidewiththeharmlessaltys whichistreatedwithdeference,therewas(andisstill)amongtheLithuaniansandotherBaltstheidea ofthepoisonoussnake,theGyvat,whichisharmfultoman.Thesnake,however,isconnectedwith lifetherootofGyvatisthesameasgyv=Skt.jv,tolive,justasthesnakeisconnectedwithhealing inancientGreece. IcandonobetterthanclosethisbriefsectiononBalticReligionbyquotingonceagainfromDr.Marija Gimbutas,inherverybeautifulandconvincingsummaryofthedeeperandmorehumanaspectsofit (TheBalts,London,1963,p.204): TheBalticreligionhasfaithfullypreservedthebasicelementsofancienthistory,whichrelateitclosely totheearlyrecordedreligionsoftheIndoEuropeanpeoples,particularlytothatoftheIndoIranians,as seeninthecultofthedead,theburialrituals,thecuresoftheskyandairdeity,aswellasthesun, snake,horse,waterandfirecults;atthesametime,ithasremainedtruetothepeasantsperceptionof therealworldandtohisrichnaturalenvironment,sustaininghisprofoundvenerationfortheliving landforests,treesandflowersandhisintimaterelationshipwithanimalsandbirds.Inspeakingof thelegacyofBalticprehistory,wemeanabovealltheancientreligion,whichisincarnateinthecosmic andlyricalconceptionoftheworldofpresentdayLithuaniansandLatvians,andisanunceasing inspirationtotheirpoets,paintersandmusicians. GenerallyinsuchbriefsurveysalltheaspectsofBalticreligionaswellasritesandritualscannotbe treated.TheBalts,however,didnotdevelopanygreatcycleofheroictalesandlegends,orany appreciablemassofmythicalorromanticstories.Inthismatter,theIndianAryansandtheir descendantsareattheforefront,andinIndiawehavemythological,heroicandromantictalesof highestbeautyandmostuniversalappeal,bythescore.GreatstorieslikethatofUrvaandPurravas (thethemeofwhichtheloveofanearthlyheroandadivineheroineiscommonenough,bothamong theIndoEuropeansandotherpeoples),ofNalaandDamayanti,ofSvitrandSatyavn,anddozensof otherones,thevastheroiccycleoftheMahbhrata,thegreatstoryofRmaandStasinthe Rmyaa,storiesbythescoreintheBrahmanicalPuras,aswellasinBuddhistandJainaliterature; theromanticpoemsinOldTamil,andthoseintheModernIndoAryanlanguages;allthispresentsa uniquetreasuryoftalesandlegendsforhumanity.TheGreekscomenextintheiroutputofsuch literaturewithapermanentaestheticandhumanvalue.AfterthatwehavetheCelts(inOldandMiddle Irish,andinMiddleWelsh)andthentheGermanicpeoples(inOldEnglish,inOldScandinavian,in

MiddleHighGerman).TheBaltsandtheSlavshavenothingmuchtocomparewithalltherichnessofthe otherIndoEuropeanpeoples.ThefewheroicandromanticlegendsofthepreChristianBalticworld whichhavesurvivedhavealsobeencollectedandstudiedandarebeingusedasitemsofnational culturalheritage.Wehave,forexample,thebeautifulLithuanianlegendaboutEgl,theearthlymaiden withwhomthebenevolentdivineSerpentKingfellinlove,andsheacceptedthisserpentintheformof amanasherhusbandandlivedwithhimintheunderworldmosthappilyandhadchildrenbyhim.Her husbandwaslateronkilledtreacherouslybyherbrothers,andingriefthewifeturnedintotheFirTree (=egl,inbothLithuanianandLatvian)andherchildrenintoothertrees.Thisstoryaswellassomeother legendsamongtheBaltsshowaconnexionwiththeveryancientcultoftheserpent,mentionedabove, whichwouldappeartobeIndoEuropean.WeareremindedofthepopularKashmirilegendofNgry andHmlofaPrincessJasminegarland(Hml=SanskritYthml,PrakritYhmla)marryinga snakeking(Ngry=SanskritNgarja):seeFolktalesofKashmirbytheRev.J.HintonKnowles, London,KoganPaul,Trench,Trbner&Co.Ltd.,1893,pp.495504.Therearecertainagreements betweenthesestoriesofEglandHml,buttheIndianstoryismuchmoreelaborateitwastaken downfromthenarrationbyaKashmiriBrahman,butitisapopulartalewhichhasbeentreatedina narrativecumlyricalpoeminKashmiribytheMuslimpoetsWaliullahMattuandSaifuddinZariflatein thenineteenthcentury.ThisoldLatvianstorytoohasbeenpoeticallyretoldinversebySalomjaNeris, anditwaspublishedwithbeautifulillustrationsbySig.Valiuvien(Vilnius,1961).Thenthereisthe LithuanianstoryofJratandKastytis,andthisisquitearomanticandtragicstoryshowingthe disastrouslovebetweenaseanymphandaSonoftheEarth.Jrat,aSeagoddessorMermaidfellin lovewiththehandsomeyoungFishermanKastytiswhoalsoreturnedherlove,andtheywereunited. ButPerknastheGodofThunderbecameangryatthismarriage,andhehurledhisthunderandkilled theunfortunatelover.Hismermaidwifeisstillmourningherearthlylover,andfromthefragmentsof heramberpalaceinthebottomoftheseapeoplegetbitsofamberwashedbythewatersofthesea. Thisstorywasnoted,takendownandprintedin1845bytheLithuanianantiquarianLudovikas Juceviius,andithasbeeenreprintedin1950inhiscollectedworks(pp.430to439),butthefolkloreor traditionalbasisorversionofthisstoryhasnotbeenfound.Ithasalsobeenputinaballadinversebya greatLithuanianpoet,Maironis(18621932),andpublishedinanartisticvolumewithfineillustrations byD.TarabildienfromKaunas(Kovno)in1957(andalsoagainfromVilniusin1966).ThestoryofJrat andKastytishasbeencelebratedinabeautifulgroupinstoneerectedatPalangabythesculptor,N. Gaigalait,in1959.ThebeautifulromanticstoryofEglhasalsobeentreatedinpaintingandsculpture bythemostrenownedofLithuanianartists,e.g.bythesculptors,F.Daukartas,1957andR.Antinis, 1960.SogreatisthepopularityofthesetwolittlestoriesamongtheLithuaniansthattheyhaveboth beentreatedinballet,indramaandinfilm,andthesedrawlargeaudiences. TheheroiclegendsandstoriesoftheLithuaniankings,whogaveresistancetoGermanaggressionand withtheirbravepeoplelaiddowntheirlivesforthepreservationoftheircountryandtheirreligion,also formavaluableheritagefortheBaltsofthepresentday.Thereisthestoryoftheheroickingof Lithuaniainthehistoricalperiod,Gediminas(died1341)whichisalsoworthtreatmentinliteratureand art.ConstantineR.JurgelasbookTheHistoryoftheLithuanianNationformsagoodrepositoryofallthe earlyheroicandpatrioticachievementsofLithuania,andthisworkhasbeenquotedfrombefore(pp.44 ff.).

TheLithuaniansandLatvianshadaheroicagefromtheeleventhcenturyonwards,whentheywere resistingtheattacksbytheGermansandbythePoles.Itbecameaquestionofpreservingtheirvery existencefromtheonslaughtsofthemostdeterminedenemiesoftheBalticpeoples,theGermanic knights,whomadethepropagationofChristianityanexcusefortheirintentionofenslavingtheBaltic peoplesanddispossessingthemoftheirlandsandgoods.InthistheGermanssucceededtoaverylarge extent,andtheypracticallydestroyedthewesternmostsectionoftheBalts,namelythePrussians. Latvianwritersofthepresentdayhavetreatedinaseriesofremarkablyfinedramasandnovelsthe storyofthisconflictbetweentheBattsandtheGermans.WehavetomentionparticularlytheNational PoetofLatvia,oneofthegreatestoftheSovietUnionandoftheworld,JnisRainis,whohasdevoted oneofhisfinestdramasIndulisunArija,tothistheme.AmongtheLatvians,thereminiscencesofearly mythologicaltalesarejustalittlelesserinextentthanamongtheLithuanians.Butfromoldlegendsthe Latvianpoet,AndrejsPumpurs(18411902),createdanewNationalEpicoftheLatvianpeople,the LaplsisorTheBearSlayerortheBearPiercerthenamecanbeSanskritizedaskasp,kan dara,orkahan.Thiswaspublishedin1888,andformedalandmarkinmodernBalticliterature.In thispoem,certainheroicandromanticlegendsaswellashighlypoeticallegoriesaboutaheroic characterinLatvianmythology,theBearslayingHero,havebeenwovenwithotherancientheroic legendsintoasfinealittleNationalEpicpoem(consistingofnotmorethan5,500linesindifferent metres)asany.RepresentationsofLaplsisasanationalheroofmythhavealsobeenassayedby Latvianpaintersandsculptors.LaplsisevidentlywasanancientBalticcultureherowhofreedpartsof hiscountryfromthedepredationsofwildanimals,particularlybears.Hewasofmiraculousbirth,his motherhavingbeenabear.Buthefoughtwithevilspiritsdemonsandgiantsandheacquiredthe primevalwisdomofthesagesofhispeople.Inhisstory,thereweretwoheroines,Laimdota,whomhe loved,andSpidala(orSpidola)whowasawomanofthenatureofasorceresswhoalsowantedhislove. Thestorywasatragedyinwhich,Laplsisandthedemoniaccharacter,conceivedasaGermaninvader anddepictingthespiritofEvil,foughtwitheachother,andbothfinallyplungedintothewatersofthe Daugavariverandweredrownedthere.Laplsisasamythicherocannotbeplacedintimehe,of course,belongstoLatvia.Pumpurs,toemphasizehischaracterastheNationalHeroofLatvia,brought himdowntothetwelfththirteenthcenturies,theheroicromanticageofLatvia,whentheLatvianswere engagedinalifeanddeathstrugglewiththeinvadingGermans.ThustheLaplsisstory,mucholder thantheageoftheGermanconquest,hasinPumpurssepicbeeninterwovenwiththatoftheGerman andChristianinvaders,andthecharactersofLaimdotaandSpidalahavebeengivenapsychologicalas wellasamysticaltrend.Altogether,thisworkofabout5,500lines,presentsauniqueandamodernized setupfortheoldmythofaratherprimitivecharacterfromtheBalticworld. ThisstoryofLaplsisinitsnowpresentationhadagreatinfluenceonthemindofLatvia.Thenational poetofLatvia,JnisRainis(18651929),wrote(1911)hisgreatmysticromanticdramaofUgunsun NaktsorFireandNightonthestoryofLaplsisandLaimdotaandSpidola(ashealtersthename Spidala),andonthefinalfightoftheSpiritofEvilwithLaplsisandtheirleapintothewatersofthe Daugava.SpidolainRainissdramahasbecomesublimatedintoamysticandidealisticfigure,andthis hasexaltedthestoryoftheherointotheplaneofahigherhumanism.Therehasbeenthusinthehands ofRainisandothersamostremarkabletreatmentoftheoldBalticheroicandromanticthemes,andthe interpretationofsomeoftheincidentsandepisodesiscapableofhavingameaningforthemodernage

also,withtheirhighidealofemancipatingmanfromallthatiskeepinghimincheckandunderthe controlofothers.ThespiritualaswellasthedynamiccharacterofOldBalticlegendsappearstohave foundabelatedbutneverthelessaverywelcomeexpressioninthehandsofthenineteenthand twentiethcenturywriters.ItwillappearthatthespiritoftheBalticpeopleandtheiridealismasintheir preChristianreligionisstillsurviving,almostasmuchasamongthedescendantsoftheAryans,the Hindus.

BALTICHISTORYMEDIEVALANDMODERN:RECENTCULTURAL ADVANCEMENTINARTSANDLETTERS
ThemedievalandmodernhistoryoftheBalticpeoplesisasubjectofverygreatandabsorbinghuman interest.Ashasbeenreferredtobefore,therewasatfirstthroughRussianagencyagooddealofa nationalawakeningamongtheLatviansandLithuanians,asagainsttheexploitationbytheGerman landlordsandthePolishconnexionwhichmadetheBaltsquitesecondclasscitizensintheirown country,wheretheyhadbuiltupapowerfulempireontheirown.TheabolitionofserfdombytheTsar ofRussiain1861spedtheBalticpeoplesonthewaytofreedom,whichcametothemaftertheFirst WorldWarin1921.TheLithuaniansandLatviansandtheEsthoniansgotbacktheircountry,andwere hopingtoliveafreeandselfcentredlife.TheLithuaniansparticularlyweredreamingofrevivingthe gloriesoftheirextensiveempire,whichtheyhadbuiltupinthefourteenthfifteenthcenturies, spreadingfromtheBaltictotheBlackSea,andincludingUkrainaandaconsiderablepartofRussiaupto andbeyondthetownsofTulaandKharkov.TheLatvianswerefreedfromtheoppressionsoftheir Germanmasters.Thentherewere20yearsofinternalreconstruction. AmongthemostillustriousnamesinthepresentdayliteraturesoftheBalticpeopleswehaveto mentionthefollowing: (i)Inthenineteenthandtwentiethcenturies,inLithuanian:Julijaymantien(18451921);Sofijaand MarijaIvanauskaits,twosisters,whodepictedthelifeofthepeopleinthevillages;ViliusStorastaor Vydnas(b.1868);JurgisBaltruaitis(18731944);VincasKrvMickeviius(b.1882);J.LindDobilas (18721934)andJonasBilinas(18791907);BalysSruoga(b.1896);FaustasKira(b.1891);Vincas MykolaitisPutinas(b.1893);KazysBinkis(18931942);andamongmorerecentwriters,Kossu Aleksandraviius(b.1904),BarnardasBrazdionis(1897),JuozasGruas(1901),andpresentdaywriters ofthecommunistregimelikePetrasCvirka(1909)andJ.Marcinkeviius(b.1901);and (ii)InLatvian,thefollowingmodernwritersareoutstanding:AndrejsPumpurs,thewriteroftheheroic andtheromantic,ofthemysticandtheidealistic,andauthorofthemodernnationalepic,theLaplsis, hasbeenmentionedbefore;therealistJnisJansons(18711917)andTeodorsZeifferts(18651929); thenovelistandshortstorywriters,likeEdvardsVeidenbaums(18671892),ZvarguluEdvards(1866) andRudolfsBlaumanis(18611908).ThemostoutstandingofpresentdayLatvianwriterswereJnis Rainis(JnisPlieksan:18651929),whosegreatworkinseekingtorevivethesouloftheLatviansasa Balticpeopleandalsoasalivingmodernpeoplethroughhisallegoricalandhistoricaldramasandpoems hasbeenmentionedabove.Hiswife,Aspazija(ElsaRosenberga),wasoneofthemostprominent womanwritersofLatvia.WehavetonamealsoKrlisSkalbe(b.1879),EdvardsVirza(b.1883)andhis wifeElzaSterste(b.1885),ViktorsEglitis(b.1877),JkabsJansevkis(18651931),andquiteanumberof others,inbothproseandpoetry.KrlisEgle(b.1887)hasmadealargenumberoftranslationsinto LatvianfromRabindranathTagore;andamongoutstandinglivingpoetsofLatvia,wehavetomention speciallyValdisLukas,JnisSudrabkalnis,andthegreatpoetessMme.Mirdzaempe.

TheselasttwogreatwritersofLatvia,J.SudrabkalnisandMirdzaempe,havebeenrecently(1967) declaredtobeeachofthemaNationalPoetofLatvia,adistinctionwhichhassofarbeenaccordedby publicopiniontoonlyoneotherwriterofLatvianpreviously,viz.JnisRainis. Tomymind,however,thedevelopmentoftheFineArts,particularlysculpture,intheStatesofLatvia andLithuania,issomethingmostnoteworthyintheirculturalandartisticrevival.Amongtwosmall nationsofsomefivemillionpeopleinall,itisastonishingtofindsuchatremendousprogressinthe plasticarts.InMusic,thepresentdayBaltshavebeenaddingtotheachievementsoftheirancestors,in whattheyhavedoneintheirfolkmusic.Manynationswhicharemuchlargerinnumberandhave playedabiggerpartininternationalaffairs,culturalorpolitical,includingIndia,arebehindtheBaltic landsintheirartisticoutput,insculptureparticularly.Artists(speciallysculptors)havecomeforward whosecreationshaveaddedlustretothecultureofthemodernBalticpeoples.

THEBALTICSPEECHANDSANSKRIT
Somethinghasbeensaidbefore(pp.66,67)abouttheareasoccupiedbythevariousBaltictribes.The originalBalticspeechtookvariouslocalortribalformsaccordingtothelocationofthesetribeswithin theorbitoftheBaltictract.IntheMap(attheendofthisbook,formingPlateI)willbefoundarough indicationofthesetribesastheywereinthetwelfthandthirteenthcenturies.Insubsequentcenturies, theBalticareahasbeenverymuchcurtailed,particularlyintheWestandSouth,throughthe GermanizationandPoionizationofthePrussianandtheSuduviantribesoftheBalts.BalticandAryan arebothwithintheSatemGroupofIndoEuropean,andtheirinterrelation,alreadyindicated,inthe broadestoutlines(p.5),maybegiveninsomegreaterdetailasbelow,andinpp.140141: PrimitiveIndoHittite(?ProtoIndoEuropean) HittiteIndoEuropean

TheancientHittitespeechisnolongerliving.UnderthehypotheticalIndoEuropean,whichhasbeen soughttobereconstructedwiththehelpofLinguistics,wehavetwomaingroups(1)Western (Centum)and(2)Eastern(Satem). TheWesternorCentumhasthefollowingsubgroups: (1)Hellenic:Mycenian,AncientorClassical,ByzantineorMedieval,andRomaicorModernGreek. (2)Italic:Latin,etc.,andfromLatin,theModernRomanicLanguagesItalian,French,Provenaland Catalan,Castilian.Galician,Portuguese,Ruma.nseh,Rumanian.TheotherItalicdialects,sisterspeeches ofLatin,e.g.UmbrianandOscan(Sabellian,etc.)areextinct. (3)Celtic:AncientGallic,Welsh,theextinctCornish,Breton;OldIrish,Irish,Gaelicandtheextinct Manx. (4)Germanic:Gothic,Scandinavian(Swedish,Norwegian.Danish.Icelandic);Frisian,English,Dutch, PlattDeutsch;HighGerman. (5)Tokharic(OldKnchean,andKarasharian,KuchaandAgni,twodialects):nowextinct.Tokharicwas currentinCentralAsiauptotheeighthninthcenturiesA.D. IntheEasternorSatemgroup,wehave (1)AryanorIndoIranian:

(a)Iranian:Avestan,OldPersian;Pahlavi;KushanaSpeech;Sogdian;Scythie,Ossete;Modern Persian;Kurdish;Baloch;Pashtu;Ormuri;theGhalchalanguagesofthePamir. (b)Dardic:Kashmiri,Shina,withdialects;KafirdialectslikeBashgali,Pashai,etc.,andKhowaror Chitrali. (c)IndoAryanorSanskritic:OldIndoAryanVedic,ClassicalSanskrit;MiddleIndoAryanthe Prakrits,Pali,etc.,Apabhramsa:andNeworModernIndoAryan Speeches(Bhashas)Hindki(Lahndi),Panjabi,Sindhi,Rajasthani,Gujarati,Hindi,Kosali(Awadhi,etc.), MarathiandKonkani,Bhojpuri,Magahi,Maithil,Oriya,Bengali,Assamese,andtheHimalayandialects. (2)Armenian. (3)Baltic:Lithuanian,LatvianandOldPrussian. (4)Slavic:Russian(VelikorusskyorGreatRussian,ByelorusskyorWhiteRussian,andMalorusskyor LittleRussianorUkrainan);Polish;CzechandSlovak;Slovene;YugoslavorSouthSlav;Macedonian; Bulgarian. ItisbelievedthattheBalticbranchinitslinguisticcharacteristicstookadefiniteformbythemiddleof theSecondMillenniumB.C.andtheoriginalBalticdialecttookshapeasadistinctformofIndoEuropean towhichthenameProtoBaltichasbeengiven.TheinterrelationamongthedialectswithinProto Balticmayberoughlyindicatedasfollows: PrimitiveIndoEuropean ProtoBaltic(c.15001000B.C.) (500300B.C.)EastBaltic WestBaltic(400600A.D.) (200B.C.200A.D.) EarliestOldPrussian Lithuanian(7001100A.D.),Latvian OldPrussian(c.1200A.D.),(withmixturewithotherDialects, extinctby1700A.D.someofwhichnowareextinct) LithuanianLatvian DialectsDialects

HowsomeoftheearlymedievalEastBalticdialectsbecamemergedwiththetwomaingroups, LithuanianandLatvian,andhowotherBalticdialectsbecameextinct,are,ofcourse,mattersfor detailedstudyunderBalticLinguisticsandDialectology.AlthoughLatvianisamoreadvancedspeech andnotsoconservativeasLithuanian,andhasinmanycasesbecomemoresimplifiedthroughlossof vowelsintheinterioraswellasinfinalsyllables,bothofthesespeechesrepresenttheOldBaltic sufficientlyclosely,andareincertainrespectscomplementarytoeachother.Onegreatarchaic characterintheBalticlanguagesoftodayisinthepreservationofthefinalasofthemasculinenoun endingincertainvowels(itwas*osinPrimitiveIndoEuropean)inthemasculinesingularnominative. ThusIndoEuropean*deiwosbecamedvas>dvainSanskrit(throughProtoVedic*daiwas),and deusinLatin,butthis*os(>as,ainSanskrit,usinLatin)isnowlostintheentireIndoEuropean world,butLithuanianstillpreservesitasintheformdievas(earlier*dwas):inLatviantheahas droppedoff,butthesisretained,asindievs. LatvianshowssomemorerecentmodificationsintheOldBaltsoundsystem,whereLithuanianis conservative.ThustheOldBalt(orPrimitiveBalt)gutturalsoundsofkandgarestillpreservedin Lithuanian,butLatvianshowswhatisknownasZetacism,orchangeofthiskandgtots(writtenc)and dzrespectively,throughanintermediatestageofpalatalizedpronunciation.ThusLith.penkifive (fromIndoEuropean*pengwe=Sanskritpaca),butLatv.pieci(=pietsi);Lith.giesmsong(from IndoEuropeanroot*gi,inSkt.gi*gma),Latv.dziesma;Lith.gintarasamber,Latv.dzintars. TheformsofwordsgenerallyareolderandfullerinLithuanian,comparedwithLatvian: e.g.Lith.imtas,Latv.simtsorsimthundred;afullormodifiednasalsoundderivedfromPrimitive BalticisstillpreservedinLithuanian,butithasbeenjustdroppedinLatvian:e.g.Lith.kanklspsaltery, harp,Latv.kokle;Lith.antras,Latv.otrs,otraissecond(equatingwithEnglishotherfrom*anar); Lith.ventinti,Latv.svtittobeholy;etc. ItisgenerallystatedthatLithuanian(withLatvian)resemblesSanskritmorethananyotherliving languageoftheIndoEuropeanfamily.Thisistosomeextentanexaggeration,butitisnevertheless largelytruewhenweconsidertheamountofcommonIndoEuropeanroots,affixesandwordswhich havebeenpreservedinbothSanskrit(Vedic)andtheBalticlanguages.Therearesomeverynoteworthy pointsofagreement,butalsoitmustbesaidatthesamebreaththattherearepointsofdisagreement also,whichweretheresultoffurtherindependentdevelopmentsintheBalticlanguages,particularly withlossofearlierfeatures,andtherewerealsosomesimilarnewdevelopmentsinAryan.Itisalsoto benotedthatallthedifferentbranchesofIndoEuropeansbeginningwithHittitewhichissisterto PrimitiveIndoEuropeanhavesimilarlyamongthemselvescommonaswellasspecialpointsof agreement:e.g.VedicandGreek,VedicandGothic,VedicandLatin,VedicandOldIrish;soGreekand Gothic,GreekandSlav,GreekandBaltic;CelticandBaltic,CelticandSlav,CelticandGermanic,etc. SometimesevensentencesinLithuanianandinSanskrithaveastartlingagreementwitheachother agreementofthistypewefindalsobetweenSanskritandtheotherancientIndoEuropeanlanguages likeGreek,likeLatin,likeGothic,likeOldIrish,likeOldChurchSlav.(Referencemaybemadeinthis connexiontothemostusefulseriesofarticlespublishedsomeyearsagobythelateDr.BataKrishna GhoshoftheUniversityofCalcuttaonSanskritandGreek,SanskritandLatin,SanskritandGermanic, etc.,butthisvaluableseriescouldnotbecompletedowingtohisuntimelydeath.)Thus,togiveoneor twosentencesfromSanskritandBaltic: Sanskritkatarastvam(=tuam)asiandLithuaniankatrastuesi=whichofthesetwo(Englishwhether= katras)artthou?;Dievasdavdantis,Dievasduosduonos(Lithuanian)=Dvasadtdatas(<*dtas),

Dvasdsyatidhns(Sanskrit)=Deusdeditdentes,Deusdabitpanem(Latin)=Godgavetheteeth, Godwillgivethebread(fromMarijaGimbutas,TheBalts,London,1963,p.37). Alargescalepalatalizedpronunciationofconsonantsbeforethefrontvowelsisapointinwhichthereis anoteworthysimilaritybetweenBaltic(Latvianspecially)andSlavic,andthisisnotfoundinSanskritor otherIndoEuropeanlanguagesofantiquity.ThedeclinationalsystemsoftheNounandthePronounas wellastheAdjectiveintheBalticLithuanianandtheAryanSanskrithavearemarkablesimilarity,and theoldIndoEuropeanstructureispreservedinBalticinspiteofgeneralizationsandlevellings.Inthe Verbsystem,however,therehavebeenagoodmanymodificationsandinnovationsoneitherside.The IndoEuropeanVerbsystemhasbeenverylargelycurtailedinBalticasmuchasinGermanic,quite unlikeSanskritandGreekwhicharemuchfullerandgonearesttothePrimitiveIndoEuropeaninthis matter.TheoldTensesystem,quiteanextensiveandacomplicatedone,asitwasdevelopingin PrimitiveIndoEuropean,hasbeendrasticallyreducedinBaltic,andallthatremainedoftheoldTenses wastheIndicativePresentandFuture.IntheVerb,amattertobespeciallynotedistheconservationof thesameformative affixinsforthefuture,e.g.SanskritdsymiIshallgive=Lithuanianduosiu,SanskritvartsymiI shallturn=Lithuanianversiu. TheBalticlanguages,LithuanianandLatvian,arebothwrittenandprintedintheRomanalphabet,and thesurvivingspecimensofOldPrussianarealsoinRoman.TheGermanblackletter(orGothic)formof Romanwasformerlyinuse,butatthepresentdaytheordinaryRomanorLatinscriptasemployedfor theWestEuropeanlanguagesisusedforbothLithuanianandLatvian.Thereareafewdottedand cappedlettersforthespecialsoundsofBaltic.TheSoundsystemofBalticisfairlysimple.Lithuanian consonantspresentnodifficulty,onlyinLatviantherearesomespecialpalatalizedsoundsorletters.The Alphabetswiththeirspeciallettersforthetwolanguagesareasfollows(theVowelSoundsareasin Italian,unlessspeciallyindicated): (1)LITHUANIAN a;(long);b;c(=ts,asinEnglishwits);(=ch,asinEnglishchurch);d;e;(=easinend,butformerly therewasanasalsoundwiththis,whichisnowlost);(=long);(=adiphthong,likeieorye);f;g (alwaysasinEnglishgo,get);h;i;(=originallynasalizedi,nowsimplei);y(=long);j(=yasinEnglish yes);k;l;m;n;o;p;r;s;(likeEnglishshinshall,shoot);t;u(asinEnglishput);(longu);(formerly nasalized,nownasalizationislost);v;z;(asinFrenchje=Englishsinpleasure).Therearetonesin thelanguage,whichareindicatedbythesigns(`)abovevowels,andabovenandr(,r). (2)LATVIAN a;;b;c(=ts);(=Englishch);d;dz;di(=Englishjanddgasinjudge);e;;f;g;g(=palatalizedg,like gy);h(inforeignwordsonly);i;e;ie(adiphthong);k;(palatalizedk=ky);l;l(palatalized,=ly);m;n; (palatalized=ny);o(=uo;butlikeItalianoinforeignwords);r;(=palatalizedry);s;(=Englishshas inshall,shoot);t;u;;v;z;(asinFrenchje,Englishpleasure). ThecloseagreementofSanskritwithLithuanian,whichalsodemonstratestheconservativecharacterof theBalticspeech,canbeseenfromacomparativestatementofthedeclensionofacommonnounin LithuanianasaBalticspeechwithitsequivalentinSanskrit.(FromProfessorRiardasMironassarticlein

theLithuanianJournaloftheVilnaUniversity,HistoricalPhilologicalSection,Vol.4,1958,pp.6580.) (SeeTablesonpp.147148.) ComparativeLinguisticsofIndoEuropean,withspecialreferencetoBalticandIndoAryan,willdisclose theveryremarkableagreementbetweenthesetwobranchesofIndoEuropean,asshowninthecaseof thebasicNounDeclensionabove.Allothercategoriesofwordsintheirphonologyaswellas morphologyshowsimilaragreements.Thestructuresofthetwolanguages,BalticandAryan,continue tobethesamethecommonestroots,affixesandwordsareofthesameoriginandtype,inspiteof differencesinoutwardphoneticappearance.Thus,inthePronouns,forI,wehaveLithuanianas, LatvianandOldPrussianes,andthesearethesameasSanskritaham=Avestanazam,OldPersian adam:theIndoEuropeanwordforIwas*egomor*eghom:fromthefirstform*egom,wehave Greekeg(n),Latinego,

DeclensionofSanskritdva=LithuaniandievasGod
Singular: Nom. Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Geni. Loc. Voc. Dual: Nom. Lithuanian divas diva(< *dievan) dievu divui(< *dievoui) divo diev dive Sanskrit dvas(dva) devam *dev(cf. nar,vk) dvya (*dvi+a) dvt dvasaya dv dva dv,devu dvs,dvsas dvn(< *devns) dvis dvbhyas dvnm, *dvam dvu Prim.Indo European *deiwos *deiwom *deiw *deiwi(*deiwo+ ai) *deiwt, *deiwod*deiwosyo, *deiwo/eso *deiwoei *deiwe ? *deiws *deiwons *deiwis, *deiwoibhis *deiwoibhyes, *deiwomis *deiwm *deiwoisu

diev Plural: Nom.andVoc. Ace. dieva Ins. Dat.andAbl. dievs dievas Geni. dievms Loc. diev(< *deiwuon) dievussu (dievuose)

DeclensionofLithuanianava=Sanskritavmare
Singular: Nom. Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl.andGen. Loc. Voc. Lithuanian Sanskrit Prim.Indo European *ekw *ekwm *ekw *ekwai *ekws *ekwi *ekwai *ekwai *ekws *ekwms ? *ekwbhyas, *ekwomis *ekwm *ekwsu

ava av ava(<*avm) avm ava av(Vedic) avai avyai avos avys avoje(*avai+ avym en) av ava Dual: av Nom.,Voc.and avi Acc. avs Plural: avos avs(< Nom.andVoc. avas *avns) Acc. avonis avbhis Inst. avams(< avbhyas Dat.andAbl. avomus) avnm Gen. avu(<avun) (*avm) Loc. avosu avsu

Germanic*ikamwhenceGothicik,HighGermanIch,Englishic>I;andfromthesecond,whichfirst became*aham,wehaveSanskritaham,Avestanazm,Armenianes(from*ets),OldSlavaz,andthe Balticforms;Lithuaniansingularobliquebaseman=OldPersianman,Sanskritmama;andsimilarlyfor theotherpronominalforms,e.g.Lithuanianpatsself,fem.pati=Sanskritpatis. Assaidbefore,thePrim.IEVerbalConjugationhasbeenverymuchsimplifiedinBaltic,andallmoods andtensesofIndoEuropeanhavebeenlost,exceptingIndicativePresentandFuture.InBaltic,therehas developedanewPreteritTenseform(replacingtheOldIndoEuropeanAorist,whichisknownto ancientgrammariansofSanskritaslu,theImperfect=Sanskritla,andthePerfect=Sanskritli).This newBalticPreterit,notfoundinSanskritandtherest,ismadewithadditionofastemvowelaore(as e.g.inLithuanianvdme,Latvianvedmweled;Lith.sjome,Latv.sejmwesowed,besidethe PresentformsLith.vedame,sjame,Latv.vdam,sejamwelead,wesow. Onp.150aregiventheformsfortheSubstantiveVerbinLithuanianandSanskrit,inthePresentand FutureTensesonly. AgreementsbetweenBalticandAryanintheircommonvocabularyasderivedequallyfromPrimitive IndoEuropeanarequitenumerous,andtheycoveralltheaspectsoflifeasitwascurrentthree

thousandyearsandmorefromnow,bothinCentral,NorthernandWesternRussia,theoriginalBaltic home,andinNorthwesternIndia,thenidusoftheAryansinIndia. InordertoshowtheverycloseagreementbetweenAryan(Vedic)andtheBaltic(Lithuanian),beloware given(1)somesentencesintheOldIndoAryanspeech,with

TheSubstantiveVerbinLithuanianandSanskrit
PresentTense Lithuanian: Sanskrit: Singular esu(earlier form,esmi) esi yra(earlier formesti? adifferent root?) asmi asi asti FutureTense Lithuanian: Sanskrit: Singular bsiu bsii bus bhaviymi bhaviyasi bhaviyati Dual busiwa busita x Plural bsime bsite(bus) x Dual esawa esata x svas(sva) sthas(stha) stas(sta) Plural esame x yra,esti smas(sma) stha santi

bhaviyva bhaviyma bhaviyatha bhaviyatha bhaviyata bhaviyanti

(2)theirrestorationinPrimitiveIndoEuropean,followedby(3)aBaltic(Lithuanian)rendering(with PrimitiveBalticequivalentswhereavailable),andintheendareadded(4)LinguisticNotes.(Ihaveto acknowledgegratefullythatIamindebtedfortheLithuanianversionsandforthephilologicalor linguisticnotestoDr.RasmaGrisleoftheInstituteofLanguageandLiteratureoftheAcademyof

SciencesofLatvia,LecturerinLinguisticsandSanskritintheUniversityofRigainLatvia.Icouldalso revisethissectionwiththehelpofProfessorDr.AntanasKlimas,DepartmentofLanguagesand Linguistics,UniversityofRochester,N.Y.,U.S.A.,andDr.Mrs.TamaraBuchofWarsaw,Poland,whomI couldconsultatthe10thInternationalCongressofLinguistsinBucharest.Rumania,inAugust September1967.) I.(1)mtar,tava(*tvna)snutyati,asmiudnam(udram)bhara. (2)*mter,tewo(twnos)snustsyeti,esmiudnom(udrom)bhere. (3)motin/moter/,tavosnustrokta,jamvandennek[Prim.Baltic:*mate(r),tavassunus traksista,jamuiudnimneei]. (4)TheLithuanianwordmot(gen.sing.moters)nowmeansawife,amarriedwoman;butin dialecticalLithuanian,theoldsenseofmotherisstillpreserved.InLatvian,mate,mote=mother;in OldPrussian,muti,mother,pomatre=stepmother. *tewo=Lith.tavo,tavas;Latv.tavs;OldPruss.twais. *snus=Lith.snus,Old.Pruss.souns. *tyeti=Lith.troktitohavethirst, presenttensetroktu<*trosskstu:notfoundinLatvianorOldPrussian. *esmi=Lith.jis(<*is,dativejam,*jamui),Latv.dialectaljis;lackinginOldPruss. *udnom:Lith.vanduo(gen.sing.vandens),dialectalunduowater=Latv.udens,OldPruss.unds, wundan. *bhere:*bher,tobear,tocarry,foundinLith.asbernasyoungman,child,literallyone carried;Latv.bernschild;notinOldPruss. II.(1)Sahadvasyabhrtrutavaha(orHutavana)avasyauparisasda,*druvmmadhye gacchan(*gaman)pacavknsasca. (2)*SeghodeiwosyobhrtrsKlutoweghos(Ghutowenos)ekwosyouperisesode,druwm medhyoigwmskonts(gwomonts)pengwewqwonssesoqwe. (3)...dievobrolis(Garsia)vazisantavienioatsisdo,meditarpejodamaspenkisvilkussek. [Prim.Baltic:...bralijas...avas(avan,avai)sede(sadio?)/...medie/je/eja...penkivilkuons seke(sekio).] (4)*seghes,Skt.sahas,notpreservedinBaltic.*deiwos=Skt.dva,Lith.dievas,Latv.dievs,Old Pruss.deiwa=god;*bhrtrs=Lith.brolis,Latv.bralis,OldPruss.brati

(vocative);diminutive,Lith.broterlis,Latv.brateritis. *Klutoweghos:*kleu=Lith.klausytitohear,lovhonour:Latv.sludinattotellsolemnly, klausittohear;OldPruss.klausitontohearandagree.*wegh=tocarry,cf.Lith.veimas wagon,Latv.vaz(u)ms,ibid.,OldPruss.vessisorvezisridingsledge. *Ghutowenos:Lith.avtitoyearn,tobewitch;Latv.zavet=toactmagic;*wenos,*wennot preservedinBaltic. *uperi,notinBaltic:Lith.ant=upon,cf.Skt.antika. *sesode:Lith.sstitositdown,sdtitosit,Latv.sest,sedettosit,OldPruss.sidons sitting. *druwam:Lith.drevhollowofatreestem,darva,dervatinderwoodtolightfire,treeresin, Latv.drevetree. *medhyoi=Lith.medis,mediestree,wood(=thatwhichisbetweenhouses):soLatv.mezs= wood,OldPruss.medianwood. *gwmskonts*gwomonts:Lith.gimtitobeborn,Latv.dzimt,gimseninbirth. *penqwe=Lith.penkifive,Latv.pieci. *wlqwons=Lith.vilkas,acce.pl.vilkus;Latv.vilks,acc.pl.vilkus;OldPruss.wilkis.*sesogwe: Lith.sektitofollow,Latv.sekt. III.(1)sjniaktvbubdha(bdhat),gmdgdhi,ghammri,*manwmadanyamsam chinatti,pacatica. (2)*sgwnisgtwbhebhoudhe(bheudhetai),gwm(gww)dheughti,ghordhom/ghdhom melgti(melgeti),monwmedonoiemmsomskoideti(skinedti),pegwetiqwe. (3)tamonapasitepusibud,karv(Latv.govi)melia,gardluoja,vyrvalgymui(dimui)ms skaidoirkepa. [Prim.Baltic:...gnaankstisbuda(budo),guovin(govin:guovi/n/s)melia,(?)gardai...edeinai meisanskaida,irakepa(kepti).] (4)*s:OldPruss.sta(<*sa+*ta)=she. *gwnis:OldPruss.genno,gennaWoman.*gtw:Lith.ankstiearly,naktisnight=Latv. naktsnight,OldPruss.angstainai=earlymorning,naktin(acc.sing.)=night. *bheudh:Lith.budtitowake,Latv.busttobeawake,OldPruss.budetobeawake. *gwm:Latv.guovecow.

*dheugh:Lith.daug.Latv.daudz:many. *ghordhom/*ghrdhom:Lith.gardascattlefold.ardisRosegarden:Latv.zardsdryingframe; OldPruss.sardis=zardisfence. *melg:Lith.meltitomilk(<torub).*monwm,*menu=man:noequivalentinBalticnow. *ed:Lith.stitoeat(pres.du),dafood=Latv.est(pres.edu),eda;OldPruss.ist(<*est)to eat. *memsom:Lith.dialectalmeisa,Latv.miesa,OldPruss.mensa. *skoid,skid:Lith.skiesti(iterativoskaidyti)tomakethin,todivide,Latv.skiestscatter,tocut. *pegw:Lith.keptibake,toroast(?):Latv.cept. *qwe:notfoundinBalticnow. IV.(1)vdatskarambhinatti(bibhda). (2)*kwnsdtsm(sgorom)bhinedti(bhebhoide). (3)uodantimis(suvenssivens)... [Prim.Balt:vuo/nsdentais(zambais=Skt.jambha)suvenankandja]. (4)*kwons:Lith.uo(*svuo,gen.sing.,suns),Latv.suns,OldPruss.sunisdog. *dt.Lith.dantisteeth,OldPruss.dancis.*sm:notfoundinLith.:cf.Latv.suvens,sivens= piglet,smallpig,OldPruss.swintian. *bheid,bhid:notpreservedinBaltic. V.(1)sayuvaasvrastasyarjaspriymduhitaramsvmvadhmvahati(ghti). (2)*soyuwkoswrostosyo(teso)reignos (reigeso,reigoso)priymdhug(h)aterswmwedhmwegheti(ghbhnti). (3)tasjaunasvyrastovaldovo(OldPruss.rikijas)mieldukter(kaip)savomonvea(vedz; gerbia,griebis). [Prim.Balt:...jaunasvras(valdininkat)(meilan)dukterinsavan(seivan)...veda(vedat).] (4)*so:cf.OldPruss.stashe(<*sa+*tas).

*yuwkos:Lith.jaunas,Latv.jaunsyoung. *wros:Lith.vyras,Latv.virs,OldPruss.vijrsman. *tosyo(teso):Lith.tas,Latv.tas,OldPruss.stas. *reignos:cf.Lith.rtitotear,Latv.riezttotearup(OldPruss.rikijan,aloanwordfrom Germanic?). *priym:cf.Latv.priskajoy,happiness. *dhug(h)ater:inLith.dukt(acc.sing.dukteri),OldPruss.ducktidaughter. *swm:Lith.savo,savos=own;soLatv.savs,from*savas,OldPruss.swais. *:preposition:notinBaltic. *wegh:Lith.veti(presentveu),veimaswagon,Latv.vezumsorvezms=wagon. *ghbh:Lith.grabstytiseize,carry,gathertogether:grbtitorob;Latv.grebttoexcavate. toopenup. VI.(1)pcchata,kasasaukratusardhatas,yasyaucis*dham(=dinam,divasam)naktamca hatysubaddh(*bandhn)asti. (2)*pkskete,qwosesouqratwoskerdhoktos,yosyokugwisdhoghomnoqtomqwegwhtysu bhdht(bhendhn)esti. (3)klausiate(praote),kastai(per)galybirdadiaugsme,kuriosspindjimasdienirnaktprie gin(ginuose)priritaesti(bendrauja). [Prim.Balt....prasai,kas(stiprusviras),ka...deinannakti,apis(ap)...esti.] (4)*pkskete:Lith.pirti,tomakeaproposalformarriage.Latv.pirslis,andpresittoask. *gwos:inallBalticlanguageskas,kas,kes. *esou:notinBaltic. *qratwos:Latv.kurtettogrowup,toincrease. *kerdhoktos:*kerdho=Lith.kerdius,skerdius=herd.OldPruss.acc.sing.kerdan=time (fromincreaseinlinesorrows). ktos:Latv.sisttoslay,tokill.

*yosyo,*yo:notpreservedinBaltic. *kuqwis=mind,thought(=OldEnglishhygefromPrim.Germanic*xugis=Sanskrituci);notin presentclayBaltic. *dhoghom=Lith.degtitoburn.dagasummerheat(cf.Skt.nidgha);Latv.degttoburn, OldPruss.dagissummer. *noqtom:Lith.naktis,Latv.nakts,OldPruss.naktin,acc.sing. *qwe:absentinBaltic. *gwhntyasu:Lith.ginasstreet,gintitodrive,Latv.dzittodrive. *bhendh:Lith.bendrassharer(=onelinkedup?).banda=herdofcattle,Latv.biedra sharer. *esti:Lith.estiis,Latv.esmuIam,OldPruss.est,astis.

SPECIMENSOFBALTIC(LITHUANIANANDLATVIAN),WITHENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
BelowIamgivingsomespecimensofBalticliterature,(i)Oldaswellas(ii)Modern,withEnglish Translations,from(i)theLithuanianandLatviandainas,aswellasfrom(ii)presentdaypoetry. ThefirstthreearethreedainasofamythologicalcharacterfromLithuanian(collectionofL.Rza),and thesearefollowedbytwoModernLithuanianpoems.ThenaregiventheLordsPrayerinLithuanianand Latvian.ThesearefollowedbysixteenstanzasfromthecollectionofLatvianfolkpoetryofa mythologicaltypemadebyK.Barons(fromM.Jonvalsbook,mentionedaboveatpp.120121).These arealsoveryancientintheirsubjectmatter.Althoughtheywerecompiledduringthelastcenturyand thepresentone,theybearthestampofveryhighantiquity,atleastintheirsubjectmatter. Finally,therearegivenfourpassagesandpoemsfromModernLatvianPoets.

I.LithuanianDaina (L.Rza,No.27) Mnuosauluved, Pirmpavasarl. Sauluankstikls, Mnuisatsiskyr. Mnuoviensvaiktinjo, Aurinpamyljo. Perkns,didiaisupyks, Jkarduperdalijo. KoSaulusatsiskyrei? Aurinpamyljai? Viensnaktvaiktinjai? [irdispilnasmutnybs.] II.LithuanianDaina (L.Rza,No.62) Aurinsvodbkl, Perknsprovartusjojo, uolaliparmu.

EnglishTranslation TheMoonleadshometheSun, InthefirstofSpring. TheSunroseearly, TheMoonlefther. TheMoonalonewandered, WiththeDawn(MorningStar)hefellin love. Perknas,veryangry, Withhisswordhecuthim(theMoon)to pieces. WhydidstlivetheSun? DidstfallinlovewiththeMorningStar? Didstwanderaboutaloneinthenight? [Hisheartwasfullofsorrow.] EnglishTranslation WhenMorningStarwaswedded, Perknasrodethroughthedoorway,

uolokraujsvarvdams, Aplakstmanodrabuius Aplakstvainikl. Saulsdukrytverkiant Surinkotrismetelius Pavytusiuslapelius Okur,mamytemano, Drabuiusimazgosiu, kurkraujimazgosiu? Dukryte,manojaunoji, Eikpasteerat, Kurtekdevyniosupats. Okur,mamytemano, Drabuliusdiovinsiu, kurvjyisdiovinsiu? Dukryte,tamedaraty, Kuraugdevyniosroats Okur,mamytemano, Drabuiaisapsivilksiu, Baltuosiusineiosiu? Dukryte,tojdienelj, Kadspsdevyniossaulels.

Andthegreenoakheshattered. Thenforththeoaksbloodspurted, Besprinkledmygarments, Besprinkled(my)crownlet. Withstreamingeyes,theSunsDaughter Forthreeyearswascollecting Theleaves,allsearedandwithered. Owhere,Mothermine, ShallIwashmygarments, Wherethebloodwashout? MyDaughter,myyouthfulone, Swifthasteuntothefountain, Whereninebrooksareflowing. Owhere,Mothermine, MygarmentsshallIdry? Whereinthebreezedrythem? Daughter,inthegarden, Whereninerosesareblooming. Owhere,Mothermine, MygarmentsshallIputon, Intheirwhiteness,brightgleaming? MyDaughter,uponthatday, Whenninesunsshallbeshining. EnglishTranslation Underamapletreeliesafountain, Aclearmassofwater. [WhitherGodsSons,] WherewillcometheSunsDaughters, [WillcometodanceintheMoonlight.]

III.LithuanianDaina (L.Rza,No.48) Pokleveliualtinatis, ystasvandenatis [eDievoSnelei] KurateitsSaulsDukryts [AteisoktiMnesieno.]

Ankstiburnpraustis [SuDievoDuktelems]. Prieklevlioaltinaio, jauburnpraustis. Manbeprausiantbaltburn, Nuploviauiedat. OatjoDievoSneliai Suilktinklelials? Irvejavomanoiedat Ivandensgilumos? Iratjojojaunsbernytis Antbroirgaio, Otasbrasisirgatis Auksopatkavatms. Eikenai,mergyte, Eikenai,jaunoji, Kalbsivakalbat, Dmosivadmat, Kursrovgiliausia, Kurmeilimeiliausia. Negaliu,bernyti Barsismanomoiut, Barsismanosengalvl Ilgainepareisiu. [Taisakik,mergyte, Taisakikjaunoji; Iratlkdvigulbeli, Irsudrumstvandenl; Laukiaunusistojent. Netiesa,duktel Poaliukleveliu, Tukalbjeisubernyiu, Tudumojeisujaunuoju Meilatsodaus.]

Earlytowashmyface. [WithGodsownDaughter(=Sun)]. Inthefountain,bythemaple, Imyfacewaswashing. WhileIwasbathingmywhiteface, Lo,myringIwashedoff. WilltheSonsofGodcomehither Withtheirnetsallsilken? Andwiltthoufishmyring(sotiny) Fromthewatersdepths? AndcameaHeroyouthful, Hisbrownhorseriding Obrownthecolourofhischarger, Andhisshoesweregolden. Hithercome,OMaiden, Hithercome,OYoungling, Letustwobespeakingwithfairwords, Letustwocounselwithfaircounsels, Wherethestreamisdeepest, Whereloveissweetest. Nay,Icannot,YoungMan(Hero), Nay,Icannot,Youngling. MyMotherdearwillchideme, IflongerItarry. [Speakthustoher,Maiden, Speakthustoher,YoungOne; Andtherecametwoswansaflying, Andtheytroubledthewatersdepth; Tillitcleared,Iwaited. Itisnottrue,myDaughter, Underthegreenmaple, ThouwasttalkingwithaYoungMan, ThouwastexchangingwithaYouth WordsofLovessweetSpeech.]

(ThethreeLithuanianDainasgivenabovehavebeentakenfromthefacsimilereproductionofthefirst editionaspublishedbyRzahimselfwithGermantranslationfromKnigsbergin1825.Thisfacsimile edition,withintroductionsandcriticalnotes,alsogivesthe85Dainasinarevised

IV.AModernLithuanianPoem byVacysReimeris(1958) SandaloDmas Tyliaismilkstasandaloakel, Byrapelenokruopapuri. Vleitolimmlynkeli Raitodmastyliamkambary. Irnorspokinaspeigasulango, Norsberaiaperknij,nuogi, DegatropiksaulvirGango, Irtupatsatminimaisdegi. Oi,tolijuosvos,draugikosrankos, DovanojusiosDelykadais, itkvepiantdm,kursrangos, Prieakisindemsvaizdais. KurstaunaraBengalijospalmm, DvelkiakartuMadrasookiu, Kurstaukudaslapiomapiegelm Sakuntalosjuodjaki. Ugneleipatamsiosuiurs, Jisdarkalbatykusmlynai, Apleugnpriegintarojros, Vaidiluikrentseniai. Sako,jiLietuvon,kaipirioji, AtkeliavonuoIndokrant. Kaspatikrins? Senovgarsioji iandientyli.Oaterandu Tiklegendidilusiaspdas

EnglishTranslation (FromhisPrieBaltojoTado) TheSandalwoodSmoke Silentlysmouldersasandalbranch, Ashesarefallinginfriablegroats. Thesmokeinaquietroom Designs(winds)againalongblueroad (way). Andalthoughfrostcracksbehindthe window, Andalthoughbirchesstandrimyand naked ThereistheSunofthetropicsblazingabove theGanga, Andeventhouartablazewithmemories. Oh,farawayarethedark,friendlyhands, WhichoncedonatedtheeatDelhi, Thisperfumedsmokebendingbeforethy eyes, LikevisionsofIndiansoil. RustlingtotheelikeBengalpalmtrees, BreathingwithahotMadrasdance, Murmuringtotheeinsecretaboutthe depth OfSakuntalasblackeyes. Thesmokeglancedasalittleflamefromthe dark, Andstilltalksgentlyinblue, Aboutthesacredfirewhichinoldentimes, TheVaidilutes(Lithuanianpriestesses)used toinflameneartheAmberSea.

Sutrnijusiknygsmly. Galrytojausmokslingaspoetas Tars,kpaslpamiaiili. Oiandientuposmaisjausmingais Naujemdainuotituri. Tolumonkeliomlynovingiais Guladmastyliamkambary. IrisknygbylojaSanskritas: Messeni,mesjauni,artimi Kaipsandalougnisdegarytas, Msryinaujviltimi.

Theysaythatfire,justasthisone, ArrivedinLithuania,fromthebanksofInd. Whocanverifyit? GloriousAntiquity Ismutetoday.AndallIcanfind Arethewornoutfootprintsoflegends Onthesandsofdecayedbooks. PerhapsalearnedPoetoftomorrow Willtellus,whatgreyhairedageshave beenhiding. Andtodaythoumustsing AbouttheNewLand,instrophesfullof emotion. Thebluecurvesofthefarstretchedroad, Thesmokeliesdowninthequietroom. AndSanskritfromoldbookstestifies: Weareold,weareyoung,andakin. Themorningisblazinglikeasandalwood fire, Fullofhopeofournewmutualties. EnglishTranslation (Fromthesamebookasabove) Sanskrit Itsmeltofflatcakes InastreetbakehouseatDelhi. Sweetliquidwasyellowingontheir surfaces. Howdoyoucallthissyrup?
Iaskedthebaker. Andhe,justlikeaDzkas(aninhabitantofS.E.

V.Anotherpoem fromVacysReimeris(1958) Sanskritas Deliogatvskepykloj Paploiaikvepjo. Jpaviriujegeltoskystimassaldus. Kuovarduitassirupas? Klausiukepj, Jis,lygdzkasnuoMerkio,

Atsako: Medus. Pakartojo: Medus... Irpaduodapaplot. ypsoperlaisbaltaisindoveidastamsus. Anorjau Lietuvikaijampadkoti Iridiaugsmonupirkt, Jopaploius, Visus.

Lithuania)fromMerkin(aLithuaniantownship), Replies: Medus(Honey). Herepeated: Medus... Andstretchedmeaflatcake. ThedarkHindufacesmileswithwhitepearls(of teeth). Iwanted TothankhiminLithuanian Andfrompurejoy Tobuyhisflatcakes, Allofthem.

(Lithuanianmedus=Sanskritmadhu.TheSanskritwordisunderstoodalloverIndia,inits originalformofmadhu;andinNorthIndia,itsmodificationsmahu,mauandmadhare commonlyused,andinthePersianizedHindustaniorUrdu,thePersoArabicloanwordsahdis alsocommon.) VI.TheLordsPrayer,inModernBaltic. Latvian Lithuanian Tvems,kursesi danguje! teesieventastavovardas. teateinietavokaralyst. teesietavovalia,kaip danguje,taipitantems. kasdiensmsduonos duokmumsiandien. Iratleiskmumsms kaltes, kaipitmesatleidiame savokaltininkams. Irneveskmuspagund, betgelbkmusnuopikto. Amen. VII.OldLatvian MythologicalDainas asinMichelJonvals MsuTvsdebess! svttslaitoptaysvrds. lainktavavalstba. tavsprtslainotiek,kdebess,tarvirs
zemes. msudieniumaizi dodmumsodien. Unpiedodmumsmsupardus, karmspiedodamsaviempardniekiem. Unneievedmskrdinan, betatpestmsnoauna. Amen. EnglishTranslation

SelectionfromK.Baronss GreatCollection (i)No.88(B.30336) Kamderkalni,kamder lejas, Kamderzaiozolii? Dievamkalni,Laimeilejas, Biteizaiozolii. (ii)No.92(B.33765) Dievi,tavulikumiu, Gaiadiena,gaianakts: DienugaiaSaulespd,
NaktgaiaMnesnca. (iii)No.294(B.546) KurvasaruSaulelca, TurlecziemuMnesti; Kurtsmeitaspulkiemdzied, Turtpuiumlestba. (iv)No.301(B.33950), secondvariant PrkonssacirtaMnestiu Arasozobentiu; KamatemaAusekam, Sadertulgaviu. (v)No.352(B.33800) Kamtiezirgi,kamtierati, PieDievianamadurm? Dievazirgi,Laimesrati, Saulesmeitasbraucjias. (vi)No.396(B.33974) Saulesmeitamazgjs Straujupteslkum:

(RandomselectionfromLesChansons MythologiquesLettones, RigaandParis,1929:seeante,pp.120121) Whomservethehills,whomthevalleys? Whomservethegreenoaks? Godthehillsserve,Laimathevalleys, Andbeesthegreenoaksserve. God,thisisthydecree, Brightistheday,brightthenight: Theday,brightlyshinesSaule(theSun), Thenight,brightMnesis(theMoon). TherewhereisSummer,Saulewouldrise, TherewhereitisWinter,Mnesisrises; Therewherethemaidenssingintroops, Itistherethattheloveoftheyoungmenis. PrkonscuttopiecesMnesis Withthesharpsword; Becausehe(theMoon)hadcarriedoffAuseklis, Hisfiance,hispromisedone. Towhom(belong)thesehorses,towhomthecars, InfrontofthedoorofthehouseofGod? ThehorsesareGods,thecarsareLaimas, AndthedaughtersofSaulearetheriders.

Dievadlslkojs Zeltakrklukrmi. (vii)No.754(B.9170) Bgudienu,bgunakti, Laimesliktaneizbgu; KdumuLaimelika, Tdsbijmandzvojot. (viii)No.761(B.336) Gauidziedu,dzieddama, Gauiraudu,rauddama; ManLaimianeatstja Vienastabllia. (ix)No.791(B.11089) Dod,Dievii,kododamis, Dodmanlabasdivlietias: Celabkumeliu, Milabulgaviu. (x)No.796(B.27322) Ai,Sault(e),tubijbalta, Dodmansavubaltumiu; Ai,Laimi(a),tuvesela, Dodmansavuveselbu. (xi)No.899(B.1221) TrskrtLaimajostujoda, Apkrtmanuaugumiu; Augi,dia,stvgod, Valkzuvaiadziu. (xii)No.1019(B.9798) Esnesusausumalku, Essakuruuguntiu; Dieviamziedusdou, Dievsdosmanimarjiu. (xiii)No.1020(B.9487)

ThedaughterofSaulebathedherself Atthebendofthestream: Godssonlookedather Withinthethicketofgoldenosiers. Ifleebyday,Ifleebynight, IcannotescapeLaimasdecree. AsLaimahasfixedmylife, SoImustliveon. Isingmysongbitterly, Iweepbittertears; ForLaimahasnotleftme Asingletruebrother. Give,God,whatthougivest, Givemetwogoodthings: Ontheroad,agoodhorse, Inmylife,agoodwife. Oh,Saule,thouartwhite, Givemethywhiteness; Oh,Laima,thouarthealthy, Givemethyhealth. ThreetimesLaimaplacedthebelt, Roundaboutmyheight; Growupbig,remaininhonour, Bearthecrownofpearls. Ishallbringdrywood, Ishalllightthefire; ToGodIshallgiveflowers,

Dod,Dievi,kododams, Dodmanlabumuadraugu, Laiessavusbaltusvaigus Asarmnemazgju (xiv)No.1062(B.17835) Ej,Laimen,tupapriku, Kaesiutautes; Ejpapriku,traueraseu Arsudobraagareu, Ka(b)kjeisnasprtum Asreupateit (xv)No.1103(B.17770) Dievi,tavulikumiu, Dkli,tavukrumiu: Jomljutautudlu, Nektvu,mmulti. (xvi)No.1104(B.22862) VaipaDievadevumam, VaipaLaimeslikumam, Svesarsveusatiks, Mumunodzvoja.

Godwillgivemeagoodlabourer(=ahusbandwho willwork). Give,God,whatthougivest: Givemeagoodfriendforlife, Sothatmywhitecheeks Idonotwetwithtears. Go,Laima,before, WhenIshallcometomyhusbandshome; Gobefore,striketheroseplants Withthestickofgold, SothatImaynotplacemyfeet Inthetorrentoftears. God,whatalawhastthou, Dkla,whatadecreeofthine: SurelyIshallbelovingmybetrothed, Morethanmyfather,mydearmother. IsthatthegiftofGod, IsthatthedecreeofLaima Thestrangerwillmeetastrangewoman, Andtheywilllivealifeoflove?

VIII.LinesfromA.PumpurssLatvianEpic,theLaplsis(1888) Tadtautasdailgs dziesms Tiksietjsslavtivisi, Tu,Prkon,Laimia,Tikla, Undievdli,Saultes meitas. ievrdi,varenidziesms, Vlkimodnstautu Nojaunagaismotagar, InthebeautifulsongsoftheNation Youwillbepraisedall, Perkonis,Laima,Tikla(GoddessofChastity), SonsoftheGods,DaughtersoftheSun. Thesenames,mightyresoundinginthesongs, Willinfuturetimesawaken(theNation) AgaintotheLightoftheSpirit, AgaininLibertysWar!

Nojaunaietbrivibaskar! (BookI,lines153160) IX.APoemfromJanisRainis(18651929):WorkandJoy (cf.theSpiritofKarmayga,aspropoundedbyKishaVsudvaintheGit). DarbsunPrieks. Esiuzvarjispriecjies: Brvuceulauzssevtavs darbs. EnglishTranslationbyMme.Mirdzaempe Ifyouhavegainedavictoryrejoice: Afreewaywillopenforyourwork.

Ifyouhavelostrejoice; Esipazaudjispriecjies; Inyourbosomwillfallbackandripenyour Krtsatkritistevbrieds work. darbs. Irvisspelksapkart Ifeverythingisgrayaroundyourejoice; priecjies; Witharedbrilliancewillglowyourwork. Spoisarkanssirddegs tavsdarbs. Esimluradispriecjies: Ifyoumeetloverejoice: Gaiakiesilsiesunsilds Aserenewarmthwillgainandgiveyourwork. darbs. Esinaiduradispriecjies: Ifyoumeethaterejoice: Astrongerfaithwillhaveyourwork. Cieakseviapzinstavs darbs.
Ejkaiedams,bdams priecjies: Vienkustbatupatstas darbs. Whereveryougo,whoeveryouarerejoice: Inanendlessmovementyouyourselfarethiswork.

X.JanisRainisstheEndandtheBeginning (cf.theOneoftheUpanishadicVdnta). LatvianText EnglishTranslationbyMme.Mirdzaempe

auns,spes,nve,maia, Evil,pain,death,change,theworld pasaule AreonlybubbleswheretheUniverseisboiling, Tikmutuveiditur,kur AndonlyOneis,was,andshallbe,andshall

vrasvisums, Unvienstikir,unbij,un bs,unpaliek: Tpatimekltja dziasdvsle Unpatimekljam aizsaule Tsabaslielsbtbasir viena: Topdvsllielaapemt aizsauli, Topaizssuleardvsli prasmdzva; Unabmplstotvien btb, Toplaime,miersungalsun jaunaisskums.

remain: TheSearchingSoul AndtheSearchedBeyond ThesebothgreatEntitiesareOne: TheSoulbecomesgreattoembracethe Beyond. TheBeyondgainslifeintheSoulthrough Wisdom(rightaction); AndwhenbothmeettogetherinOneBeing, ThenisattainedBliss,Peace,theEndanda NewBeginning.

XI.Mme.MirdzaempesPoemTheIndianShawl(1967). IndijasLakats (FromCaismaAkmeni) Kzilabezgalbapri pleciemplst Man,Indija,tavs lsmojoaiszds. Tzeltarakstsparliesmu pumklst, Nokurmlnirasorts. KrindasgudrksnoGitas skandot. Verdailostautasrakstus lakats,mteBharata. Vaivarbatmlestbastaro t? Espkitavuslielosdlus jatublakm. Ak,maiziIndijai! Vivekananda TheIndianShawl (DedicatedtoSrimatiIndiraGandhi) Ablueimmensityacrossmyshouldersflows OIndia,yoursilkinglisteningshowers; Itsgoldenornamentlikeflamingflowersglows, Adewydawnpearlsslowlyfromthesemagic flowers. Andtomymindthisnativepatternslovely lines. RecalltheGitaswisestversesworld embracing,wide. Orisitlovethatradiatingshines? Yourgreatestsons,BharataMata,seeIatmy side. Bread!BreadtoIndia! Vivekananda Criestotheworldhimselfaburningwound inpassion: TheHimalayasseemtomelt!Andwith

Sauccilvcei,kbrce kvlodams, Siet,Himalajikst!Un, audislodams, Tikvienkrs,gandrz neizprotams,celasGandijs,


Laivjiemlemcitusveovaru lauzt, Unspkusstiprkuspar varmcbujaust. TurNerunksdraugaacis trs Navtaisnba,kavinodzves ries; Dlsvisaicilvceivivisur dzvotiet, Sirdsugunsrozeziedun zied. Kadplaukstatbalstuesgalvu smago, Ardzejassoliemvieglknek sapi Tikklusipienkbenglietis Tagors, Unsaudzgssavapskvien apem. Kzilabezgalbapripleciem plst Man,Indija,tavslsmojoais zds. Tzeltarakstsparliesmu pumklst, Nokurmlnirasorts.

compassion, Greatinhissimplenakedness,unfathomable risesGandhi, Unitingpeoplesstrengthtobreaktheforeign powerschains, Andstirsamightierforcethanviolencewould gain. AndNehrucomesafriendwithpureand thoughtfuleyes! Itisnottruethathehasdied; Allmankindssonhebreaksthroughenmity andgloom, Hisheartaglowingrosewillinfinitely bloom. Andwhenmyponderousheadrestsonmy tiredpalm Withfootstepslightlikepoetryanddreams Tagorecomestogivehiswisdomsbalm, Fromhisembraceatranquilcomfortstreams. Ablueimmensityacrossmyshouldersflows OIndiayoursilkisglisteningshowers. Itsgoldenornamentlikeflamingflowersglows, Adewydawnpearlsslowlyfromthesemagic flowers. TranslatedfromLatvianbyMirdzaempe

XII.PoembyMme.Mirdzaempe(1967) (EnglishTranslationbyGladysEvans) DivasIndietes (TwoIndianWomen) (FromGaismaAkmeni) RadivsievedaSandilipirmo

reiziviu pauvienkrajmtne.Ilgivia bija dzvojusivvatvadzimt. Viiemldzi lespurdzaviudivubrnu smiekli. Radivsjautja: Manasieva,kotovltosai dien? ForthefirsttimeRajivledSandili intothe simpledwellingthatwasnow theirown.Howlongshewaited inherfatherinlawshousehold. Flutteringroundthemnow flewthelaughteroftheirtwo smallchildren. Rajivaskedher: Dear,mywife,whatwishof thinecomesfirstuponthis day? Sandiliatbildja: Siitvislaimgkdienaman mu. Msesamveseliunjauni,msu brniir veseli,msesamkop.Varbt atnks nelaimeunvecyms.aidienes vltosmirt. Sandiliansweredso: Iknowitisthehappiestdayof allmylife. Werewellandstrongand

young,ourchildrentooare ingoodhealth;andwere together.Possiblywillcome misfortuneandage.Soonthis daymyonlywishisdeath. NandaievedaKamalupirmo reiziviu vienkrjmitn.Ilgiviabija dzivojusi vratvadzimta.Viiemldzi iespurdza viuetrubrnybalsis. Nandajautja: Manasieva,kotovltosai dien? ForthefirsttimeNandaled Kamalaintothe simpledwellingthatwasnow theirown.Howlongshewaited inherfatherinlawshousehold. Flutteringroundthemnow, flewthelaughteroftheirfour smallchildren. Nandaaskedher: Dear,mywife,whatwishof thinecomesfirstuponthis day? Kamalaatbildja: Esvltoseitpaliktkopar tevi, saemtlaimiunnelaimi, sagaidtvecumu unnvi.Un,jatobtuvrgks parmani, tevkalpot.

Kamalaansweredso: Myonlywishistolivehere, together; acceptmisfortune,happiness, awaitoldageand death.And,shouldyouprove theweakeroneofus, thenserveyou.


APPENDIX TO CHAPTER XI SanskritVersesontheVedicSktasandtheBalticDainas VedaSamhitaBaltica (BhaikVdasahit)


abhcChrutihpra Vidik dhngth ritvidy Uttarasyrutir yst mlryavmay pur/ dvamnava dhrii// pitbhirnas suvit//1//

TherewasthepreVedictraditionalLoreinformertimes,composedintheOriginalAryan(= IndoEuropean)Speech,awisdomenshrinedintheDhnsandintheGths(Dainasand Giesmas)whichcomprisedbothGodsandMen:itwastheLorewhichwaspreservedwithcare byourFathersintheNorthernRegions(1).


dyymtatravi rutv dd navnaca vilpacakvacit kvacid ryajana prasrata/ rpambahu samgatam// dyatsyarutr api//2//

InthatoriginalLore,throughthespreadoftheAryanpeople,indifferentlands,manynew formsofitcameup;andinsomeplacesentirelossofthisLoreisalsofound(2).
Bhratasyrya kiu Vdarp manuya rutssamprat gat/ vivm magalvah//3//

AmongtheAryanpeoplesofIndiathecompletionofthisLorewasattained,intheshapeofthe Vedas,whichbringsgoodtoallhumanbeings(3).

Iirnmti Prasy mlarut kathacittu

mantrapha suviruta/ tatrstintana rpam//4//

QuitewellknowninPersiaarethetextsabouttheGodsknownasIis(Yats);andthereisin themsomewhatofanewformoftheoriginalPrimitiveLore(4). Sarymrya jnhi tacasundara cpi kaviusatya dariu/ rutivannihita sad//5//

AmongtheSaryaorSaryaPeople(=theGreeks,Hellas,Hellnes<IndoEuropean*Selyo *SelynestheWanderingorDancingPeople),amongtheirPoetswithtruevisionTruthand BeautyliketheAncientLoreareestablishedforalltime(5). Rmakcasa bndhav tathivnyjan pratn dhtavanta rutimparm/ rya gtrdbhavca t//6//

TheRomans,withthepeoplesrelatedtothem,alsoreceivedthisGreatLore;besidesother ancientpeoplesbornwithintheAryanfamily(6). CasTtca bhkha ravaskca suvrst pacim pracarantiy/ vasantiTta sannidhu//7//

TheCeltsandtheTeutonswhomoveaboutintheWesternWorld,andtheSlavs,strongheroes wholivebesidetheTeutons(7). (Celt<I.E.*qelto,*qwelto,*qel,qwel=Skt.car,cal:theWanderingPeople=Sanskrit Caa;TeutonTeut,IndoEuropean*teuto,*touto,from*teu,totobestrong,whence Germanic*eua,*iuda,OldEnglish,od,HighGermandiot,LatinizedintoTeuto;Baltic tauta;Italic(Oscan)touto;OldIrishtuath.TheSanskritequivalentwouldbe*tauta>tta, foundinthenameofadeity,aformofDevi,TtilSheoftheStrong

People,ortheStrongGoddess(?);Slav,Slavisk<IndoEuropean*klewos,Sanskritravas glory.) Bhgava, Patayacnyay tsmmadhy ruticdy kdyryaj jan/ laghurpa sasthit//8//

ThePhrygians,andtheHaikhPeople(Armenians),theRishikas(theKucheanorTokharian People)andothernationsbornoftheAryansamongthem,too,theOriginalAryanLorewas retainedinsmallmeasures(8). (Bhgavas<Bhgu=Phruges,Bruges=Phrygian;SanskritPati=ArmenianHai,theDominant People,nationalnameoftheArmenians;ka=Arsik,ArsakoneoftheancientCentral Asianpeoples,theTokharians.) srtastasyh rutpratnam sarakanty adhunpit ryajBhaa samjit/ pratnantna vimiritam//9//

ThepeopleknownastheBhatas(=Balts),bornoftheAryans(=IndoEuropeans),haveevento thisdaypreservedtheoldstreamoftheLore,thoughtheoldandnewaremixedup(9). (Bhaa,theSanskritequivalentofIndoEuropean*bhaltos,*bhtos,whenceBalticbaltasasin Lithuanian=white,Latvianbalts,supposedlythesourceofthenameBalt=(?)thePeopleof theWhiteSnowlands.) praVidikasya dharmasya dimasahaja rpa Dhntividit lk klapravha clitam/ kicit tpalabhyat // bahuskta sahasrak//10//

Thepristine,naturalformofthepreVedicreligion,movingalongwiththeflowoftime,isstill tosomeextent foundamongthem(theBalts),intheirthousandsofancientversesknownintheworldasthe Dainas(10). sarvVdi Bhratasya

prkt Dhncrya Bhanm

santan/ prayantu parasparam //11//

AlltheancientVedasofIndia,announcedbytheRishisorSages,aswellastheDainasofthe Aryan(IndoEuropean)Baltsmaythesebecomplementarytoeachother(11). Sahitdv virjatm Bhaajanasyavi tadvat Bhratasyarutis sad/ BhaikVda sahit//12//

ThetwoMassesofPoetrymayevercontinueintheirglorytherutiorVedicLoreofIndia,and inthesamewaytheVedasamhitaBalticaoftheBalticpeople(12).

BALTICSPEECHAREA,TWELFTHTHIRTEENTHCENTURIES (IntheEast,itextendeddeepinsideRussia). Dialects:(1)PrussianSubdialects,nowdead(seepp.66,67);(2)LithuanianAuktaiiaiinthe East,emaiiaiintheWest;(3)Kuras(Curonian);(4)iemgala(Semigallian);(5)Sla(Selonian); (6)Latvian(Lett).Dialectsunder(3),(4)and(5)nowmergedinto(2)and(6).

BRONZEAGEINDOEUROPEANS (SecondMillenniumB.C.) FromJ.A.Hammerton,UniversalHistoryoftheWorld,Vol.II,ColouredPlateatp.925.

ARYANS(SIXTHCENTURYB.C.):INDIANSBRINGINGTRIBUTE,LEDBYPERSIANOFFICER AchmenianFriezefromPersopolis:theIndianLeaderinlongUttaryaandSirva, Attendants(onewithaCarryingPole)inloincloth.

AMEDE(MADA),IRAN FromthePersianWork:PkiBstniIrnn,AncientCostumesoftheIranians,byJall ZPr,Tehran,PersianYear1343,Plate30.


APERSIAN(PARSA),IRAN FromthePersianWorkontheAncientCostumesoftheIranians,byJallZPr,Plate49.

ANARYAN(PERSIAN)LADYOFRANK,SIXTHCENTURYB.C. From:PkiBstniIrnn,ColouredPlates76and77.

INDOARYANKINGANDPOETSAGE (SudsandVasihainthegVeda) DrawingsbySculptorSunilPal,Calcutta.

ANCIENTBALT(LITHUANIAN)GIRLANDMATRON ColouredPlateNo.567inLietuviLiaudiesMenas(LithuanianFolkArt),Vol.I,Vilnius,1958.

YOUNGBALT(LITHUANIAN)WARRIOR FromColouredPlateNo.566inLietuviLiaudiesMenas(LithuanianFolkArt),Vol.I,Vilnius, 1958.

ANCIENTBALT(LATVIAN)HEROANDMAIDEN (LaplsisandLaimdota,fromAndrejsPumpurssEpic) ColouredIllustrationbyLatvianArtistGirtsVilks(1948).

BALTSAGEPRIESTSINGINGDAINAANDPLAYINGKANKLES(BALTHARPORZITHER):MOTHER ANDCHILDLISTENING ReliefinPlaster(1943),bytheLithuanianSculptorJuozasMiknas.

ABALT(LATVIAN)PANTHEON Lefttoright:(1)Auskelis(MorningStar);(2)Dievs(God);(3)Laima;(4)Mra;(5)Mness (MoonGod);(6)Saule(SunGoddess);(7)SaulesMieta(SunsDaughter);(8)Perkns.Below,on left,MotherandSon,andonright,OldSingerPriestwithkokle(psaltery). FromColouredPaintingbyLatvianArtistAnsisCrulis.

SUNGODDESSSAULEINHERCAR,WITHTHEGODSIANDHERDAUGHTERSIN ATTENDANCE FromColouredPicturebytheLatvianArtistJkabsBne.

LAIMASPINNING BALTMAIDENGODDESSOFFATE,GOODLUCKANDHAPPINESS BytheLatvianSculptorKrlisZemdega(1936).

THEKINGOFTHEALTYS(GRASSSNAKES)ANDEGL StainedGlassWindowatDruskininkai BytheLithuanianArtistK.Morknas.

LATVIJA MTE (LATVY MT) MOTHER EARTH AS THE MOTHER-LAND OF THE BALTS with her Wounded Sons dying at her feet Heroic Stone Figure in the BRU KAPI Cemetery, Riga By the Latvian Sculptor and Architect Krlis Zle (1888-1942).

TWOBALTHEROESOFLITHUANIA GEDIMINAS,KING(131641),ANDVYTAUTAS,GRANDDUKE(13861430) BronzeMedalsbytheLithuanianSculptorPetrasRima(1923and1930).


SUNITIKUMARCHATTERJI

BUST(INBRONZE) BYSUNILKUMARPAL (April,1967)

THEAUTHOR SUNITIKUMARCHATTERJIwasbornon26thNovember,1890,inaBrahmanfamilythe ancestorsofwhichaccordingtooldtraditioncamefromKanaujinNorthIndiaandsettledin WestBengalinthetwelfthcentury.Hehadhisschoolandcollegeeducationinhisnativecityof Calcutta,andhetookhisM.A.degreefromtheUniversityofCalcuttainEnglishlanguageand literaturein1913.HestudiedasaGovernmentofIndiaResearchScholarforthreeyearsin LondonandParis,undersomeofthegreatmastersofIndoEuropeanandIndoAryanaswellas GeneralLinguisticsandPhonetics,andobtainedhisDoctorateinLiteraturefromLondon Universityin1921.HewasconnectedwiththeUniversityofCalcuttafor38yearsasProfessor ofLinguisticsandofvariousIndoEuropeanlanguages.HewascalledtotheU.S.A.asVisiting ProfessorinIndologyinPhiladelphiain1951.Dr.ChatterjiwasreturnedtotheLegislative Council(Senate)ofWestBengalin1952,andwasunanimouslyelecteditsChairman,which positionheheldtill1965,whenhewasmadeoneoftheNationalProfessorsofIndiabythe GovernmentofIndia. Dr.Chatterjihasseveralhundredpapersonscientific(linguistic)andgeneralsubjectsinEnglish, BengaliandHindi,besidesanumberofbooksintheselanguages.Hismagnumopus,theOrigin andDevelopmentoftheBengaliLanguage,ofnearabout1,300pages,cameoutin1926.He madeanumberofvaluablediscoveriesinhisownsubjectofIndoAryanLinguistics.Hehasalso somenoteworthypapersonthecultureofvariouspeoples.AsaprosateurinBengali,hehashis specialplaceofhonour. Dr.ChatterjiwasgiventheDoctoratehonoriscausabyseveraluniversities,andhehasbeen madeHonoraryMemberofanumberofscientificsocietiesinAsia,EuropeandAmerica. RabindranathTagore,withwhomhewascloselyconnectedfrom1911tohisdeathin1941, gavehimthesobriquetBhshtichrya(MasterofSpeech)ininscribingoneofhisbookstohim. TheGovernmentofIndiaawardedtohimthehighorderofPadmavibhshaain1963. Dr.Chatterjilosthiswife,KamalaDevi,hislifescompanionforover50years,inDecember 1964.Hehasoneson,SumanKumar,whoisaChemicalEngineer,andfivedaughters,allof whomarehappilymarriedandestablishedinlife. Travel(Dr.Chatterjihastravelledextensivelythroughouttheworld)andstudyofArt,and collectingKleinekunst,besideslisteningtoMusic,arehisfavouritehobbies.