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Greeshma Sanchula November 1, 2011 Act 4 Study Guide Questions After Iago lied and told Othello that

Cassio confessed going to bed with Desdemona, what advice does he give the overwhelmed Othello? Iago orders Othello to hide nearby and observe Cassios face during their conversation. Iago explains that he will make Cassio retell the story of where, when, how, and how often he has slept with Desdemona, and when he intends to do so again. How does Iago trick Othello into thinking Cassio is gloating and bragging about his affair with Desdemona? Iago goes to great lengths to trick Othello into thinking Cassio was having an affair with Othello's new bride, Desdemona. Iago calculates each and every step that he will take in order to lead to Othello's demise. First, he must make sure that Cassio falls out of good favor with Othello. He does this by creating a fight between Roderigo and Cassio. Othello learns of this fight and essentially strips Cassio of his rank as lieutenant. Cassio is distraught and turns to Desdemona for help. Desdemona ensures Cassio that she can persuade her husband into restoring his faith in Cassio, and proceeds to "talk him up" to Othello. Meanwhile, Iago puts it in Othello's ear that Cassio and his wife are having an affair. The fact that Desdemona insists that Cassio is noble and deserving of his old rank makes Othello doubt that his new wife is indeed being faithful. When Desdemona offers her handkerchief to Othello, the first gift he had ever given her, he says it is too small to fit on his forehead and he drops it on the floor. It is picked up by Emilia, who mentions that Iago has been asking her to steal this for him. She gives it to Iago, and he plants it in Cassio's room. He then tells Othello that Cassio has been whipping the handkerchief out for all to see, bragging about his affair with Othello's bride. Othello demands to see Desdemona's handkerchief. When she admits that she cannot find it, Othello falls into a jealous rage. Why is Bianca angry with Cassio? Cassio is courting a woman named Bianca, who is a seamstress and prostitute. Desdemona drops a handkerchief that was Othello's first gift to her and which he has stated holds great significance to him in the context of their relationship; Emilia obtains this for Iago, who has asked her to steal it, having decided to plant it in Cassio's lodgings as evidence of Cassio and Desdemona's affair. Emilia is unaware of what Iago plans to do with the handkerchief. After he has planted the handkerchief, Iago tells Othello to stand apart and watch Cassio's reactions while Iago questions him about the handkerchief. He goads Cassio on to talk about his affair with Bianca; because Othello cannot hear what they are saying, Othello thinks that Cassio is referring to Desdemona. Bianca, on discovering the handkerchief,

chastises Cassio. Enraged and hurt, Othello decides to kill his wife and orders Iago to kill Cassio. Why does Othello hit Desdemona? Othello hits Desdemona because he believes she was being 'unfaithful' to him and was fed up with her lies. He is led to believe that she cheated with Cassio and after hearing what he thinks is proof, he strikes her. He is not at heart a cruel man. But he has been so tortured by jealousy that he is angry with Desdemona all the while he still desperately loves her. The outrage is not only that he hits her (that's bad enough) but he hits her in public. Nobody who knew them in Venice can believe it. Who is Lodovico, and why has he come from Venice to Cyprus? Lodovico is a nobleman who has come to deliver letters to Othello with his orders. When Othello sees the orders and sees that Cassio has been appointed in his place, he becomes so enraged that he strikes Desdemona after she is pleased about Cassio's new position. Lodovico witnesses this and is shocked and upset that Othello would strike Desdemona so violently for no apparent reason; therefore, Iago has made him a part of his plan by allowing Lodovico to come witness Othello's jealousy. What is Lodovico's reaction to Othello's behavior towards Desdemona? How does Iago later explain Othello's behavior to Lodovico? He was shocked, for a number of reasons, when he saw Othello publicly strike Desdemona. First of all, it was totally different from the kind of behaviour that the Venetians had come to expect from Othello. Secondly, it was shocking and outrageous that any man should strike his wife. But it was even more shocking that he should do it in public. And it was even more shocking than that when, as it happened, the wife in question was the daughter of an important man, a senator. Lodovico says that if he told the people in Venice what he saw, they would not believe it. Why does Othello ask Emilia about Cassio's affair with Desdemona, and what is her reply? Othello interrogates Emilia about Desdemonas behavior, but Emilia insists that Desdemona has done nothing suspicious. In Act IV, scene ii, Othello interrogates Emilia as if she were a witness to a crime. Her testimony would be strong evidence of Desdemonas innocence, except that Othello dismisses it all as lies, because it does not accord with what he already believes. Just as there is no way for Othello to prove beyond any doubt that Desdemona has been unfaithful, no amount of evidence could now overturn Othellos belief in her guilt. Othello explains away any evidence in Desdemonas favor, however strong, by imagining Emilia and Desdemona to be subtle and sophisticated liars.

To whom does Desdemona turn to for help after Othello calls her a strumpet? At Desdemonas request, Emilia brings in Iago, and Desdemona tries to find out from him why Othello has been treating her like a whore. Emilia says to her husband that Othello must have been deceived by some villain, the same sort of villain who made Iago suspect Emilia of sleeping with Othello. Iago assures Desdemona that Othello is merely upset by some official business. Why does Iago tell Roderigo to kill Cassio? Why does Roderigo consent to think about it? Roderigo enters, furious that he is still frustrated in his love, and ready to make himself known in his suit to Desdemona so that she might return all of the jewels that Iago was supposed to have given her from him. Iago tells Roderigo that Cassio is being assigned to Othellos place. Iago also lies, saying that Othello is being sent to Mauritania, in Africa, although he is really being sent back to Venice. He tells Roderigo that the only way to prevent Othello from taking Desdemona away to Africa with him would be to get rid of Cassio. He sets about persuading Roderigo that he is just the man for killing Cassio. Roderigo consents to think about it because he isnt getting Desdemona as quickly as he had hoped. If Roderigo kills Cassio what promise has Iago taken care of? Iago has taken care of the promise he made to Othello. He said that he would get rid of Cassio because he was having an affair with Desdemona. He was earning more of Othellos trust before the ultimate blow comes; when Othello ends up killing Desdemona.