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. , . 38
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e-mail: rvalent@online.ru
www.rvalent.ru
ISBN 5-93439-142-9
17.08.04

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After all, he said in a declamatory voice,
one gets all one wants out of Racine.

28

.
For many years I have attended dinner
parties, conferences, meetings, and receptions in the US and in Russia, dreading the
inevitable ice-breaker question: What do
you do?/ ? The
answer in English or Russian Im in
health communications/

almost always results in a polite, blank stare.
For English-speakers I add: I do public
education programs in health, for Russians:
. If people still
dont fully understand what my work entails,
at least they know my professional ball park.
If I were to simply answer in English,
Im in communications, this could mean
I work for a telephone company, write copy
(text) in an advertising firm, program computerized information storage and retrieval
systems, or even work as a graphic designer.
The professions and scholarly work that
come under the category of communications in America are extremely diverse,
defined and grouped in many cases more by
tradition than by logic. And they are constantly changing: these areas of scholarly
endeavor and professional activity have only
appeared within the last twenty or thirty
years, some within the last five. Each year
new theoretical work and new technologies
expand and redefine the subjects themselves.
To help Russian translators who come
across communications in its various
incarnations, in this paper Ive tried to
define more clearly what communications
means in various contexts, primarily in the

humanitarian disciplines. I have polled


translators to provide some possible translations into Russian; these are not meant to be
definitive, but rather a starting point for
other translators. I also consider the meaning of communication in everyday
American speech, and its very important role
in interpersonal relationships.

Communicate/Communications
Communicate is derived from the Latin
communicare, to share, impart, partake.
There are two main branches of communications: one that deals with human forms of
information-sharing (the art and technique
of using words effectively to impart information or ideas); and one that deals with the
technical means of sharing information
(a means of communicating, especially a
system, such as mail, telephone, or television,
for sending and receiving messages). There
are several other meanings in medicine and
the military (not considered here).
In the humanitarian spheres, communication can refer to a one-way transmission
of information (impart), in which the skill
is cogent articulation ( ); two-way transmission (share,
partake), in which competence is defined
by both the ability to present a point of view
and information, and the skills of listening,
understanding, and acceptance ( ); and
persuasive communication, which, to be
effective, requires feed-back and dialog, but
in which an individual or group have the goal
of persuading others (an individual or group)

29

Communications: Saying What We Mean


to accept information or an attitude, or adopt
a behavior ( ).

lated as . The
thousands if not millions of companies
that have sprouted up in this field within the
last decade often just call themselves communications firms.
A related field is technical communication, that is, the profession of gathering
information of a technical nature and presenting it or transmitting it. In this field specialists write and edit professional technical
magazines, write instruction manuals or textbooks, provide explanatory texts for web-sites
and software programs, or make educational
films and videos. I have found this translated
as , but a more
apt translation might be or simply .

Communications as
An in-depth analysis of this terminology
is beyond the scope of this paper, but it is
helpful to know a few of the marker words
and professions.
Often communications refers to what
in Russian falls under the category of .
For example, the Federal Communications
Commission (FCC) is charged with regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and
cable. This could be translated as the .1 Communications
is understood somewhat more broadly by the
Communication Workers of America trade
union, which serves a wide array of humanitarian and technical professions, among them:
telecommunications (),
telephone systems (), broadcasting
(- ), cable TV ( , ),
journalism (), and even airline
workers
(
).
(Railway workers in the US have their own
union.) This might be rendered, somewhat
wordily, as
,
, although translators will need to
clarify what does and doesnt come under
their auspices.
Information and communications technology is defined as the technology used
to handle information and aid communication. This relatively new phrase (coined by
Dennis Stevenson in a 1997 report to the
UK government) refers to technologies at
the organizational level and is usually trans-

Communications in the humanities


Websters Third International Dictionary
defines communications as an art that
deals with expressing and exchanging ideas
effectively in speech or writing or through the
graphic or dramatic arts and that is taught as
an integrated program at various levels of
education in distinction to traditional separate
courses in composition and speech. The
Association for Communication Administration defines the field of communication in
this way: The field of communications
focuses on how people use messages to generate meanings within and across various contexts, cultures, channels, and media. The field
promotes the effective and ethical practice of
human communication.2
That is, the field of communications is an
interdisciplinary field that has developed in
response to new technologies (such as internet) and media (such as multi-media presentations), as well as to advances in traditional
academic disciplines. It examines the full
range of human verbal and non-verbal communication: everyday (such as speech, body
language), persuasive (such as advertising
techniques), and applied artistic (such as
graphic design). Communications specialists
come from various branches of linguistics,
semiotics, pragmatics, psychology, behavioral
science, sociology, anthropology, ethnogra-

1 B.N. Klimzo has noted helpfully that in translation from the Russian,
is rendered in English as the
Ministry of Information Technologies and Communications of the Russian Federation. C (,
, , , ) is
often translated as telecommunications in English. For
example, is the State
Telecommunications Committee. can
be translated as communications (in the context of military operations), or as utilities when used as a synonym
of (sewerage and water,
gas and power supply). Here the potential for confusion and mistranslation is quite evident.

2
National
Communication
Association,
http://www.natcom.org/ComProg/new_page_1.htm

30


) is
awkward and strange, since the concept of
communication that binds together all
these disciplines is missing from the translation. If the translator avoids these traps, he or
she can fall into another: since this kind of
educational institution doesnt exist in Russia,
the tendency is to name it something like
/ . This translation has the
benefit of no associations with other Russian
educational institutions, and adequately covers the disciplines taught. But it has one fatal
flaw: it is utterly meaningless. This kind of
translation would be appropriate if the task of
the translation were to name the institution
and then define the nature of the curriculum
in a footnote or within the text.
The translator will also be tried sorely by
the Association for Women in Communications ( ,
/ ), which
unites women in print and broadcast journalism ( ), television and radio production (
- ), film (),
advertising ( ), public relations ( ),
marketing (), graphic design ( ), multimedia
design ( ), and photography (). It
describes itself as the premier association of
women communicators worldwide.
What are communicators in this context? They are people who make their livelihood in the communication professions: or
. I dont like either option, because I think
the reader would immediately ask, What kind
of professionals do you mean? Here the
translator would do well to rework the text so
that the professions are clearly understood.
The communication spheres cited above
represent two of the three types of communication: one-way (the skill of presenting
information cogently and clearly through a
reader-friendly page lay-out, a photograph
that conveys a particular emotion or story,
an understandable text, or through a video or
radio show), and persuasive (public relations

3 Tolstikova-Mast, Yulia, and Keyton, Joann,


Communicating About Communication: Fostering
the Development of the Communication Discipline in
Russia, Russian Communication Association,
http://www.russcomm.ru/eng/rca_biblio/t/tolstikovamast01_eng.shtml
4 For more detailed descriptions of US Department of Education definitions of communication programs,
seehttp://www.natcom.
org/ComProg/
Stats/instruction.htm and http://nces.ed.gov.pubs2002/
cip2000/ciplist.asp?CIP2=09

31

phy, journalism, public relations, advertising,


television, radio, cinema, video, photography,
as well as the graphic arts.
There is, of course, no umbrella word in
Russian that encompasses all these disparate
disciplines and professions. Among academic circles the discipline is usually translated
as / ,
although some specialists call it and
advocate for this translation.3
To confuse matters, there are a number of
American universities, schools and departments that call themselves communications
but teach different subjects. Some aspects of
communication are taught in the various traditional academic departments, such as linguistics or psychology. Communications
Departments or Communications Programs
at colleges, universities, and post-graduate
educational institutions might teach some of
the same subjects found in traditional disciplines (the same kind of course in organizational communications might be taught in a
psychology department or a communications
department). But American Schools of
Communication (university-level) usually
teach only television and film, journalism,
advertising, and public relations. Some add to
the mix marketing, graphic design, multimedia design, and photography.4
So, unfortunately the translator cannot
possibly know from the name of a communications department or school what disciplines
it teaches. In the case of Schools of
Communication, the combination of disciplines is so at odds with traditional Russian
academic and ministerial combinations, that
an inclusive translation (such as
) is misleading, and a descriptive
translation (such as , , , ,


, 6), it is
traditionally used in reference to the applied arts
or professions in which the medium or the act
of transmitting information is perceived to
be the key skill. In the US it is traditionally
not used in reference to the performing arts
(acting, music composition or performance,
performance art), fine arts (painting, sculpture, drawing), applied arts that are not connected with cognitive messages (furniture
design, architecture, clothing design), or to
other professionals such as teachers and
lawyers, despite the fact that the art of communication is an important part of their professions. Translation and interpreting also do
not usually fall within the realm of communications (although logically they should),
except in some academic spheres of communication studies.

and advertising, which are designed to convince the reader, viewer or listener to change
attitudes or behavior).
Communicator often has the connotation of someone who is persuasive, who can
sway an audience to his side. In the US,
President Reagan was described most famously as the Great Communicator. In conversations, in speeches or at press conferences, he
had the ability to present his point of view in
a way that was both appealing and convincing. This is something between and , with a bit of the
notion of someone who always
comes out on top. (He was also called the
Teflon President, because no criticism stuck
to him.5) I have seen this translated as , and even (on NTV, whose newswriters should win an award for using more
calques than all the other Russian TV stations
combined). Here its back to the drawing
board ( ); none of these
translations quite capture the sense of the
English.

Cause marketing, behavior-change communication and health communication


Cause marketing is defined by one of its
American founders and practitioners as
using the skills of advertising to effect social
change, to benefit individuals or society at
large cause marketing can also help create
or change public policy Advertising which
(sic) does that is also widely classified as
social marketing.7 In other words, cause
or social marketing sells ideas, policies
and behaviors (such as voting, using seat
belts, passing environmental protection laws)
by using the same techniques that the advertising industry uses in order to sell products.
It is commonly referred to as conducting a
communication (public service/information)
campaign. All this is variously translated as
, /, ,
, - (or
) -

Communication arts
An ancillary communications field is the
sphere of communication arts, that is, all
the forms of applied art that are used in the
communication fields. This includes graphic
design, advertising images, web design,
corporate image (logos, corporate style in letterhead and business cards), photography, art
journalism (cartoons, caricatures), packaging,
film and video arts, and illustration.

The Non-Communication arts


Although the definition of communication
embraces virtually any form of transmission of
information or emotion (one Russian source
defines it as

5 I recently found this headline and text on a
Russian web-site: ?
:
.


,
.
, .
For the full article, see: http://2004.novayagazeta.ru/
nomer/2004/48n/n48n-s12.shtml

6 Osipova, G.V., ed, Entsiklopedicheskii sotsiologicheskii slovar (Moscow: RAN, 1995) quoted in
Dmitrieva, E.V., Sotsiologiya Zdoroviya: metodicheskie podkhody i kommunikatsionnye programmy
(Moscow: Izdatelstvo TSENTR, 2002), p. 181.
7 Earle, Richard, The Art of Cause Marketing:
How to Use Advertising to Change Personal Behavior
and Public Policy (Chicago: NTC Business Books,
2000), p. 3.

32


ing those which are not strictly communicative, such as reforming health systems, advocating for changes in legislation, and mobilizing communities. Health promotion programs
in Russian are commonly translated as . One model
of health promotion consists of three main
forms of intervention (): education (), prevention (), and protection (
/).

We just cant communicate


In everyday American speech, communication has come to mean a specific
speech act which manifests mutual self disclosure, positive regard for the unique selves
of the participants, and openness to emergent, negotiated definitions of self and
other.8 That is, when an American says,
My husband and I dont communicate anymore, Theres a breakdown in communication with my children, The basis of a
good marriage is communication, they are
referring to a special kind of talking in which
all parties are open, truthful, revealing,
exhibit a profoundly self-reflexive understanding of themselves, listen attentively to
one another, accept the emotional validity of
others statements, and support one another.
The goal of this kind of communication is
deeper intimacy; an enhanced sense of self;
acceptance of the points of view of others,
and an affirmation of the validity of those
points of view (I hear where you are coming from); and, if not resolution of interpersonal problems, then at least a willingness
to keep communicating (talking it out)
until a solution or resolution is found. This
kind of communication exhibits all three
communication paradigms: it is articulate
one-way transmission of information, a dialog, and persuasive. It is also something of a
balancing act, in which the uniqueness of the
individuals is confirmed, each persuades the
others of the validity of his point of view,
8 Katriel, Tamar and Philipsen, Gerry, What We
Need is Communication: Communication as a
Cultural Category in Some American Speech. In
Cultural Communication and Intercultural Contact,
ed. Donal Carbaugh (Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 1990), p 91.

33

. (A public service announcement


PSA is or
.) While not entirely precise, these
terms are entering the language, and seem to
be comprehensible by analogy with other
phrases, such as , , etc.
When a campaign is directed at an individual (to use his seat belt, refrain from
drinking and driving, practice safe sex), its
often called behavior-change communication. This is usually translated by the somewhat clumsy, but more or less comprehensible phrase, ( ),
(/). It is my sense that this
concept and phrase appeared in the US in
response to criticism that communication
campaigns were successful in informing people, but not in persuading them to change
their behavior. Now it is bandied about
(We ran a BCC campaign) almost as a
synonym for an effective communication
campaign. In these cases the more common
may be a more graceful translation choice.
Health communication is cause marketing when the cause is improved health.
However, it may include additional campaign elements ( ),
such as counseling () as a
form of interpersonal (persuasive) communication ( ), or
using entertainment for educational purposes
(enter-educate): - / .
The latter might be a pop song that advocates
safe sex, or a soap opera that models behavior ( ), such as using
seat belts. Depending on the audience, I call
health communication
,
, or even (- ).
Health communication and health
promotion are sometimes used as synonyms
in English, but, as defined by the World
Health Organization, health promotion
involves a broader range of activities, includ-


US can include not only promoting a person,
event, or institution, but simply providing
information to the public. The public relations director of a city museum may answer
questions about exhibits, or send out a press
release on a public talk. This is closer to the
old Russian term than , which I think is currently
understood by non-specialists in Russia as
promotion, and is often imbued with negative connotations. (Ive noticed that the
phrase is found less frequently
now than, say, five years ago; today it would
seem that most is largely perceived as
.) The Public Relations Association in
Russia and other groups are trying to
reclaim the meaning of public relations,
but, given the practices of many PR companies and specialists, it is an uphill battle
( ).
The Russian Communications Association
(called misleadingly to my ear ) has
plans to develop of glossary of terms that
would standardize the lexicon. This is a good
idea in principle, but will need to be done
carefully so that American or other Western
definitions are not imposed on terms that
already have different meanings in Russian.
However, a glossary that everyone agrees to
use may clear up some of the ambiguities
one now finds in Russian texts. Recently I
found the phrases and and could
not determine from the contexts if they were
translation variants of health communication or meant something else entirely.
Until there is uniform terminology in
Russian, communication is a difficult
process. It is a rich irony indeed that these
fields should be plagued with such breakdowns in communication.

and yet the needs of the individuals and


group are integrated.
The researchers Tamar Katriel and Gerry
Philipsen have noted that talk shows like
The Oprah Winfrey Show or The Phil
Donahue Show, where guests communicate openly about any kind of intimate
problem, from addictions to sexual dysfunction to criminal acts, has made this kind of
communication something of a national religion, or a national panacea, that cures all
that ails Americans spiritually, psychologically and emotionally. Turning inward and
brooding over a problem, they note, is not
considered a step towards its solution.9
This is, in many ways, similar to the
Russian phrases and speech acts of (talking about our relationship, solving problems in our relationship)
and (a heart-to-heart
talk). However, there seems to be an important difference: Americans regard this kind of
communication as a skill or work: we
need to work on our relationship, we need
to work on communication in our marriage,
I need to work on my communication
skills. While or may be difficult, emotionally trying or draining, these speech acts dont
seem to be perceived as requiring skills.
Rather they are often spontaneous and relatively effortless. However, the results
enhanced intimacy, resolution of a problem,
emotional validation of the speakers appear
to be similar.

Clarity of translation and definition


The task of this paper was to clarify some
aspects of the word communications that
Russian translators might encounter in
American texts. However, the Russian field
of communications is itself developing rapidly, and the questions of naming, defining and translating are becoming critical.
As the Russian fields of communication
develop, Russian terms borrowed from the
English have come to have distinct and separate meanings, sometimes varying among
separate fields, such as sociology and advertising.10 For example, public relations in the
9

10 Tolstikova-Mast, Yulia, and Keyton, Joann,


Communicating About Communication: Fostering
the Development of the Communication Discipline in
Russia, Russian Communications Association,
http://www.russcomm.ru/eng/rca_biblio/t/tolstikovamast01_eng.shtml

Ibid, p 87.

34

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35

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Touringa Cluba),
Giovanni Battista.

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Ravenna rappresenta un astro di prima
grandezza nel firmamento culturale e turistico internazionale


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36


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crpe)
i pelmeny, i ravioli ripieni di carne, pesce
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37

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Villanoviani (
).


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( 50 )
.

ilunga , shlimazl ,
radioukacz. .
,
10 ,
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?) - plenipotentiary.
,

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Guardian, Times, BBC News ( )
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: 38

The Guardian
June 14, 2004
THE MOST UNTRANSLATABLE WORDS IN THE WORLD
IN WORLDWIDE POLL OF
PROFESSIONAL
TRANSLATORS

Googly, spam and gobbledegook have been voted among


the most untranslatable words
in the English language, in a
worldwide poll of a thousand
professional translators and
interpreters.
But the most untranslatable
word in any language, reckon
the translators, is ilunga, a
word in the Bantu language of
Tshiluba for a person who is
ready to forgive any abuse for
the first time; to tolerate it a
second time; but never a third
time. And I suppose we all
know that kind of person.
It narrowly outpointed shlimazl, a Yiddish word for a
chronically unlucky person and
radioukacz, a Polish word for a
person who worked as a
telegraphist for the resistance
movements on the Soviet side
of the Iron Curtain. And both
finished well ahead of klloshar,
the Albanian word for loser,
which, perhaps fittingly, came
in last place.
The most untranslatable word
in the English language was
reckoned to be plenipotentiary,
which even many native Englishspeakers may not know means a
special ambassador or envoy,
invested with full powers.
Whimsy, bumf and serendipity (the faculty of making happy
and unexpected discoveries by
accident) were other words
among the top ten.

The survey was conducted by


Today Translations, a Londonbased translation and interpreting agency, which asked a
thousand of its linguists across
the world to nominate the
words that they found hardest
to translate.
Other foreign words to make
the top 10 included naa, a
Japanese word used only in the
Kansai area of Japan to emphasise statements or agree with
someone, and pochemuchka,
the Russian word for a person
who asks a lot of questions.
Today Translations uses a
worldwide network of over
1,500 professional linguists to
provide translation and interpreting services. After asking
a thousand of this network to
nominate words that were
problematic to translate, it
then asked 50 of them to vote
for just one of the top contenders.
Linguists taking part in the
poll were native speakers of
languages ranging from English
and French to Turkish,
Ukranian, Chinese, Dari, Farsi,
Amharic, Pushto, Somali, Tamil
and many others.
THE RESULTS IN FULL
THE TEN FOREIGN WORDS
THAT WERE VOTED HARDEST TO TRANSLATE
1. ilunga [Tshiluba word for a
person who is ready to forgive
any abuse for the first time; to
tolerate it a second time; but
never a third time. Note:
Tshiluba is a Bantu language
spoken
in
south-eastern
Congo, and Zaire]
2. shlimazl [Yiddish for a
chronically unlucky person]

39

3. radioukacz [Polish for a


person who worked as a
telegraphist for the resistance
movements on the Soviet side
of the Iron Curtain]
4. naa [Japanese word only
used in the Kansai area of
Japan, to emphasise statements or agree with someone]
5. altahmam [Arabic for a
kind of deep sadness]
6. gezellig [Dutch for cosy]
7. saudade [Portuguese for a
certain type of longing]
8. selathirupavar [Tamil for a
certain type of truancy]
9. pochemuchka [Russian for
a person who asks a lot of
questions]
10. klloshar [Albanian for
loser]
THE TEN ENGLISH WORDS
THAT WERE VOTED
HARDEST TO TRANSLATE
1. plenipotentiary
2. gobbledegook
3. serendipity
4. poppycock
5. googly
6. spam
7. whimy
8. bumf
9. chuffed
10. kitsch

..


, ,
,
.
-,
.
.
, gezellig,
cosy ? ?
klloshar,
loser (), .


. ,
, plenipotentiary.
,

.
, - plnipotentiaire, -
plenipotenciario, - . ?
,

.

kitsch
spam. , kitsch , , ,
(), (kicz)
.
spam (). , Spam

. Spam
. ,
,

.
, .
,

,
.
, ,
, www.translatorscafe.com. ,

radioukacz, , , .

... ,
Times ( ?)
radioukacz,
radiosluchacz (, ,
!),
.
, . radioukacz:

. ? .
? ? , ,
- ? ? ,
? , -
,
.

(Mark Liberman) Language Log
BBC
News ( ): ?
, ? ,
BBC. , [Jurga zilinskiene ,
..], -

40

1
2

. http://www.raygirvan.co.uk/apoth/trifrog.htm.
. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3430481.stm.

3
:

, 1/137...
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( , , 7.07.2004).

41

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Today Translations.
. zilinskiene Google,
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.
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1984 2000 .

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42

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43

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(.307),
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46


,

.

Tricks of the Trade:


Tips for Finding a Translator1
by N. Shahova2

How much does one letter of the alphabet cost? As much as $10,000, a Russian
forest products executive learned to his chagrin. He lost twice that sum as a result of a
translators error in the contract for a delivery of wood chips to an overseas customer.
Because the translator ignored the letters
BD in the abbreviation BDMT (bone-dry
metric tons), the supplier delivered several
tons of wet wood chips, and the money he
received for the reduced tonnage after
the chips were dried out didnt even
cover his shipping costs.
That is just one example of how costly
miscommunication with foreign partners can

be. Americans entering the Russian market


must be attuned to problems associated with
the language barrier.

When Do You Need a Translator?


Operating on the Russian market,
American companies have various translation needs. Among the types of documents
they work with are letters, product manuals,
advertising materials, contracts, and market
surveys. Some of these need to be translated
from English into Russian and some from
Russian into English. And while letters are
just working tools and dont have to be perfect, translations of contracts must be very
accurate, while ads need to be translated
with some flair. These differences determine
which translator is needed for a given job.
There are several options. Most working
documents (letters, reports) can be written in

BISNIS Bulletin, June 2002


, : Shakhova (.
..
. ., ., 2001).
2

47

..


, ,
.

.

,
, ,


.

.
.

.

..


It is often assumed that Russia-based
translators are cheaper than others, but
nowadays that is true only to a certain extent.
The cost of translation services in the Russian
market varies more widely than in the United
States. Its true that, especially outside
Moscow, you can find translators who charge
five or even 10 times less than Americans, but
most of them with rare exceptions are
either novices (are you ready to take a risk?)
or produce poor quality of work. The recent
wide and rapid spread of the Internet in
Russia has given Russian translators access to
the international market, so highly qualified
professionals usually can offer their services
worldwide and thus price them at standard
international rates. Rule number three: If you
pay peanuts, you get monkeys.
Having established these criteria, the
next question is where to find reliable, qualified translators. The short answer is through
reliable organizations like the American
Translators Association, or from friends and
acquaintances with experience. There are
also two other approaches that may be helpful, though time-consuming. First, you can
use Internet search engines to collect information about freelancers and/or agencies,
and then contact the ones you select.
Secondly, you can publish an ad either
online or in print inviting translators to
send you short samples of their work in the
relevant area (usually one or two pages of an
original, with its translation, will suffice).
However, these methods take a lot of time
and effort. Whichever method you choose,
keep in mind that you need a person who
combines a good knowledge of both English
and Russian with extensive experience in
your area of business.
All this legwork will give you a generous
payback. First of all, the Russian Consumer
Rights Law requires that any product sold in
the country come with instructions in
Russian. And the need for Russian documentation is especially great, because
knowledge of foreign languages in general,
and English in particular, is not widespread
in Russia. Thats why comprehensive and
well-worded
Russian
announcements,
descriptions, and manuals will give you a
significant competitive advantage in the
Russian market.

either English or Russian whichever you


require by Russian employees who know
English. However, to create documents that
are accurate and consistent in two languages
(such as contracts), or to translate texts that
have to sound absolutely native (such as ads),
you need the help of professional translators.
And, as the example of the wet wood chips
shows, the ones you hire must also be familiar with your type of business in order to handle standard terms and abbreviations. So, rule
number one for translation jobs: Hire a professional translator, preferably one who specializes in your area.
Contrary to a common belief that any
translator can translate in either direction
between two languages, most translators are
good only at translating into their native language. Thats why rule number two reads: Hire
Americans to translate into English and Russians
to translate into Russian. Russian companies
often break this rule and engage Russians to
translate into English. You can see the results
on many Russian websites, where, for example, visitors are urged, Right us please! You
wouldnt want to risk ending up with an equivalent Russian mistake in your ad.

Finding a Translator
Choosing among Russians, you have two
options: Russian expats living in the United
States or Russia-based translators. The former
usually have a better knowledge of English
and of the American environment, so they
can better understand the nuances of your
English original. The latter, however, are
more fluent in contemporary Russian. They
can produce more idiomatic translations, as
well as help with another dimension of a
translated text localization. Will your
advertisement say what you intend it to say in
the social and cultural setting of your audience? For instance, a local Russian translator
would surely have warned a Swiss sewingmachine manufacturer against prmoting its
product in Moscow with the slogan it used at
home: Dependable as a bank! In Switzerland,
the comparison would evoke that countrys
famously rock-solid financial institutions, but
it sounds a bit dubious to Russian citizens
after the 1998 financial crisis.

48

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200
(. drunk), , cherry-merry, nimptopsical soaked.

40000 .
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***

49

Reality Versus Nostalgia.




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Publisher shall prepare a Translation


that is complete and accurate with such
modifications of the original text as are
necessary to achieve a competent and
idiomatic translation without changing the
meaning or otherwise materially altering
the original text.


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55

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Case No.1.


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ASTM,
API.
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2601-84 .
;
24856-81 . ;
26070-83
. ;
28567-90 .
; 28996-91 .
.
.
.
: API Standard 5T1
Standard on Imperfection Terminology; API
Manual
of
Petroleum
Measurement
Standards. Chapter 1 Vocabulary; ASTM D
653-97 Standard Terminology Relating to Soil,
Rock, and Contained Fluids. ,
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64


1-En. D422-63 (1998)
Standard Test Method for
Particle-Size Analysis of
Soils
2-En. D2434-68 (2000)
Standard Test Method for
Permeability of Granular
Soils (Constant Head)

3-En. D4318-00
Standard Test Methods
for Liquid Limit, Plastic
Limit, and Plasticity
Index of Soils

,
, ,
.
, ,
,
2-En
2.1-Ru 2.2-Ru. ,
( )
, permeability.
(
) , permeability,
coefficient of permeability. coefficient of permeability ,
:
[1, 2, 3, 4],
[2, 3], [4, 6], [6]. ,

,
- ,

.
(
,
). 5- , coefficient of permeability.
:

()
1-Ru. 12536-79
. ()

8. Calculation
8.1 Calculate the coefficient of permeability, k, as
follows:
k = QL/Ath,
where:
k = coefficient of permeability,
Q = quantity of water discharged,
L = distance between manometers,
A = cross-sectional area of specimen,
t = total time of discharge,
h = difference in head on manometers.

2.1-Ru. 23278-78
.

2.2-Ru. 25584-90
.
3-Ru. 5180-84
.

65

..

, ,
.

,
, , ,
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- -
.
,

ASTM: D422-63(1998) Standard
Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of
Soils; D2434-68(2000) Standard Test Method
for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant
Head); D4318-00 Standard Test Methods for
Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity
Index of Soils.
,
, 30.

, ASTM
(
, , 1-En, 3-Ru ..):

..

, ,

, k .
,
: /, /, /
/. , (L/T). 25584-90
.
, 2.1-Ru ( 23278-78)
().
23278-78 ,
, (1 = 1,02 10-8 2),
25584-90
,
/ /, .. ,
D2434-68.
D2434-68
25584-90.
, :

()

1-En. D422-63 (1998)


Standard Test Method for
Particle-Size Analysis of
Soils

1-Ru. 12536-79
.

()

2-En. D2434-68 (2000)


Standard Test Method for
Permeability of Granular
Soils (Constant Head)

2-Ru. 25584-90
.

3-En. D4318-00
Standard Test Methods
for Liquid Limit, Plastic
Limit, and Plasticity
Index of Soils

3-Ru. 5180-84
.

,
,
.
: 1)
(1-En/1-Ru);
2) (2-En/2-Ru); 3)
(3-En/3-Ru).
,

(3-En/3-Ru).
, ,

. :

66

activity number (A) the


ratio of (1) the plasticity
index of a soil to (2) the
percent by mass of particles having an equivalent
diameter smaller than 2 m.
(D4318)

w


,
( 5180-84)

Atterberg Limits
Originally, six "limits of
consistency" of finegrained soils were defined
by Albert Atterberg: the
upper limit of viscous flow,
the liquid limit, the sticky
limit, the cohesion limit, the
plastic limit, and the
shrinkage limit. In current
engineering usage, the
term usually refers only to
the liquid limit, plastic limit,
and in some references, the
shrinkage limit. (D4318)

wg , . .

( 5180-84)

consistency the relative


ease with which a soil can
be deformed. (D4318)

wL
,
(
5180-84)

liquidity index the


ratio, expressed as a percentage of (1) the water
content of a soil minus its
plastic limit, to (2) its plasticity index. (D4318)
plastic limit (PL, wp)
the water content, in percent, of a soil at the boundary between the plastic and
semi-solid states. (D4318)
plastic soil a soil which
has a range of water content over which it exhibits
plasticity and which will
retain its shape on drying.
(D4318)
plasticity index (PI)
the range of water content
over which a soil behaves
plastically. Numerically, it
is the difference between
the liquid limit and the plastic limit. (D4318)


() wp
,
(
5180-84)

, ,
2


( 5180-84)

plastic limit

, , ,
, , ,
.

,
: , .
liquid limit plastic limit.
? , , ,
, .., ,
.

: liquid
limit/ plastic limit/ ().

( , ,
): liquid limit the
water content, in percent, of a soil at the arbitrarily defined boundary between the semi-liquid and plastic states plastic limit the
water content, in percent, of a soil at the
boundary between the plastic and semi-solid
states. percent, soil, boundary,
state plastic state , .
, , ,
water
content .
:
[2, 3], [2, 3], [3], () [4, 5],
[5], [6].

, ,


d



( 5180-84)

s ()
(
5180-84)

,
( wL wp) liquid limit (LL, wL)/
wL plastic limit (PL, wp)/ () wp.
, ,
.
( , ):
liquid limit

[1, 6],
[2, 3, 4, 6],
[3].

[1, 2, 4, 5], ()
[1], [3],
[6];

2
, :
1.1.
,
, .

.

67

..

liquid limit (LL, wL )


the water content, in percent, of a soil at the arbitrarily defined boundary
between the semi-liquid
and plastic states. (D4318)

..


(sic! ..)
,
.
. ,
: water content/ .


(, !)
,
( ,
),
.


, .
, ..
thread, mass,
crumble, roll disturbed, undisturbed. : break the
thread into several pieces; roll the mass into a
thread of uniform diameter throughout its
length; roll into a 3.2-mm (1/8 -in.) diameter
thread; until its water content is reduced to a
point at which the thread crumbles and can no
longer be pressed together and rerolled; undisturbed sample ..
(thread, mass,
crumble, roll) .
,
.
(, )
. ,
[7]:


semi-liquid state semi-solid state.
.
( ,
) .
.



. plasticity index
the range of water content
over which a soil behaves plastically.
.
,
Numerically, it is the difference between the
liquid limit and the plastic limit.
,
6
I, , : I = wL wp.

(wL)
(wp)! ,
,
plasticity index
. plasticity
index :
[1], [3], [3, 5], () [4],
[6].
, , .

thread

10 , , ,
.
mass
15 , , , .
crumble 10 ,
, , ,
.
roll
40 , , , , .

100%-
, : thread

68

disturbed soil


[1], [5];

undisturbed soil


[1], [4, 5], () [6].


. ,
, ,
:

. ,
, : ,
, . , .
? -, ,
, , ,

, . - ( !)
, ,
,
, .

, , ,

.

.
.

, , ,
. [
ASTM
, : This standard
( This test method) is under the jurisdiction
of ASTM Committee D18 on Soil and Rock].

1. - -
, . .. .., , 1967.
2. - ,
.. .., , 1966.
3. -
2- , ..
.., , 1997.
4. - , .., .., ..,
, 1995.
5. - , .., - , 1956.
6. , . ..,
, 1977.
7. - 3-
, .. .., ,
1993.

. ,

69

..

; mass ; crumble
; roll , , rolling . ,
, : roll into a
3.2-mm (1/8-in.) diameter thread ... 3,2 .
disturbed
undisturbed,
, . disturbed soil undisturbed soil:


:

..
1997 ,

. ,
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: .

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.

70


, ,
(
) (Everyday English).
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71

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Special Purposes). , , ,
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..


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? , . ,

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: - () .
: Downing Street ; . ;

Oscar Wilde
Readers Digest
The World Health Organization

Lake Superior ; ;

Mexico City ( )
Munich ; ;
Kentucky Fried Chicken Corp. ; ; -; :

The Rocky Mountains
Eugene ONeil
: () , , , , , .
: The Libero-democratic party of Russia

72


, ,
, , .
.
, .
,
(
)
.
,
,
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73

..

- Sakhalin distruct vice-governor


Commercial Bank
"Agropromstroy"
- OPEK
: .
: reception hall ; ;
; ,
perfect stranger
behind-the-scenes decision ; ,
"change-the-attitude-to-minorities" conference : ;
: , ,
.
: Baby in car
A treaty will promote closer cooperation.
.
Closer examination tells a rather different story. .
A few steps away are sun-scorched deserts.
.
Physician .

..


(
,
).
, ,

, :
, ,
, . .
, , ,
,
.

:
, , , (), .
,
, ,
.
-


(pad) , , , .

1.
(
)
,
,
, ,

.

:
( ).
: Inflation, only recently praised
by economists as a stimulus to economic
growth, is now galloping out of control.

,
.

:

. ,
= .
: The new EEC summit is yet
another attempt to deal with economic
downturn, inflation and unemployment.

74


,
.

.
: The working group has caught
the public eye.

:

: There is a direct analogy with
the VAZ Auto Works in Togliatti: it took
KAMAZ 25 years to turn the township of
Naberezhnye Chelny into a modern city
with a developed infrastructure and a population of over half a million.

, , .

: That leadership in the theatre


would become still more of a problem was
quite predictable.
:
,
, , .

3.

, 200
.

2. ( ,
, ..),

:
, -, : (-,

), (200 )
. (
). :
, : ,
.

( ), :
: The Simmering court has
already fined 200 peace marchers.

,
,

: Soon after his inauguration the


President offered the following criticism of
the previous administration: .
, , .

: , .
: Public opinion is becoming
increasingly vocal and effective.
- ,
, .

: The time has come at last


when we all feel impelled to speak out about
state and party affairs.
:
.

,
,

, .

: : = , -

75

..

,
,
.

..


: , .
() now.
: Now the United States owes
more money than the next three biggest
debtor nations combined.

5.
, ,

, , .., ,
.

4. ( )
,
.

: ,
( , , , ), :

: Our country has a long public


record of meticulous observation of the most
demanding measures of mutual verification
and control.
:
( ), , a long
public record of.

,
, (.. )

[] .

: Economists and artists are


bound to disagree radically on this score.

,
.
: The conceptual framework of
contemporary political science should be
equal to the task of describing the infinite
diversity of its subject matter.

, ,
.

6. ,

: The island was indeed terra


incognita, but not from the standpoint of
geography.



,
.

, .

,
, .

: It is symptomatic that certain


quarters in Western Europe are trying to
attach all sorts of strings to the solution of
the problem.
:
it is symptomatic
that ,
.
.

: Any delay in the European


nuclear disarmament process is a dangerous
loss of time.

: ,
.


, .

76

7. , ,

: , , (
!) ,
rewrite, .. .
: It is not only a macabre
thought but a gruesome reality that, with
overkill capacity of the worlds nuclear arsenals, every man, woman and child on the
planet is constantly stalked by death squared,
cubed, magnified to the nth degree. We are
now faced with the problem of megadeath,
which defies description in accustomed
terms. That prospect must be warded off, and
to do so it is imperative to face the facts
squarely and to act accordingly.

. ,
.
,
- . , 7
,
. ,
, .

:
, : , -
- .
.
: In comparison with the old
Duma's democratic minority made up of fifty
or so SPS and "Yabloko" MPs, the five independents that formed a liberal group after the
December 7 parliamentary election are not
even a minority; they are a statistical error.

10.

( )
.

8.

: Subsidizing beef production (as


many countries are doing) would boost
demand for Russian grain.

,

.



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